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HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY.
HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY
BY L. HIGGIN.
EDITED BY LADY MARIAN ALFORD.
THEIRPRESIDENT, NOTE. TO DEDICATED ART-NEEDLEWORK,AND OF SCHOOL ROYAL THE OF AUTHORITY BY PUBLISHED
H.R.H. PRINCESS CHRISTIAN, OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN, PRINCESS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
LONDON: SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE, AND RIVINGTON,
CROWN BUILDINGS, FLEET STREET.
1880. (All rights reserved.)
Plates Nos. 4 and 19 show a portion only of the designs by Mr. W. Morris and Mr. Fairfax Wade. [Pg v]
HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery, by L. Higgin.
In drawing up this little “Handbook of Embroidery” we do not pretend to give such complete technical directions as would enable a beginner in this beautiful art to teach herself; because learning without practical lessons must be incomplete, and can only lead to disappointment. We have sought, therefore, only to respond to the inquiries we are constantly receiving, and to supply useful hints to those who are unable to avail themselves of lessons, and are forced to puzzle over their difficulties without help from a trained and experienced embroiderer; at the same time, the rules we have laid down and the directions we have given may serve to remind those who have passed through the classes, of many little details which might easily be forgotten when the lessons are over, though so much of the success of embroidery depends upon them. [Pg vi] We have given a short description of the most useful stitches, and have pointed out their applicability to different styles of work; we have named the various materials which are best suited as grounds for embroidery, and the silks, filoselles, crewels, &c., which are most commonly employed, with practical rules for their use in the best and most economical manner. Also we have given such plain directions as to stretching, framing, and cleaning the work as are possible in a limited space, and without practical illustration. We venture to hope we have thus supplied a want that has been long felt by those who interest themselves in the art in which Englishwomen once excelled, but which had languished of late years, and almost died out amongst us, though it has always been taught in many continental cities, where embroideries have never ceased to be required for church decoration. We have abstained from giving any directions as to the tracing of designs upon material, for two sufficient reasons: firstly, that the Royal School of Art-Needlework has never supplied designs alone, or in any other form than as prepared work; and secondly, that having made experiments with all the systems that have been brought out for “stamping,” ironing from transfer-papers, or with tracing powder, it has been found that designs can only be artistically and well traced on material by hand painting. Those ladies who can design and paint their own patterns for embroidery are independent of assistance, and to those who are unable to do so we cannot recommend any of the methods now advertised. [Pg vii] It has been thought unnecessary to enter into the subject of ecclesiastical embroidery at present. This has been so thoroughly revived in England, and practised in such perfection by sisterhoods—both Anglican and Roman Catholic—as well as by some of the leading firms of church decorators, that we have not felt ourselves called upon to do more than include it in our course of lessons. The æsthetic side of our subject we have purposely avoided, as it would lead us further than this purely technical guide-book pretends to go. But we propose shortly to bring out a second part devoted to design, composition, colour, and the common-sense mode of treating decorative Art, as applied to wall-hanging, furniture, dress, and the smaller objects of luxury. We shall examine and try to define the principles which have guided Eastern and Western embroideries at their best periods, hoping thus to save the designers of the future from repeating exploded experiments against received canons of good taste; checking, if we can, the exuberance of ignorant or eccentric genius, but leaving room for originality. Mrs. Dolby, who by her presence and her teaching helped Lady Welby to start the Royal School of Art-Needlework, has left behind her a most valuable guide for mediæval work in her “Church Embroidery, Ancient and Modern,” which will always be a first-class authority. PREFACE. 3
&c. or stitches not here named. Of Implements and Materials used in Modern Embroidery. Should any of their readers favour them with hints or criticisms.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and from them have selected those which the teachers in the Royal School of Art-Needlework have found the most practical and instructive. The Author and the Editor of this handbook are equally impressed with the responsibility they have [Pg viii] undertaken in formulating rules for future embroiderers. any such communications will be gratefully received and made use of in future editions. Crewels Tapestry Wool Arrasene Embroidery or Bobbin Silk Rope Silk Fine Silk Purse Silk TABLE OF CONTENTS. They have consulted all acknowledged authorities. PAGE Needles Scissors Prickers. 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 4 . [Pg ix] TABLE OF CONTENTS. by L. CHAPTER I. The Editor. or give them information as to pieces of embroidery worth studying. Page 1. Higgin.
or Super Serge 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS. by L. 5 . Raw or Spun Silk Vegetable Silk Filoselle Tussore Gold Japanese Gold Thread Chinese Gold Gold and Silver Passing [Pg x]Bullion or Purl Spangles Plate Recipes for Preserving Gold CHAPTER II. Linens Flax Twill Kirriemuir Twill Sailcloth Oatcake Linen Oatmeal Linen Smock Linen Bolton. Higgin. Textile Fabrics used as Grounds for Embroidery.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Page 11. or Workhouse Sheeting Satins and Silks Silk Sheeting Tussore and Corah Silks Plain Tapestries Brocatine Cotton and Woollen Velveteen Utrecht Velvet Velvet Cloth Felt Diagonal Cloth Serge Soft.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Stem Stitch Split Stitch Satin Stitch Blanket Stitch Button-hole Stitch Knotted Stitch Chain Stitch Twisted Chain Feather Stitch CHAPTER IV. Page 19. 6 . Feather Stitch Couching or Laid Embroidery Net-patterned Couching Brick Stitch Diaper Couchings Basket Stitch Spanish Embroidery Cross Stitch Simple Cross Stitch [Pg xii]Persian Cross Stitch Burden Stitch Stem Stitch Japanese Stitch 37 39 41 41 42 42 43 45 46 46 50 51 51 33 19 22 23 23 24 24 27 28 29 17 17 17 18 TABLE OF CONTENTS. Cricketing Flannel Genoa or Lyons Velvet Silk Velvet Plush Cloths of Gold and Silver [Pg xi]CHAPTER III. Frames and Framing CHAPTER V. Stitches. by L. Page 37. Page 33. Higgin. Stitches used in Frame Embroidery.
by L.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Higgin. Tambour Work Opus Anglicum Cut Work Inlaid Appliqué Onlaid Appliqué Gold Embroidery Backing Stretching and Finishing Embroidery Paste Cleaning ILLUSTRATIONS. Description of the Plates Sixteen Plates. 7 . containing 24 Designs 62 65 to 96 51 52 54 54 54 57 58 59 59 60 [Pg 1] TABLE OF CONTENTS.
care should be taken never to pass it through the eye of the needle. AND HOW TO USE THEM. Crewel should be cut into short threads. 5 and 6. Prickers are necessary for piercing holes in gold embroidery. are best.” No. or for embroidering on Utrecht velvet. never more than half the length of the skein. If it is necessary to use it double (and for coarse work. If a long needleful is used. as the end of it is liable to become frayed or knotted before it is nearly worked up. knotting the two ends. For frame embroidery. Scissors should be finely pointed. [Pg 3] MATERIALS. or very fine handwork. 8 . the higher numbers.—The best “embroidery needles” for ordinary crewel handwork are Nos. CREWELS. Some workers prefer ivory or vulcanite. and also for arranging the lie of the thread in some forms of couching.” “flax. and are therefore smooth. from 7 to 10.” or “oatcake. Two thimbles should be used for framework. it is generally better doubled). IMPLEMENTS. it is not only apt to pull the work. The thread of crewel or silk should always be able to pass loosely into the eye. Needles. OF MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS USED IN MODERN EMBROIDERY. 4. [Pg 2] Thimbles which have been well worn. such as screen panels on sailcloth. but two separate threads of the length HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY. For coarse “sailcloth. and very sharp. CHAPTER I. so as not to require any pulling to carry it through the material. It is a mistake to use too fine a needle.HANDBOOK OF EMBROIDERY. but is very wasteful.
. and the flowers in silk. It serves to produce broad effects for screen panels.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. or for any fine work. or borders. as it makes the embroidery appear hard and rigid. where the work is coarse. or large curtain borders. “Embroidery. flannel. that it may not be twisted. CREWELS. but it should not be sent to an ordinary laundress. but is not twisted round fine wire or silk. which has now almost superseded floss. 9 . but this is inferior to worsted arrasene. and these in varying number. required should be passed together through the needle. When not “rope” silk. Arrasene is a new material. as the case may be. Fine crewels are used for delicately working small figures. the length required for a needleful must be cut and passed carefully between finger and thumb once or twice. for ordinary work three is about the best number. according to the embroidery in hand.” or Bobbin Silk.” that is. Tapestry Wool is more than twice the thickness of crewel. It is made in strands. or the effect of the crewels increased by merely touching up the high lights with silk. &c. or the old-fashioned chenille. Tapestry wool is not yet made in all shades. It is also very effective when used in conjunction with embroidery silk. and is then called “fine” silk. who will most certainly ruin the colours. by L. &c. and will bear being repeatedly washed. As it is almost always necessary to use several strands. as there is not much demand for them at present. or where flowers are introduced. is used for working on satin and silk. and the shades of colour do not blend into each other so harmoniously as when they are untwisted. but there is also a difficulty about obtaining these in all shades. the rope silk has to be divided. either in conventional designs. The leaves may be worked in crewels. with about twelve strands in each thread. It is a species of worsted chenille. or the fine doubled or trebled. It is made also in silk. each of which has a slight twist in it to prevent its fraying as floss does. it is in single strands. It is also used for bath blankets and carriage and sofa rugs. As this silk is required in all varieties of thickness. Crewel should not be manufactured with a twist. or filoselle. AND HOW TO USE THEM. and a good deal of ground has to be covered. d’oyleys. it is manufactured in what is technically called “rope. Higgin. and then cut in the same manner. and is used for screen panels. though it is woven first into a fabric. like ordinary chenille. rich appearance when carefully used. Directions for cleaning [Pg 4] crewel work are given later. and has a very soft. It should then be carefully separated into the number of strands most suitable for the embroidery in hand. Crewel is suitable for embroidery on all kinds of linen—on plain or diagonal cloth. serge. [Pg 5] SILKS. provided no soda or washing-powder is used. If rope silk is being used. In crewels of the best quality the colours are perfectly fast.
