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Sistem+Digital+A

Sistem+Digital+A

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Kuliah Rangkaian Digital

Kuliah 5: Desain Rangkaian Kombinasional

Teknik Komputer Universitas Gunadarma

1

Topik 5 ± Desain Rangkaian Kombinasional
Task:
Given a description of problem (logical statement), find the corresponding digital circuits that produce the output (answer) given a set of inputs (condition).

ContohContoh-2: 
  

Parking lot controller Elevator controller Prime number indicator Adder, subtractor, «

11.13) Row 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 N3 N2 N1 N0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 F 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 .2. BruteBrute-force design methodology:    Truth table p canonical sum p SoP or sum of minterms p AND-OR / NAND-NAND ANDNAND- Example: prime number detector F = 72222(1. find the corresponding Boolean expression and digital circuit.7.BruteBrute-force approach Design: given a description or truth table.3.5.

Minterm list -> canonical sum .

Algebraic simplification Recall (T8) X · Y + X · Y¶ = X Simplify equation to reduce number of gates & gate inputs .

Resulting circuit .

T13. ABEL.g. Verilog. T13¶) KarnaughKarnaugh-map (K-map) (K   Graphical representation of the truth table Offers visualization of (T10. T10¶. VHDL. T10¶) Works for functions with less than 6 variables E. « Real world: use programs to minimize logic circuits  . especially (T10..Combinational circuit design/minimization Objective:   Minimizing # logic gates Minimizing # inputs to the logic gates Note different logic gates may have different # transistors General idea: simplify the Boolean expression using the theorems.

KarnaughKarnaugh-map usage Plot 1s corresponding to minterms of function.   # of 1s in set must be power of 2 OK to cross edges Variable is 1 p include variable Variable is 0 p include complement of variable Variable is both 0 and 1 p variable not included Read off product terms. Circle largest possible rectangular sets of 1s. one per circled set.    Circled sets and corresponding product terms are called `prime implicants¶ Minimum number of gates and gate inputs .

5.7) Rules of thumb:    Group (prime implicant) as large (many 1s) as possible As few groups as possible Overlaps are OK .2.3 variable example: F = 7(1.

4 variable K-map example KNote how it maps to the rows of the truth table .

PrimePrime-number detector revisited .

. we missed one simplificationsimplification.Compare with the previous circuit When we solved algebraically.the circuit below has three less gate inputs.

Design example: alarm controller Problem statement:   The ALARM output is 1 if PANIC is 1. DOOR. GARAGE are all 1 This can be put in logic expressions as follows: ALARM = PANIC + ENABLE · SECURE¶ SECURE = WINDOW · DOOR · GARAGE ALARM = PANIC + ENABLE · (WINDOW · DOOR · GARAGE)¶ Multiply out and use (T13). we get the SoP form ALARM = PANIC + ENABLE · WINDOW¶ + ENABLE · DOOR¶+ ENABLE · GARAGE¶ . or if ENABLE is 1 and the house is not secure. The house is secure if WINDOW.

K-map with don¶t-cares don¶tIn some cases. Such combinations are called don¶t-cares and the output don¶tis represented in the truth table and K-maps as `d¶. Do not circle any set that only contains d¶s. the output of a combinational circuit doesn¶t matter for certain input combinations. . KWhen using K-maps to minimize such functions: K  Allow d¶s to be included when grouping sets of 1¶s to make the sets as large as possible.

N0 (1.11.12.14.3.15) N3 N3 N2 From K-map: Prime Implicants: N3¶· N0 N2¶· N1 N1 N0 N3¶· N0 00 01 4 11 12 8 10 N2 · N0 N2 · N0 00 0 d 1 5 13 Distinguished 1-cells: Cell 1 covered by N3¶· N0 Cell 2 covered by N2¶· N1 Here not all prime implicants are essential prime implicants that must be included minimum SOP expression: F = N3¶ · N0 + N2¶ · N1 01 11 N1 1 7 1 15 d d 14 9 N0 3 1 1 6 1 11 d 10 2 10 d N2 d N2¶· N1 .7) + d(10.N1.5.N2.2.N2.N1.13.Example with don¶t-cares don¶t Prime number detection for BCD numbers (takes value between 0-9) minterms 10-15 are treated as don t-cares: F(N3.N0) = 7 N3.

5-variable K-maps KThe K-map for a 5-variable logic function is organized K5as two 4-variable K-maps: 4K Can be visualised as being one 4-variable map on top of 4another 4-variable map 4W WX YZ WX W 00 00 01 3 7 6 0 1 4 5 01 11 1 13 15 14 8 10 YZ 00 00 16 17 01 0 1 3 11 8 9 31 30 10 4 5 7 6 Z 9 11 10 Z Y 01 19 Y 11 10 X 11 18 10 X V=0 V=1 .

9.6.13.31) W WX YZ WX W YZ 00 00 01 3 7 6 0 1 4 5 01 11 1 8 10 00 00 16 17 01 0 1 3 11 8 9 31 30 10 4 5 7 6 1 1 1 1 X 13 15 14 1 1 9 1 Z 01 19 Y 1 1 1 Z 11 10 Y 11 10 1 11 18 1 10 X V=0 V=1 .Z) = 7 V.W.5-variable K-map example KF(V.11.25.29.Y.X.X.W.7.Y.5.27.Z(4.15.

