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Dyeing and printing defects

Dyeing and printing defects


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Published by Yash Vyas

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Published by: Yash Vyas on Feb 04, 2011
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Dyeing And Printing Defects Analysis

Submitted by:Yash Vyas A.P-V

Classification Of Defects
‡ Minor Defect ‡ A defect is defined as minor defect that is not likely to reduce the usability of the product, but nevertheless may negatively influence the sales. The minor defects can be untrimmed thread-ends, slight dirt in a non-noticeable zone which can be removed, etc.

Classification Of Defects
‡ Major Defect: ‡ A defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item to be a second. (A "second" is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the salability or serviceability of the item.

Dyeing Defects

± Absorbency of the fabric not proper. ± Material not properly mercerized. ± Uneven heat treatment. ± Sticking of insoluble material on the fibers. . Material not properly desized.Causes Of Dyeing Defects  Due to Material: ± ± ± Material having dead fibers or other defective fibers. Left over of Chemicals after bleaching etc. ± Impurities are not removed properly.

Causes Of Dyeing Defects  Due to Water Quality: ± More Hardness of water ± Water has metal ions such as iron. material and chemicals. ± Improper material to water ratio ± Improper filtering of concentrated colors. . ± pH of water not proper ± Water having more chlorine  Due to Improper Dye Solution: ± Improper weight ratio of colors.

Barre ‡ Its horizontal shaded band across the width of the fabric. . ‡ It may be caused by variation in the size of the filling yarn and by the differences in tension of either the filling or warp yarns.

‡ The water here. becomes colored and may cause discoloration of other fabrics.Bleeding ‡ It s a loss of color when the dyed fabric is wetted or emerged in water. . ‡ This is usually due to either improper dye selection or poor dye fastness.

Crocking ‡ It is the rubbing off of the color. ‡ This may be due to inadequate scoring subsequent to dyeing. . ‡ It may rub onto another fabric.

‡ It may be caused by a change of filling bobbin in the loom or a loom stop and start up .Shade Bar ‡ It is a horizontal band of a different hue running across the fabric.

‡ It is generally due to uneven tension on the fabric. .Shading ‡ It is a variation in color tone either horizontally or vertically.

oil or sizing residue on the fabric being dyed. . grease.Stained ‡ It indicates a discoloration caused by a foreign substance. dirt.

. ‡ This is a major defect.Color variation in yarn ‡ Caused due to lack of agitation in the dye bath. The yarn was supposed to be uniformly blue in color.

‡ This is a major defect.Hole in sulfur dyed fabric ‡ Caused due to tendering which takes place because sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid after oxidation which is harmful for the cellulosic fibers. The defect occurred after washing the garment. .

Often discoloration is a problem. ‡ Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for entire roll.Creasing ‡ Causes unleveled penetration of dyes which in turn results into unleveled dyeing. ‡ On napped fabric. . which causes colour variation. final pressing may not be able to restore fabric or original condition.

Off Shade ‡ It refers to color that doesn't exactly match the standard or the prepared sample. ‡ This may be due to faulty dye foundation or application or may be due to variation in dye lot. .

.Streaked ‡ This type of defect on the fabric indicates either a stain or uneven dyeing caused by folds in the fabric during the dyed process.

Printing Defects .

Roller . Block 2. Stencil 3. Flat Press 5. Screen 4.Methods of Printing 1.

The result is a haloing or shadowing effect around the outline of the pattern design. . ‡ It occurs when the printed area bleeds out into the unprinted area.Flushing/Wicking ‡ Caused due to Low viscosity of print paste.

.Bleeding ‡ Caused due to Low viscosity of print paste ‡ It is major defect as it happens throughout the fabric unless the viscosity is corrected.

a green leaf may overlap its black outline or print over another color.Misfits ‡ A misfit is a print defect caused by improper alignment of the screens. misfits leave unprinted areas in the design. ‡ For example. . Also known as out of registration.

‡ The result is a small unprinted circle in the design. .Stick-ins ‡ A stick-in occurs when a small fiber or piece of lint gets stuck in the screen opening. A stick-in is very difficult to see and often goes unnoticed during a long run.

‡ The pattern is then printed on top of the crease. . leaving a large unprinted area when the fabric returns to its relaxed state.Scrimps ‡ A scrimp defect occurs when the fabric creases underneath one of the screens during the printing process.

