I TC ( I nst al l at i on, Test i ng & Commi si oni ng

) ,
Radi o Net w or k Opt i mi zat i on & Dr i vet est
4C SAFETY
DES
COMITTED
Company Profile
Background : We are establish with experiences professional resources in parts to develop operator
communication system in quantity and quality network as an answer for rapidly growth
telecommunication technology with our services.
With full commitment, expertise and experiences starting in Survey and Design Engineering, ITC
(Installation, Testing & Commissioning), Radio Network Optimization & Drivetest, and Supervising
CME.
Scope : Consultant and Supervision for BTS pre Installation, Installation, Commissioning and
Integration.GSM, CDMA and WCDMA RF Measurement and Optimization.
Experience Drivetes : analyze, produce Optimization report and some recommendation to Improve
Network Quality Presentation KPI report to telkomsel . Using TEMS Investigation. Drivetest 3G.
And NEMO Outdoor Drivetest. Telkomsel Redeployment Project in Central & West Java,
Sumatera, Bali-Nusra. New site Collocation DCS 1800.
2G RF Performance Optimization : analyze drive test result. Prepare Polygon Acceptance to customer.
Perform drive test measurement. Process collected drive test measurement data. BTS functional
test for cut over project Analyze drive test measurement data. Check antenna position and
orientation Reporting for Telkomsel
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization Concept of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network KPI of Radio Network
Work flow of RN Optimization Work flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles Parameter Adjustment Principles
RN Optimization Tools Introduction RN Optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization Common Problems of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
Radio network optimization means network performance improvement
utilizing existing network resources.
Steps in general
Data collection and verification
Data analysis
Parameter and hardware adjustment
Optimization result confirm and reporting
The purpose is increasing the utilization of network resources and
solving the existing and potential problem on the network, dentifying
solutions for future network planning.
Concept of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
Capacity
Coverage Quality
Optimize
Notes:
Three main elements
of any mobile
network is capacity,
quality and coverage.
The main goal to
achieve in network
optimization is to
create a balance
between capacity,
quality and the
coverage of the
network. This
should be done by
optimizing the usage
of available network
resources at the time.
Concept of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
Due to the mobility of subscribers and complexity of radio wave propagation,
most of network problems are caused by increasing subscribers and the
changing environments.
RN Optimization is a continuous process that is required as the network evolves
Notes :
Many factors affect the quality of network, such as uncertainty of radio wave
propagation, changes of building (e.g. newly developed downtown area, re-
planning of the streets and city blocks), traffic load varying with place and
time (e.g. stadium), increased subscriber’s requirements.
Concept of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
• In the following case, the network should be optimized
New network or expansion on existing network
The network quality decreased seriously and there are many complaints
from subscribers.
An event occurs suddenly which affects the network performance seriously.
The number of subscribers increased and affects the network performance
gradually.
Notes :
Network optimization is long-term process throughout the network development.
To satisfy the requirements of increasing mobile subscribers, the network quality
should be improved all the time.
During network optimization, network information can be collected via OMC traffic
statistics, driving test, subscriber complaints and OMC alarm information.
If the network quality have some cases such as KPI is as low as unacceptable, too
many subscribers complaints, number of subscriber increased, etc. The network
need optimization now.
Concept of RN Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
TRAFFIC
STATISTICS
DRIVE
TEST
CUSTOMER
COMPLAINTS
OPTIMIZE
× Input for Optimization
Notes :
The input for Radio
Network Optimization
can be obtain from
several sources:
Customer complaints,
Drive test and also
traffic statistics.
All these data can be
co-related to each
other to have a more
deeper understanding
on the problems that
are faced in the
network.
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network
Work Flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Odjustment Principles
RN Optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network
KPI of Radio Network
• KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS)
- Indicates overall performance of network over a period of time
- Good way to monitor network trends and anticipate future problems
- Data obtained from drive test and traffic statistics
Notes :
The KPI is a good way to measure the overall performance of the network. Several
KPI parameters will be defined in the network to enable the operator to monitor the
network performance throughout important events, upgrades etc.
KPI of Radio Network
KPI of Radio Network
BTS3
BTS4
BTS1
BTS2
Drive test Quality
Drive test Coverage
OMC/Drive test Call Setup success rate
OMC TCH Utilization
OMC Busy Hour Traffic
OMC/Drive test Handover Success Rate
Drive test Congestion Rate
OMC/Drive test Call Drop Rate
Source KPI Parameter
- Typi cal Radi o Net work KPI
Notes :
Normally the formula of
KPI are defined by
operator, and usually
different operator maybe
consider different KPI and
using different formula.
The KPI can be derived
from driving test and OMC
traffic statistics.
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network
Work Flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles
RN Optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization
Flow Chart of Network Optimization
Flow Chart of Network Optimization
Notes :
The raw date for network evaluation include Network
Statistic, Drive Test and Trouble Ticket are obtained to
determine the current network condition. Then the KPI
Targets is set based on the consideration from all the
data collected and agreed by both parties. The Action
Plan is proposed based on the studies of the network.
The Action Plan should be agreed by both parties before
the optimization is started. The Frequency, Cell
Parameters/Configuration and Hardware Changes may
proposed in the Action Plan. For Implementing the
Action Plan, the operation may include cells frequencies
changes, cell parameters retune and Cell Hardware
Reconfiguration. After all the works are done as per
Action plan, the network statistic and Drive Test is
performed again to determine the KPI achieve the
required Target. For the case where the KPI target is not
achieved as requirements, the optimization work is
repeated again until the achievement of KPI targets. The
KPI Acceptance report is prepared and signed by the
