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• Sources of energy
The historical as well as present day civilisation of mankind are closely interwoven with energy and there is little reason to doubt but that in the future our existence will be ever more dependent upon this thing called energy. This is also proven with the consumption of energy country likewise one person of United nation of America (USA) consumes five time more energy than one person of India. There are many sources of energy available and can be categorised as:
SOURCES OF ENERGY
CONVENTIONAL ENRGY SOURCES (FUELS)
NON-CONVENTIONAL ENRGY SOURCES
SOLID- Coal, coke, coke anthracite etc. LIQUIDS- Petroleum and its derivatives GASES- Natural gas, Blast furnace gas etc.
Solar energy. Nuclear energy. Energy stored in water. Wind energy. Tidal energy. Geothermal energy. Thermoelectric power.
Fig: sources of energy
The sun in effect is a continuous fusion reactor with its constituent gases as the “containing vessel” retained by gravitational forces. the mass of the helium nucleus is less then that of four protons. plant o grow. For developing countries like India. the one to be considered the most important is the process in which four hydrogen atoms combine to form a one helium atom. water to be lifted from oceans to return through rivers. Solar air heating 3. some mass having been lost in reaction and converted to energy. the gap between supply and demand of energy is ever increasing. In spite of significant harnessing of the fossil fuel reserves and hydel power. about 1.5*10^11m away from the earth. the sun rotates on its axis once about every four weeks. Solar water distillation 5.So it is clear that the conventional energy sources are limited and they produces the energy on burning of them which is not desirable because of several hazards. waves on water bodies to be formed and temperature to between surface and bottom layers of oceans. Solar passive and active heating of buildings . All can work as the renewable energy source. Solar cooking 6. it is necessary to be focus on the non-conventional energy sources. but it is also discussed that for the growth of mankind energy is important so. Solar energy can be used both directly and indirectly. Sun causes the wind to blow. The various solar energy applications are as follows: 1. Several fusion reactions have been suggested as the source of energy radiated by the sun. One of the possible options o bridge this gap is by making the extensive use of solar energy. Solar crop and timber drying 4. • Sun as the source of energy The sun is a sphere of intensely hot gaseous matter with a diameter of 1. providing energy to its citizens in an efficient and cost effective manner is a highly challenging task. Since the energy getting from the sun is totally free of cost so the utilisation of solar energy is very beneficial hence there have been significant development in the field of solar energy science and technology is taken great interest in the recent years and continuous in these days also.39*10^9m and is. Solar water heating 2.
to about 900 GW. bulk imports of fuel or energy are neither affordable nor strategically prudent. To meet energy demand solar power can play an important role. mostly using low grade coal of which it has about 5% of the world reserves. For a large country like India. India has. the domestic generation capacity needs to be increased at least tenfold. . however a share of 16% in the world's population. this level of increased generation capacity cannot be sustained for more than a few decades. Solar electricity generation by solar cell etc. INDIAN ENERGY SCENARIO India is a country occupying 2% of the world's land mass and currently generating about 2% of the global electricity. To achieve a modestly high level of economic growth. Solar refrigeration and air conditioning 8. hydroelectric and non-conventional resources. Solar power generation 9. Even with full utilisation of all existing commercially exploitable domestic hydrocarbon.7.
2005 Installed Capacity Coal Diesel Gas Total Solar and Renewable Energy Nuclear Hydro Grand Total 2770 30936 118419 Million Watts 67791 1201 11910 80902 3811 SOLAR POWER IN INDIA .Power Generation in India As on March 31.
This is far more than current total energy consumption. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 2.100 gigawatts. so one of the first applications of solar power has been for water pumping.300–3. Installed capacity The amount of solar energy produced in India is merely 0.5 kilowatts. it will still be thousand times greater than the likely electricity demand in India by the year 2015.5% compared to other energy resources. For example. each consuming about 3. and a 35.200 sunshine hours per year. depending upon location. just on its land area. India's theoretical solar power reception. The Grid-interactive solar power as of June 2007 was merely . • Present Status 1. even assuming 10% conversion efficiency for PV modules. Much of the country does not have an electric grid. and off-grid lighting. providing an ideal combination for solar power in India. = 5000 trillion kWh/yr ~ 600 TW).e. is about 5 Ph/year (i. sufficient to generate 700 to 2.India is both densely populated and has high solar insolation. to begin replacing India's four to five million diesel powered water pumps. Some large projects have been proposed. Annual insolation With about 301 clear sunny days in a year.000 km² area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects.
