This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Information Processing Theory
As the information surrounding us continues to increase at an exponential rate, it is essential that we find a way to keep up with it. Schools deal with this surge of new information by cramming their programs full of every subject that could benefit a child. At this point in time there have been no flawless ways of teaching or learning material. This is noteworthy because
readers will realize that this synopsis is only the tip of the iceberg. primarily through the work of David Rumelhart and James McCelland and their Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) (History of Cognitive Psychology.). and from these components we can see how the Modern Information Processing Theory evolved (Rumelhart.d. educators and physiologists will surely try to develop innovative ways to more efficiently teach new information to upcoming generations. The information-processing theory is ranked as one of the best ranked learning theories to be developed in the last century. Hinton and McClelland.a. The theory likens the cognitive development of the human mind to that of a computer. 1986): • • • • • • a set of processing units a state of activation an output function for each unit a pattern of connectivity among units a propagation rule for propagating patterns of activities through the network of connectivity an activation rule for combining the inputs impinging on a unit with the current state of that unit to produce a new level of activation for the unit 2 . However. Brief History The information processing theory has many different but similar forms. The following components made up their PDP. 1997). This theory became popular in the 1950s when high speed computers started to appear (Information-Processing Theory. n.Information Processing Theory 2 researchers. Although all the forms originated from the works of cognitive psychology. with so much material available on the subject. In this paper I will provide an extensive synopsis of the Information Processing theory.
Ramamurthy. & Saunders. information processing capability. Environmental uncertainty stems from the complexity of the environment and dynamism.d. b). From this. out of which memory and learning can be examined. 2005). It is important to note another information processing theory called Miller’s Organizational Information Theory that states: “This theory identifies three important concepts: information processing needs.. and the fit between the two to obtain optimal performance. They are as follows: 1. S. or the frequency of changes to various environmental variables. 2003).. primarily in the work of memory (Information Processing Theory. a researcher of the time. various models of the information processing theory have been proposed. the system cannot work. information processing theories were developed in the 1950s due to the computers that were under development. This theory is supposedly also derived from the original information processing theory only applied to organization. the information processing theory talked about in this paper refers to the cognitive theory. Components of Information Processing Theory It is important to understand that there are general principles of the information processing theory without which. However. (Hutt. n. K. C..” (Premkumar. Organizations need quality information to cope with environmental uncertainty and improve their decision-making. Postulation of Limited Capacity 3 . properly demonstrated his theory that human intelligence can be stimulated using computers. Herbert Simoun.Information Processing Theory 3 • • a learning rule whereby patterns of connectivity are modified by experience an environment within which the system must operate As stated earlier. G.
Once a skill is mastered.Information Processing Theory 4 Processing of information is imperfect. especially information processing. In Information Processing Theory. but the mind cannot process them quickly and simultaneously as much as people want to. 2. The dynamics of information processing then depends on these variables. Reality of Control Mechanism A control mechanism will eat up some capacity “to oversee the encoding. Genetic Predisposition to Process and Organize Information in Specific Ways Researchers studying infants and children have observed consistent phenomena such as the predisposition of a baby to look at a face than any object. It has a capacity of seven plus/minus two at a time. There will always be a limit as to how much and what the mind can process. Thus. and this is significant insight. processing. The latter refers to the use of incoming information through our senses. there are so many things around seeking attention. storage. though two persons may have the same information processing capability in bottom-up processing. the topbottom processing may be the key difference. The former refers to the use of information stored in our memory. 4. 3. the control mechanism will use less of this capacity so that the task can be seen to be performed automatically. In other words. we have top-down processing and bottom-up processing. then perhaps this could also account for what many adults experience.” This depends if a skill has been learned or not. 4 . transformation. If this is so. Two-way Flow of Information This is analogous to inductive and deductive reasoning. Success in any endeavour can be traced really to experience. retrieval and utilization of information.
2 years old) Children build physical concepts through interaction with the environment. They think that an object out of view is gone 2. n.): 1. This is also. 5 . the debate continues. that if a person wants to be an expert in that. Finally. Sensory Motor stage (birth . where cognitive and behavioural psychologists have great contentions over the years. To recapitulate: Humans have a limited memory and information processing capacity. the better he or she can process information from that topic.Information Processing Theory 5 This principle highlights also the debate whether language is genetic or learned from the environment. since information processing follows specific patterns. They must use concrete objects as referents. so much the better. It follows. the following sections will discuss the applications and research on the information processing theory. The more a person is familiar with a subject. Children here start learning Mathematics. 3. Information Processing Theory and Child Development It is mentioned earlier that the information processing theory originated from the works of cognitive psychologists.d. Concrete operations (ages 7-11) Children start to develop logic and abstract conceptions. if he or she can talk with experts. he or she should read as many books on that topic as possible over time. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) Children cannot yet think abstractly at this stage. children do not have yet the concept of object permanence. At this stage. a person ought to know and recognize them to further his or her goals Now that I have presented the essential components of the information processing theory. then. Jean Piaget offered one well known view that children follow universal stages of cognitive development (Funderstanding.