customer to indicate the optimization process is ended.
An further improvement plan may summated to
customer for future reference in order to bring the
network performance to greater heights in the future.
NO YES
Network Statistic Drive Test Trouble Ticket
KPI Target
Propose Action Plan
Frequency, Parameter, Configuration and
Hardwared Changes
Implementation Action Plan
END Achieved KPI
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network
Work Flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles
RN optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles
Parameter Adjustment Principles
IDENTIFY
PROBLEM
MONITOR
EFFECT
MAKE
CHANGES
•Parameter Adjustment Procedure
Notes:
It is important to
understand the actual
problems before
changes are proposed
and implemented. It
should be confirmed
that the identified
problem is a valid radio
network problem and
not related to hardware
faults. After any
parameter changes are
implemented, the
performance of the
corresponding cell(s)
should be monitored
for any improvement or
else need to reverted.
Parameter Adjustment Principles
Parameter Adjustment Principles
•Parameter Types
Notes:
Parameter types can be divided into 2 types,
Radio Parameters (BSS) and the site engineer
parameter (Antenna). The radio parameter
changes are done in the OMC while the site
engineering parameters will be done at the site.
Radio Parameters Engineering Parameters
Handover
Parameters
Handover
Parameters
Handover
Parameters
Antenna
Orientation
Antenna
D-tilt
Antenna
Height
Parameter Adjustment Principles
Parameter Adjustment Principles
×Adjustment of Cell Data Parameters
CAdjust the cell parameters according to the features of actual radio channel
traffic and signaling load. The parameters are for cell select,cell eselect,call
setup, handover etc, so as to improve the overall network performance and
service quality to the end user.
CAnother basic principle of radio parameter adjustment is to maximize the
current network resource, traffic sharing in the the whole network, increase the
utilization of the equipment, so as to increase the profit investment ratio.
Notes :
In GSM system, most of radio parameters are based on cells or some areas, while
parameters between areas are closed related, we should consider the negative
influence for the the adjacent areas before adjust the parameters.
Usually , if there are problems in some areas, first confirm whether there is
equipment faulty (including connection problem), second make sure the problem is
caused by the parameters, and then radio parameters can be adjusted.
Parameter Adjustment Principles
Parameter Adjustment Principles
• According to the feature of problem to be solved, there are two
types of radio parameter adjustment.
× Solve static problems: Analyze the average traffic and signaling flows of
the network and solve the network problems that existed long time
× Solve traffic overload and congestion problems during some special
period caused by special events.
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN Optimization
KPI of Radio Network
Work Flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles
RN Optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization
Driving Test Tools
Driving Test Tools
· The following are the frequently used drive test
tools:
TEMS Investigation (Sony Ericsson K800i)
GPS
Laptop
Donggle (HASP Emulator)
Inverter
Notes :
ANT and TEMS driving test tools are suggested. The test methods can be cell
selection, reselection, frequency scanning in idle mode, regular dial test and
continuous conversation test in dedicate mode. The data include Rx-level, Rx-
quality and others. In the meantime, the actual installation of antenna and
feeder system can be verified.
Driving Test Tools
Driving Test Tools
- Drive test Tool Application
× Identify specific problems in the network
× Attend to customer complaints
× Perform network benchmarking with other operators
× Collect periodic network data for reporting
× Check coverage in new areas
Notes:
The drive test tool unlike
the traffic statistics
analysis, enables the
investigation of more
specific network
optimization problems.
These problems might
not be obvious in the
traffic statistics since
they might be localized
in a specific area of a cell.
Driving Test Tools
Driving Test Tools
• Example: Drive Test Data
Notes:
The drive test tool
unlike the traffic
statistics analysis,
enables the
investigation of more
specific network
optimization
problems. These
problems might not
be obvious in the
traffic statistics since
they might be
localized in a specific
area of a cell.
OMC Traffic Statistic
OMC Traffic Statistic
× OMC
Provides flexible means to record different information from the network
Able to sample large amounts of data to give a better picture of the
network on a longer period of time
Notes:
The OMC traffic statistics tool provide the means to capture the
performance of the network 24hrs of the day.
Analysis can be done to solve gradual problems in the network.
Unlike drive test, where the data collected are only valid for the
time the drive test was conducted.
OMC Traffic Statistic
OMC Traffic Statistic
Signalling test instrument
BSC performance measurement functions
TCH statistics
Drop measure
Low HO suc rate
HO measurement
Incoming cell HO
Outgoing cell HO
List of alarm High block rate
Rx_q & Rx_l measure
Hardware Conk out
balance between UL & DL
List of alarm
High drop rate
Drop call measure
Rx_q & Rx_l measure
List of alarm
TCH statistics
List of alarm
Notes:
OMC provide advance traffic statistics monitoring functions. This provides flexibility
in terms of getting additional information for network optimization.
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Contents for Radio Network Optimization
Concept of RN optimization
KPI of Radio Network
Work Flow of RN Optimization
Parameter Adjustment Principles
RN Optimization Tools Introduction
Common Problems of RN Optimization
Common Problems of RN Optimization
Common Problems of RN Optimization
The three most important performance criteria's are coverage, capacity quality.
They mainly correspond to the following network problems:
Coverage
Congestion
Interference
Handover
TCH call drop
Dual-band network traffic distribution
Common Problem Coverage
Common Problem Coverage
Coverage
×Coverage hole
Coverage hole may exist when coverage areas of two BTS do not overlap or
there are some big obstacles in the coverage area, this lead to no signal or
very poor signal level.
×Over shooting
In the actual network, the high BTS antenna can propagate far away along a
road and serve in area which it’s not suppose to serve in; which result in the
"isolate Island" problem.
As for Signal Coverage Hole:
Improve the coverage of BTS or add new BTS, we should consider the co-channel and
adjacent-channel interference may occur after the coverage is extended. The coverage
holes in valleys and slopes can be covered by using of new BTS or repeaters, we should
consider the interference also. For tunnels, underground garage and high buildings
coverage, the repeater , leaking cable technology and micro-cell technology can be used.
For Over Shooting:
Adjust the antenna downtilt and output power of TRX. Change the azimuth of antenna
