This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
General Manager (sub-station Engineering) Jyoti Structures Ltd.,
27th April 2005 Mumbai
Overview of 400kV sub-station Design Process Design considerations Question / Answer
Imp. considerations in substation design
Safety of personnel and equipment Reliability and Security Adherence to Statutory obligations – I.E. rules, Environmental aspects Electrical design considerations Structural design considerations Ease of maintenance Possibility to Expand
8.System parameters Sr. 6. 400kV 400kV 420kV 50Hz 3 320kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (320kV) 220kV 220kV 245kV 50Hz 3 156kV 25mm/kV 40kA 1000 mV (156kV) Effectively earthed 10. Radio interference voltage at 1MHZ (for phase to earth voltage) . Current for 1 sec. 7. Description Nominal system voltage Max. 3. 1. 2. 5. operating voltage Rated frequency Number of phases System neutral earthing Corona Extinction voltage Min. 4. creepage distance Rated short ckt.
for lines -.System parameters Contd.. power freq.for reactor/ X’mer -.for other equipments ii) Switching impulse withstand voltage (dry/wet) iii) One min. withstand voltage (dry/wet) -.for other equipments 400kV 220kV Remarks 1550kVp 1300kVp 1425kVp 1050kVp 1050kVp 950kVp 1050kVp 680kV 520kV 610kV 630kV 460kV 460kV 530kV 460kV (Line-ground) (open terminals) . 11. Sr. Description Rated insulation levels i) Full wave impulse withstand voltage -.for lines -.for CB / Isolator -.
Substation Bird’s view .
400kV Circuit Breaker .
400kV Isolator .
400kV Current Transformer .
400kV CVT .
400kV Surge Arrester .
Shunt Reactor & NGR .
400/220 kV Auto Transformer .
400kV Bus Post Insulator .
Wave Trap .
Circuit Breaker 3. Bus-Bar 2.Functions of substation equipments Equipment 1. Lightning Arrester Function Incoming & outgoing ckts. control & protection To step-down voltages for measurement. control & protection To discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to earth . To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth To step-down currents for measurement. Connected to bus-bar Automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions Disconnection under no-load condition for safety. Isolators 4. Voltage Transformer 7. Earthing switch 5. isolation and maintenance. Current Transformer 6.
Line –Trap 12. Series Capacitor .Functions of substation equipments Contd… 8.c. Neutral-Grounding resistor 10. To provide compensations to reactive loads of lagging power factors To step-up or step-down the voltage and transfer power from one a. voltage at the same frequency. Compensation of long lines. Coupling capacitor 11. Shunt reactor 9. Shunt capacitors 13. 14. voltage another a.c. Power Transformer To control over voltages by providing reactive power compensation To limit earth fault current To provide connection between high voltage line & PLCC equipment To prevent high frequency signals from entering other zones.
support structures to earth. Surge Arresters. To protect the outdoor substation equipment from lightning strokes.Functions of Associated system in substation System 1. overheads shielding wires etc.for switchyard -. 2. equipment body. To provide the path for discharging the earth currents from neutrals.Earthing risers Function To provide an earthmat for connecting neural points. Overhead earth wire shielding or Lightning masts. Substation Earthing system -. Illumination system (lighting) -. For safety of personnel and for enabling earth fault protection. 3.Earthmat -. with safe step-potential and touch potential.buildings -.roads etc. faults.Earthing spikes -. .
telecontrol. Control cable 6.CTs..coupling capacitor -. PLCC system power line carries communication system -. control circuits.PLCC panels To provide alarm or automatic tripping of faulty part from healthy part and also to minimize damage to faulty equipment and associated system. Protection system -.circuit breakers -. . 5. metering circuits. communication circuits To provide supply path to various auxiliary equipment and machines. telemetry. power line carrier protection etc.line trap -. VTs etc. For Protective circuits. Power cable 7.control cables -. For communication.protection relay panels -.Contd. 4.