but is not suitable for fine embroidery on silk or satin fabrics.” one length must be cut first.wild silk&rdquo. or Japan. Higgin. and to have it all manufactured of one uniform thickness. where a raised effect is required.fine&rdquo. but of an inferior quality. it is necessary to thread all the strands through the needle together. Vegetable Silk (so-called) is not used or sold by the Royal School.rope&rdquo. and therefore cheaper.fine&rdquo. which bids fair to create a revolution in embroidery. used for daisies and other simple white flowers. Purse Silk is used sometimes for diapering. If placed carelessly backwards and forwards. It answers many of the purposes of bobbin silk. the directions given above will be useful. when of good quality. China. or in outlining. as some people suppose. a mixture of silk and cotton. of India.cultivated silk&rdquo. and will not work evenly together.&rdquo. however. silk at present in use. of Italy. then other strands laid on it. It should be used also in strands. These must be threaded together through the needle. or &ldquo. but in all probability before this work is through the press it will have become an important element in decorative needlework. and even perhaps occasionally to double it. It is pure silk. With silk still more than with crewel. They should be carefully laid in the same direction as they leave the reel or card. they are sure to fray. Raw or spun silk is a soft untwisted cream-coloured silk. never to double one back. [Pg 8] SILKS. care being taken not to tangle the piece of “rope” from which they have been detached. There need be no waste [Pg 6] if this operation is carefully done. as good silk will always divide into strands without fraying.Interesting experiments have recently been made with the &ldquo. is not. It can scarcely be said to be in the market as yet.Tussore. In using “fine silk. [Pg 7] Filoselle. which will consist of eight strands of the same quality as the &ldquo. and the same remarks hold good with regard to its not being doubled. Not only can it be produced for less than half the price of the &ldquo. but cut in equal lengths. As it will. still be necessary to divide the thread. by L. 10 . silk. but it also takes the most delicate dyes with a softness that gives a peculiarly charming effect. Tussore.—as many as are needed to form the thickness required.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and in rare cases in ordinary embroidery. It is much less glossy than cultivated silk. It is intended in future to do away with this distinction between &ldquo. and &ldquo.&mdash. and never to make a knot. It is much cheaper than embroidery silk or filoselle.
Being made of gilt paper twisted round cotton thread. and especially in London. as damp and coal-smoke tarnish them almost before the work is out of the frame. is objected to. Bullion. Gold and silver threads are difficult to work with in England. and silver. and for heraldic designs. and spoils the effect of the embroidery. known as &ldquo.raised gold or silver embroidery. GOLD THREAD. They are but little used now. [Pg 10] GOLD THREAD. Plate consists of narrow plates of gold or silver stitched on to the embroidery by threads of silk.&rdquo. for embroidering official and military uniforms. is gold or silver wire made in a series of continuous rings. which may be used when the great expense of &ldquo. It should be cut into the required lengths&mdash. which has the advantage of never tarnishing.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.threaded on the needle [Pg 9] and fastened down as in bead-work.&rdquo. per oz. They are suitable for &ldquo. that old gold or silver thread is always of intrinsic value. &ldquo.Chinese gold&rdquo. Many varieties of gilt thread are manufactured in France and England. If the metal is real. is now extremely difficult to obtain. or can be laid on like the Japanese gold. can either be used for working through the material. a very fine kind of thread. but must in all cases be laid on. gold being about 20s.real gold&rdquo.Horse-tail. 10s. or &ldquo. Spangles were anciently much used in embroidery. It is used in ecclesiastical work. But although it looks equally well at first. which pass over them. &ldquo. Dolby recommends cloves being placed in the papers in which they are kept. is manufactured in the same manner as the Japanese. or Purl.Japanese gold thread. and were sometimes of pure gold.Maltese. 11 . Higgin. It is sold by weight. it has this advantage. it soon becomes tarnished.&rdquo. The French and English gold thread is made of thin plates of metal cut into strips. and stitched down with a fine yellow silk. but being of a much redder colour is not so satisfactory in embroidery unless a warm shade is desirable for a particular work. &c. by L. Mrs. Gold and silver passing. &c.. per oz.&rdquo. In addition to its superiority in wear. and may be sold at the current price of the metal whatever state it may be in. Purl is sometimes manufactured with a coloured silk twisted round the metal though not concealing it. the cost is of course great. like a corkscrew. and giving rich tints to the work. and wound round strands of cotton in the same manner as the Japanese gold. it cannot be drawn through the material by the needle.
They may preserve gold for a certain time. [Pg 11] CHAPTER II.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. to that ninety inches wide. from that thirty-six and forty inches wide. both of hand and power-loom weaving. They are from different sources. &c. table-cloths. 1. Isinglass dissolved in spirits of wine and brushed over the thread or braid. used for chair-back covers. Higgin. Twill is a thick linen suitable for coverings for furniture. Flax is the unbleached brown linen. There are also endless varieties of fancy linens. which may be found serviceable. TEXTILE FABRICS USED AS GROUNDS FOR EMBROIDERY. LINENS. for bed furniture. &c. half-bleached linens. curtains. by L. RECIPES FOR PRESERVING GOLD. for summer dresses. often used for chair-back covers. which should be hung over something to dry. and not touched with the hand. the first is a very old one. We give here two recipes. RECIPES FOR PRESERVING GOLD. 12 . used for large table-covers. chair-back covers. There are many varieties of unglazed. 2. Spirits of wine and mastic varnish mixed very thin and put on in the same way with a brush.
13 .sailcloth. [Pg 12] Sailcloth is a stout linen. though sent over in large bales. can be embroidered in the hand.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Kirriemuir Twill is a fine twilled linen made at Kirriemuir. or tennis aprons. &c. either for curtains. or for ladies&rsquo. chair coverings. It is. It is [Pg 13] inexpensive. Crash is almost always very coarse. has been popular for screen panels or washstand backs. and is only suitable for screen panels. All descriptions of linen.&mdash. It makes an excellent ground for working screens. Oatcake Linen. so called from its resemblance to Scotch oatcake. which improves much in washing. and for smaller articles. and cannot be mistaken for a machine-made fabric. It is very coarse and rough. and is also used for tennis aprons. in lengths varying from five to ten yards.oatcake&rdquo. dresses. and. It resembles the twilled cotton on which so much of the old crewel embroidery was worked in the seventeenth century. is only applied to the coarse Russian home-spun linen. Crash. or Workhouse Sheeting. dresses. and is one of the most satisfactory materials when of really good quality. and &ldquo. counterpanes. which has been such a favourite from the beauty of its tone of colour. is never more than eighteen inches wide. therefore.&rdquo. and this confusion of names frequently leads to mistakes. curtains. seventy-two inches wide. and is good for tennis aprons. It is also used for screens. whether woven by hand-loom or machinery. and an excellent ground for embroidery. is a coarse twilled cotton fabric. of a beautiful soft creamy colour. of yellow colour.Properly speaking. Oatmeal Linen is finer and of a greyer tone. however.crash&rdquo. erroneously applied to all linens used for embroidery. Smock Linen is a strong even green cloth. the name &ldquo. [Pg 14] LINENS. except the &ldquo. it is very difficult to find two pieces among a hundred that in any way match each other. It is woven by the Russian peasants in their own homes. by L. Bolton. Higgin.
curtains. and other silk-faced materials of the same class. light chair-back covers. with cotton backs. Within the last year successful experiments have been made in dyeing these Indian silks in England. woven to imitate couched embroidery.Silk Sheeting&rdquo. &c. and they are rather less expensive than other lining silks. counterpanes. as it will not fold evenly unless the satin is thin. Nothing is more beautiful than a rich white satin for a dress embroidered in coloured silks.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. may be used without backing. or looking poor. Satins and Silks can only be embroidered in a frame. but ordinary dress satins require to have a thin cotton or linen backing to bear the strains of the work and framing. [Pg 15] or panels. manufactured in imitation of the handworked backgrounds so frequent in ancient embroideries&mdash. and none other is available. Higgin. The fabrics known as Plain Tapestries are a mixture of silk and cotton. The exact shades which we admire so much in the old Oriental embroideries have been reproduced. Almost all the varieties of Opus Pulvinarium. a very fine. They will only bear light embroidering in silk or filoselle. or framed. SATINS AND SILKS. 14 . with the additional advantage of being perfectly fast in colour. Nothing can be more charming as lining for table-covers. Brocatine is a silk-faced material. piano coverings. TEXTILE FABRICS.especially Venetian. The finer qualities are very beautiful for dresses. &ldquo. A special kind of satin is made for the manufacture of fans. As ground for embroidery it has an excellent effect. and indeed for almost any purpose. as they take rich and graceful folds. [Pg 16] TEXTILE FABRICS. closely woven satin is necessary. Furniture satins of stout make. may either be embroidered in the hand. have been reproduced in these woven fabrics. &ldquo. without pulling.Satin de Chine&rdquo. screens. and yet it must be rich enough to sustain the fine embroidery. and carry embroidery well. by L. For fans. Tussore and Corah Silks are charming for summer dresses. but for large pieces of work a frame is essential.. or embroidered window blinds. These materials are suitable for curtains. of good quality. or cushion stitch. The silk is thrown to the surface and is tied with cotton threads from the back.
if it is to sustain any mass of embroidery.s dresses. For small articles. It has long been in favour for curtains. from the many beautiful tones of colour it takes. finished without any gloss. in many shades. &c.backed&rdquo. Utrecht Velvet is only suitable for coarse crewel or tapestry wool embroidery. It takes embroidery well. and many other purposes. Silk Velvet Plush (a new material) can only be used in frame work. Cricketing flannel is used for coverlets for cots. with a thin cotton or linen lining. curtains. Velvet Cloth is a rich plain cloth. Genoa or Lyons Velvet makes a beautiful ground for embroidery. It is a good ground for embroidery. but it can only be worked in a frame. makes an excellent ground for screen panels. when the work is fine and small. and requires to be &ldquo. COTTONS AND WOOLLENS. [Pg 17] Serge is usually made thirty-six inches wide. It is used for table-covers. It is useful in &ldquo. but does not wear nearly so well. but is so expensive that it is seldom asked for. children&rsquo. &c. It is of a beautiful creamy colour. [Pg 18] TEXTILE FABRICS. or to the ordinary rough serge. is an excellent material. small table-covers. if of good quality. also fifty-four inches wide. TEXTILE FABRICS. Screen panels of velvet. Velveteen. much superior in appearance to diagonal cloth. Soft or Super Serge. chair-seats. curtains. chair-covers. worked wholly in crewels. Three-piled velvet is the best for working upon. It need not be worked in a frame. and is difficult to work. It is two yards wide. or with crewel brightened with silk. borders. It can now be obtained at the school fifty-four inches wide. Felt is sometimes used for the same purposes. are very effective. dresses. Higgin. &c. either for curtains or altar-cloths. such as sachets or casket-covers. by L. It is fit for curtain dados or wide borderings. and is a good ground for fine crewel or silk embroidery.appliqué&rdquo. As a ground for silk or gold embroidery it is also very good. 15 . although it is always much better in the latter. portières. and must be backed.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. the backing is not necessary. It can be worked in the hand if the embroidery be not too heavy or large in style. Diagonal Cloth can be worked either in the hand or frame.