to avoid the direction of antenna facing to the road, so as to reduce the coverage radius.
Add missing adjacent cells for the cell.
Common Problem Coverage
Common Problem Coverage
• Check and Solve the Coverage Problem:
+ Power control measurement Function ( Statistics)
+ Receiving Level Measurement Function ( Statistics)
+ Cell Measurement Function ( Statistics)
+ Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function ( Statistics)
How to Make a Judgment:
In power control measurement function, the average uplink/downlink signaling
strength is too low.
In power control measurement function, whether the average distance between MS
and BTS is consistent with designed.
In power control measurement function, the maximum distance between MS and BTS
goes abnormal in many continuous periods.
In receiving level measurement function, poor signal account for a high percentage.
In cell measurement function and inter-cell handover measurement function, the
average receiving level are too low when trigger handover.
Common Problem Coverage
Common Problem Coverage
+ Check the coverage problem:
× Call Drop Measurement Function ( Statistics)
× Defined Adjacent Measurement Function (Statistics)
× Undefined Adjacent Measurement Function ( Statistics)
× Outgoing Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function ( Statistics)
× Rx Level data ( Drive test)
Notes :
In call drop measurement function, the level is too low when call drop, and the TA
value is normal before call drop. In defined adjacent cell measurement function,
the specific adjacent cell with too low average level can be found.
In undefined adjacent cell measurement function, there are many undefined
adjacent cells with too high average receiving level.
In defined adjacent cell measurement function , the average receiving level of the
defined adjacent cell is too high (over shooting). In out-going inter cell handover
measurement function, there are few handover to some certain neighbor cell
Common Problem Coverage
Common Problem Coverage
+ Coverage Problem Solution:
Adjust Radio parameters
Adjust antenna parameters
Use booster, low loss combiner and tower mount amplifier
Add new site (last resort)
Notes :
Adjust network parameters (BTS transmitting power, antenna downtilt and height,
the minimum access level of MS, adjacent relationship between cells, minimum
access level of candidate cells for handover)
Common Problem Capacity
Common Problem Capacity
Capacity
× TCH congestion
• Check TCH congestion rate: attempted TCH seizers failure for all (no radio resource
available ) on OMC traffic statistics data, or compare the busy hour traffic of each cell
with the calculated capacity in different GoS to judge the situation of traffic congestion .
× Traffic balance
• Adjust the antenna height, downtilt, and change the TX power of BTS and MS.
• Adjust parameters for cell selection, cell reselection and handover
• Enable load handover and direct retry functions.
Notes :
Approach for traffic adjustment Change the downtilt and height of the directional
antenna, adjust the cell parameters, e.g., transmitting power of the cell, change
the the coverage area, so as to implement the traffic adjustment. For the increase
of accidental traffic, the signal coverage range can be changed by adding more
carriers temporarily or increasing the transmitting power, so as to change the
signal coverage areas. Change number of cell TRX is one of the most popular
methods for traffic adjustment. 3. Check the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN value.
According to the ucell reselection test, adjust the cell reselection offset parameter
CRO; adjust the handover threshold and hysteresis, change the normal handover
threshold for traffic load sharing; enable direct retry and load handover.
4. Dual-band network traffic adjustment. Adopt layered cell structure on GSM900 and
GSM1800 systems(HCS). Settings different priority for the layers, layer handover
threshold and layer handover hysteresis, then the GSM1800 cell can successfully
absorb the traffic of the dual-band mobile phones.
Common Problem Interference
Common Problem Interference
× How to locate the interference
Interference band in TCH Measurement Function ( Statistics)
Receiving Level Measurement Function ( Statistics)
Rx_Qual ( Drive test)
Ratio of handovers for uplink/downlink quality ( Statistics)
Receiving Quality Measurement (Statistics)
Call drop measurement function ( Statistics)
Too many handover failure and reestablishment failures ( Statistics)
Interference location
1.Analysis of the rules of interference band in TCH measurement function.
Interference usually occurs when more than one idle channel appear in the interference band 3, 4 and 5. If the interference is internal, it will usually increase with
the growth of traffic. If the interference is from external, it is usually not related to traffic, but it may increase with the traffic growth if the interference is from the
close analog network.
Note that the interference band is reported to BSC by BTS via RF resource indication message for idle channel. If the current channel are all busy, the interference
can not be measured. Therefore, the measurement of interference bands should be taken into comprehensive consideration with others..
2. Receiving level measurement function .
This is a measurement task statistics for TRX. If there are high Rx-level but bad quality existing frequently, it indicates that there are co-channel and adjacent-
channel interference existed.
3. Ratio of handovers for uplink/downlink quality.
In inter-cell handover measurement function, or in outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function, the outgoing handover attempt times for various reasons
are kept in the statistics. If the handover caused by bad quality frequently, it indicates that there is possible interference. Moreover, it tells the interference status
of uplink/downlink have relationship with handover times caused by bad uplink quality and bad downlink quality.
4. Receiving quality measurement
For TRX, measure the average receiving quality rank for reference.
5. Call drop measurement function
It records the average level and quality in case of call drop. this is for reference.
6. Too many handover and reestablishment failure too.
It is most likely caused by interference in the target cell. This is for reference.
Common Problem Interference
Common Problem Interference
× Check and solve the interference problems
Check the place with interference and conversation quality by drive test.
Use spectrum analyzer to find out the interference in the frequency band.
Enable frequency hopping, DTX and power control functions.
Check and eliminate equipment problems (if any).
× Means to decrease the interference :
Increase the reuse distance between the co-frequency and adjacent frequencies.
Decrease the transmitting power of BTS.
Adjust the antenna height, azimuth, down-tilt.
Use the anti-interference technologies, such as frequency hopping, power control, DTX, and so on.
Notes :
1. Perform driving test, check the quality of interferential. Analyze the interference caused by over shooting. Avoid