For supplying starting power. Telephone.fire prot.distribution system 10. microwave. panels.diesel generator sets -.Contd… 8. OPF To sense the occurrence of fire by sensors and to initiate water spray.switchgear -. detection system -. alarm system -.Sensors. Auxiliary standby power system -. to disconnect power supply to affected region to pin-point location of fire by indication in control room.water spray system -. telex. standby power for auxiliaries For internal and external communication . Fire Fighting system -.watertank and spray system 9.
Basic drawings for design/construction
Single Line Diagram General Arrangement Drawing Electrical Plan and Section Control Room Architectural layout
Structural layout Earthmat layout Civil layout Erection Key Diagram Lighting Layout
Single Line Diagram – 220kV
General arrangement layout .
Electrical layout .
Electrical Section .
Control room layout .
Control room layout .
Structural layout .
Earthmat Layout @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ .
Civil layout .
Erection Key Diagram 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I1 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA 4LA 4IC2 N1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W1 4I R1 R1 R1 4W1 4P1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4I 4I 4IC1 4DTTM-1 4P3 4LA 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4I 4I R2 4DTTM1 4P1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I1 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4P3 4LA 4SSTM-D4SSTM-D 4SSTM-D 4W1 4W 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4I 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC2 4W1 4W1 4DTTM2 4DTTM1 4W 4P1 4I1 4DTTM-1 4LA 4LA 4LA N1 4I R1 R1 R1 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4P3 4LA 4IC1 4W1 4W1 4DTTM1 4P1 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I R2 4C1 4C2 4V 4P 4I 4I 4DTTM1 4DTQB-2 4DTQB2 4DTQB2 EW1 EW2 4SSTM-D 4DTTM1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4T1 4S1 4S1 4S1 4P 4S1 4V 4W 4W 4I 4I R1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4P 3 4S1 4I 4S1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4TM 4S2 EW2 EW2 EW1 EW2 EW2 4I1 4I2 4DTTM-1 4DTTM2 4I 4I 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I 4I 4I 4I 4I2 4I2 4B 4B 4I2 4B 4B 4DTQB-1 4DTQB1 4DTQB1 4W1 4W EW1 EW2 4DTTM1 4S2 4S2 4S2 4S2 4DTTM2 4S1 4SSTMD 4SSTM-T 4S1 4S1 4S1 4TBSM 4S1 4I 4S1 4S1 4P 1 4P 1 4IC1 4IC2 4TBSM 4S1 4I2 4I 4I1 4B 4B 4TBSM 4S1 4S1 4S1 4LA 4S1 4S1 4C1 4C2 4I1 4I2 4IC2 .
100 Lux Other indoor area .20 Lux (balance Area / road @ ground level) .150 Lux Switchyard .Lighting Design Adequate lighting is necessary for safety of working personnel and O&M activities Recommended value of Illumination level Control & Relay panel area .50 Lux (main equipment) .300 Lux Battery room .350 Lux (at floor level) Test laboratory .
Single Bus arrangement .
Used for distribution substations upto 33kV 2.Single Bus System Merits 1. Difficult to do any maintenance 3. Remarks 1. Fault of bus or any circuit breaker results in shut-down of entire substation 2. Simple to Operate 3. Can be used only where loads can be interrupted or have other supply arrangements. Simple Protection . Sectionalizing increases flexibility 2. Not used for large substations. Low cost Demerits 1. 3. Bus cannot be extended without completely deenergizing substations 4.
Main & Transfer Bus .
. Low initial & ultimate cost Demerits 1. Used for 110kV substations where cost of duplicate bus bar system is not justified . 2. Potential devices may 3. Requires one extra breaker coupler Remarks 1. Switching is somewhat complex when maintaining a breaker 3.Main & transfer busbar system Merits 1. Fault of bus or any be used on the main bus circuit breaker results in shutdown of entire substation. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance. 2.
Double Busbar arrangement .
220kV and important 11kv. . Bus protection scheme connected to each bus may cause loss of substation when it operates. 2. 3. Half of the feeders 2. High exposure to bus fault. Line breaker failure takes all circuits connected to the bus out of service.3kV substations. 4.6kV. 6. Remarks 1. Most widely used for 66kV. 5. High flexibility Demerits 1. Extra bus-coupler circuit breaker necessary.Double Bus Bar Single Breaker system Merits 1. 3. Bus couplers failure takes entire substation out of service. 132kv.