16 . STITCHES. with a tie of red silk. [Pg 19] CHAPTER III. and especially in outlines of flowers. TEXTILE FABRICS. so that the crewel or silk in the needle shall be looser than the ground. STITCHES USED IN HAND EMBROIDERY AS TAUGHT AT THE ROYAL SCHOOL OF ART-NEEDLEWORK. and arabesque. the material must be held in a convex position over the fingers. Cloth of Gold or Silver is made of threads of silk woven with metal. so as to require any force in drawing it through the material. TEXTILE FABRICS. They are chiefly used in ecclesiastical or heraldic embroidery. according to the weight of gold introduced.crewel stitch. care should be taken&mdash. Cloth of silver is generally £3 the yard. Higgin. not to use too long needlefuls. secondly. as it has no claim to being used exclusively in crewel embroidery).The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. To avoid pulling or puckering the work. their great expense preventing their general use. by L. which is thrown to the surface. Inferior kinds of these cloths are made in which silk largely predominates. They are frequently woven in patterns.&rdquo. GOLD AND SILVER CLOTH. It is most useful in work done in [Pg 20] the hand. These rules apply generally to all handworked embroideries.firstly. varying from £4 to £6 per yard. Stem Stitch. and shows plainly on the surface. &ldquo. and all conventional designs. unshaded leaves. In its best form it is extremely expensive.&mdash. in imitation of the diaper patterns of couched embroidery. and thirdly.stem stitch&rdquo. (wrongly called also.The first stitch which is taught to a beginner is &ldquo. that the needle is not too small. such as diaper or diagonal lines.
the stitches following each other almost in line from left to right. STITCHES. No. taking care that the needle is to the left of the thread as it is drawn out. It will be found that in order to give this ragged appearance. it is best to reverse the operation in working down the left side towards the stalk again. The reason of this will be easily understood: we will suppose the leaf to have a slightly serrated edge (and there is no leaf in nature with an absolutely smooth one). 17 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. it is necessary to have the points at which the insertions of the needle occur on the outside of the leaf: whereas if the stem stitch were continued down the left side. exactly in the same manner as in ascending the right. by L. Higgin. [Pg 21] No.&mdash. as distinguished from regular stitching.Stem Stitch. 2. so as to keep the needle to the right of the thread instead of to the left. and worked round the right side to the top. we should have the ugly anomaly of a leaf outlined thus:&mdash. as in going up. It may be best described as a long stitch forward on the surface. The effect on the wrong side is exactly that of an irregular back-stitching used by dressmakers. and a shorter one backward on the under side of the fabric. 1. A leaf worked in outline should be begun at the lower or stalk end. When the point of the leaf is reached.
The length of the surface stitches must vary to suit the style of each piece of embroidery. This will prevent the ugly ridge which remains in the centre.French Plumetis&mdash. if it is worked round and round the inside of the outline. and consists in taking the needle each time back again almost to the spot from which it started. as shown in the illustration.&rdquo. with close. even rows of stem stitch. Split stitch is rarely used in hand embroidery.is one of those chiefly used in white embroidery. The effect is somewhat like a confused chain stitch. This produces a surface as smooth as satin: hence its name. so that the same amount of crewel or silk remains on the back of the work as on the front. being more suitable for frame work: but [Pg 23] has been described here as being a form of stem stitch. No. separately. each stitch must be sloped a little by inserting the needle at a slight angle. and in arabesque designs where a raised effect is wanted in small masses. Satin Stitch&mdash. If a perfectly even line is required.solidly. to the top. The two halves of the leaf must then be filled in.&rdquo.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. care must be taken that the direction of the needle when inserted is in a straight line with the preceding stitch. in passing. another row of stem stitching must be taken up the centre of it (unless it be a very narrow leaf). If a slight serrature is required. It is chiefly used in working the petals of small flowers. Higgin. worked in the ordinary way. [Pg 22] with the needle to the left of the thread. Stem stitch must be varied according to the work in hand. STITCHES. such as &ldquo.stem. 3. which it splits.Forget-me-nots. The effect is to produce a more even line than is possible with the most careful stem stitch. by L. except that the needle is always brought up through the crewel or silk. 18 . If the leaf is to be worked &ldquo. It is used for delicate outlines.&rdquo. Split Stitch is worked like ordinary &ldquo.
or by working a second row round the edge of the cloth over the first with a different shade of wool. the point of which is then passed through the [Pg 25] fabric close to the spot where it came up: the right hand draws it underneath. The needle is brought up at the exact spot where the knot is to be: the thread is held in the left hand. 19 . &c.&mdash. or French Knot. and may be varied in many ways by sloping the stitches alternately to right and left. Knotted Stitch. by working two or three together.&mdash. and twisted once or twice round the needle. and leaving a space between them and the next set. is used for the centres of such flowers as the daisy or wild rose. Blanket Stitch is used for working the edges of [Pg 24] table-covers. It is simply a button-hole stitch. Higgin. and sometimes for the anthers of others. blankets.Satin Stitch.Blanket Stitch. mantel valances. by L. 5. No. 4. while the thumb of the left keeps the thread in its place until the knot is secure. or for edging any other material. No.. The knots are increased in size STITCHES.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.
that without a magnifying glass it was impossible to discover the stitches. Higgin.&mdash. No. as it were. or French Knot. and fastened on to the canvas or linen ground. 6.. so as to form a sort of curl instead of a single knot. STITCHES. and not quoted as worthy of imitation. or button-hole stitches. while the faces were in tent stitch or painted on white silk. they should look like beads. in which the thread is twisted a great many times round the needle. Knotted stitch was also employed largely in all its forms in the curious and ingenious but ugly style in vogue during the reign of James I. by L. Ignatius Loyola. according to the number of twists round the needle. It was a portrait of St. When properly made. while the figures were raised over stuffing.Knotted Stitch. or feather stitch. There is one variety of this stitch. This is found in many ancient embroideries. A curious specimen of very fine knotting stitch was exhibited at the Royal School in 1878. in robes made entirely in point lace. executed in silk. and dressed. introducing beautiful shading.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. probably of French workmanship. not more than six inches in length. The foliage of the trees and shrubs which we generally find in these embroidered [Pg 26] pictures. is a tour de force. and lie in perfectly even and regular rows. and was entirely executed in knots of such fineness. however. and does not seem confined to any country. 20 . This stitch is very ancient. where it is used for the hair of saints and angels in ecclesiastical work. were worked in knotted stitches of varying sizes. as well as the hair in the figures. This. and the Chinese execute large and elaborate pieces of embroidery in it. when the landscapes were frequently worked in cross.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. 21 . It is made by taking a stitch from right to left. [Pg 27] Chain Stitch is but little used in embroidery now. which is drawn out carefully through the tunnel formed by the twists. Another variety of knotting. A stitch of the length of the intended roll is taken in the material. being made into a long roll. STITCHES. thus treating the twisted thread as if it were bullion or purl. Higgin. this being kept in its place by the left thumb. No. the long knot or roll being drawn so as to lie evenly between the points of insertion and re-appearance. and under the point of the needle.Bullion Knot. 7. the thread is then twisted eight or ten times round the point of the needle. the point of the needle being brought to the surface again in the same spot from which the thread originally started. resembles bullion. The point of the needle is then inserted once more in the same place as it first entered the material. which is still occasionally used. by L. although it may sometimes be suitable for lines.&mdash. and before the needle is drawn out the thread is brought round towards the worker.
footstools. Higgin. 9. so that a regular chain is formed on the surface of the material. Examples of it come to us from Germany and Spain. or in fine and often-repeated arabesques. the needle is taken back to half the distance behind it.&rdquo.&rdquo. &ldquo. 22 .&ldquo. It gave the appearance of quilting when worked on linen in geometrical designs.Chain Stitch.&rdquo.&mdash. or Rope stitch. This chain stitch was much employed for ground patterns in the beautiful gold-coloured work on linen for dress or furniture which prevailed from the time of James I. carriage rugs. except that in place of starting the second stitch from the centre of the loop. though it is not at present practised at this School. in which the design is embroidered in satin stitch. No.&mdash.embroidery stitch. It is like an ordinary chain.long and short stitch. and should then have the appearance of a twisted rope.&mdash. and sometimes &ldquo. STITCHES.long stitch&rdquo. such as blankets.Vulgarly called &ldquo. It is not of much use. The next stitch is taken from the point of the loop thus formed forwards. which we shall describe amongst framework stitches. and the loop is pushed to one side to allow the needle to enter in a straight line with the former stitch. We propose to restore to it its ancient title of feather stitch&mdash.Opus Plumarium. [Pg 28] or entirely filled in with solid chain stitch. to the middle of the eighteenth century. Chain stitch resembles Tambour work. so called from its supposed resemblance to the plumage of a bird. No. &c. except when worked with double crewel [Pg 29] or with tapestry wool. by L.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.Twisted Chain. Twisted Chain. 8. Feather Stitch. and the thread again kept under the point. in a uniform gold colour. Effective for outlines on coarse materials.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery, by L. Higgin.