interference through adjusting the downtilt of antenna , transmitting power, relationship between adjacent cells,
handover parameters, or by adjusting the frequency planning.
2. Analyze with a spectrum analyzer, locate the interferential frequency, and find out the interference’s source.
3. Frequency hopping, DTX and power control can decrease the interference within GSM system..
4. Resolve equipment problems (e.g. TRX, tower mount amplifier, filter)
Common Problem Handover
Common Problem Handover
× Common handover problems:
Handover failure and handover delay lead to bad quality or call drop.
Frequent handover decreases the conversation quality and increases system
signaling load.
Unreasonable proportion of outgoing inter-cell handover to incoming inter-
cell handover results in imbalanced traffic.
Notes :
When we perform continuous conversation driving test, such problems as handover failure,
handover delay or frequently handover can be captured. Through traffic statistic, cell
handover success rate and the ratio of outgoing and incoming also handover can be found.
Common Problem Handover
Common Problem Handover
× Check and Solve Handover Problems:
Check the handover parameters (OMC)
Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics)
Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function (Statistics)
Outgoing Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics)
Incoming Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics)
TCH Measurement Function (Statistics)
How to Make a Judgement:
Check the handover parameters: threshold, hysteresis, period and etc.
Inter-cell handover measurement function: too many handover failure and reestablishment failures too.
Inter cell handover measurement function: too many handover failures, and many reestablishment
successes as well.
Undefined adjacent cell measurement function : the number of reports of undefined adjacent cell level
goes beyond the threshold.
Outgoing inter cell handover measurement function : When successful rate of outgoing handover is
low (for some specific cell), and then find out the successful rate of which target adjacent cell is low,
further search the target cell for cause.
When the successful rate of incoming handover is low, the parameters setting in the original cell are
improper.
TCH measurement function : handover times is out of proportion to TCH seizure for call successful
times. (handover/call>3).
Common Problem Handover
Common Problem Handover
• Causes of abnormal handover and solutions:
The outgoing inter cell handover threshold is too low.
The adjacent cells is congested.
There are undefined adjacent cells relationship.
The handover hysteresis and handover priority are not reasonable.
The handover statistics times N and P are not set reasonable.
In HCS network coexisting with other vendor’s cells, the external cell’s
parameters (such as LAC, CI and BCCH) must be corrected.
Common Problem Call Drop
Common Problem Call Drop
+ TCH call drop
During the GSM network operation, call drop is the main reason the subscribers
complain. It usually refers to the call dropped after TCH channel seized or
conversation connected, which can be located via traffic statistics or drive test.
There are many call drop causes. Such as poor signal strength, interference and
improper parameters.
There are two important counters related call drop, radio link timeout (RLT
downlink) and SACCH multi-frame number (uplink) sent in system information.
These two counters should be set properly according to the traffic and coverage.
The causes for radio link failure include:
1.When the MS is in the coverage hole, call drop will be resulted from poor signal.
2.Internal or external interference of uplink leads to SACCH frame decoding failure, this can cause call drop too.
3.When the MS move to the border of the coverage area, BSC will judge whether need handover or not. But because the adjacent
cell congestion or adjacent cell had not been defined in the BSC data, no handover can be performed, MS will call drop in this case.
4.Call drop after handover in case of unbalance between uplink and downlink: MS is in serving CELL1. Uplink/downlink unbalance
exists in the adjacent cell CELL2 (suppose CELL2 downlink signal strength is enough before handover, but the uplink is poor after
handover). This can lead to call drop after handover because of poor uplink signal.
5.Some other call drops are caused by Abis interface failure, A interface failure.
Common Problem Call Drop
Common Problem Call Drop
× Optimization for Dual-Band Network
· Take the following special approaches when optimize the dual-band network,
most of the approaches are same as single-band network optimization:
- When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network belong to a same LAC the
features of two network are basically same. Parameters such as CRO can be
set flexibly according to the traffic, thus can balance the traffic and avoid cell
congestion.
- When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network has there own location area code,
CRH and CRO should be set properly to avoid frequent location update.
- Adjust layer thresholds to balance traffic between GSM 900 and GSM 1800
Notes:
We should pay more attention to the inter-band handovers. Properly set the handover threshold, and
avoid frequent location update caused by inter-band handovers. When there are not many dual-band
MS on the network, M1800 construction are expected to absorb traffic effectively, so the parameters
should be set as conducive for GSM 900 handover to GSM 1800. When the dual-band mobile phones on
the network are balanced relatively with the actual traffic, we should avoid inter-band handovers to
decrease the signaling load of the system.
When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M cells are different BSC but same LAC, we should consider some timer
such as T3212, It will cause some problem for MTC when T3212 values in cells are different.
Dedicate mode
Idle mode
Calling mode
Cell select
Direct retry
Hand over
Cell reselect
Common Problem Dual Band Network
Common Problem Dual Band Network
• Dual band net work opt imizat ion el ement s
We should pay more attention to the
inter-band handovers. Properly set
the handover threshold, and avoid
frequent location update caused by
inter-band handovers. When there are
not many dual-band MS on the
network, M1800 construction are
expected to absorb traffic effectively,
so the parameters should be set as
conducive for GSM 900 handover to
GSM 1800. When the dual-band
mobile phones on the network are
balanced relatively with the actual
traffic, we should avoid inter-band
handovers to decrease the signaling
load of the system.
When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M
cells are different BSC but same LAC,
we should consider some timer such
as T3212, It will cause some problem
for MTC when T3212 values in cells are
different.
Thank you
For your k i nd at t ent i on
Thank you
Thank you
For your k i nd at t ent i on
For your k i nd at t ent i on
-Kompleks RNI Jl. Anyer IX No. 1 Menteng
Jakarta 10320 Indonesia
W621. 392.0393 .621. 230.5236
¯www.dwierasetunggal.com ¯support@dwierasetunggal.com

