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ABC of Diabetes

ABC of Diabetes

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Published by: UZNAPM on Feb 04, 2011
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Further information


Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International,
120 Wall Street,
New York,
NY 10005-4001,
Tel: 001-212-785-9595

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation,
19, Angel Gate,
London, ECIV 2PT,
Tel: 0044-20-7713-2030
Fax: 0044-20-7713-2031

National Diabetes International Clearing House,
1 Information Way,
MD 20892-3560,

New Zealand Society for the Study of Diabetes (Professional),
East Riding,
Whiterocks Road,
6-D RD Oamaru,
New Zealand.
Tel and fax: 0064-343-48110

Society for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa (Professional),
PO Box 783155,
Sandton 2146,
South Africa.
Tel: 0027-11/202-0500
Fax: 0027-11/807-7989
e-mail rsh@novonordisk.com

South African Diabetes Association (Patient),
PO Box 3943,
Cape Town 8000,
South Africa.

Useful websites

Clinical Standards for Diabetes (Scotland)


Exeter Genetic Screening Service


Heart Protection Study


National Service Framework for Diabetes


Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)


Warwick Centre for Diabetes Education and Research


Further reading

Alberti KGMM, Defronzo RA, Keen H, Zimmet P, eds. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 2nd ed.Chichester: John Wiley &
Sons Ltd, 1997. [A two volume comprehensive review.]
Amiel S. Is there anything new about insulin therapy? In: Amiel S, ed. Horizons in Medicine.Royal College of Physicians of

London, 2002.

Angel A, Dhalla N, Pierce G, Singal P. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
Besser GM, Bodansky HJ, Cudworth AG. Clinical Diabetes: An Illustrated Text.Philadelphia: JB. Lippincott, 1988.
[An extensively illustrated text.]
Bilous R. HOPE and other recent trials of antihypertensive therapy in Type 2 diabetes. In: Amiel S, ed. Horizons in Medicine.
Royal College of Physicians of London, 2002.
Bliss M. The Discovery of Insulin. Edinburgh: Paul Harris Publishing, 1983. [A masterful account of the events surrounding the
discovery of insulin.]

ABC of Diabetes


Bloom A, Ireland J. (with revisions by Watkins PJ). A Colour Atlas of Diabetes, 2nd ed.London: Wolfe Publishing Ltd, 1992.
Boulton AJM, Connor H, Cavanagh PR, eds. The Foot in Diabetes, 3rd ed.Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2000.
Bowker JH, Pfeifer MA, eds. Levin and O’Neals the diabetic foot. St Louis: Mosby, 2001.
Day JL. Living with diabetes, 2nd ed.Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001.
Dornhorst A, Hadden DR, eds. Diabetes and pregnancy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, eds. Diabetic Neuropathy, 2nd ed.Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999.
Edmonds ME, Foster AVM. Managing the diabetic foot. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000.
Ekoe JM, Zimmet P, Williams R. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001.
Fox C, Pickering A. Diabetes in the real world. London: Class Publishing, 1995. [A practical handbook advising on the needs of
diabetic patients in general practice].
Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Hypoglycaemia. London: Edward Arnold, 1993. [The most authoritative reference book on the subject at


Frier BM, Fisher M, eds. Hypoglycaemia in clinical diabetes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1999.
Gill G, Pickup J, Williams G, eds. Difficult diabetes. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2001.
Gill G, Mbanya J-C, Alberti G, eds. Diabetes in Africa. Cambridge: FSG Communications Ltd, Reach, 1997.
Hasslacher C. Diabetic nephropathy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001.
Hollingsworth DR. Pregnancy, Diabetes and Birth: a Management Guide, 2nd ed. London: Williams and Wilkins Ltd, 1991.
Jeffcoate W, MacFarlane R. The Diabetic Foot: An Illustrated Guide to Management. London: Chapman and Hall, 1995.
Kahn CR, Weir GC, eds. Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1995.
Kelmark CJH. Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes. London: Chapman and Hall, 1994.
Kirby R, Holmes S, Carson C. Erectile dysfunction, 2nd ed. Oxford: Health Press, 1999.
Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ. Type 2 diabetes in practice. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, 2001.
Leslie RDG, Robbins DC, eds. Diabetes: Clinical Science in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
MacKinnon M. Providing Diabetes Care General Practice, 4th ed. London: Class Publishing, 2002.
Malins JM. Clinical Diabetes Mellitus. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1968. [A splendid clinical description of diabetes.]
Mathias CJ, Bannister R, eds. Autonomic Failure, 4th ed. Oxford: University Press, Oxford, 1999.
Mogensen CE, ed. The Kidney and Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus, 5th ed. USA: Kluwer Academic Publishing, 2000.
Nattrass M. Malins’ Clinical Diabetes, 2nd ed.London: Chapman and Hall, 1994.
Page S, Hall G. Diabetes: emergency and hospital management. London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1999.
Pickup JC, Williams G, eds. Textbook of Diabetes, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1997. [A substantial account in
two volumes; beautifully illustrated.]
Pickup JC, Williams G. Chronic Complications of Diabetes. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994. [A one volume updated
version taken from the authors’ two volume textbook.]
Ritz R, Rychlik I, eds. Nephropathy in Type 2 diabetes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Shaw KM, ed. Diabetic complications. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1996.
Sinclair A, Finucane P. Diabetes in old age, 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2000.
Tooke J, ed. Diabetic angiopathy. London: Arnold, 1999.
Warren S, Le Compte PM, Legg MA. The Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus. London: Henry Kimpton, 1966. [A classic account.]
Watkins PJ. The diabetic traveller. In: Dawood R, ed. Travelers’ Health. Random House, New York, 2002.
Watkins PJ, Amiel S, Howell SL, Turner E. Diabetes and its management, 6th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2003.
West KM. Epidemiology of Diabetes and its Vascular Lesions. New York: Elsevier, 1978. [A classic review of diabetes in a world setting.]
Williams R, Wareham N, Kinmonth AM, Herman WH. Evidence base for diabetes care. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2002.
Young A, Harries M, eds. Physical activity for patients: an exercise prescription. London: Royal College of Physicians, 2001.
United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Survey (UKPDS). Original publications in BMJand Lancet, September 1998.