However the Indian government support is insignificant compared to the support solar energy receives by governments in Europe and East Asia. The cost of production ranges from Rs 15 to Rs 30 per unit compared to around Rs 2 to Rs 6 per unit for conventional thermal energy. excise duty exemption on certain devices/systems etc. Solar Funds and Investments With high deployment price as the main hurdle before a solar market. and their sponsored Grameen Banks.2. India is heavily dependent on coal and foreign oil — a phenomenon likely to continue until non-fossil / renewable energy technology become economically viable in the country. An Expert Committee constituted by the Planning Commission has prepared an Integrated Energy Policy which envisions a 10 million square meter solar collector area. One of the most successful example is the solar loan programme in India. Government-funded solar energy in India only accounted for approximately 6.4 megawatt-years of power as of 2005. 3.e. and capable of conserving electricity equivalent to that generated from a 500 MW power plant. to be set up by 2022. various organisations have developed innovative funding schemes to catalyse solar's attractiveness. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) provides revolving fund to financing and leasing companies offering affordable credit for the purchase of PV systems.6 million effort. sponsored by UNEP in partnership with two of India's major banking groups Canara Bank and Syndicate Bank. attaining cost parity with fossil or nuclear energy. soft loan. To spawn a thriving solar market. 4. Government policy The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) have initiated schemes and incentives — like subsidy.12 MW. 2. concessional duty on raw material imports. launched in April 2003 to help accelerate the market for . Still unaffordable Solar power is currently prohibitive due to high initial costs of deployment. The state of West Bengal has initiated to make the use of solar power mandatory in new multi-storied buildings. It was a fouryear $7. the technology needs to be competitively cheaper — i. — to boost the production and use of solar energy systems.
The Rajashtan government.) 5. Rural electrification Lack of electricity infrastructure is one of the main hurdles in the development of rural India.financing solar home systems in southern India.S. (Examples include Signet Solar.000 unelectrified . however. has set aside a 35. 6. Foreign Direct Investment up to 100 percent is permitted in non-conventional energy sector through the automatic route. Two other projects were proposed. U. with major sections of its populace still surviving off-grid. specifically India and China. AP. as part of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP). 7. Certain programmes are designed to target for rural solar usage development. As of 2004 there are about 80.2 million to train nextgeneration solar energy engineers from Asia-Pacific nations. India's grid system is considerably under-developed. Moser-Baer signed up for a thin film Si plant provided by Applied Materials. Thar desert In 1996 Amoco/Enron Solar Power Development planned to build a 50 MW solar photovoltaic plant in the Thar desert near Jaisalmer in Rajasthan state. one a 50 MW photovoltaics plant and the other a 200 MW solar chimney. the funding from MDBs on solar energy enhancement is negligible compare to other clean energy support in India. etc. SunTechnics Energy.000 km² area of the Thar desert for solar power. Applications 1.-based Cypress Semiconductor. The Multilateral Development Banks like World Bank and Asian Development Bank are also helping India but. Solar engineering training The Australian government has awarded UNSW A$5. PV manufacture in India Current PV manufacturing in India includes: • • • BP-Tata joint venture. Solar Semiconductor Pvt in Hyderabad. Investment by private companies is a trend that has just started. None of these have been completed.
A target for electrifying 5. 2. is the cost of energy expended on temperature control — a factor squarely influencing regional energy intensity.villages in the country. Agricultural support A. The amount of land required for utility-scale solar power plants — currently approximately 1 km² for every 20–60 megawatts (MW) generated — could . With cooling load demands being roughly in phase with the sun's intensity. Challenges and Constraints 1. and lossy. long-distance centralised power delivery systems and yet bring cheap electricity to the masses.000 such villages was fixed for the Tenth National Five Year Plan (2002–2007). or at least relieving the need of installing expensive. Of these villages. Cooling Another e.000 liters of water/day from a total head of 10 meters. 2006. a total of 7. Land scarcity Per capita land availabiity is a scarce resource in India.000 watt motor that are powered with 1.700 villages and hamlets had been electrified mainly using SPV systems. cooling from intense solar radiation could be an attractive energy-economic option in the subcontinent.000 could not be electrified through extension of the conventional grid. B. As on 2004. That could allow bypassing. 3. Water pumping Solar PV water pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water. By 30 September. Harvest processing Solar driers are used to dry harvests before storage.g. Dedication of land area for exclusive installation of solar cells might have to compete with other necessities that require land. more than 2.800 Wp PV array which can deliver about 140.068 solar PV water pumping systems have been installed. Developments on cheap solar technology is considered as a potential alternative that allows an electricity infrastructure comprising of a network of local-grid clusters with distributed electricity generation. 18. The majority of the pumps are fitted with a 200–3.
