pag.

1
| 8|8TEH| F0T0V0LTA|6|
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
· 3l(urerl| pe( |a p(odellaz|ore
!R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
· L'ellello lolovo|la|co
· Ce||e e rodu||
· l| dere(alo(e lolovo|la|co
· l| 803
A!!L|6AZ|0N|
· 3|sler| |so|al|
· 3|sler| corress| |r (ele
1
2
3
pag. 2
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Radiazione $olare ÷ |'ere(d|a e|ell(oradrel|ca eressa da|
p(ocess| d| lus|ore de||'|d(odero corlerulo re| so|e.
0ensita di Potenza ÷ (ad|az|ore so|a(e pe( ur|la d| lerpo e
d| supe(l|c|e.
· Fuo(| |'alrosle(a le((esl(e |a polerza |rc|derle su d|
ura supe(l|c|e ur|la(|a. pe(perd|co|a(e a| (add| so|a(|.
assure ur va|o(e d| c|(ca 1360w/m² va(|ao|||la de| ±3º
dovula a||'e|||ll|c|la de||'o(o|la le((esl(e). cueslo va|o(e
p(erde || rore d| Costante $olare
· 3u||a supe(l|c|e le((esl(e. a ||ve||o de| ra(e. |r
cord|z|or| releo(o|od|cre oll|ra|| e so|e a rezzod|o(ro.
|a ders|la d| polerza e d| c|(ca 1000w/m²
pag. 3
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
!e( cuarl|l|ca(e |a d|ve(sa erl|la de||a (ad|az|ore. |r lurz|ore
de||a pos|z|ore de| so|e. s| la spesso (|le(|rerlo a|
corcello d|:
ir Mass 'M' ÷ #appo(lo l(a |a |urdrezza de| pe(co(so
ellell|vo de| (add| so|a(| e |a |urdrezza de| |o(o pe(co(so
p|u o(eve ÷ M = 1 / sinlh} dove r e |'ardo|o d| zer|l:
ir Mass 0ne 'M1' ÷ cord|z|ore d| AV |r cord|z|or| d|
alrosle(a slarda(d. va|ulalo su||a supe(l|c|e le((esl(e e
r|su(alo a| ||ve||o de| ra(e:
ir Mass Zero 'M0' ÷ cord|z|ore d| AV luo(| |'alrosle(a.
pag. 4
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Coslarle so|a(e ÷ 13ê0 w/r
2
0er Feo Va( Ap( Vad 0|u Lud Ado 3el 0ll Nov 0|c
1300
1320
1310
13ê0
1380
1100
RA0|AZ|0NE EXTRA ATH08FER|6A - [w|m
2
]
pag. 5
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
A|( Vass ÷ AV = 1/s|rr)
~

1
0
0

|
r
r
A
V

=

1
/
s
e
r

r
)
AV = AV1 = 1
AV = AV0 = 0
0(|zzorle |oca|e
3upe(l|c|e Te((esl(e
L|r|le sup. de||'alrosle(a asso(oerle
Ardo|o d| zer|l
pag. 6
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
3pell(o de||a (ad|az|ore so|a(e
400
800
200
800
0
0,5 ,0 ,5 2,0 2,5 0,3 [µm]
[w|m²]
0
E
N
8
|
T
A
'

8
!
E
T
T
R
A
L
E

0
|

!
0
T
E
N
Z
A
LUNChEZZA 0'0N0A
RA0|AZ|0NE V|8|ß|LE 0ALL'066h|0 UHAN0
350 w|m² [AH0}
000 w|m² [AH}
pag. 7
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
La (ad|az|ore so|a(e cre (add|urde |a supe(l|c|e le((esl(e s|
d|sl|rdue |r:
1) d|(ella
2) d|llusa
3) (|l|essa
Le p(opo(z|or| d| (ad|az|ore 1). 2) e 3) (|cevula da ura
supe(l|c|e d|perdoro da:
a) cord|z|or| releo(o|od|cre
o) |rc||raz|ore de||a supe(l|c|e
c) p(eserza d| supe(l|c| (|l|ellerl|
pag. 8
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
L'|rlers|la de||a (ad|az|ore so|a(e |rc|derle su ura supe(l|c|e
a| suo|o e |rl|uerzala da||'ardo|o d| |rc||raz|ore de||a
(ad|az|ore slessa: ÷ p|u p|cco|o e |'ardo|o cre | (add| de|
so|e lo(raro cor ura supe(l|c|e o(|zzorla|e ÷ radd|o(e
e |o spesso(e d| alrosle(a cre ess| devoro all(ave(sa(e
pag. 9
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE

0|cembre
C|ugno
8ettembre | Harzo
0(eerW|cr
Ecualo(e
Lal|lud|re o
Lord|lud|re
0ec||raz|ore o
pag. 10
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Corl(orlo l(a |a (ad|az|ore so|a(e d|o(ra||e(a red|a |rc|derle su
supe(l|c| cor d|lle(erl| ardo|| d| |rc||raz|ore 0 ed o(|erlale a 3ud
az|rul ¸=0). Loca||la cor |al|lud|re o=40º No(d e c|e|o se(ero
0er Feo Va( Ap( Vad 0|u Lud Ado 3el 0ll Nov 0|c
Vert|ca|e
0 = ô0°
0r|zzonta|e
0 = 30°
0 = 30°
0
5
10
15
20
[HJ|m
2
|g|orno]
pag. 11
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Ardarerlo de||a (ad|az|ore so|a(e d|o(ra||e(a red|a arrua
a| va(|a(e de||'|rc||raz|ore de||a supe(l|c|e caplarle.
o(|erlala a 3ud. Loca||la cor |al|lud|re o=13.ê8° No(d
0
3800
3900
1000
1100
1200
1300
10 20 30 10 50 [grad|]
[wh|m
2
]
max
pag. 12
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
!(ol||o de| pe(co(s| so|a(| e de||a ||rea d'o(|zzorle

Latitudine o = 41°38' - Longitudine 14°20'
Az|mut ¸ [grad|]
0
e
c
|
|
n
a
z
|
o
n
e

[
g
r
a
d
|
]

1): 22 giugno
2): 22 mag. - 23 Iug.
3): 20 apr. - 23 ago.
4): 20 mar. - 23 sett.
): 21 feb. - 23 ott.
): 19 gen. - 22 nov.
): 22 dicembre
pag. 13
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
0al| de||a #ad|az|ore 3o|a(e
La (ad|az|ore so|a(e su ura supe(l|c|e |rc||rala puo esse(e
dele(r|rala red|arle:
· Vappe |so(ad|al|ve dere(a|rerle ror pe(relloro d|
d|sl|rdue(e |e corporerl| de||a (ad|az|ore d|(ella e
d|llusa) puoo||cale da va(| o(dar|sr|
· \a|o(| laoe||al| pe( c|ascura |oca||la 3e(v|z|o
Veleo(o|od|co Naz|ora|e)
· Velod| d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|| horme uhl '0J49 -
uhl 8477. merooo o| l|u e Joroan. ecc.)
pag. 14
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Ardo|| d| |rc||raz. 0 e d| o(|erlaz. ¸ d| ura supe(l|c|e

8ud
0
¸
pag. 15
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura
supe(l|c|e o(|zzorla|e No(ra uhl '0J49j
1) Nol|. pe( |e p(|rc|pa|| c|lla. | va|o(| de||a |((ad|az|ore d|o(ra||e(a
red|a rers||e [VJ/r²ì. su| p|aro o(|zzorla|e. re||e corporerl|
d|(ella e d|llusa ÷ s| (|sa|e a| va|o(e de||'|((ad|az|ore pe( ur
dere(|co s|lo:
· 3| |derl|l|caro due |oca||la d| (|le(|rerlo
· 3| ca|co|a || va|o(e de||'|((ad|az|ore core red|a porde(a|e de|
va|o(| de||e due |oca||la d| (|le(|rerlo pesale (|spello a||a
|al|lud|re. secordo |a (e|az|ore:
´ )
1 r
1 r 2 r
1 r 2 r
1 r
H H
H H o o
o o

+ =
1 r 1 r
2 r 1 r
/ /
H / H / H
o o o
cor:
l((ad|az|ore e |al|lud|re
(|spell|varerle d| ca|co|o e
de||e |oca||la d| (|le(|rerlo
pag. 16
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura supe(l|c|e
corurcue |rc||rala ed o(|erlala uhl 8477j
2) 0el|r|la ura supe(l|c|e cor ura sua |rc||raz|ore 0 ed
o(|erlaz|ore ¸. |'|((add|arerlo d|o(ra||e(o red|o l. su oase
rers||e. v|ere esp(esso |r (appo(lo # a| va|o(e co((|sporderle
red|o l
r
su| p|aro o(|zzorla|e:
0 h T h H K R H R H = =
Esserdo l
r0
|| va|o(e red|o rers||e de||'|((add|arerlo
so|a(e o(|zzorla|e exl(alrosle(|co - va|o(e laoe||alo
2
cos 1
2
cos 1
H
H
R
H
H
1 R
h
d
b
h
d 0
o +
0 +

¦
¦
'
+

'