No. 10.—Feather Stitch. We shall now describe it as used for handwork; and later (at page 37), as worked in a frame. These two modes differ very little in appearance, as the principle is the same, namely, that the stitches are of varying length, and are worked into and between each other, adapting themselves to the form of the design, but in handwork the needle is kept on the surface of the material. [Pg 30] Feather Stitch is generally used for embroidering flowers, whether natural or conventional. In working the petal of a flower (such as we have chosen for our illustration), the outer part is first worked in with stitches which form a close, even edge on the outline, but a broken one towards the centre of the petal, being alternately long and short. These edging stitches resemble satin stitch in so far that the same amount of crewel or silk appears on the under, as on the upper side of the work: they must slope towards the narrow part of the petal. The next stitches are somewhat like an irregular “stem,” inasmuch as they are longer on the surface than on the under side, and are worked in between the uneven lengths of the edging stitches so as to blend with them. The petal is then filled up by other stitches, which start from the centre, and are carried between those already worked. When the petal is finished, the rows of stitches should be so merged in each other that they cannot be distinguished, and when shading is used, the colours should appear to melt into each other. In serrated leaves, such as hawthorn or virginia creeper, the edging stitches follow the broken outline of the leaf instead of forming an even outer edge. It is necessary to master thoroughly this most important stitch, but practice only can make the worker perfect. The work should always be started by running the thread a little way in front of the embroidery. Knots should never be used except in rare cases, when it is [Pg 31] impossible to avoid them. The thread should always be finished off on the surface of the work, never at the back, where there should be no needless waste of material. No untidy ends or knots should ever appear there; in fact, the wrong side should be quite as neat as the right. It is a mistake to suppose that pasting will ever do away with the evil effects of careless work, or will steady embroidery which has been commenced with knots, and finished with loose ends at the back. The stitches vary constantly according to their application, and good embroiderers differ in their manner of using them: some preferring to carry the thread back towards the centre of the petal, on the surface of the STITCHES. 23
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery, by L. Higgin. work, so as to avoid waste of material; others making their stitches as in satin stitch—the same on both sides, but these details may be left to the intelligence and taste of the worker, who should never be afraid of trying experiments, or working out new ideas. Nor should she ever fear to unpick her work; for only by experiment can she succeed in finding the best combinations, and, one little piece ill done, will be sufficient to spoil her whole embroidery, as no touching-up can afterwards improve it. We have now named the principal stitches used in hand embroidery, whether to be executed in crewel or silk. There are, however, numberless other stitches used in crewel embroidery: such as ordinary stitching, like that used in plain needlework, in which many designs were formerly traced on quilted backgrounds—others, again, are many of them lace stitches, or forms of herringbone, [Pg 32] and are used for filling in the foliage of large conventional floriated designs, such as we are accustomed to see in the English crewel work of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, on a twilled cotton material, resembling our modern Bolton sheeting. It would be impossible to describe or even enumerate them all; as varieties may be constantly invented by an ingenious worker to enrich her design, and in lace work there are already 100 named stitches, which occasionally are used in decorative embroidery. Most of these, if required, can be shown as taught at the Royal School of Art-Needlework, and are illustrated by samplers.
FRAMES AND FRAMING.
Before proceeding to describe the various stitches used in frame embroidery, we will say a few words as to the frame itself, the manner of stretching the material in it, and the best and least fatiguing method of working at it.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery, by L. Higgin. The essential parts of an embroidery frame are: first, the bars, which have stout webbing nailed along them, and mortice holes at the ends; second, the stretchers, which are usually flat pieces of wood, furnished with holes at the ends to allow of their being fastened by metal pegs into the mortice holes of the bars when the work is stretched. In some cases the stretchers are fastened into the bars by strong iron screws, which are held by nuts.
In choosing a frame for a piece of embroidery we must see that the webbing attached to the sides of the bar is long enough to take the work in one direction. Begin by [Pg 34] sewing the edge of the material closely with strong linen thread on to this webbing. If the work is too long to be put into the frame at one time (as in the case of borders for curtains, table-covers, &c.), all but the portion about to be worked should be rolled round one bar of the frame, putting silver paper and a piece of wadding between the material and the wood, so as to prevent its being marked. The stretchers should then be put in and secured with the metal pegs. A piece of the webbing having been previously stitched on to the sides of the material, it should now be braced with twine by means of a packing needle, passing the string over the stretchers between each stitch taken in the webbing, and, finally, drawing up the bracing until the material is strained evenly and tightly in the frame. If the fabric is one which stretches easily, the bracings should not be drawn too tightly. For small pieces of work a deal hand-frame, morticed at the corners, will suffice, and this may be rested on the table before the worker, being held in its position by two heavy leaden weights, covered with leather or baize, in order to prevent them from slipping. It should be raised off the table to a convenient height, thus saving the worker from stooping over her frame, which tires the eyes, and causes the blood to flow to the head. There is no doubt that a well-made standing-frame is a great convenience, as its position need not be disturbed, and it can be easily covered up and put aside when not in use. It requires, however, to be very well made, and should, if possible, be of oak or mahogany, or it will [Pg 35] warp and get out of order. It must also be well weighted to keep it steady. For a large piece of work it is necessary to have a long heavy frame with wooden trestles, on which to rest it. The trestles should be made so as to enable the frame to be raised or lowered at will. A new frame has recently been invented and is sold by the Royal School, which, being made with hinges and small upright pins, holds the ends of the material firmly, so that it can be rolled round and round the bar of the frame without the trouble of sewing it on to the webbing. When a frame is not in use, care should be taken that it does not become warped from being kept in too dry or too hot a place, as it is then difficult to frame the work satisfactorily. It will be found useful to have a small basket, lined with holland or silk, fastened to the side of the frame, to hold the silks, thimbles, scissors, &c., needed for the work. Two thimbles should be used, one on each hand, and the best are old silver or gold ones, with all the roughness worn off, or ivory or vulcanite. The worker ought to wear a large apron with a bib to save her dress, and a pair of linen sleeves to prevent the cuffs from fraying or soiling her work. FRAMES AND FRAMING. 25
FRAMING. and on the stretched flat surface the worker can see the whole picture at once. and judge of the effect of the colours and shading as she carries out the design. Feather Stitch. and to be fastened down to the sides. and during work it should be kept over the portion of the embroidery not actually in hand. so as not to try the eyes. but they are not necessary. having no hard lines as in stem stitch. taking care that it is kept perfectly even with the thread of the &ldquo. then letting the left take its place while the right goes below. as described above. in this case is first framed.backing&rdquo.&mdash. Lastly. as in handwork. and the velvet or [Pg 36] satin must then be laid on it. Many materials can only be embroidered in a frame.s bent scissors are useful for frame embroidery. it must be backed with a fine cotton or linen lining. satin. and not allowed to wrinkle or blister. Higgin. so as to protect it from dust when it is not being used. by L. presenting thus a marked contrast to the granulated effect of tent stitches. [Pg 37] CHAPTER V. STITCHES USED IN FRAME EMBROIDERY. It is most important that a worker should learn to use equally both hands. or flat surfaces as in satin stitch. Surgeon&rsquo. We have already said that it was so-called from its likeness to the plumage of a bird.In framework. then sewn down with herringbone stitch. which fit into and appear to overlap each other.Opus Plumarium. and most work is best so done. keeping the right hand above the frame till the arm is tired. as ordinary sharp-pointed scissors will answer every purpose. The &ldquo. A cover should be made large enough to envelop both the upper and under portions of the work.backing. or velvet is not strong enough to bear the strain of framing and embroidering. a good light should be chosen. This comes from the even lie of the stitches. and the long ridges of the Opus Anglicum.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and first fastened down with pins. 26 . It is the difference between drawing on stretched or crumpled paper. When silk. we restore the ancient name of Feather work or stitch&mdash.&rdquo. A greater variety of stitches is possible.
or for finishing the edges of appliqué.&rdquo. silk. by L.brick stitch. and stitched on to it by threads coming from the back of the material. &ldquo. the next row always fitting into the vacant spaces and projecting beyond them. OR LAID EMBROIDERY. third. &ldquo.&mdash. when worked in a frame.diaper couchings. and brought up again not quite [Pg 40] close. cord. she will not sacrifice the artistic effect by being too sparing of her back stitches. filoselle. or of the same or different colour and texture. When the layer is complete.The threads are first laid evenly and straight from side to side of the space to be filled in. Every possible gradation of colour can be effected in [Pg 38] this way. Couching outlines are usually thick strands of double crewel. and it applies to every form of design&mdash. threads of metal. If the line slants much. Feather stitch. [Pg 39] &ldquo.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. This gives a better purchase at each end than if they were laid consecutively in a straight line.&rdquo. while. Plain Couching. thus the threads would be laid alternately first. but at a sufficient distance to allow of an intermediate stitch being taken backwards. are laid across at regular intervals. 27 . &ldquo. fourth. so as to prepare for the following row. or gold are laid on the surface.COUCHING. is exactly the same as that worked in the hand. tapestry wool.floral or arabesque. Under this head may be classed as varieties the ordinary &ldquo. STITCHES USED IN FRAME EMBROIDERY. and are fixed down by stitches from the back.&rdquo. second. or narrow ribbon laid down and stitched at regular intervals by threads crossing the couching line at right angles. Higgin.&rdquo.&rdquo. at the same time. the needle being passed through to the back. and so on. Natural flowers have mostly been worked in this stitch. it is not necessary to alternate the rows. This name is properly applied to all forms of embroidery in which the threads of crewel. except that it is more even and smooth.Laid Embroidery.basket stitch.laid backgrounds. whether in the direction of warp or woof depends on the pattern. A skilful embroiderer will be careful not to waste more silk than is absolutely necessary on the back of the work.&rdquo. The needle is taken backwards and forwards through the material in stitches of varying lengths. or &ldquo. They are used for coarse outline work. and the various forms of stuffed couchings which are found in ancient embroideries.
and the new ground couched as we have described.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. curves. by L. This style of couching was commonly used as a ground in ecclesiastical work of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.laid work. Lady Ashburton. It is possible to obtain very fine effects of colour in this style of work.The threads are laid down two together. and Italian specimens. but in place of laying couching lines across these.&mdash. forming a network. frequently with threads of another colour. the threads are &ldquo. The next two threads are then placed together by the side.&mdash. diamonds. it is not durable [Pg 41] if there is any risk of its being exposed to rough usage. OR LAID EMBROIDERY. Diaper Couchings. Net-patterned Couching. which we find amongst the old Spanish.&rdquo. but so as to occur exactly between the previous couplings. under which come the many forms of diapering. Higgin. It must be stretched on a new backing. and are kept in place by a cross-stitch at each intersection. and are stitched across at regular intervals. is very useful where broad. the fastening stitches being taken at the same distance from [Pg 42] each other. The beauty of this work depends upon its regularity. flat effects without shading are required. Brick Stitch.&mdash. 28 . &c. zigzags. but unless it is very closely stitched down. Ancient embroidery can be beautifully restored by grounding in &ldquo.Plain Couching. These were shown at the time of the Exhibition of Ancient Needlework at the School in 1878. and the work is worthy of preservation. as was seen in the old Venetian curtains transferred and copied for Louisa. &ldquo.COUCHING. in the same manner as for ordinary couching. the threads of the first layer are simply stitched down from the back. In other varieties of couching. such as diagonal crossings. the frayed material carefully cut away.The fastening stitches are placed diagonally instead of at right angles. 11.&rdquo. Thus giving the effect of brickwork.&mdash.laid&rdquo. No. instead of transferring it where the ground is frayed. This kind of embroidery. Cretan.By varying the position of the fastening stitches different patterns may be produced.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. or even untwisted silk may be used.Basket Stitch.&rdquo. Higgin. and fastened in the same way. It is modern Belgian work. two at a time. and fastened exactly between the previous stitchings. The two gold threads are turned at the edge of the pattern. and these are stitched down over each two rows of stuffing. Basket Stitch is one of the richest and most ornamental of these ancient modes of couching. and brought back close to the last. this could scarcely be surpassed. 12.stuffing. The next three rows must be treated as brick stitch. No. Strong silk must be used for the stitching. A wonderful example of the many varieties of diapering is to be seen in the South Kensington Museum. until the whole space to be worked is closely covered with what appears to be a golden wicker-work. No.Three Illustrations of Diaper Couchings. They are properly all gold stitches.&rdquo. by L. OR LAID EMBROIDERY. Across these are placed gold threads. 13. executed for the Paris Exhibition of 1867. 689. &ldquo. and so on. manufactured in the form of soft cotton cord. thin cord. Rows of &ldquo. Three double rows of gold may be stitched over the same two rows of stuffing. are laid [Pg 43] across the pattern and firmly secured. No. but purse silk.COUCHING.&mdash. 29 .&mdash. As a specimen of fine and beautiful diapering in gold.
