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Tower Types & Shapes

Tower Types & Shapes

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lVIANUAL ON TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS (Revised

)

CHAPTER 2

TOWER TYPES AND SHAPES

TECHNICAL REPORT NO.9

Central Board of Irrigation and Power Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri

New Delhi-lI0021

lew Delhi

April 1995

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t. CONTENTS

2.1 Scope
2.2 Types of Towers
2.2.2 Self-Supporting Towers
2.2.3 Conventional Guyed Tower
2.2.4 Chainctte Guyed Tower 7
2.3 Tower Shapes 7
2.4 Tower Designation 7
2.4.2 Suspension Towers 8
2.4.3 Tension Towers 8
2.4.4 Transposition Towers 8
2.4.5 Special Tower 8 t f e

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CHAPTER 2

TOWER TYPES AND SHAPES

',1

SCOPE

!.I Tne lower ('I \';1fI0US shapes nad been used III the

... ,[ Without considering detrirnerual influence Oil the :11\'jronll1cllt. WitJ1 cunservauon environmentalists attracting t , highest aucnuon and the public becoming more and mort! "lllscious of the detrimental erfects of transmission line CI. ers on the envtronrnent and occupation of land. .. ansmission lint! tower designers have been endeavouring to 1,_ zlop towers with such shapes which blend with the ~Il\'ironment. Other factors responsible for changes in .. ,JCS U f towers arc the need for the use of higher

'aIlSl11ISSIOn voltages. limuauon of right-or-way availability, it .ble noise level. radio and T.V. interference. electrostatic

:Id aspects. etc. The types and shapes of Transmission , Towers used ill I ndia and in other countries art! uscusscd in this chapter.

!.2 TYPES OF TOWERS

. '2.1 The types of towers based on their constructional C' 'res. which are in use on the power transmission line are • ven below :

Self-Supporung Towers

Conventional Guyed Towers

Chainette Guyed Towers

These are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs.

.:!..'" Self-Supporting Towers

Self-supporting broad-based/narrow-based latticed eel towers are used in India and other countries. This type I L..,wer has been in use in India from the beginning of this

tury for EHV transmission lines. Self-supporting towers -t .:overed under Indian Standard (IS : 802) and other "donal and International Standards. These are fabricated. .; .: tested quality mild steel structurals or a combination : tested quality mild steel and High tensile steel structurals

.rrning to IS:2062 and IS:8500 respectively. As H.T.

steel conforming to IS: 8500 is not readily available in the country. steel conrorrnmg to BS: 4}1)0 Gd 50BI ASTM A 572/J ISNDE or any other lnternauonal/Nauonal standards can he used. Some of the countries such as .. .pan. USSR . Austria. Canada. France. etc .• have explored use 01 other material such as steel formed angle sections. tubular sections. aluminium sections. etc .. for fabrication of towers. In the case of heavy angle and long span crossing towers. some of the countries namely Russia. Norway. France. etc . arc using single phase self-supporting towers. Selfsupporting towers usually have square/rectangular base and four separate footings. However?rower voltagenarrow-based towers having combined monohlock footings may he used depending upon overall economy. Selt-supporung towers as compared to guyed towers have higher steel consumption. Self-supporting towers are also used for compact lint! uesign. Compact tower may comprise fabricated steel body, cage and ground wire peak. fitted with insulated cross-arms. Compaction is also achieved by arrangement of phases. using V insulator strings. etc. Compact towers have reduced dimensions and require smaller right-of-way and are suitable for use in congested areas and for upgrading the voltage of the existing Transmission Lines also .

Self-supporting towers are shown in Figures 1 & 2.

2.2.3

Conventional Guyed Tower

2.2.3.1 These towers comprise portal structures fabricated in 'Y' and 'V' shapes and have been used in some of the countries for EHV transmission lines upto 735 kV. The guys may be internal Or external. The guyed tower including guy anchors occupy much larger land as compared to self-supporting towers and as such this type of construction finds application in long unoccupied. waste land. bush tracts' in Canada. Sweden. Brazil. USSR etc.

2.2.3.2 Compact guyed towers are used on compact lines. The phases are arranged in such a way that the phases are not interspersed by grounded metal parts of Tower. The phases can be placed in different configurations .and are insulated from the supports. The conventional guyed towers

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INSULATED

FARRICATED TOWER BO[)Y

COMPACT TOWER

!\IULTICIRCUIT TOWERS

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Tower Types and Shapes

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"nil ~lJIlm:lct ~lIyt:ti towers are shown In Figure .;.

II)

Honzontal/Wasp Waist Type

2.2.4

Chainette (;uyed Tower

Chaineue guyed tower is also known as cross rope suspension LOwer. and consists of two masts each of which 1\ supported hy two guys and a cross rope which is c()nnected to the tops or two masts and supports the Insulator strIngs anu conductor bundles in horizontal Illrl11atlOll .

For angle towers. the practice is to use three separate narrow based masts each for carrying one set of bundle conductors or lise self-supporting towers. Each narrow based mast IS supported with the help oi two main guys. Typical chainene guyed towers for suspension and angle location are shown in Figure 4.

2.2.5

Guyed towers WIll he covered in a separate Manual 2.4

2.3

TOWER SHAPES

Tower shapes In use are as follows:

(i)

Vertical/barrel Type

Delta/Cat Heall

(IV)

l-l-Structure Type

In India, tower shapes at II) and (ii ) arc used tor SIngle circuit line whereas tower shape at (I) has been used ror double circuit and multi-circuit lines. In other countries al the above shapes have been used. Tower shape at (i) is structurally more stable and idcallv suitable for multi-CIrcuit lines whereas tower shape at (ii ) offer better performance from the consideration of audible 11OISt!. radio and television interference a. electrostatic potential gradient at ground level and at the edge oi the right-or-way. These towers shapes are shown in Figures 1 & 2.

TOWER DESIGNATION

2.4. J

Broadly. towers are designated as under:

(i)

Suspension Tower

(ii)

Tension Tower

OOUBLE TENSION

SUSPENSION

INSULATOR STRING

FIGURE 6 : ARRANGEMENT OF INSPAN TRANSPOSITION

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