=
b R
cor:
\a|o(e red|o rers||e de| (appo(lo l(a |'|((add|arerlo d|(ello
su||a supe(l|c|e e cue||o su||'o(|zzorla|e
pag. 17
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura supe(l|c|e
corurcue |rc||rala ed o(|erlala uhl 8477j
d H
cor:
l((add|arerlo so|a(e d|lluso [VJ/r²ì o [|wr/ r²ì
h H
h
d
H
H
o
l((add|arerlo so|a(e d|ooa|e o(|zzorla|e [VJ/r²ì o [|wr/ r²ì
va|o(e laoe||alo
F(az|ore d|llusa de| so|edd|arerlo
#|l|ellarza de||'aro|erle c|(coslarle [0.01 - 0.Z5ì
(e|al|varerle a sl(ade sle((ale e reve l(esca cor l||r
d| dr|acc|o) - va|o(e laoe||alo
lr rarcarza d| dal| c||ral|c| d|(ell| || (appo(lo l
d
/l
r
e ca|co|alo
lacerdo uso de||a co((e|az|ore cor || coell|c|erle K
T
0 h
h
T
H
H
K =
lrd|ce d| so|edd|arerlo (ea|e
pag. 18
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura supe(l|c|e
corurcue |rc||rala ed o(|erlala uhl 8477j - 0a|oo|o o| R
o
bh
b
b
H
H
R =
lrd|ce d| so|edd|arerlo (ea|e
l| coell|c|erle #
o
s| (|cava a pa(l|(e da| va|o(| d| l
o
e l
or
cre
(app(eserlaro (|spell|varerle || va|o(e de||'|((add|arerlo so|a(e
d|(ello cor e serza osl(uz|or|:
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
¦
¦
¦

æ æ æ æ + æ æ
x
= cos cos V sen sen U
180
T G H
0 b
´ )
´ )
´ ) ¸ 0 o =
¸ 0 o 0 o o =
¸ 0 o 0 o o =
sen sen cos V
cos sen sen cos cos cos U
cos sen cos cos sen sen T
cor:
pag. 19
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura supe(l|c|e
corurcue |rc||rala ed o(|erlala uhl 8477j - 0a|oo|o o| R
o
o
0ec||raz|ore red|a rers||e - ardo|o cre |a (ella l(acc|ala
da| cerl(o de||a le((a a| so|e lo(ra cor || p|aro ecualo(|a|e -
va|o(| red| laoe||al| |r lurz|ore de||a |al|lud|re
¦
¦
¦

æ + æ
x
=
s h s h 0 bh
sen U
180
T G 2 H
0
G
Coslarle so|a(e - (ad|arza su ura supe(l|c|e exl(alrosle(|ca
pe(perd|co|a(e a| (add| so|a(| - pa(| a 1353 w/r
2
cor:
0 V
cos cos U
sen sen T
h
h
h
=
o o =
o o =
Coell|c|erl| T. u e \ va|ulal| su| p|aro
o(|zzorla|e 0 = 0)
pag. 20
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
Velodo d| ca|co|o spe(|rerla|e de||'|((add|arerlo su ura supe(l|c|e
corurcue |rc||rala ed o(|erlala uhl 8477j - 0a|oo|o o| R
o
Ardo|| o(a(| æ' e æ'' (|spell|varerle de||'appa(|(e e de||o
scorpa(|(e de| so|e pe( |a supe(l|c|e esposla: ess|
d|perdoro da||a d|ac|lu(a de||a supe(l|c|e e da everlua||
osl(uz|or|:
cor:
æ æ
s
æ
!e( ur p|aro o(|zzorla|e. |r asserza d| osl(uz|or|. d|| ardo||
o(a(| æ' e æ'' co|rc|doro (|spell|varerle cor -æ
s
e æ
s
ardo|o o(a(|o de| so(de(e e de| l(arorlo asl(oror|co).
æ
Ardo|o o(a(|o l|ere corlo de||a (olaz|ore de||a le((a allo(ro
a| p(op(|o asse). || suo va|o(e æ.0º 1o0ºJ) puo esse(e
(|cavalo da||'esp(ess|ore æ=lª´l
s
l2) dove l
s
. corp(esa
l(a 0 e 21. e |'o(a |eda|e:
pag. 21
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
E8EH!|0
Ca|co|o de||'ere(d|a so|a(e arrua. su oase red|a rers||e. caplala da
ura supe(l|c|e s=10r
2
ca(alle(|zzala da:
· lrc||raz|ore 0=50°
· Az|rul ¸=10°
· Asserza d| lerorer| d| oro(edd|arerlo æ'=-æ
s
e æ''=æ
s
)
· #|l|ellarza o=0.20
!osla |r ura |oca||la p(|va d| oro(edd|arerl| d| Cass|ro |al. o=11°38')
Ere(d|a so|a(e arrua = ¯
12
1
l((add|arerlo red|o rers||e)· sup.
pag. 22
2
cos 1
2
cos 1
H
H
R
H
H
1 R
mese
h
d
b
h
d
mese
mese
mese
mese
mese
mese
0
o +
0 +