It is worked on and through canvas. by L. [Pg 45] CUSHION STITCHES. and produced wonderfully rich effects. and a modern example is still to be seen at the School in a large counterpane.&rdquo. and are largely used to replace them. but will doubtless be revived again in some form after a time. 30 . Higgin. which are used for the gorgeous trappings of the horses of the nobility on gala days and state occasions. CUSHION STITCHES. which was worked for the Philadelphia Exhibition from an ancient one also belonging to Lady Brownlow. entirely worked in basket [Pg 44] stitch. but the principle is the same in all. and several kinds of cloth of gold mentioned in our list of materials. of an altar-hanging. by the Countess Brownlow. such as ornamental pockets. A beautiful specimen was exhibited at the Royal School of Art-Needlework.Berlin wool work.&mdash. as in tapestry.Cross Stitch&rdquo. In Germany and Russia it is still much used for embroidering conventional designs on linen.&rdquo. in 1878. or for small articles of luxury. The Spanish School of Embroidery has always been famed for its excellence in this style. One quilt exhibited by Mrs. and in ecclesiastical work. and has never lost the art. as being well fitted for covering furniture on account of its firmness and durability. still turn out splendid specimens of this heavy and elaborate work. is executed in this style. Many fabrics are manufactured in imitation of the older diapered backgrounds. After six centuries of popularity it finally died out within the last few years as &ldquo. and the beautiful Cretan and Persian work of which so much has lately been in the market.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Cushion Stitch&mdash. Among these are the material known as silk brocatine. The Spanish embroiderers used these forms of couching over stuffing with coloured silks as well as gold. Diapering is generally employed in the drapery of small figures. likewise called &ldquo. in gold on white satin. regulate the stitches. There have been many varieties.the ancient Opus Pulvinarium of the Middle Ages. Basket stitch is mostly used now for church embroidery. of which the threads. &c.Embroiderers of the King. caskets. The &ldquo.may lay claim to be one of the most ancient known in embroidery. as they are called. Alfred Morrison in 1878 was a marvel of colouring and workmanship.
stitch.The worsted or silk is brought up again to the surface. by L. 14.&mdash.&mdash. Simple Cross Stitch.Simple Cross Stitch. one thread to the left of the spot where the needle was inserted.The peculiarity of this stitch is that in the first instance the silk or worsted is carried [Pg 47] across two threads of the canvas ground. and is brought up in the intermediate space.&mdash.&mdash. No. No. in [Pg 46] which the thread coming from beneath is carried over a single cross of the warp and woof of the canvas. forming a regular and even cross on the surface. 15.tent&rdquo. and is crossed over the first or &ldquo. CUSHION STITCHES.Tent Stitch. Persian Cross Stitch. It is then crossed over the latter half of the original stitch. 31 . Higgin. Tent Stitch may be placed first under this class.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and a fresh start is made.
probably from their resemblance to the patterns which are found on samplers. this. Almost any pattern can be produced in this style of embroidery. so that when finished the ground presents the appearance of a woven fabric. Allied to these canvas stitches and having their origin in them. Cushion Stitches are taken as in laid embroidery. produces a singular richness of effect. old table linen. been called darning stitches. which are now worked on coarse linens. instead of being placed in regular rows. from end to end of the material. Much of the beauty of Persian embroidery is produced by the irregularity of the crossing. &c. we have classed all the varieties of these grounding stitches under the name of Cushion stitch. they [Pg 48] are of even length. 16. No. and have sometimes.Persian Cross Stitch. are the numerous forms of groundings.Berlin work. and are taken in a pattern. for darning stockings. and only a single thread of the ground is taken up. or in fact on any fabric.&rdquo. simply by varying the relative length of the stitches. so as to leave all the silk and crewel on the surface.&mdash. 32 . the stitches being taken in masses. with the stitches all sloping in one direction. &c. with the happy choice of colours for which the Persians are so justly famous. CUSHION STITCHES. Following the nomenclature of the committee which named and catalogued the specimens of ancient needlework exhibited in the South Kensington Museum in 1872. but in place of lying in long lines. although incorrectly. such as a waved line or zigzag. Higgin.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. by L. in any direction that seems most suitable to the design in hand. as is the case with the modern &ldquo.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.Italian. 17. Higgin. of the seventeenth century. as in the woodcut. A variety of cushion stitch. it seems a waste of hand-labour to work them in. are woven imitations of these grounds. There are several very beautiful examples of this kind of embroidery in the South Kensington Museum&mdash. except for small pieces. [Pg 49] The ancient specimens of this stitch are worked on a coarse canvas. The stitches are kept of one uniform length across the design. from a design by Mr. was taught in the Royal School of Art-Needlework by Miss Burden. Walter Crane for wall decoration. and exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. The next row is started from half the depth of the preceding stitch and kept of the same length throughout. that on the whole.&mdash. worked for the Honourable Mrs. as the effect is not very far removed from that of woven material. In the Exhibition of Ancient Needlework last year were many beautiful specimens: notably one enormous wall-hanging of Italian seventeenth-century work. lent by Earl Spencer. very much greater. It cannot now be obtained except by having it especially made to order. Percy Wyndham. on a bed-hanging. Its beauty consists in its perfect regularity. which may either be worked as described here. but the ancient canvas is vastly superior. differing greatly from that which was recently used for Berlin wool work. but in CUSHION STITCHES. A good modern example of this background was exhibited in the School. and the whole ground in cushion stitch. In some ancient specimens the design is worked in feather stitch. of course. and used under her direction in working flesh in some large figures designed by Mr. We give an illustration of one variety of cushion stitch. It has been replaced by a coarse hand-woven linen for the use of the School. while the expense is. If worked in the hand. by L. which we frequently see in old Italian embroideries. 33 . or in the hand. W. as its looseness makes it easier for the worker to keep her stitches in regular lines.Tapestries&rdquo. and carry embroidery so perfectly. In others the design is in fine cross or tent stitch. No. Many of the fabrics known as &ldquo. the needle is brought back underneath the material as in satin stitch. Morris.Cushion Stitch.
Higgin. and does not differ in any way from that described at page 20. and then bringing the needle back to within a short distance of the first starting-place.Burden stitch. advancing by gradation from left to right. and is found in the works of the Flemish. while another stitch will be devoted entirely to the grounding. except that the needle is of course worked through the material with both hands. It is principally used for working water or ground in a landscape.Burden&rdquo.&rdquo. even before the introduction of the Opus Anglicanum.&rdquo. These stitches were often executed on an open net. however. because we are so frequently asked to describe &ldquo. It seems to have been worked in a frame on fine canvas. 18. Stitch. extremely rare to see this stitch used in any other way than as a ground. In a toilet cover of ancient Spanish work recently added to the South Kensington Museum. with the exception of the small fastening stitches.split stitch.&ldquo. but its peculiarity consists in the worker taking very long stitches.handwork. Japanese Stitch is a modification of stem. The effect when finished is that of a woven fabric. 34 . German. by L. Italian. or on a fabric of very even threads.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and French schools of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. in which we often see varieties of it used to fill in portions of the design. except in actual canvas work. so that they may be in even parallel lines. and the stitches so taken that the same amount of silk appears on the back as on the surface of the embroidery. under &ldquo. The same may be said of &ldquo. No. the design is entirely embroidered in varieties of cushion stitch in black floss silk upon a white linen ground. but this is more frequently (because more easily) worked in a frame than done in the hand. This form of cushion stitch worked extremely fine has been used for flesh in very ancient embroideries. as is the case in all frame work. [Pg 51] Stem Stitch is used in frame embroidery.&rdquo. It is.&mdash. the frame all the silk or worsted can be worked on the surface. CUSHION STITCHES. We have given an [Pg 50] illustration of it. It is really more suitable in its original character of a ground stitch than for working flesh.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. in the Kensington Museum. The frame is formed of two rings of wood or iron. The whole cope shows how various were the stitches worked at that period. The fabric to be embroidered is placed over the smaller hoop. and the other is pressed down over it and firmly fixed with a screw. Its use is now almost confined to the [Pg 52] manufacture of what is known as Irish or Limerick lace. On examination with a microscope. which they commenced in the centre of the cheek and worked round and round&mdash. and in France it was in vogue in the days of Marie Antoinette. though much appreciated in the thirteenth century. is a fine specimen of this attempt to give the effect of bas-relief to the sacred subjects depicted. FOOTNOTE: 35 . A small wooden frame of this description is universally used in Ireland for white embroidery on linen or muslin. In tambour work the thread is kept below the frame and guided by the left hand. Perhaps we ought not to omit all mention of the Opus Anglicum or Anglicanum (English work). So skilfully did they carry out their intention. while the hook or crochet needle is passed from the surface through the fabric. These were very refined. Rock and other authorities agree in thinking that the distinctive feature of this style. which was introduced about the end of the thirteenth century. by L. the work being probably damped as a preparation for this process. [Pg 53] Instead of the faces being worked in rows of straight stitches (like that described as Burden stitch on page 50) as we see in the old Flemish. 19. and copied or adapted Indian designs on fine linen coverlets. Having thus prepared an elastic surface. There are exquisite specimens of the stitch to be seen in most English homes. forming thus a close chain on the surface of the work. that the effect is still the same after the lapse of five centuries. Dr. and brings up a loop of the thread through the preceding stitch. though it is strictly ecclesiastical. The Syon cope in the Kensington Museum. the English embroiderers invented a new stitch. Tambour Work has fallen into disuse.gradually letting the lines fall into outer circles of ordinary feather stitch. and Italian work of the same period. and with a tambour or crochet hook. was a new way of working the flesh in subjects containing figures. German. made to fit loosely one within the other. We must unwillingly add that.s preface to his &ldquo. the effect is rather curious and quaint than beautiful. with small heated metal balls. No. which is made on net in the old tambour frames. they proceeded to model the forms and make lights and shadows by pressing the work into hollows. Rock&rsquo.Descriptive Catalogue of Textile Fabrics&rdquo. and therefore does not enter into our province. and the needle again inserted. but no more effective than a good chintz. as we now work fruit. the flesh stitch appears to be merely a fine split stitch worked spirally. The difficulty of working chain stitch in a frame probably led to the introduction of a hook for this class of embroidery. of the thirteenth century. Both rings are covered with baize or flannel wound round them till the inner one can only just be passed through the outer. but was greatly admired when our grandmothers in the last century sprigged Indian muslins or silks with coloured flowers for dresses. FOOTNOTE:  See Dr. Higgin.