Genetic factors can and will limit a person’s ability to process information. 2007). the environment becomes key instead of heredity. n. This typically happens when a person can use top down processing for specific problems. Abstract thinking predominate their thought processes.). the study does not indicate the relationship of the environment to the twins or any heredity information so it is possible that this study could be void. However. Criticisms 6 . a pair of identical twins were separated and raised in two difference environments.d. Later. The environment can be used to develop a person’s information processing abilities if the environment is influential enough. they had the same IQ. A child’s information processing ability may proceed in stages but in a different way than Piaget proposes. Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15) At this stage.Information Processing Theory 6 4. The standard model of the information processing theory contradicts this. children start thinking like adults. To accept the information processing theory is to accept the salience of the environment of heredity in intelligence. Information Processing Theory in the Nature-Nurture Debate In a famous study. a child’s information processing capabilities are different. This study proved that environment is irrelevant (Omrod and McDevitt. In a case like this. but it can be argued that this is a given and not noticed. when they were put back together and had their IQ’s measured. Piaget’s theory supports the idea that at different stages of cognitive development. Piaget’s theory is very specific while the information processing theory is very flexible (Developmental Theory: Cognitive and Information Processing.
Jeff Hawkins presents a criticism that says that people feel as though they are sentient human beings who can take in information just like a computer. John Searle. 2003). Since cognitive information processing theory does not take emotions into consideration. recent studies in neuropsychology contradict this. He argues that emotions play a powerful role in learning along with information. his concept of intention is lacking during the Chinese Room Thought experiment and obviously missing in the information processing model (John Searle and Intentionality). For example. A slot in the room is used to deliver cards to the man containing Chinese characters. the man still cannot understand Chinese. he can give back responses. if the human mind functions like a computer. 2008). write or understand Chinese. psychologists and educators should be aware of. Sale argues that even if the man responds with perfect Chinese characters. It is exceptionally comprehensible and relatable particularly due to 7 . This is not the case. Using a book in the room. However. there is a man in a room that cannot speak. is famous for the Chinese Room experiment. In short. Furthermore. According to Antonio Damasio. a philosopher notable for his works on The Theory of Mind. In this experiment.Information Processing Theory 7 The popularity of the information processing theory has declined over the years due to a fair share of critics and criticisms. people can identify that a cat is a cat without having to actually think about it (Hawkins. then it cannot be said that the human mind works like a computer (Antonio Damasio and the Feeling of What Happens. The same can be argued with artificial intelligence (AI) and information processing models. there would be a slowing of functions when the mind tried to simultaneously process information. Conclusion The information processing theory is a functional model that all students. the computer metaphor for the mind is untenable.
References Antonio Damasio and The Feeling of What Happens. from http://sparkplug9.com/etec512/2008/09/24/antonio-damasio-and-the-feeling-of-whathappens/. 8 . Retrieved 11 July 2010. (2008). people can find better ways to function in society regardless of the plethora of information raining down on them. With this understanding.Information Processing Theory 8 the fact that so many people can identify with computers today.
(n. from http://sparkplug9. Educational Psychology Interactive. (2003).d. W. b). Education Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia of Psychology. Information processing view of organizations: An exploratory examination of fit in the context of interorganizational 9 . Jeff. GA: Valdosta State University.com/topic/developmental-theorycognitive-and-information-processing. Funderstanding.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc. (n.funderstanding. McDevitt. Retrieved 11 July 2010. from http://www. J. from http://www.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/cognitiv. Hawkins..com/content/piaget. Child Development and Education.M.com/etec512/2008/09/26/john-searle-and-intentionality/. (2003).d. Valdosta. Piaget. Cited in Jeff Hawkins On Intelligence.d. from http://www. (1997).com/etec512/2008/09/25/jeff-hawkins-on-intelligence/ History of Cognitive Psychology. & Saunders. (2008).E. Effects of Heredity and Environment on Intelligence.Information Processing Theory 9 Developmental Theory: Cognitive and Information Processing. New York: Henry Holt. Retrieved 11 July 2010. from http://sparkplug9. Information-processing theory. John Searle and Intentionality.education.d. from http://www. (2005). S. from http://chiron. from http://www. Ramamurthy.com/gale-psychology-encyclopedia/information-processingtheory..answers.novelguide. Huitt. The information processing approach to cognition. T.valdosta. C. Retrieved 11 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. from http://www. Retrieved 11 July 2010. G. Retrieved 11 July 2010.). Retrieved 11 July 2010. K. (n.html Information-Processing Theory.. (2007).htm. (n. On Intelligence. Retrieved 11 July 2010. Omrod. (2008).com/reference/article/effects-heredity-environment-intelligence/ Premkumar.com/a/discover/gep_01/gep_01_00341. a).enotes.html.).muskingum.
Journal of Management Information Systems.ca/OIPT.Information Processing Theory 10 relationships. 22(1).htm 10 .istheory.yorku. 257-294) as cited in http://www.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.