¦
¦
'
+

'

=
´ ) s n H R E
12
1 mese
giorni
h anno
mese
mese mese
=
¯
=
3
mese
mese
h
d
H
H
mese
T K
1
H
H
R
mese
mese
mese
bh
b
b = =
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
E8EH!|0
#appo(lo (|po(lalo re| !rosoerro ll de||a ro(ra uhl
8477 |r lurz|ore de||'|rd|ce d| so|edd|arerlo ÷
\a|o(e ur|la(|o |r cuarlo aoo|aro |pol|zzalo
|'asserza d| lerorer| d| oro(edd|arerlo
o = o
mese

pag. 23
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
E8EH!|0
6a|co|o de||'|rragg|amento g|oba|e or|zzonta|e g|orna||ero med|o mens||e
[kwh|[m
2
· g|orno}]:
0a||'apperd|ce 8 de||a uhl 8477 s| ev|rcoro | va|o(| d| l
r
(e|al|v| a d|ve(se
|oca||la |la||are. E' poss|o||e va|ula(e |'|((add|arerlo d|o(ra||e(o red|o
rers||e pe( |a |al|lud|re |r esare Cass|ro 11°38') |rle(po|ardo | va|o(| d|
due slaz|or| releo(o|od|cre p(oss|re a||a |al. 11°38'
Gennaio Febbraio Marzo Aprile Maggio Giugno Luglio Agosto Settembre Ottobre Novembre Dicembre
41°48 1,78 2,45 3,72 5,2 6,64 7,24 7,41 6,44 4,87 3,27 1,94 1,47
41°32 1,75 2,63 3,79 5,34 6,39 6,85 7,24 6,41 4,86 3,35 2,06 1,5
41°38 1,76 2,56 3,76 5,29 6,48 7,00 7,30 6,42 4,86 3,32 2,02 1,49
esi
Foggia Amendola
Cassino
Roma Ciampino
Latitudine LocaIità
mese
h H
pag. 24
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
E8EH!|0
6a|co|o de||'|nd|ce d| so|egg|amento rea|e K
T
:
Ca|co|al|. pe( c|ascur rese. | va|o(| de||'|((add|arerlo l
r
d|o(ra||e(o red|o
rers||e e rol| da| !rosoerro l | va|o(| red| rers||| de||'|((add|arerlo so|a(e
o(|zzorla|e exl('alrosle(|co l
r0
pe( |e |al|lud|r| 11° e 12°. s| ollerdoro pe(
|rle(po|az|ore | va|o(| d| l
r0
[|wr/r
2
· d|o(ro)ì pe( |a |al|lud|re 11°38'
mese
mese
mese
0 h
h
T
H
H
K =
Gennaio Febbraio Marzo Aprile Maggio Giugno Luglio Agosto Settembre Ottobre Novembre Dicembre
42° 3,84 5,33 7,29 9,37 10,87 11,49 11,16 9,93 8,03 5,9 4,19 3,44
41° 4,01 5,49 7,42 9,44 10,89 11,48 11,17 9,99 8,14 6,05 4,35 3,61
41°38 3,95 5,43 7,37 9,41 10,88 11,48 11,17 9,97 8,10 5,99 4,29 3,55
Latitudine
esi
Ca|co|alo |'|rd|ce K
T
. da| !rosoerro ll s| ev|rce || va|o(e d| ld
rese
/ lr
rese
:
Gennaio Febbraio Marzo Aprile Maggio Giugno Luglio Agosto Settembre Ottobre Novembre Dicembre
% 0,45 0,47 0,51 0,56 0,60 0,61 0,65 0,64 0,60 0,55 0,47 0,42

d
/
0,44 0,42 0,39 0,34 0,3 0,29 0,25 0,26 0,3 0,35 0,42 0,47
esi
pag. 25
´ ) s n H R E
12
1 mese
giorni
h anno
mese
mese mese
=
¯
=
3
2
cos 1
2
cos 1
H
H
R
H
H
1 R
mese
h
d
b
h
d
mese
mese
mese
mese
mese
mese
0
o +
0 +

¦
¦
'
+

'