‡ Use of scanning print head. ‡ If the head is not properly aligned. or a print head that moves back and forth across the substrate in straight line placing drops of ink at precise locations along the line. . or if the substrate advances unevenly.Banding ‡ Defect created by the print head s movement over the substrate. the result is a slight horizontal band or line of unprinted area.

Unwanted pigment marking on fabric ‡ Caused due to screen has holes in it that should have been covered. . This could be because of ageing of the screen and eventual damage or just improper exposure to light.

Color Smear ‡ The result of color being smeared during printing.Back Fabric Seam Impression ‡ Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. . an impression will result on printed fabric. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric.

Color Out ‡ The result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine Mottled ‡ Color applied unevenly during printing .

‡ Incomplete transfer of design from paper to fabric on transfer printing due to removal of transfer of paper while the fabric was still hot. .Crack or miss alignment in transfer printed fabric.

Finishing Defects .

FABRIC FINISHING ‡ A series of processing operations applied to gray fabrics to enhance their appearance and hand. properties and possible applications. ‡ Play a fundamental role for the commercial excellence of the results of textiles .

FABRIC FINISHING ‡ The most simple form of finishing is the ironing or pressing on the fabric. ‡ In finishing . . the fabric is subjected to mechanical and chemical treatment in which its quality and appearance are improved and its commercial value enhanced. ‡ Physical finishing techniques(dry finishing processes) or chemical finishing methods(wet finishing) are used.

Wettability. Anti fungal. Washability. Deformability. Easy care. Anti bacterial. Soil-proof and Fire-proof ability ‡ Aesthetic finishes: ± Aesthetic looks . Mechanical resistance.FABRIC FINISHING ‡ Functional finish: ± Wearability. Hand.

careless handling could be another cause. .Unwanted marks on fabric. ‡ Oily stains with dust adhered to surface which makes the stains more prominent and difficult to remove. due to contact with oil or grease covered exposed machine parts.

.Decolorized patch on fabric ‡ Caused due to ± chemical spillage on fabric. ± Localized excess enzyme wash. ± Localized excess bleaching. ‡ Can be result into weakening of the fabric.

.Pin Holes ‡ Holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tenter frame. ‡ Major defect if pin holes extend into body of fabric far enough to be visible in the finished product.

‡ Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on cutting table. . ‡ Difficult to detect during inspection on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension.Sanforize Pucker ‡ Results from uneven wetting out on sanforize. ‡ usually caused by defective spray heads.

Critical on stripes or patterns. in knits the course lines lie an arc across width of goods. ‡ Woven filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width. ‡ Establish standards of acceptance.Bowing ‡ Usually caused by finishing. . not as critical on solid color fabrics.

Pilling ‡ Pilling is a common fabric defect occurring on knitted and woven fabrics. washing and routine dry cleaning. When short stable fibers are mixed into the yarn the result is a yarn that will not hold together. The short staple fibers will separate from the yarn and curl up in a ball. . long fibers tightly-twisted produce a serviceable yarn. forming what is referred to as a pill. ‡ In producing a yarn. ‡ Pilling is accentuated by the friction of normal wear.

Selvage Torn ‡ Usually caused by excessive tension while processing through tenter frames. color migrates leaving blotchy spots.Water Spots ‡ Usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying. .

snips or mechanical trimmers. . Seam Tears ‡ Frequently caused by the turning equipment used to reverse garments in finishing.Cuts or Nicks ‡ Caused by indifferent handling of scissors.

grease or dirt.Soil ‡ Caused by oil. Often times originating from a dirty work area or machinery not properly cleaned Streaks ‡ Markings caused by some types of turn boards or defectively finished trimming. .

fullness or twisting of a seam on garment surface.Inadequate Pressing ‡ Caused by excessive heat or pressure resulting in poor pleating. Pressing Producing Shine on Fabric ‡ Usually caused by excessive heat or incorrect type of pressing surface. .

‡ Also loose threads can cause problems of Dye /Print transfer in a padding / Printing application .Loose threads ‡ Loose threads will get wound on guide rollers forming ridges in the processing machines and cause creases at these places.

Askewed or Bias ‡ Condition where filling yarns are not square with wrap yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits. .

Incorrect Number of Pins . Flys not Closed. tissue or other specified packaging materials omitted ‡ Garments not Buttoned.Folding Defects ‡ Garment not Folded to Specifications ‡ Garment not Folded with proper Materials: Cardboard.

Thank You. .

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