KW WX YZ 0 WX W 00 00 1 4 5 7 6 01 11 12 8 10 YZ 00 16 01 20 21 23 22 11 28 29 31 30 10 24 25 27 26 1 1 1 1 X 13 15 14 00 01 3 Y 1 9 1 Z 17 01 19 Y 1 1 1 Z 11 2 1 11 10 1 11 18 1 10 10 X V¶ · W¶· X V=0 W·Z V=1 Minimum SOP: F = V · W · X + W · Z .5-variable K-map example ± cont.

find a minimal PoS expression for KF(X.7) Truth Table Row X Y Z 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 6 1 1 0 7 1 1 1 F 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 XY Z 0 X 00 2 01 6 11 4 10 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 7 0 5 Z Y .Y.Z (0.3.Z) = 4 X.K-map product-of-sum minimization product-ofUsing K-map.Y.4.

X XY Z 0 (Y + Z) 10 00 2 01 6 11 4 Truth Table Row X Y Z 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 6 1 1 0 7 1 1 1 F 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 7 5 0 0 Y (Y¶ + Z¶) 1 0 Z Minimum PoS: F = (Y + Z) · (Y + Z ) .K-map PoS minimization ± cont.

8.Z) = 4 W.X.K-map PoS minimization ± another example Using K-map. find a minimal POS expression for KF(W.10.Z (1.13.X.Y.15) W WX YZ 0 00 4 01 11 12 8 10 00 01 11 Y 1 5 13 0 9 0 0 7 15 0 Z 11 3 0 2 6 14 0 10 10 0 X 0 .3.12.14.Y.

K-map PoS minimization ± another example W WX YZ 0 00 4 01 11 12 8 10 00 01 11 Y 1 5 13 0 9 0 (W¶ + Z) (W + X + Z¶) 0 7 15 0 Z 11 3 0 2 6 14 0 10 10 0 0 (W¶ + X¶) X Minimum POS: F = (W + X + Z ) · (W + Z) · (W + X ) .

. Steady-state Output SteadyTiming Diagram X X 1 p 0 1 0 1 0 propagation delay Time X X Transient output Steady-state output Transient output: the temporary output due to the gate propagation delay(s)  Gate propagation delay: the time it takes to pull up (or down) the output signals due to the change at the input ± depends on the transistor level implementation.Combinational Circuit: Transient vs.

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Static-0 Hazard Static-1 Hazard Dynamic Hazard Example Static hazards:   StaticStatic-0 hazard: The output should be 0 but goes momentary to 1 as a result of an input change ± possible in AND-OR circuits ANDStaticStatic-1 hazard: The output should be 1 but goes momentary to 0 as a result of an input change ± possible in OR-AND circuits OR- Dynamic hazards: The output changes more than once as a result of a single input change (impossible in 2-level circuits). 2- .Hazards in combinational circuits Output glitch: a momentary (transient) fluctuation in output signal due to changes in input signal.

Example: static-1 hazard staticA static-1 hazard exists in the following AND-OR circuit when X=1. Y=1 staticANDand Z changes from 1 to 0 (assume all gates have propagation delay ( Circuit X Z 1 p 0 1 xtra propagation delay between Z and Z X·Z Z 0 p 1 1 p 0 p 1 Timing Diagram Z F 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 ( ( 1 p 0 Z Y·Z Y 1 Y·Z X XY K-map Z 00 0 01 2 3 11 6 10 4 5 X·Z X·Z Z Y·Z F 0 1 1 1 Y 7 1 1 1 1 0 ( Steady-state output Time .

For the previous example the static-1 hazard is eliminated by staticincluding the additional product term X · Y New F = X · Z + Y · Z + X · Y X X·Y Z 0 X X·Z Z X·Y F 00 0 1 3 01 2 11 6 10 4 5 1 1 Y 7 1 X·Z Z Z 1 Y·Z 1 X·Y Y Y·Z . additional product terms (prime staticimplicants) are needed to cover such cells thus covering the transition of the variable causing the hazard. To eliminate static-1 hazards.Eliminate static-1 hazard using K-map staticKStaticStatic-1 hazards are found using k-maps by finding adjacent 1 cells kthat are covered by different product terms.

The procedure to find and eliminate static-0 hazards using KstaticKmaps is done in a dual way to finding static-1 hazards. To eliminate static-0 hazards. additional sum terms (prime staticimplicates) are needed to cover such cells thus covering the transition of the variable causing the hazard. staticStaticStatic-0 hazards are found using k-maps by finding adjacent 0 kcells that are covered by different sum terms.Eliminate static-0 hazard using K-map staticKA static-0 hazard occurs in OR-AND circuits when an input staticORvariable and its complement are connected to two different OR gates. .

50.48.71.19 (e). 4. 4.65 4. 4.68.20 (e).45 4. 4.13 (f). but think about them!!)  4.Homework #2 Turn in: (show your steps)         4. 4.14 (f) 4.52.72 (f). 4. 4. 4.85 .21 (e) 4.46 for hints) 4.73 (f) Self exercise: (you do not need to turn in these.22 (d) 4. 4. 4.55 (a) (b) (c) 4.84.47 (refer to 4.

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