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Anatomy Physiology Report

Anatomy Physiology Report

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Published by Grace Datu

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Published by: Grace Datu on Feb 04, 2011
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03/17/2012

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY SKELETAL SYSTEM

The appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones in the human body which make motion possible and protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage which itself means a part that is joined to something larger. Functionally it is involved in locomotion (Lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (Upper limbs). The appendicular skeleton is divided into si x major regions: 1) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) - Left and right Clavicle (2) and Scapula (2). 2) Arm and Forearm (6 bones) - Left and right Humerus (2) (Arm), Ulna (2) and Radius (2) (Fore Arm). 3) Hands (58 bones) - Left and right Carpal (16) (wrist), Metacarpal (10), Proximal phalanges (10), Middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and sesamoid (4). 4) Pelvis (2 bones) - Left and right os coxae (2) (ilium). 5) Thigh and leg (8 bones) - Femur (2) (thigh), Tibia (2), patella (2) (knee), and Fibula (2) (leg). 6) Feet (56) - Tarsals (14) (ankle), Metatarsals (10), Proximal phalanges (10), middle phalanges (8), distal phalanges (10), and . It is important to realize that through anatomical variation it is common for the skeleton to have many extra bones (su tural bones in the skull, cervical ribs, lumbar ribs and even extra lumbar vertebrae) The appendicular skeleton of 126 bones and the axial skeleton of 80 bones together form the complete skeleton of 206 bones in the human body. Unlike the axial skeleton, the appendicular skeleton is unfused. This allows for a much greater range of motion

APE D CU AR SKE E .

PECTORAL GIRDLE BONES OF THE PELVIS .

BONES OF THE ARM BONES OF THE HAND BONES OF THE LEG .

like the joints between the bones of the skull. also called ellipsoid joints. There are several typed of synovial joints. Finally. These joints allow various movements depending on the type of joint. They are firm in their position to prevent gliding or sliding. occur between two bones where one is football-shaped and fits in its concave complementary "partner. Only slight movement occurs between the bones that have this joint connecting them. and fibrocartilaginous joints. or diarthroses. Joints are a major part of the skeletal system because they hold the bones together securely but also give the rigid skeleton mobility. The more common of these two joints is the synchondrosis. Fibrocartilaginous joints are bound between the bones of the vertebral column. There are many joints. The hinge joint is like the hinge on a door. and some allow free movement The immovable joints are called synarthroses. Bursitis. Between tow bones in these joints there is a membranous sac called bursa. or amphiarthroses. The saddle joint is two saddle shaped joints that can move ninety degrees over each other like a jockey can tilt side to side on a horse." The movements occur when someone shakes his head "yes" or when he tilts his head side to side. The final joint is the ball . Cartilage covers bones near synovial joints so that ligament attachment can occur. This joint is a layer of cartilage between two of part of two bones. causes severe pain. there is gomphosis which are the joints between the teeth and sockets that hold them. An example is the bones in a hand. The elbow and knee joints are examples. The next group of joints is the cartilaginous joints. some allow minor movement. some of which allow no movement. which connect two bones with cartilage. Next. a condition where the bursa undergo inflammation. but he cannot tilt too far without falling off. and it moves back and forth in one plane. Plane joints are joints between two flat bones where one bone moves horizontally over the other bone in various directions. Two cartilaginous joints are synchondrosis. like the membrane that sketches in between tibia and fibula in human beings. The final group of joints is synovial joints. Condyloid joints. It is also between the sternum and its inferior. Bursae produce synovial fluid which covers the ends of bones allowing smooth movement.JOINTS A joint is a place where one bone meets another bone. First there are sutures. Pivot joints occur between two bones where one bone is cylindrical in shape and rotates inside a ring shaped bone or ligament. There are three major groups of this joint. there are syndesmoses. or fibrous joints. An example is the movement that occurs between the first two bones of the vertebrae where someone shakes his head "no".

which is like an adult hand loosely wrapping one hand around a baby's hand.) HINGE JOINT CONDYLOID JOINT . Examples of this joint are the joints in the hips and shoulders. 3.and socket joint.

) CARTILAGINO S JOINT GOMPHOSIS .1.) FIBRO S JOINT S T RE SYNDESMOSIS 2.