and the crimson flowers into the gold ground.onlaid appliqué. The inlaid part is sewn down with thread. is done by cutting out the pattern in one or many coloured materials. say a gold cloth and a crimson velvet. [Pg 54] CUT WORK OR APPLIQUÉ. This kind of work may be seen constantly in Italian rooms of the seventeenth century. and &ldquo.&rdquo. and in general are enriched by a valance applied at the top. Another style of &ldquo. 36 . high lights and details worked in with stitches of silk. and when artistically composed it is sometimes very beautiful. and a plain border at the bottom. &ldquo. and gives scope to much play of fancy and ingenuity. Decorative cut work is of infinite variety. &ldquo. Higgin. and sometimes whole flowers or figures are embroidered. and covered with cord or couchings of floss silk. This sort of work is extremely amusing. and for a hundred years after. This was much in vogue in the time of Queen Anne. laid down in ribbon or cord. and laying it down on an intact ground of another material. appliqué consists in tracing the same pattern on two different fabrics. sometimes in both. cut out.Onlaid appliqué&rdquo. by L.onlaid appliqué&rdquo. Parts are often shaded with a brush. is only worked in solid outlines.inlaid appliqué&rdquo. and the alternate breadths of crimson and gold give a very fine effect as of pilasters.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and inlaying the gold flowers into the crimson velvet ground. Sometimes narrow ribbons or fine strips of cut silk are stitched over the edges to keep them down flat. &ldquo. CUT WORK OR APPLIQUÉ. then cutting both out carefully. but may be divided into two groups. and couched [Pg 55] down.Inlaid&rdquo.
which must be held firmly in its place with the left hand. Very small fringes also were introduced into the pattern. The edges are then finished off by stitches of embroidery or by a couching line (see page 39).&rdquo. No. Higgin. [Pg 56] &ldquo. which must then be framed as for ordinary embroidery. The leaf or scroll which is wanted for the work must now be selected. and it has nothing to do with appliqué.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. The German. and the leaves enriched CUT WORK OR APPLIQUÉ. laying the paper on several folds of flannel or cloth for greater convenience in pricking. and the pricked design laid face downwards on the fabric which is to be applied.&rdquo. 37 . The flannel pad must be dipped in the pounce and rubbed well into the outlines of the pricked design. and some pounce made of about equal quantities of finely powdered charcoal and pipe-clay. sometimes plain. The leaf or scroll having been thus cut out must be fastened in its place on the design with small pins. and Italians often enriched this style of work with a flower.Feather stitch. although not absolutely necessary. made of a long strip of flannel about four inches wide.Cut work. the design will be found to be marked out on the material distinctly enough for it to be cut out with a sharp pair of scissors. The pounce can afterwards be dusted off. like the appellation &ldquo. embroidered and applied thrown in here and there. French. or arabesqued. A copy of the design must be made on tracing-paper. sometimes figured. The stems are frequently worked in with stem [Pg 57] stitching or couching. very soft and thick. and so regulate the ribbon and enable it to follow the flow of the pattern. must be made ready. which could be drawn. to have the design traced on the material to be used as a ground. A pad. rolled very tightly. and the outlines carefully pricked out with a needle or pin. was manufactured with a stout thread on each side. On lifting the tracing-paper. In working appliqué it is best. but takes its name from the fact that the pattern is mostly cut or punched out. The ribbon. and then carefully sewn down. has a totally different meaning when it is given to white embroidery. by L. 20. and then edged with button-hole or plain overlaid stitch.
of which the ethnological as well as the artistic interest cannot be over-estimated. That it is a creative art is undoubted. for no two pieces of embroidery are alike unless executed by the same hand. With this treatment it is. and their numerous modifications cannot be fully discussed in the limit we have prescribed to ourselves. Where a particularly rich and raised effect is required any embroidery may be treated in this manner. Gold Embroidery on velvet or satin grounds requires to be worked on a strong even linen. and it is within the reach of all who can find time to bestow upon it. For the advanced artist there is a store of instruction in the fine collection at South Kensington. by L. Rock&rsquo. it is impossible to discover which are old and which new stitches. Embroidery transferred in this manner is as good as it was in its first days. however. In transferring old needlework it is necessary to cut away the ground close to the edge of the embroidery. For almost all kinds of appliqué it is necessary to back the material. If properly done. It is of course more troublesome. always easy to perceive that the work has been transferred.s invaluable &ldquo. The transfer of old embroideries on to a new ground is usually done by appliqué. which has been previously framed.dyed to match&rdquo. with some of the many varieties of herringboning. and in many cases is much better. [Pg 59] CUT WORK OR APPLIQUÉ. by large veinings of crewel or silk work. A less expensive. and from the same design. It is then placed on the new material. seen by the light of Dr. for time often has the same mellowing and beautifying effect in embroideries as in paintings. or whatever is to be used in the work. but quite repays the labour spent upon it by the increased beauty of the work. In giving the foregoing account of the most typical stitches.Catalogue of Textile Fabrics. that the work has been transferred at all. 38 . which. It is then covered smoothly. [Pg 58] method is to edge the old embroidery after applying it to the new ground with a cord or line of couching. and the outline tacked down. although we have already described a better process at page 39. is an education in itself. and then left to dry. but also a much less charming. and completely. advisedly. It is sufficient to observe that the instruction we have tried to impart is that which it is absolutely necessary for the needleworker to master thoroughly before she attempts to cope with the artistic element of her work. We used the words &ldquo. we hope we have succeeded in showing the principle on which each should be worked. or in conventional designs. The wrong side of the velvet.&rdquo. and then cut out and applied in the same manner as ordinary appliqué. satin. Higgin. with paste. is then pressed firmly down on the pasted surface with the hands. serge. A piece of thin cotton or linen fabric is stretched tightly on to a board with tacks or drawing-pins. and only by examining the back.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. The best way of finishing is then to work in the edges with silks dyed exactly to match the colours in the old work. and it is done in this manner:&mdash. as it is impossible otherwise to procure new silks which will correspond with the old. They form the basis of all embroidery.
For embroidery on linen. Unless it is absolutely necessary. it will be found quite sufficient to stretch the work as tightly as possible with white tacks or drawing-pins on a clean board.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. whatever may be the materials on which they are worked. When pasting can be avoided. by plunging it into a lather made by water in which bran has been boiled. or even with simple soap-suds. In many cases it may be well dyed&mdash. We give a recipe for Embroidery Paste. Embroidery on cloth or serge may often be cleaned with benzoline. it should not be fringed until after it has been stretched.Let the gallipot have in it a muslin bag: the water can then be drained out from time to time. STRETCHING AND FINISHING.s. it may be stretched out with drawing-pins on a board. Put in one teaspoonful of essence of cloves. N. while it is tightly stretched. Higgin. Let it boil for five minutes. Always avoid using an iron to embroidery. it is safer to send it to the cleaner&rsquo. Messrs.Three and a half spoonfuls of flour. Leave it until quite dry. When almost dry. so long as no soda or washing-powder is used. Pullar and Son. It flattens the work. it is better not to paste the back of screen panels. but in any case.the silk in which the design is worked always showing a different shade from the ground. For crewel work on cloth or serge. and will not require ironing. STRETCHING AND FINISHING. comb out the fringe.s paste on to the back of the embroidery. unless very badly done. as it interferes with the straining of the work by the cabinet-maker. Good crewels will always wash or clean without injury. where a piece of work is much soiled. and. and is apt to injure the colour. Mix these well and smoothly with half a pint of water. and hung up to dry. by L. 39 . which is said to be excellent:&mdash. If it is new work. Perth Dye Works. and pour it into an iron saucepan. and makes it wear better. it is always better to do without it.&mdash. and the paste will be much better. applied with a piece of clean flannel. and damp it evenly with a sponge. but the cheap and inferior worsteds will not do so. and go on stirring till it [Pg 60] boils. Ordinary crewel work on linen may be washed at home.B. but it serves to steady the work in some cases. and then unfasten it. and turn it into a gallipot to cool. but more especially satin or velvet. It should be carefully rinsed without wringing. and as much powdered resin as will lie on a half-penny.oyleys. if necessary. CLEANING. it is sometimes necessary to rub a little shoemaker&rsquo. are very successful in cleaning all kinds of embroidery without injuring it. [Pg 61] APPENDIX. or in the case of fine d&rsquo.
2.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.Design for Quilt or Table Cover. No. To introduce squares of Greek or guipure lace. Fairfax Wade.Design for Wall-Panel.&mdash. DESIGNS FOR EMBROIDERY. Morris. 4. George Aitchison. both for a counterpane and curtains. with powderings of the same for the centre. By Mr. By Mr. The embroidery is partly solid and partly outline.Design for Sofa-back Cover or Piano Panel. [Pg 62] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.Design for Quilt or Couvre-Pied.&mdash. 6. Outline. This style of embroidery is very suitable for internal decoration. George Aitchison. Walter Crane. Worked in golden shades of silk on linen.&mdash. DESIGNS FOR EMBROIDERY. Burne-Jones.&mdash. To be worked in outline and solid embroidery. in silk or filoselle. 5. Representing the Four Elements. A border of sunflowers and pomegranates. Fairfax Wade. Worked in outline on neutral-tinted hand-woven linen in brown crewel. where a good broad effect is required without a large amount of labour. By Mr. Worked on hand-woven linen in two shades of gold-coloured silks. [Pg 63] No. No.Design for Wall or Screen Panel. Worked in two shades of blue silk on hand-woven linen or satin de chine. No. on satin de chine. lined with silk of the same colour. by L.Design for Wall Panelling or Curtains.&mdash. Embroidered in crewels on a silk ground of dead gold colour partly outlined. By Mr. A frieze or dado. 1. may be worked in this way at a comparatively small cost. very fine and delicate. By Mr.Design for Sofa-back Cover. No. or complete panelling of a room.&mdash. No.&mdash. E. 3. with charming effect. Higgin. By Mr. 40 . W. 7. No. This has been embroidered on cream-coloured satin de chine in solid crewel work. By Mr.