Company Profile
Background : We are establish with experiences professional resources in parts to develop operator communication system in quantity and quality network as an answer for rapidly growth telecommunication technology with our services. With full commitment, expertise and experiences starting in Survey and Design Engineering, ITC (Installation, Testing & Commissioning), Radio Network Optimization & Drivetest, and Supervising CME. Scope : Consultant and Supervision for BTS pre Installation, Installation, Commissioning and Integration.GSM, CDMA and WCDMA RF Measurement and Optimization. Experience Drivetes : analyze, produce Optimization report and some recommendation to Improve Network Quality Presentation KPI report to telkomsel . Using TEMS Investigation. Drivetest 3G. And NEMO Outdoor Drivetest. Telkomsel Redeployment Project in Central & West Java, Sumatera, Bali-Nusra. New site Collocation DCS 1800. 2G RF Performance Optimization : analyze drive test result. Prepare Polygon Acceptance to customer. Perform drive test measurement. Process collected drive test measurement data. BTS functional test for cut over project Analyze drive test measurement data. Check antenna position and orientation Reporting for Telkomsel

Contents for Radio Network Optimization

Concept of RN Optimization KPI of Radio Network Work flow of RN Optimization Parameter Adjustment Principles RN Optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization

Concept of RN Optimization

Radio network optimization means network performance improvement utilizing existing network resources. Steps in general Data collection and verification Data analysis Parameter and hardware adjustment Optimization result confirm and reporting The purpose is increasing the utilization of network resources and solving the existing and potential problem on the network, dentifying solutions for future network planning.

Concept of RN Optimization Capacity Notes: Quality Coverage Optimize Three main elements of any mobile network is capacity. quality and the coverage of the network. The main goal to achieve in network optimization is to create a balance between capacity. This should be done by optimizing the usage of available network resources at the time. quality and coverage. .

traffic load varying with place and time (e.Concept of RN Optimization Due to the mobility of subscribers and complexity of radio wave propagation. replanning of the streets and city blocks). newly developed downtown area. changes of building (e. increased subscriber’s requirements. stadium). such as uncertainty of radio wave propagation.g. most of network problems are caused by increasing subscribers and the changing environments.g. RN Optimization is a continuous process that is required as the network evolves Notes : Many factors affect the quality of network. .

too many subscribers complaints. etc. An event occurs suddenly which affects the network performance seriously. the network quality should be improved all the time. The network need optimization now. If the network quality have some cases such as KPI is as low as unacceptable. driving test. number of subscriber increased. Notes : Network optimization is long-term process throughout the network development. To satisfy the requirements of increasing mobile subscribers. the network should be optimized New network or expansion on existing network The network quality decreased seriously and there are many complaints from subscribers. . The number of subscribers increased and affects the network performance gradually.Concept of RN Optimization • In the following case. subscriber complaints and OMC alarm information. During network optimization. network information can be collected via OMC traffic statistics.

OPTIMIZE TRAFFIC STATISTICS DRIVE TEST . Drive test and also traffic statistics.Concept of RN Optimization Input for Optimization Notes : CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS The input for Radio Network Optimization can be obtain from several sources: Customer complaints. All these data can be co-related to each other to have a more deeper understanding on the problems that are faced in the network.

Contents for Radio Network Optimization Concept of RN Optimization KPI of Radio Network Work Flow of RN Optimization Parameter Odjustment Principles RN Optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization .

KPI of Radio Network • KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS) Indicates overall performance of network over a period of time Good way to monitor network trends and anticipate future problems Data obtained from drive test and traffic statistics Notes : The KPI is a good way to measure the overall performance of the network. Several KPI parameters will be defined in the network to enable the operator to monitor the network performance throughout important events. upgrades etc. .

KPI of Radio Network Typical Radio Network KPI KPI Parameter Call Drop Rate Congestion Rate Handover Success Rate Busy Hour Traffic TCH Utilization Call Setup success rate Coverage Quality Source OMC/Drive test Drive test OMC/Drive test OMC OMC OMC/Drive test Drive test Drive test BTS1 BTS3 BTS2 Notes : Normally the formula of KPI are defined by operator. The KPI can be derived from driving test and OMC traffic statistics. and usually different operator maybe consider different KPI and using different formula. BTS4 .

Contents for Radio Network Optimization Concept of RN Optimization KPI of Radio Network Work Flow of RN Optimization Parameter Adjustment Principles RN Optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization .

Parameter. Cell Parameters/Configuration and Hardware Changes may proposed in the Action Plan. The Action Plan should be agreed by both parties before the optimization is started. For the case where the KPI target is not achieved as requirements. After all the works are done as per Action plan. the operation may include cells frequencies changes.Flow Chart of Network Optimization Notes : Network Statistic Drive Test Trouble Ticket KPI Target Propose Action Plan Frequency. cell parameters retune and Cell Hardware Reconfiguration. The Action Plan is proposed based on the studies of the network. An further improvement plan may summated to customer for future reference in order to bring the network performance to greater heights in the future. the optimization work is repeated again until the achievement of KPI targets. The Frequency. the network statistic and Drive Test is performed again to determine the KPI achieve the required Target. The KPI Acceptance report is prepared and signed by the customer to indicate the optimization process is ended. . For Implementing the Action Plan. Then the KPI Targets is set based on the consideration from all the data collected and agreed by both parties. Configuration and Hardwared Changes Implementation Action Plan NO Achieved KPI YES END The raw date for network evaluation include Network Statistic. Drive Test and Trouble Ticket are obtained to determine the current network condition.

Contents for Radio Network Optimization Concept of RN Optimization KPI of Radio Network Work Flow of RN Optimization Parameter Adjustment Principles RN optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization .

the performance of the corresponding cell(s) should be monitored for any improvement or else need to reverted. MONITOR EFFECT IDENTIFY PROBLEM MAKE CHANGES . After any parameter changes are implemented.Parameter Adjustment Principles •Parameter Adjustment Procedure Notes: It is important to understand the actual problems before changes are proposed and implemented. It should be confirmed that the identified problem is a valid radio network problem and not related to hardware faults.

Parameter Adjustment Principles •Parameter Types Radio Parameters Engineering Parameters Handover Parameters Handover Parameters Handover Parameters Antenna Height Antenna D-tilt Antenna Orientation Notes: Parameter types can be divided into 2 types. Radio Parameters (BSS) and the site engineer parameter (Antenna). The radio parameter changes are done in the OMC while the site engineering parameters will be done at the site. .

while parameters between areas are closed related. Notes : In GSM system. most of radio parameters are based on cells or some areas. traffic sharing in the the whole network. increase the utilization of the equipment. so as to increase the profit investment ratio. first confirm whether there is equipment faulty (including connection problem).Parameter Adjustment Principles Adjustment of Cell Data Parameters Adjust the cell parameters according to the features of actual radio channel traffic and signaling load. we should consider the negative influence for the the adjacent areas before adjust the parameters. so as to improve the overall network performance and service quality to the end user.cell eselect. Another basic principle of radio parameter adjustment is to maximize the current network resource. handover etc.call setup. if there are problems in some areas. The parameters are for cell select. and then radio parameters can be adjusted. Usually . . second make sure the problem is caused by the parameters.

there are two types of radio parameter adjustment. . Solve static problems: Analyze the average traffic and signaling flows of the network and solve the network problems that existed long time Solve traffic overload and congestion problems during some special period caused by special events.Parameter Adjustment Principles • According to the feature of problem to be solved.

Contents for Radio Network Optimization Concept of RN Optimization KPI of Radio Network Work Flow of RN Optimization Parameter Adjustment Principles RN Optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization .

.Driving Test Tools The following are the frequently used drive test tools: TEMS Investigation (Sony Ericsson K800i) GPS Laptop Donggle (HASP Emulator) Inverter Notes : ANT and TEMS driving test tools are suggested. reselection. Rxquality and others. regular dial test and continuous conversation test in dedicate mode. frequency scanning in idle mode. In the meantime. the actual installation of antenna and feeder system can be verified. The data include Rx-level. The test methods can be cell selection.

enables the investigation of more specific network optimization problems.Driving Test Tools Drive test Tool Application Identify specific problems in the network Attend to customer complaints Perform network benchmarking with other operators Collect periodic network data for reporting Check coverage in new areas Notes: The drive test tool unlike the traffic statistics analysis. These problems might not be obvious in the traffic statistics since they might be localized in a specific area of a cell. .

enables the investigation of more specific network optimization problems.Driving Test Tools • Example: Drive Test Data Notes: The drive test tool unlike the traffic statistics analysis. These problems might not be obvious in the traffic statistics since they might be localized in a specific area of a cell. .

Analysis can be done to solve gradual problems in the network. . where the data collected are only valid for the time the drive test was conducted. Unlike drive test.OMC Traffic Statistic OMC Provides flexible means to record different information from the network Able to sample large amounts of data to give a better picture of the network on a longer period of time Notes: The OMC traffic statistics tool provide the means to capture the performance of the network 24hrs of the day.

This provides flexibility in terms of getting additional information for network optimization.OMC Traffic Statistic BSC performance measurement functions High drop rate List of alarm High block rate TCH statistics Rx_q & Rx_l measure Drop call measure Low HO suc rate List of alarm Drop measure List of alarm List of alarm Hardware Conk out HO measurement TCH statistics Incoming cell HO Rx_q & Rx_l measure balance between UL & DL Outgoing cell HO Signalling test instrument Notes: OMC provide advance traffic statistics monitoring functions. .

Contents for Radio Network Optimization Concept of RN optimization KPI of Radio Network Work Flow of RN Optimization Parameter Adjustment Principles RN Optimization Tools Introduction Common Problems of RN Optimization .

Common Problems of RN Optimization The three most important performance criteria's are coverage. capacity quality. They mainly correspond to the following network problems: Coverage Congestion Interference Handover TCH call drop Dual-band network traffic distribution .

the repeater . leaking cable technology and micro-cell technology can be used. For Over Shooting: Adjust the antenna downtilt and output power of TRX. As for Signal Coverage Hole: Improve the coverage of BTS or add new BTS. underground garage and high buildings coverage. Change the azimuth of antenna to avoid the direction of antenna facing to the road. this lead to no signal or very poor signal level. which result in the "isolate Island" problem. The coverage holes in valleys and slopes can be covered by using of new BTS or repeaters. .Common Problem Coverage Coverage Coverage hole Coverage hole may exist when coverage areas of two BTS do not overlap or there are some big obstacles in the coverage area. For tunnels. we should consider the interference also. Add missing adjacent cells for the cell. so as to reduce the coverage radius. Over shooting In the actual network. the high BTS antenna can propagate far away along a road and serve in area which it’s not suppose to serve in. we should consider the co-channel and adjacent-channel interference may occur after the coverage is extended.