Due to global warming and rising CO2 levels. But considering India’s geographic location and climatic conditions. The architecture more suitable for most of India would be a highly distributed.000 MW. Globally. as seen during the past few years. However. there is a commercial opportunity which can be exploited.pose a strain on India's available land resource. India has fallen short to achieve the worldwide momentum. India is now in 7th place worldwide in Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cell production and 9th place in Solar Thermal Systems with nations like Japan. Europe. average temperature in India is set to increase by 4 degrees by 2050. all connected via a local grid. and the US currently ranked far ahead. That might be possible in the future. erecting such an infrastructure — which doesn't enjoy the economies of scale possible in mass utility-scale solar panel deployment — needs the market price of solar technology deployment to substantially decline so that it attracts the individual and average family size household consumer. this is a huge market waiting to be tapped. India is currently ranked 7th in the world in Solar PV cell production. individual rooftop power generation systems. Given Government’s recent policy announcement which gives thrust to green and renewable energy. Some of the incentives given by . India receives bright sunlight almost throughout the year especially in West and Central parts of the country. 2. Slow progress While the world has progressed substantially in production of basic silicon monocrystalline photovoltaic cells. solar is the fastest growing source of energy (though from a very small base) with an annual average growth of 35%. since PV is projected to continue its current cost reductions for the next decades and be able to compete with fossil fuel. China. WAY FORWARD FOR SOLAR ENERGY PLAYERS IN INDIA Market Analysis & Opportunities: India had an installed solar power capacity of 1700 MW in 2007 which amounted to roughly 1% of its total power generation of 130.
At present the main players are • Tata BP Solar • Moser Baer • Central Electronics Ltd. Improvement in PV technology. Dow Chemicals and surprisingly even Google. Soaring oil prices. INDIA . has led to the use of renewable energy sources to secure energy. the world's second-most populous country. Till now. which is touching efficiencies of 30%.A LONG RACE IN SOLAR POWER India. but still it is a step in the right direction. depending upon the location. solar energy offers the most practicable solution to overcoming growing energy demand. Given that this is a tropical country rich in sunlight.the government are: • Subsidy of Rs 12/unit on medium scale operations (1-5 MW capacity) • 100% depreciation of equipments used in 1st year itself • Other tax benefits like zero excise duty These measures though very limited as compared to other countries like USA or Germany. But innovation can play a major role in expanding the scope of applications. and development of newer technologies especially STEG (solar thermal electricity generation) are driving the energy costs down. • SELCO • BHEL Many more are expected to join like DuPont. use of solar energy in India is limited to rural areas for lighting purposes. and continued dependence on a few countries for oil. . the world leaders in solar energy. So it is no surprise that many big companies have announced sizeable investments in this field. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4-7 kWh per square meter. is facing a looming energy crisis.
. improving the lives of millions of Indians and meeting critical agricultural. GoI announced a Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) providing financial support up to INR 12 per kWh for Solar PV projects promising a 10 year commitment with a cap of 50 MW. together amounting to about 110 MW peak solar photovoltaic module capacity. Haryana. So far. The government of Gujarat (located in western India) recently announced a policy to target 500 MW in the state. The country has some of the best quality silica reserves in the states of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.000 villages in India without electricity. educational and industrial needs. Punjab and Tamil Nadu. The Feed-in-Tariff will be US$ 0. Gujarat. To keep pace with the global rise in the PV industry. It is perhaps the only country in the world with an independent Ministry for renewable energy.27/kWh for a period of 12 years. With over 50. On the demand side. Government of India (GoI) has instituted solar industry programs on both the demand and the supply side.India still is not among the world's top 10 solar energy generators.largely for off-grid and agricultural pumping applications. known as the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy [MNRE]. Several state governments followed suit by announcing FiT incentives with caps ranging from 50MW to 500 MW. around 1.4 million solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems. India could emerge as the fourth largest market for solar energy after Germany. the most prominent among them being West Bengal. Japan and China in the coming years. solar power has enormous potential to meet rural electricity needs. But at the current pace of 20 percent annual growth. have been installed .