Italian Design. Designed by Mr. A Specimen. 13.Wall Hanging. No. For crewel or silk embroidery. W.Design for Appliqué.Border.S.Border for Appliqué. No. 19. Designed by Mr. Representing Juno and Minerva. No. Periwinkle and Iris. Walter Crane.Design for Border for Curtain or Table Cover. No.Wall Hanging. Designed by Mr.N.&mdash. For solid embroidery in crewel or silk.&mdash. Selwyn Image. Designed by Mr. For solid embroidery in crewel or silk.A. 8. Designed by Miss Mary Herbert. Representing Venus and Proserpine. No.&mdash. Background in Silk Cushion Stitch. Designed by Miss Burnside. 11. Designed by Mr. [Pg 65] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.&mdash.Two Panels.Two Panels. 9 and 10.&mdash.&mdash. No. Worked on linen. Higgin.A. Morris. 18.&mdash. No.&mdash. No. 14.&mdash.&mdash.S. 21. By Miss Jekyll. [Pg 64] No.&mdash. either in outline or solid. To be worked on linen in outline. as No. 16. Showing the application of transposed Appliqué. 41 . by L. of the R. 1.Table Border. Selwyn Image. To be worked in outline on linen. 12. Copied from Ancient Italian work. No.Table Border. Conventional Buttercup. By Mr. W.N. Fairfax Wade. No. To be worked in outline in silk or crewel. No.Designs for Chair-seats or Cushions. Designed by Rev.Table Border. To be worked either solid or in outline. 15.&mdash.Design for Border. Nos. 17. Fairfax Wade.&mdash. 22. R. or in coloured silks on a groundwork of satin de chine. 20.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. By Miss Webster. Designed by Rev. Walter Crane.&mdash. No. Morris.
See larger image 1. 42 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Burne-Jones. by L. DESIGN FOR WALL PANEL. Higgin. [Pg 67] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. By E.
43 . [Pg 69] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. DESIGN FOR WALL PANEL.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. By Walter Crane. See larger image 2. Higgin. by L.
DESIGN FOR A QUILT OR TABLE COVER. by L. By George Aitchison. [Pg 71] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Lith. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. 44 . See larger image 3. Higgin.
[Pg 73] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 45 . by L. DESIGN FOR WALL PANEL OR CURTAIN. See larger image 4. Higgin.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. By Fairfax Wade.
By Fairfax Wade. DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. See larger image 5. Higgin. DESIGN FOR A SOFA-BACK COVER. By William Morris. DESIGN FOR A QUILT OR COUVRE-PIED. by L. [Pg 75] See larger image 6. 46 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.
DESIGN FOR APPLIQUÉ. 47 . [Pg 79] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. By George Aitchison. Higgin. DESIGN FOR A SOFA-BACK COVER OR PIANO PANEL. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. See larger image 7. by L. Lith.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. [Pg 77] See larger image 8. By Fairfax Wade.
The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. (9. 48 . See larger image See larger image DESIGNS FOR CHAIR-SEATS OR CUSHIONS. [Pg 81] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.) By Miss Jekyll. Lith. PERIWINKLE 10. IRIS. by L. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. Higgin.
49 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. by L. See larger image 12. [Pg 83] See larger image See larger image See larger image DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. By Miss Burnside. By Miss Webster. Lith. See larger image 11. DESIGN FOR A BORDER. Higgin. DESIGN FOR A BORDER FOR A CURTAIN OR TABLE COVER.
AND &ldquo. 16 by Mary Herbert. See larger image DESIGNS FOR TABLE BORDERS. Selwyn Image. 50 . [Pg 85] See larger image 17. TWO DESIGNS FOR WALL PANELS&mdash. No.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. 14 and 15 by Walter Crane.MINERVA. By the Rev. Lith. by L. Higgin.&rdquo.&ldquo. [Pg 87] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 13 by Fairfax Wade. Vincent Brooks Day & Son.JUNO&rdquo.
VENUS&rdquo.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. See larger image 18. By the Rev. [Pg 89] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. Higgin. 51 .PROSERPINE. by L.&rdquo. TWO DESIGNS FOR WALL PANELS&mdash.&ldquo. Selwyn Image. AND &ldquo.
By William Morris. by L. DESIGN FOR WALL-HANGING. [Pg 91] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 52 . See larger image 19.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Higgin.
DESIGN FOR WALL-HANGING. by L. See larger image 20.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. By William Morris. Higgin. 53 . Vincent Brooks Day & Son. Lith. [Pg 93] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES.
See larger image 21. 54 . [Pg 95] DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. DESIGN FOR BORDER FOR APPLIQUÉ. by L. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. Higgin. From Ancient Italian Work. Lith.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery.
Higgin. [Pg 97] Royal School of Art-Needlework. 23. £10. Lith. ITALIAN DESIGN. 1862 and 1867. £10. Royal School of Art-Needlework..The Companies&rsquo. Vincent Brooks Day & Son. granted under 30 and 31 Vic. Patrons.&rdquo. Showing the application of transposed Appliqué. See larger image 22.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. in 1000 Shares of £10 each. Debenture Capital. to be issued in Debentures of £50 each. by L. Share Capital. by licence of the Board of Trade. 131. Acts. 55 .000. Incorporated under &ldquo.000. sec. c.
The Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. H. The Earl Brownlow. Royal School of Art-Needlework. The Countess Spencer. 56 .. President. H. The Lady Marian Alford. [Pg 98] Finance Committee. The Hon. Lady Welby Gregory. The Right Hon.R. Sir William Henry Gregory. Edmund Oldfield. K.C. Solicitors. Mrs.) Honorary Members of the Managing Committee.R. The Countess Brownlow. Higgin. The Viscountess Downe. M. The Lady Sarah Spencer. London and County Bank. The Lady Charlotte Schreiber.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Mrs. Her Majesty the Queen. Bart. The Lord Sudeley. Percy Wyndham. The Lady Fitzhardinge. H. Edward Baring.M. The Princess of Wales. Esq. K. The Hon. Mrs. Sir Coutts Lindsay.G.R. Bankers.H. Vice-President. Princess of Great Britain and Ireland. (With power to add to their number. The Prince of Wales. The Hon.H. The Duke Of Westminster. Michael Biddulph. by L.H.G. Esq. The Hon. Stuart Wortley. Lady Hamilton-Gordon. Albert Gate Branch.P. Managing Committee. The Countess Cowper.
after payment of all Debentures. but in 1875 was removed to the present premises in the Exhibition Road. and General Council. Trinders & Curtis-Hayward.&mdash. and to 5 p. except as to Honorary Members to be nominated by the Managing Committee. are to be applied to such charitable or other purposes as the Association may from time to time determine. 4. A Silver Medal was also granted by the Jurors of the International Exhibition.medals not being granted to institutions or corporate bodies.m. and received a Certificate of Award&mdash. under the Presidency of H. in Winter. and a member of the staff has been sent out to take charge of the School of Art-Needlework in Philadelphia. 57 . The ultimate profits of the Association.&mdash. SOUTH KENSINGTON.m.m. and has justified its establishment on a permanent basis.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. and Her Majesty the Queen was graciously pleased to grant to it the prefix of &ldquo. experience of the working of the School has shown that the objects for which it was formed are appreciated by the public. It was first established. of whom a majority are to be elected by the Shareholders. Birmingham and Glasgow. The Royal School of Art-Needlework exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition of Philadelphia. 1878. and close on Saturdays at 2 p.C. not being inconsistent with the provisions of the Memorandum of Association. Paris. Manchester. The sanction of this Committee is required for all expenditure. Third. the Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. for the twofold purpose of supplying suitable employment for Gentlewomen and restoring Ornamental Needlework to the high place it once held among the decorative arts. The School was founded in 1872.m.A Managing Committee to be selected from the General Council.Royal. This has accordingly been effected under a special licence from the Board of [Pg 99] Trade. The result of seven years&rsquo. Messrs. Second. in Summer. which require that the Shareholders shall not take any personal profit out of the Association. Higgin. PROSPECTUS. The government of the School is vested in: First. Vice-President.R. E. The Show Rooms are open from 10 a. under the title of School of Art-Needlework. by L.&mdash. Offices. EXHIBITION ROAD.A President. Norwich. 1876. Leeds.A Finance Committee. granted under authority of an Act of Parliament which authorizes the incorporation of associations not constituted for purposes of profit.&rdquo. in Sloane Street. and the remainder nominated by the Managing Committee. for embroideries exhibited there. to 6 p. PROSPECTUS. Bishopsgate Street Within. Agencies have now been opened in Liverpool.H.
and if more are required afterwards they must be purchased separately. A Branch School for Scotland has now been opened in Glasgow. All letters must be addressed &ldquo. but no estimates can be given for prepared work.SOUTH ART-NEEDLEWORK. may be obtained by writing to the Secretary. St. a portion of the embroidery commenced.EXHIBITION OF SCHOOL ROYAL PREPARED WORK.&mdash. All work supplied is stamped with the monogram of the Royal School of Art-Needlework. except in cases of large orders where a great quantity of material is supplied. N. Ladies&rsquo. and must not be made use of for purposes of sale. Show Rooms at 108. by L. terms for lessons. in addition to the letters P.B. [Pg 100] KENSINGTON. and sufficient materials for finishing. 58 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. [Pg 101] All Designs supplied are Copyright of the Royal School of Art-Needlework.&rdquo. A few specimen prices are quoted. and addresses of Provincial Agents. Work can be obtained from the Royal School of Art-Needlework having a design traced. Designs on paper are not supplied under any circumstances. as above. W. PREPARED WORK.An extra charge is made for all designs not ordinarily used for Prepared Work. When an order for prepared work is executed exactly by the directions given. or when the selection of Design or Colouring is left to the School. Dresses must be cut out and tacked together before being sent to the School. ROAD. The materials supplied with the work are considered more than sufficient to finish it. Vincent Street. and lines marked on the material to show where the design is to be placed. nor can work be sent out on approbation. Lists of designs. Higgin. own materials will be traced and prepared for working if desired. the work cannot be exchanged or taken back.The Secretary. prices of prepared and finished work.