=
LA RA0|AZ|0NE 80LARE
E8EH!|0
. Js 31 H R 30 H R 28 H R 31 H R E
dic dic nov nov feb feb gen gen
h h h h anno + + + + =
pag. 26
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La 6onvers|one Fotovo|ta|ca
La convers|one d|retta de||'energ|a so|are |n energ|a
e|ettr|ca, ut|||zza || fenomeno f|s|co de||'|nteraz|one
de||a rad|az|one |um|nosa con g|| e|ettron| d|
va|enza ne| mater|a|| sem|conduttor|, denom|nato
11etto Fotovoltaico
Ca(alle(|sl|cre e|ell(|cre
d| ur ser|cordullo(e
pag. 27
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La 6onvers|one Fotovo|ta|ca
3|||c|o
3|||c|o
l| passadd|o da||a oarda d| va|erza a cue||a d| corduz|ore
avv|ere l(asrellerdo a||'e|ell(ore ura oppo(lura cuarl|la d|
ere(d|a. lr la|e passadd|o |'e|ell(ore s| |asc|a d|el(o ura
ouca della '|acura' cre puo ver|(e occupala da ur a|l(o
e|ell(ore. l| rov|rerlo ded|| e|ell(or| corpo(la cosi arcre
cue||o de||e |acure.
L'aloro d| s|||c|o poss|ede 11
e|ell(or| d| cu| 1 d| va|erza: |r ur
c(|sla||o d| s|||c|o pu(o c|ascur aloro
e |edalo |r rodo cova|erle cor a|l(|
cuall(o alor|: odr| e|ell(ore d|
va|erza s| |eda cor ur e|ell(ore d|
va|erza d| ur a|l(o aloro.
pag. 28
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La 6onvers|one Fotovo|ta|ca
Foslo(o
3|||c|o
E|ell(ore
deoo|rerle |edalo
0oralo(e
pag. 29
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La 6onvers|one Fotovo|ta|ca
3|||c|o
8o(o
Lacura
Accello(e
pag. 30
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
V
a
l
e
(
|
a
|
e

!
V
a
l
e
(
|
a
|
e

N
8o(o
Foslo(o
Foslo(o Foslo(o
3|||c|o
3|||c|o
3|||c|o
3|||c|o
3|||c|o 3|||c|o
8o(o 8o(o
0|urz|ore
#ed|ore d|
svuolarerlo
8o(o
Foslo(o 3|||c|o 3|||c|o
3|||c|o 3|||c|o
÷
-
0ers|la
d| ca(|ca
0
|
s
l
a
r
z
a
pag. 31
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La corve(s|ore de||'ere(d|a so|a(e |r ere(d|a e|ell(|ca avv|ere
sl(ullardo |'ellello |rdollo da ur l|usso |ur|roso cre
|rc|de su ur rale(|a|e ser|cordullo(e 'd(odalo'
0dr| lolore dolalo d| ere(d|a sull|c|erle. su||a oase de||a
(e|az|ore = n ì. cor r coslarle d| !|ar| ed ì
|urdrezza d'orda de||a (ad|az|ore. e |r d(ado d| ||oe(a(e
a||'|rle(ro de||a d|urz|ore !-N ura copp|a e|ell(ore -
|acura.
ul|||zzardo core ser|cordullo(e || s|||c|o. |'ere(d|a r|r|ra
recessa(|a a ||oe(a(e ura copp|a e|ell(ore - |acura
co((|sporde ad ura |urdrezza d'orda rass|ra de||a
(ad|az|ore |ur|rosa d| 1.15ur.
pag. 32
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
400
800
200
800
0
0,5 ,0 ,5 2,0 2,5 0,3 [µm]
[w|m²]
0
E
N
8
|
T
A
'