Common Problem Coverage • Check and Solve the Coverage Problem: Power control measurement Function ( Statistics) Receiving Level Measurement Function ( Statistics) Cell Measurement Function ( Statistics) Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function ( Statistics) How to Make a Judgment: In power control measurement function. In cell measurement function and inter-cell handover measurement function. In power control measurement function. whether the average distance between MS and BTS is consistent with designed. In power control measurement function. the average receiving level are too low when trigger handover. the average uplink/downlink signaling strength is too low. In receiving level measurement function. the maximum distance between MS and BTS goes abnormal in many continuous periods. . poor signal account for a high percentage.

In out-going inter cell handover measurement function. and the TA value is normal before call drop. the specific adjacent cell with too low average level can be found. there are few handover to some certain neighbor cell . In defined adjacent cell measurement function . In undefined adjacent cell measurement function. the average receiving level of the defined adjacent cell is too high (over shooting). In defined adjacent cell measurement function.Common Problem Coverage Check the coverage problem: Call Drop Measurement Function ( Statistics) Defined Adjacent Measurement Function (Statistics) Undefined Adjacent Measurement Function ( Statistics) Outgoing Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function ( Statistics) Rx Level data ( Drive test) Notes : In call drop measurement function. there are many undefined adjacent cells with too high average receiving level. the level is too low when call drop.

adjacent relationship between cells. antenna downtilt and height. the minimum access level of MS. low loss combiner and tower mount amplifier Add new site (last resort) Notes : Adjust network parameters (BTS transmitting power. minimum access level of candidate cells for handover) .Common Problem Coverage Coverage Problem Solution: Adjust Radio parameters Adjust antenna parameters Use booster.

the signal coverage range can be changed by adding more carriers temporarily or increasing the transmitting power. Change number of cell TRX is one of the most popular methods for traffic adjustment. . or compare the busy hour traffic of each cell with the calculated capacity in different GoS to judge the situation of traffic congestion .. downtilt. • Adjust parameters for cell selection. adjust the cell reselection offset parameter CRO. e. layer handover threshold and layer handover hysteresis.Common Problem Capacity Capacity TCH congestion • Check TCH congestion rate: attempted TCH seizers failure for all (no radio resource available ) on OMC traffic statistics data. Dual-band network traffic adjustment. change the normal handover threshold for traffic load sharing. so as to implement the traffic adjustment. For the increase of accidental traffic. 4. Check the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN value. Traffic balance • Adjust the antenna height. 3. Adopt layered cell structure on GSM900 and GSM1800 systems(HCS). then the GSM1800 cell can successfully absorb the traffic of the dual-band mobile phones. According to the ucell reselection test. transmitting power of the cell. and change the TX power of BTS and MS. enable direct retry and load handover. adjust the cell parameters. adjust the handover threshold and hysteresis. cell reselection and handover • Enable load handover and direct retry functions. Notes : Approach for traffic adjustment Change the downtilt and height of the directional antenna. so as to change the signal coverage areas.g. Settings different priority for the layers. change the the coverage area.

In inter-cell handover measurement function. If the current channel are all busy. If the handover caused by bad quality frequently. . Interference usually occurs when more than one idle channel appear in the interference band 3. It is most likely caused by interference in the target cell.Common Problem Interference How to locate the interference Interference band in TCH Measurement Function ( Statistics) Receiving Level Measurement Function ( Statistics) Rx_Qual ( Drive test) Ratio of handovers for uplink/downlink quality ( Statistics) Receiving Quality Measurement (Statistics) Call drop measurement function ( Statistics) Too many handover failure and reestablishment failures ( Statistics) Interference location 1. 4. This is for reference. it will usually increase with the growth of traffic.. Ratio of handovers for uplink/downlink quality. this is for reference. Call drop measurement function It records the average level and quality in case of call drop. If the interference is from external. it is usually not related to traffic. it tells the interference status of uplink/downlink have relationship with handover times caused by bad uplink quality and bad downlink quality. measure the average receiving quality rank for reference. 4 and 5. the interference can not be measured. This is a measurement task statistics for TRX. 2. 6. it indicates that there is possible interference. or in outgoing inter-cell handover measurement function.Analysis of the rules of interference band in TCH measurement function. the outgoing handover attempt times for various reasons are kept in the statistics. Receiving quality measurement For TRX. Moreover. Too many handover and reestablishment failure too. If the interference is internal. 5. it indicates that there are co-channel and adjacentchannel interference existed. the measurement of interference bands should be taken into comprehensive consideration with others. Therefore. but it may increase with the traffic growth if the interference is from the close analog network. Note that the interference band is reported to BSC by BTS via RF resource indication message for idle channel. Receiving level measurement function . If there are high Rx-level but bad quality existing frequently. 3.