Double Busbar with Double breaker .
Each has two associated breakers 2. Any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance.Double Bus Bar Double Breaker system Merits 1. Used only for very important. 4. Has flexibility in permitting feeder circuits to be connected to any bus 3. . Not used for usual EHV substations due to high cost. 2. EHV substations. High reliability Demerits 1. Most expensive Remarks 1. 2. Would lose half of the circuits for breaker fault if circuits are not connected to both the buses. high power.
Double main & transfer .
Bus fault does not remove any feeder from the service Demerits 1. Highly reliable 3. Either main bus can be taken out of service at any time for maintenance.Double main bus & transfer bus system Merits 1. 7. Preferred by some utilities for 400kV and 220kV important substations. no isolator switching required 6. Simple operation. All switching done with breakers 5. Breaker failure on bus side breaker removes only one ckt. High cost due to three buses Remarks 1. From service 4. . Most flexible in operation 2.
One & half breaker scheme .
Each circuit fed by two breakers. All switching by breaker. Requires 1 1/2 breaker per feeder. 5. Selective tripping 2. Any breaker can be removed from maintenance without interruption of load. hence higher cost 2. auto-reclosing more complex since middle breaker must be responsive to both associated circuits. 3. Flexible operation for breaker 1. Used for 400kV & 220kV substations. Preferred. One and half maintenance breakers per circuit. 6. 1. Protection and 2. 4. .One & half breaker scheme Merits Demerits Remarks 1.
Ring Bus .
3. 2.Mesh (Ring) busbar system Merits 1. Requires VT’s on all circuits because there is no definite voltage reference point. of incoming and outgoing lines and high power transfer. If fault occurs during bus maintenance. Busbars gave some operational flexibility Demerits 1. . Most widely used for very large power stations having large no. These VT’s may be required in all cases for synchronizing live line or voltage indication 4. Remarks 1.Auto-reclosing and protection complex. Breaker failure during fault on one circuit causes loss of additional circuit because of breaker failure. ring gets separated into two sections.
Phase to phase 4200 mm (Rod-conductor configuration) 4000 mm (Conductor-conductor configuration) 6400 mm 2100 mm 3.Minimum Clearances 400kV 1. Phase to Earth 3500 mm 220kV 2100 mm 2. Sectional clearance 4300 mm .
Clearance Diagram .
Ampacity caculation as per IEEE:738 Short time current rating (40kA for 1 Sec.) IEC-865 Stresses in Tubular Busbar Natural frequency of Tubular Busbar Deflection of Tube Cantilever strength of Post Insulator Aeolian Vibrations .Bus Bar Design Continuous current rating.
Every Day Every Day Max. 2. 5. (ACSR 750C/ AAAC 850C) Wind Pressure No wind 36% No wind 100% No wind T <= 22% of UTS T <= 70% of UTS Clearances Limits . Min. 4.Gantry Structure Design Sag / Tension calculation : as per IS: 802 1995 Sr. Temp Min. 3. 1.
Contd. Short Circuit Forces calculation As per IEC : 865 Short circuit forces during short circuit Short circuit forces after short circuit Short circuit forces due to “Pinch” effect for Bundled conductor Spacer span calculation Factor of safety of 2.0 under normal condition and 1..5 under short circuit condition .
00 8000.00 6000.00 4000.00 CONDUCTOR TENSION PER PHASE IN KG. forces GRAPH OF SPACER SPAN Vs CONDUCTOR TENSION FOR 400 KV TWIN MOOSE ACSR CONDUCTOR 12000. 10000. .Spacer span Vs Short Ckt.00 2000.00 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 SPACER SPAN IN MTRS.
CBIP-223.Earthing Design Guiding standards – IEEE 80. IS:3043. Basic Objectives: Step potential within tolerable Touch Potential limit Ground Resistance Adequacy of Ground conductor for fault current (considering corrosion) . 400kV & 220kV system are designed for 40kA.
Touch and step potential .
Lightning Protection – Ground Wire FIG-4a FIG-4b .
Lightning Protection – Lightning Mast .