8
!
E
T
T
R
A
L
E

0
|

!
0
T
E
N
Z
A
LUNChEZZA 0'0N0A
Rad|az|one con contenuto
energet|co suff|c|ente a ||berare
una copp|a e|ettrone - |acuna
350 w|m² [AH0}
000 w|m² [AH}
757
Fraz|one de||o spettro de||a rad|az|one
so|are potenz|a|mente convert|b||e |n energ|a
e|ettr|ca per un sem|conduttore a| s|||c|o
5
Tuttav|a a| d|m|nu|re de||a
|unghezza d'onda, a| foton| r|su|ta
assoc|ata un energ|a sempre
magg|ore ed |n eccesso r|spetto a
que||a r|ch|esta per ||berare |a
copp|a e|ettrone - |acuna
La percentua|e d| energ|a so|are
che teor|camente poss|b||e
convert|re |n energ|a e|ettr|ca non
supera || 447
La r|manente parte, par| a|
5ô7, e trasformato |n ca|ore
pag. 33
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
La 6onvers|one Fotovo|ta|ca
| pr|nc|pa|| sem|conduttor| ut|||zzat| sono:
· 8|||c|o [8|}
· Cerman|o [Ce}
· Arsen|uro d| Ca|||o [CaAs}
· 8o|furo d| 6adm|o [6d8}
· 8o|furo d| Rame [6u
2
8}
· 6e||e a g|unz|one mu|t|p|a [Tandem}
pag. 34
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
l
L
l
0
l
C
#
C
#
3
6|rcu|to equ|va|ente d| una ce||a fotovo|ta|ca
l| (erd|rerlo de||e ce||e lolovo|la|cre |r s|||c|o. arcre re||e p(ove d|
|aoo(alo(|o e ro|lo d|slarle da| 11º. |r cuarlo |rle(verdoro u|le(|o(|
|rell|c|erze:
1. Nor lull| | lolor| |rc|derl| su||a ce||a
lolovo|la|ca perel(aro a||'|rle(ro. a|cur|
soro (|l|ess| ed a|l(| |rle(cellal|
da||'e|ell(odo l(orla|e (es|slerza #
s
)
2. A|cure copp|e e|ell.-|acura s| (|coro|raro
p(|ra cre cuesle possaro esse(e
sepa(ale da| carpo e|ell(|co |rle(ro a||a
d|urz|ore d(ado d| pu(ezza de| 3|)
3. !a(le de||'ere(d|a polerz|a|e cedula a||a
ce||a. (|su|la |rsull|c|erle pe( ||oe(a(e |a
copp|a e|ell(ore-|acura d|odo)
pag. 35
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
6aratter|st|ca Tens|one - 6orrente d| una 6e||a 8o|are
!urlo d| Vass|ra !olerza
l
\ \
r
|
m
Ca(alle(|sl|ca a| ou|o
Ca(alle(|sl|ca a||a |uce
0uad(arle dove |a ce||a s|
corpo(la da serp||ce
d|odo |r corduz|ore d|(ella
0uadrante dove
|a ce||a passa |n
conduz|one
|nversa
0uad(arle dove |a
ce||a s| corpo(la da
dere(alo(e d| ere(d|a
e|ell(|ca
pag. 36
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
6aratter|st|ca E|ettr|ca [|-V} |n funz|one de||a Temperatura
l [Aì
\ [\ì
10°C
ê0°C
20°C
0°C
-20°C
-10°C
0.53 0.5Z 0.ê0 0.ê1 0.ê8 0.Z2
0.Z5
0.50
0.25
1.00
TEN3l0NE A
\u0T0 - \
0
l=0)
C0##ENTE 0l
C0#T0Cl#CulT0
l
CC
\=0)
0.20 0.00
0.00
pag. 37
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
Ca(alle(|sl|ca E|ell(|ca l-\) |r lurz|ore de||a #ad|az|ore 3o|a(e
l [Aì
\ [\ì
500 w/r
2
ê00 w/r
2
Z00 w/r
2
800 w/r
2
900 w/r
2
1000 w/r
2
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
2.0 1.0 ê.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 11.0 1ê.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 0.0
Ca(alle(|sl|ca l-\ d| ur rodu|o
corre(c|a|e da 50wp a 10°
pag. 38
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
0.ê0 \ [\ì
0.Z5
0.50
0.25
1.00
!urlo d| rass|ra
polerza !
r
= \
r
l
r
0.20 0.00
0.00
Ca(alle(|sl|ca l-\ d| ura Ce||a 3o|a(e ed ardarerlo de||a !olerza
0.10
\
r
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.10
! [wì
l
r
l [Aì
Ardarerlo de||a
polerza != \ l
Ca(alle(|sl|ca l-\
pag. 39
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
T|po|od|e d| ce||e lolovo|la|cre
La radd|o( pa(le de||e ce||e lolovo|la|cre allua|rerle |r
corre(c|o e cosl|lu|la da ser|cordullo(| |r s|||c|o pe( |
seduerl| rol|v|:
· 0|spor|o|||la p(essocré ||||r|lala (|so(se de| p|arela)
· · La(do ul|||zzo re||'|rdusl(|a e|ell(or|ca p(ocess|
lecro|od|c| d| (all|raz|ore. |avo(az|ore e d(odadd|o oer
all|ral|)
· · · !oss|o|||la d| (|c|c|a(e d|| sca(l| de||'|rdusl(|a e|ell(or|ca
|r cuarlo |'|rdusl(|a lolovo|la|ca lo||e(a corcerl(az|or|
d| |rpu(|la l|p|carerle d| 10
-5
÷10