Journal references

Atkinson MA, Eisenbarth GS. Type 1 diabetes: new perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet2001;358:221-9.
Barnett AH, Eff C, Leslie RDG, Pyke DA. Diabetes in identical twins: a study of 200 pairs. Diabetologia1981;20:87-93.
Barrett T. Inherited diabetic disorders. CME Bulletin Endocrinology and Diabetes 1999;2:47-50.
DCCT: Diabetes Control and Complications Research Group. The effect of diabetes on the development and progression of
long-term complications in insulin dependent diabetes. New Engl J Med1993;329:977-86.
DIGAMI Study Group. Prospective randomised study of intensive insulin treatment on long-term survival after acute myocardial
infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus. BMJ1997;314:1512-15.
Euclid Study Group. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of lisinopril in normotensive patients with insulin dependent diabetes
and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Lancet1997;349:1787-92.
Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and
Classification of Diabetes. Diabetes Care1997;20:1183-97.
Heller SR. Sudden cardiac death in young people with diabetes. CME Bulletin Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2000;3:4-7.
HOPE study: Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular
outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus. Lancet2000;355:253-9.
Hoppener JWM, Ahren B, Lips CJM. Islet amyloid and Type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med 2000;343:411-19.
MRC/BHF Heart protection study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20536 high-risk individuals: a randomised controlled
trial. Lancet2002;360:7-8
Owens DR, Zinman B, Bolli GB. Insulins today and beyond. Lancet2001;358:739-46.
Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes. New Engl J Med1999;341:1127-33.


abdominal pain39
acanthosis nigrans4
ACE inhibitors
cardiovascular disease reduction72–3
nephropathy reduction66, 68, 69, 70
pregnancy and79
A-cells3, 35
acute painful neuropathies51, 57
adrenoceptor stimulants2, 17
albuminuria66, 66
drug interactions16, 17
plasma lipids and74
alprostadil preparations55
amputation59, 62, 67
anaemia, in nephropathy66, 69
metformin contra-indicated16, 62
angioplasty62, 76
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors seeACE
angiotensin receptor antagonists66, 73
for microalbuminuria68, 69–70
ankle/brachial pressure index60, 61–2
ankle reflexes51, 56, 58, 64
antibiotics, for foot ulcers61
antibodies, in Type 1 diabetes2, 3, 4
for acute painful neuropathies57
hypotension aggravated by54
antihypertensive agents
choice of69–70, 73
see alsoACE inhibitors; angiotensin receptor blockers
apomorphine, sublingual55
arterial imaging, ischaemic foot62
arteriography, renal protection during62, 71

benefits of73, 75
drug interactions17
associations, patients and professionals92–3
autoantibodies, in Type 1 diabetes2
autoimmune disorders associated with diabetes3
autonomic function tests56
autonomic neuropathy53–6
with nephropathy67

Banting, Sir Frederick Grant (1891–1941)19
B-cells2, 3
in hypoglycaemia32, 32
manipulative30, 31, 32
biguanides15, 16
see alsometformin
birthweight, and Type 2 diabetes4

bisphosphonates, for Charcot foot63
blindness47, 49–50
difficulty in use of braille52
blind registration50

hyperglycaemia exacerbated by17
for hypertension in nephropathy70
hypoglycaemia exacerbated by2, 17, 17, 33
blood glucose control, in Type 2 diabetes14–18, 44
blood glucose monitoring25–9
equipment25, 27
in surgery40–1
blood glucose profiles25, 26–8
hypoglycaemia risk34, 35
unstable diabetes30
blood ketone meters37, 38
blood pressure
progression in nephropathy66, 66
targets44, 73
see alsohypertension
blood tests, annual screening programme44
bone scans, for Charcot foot62–3
bovine insulins19, 21
braille, difficulty in use of52
breast feeding80
British Diabetic Association seeDiabetes UK
“brittle diabetes”30–1

caesarean section79
calcium channel blockers70
daily intake (portions)12
dietary adjustment28, 35
emergency supply34–5
cardiovascular disease72–6
exercise benefits13
cardiovascular system, autonomic neuropathy53–4
carpal tunnel syndrome51, 52
cataract formation43, 49
Charcot’s joint62–3

hospital clinics for83
bad behaviour25, 32
long-term effects32
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation87
Type 2 diabetes4
see alsoyoung people
chlorpropamide, obsolete15
cholesterol, targets74

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