transmitting power. azimuth. such as frequency hopping. TRX. Analyze with a spectrum analyzer. filter) . Decrease the transmitting power of BTS. handover parameters. DTX and power control can decrease the interference within GSM system. Notes : 1.Common Problem Interference Check and solve the interference problems Check the place with interference and conversation quality by drive test. Check and eliminate equipment problems (if any). locate the interferential frequency. DTX. Means to decrease the interference : Increase the reuse distance between the co-frequency and adjacent frequencies. power control. Adjust the antenna height.g. relationship between adjacent cells. Enable frequency hopping. Perform driving test. or by adjusting the frequency planning. Avoid interference through adjusting the downtilt of antenna .. 4. 3. Use spectrum analyzer to find out the interference in the frequency band. 2. down-tilt. DTX and power control functions. and find out the interference’s source. Analyze the interference caused by over shooting. Resolve equipment problems (e. tower mount amplifier. Frequency hopping. check the quality of interferential. and so on. Use the anti-interference technologies.

such problems as handover failure. Through traffic statistic.Common Problem Handover Common handover problems: Handover failure and handover delay lead to bad quality or call drop. Unreasonable proportion of outgoing inter-cell handover to incoming intercell handover results in imbalanced traffic. . cell handover success rate and the ratio of outgoing and incoming also handover can be found. Notes : When we perform continuous conversation driving test. handover delay or frequently handover can be captured. Frequent handover decreases the conversation quality and increases system signaling load.

period and etc. Inter-cell handover measurement function: too many handover failure and reestablishment failures too. (handover/call>3). and then find out the successful rate of which target adjacent cell is low. Outgoing inter cell handover measurement function : When successful rate of outgoing handover is low (for some specific cell). . and many reestablishment successes as well.Common Problem Handover Check and Solve Handover Problems: Check the handover parameters (OMC) Inter-cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics) Undefined Adjacent Cell Measurement Function (Statistics) Outgoing Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics) Incoming Inter Cell Handover Measurement Function (Statistics) TCH Measurement Function (Statistics) How to Make a Judgement: Check the handover parameters: threshold. Inter cell handover measurement function: too many handover failures. When the successful rate of incoming handover is low. further search the target cell for cause. the parameters setting in the original cell are improper. TCH measurement function : handover times is out of proportion to TCH seizure for call successful times. hysteresis. Undefined adjacent cell measurement function : the number of reports of undefined adjacent cell level goes beyond the threshold.

The handover hysteresis and handover priority are not reasonable. The handover statistics times N and P are not set reasonable. There are undefined adjacent cells relationship. The adjacent cells is congested. In HCS network coexisting with other vendor’s cells. CI and BCCH) must be corrected. the external cell’s parameters (such as LAC.Common Problem Handover • Causes of abnormal handover and solutions: The outgoing inter cell handover threshold is too low. .

BSC will judge whether need handover or not. Such as poor signal strength. 4. which can be located via traffic statistics or drive test. call drop will be resulted from poor signal. These two counters should be set properly according to the traffic and coverage. The causes for radio link failure include: 1. radio link timeout (RLT downlink) and SACCH multi-frame number (uplink) sent in system information.When the MS move to the border of the coverage area. It usually refers to the call dropped after TCH channel seized or conversation connected. A interface failure.Call drop after handover in case of unbalance between uplink and downlink: MS is in serving CELL1. This can lead to call drop after handover because of poor uplink signal. MS will call drop in this case. Uplink/downlink unbalance exists in the adjacent cell CELL2 (suppose CELL2 downlink signal strength is enough before handover. this can cause call drop too. but the uplink is poor after handover). 2. no handover can be performed.Common Problem Call Drop TCH call drop During the GSM network operation. interference and improper parameters.Internal or external interference of uplink leads to SACCH frame decoding failure. There are many call drop causes.Some other call drops are caused by Abis interface failure. call drop is the main reason the subscribers complain. 5.When the MS is in the coverage hole. But because the adjacent cell congestion or adjacent cell had not been defined in the BSC data. There are two important counters related call drop. . 3.

. CRH and CRO should be set properly to avoid frequent location update. we should avoid inter-band handovers to decrease the signaling load of the system. Adjust layer thresholds to balance traffic between GSM 900 and GSM 1800 Notes: We should pay more attention to the inter-band handovers. and avoid frequent location update caused by inter-band handovers. It will cause some problem for MTC when T3212 values in cells are different. When there are not many dual-band MS on the network. When the dual-band mobile phones on the network are balanced relatively with the actual traffic. When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M cells are different BSC but same LAC. M1800 construction are expected to absorb traffic effectively. When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network has there own location area code.Common Problem Call Drop Optimization for Dual-Band Network Take the following special approaches when optimize the dual-band network. thus can balance the traffic and avoid cell congestion. Parameters such as CRO can be set flexibly according to the traffic. most of the approaches are same as single-band network optimization: When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M network belong to a same LAC the features of two network are basically same. we should consider some timer such as T3212. so the parameters should be set as conducive for GSM 900 handover to GSM 1800. Properly set the handover threshold.

Common Problem Dual Band Network • Dual band network optimization elements Cell select Direct retry We should pay more attention to the inter-band handovers. Properly set the handover threshold. When there are not many dual-band MS on the network. Idle mode Calling mode Hand over Cell reselect Dedicate mode . and avoid frequent location update caused by inter-band handovers. When GSM 900M and GSM 1800M cells are different BSC but same LAC. we should consider some timer such as T3212. It will cause some problem for MTC when T3212 values in cells are different. When the dual-band mobile phones on the network are balanced relatively with the actual traffic. so the parameters should be set as conducive for GSM 900 handover to GSM 1800. M1800 construction are expected to absorb traffic effectively. we should avoid inter-band handovers to decrease the signaling load of the system.

com . Anyer IX No.com 621. 1 Menteng Jakarta 10320 Indonesia 621.dwierasetunggal.5236 support@dwierasetunggal.0393 www. 230.Thank you For your kind attention Kompleks RNI Jl. 392.

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