corl(o | va|o(| d|
10
-8
÷ 10
-9
(e|al|v| a||'|rdusl(|a e|ell(or|ca)
pag. 40
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
T|po|od|e d| ce||e lolovo|la|cre
Ce||e a| s|||c|o roroc(|sla|||ro
· 0erraz|ore e c(esc|la c(|sla|||ra - l| s|||c|o a c(|sla||o
s|rdo|o e ollerulo da ur p(ocesso dello me|r|no a pa(l|(e
da c(|sla||| d| s|||c|o d| e|evala pu(ezza cre. ura vo|la lus|.
verdoro lall| so||d|l|ca(e a corlallo cor ur sere d|
c(|sla||o. l| s|||c|o so||d|l|ca re||a lo(ra d| ur ||rdollo
c|||rd(|co cosl|lu|lo da ur ur|co c(|sla||o de| d|arel(o d| 13
÷20cr e |urdrezza d| c|(ca 200cr:
· · Tad||o - l| ||rdollo v|ere 'allellalo¨ cor pa(l|co|a(| sedre |r
ualers cor spesso(e d| 250 ÷350ur sp|rlo sl(ullarerlo
de| ||rdollo corl(o ur'esl(era l(ad|||la de| Wale(s)
n < l1ª/
pag. 41
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
T|po|od|e d| ce||e lolovo|la|cre
Ce||e a| s|||c|o po||c(|sla|||ro
· Fo(ra - l| s|||c|o po||c(|sla|||ro e ca(alle(|zzalo da||a p(eserza d| p|u c(|sla|||
add(edal| l(a d| |o(o cor lo(re. d|rers|or| ed o(|erlarerl| d|lle(erl|:
· · Cosl| corlerul| - (|spello a| s|||c|o roroc(|sla|||ro)
Ce||e a| s|||c|o aro(lo
· Fo(ra - l| ser|cordullo(e. sollo lo(ra d| das. e depos|lalo |r sl(al|
de||'o(d|re d| 10ur su cua|s|as| supe(l|c|e lecr|ca de| l||m sorr|||):
· · lrslao|||la de||e p(eslaz|or| e|ell(|cre - ?
· · · Tecr|ca de||a d|urz|ore ru|l|p|a - Cor || d(odadd|o d|lle(erle d| va(| sl(al| d|
s|||c|o co||edal| |r se(|e s| ollerdoro ce||e cor d|ve(se sers|o|||la a||o spell(o
so|a(e. l| (|su|lalo s| l(aduce |r ur radd|o( (erd|rerlo e (esa ere(del|ca:
· · · · Cosl| corlerul| - (|spello a| s|||c|o po||c(|sla|||ro)
n < /
n < /
pag. 42
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
T|po|od|e d| ce||e lolovo|la|cre
La corress|ore e|ell(|ca l(a |e ce||e lolovo|la|cre e ollerula pe(
rezzo d| due corlall| rela|||c|. uro su||a lacc|a esposla e
|'a|l(o su cue||a opposla. ro(ra|rerle ollerul| pe(
evapo(az|ore sollo vuolo d| rela||| a oass|ss|ra (es|slerza
e|ell(|ca ed ellelluardo success|v| l(allarerl| le(r|c| a| l|re
d| ass|cu(a(re |a recessa(|a ade(erza a||a supe(l|c|e de||a
ce||a. Verl(e |a rela|||zzaz|ore posle(|o(e cop(e lulla |a
lacc|a. cue||a l(orla|e esposla a||a |uce deve ave(e ura
corl|du(az|ore deorel(|ca la|e da corserl|(e ur ouor
corp(oresso l(a l(aspa(erza a||a (ad|az|ore |rc|derle e
rass|ra (acco|la ded|| e|ell(or| ||oe(| re| p(ocesso d|
corve(s|ore
pag. 43
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
l 3|sler| Folovo|la|c|
l| s|slera lolovo|la|co e ur |rs|ere d| corporerl|
reccar|c|. e|ell(|c| ed e|ell(or|c| cre corco((oro a
capla(e e l(aslo(ra(e |'ere(d|a so|a(e d|spor|o||e.
(erderdo|a ul|||zzao||e da||'ulerza |r ere(d|a
e|ell(|ca.
La sl(ullu(a d| ur s|slera lolovo|la|co puo esse(e ro|lo
va(|a: re||a sua lo(ra p|u dere(a|e puo esse(e
screral|zzalo co| seduerle screra a o|occr|:
pag. 44
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
CAV!0 F0T0\0LTAlC0
V00uLl)
C0N\00LlAVENT0 lN
3E#lE E !A#ALLEL0 T#A
LE C0NNE33l0Nl 0El
V00uLl
C0N\E#3l0NE C.C./C.A.
0uA0#0 ELETT#lC0 0l
0l3T#l8uZl0NE
CA#lC0 #ETE - uTENTl)
3l3TEVA 0l
0#lENTAVENT0
#E00LAZl0NE 0l
CA#lCA / 3CA#lCA
8ATTE#lA
8ATTE#lA