is another bony projection of the shoulder blade. the little finger side) of the forearm. On the back side it has a bony ridge for the attachment of the muscles. Collar bones serve as a support for the shoulder blades in front and keep the shoulder blades back so that the arms can hang freely at the sides of the body. y Collar Bones (Clavicles) Each collar bone is rod-shaped and roughly S-shaped. the coracoid process. y The Upper Limbs. the acromion. The lower end of the humerus forms a shallow ball and socket joint with the radius and a hinge joint with the ulna in the elbow The Forearm (Radius and Ulna) The two long bones of the forearm are known as the radius and the ulna. The Pectoral girdle consists of two shoulder blades (scapulae) and two collar bones (clavicles). the palm of the hand and the fingers. The upper end of the ulna articulates with the lower end of the humerus forming a strong hinge joint . It lies horizontally and articulates with the upper end of the breastbone. allowing some degree of movement. the wrist. The bony ridge forms a prominent projection. The upper outer corner of the shoulder blade ends in the glenoid cavity into which fits the head of the upper arm bone.APPENDIC LAR SKELETON The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle. These bones articulate with one another. right in the middle and front. just above the first rib. The Upper Arm (Humerus) The upper arm is a single long bone. They prevent the pectoral girdles from getting out of joint easily and ample movement of the shoulders. The ulna is the larger of the two bones and is situated on the inner side (i. The upper end consists of a hemi spherical ball which fits into the socket of the shoulder blade to form the shoulder joint. which also serves for the attachment of muscles. the forearm (radius and ulna).e. The skeleton of the upper limbs or arm may be divid ed into five main regions: an upper arm bone. above the shoulder joint. forming a ball and socket joint. The lateral end articulates with the acromium. y Shoulder Blades (Scapulae) The shoulder blade is a flat triangular bone which stretches from the shoulder to the vertebral column at the back. Beneath the collar bone and just on the inside of the shoulder joint.

. The ischium forms the inferior part of the hip bone and the pubis the central in front. the legs and the buttocks are attached to it. The radius is situated on the thumb side of the forearm. on the front side by a symphysis which consists of fibrocartilage and ligaments. The lower end of the ulna is slender and plays a minor role in the formation of the wrist joint. Its upper end articulates with both the humerus and the ulna. These are small. On the outer side of the point where the fused bones meet. The pelvic girdle consists of two large. sturdy hip bones. The metacarpals articulate with carpals at one end and with the phalanges at the other end.in the elbow region. It protects some of the internal organs. lower end of the radius forms a major part of the wrist joint. short bones that are arranged in two rows of four. The two hip bones and the sacrum form a complete bony ring. There are three phalanges in each finger but only two in the thumb. The radio-ulnar joints are pivot joints in which the moving bone is the radius. The Palm of the Hand The palm is supported by five long metacarpals. The radius also allows the forearm to be rotated. the pelvis . In females it forms a strong basin-like structure for supporting and protecting the developing foetus during child-bearing y The Lower Limbs or Legs. Each hip bone consists of three fused bones namely the ilium. The Pelvic (Hip) Girdle. The broad. The Wrist The wrist consists of eight carpal bones. The sacrum has a large. The two pubic bones are attached in the middle. The pelvic girdle forms a strong support for the attachment of the limbs. where it articulates with the wrist bones (carpals). As the head of the radius pivots at these joints. flat articular surface on each side for articulation with the ilia. ischium and the pubis. Strong muscles of the back. the pubic symphysis. The Fingers The fingers are made up of fourteen phalanges. The ilium is the largest of the three and forms the upper part of the hip bones. there is a deep hip socket into which the head of the femur fits. the lower end of the radius moves round the lower head of the ulna. The sacrum fits like a wedge posteriorly between the two hip bones. They have articulating facets which allow them to slide over one another.

allowing the heel to be lifted during locomotion. the femur and is the longest bone in the body. triangular. rounded portion which articulates in the acetubulum. the lower leg. which presses firmly onto the ground when one stands. forming a ball-and-socket joint. The Ankle There are seven short. walks or runs.The skeleton of the lower limb may be divided into five main regions: the upper leg (thigh). The Lower Leg The two bones of the lower leg are the tibia (shinbone) in front and the fibula behind. the femur widens to form two large knobs (condyles) which form the hinged knee joint with the main long bone (tibia) of the lower leg. The lower end of the tibia articulates with one of the tarsals to form the ankle joint. flat bone which develops on the tendon of the thigh muscle and is attached by ligaments to the tibia. the arch of the foot and the toes The Upper Leg or Thigh The upper leg has a single long bone. This enables movement in the knee joint. the largest of which is the heel bone (calcaneum). On the anterior side of these two condyles. The lower end forms part of the ankle joint. The upper end articulates with the tibia but does not form part of the knee joint. which extends from the tarsals to the toes. thick tarsal bones. The patella is a small. The big toe has two phalanges and the other toes have three in each. there is an articular surface against which the kneecap (patella) slides. . the ankle. The calf muscles are attached to the calcenum. The head of the femur is turned slightly inwards and has a large. The Arch of the Foot The arch is formed partly by some of the tarsals but mainly by the five long metatarsals. The Toes There are fourteen short phalanges in the toes of each foot. The upper end of the tibia has two articulating facets into which the condyles of the femur fit to form the knee joint. The arch is modified for receiving the weight of the body. At its distal end. The fibula is smaller than the tibia and is situated on the outside and slightly behind it. The tibia is the larger of the two and extends from the knee to the ankle.

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