PROGRAMMES CUNDUCTED BYINDIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (IREDA): IREDA has been set up to support various new and renewable sources of energy projects and schemes on large scale by way of extending soft loans. equity and mobilization of funds from external agencies. In addition. The state has already received proposals worth 2.500 MW worth of applications have been submitted to state governments of Rajasthan.000 MW.and nanotechnology organizations. generation of energy from urban/municipal and industrial wastes . Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Developers will also have access to an 80% accelerated depreciation benefit under the Income Tax Act. In order to lay emphasis on generation of power. displays and solar technologies. West Bengal. more than 2. GoI announced a semiconductor policy with cabinet-approved incentives to attract foreign investment to the semiconductor sector. including a major economic zone in Hyderabad called "Fab City". The agency is responsible for financing such projects through internal resources. Aston field Renewable Resources Limited signed a deal for 200 MW and is already in talks with global majors from Europe and USA for technology tie-ups. Punjab. On the supply side. including manufacturers of semiconductors. The solar industry has been the chief beneficiary of these announcements under this incentive-based economic policy. Haryana.The maximum size per project is 5 MW to enable more customers. GoI will bear 20 percent of capital expenditures in the first 10 years if a unit is located within one of the Special Economic Zones (SEZs). The minimum investment was set at INR 25 billion for semiconductor manufacturers and INR 10 billion for other micro. TATA-BP Solar (a joint venture between the TATA group and BP Solar) announced that it is setting up a 5 MW project. during August 2008. In response to this policy. The Ministry has been recognized on the basis of end user applications of renewable energy systems and devices during the year 1993-94.
The solar photovoltaic programme covers R&D. solar photovoltaic Energy programme includes research and development. This ministry is investing and working on the following solar energy programme.and universalisation of rural energy programmes of Biogas and improved chulhas systems and commercialization and market orientation of various NRSE programmes. • Solar Energy Programme: Includes provision for solar thermal energy programme. The Solar Energy Centre has been established with the objective of research and development. The pilot scheme to augment and supplement grid power by installing 25 -100 KW SPV power systems is being continued. home lighting systems. utilization and demonstration of various photovoltaic systems and devices. testing and standardization. The preparatory activities for setting up a 140 MW ISCC Power Plant at Mathania in Rajasthan with WB/KFW assistance are being continued and necessary approval of Government of India has now been accorded to the project. technology transfer. Subsidy is provided on solar lanterns. demonstration and extension of solar thermal energy technologies and inter-alia envisages support in the form of soft loans for solar thermal systems and promotional measures for solar cookers. demonstration and field testing. prototype development. streetlights and solar pumps. . consultancy and advisory service and development of manpower in the area of solar energy.
The plan is to build an array that’s five times the size of the current largest solar project in the world. it’ll be producing 5 gigawatts of power when all is said and done. so this 5 gigawatts plan gives you an idea of its scope. employing local workers and using local materials. and it looks like it’s going to be absolutely enormous. near bhuj (Gujarat) The world’s largest solar energy project is currently in its planning phases. . That’s a serious amount of energy. India. It’ll cost about $475 million to construct. The current largest solar array in the world produces 900 megawatts of power.LARGEST SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT PLANNED FOR INDIA OF CAPACIY OF 5GW Fig: Solar energy project of 5GW at Madhopur. and all the production and manufacturing will be done on site. Planned for Gujarat.
BRIGHT FUTURE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN INDIA .
So. 68 % 50 % 15 % 15 % 27 % 20 % 3 1/53/10 % 2 % Fossile fuel Nuclear Hydro Solar & renewable Fig: (i) present energy production. since the conventional sources are vanishing so it is necessary to pay more attention on renewable energy sources and specially on solar energy.The above table signifies that how the role of solar energy will play very important role in future for the generation of energy and about more than 50% energy can be produced using it in future. (ii) future energy production It is also said that country specially developing nation such as India should pay more and more attention. also. in this way the world’s largest solar plant is established in madhopur. It is also available everywhere so it is becoming very popular in rural and remote areas. The improvement on the energy production using solar energy is started in India. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. near bhuj. More than 3000 solar water pumping systems are working in India and considerably more improvement is taking place. . non-polluting system is a great advantage of solar energy. there is no doubt to say the scope of power generation using solar energy is very bright and to becoming a developed nation the consumption of solar energy have to be done. Also more than 70000 PV systems are generating more than 44MW. Since India is a tropical nation.