Children&rsquo. &c. &rdquo. by L. Tennis Aprons. Toilet Mats or D&rsquo.. APPROXIMATE PRICES OF PREPARED WORK AND MATERIALS. Borders. Filoselle. [Pg 102] CREWELS. Chimney Valances. 8s. &rdquo. per half-ounce reel of one shade. Embroidery Silks. per dozen. suitable for Curtains.&mdash. 7s. N. yard and a half square. to £3 3s. suitable for Table Covers or Dresses. at 2s. Chair Back Covers. to 15s. yard square. &rdquo. Linen. 6d. from 18s.Oyley. Serge &rdquo. 6d. &c. Linen Table Covers. 6d. to £3 3s. per ounce reel. from 5s. containing not more than four shades. Higgin. containing selected colours. 3s. 18s. on Serge or Diagonal. Diagonal. per panel. from 13s. 6d. per yard. 6d. 8 inches square. per ounce skein. on Serge or Diagonal. 3d. or in quarter-pound bundles. to £1 10s. from £1 6s. on Linen. 6d. 12s. or at 8s. In quarter-pound bundles. per ounce. 6d. Cushions. Bath Blankets. Needles. per packet. Crewels are sold at the rate of 8d. Banner Screens. APPROXIMATE PRICES OF PREPARED WORK AND MATERIALS. on Diagonal. 6d. £1 1s. 10s. 6d. 9d. and 3s. Babies&rsquo..s Dress. suitable for Table Covers or Dresses. per yard. Borders.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. 14s.If several yards are ordered of one pattern the price is lower.. Borders. from £1 1s. from 14s. 7s. from £1 1s. to £1 1s. &rdquo. to 12s 6d.B. Blankets. to £2 2s. yard square. Linen. at 6s. on Diagonal.. 6d. 17s. per yard. to £5 5s. per ounce of selected colours. on Sailcloth. 6d. to £1 1s. 26s. from 7s. Folding Screens. to £1 10s. 59 . at 3s. Linen (various). Table Covers. to £1 10s.
Arbutus. Primrose. Magnolia. Hops. Poppy. Lilies. Hawthorn. Love-in-a-Mist. also many conventional designs. The same Designs can be had in Horizontal Borders for Chimney Valances. Serge. Love-in-a-Mist. CREWELS. Sunflower. Strawberry and Blossom. &c. Lantern Plant. Tiger Lily. NOT LESS THAN ONE YARD SOLD. suitable for embroidery. Primrose Powdered. Potato.The Royal School of Art-Needlework has no Branch School nor any Agency in London. Cowslip. Cowslip. Christmas Rose. Winter Cherry. CHAIR BACKS. Burrage. &c. &c. Corncockle. N. Daisy. Faust Motto. Honeysuckle. Taxonia. Fish and Bulrushes. Poppy. Hops. such as Homespuns. Iris. Flax. Fancy Linens. &c. Virginia Creeper.&mdash. [Pg 103] LIST OF DESIGNS. Orange. Zynia. Diagonal. Love-in-a-Mist. Pomegranate. &c.. &c. Hawthorn. Cherry. may be purchased at the School. Wild Rose. Bramble. Ragged Robin. Mountain Ash. Iris. and can be adapted for any purpose. Jessamine. Passion Flower. Utrecht Velvet. Apple Blossom. with many conventional designs. Virginia Creeper. Taxonia. Passion Flower. Marguerites. Wild Rose. Strawberry. Chrysanthemum. Geranium. &c. Carnations. Materials. NARROW BORDERS. Blackberry. Poppy. Corn Flower. Buttercup.B. Jessamine. SUITABLE FOR DRESSES OR TABLE COVERS. CURTAIN BORDERS. by L. 60 .The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Apple. Iris Seed. wide Table Borders. Daffodil.. Daisy Powdered. Cherry. Apple Blossom. Satin de Chine. Honeysuckle. &c. Orange with Flowers. Potentilla. Daffodil.. Japanese. Forget-me-Not. Periwinkle. Higgin.
First Class&mdash. September. 1 40 1 16 0 2 80 Second Class&mdash. Ladies who wish to take lessons. 0 70 61 .Six Lessons. One Person Two of same Family 1 10 0 2 50 Three ditto 3 00 ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. These Classes are especially established for the instruction of Ladies and Children. 2 00 3 00 4 00 One single Lesson (for 1 hour) on Lesson day CURTAIN BORDERS.Six Lessons. [Pg 104] Royal School of Art-Needlework. and include every kind of stitch in Crewel. who will inform them when to attend. 1878. and Gold.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. d. One Person Two of same Family Three ditto SILK AND APPLIQUÉ. Higgin. One Person Two of same Family Three ditto Single Lessons. Silk. or send their Children. EXHIBITION ROAD. CREWELS. SOUTH KENSINGTON. Third Class&mdash. South Kensington.Six Lessons. The Committee of Management of the Royal School of Art-Needlework has now organized Classes for Teaching Ornamental Needlework at their premises in the Exhibition Road. are requested to send their names to the Secretary. by L. £ s. Each Course will consist of Six Lessons.
&rdquo. to £1 1s. 6d. to £10 10s.s Dresses.Oyleys. Cushions. 6d. on Diagonal. on ditto. on Linen.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. to £2 10s. from £1 1s. from £1 10s. to 10s. &rdquo. by L. from £2 2s.. &rdquo. the hour and expenses. Ladies&rsquo. on Linen. 10s. from 13s. Children&rsquo. on Diagonal. from £1 5s. to £6 6s. Table Covers. to £7. to £3 10s. from £1 1s. from £1 1s. from £1 3s. Serge. from 30s. Royal School of Art-Needlework. Higgin. 6d. Ditto ditto Special day Ditto on Ecclesiastical Work (at any time) 0 86 0 10 6 Private Lessons at Home. on Linen and Silk. from 7s. from 16s.s French Blouses. on Linen. 18s. 6d. from £2 2s. Table Borders. to £2 3s. Lawn Tennis Aprons. from 3s. made up. on Serge or Diagonal Cloth. &rdquo. &rdquo. per dozen. per yard. from £2 10s. Dress Borders. Small Chair Seats. each. to £26. to £8 8s. Aprons. Children&rsquo. to £10. Diagonal. from £2 7s. Curtain Borders. [Pg 105] FINISHED WORK. Tea Cosies. 62 . about 3½ yards long. Special terms for Classes of Twelve and upwards. Linen D&rsquo. 6d. from 14s. to 18s. 6d. Sofa Backs. to £2 10s. on Linen. to £5 7s. Chair Backs. 6d. from 12s. &rdquo. Curtain Borders. from 13s. &rdquo. to £3 3s. &rdquo. to £3 3s. Large &rdquo. Serge. per yard. to £5. to £2 12s. on House Flannel.
from £3 3s. from £13 to £100. 6d. to 16s. Head Flannels. from £3. Mounted. from £4 4s. from £1 3s.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. on Serge or Linen. to £20. Nightingale Dressing Jacket. from £1 10s. Blanket Mats. from £2 to £10. from £1 10s. each 5s. on Linen. Babies&rsquo. Ladies&rsquo. from £10 to £60 per pair. from 6s. 15s. to £10 10s. Cloaks. with Mat to correspond. Banner Screens. from £2 2s. from £1 10s. from £1 17s. from £3 to £10. from £1 6s. 6d. Blotter and Envelope Box. 63 . Fans. from £4 4s. &rdquo. on Linen. Bath Slippers. Algerian Hoods. Piano Panels. from £1 3s. for Bath. &rdquo. FINISHED WORK. by L. from £2. from £2 7s. 6d. Sachets. from £3 3s. from £8 8s. Photograph Frames. [Pg 106] Bellows. Table Screens. from £1 5s. on Linen. from £1 5s. Higgin. Mantel Valances. Carriage Rugs. Folding Screens. Kettledrum D&rsquo. Washstand Backs. 6d.Oyleys. per pair. Berceaunette Covers. from £6 to £80. Counterpanes. Envelope Box. Curtains. Opera Cloaks. Sunshade Covers.
Stem Stitch") have been made consistent with the later illustrations. Not more than 18 Stamps received. Alexander & Howell. 108."As ground for embroidery it has an excellent effect.C. AGENTS IN THE COUNTRY. or sold for that purpose. The first 10 captioned illustrations (starting with "No." Page 53&mdash. Leeds: Messrs. King Street. All designs. Orders Payable to L. & Cribbs. sold by the School. from £1 1s. WHITTINGHAM. or ever have been. Birmingham: Messrs.The Project Gutenberg eBook of Handbook of Embroidery. Norwich: Messrs. TOOKS COURT. from £3 3s. Bright. 1. offered as those of the Royal School are either entirely spurious. Hyphenation has been made consistent in the main body of the text without note. by the removal of the word Illustration and a comma at the beginning of each of AGENTS IN THE COUNTRY. Marsh. Knitting Pockets. Manchester: Messrs. Please note that the author uses the term 'high light' rather than the more usual 'highlight'. BRANCH SCHOOL FOR SCOTLAND: 116. St. P. or supplied to any agent. Rumney & Love. by L. are. therefore. Further. Higgin. CHANCERY LANE. E. Queen Street. Robertson & Sons. Goodall & Co. Torrey. Bold Street. Handkerchief Sachets. 64 . Manton. & Capen. Transcriber's Note Minor typographic errors in punctuation have been corrected without note. CHISWICK PRESS:&mdash. that no tracing powder is used in preparing the patterns.grounds amended to ground&mdash.the page reference to Burden stitch has been amended from 49 to 50. St.&mdash. & Gilbert. As advertisements have from time to time appeared in various newspapers offering for sale designs of the Royal School of Art-Needlework. 108. Boston. Higgin. St. O. the Public is requested to note that no designs either on pricked paper. Liverpool: Messrs. Vincent Street. Vincent Street. or are pirated from theirs. Exhibition Road. All information to be obtained at the Show Rooms. Jones. or in any other form than on commenced work. Glasgow: Messrs. The following amendments have been made: Page 15&mdash.. Sons. And for America: Messrs. Vincent Street. Glasgow.
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