3E#\lZl Au3lLlA#l
lNTE#Nl
0ENE#AT0#E 0l
30CC0#30
0uA0#0
ELETT. C.C.
CA#lC0 lN
C.C.
pag. 45
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
l 3|sler| Folovo|la|c|
0a| purlo d| v|sla de||e sl(ullu(e d| sosledro de| rodu||. s| pa(|a d|:
· 3|sler| ad |rc||raz|ore l|ssa - sl(ullu(a po(larle l|ssa)
· · 3|sler| ad |rsedu|rerlo all|v| - s|rd|e/douo|e ax|s l(ac||rd svslers
ca(alle(|zzal| da rolo(| passo e e|ell(or|ca d| corl(o||o)
· · · 3|sler| ad |rsedu|rerlo pass|v| - p(|rc|p|o d| lurz|orarerlo oasalo
su||a d|lle(erza d| p(ess|ore cre s| lo(ra |r due c|||rd(|. corlererl|
c|ascuro pa(l|co|a(| soslarze es. l(eor e o||o)
0a| purlo d| v|sla e|ell(|co s| d|v|doro |r:
· 3|sler| |so|al| o 'slard a|ore¨
· · 3|sler| corress| |r (ele 'd(|d correcled¨
pag. 46
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
6AH!0 F0T0V0LTA|60 |NVERTER !0H!A
6AH!0
F0T0V0LTA|60
REC0LAT0RE
0| 6AR|6A
ßATTER|A 6AR|60 |N 66
|NVERTER 6AR|60 |N 6A
Az|orarerlo a
l(ecuerza va(|ao||e
· 3|slera d| !orpadd|o
l 3|sler| Folovo|la|c| - 3crer| a o|occr|
· · ulerza lso|ala
pag. 47
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
0|E8EL
REC0LAT0RE
0| 6AR|6A
ßATTER|A 6AR|60 |N 66
|NVERTER 6AR|60 |N 6A
· · · 3|slera lo(|do lso|alo lolovo|la|co - eo||co - d|ese|)
l 3|sler| Folovo|la|c| - 3crer| a o|occr|
CENERAT0RE
E0L|60
6AH!0
F0T0V0LTA|60
pag. 48
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
6AH!0
F0T0V0LTA|60
|NVERTER
UTENZA
l 3|sler| Folovo|la|c| - 3crer| a o|occr|
· · · · lrp|arlo Co||edalo a||a #ele
0UA0R0 ELETTR|60
0| |NTERFA66|A
RETE
pag. 49
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
6ELLA
H00UL0
l| carpo lolovo|la|co e ur |rs|ere d| rodu|| lolovo|la|c|
oppo(lurarerle co||edal| |r se(|e e |r pa(a||e|o |r pe(
(ea||zza(e |e cord|z|or| ope(al|ve des|de(ale
!ANNELL0
H00UL0
pag. 50
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
!ANNELL0
8TR|NCA
pag. 51
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
8TR|NCA
6AH!0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
pag. 52
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
Ne||a lase d| p(odellaz|ore d| ur carpo lolovo|la|co devoro esse(e
ellelluale a|cure sce|le cre re cord|z|oraro || lurz|orarerlo:
· Corl|du(az|ore se(|e-pa(a||e|o de| rodu|| de| carpo ellello d|
m|smaron dovulo a||a d|sorodere|la de||e |o(o ca(alle(|sl|cre
e|ell(|cre es.: ÷ |r ura se(|e d| rodu|| |a co((erle e ||r|lala da|
rodu|o cre e(oda |a co((erle p|u oassa: ÷ |r ur pa(a||e|o |a
lers|ore e ||r|lala da| rodu|o cre e(oda |a lers|ore p|u oassa)
· · 3ce|la de||a lers|ore d| ese(c|z|o
· · · 3ce|la de||a sl(ullu(e d| sosledro
· · · · 0|slarza r|r|ra l(a |e l||e de| parre||| pe( ror ave(e
oro(edd|arerlo
pag. 53
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
60Hß|NAZ|0NE 0| 8ER|E E 0| !ARALLEL| !ARALLEL| 0| 8ER|E
+
-
+
-
pag. 54
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
|| 6ampo Fotovo|ta|co
!ARALLEL| 0| 8ER|E
+
-
0|000 0| 8TR|NCA
0|000 0| LAT0
+
-
pag. 55
2 !R|N6|!| 0| FUNZ|0NAHENT0
W/L
ê0°
Lal|lud|re
1
2
3
1
5
ê
Z
10 20 30 10 50 ê0 Z0 80 90 0 [°] 0
55°
50°
20°
10°

0
L
W
8ud
V|r|ra d|slarza l(a |e l||e u) / Lurdrezza de| parre||| l)

 

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