PERSPECTIVE D WING HANDBOOK

JOSEPH D~MELIO

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Illustrations by Joseph D'Amello and Sanford Hohauser

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DO~""'''VE'''''I :I~R-"'I 8··0···-:.--···0·· ····KS-·:···-··: O···-·:·IN···· AR······ ··~T· ". 'I"N':STR~:"U'C" =T,-I-IO··-····-N··,·'·\'

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PRACTICAL GU~DE TO ETCHlN'G AND OTHER lNTAGLI-O PRINTMAKING TECHNI'QUESt Manly Banister, (25 I 6.5-·9)

ILLUST.RATING :NATURE: How TO PAJNT J\N,D DRAW' PlANTS ANn ANIMAlS", Dorothea Barlowe and. Sy Barlowe. (29921-X)

PAmNT[NG GARDENS; Norman Battershill. (Available in. U~S,' and Canada

only) (284-01-8) *

ACRYLIC 'PAlNTINn: A, COMPLETE GU~DE, Wendon Blake, (29589-3) A.cRYL~·C WATERCOl~OR PAJNT[NG." Wen,don Blake" (29912: .. 0)

FIGURE D.RAVVlNG STEP' B,Y STEP,. We:ndon Blake, (402003,2) LA_NDSCAPE, DRAWING STEP ,BV' STEP~ 'We'ndon. Blake. (4.0201..0)

OIL 'PORTRAITS STEP BY' STEP, Wendo.n Blake. (40279~,'1) WATERCOLOR LANDSCAPES STEP BY ST~P, Wenden Blake. (40280-0)

T.E~XTURE AND _DETAJL IN WATERCOLORj Richard Bolton. (Available in U~S~ and

Canada only.) (29S09~S)

,B,R[DGMAN~'S .LIFE DIRA'WlNG,,- George B~ Bridgman. (227'10-3) CO~STRUCTfVE ANATOMY! George B,. Bridgman. (211045) DRAWING 'THE DRAPED Fl'GURE~ George B~ Bridgman. (41802-2)) ANIMAL SKETCHING'1 Alexander Calder .. (20129--5)

'CH~NESE PAINTING 'T:ECHN'QUES, Alison Stilwell Cameron. (4070~X) CARlSON'S GUIDE TO' LA.NDSCAPE, PAJINTIN'G,~ John F~ Carlson, (22~2'7-0) PArT'ERN .DESIGN" Archibald 'H'~ Christie. (.222,21~7)

THE ARTlSTIC ANAT'OMY OF T,RE[S;. Rex Vtcat Co e. (211475-3) PERSPECT~VE. FOR ARTISTS, RexVtcat Cole. (2'2'487~2)

ART STUDENTS·t ANATOf\dVt 'Edmond J. Farris. (20744-;7) ABSTRACT D.ES'I'GN· ,AND' How TO, CREATE .IT., Amor Fenn, (2'7673-,2)

PAmNTING MAT~RIALS: A S.HORT E,NCY'CLOPEDlA, Rutherford J., Gettens and.

George L~ S tout... (215.97 .JO)

.F~.GURE PAJNTING IN' OIl." Douglas R. Graves .. C293,2.2':~

'LlFE DRAWING IN CHARCOAL, Douglas R., Graves, (28268-6) ,ABSJRA.CTI'ON' IN' ART ,AND ,NATURE:, Nathan Cabot Hale, (27',482 .. 9) CREATING WEW'ED SCULPTURE, Nathan Cabot Hale, (28135-.3) FIG.URE D,RAW~N'G~ Rlchard G. Hatton, (21377-3)

IGE'OMETRIlC PATTERNS AND, How' TO, CREATE T,HEM:~ Clarence P .. Hornung, (41733-6)

THE ART 'OF ANIMAL DRAW~,Nn: CONSTRU'CTlON,!, ACTIO,N ANALYSJS~ CARICATUREt Ken

Hultgren, (27426-8)

Paperbound unless otherwise indicated. Available at your book dealer, onlme at www .. dove:rpDbli,caHo.ns,~cQm, or by 'writing to Dept, 23 .. , Dover Publications, Inc., 31 Eas: 2nd Street; Mineola, N"Y ] 1501., For current. price Information or for free catalogs (please indi-cate fteld of Interest), write to Dover Publica .lons or log on to' www.d.ovetpubH-cations .• com. and see every Dover book in. print .. Each 'year Dover publishes over 500 'books on

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JOSEPH O'AMELO

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DOV'ER P·IUiBLICATI'O'N'·S" 'I,'N'C.

Mine'ola, New York

To My Mother and Father

Copyr.ig.ht Copyright. © 1964 by Tudor Publishing Company

Copyright © 1992 by The Trustees ofthe late J(H3,ep'h D'Amelio All rights reserved.

Bibliographical Note

This Dover edition, first published in 2004~ is an unabridged rspublication of the work originally published by Tudor Publishing Company, New York! in lBH4~

Library' of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data ·D·:;A· .... ·~·- ielio Jose ph

··. __ . __ ffi.,- I v,-, .~. 1i:I' .':' ..

P .. .r.; ~ h db k ,. J h D~A 1" "1'1 . b

erspective drawing :. anc '.' 00. '- .' osepr .. ' .··.me 10 ; 1 Iustrations . y

Joseph D'Amelio and. Sanford Hohauser,

p. em ...

Originally published: New York: Tudor Pub .. Co., 1964 .. IS:B:N 0 - 48:6 - 4·3.208~,4 (pbk.)

1. Perspective, 2 .. Drawing-e-Iechnique, I. 'I'itle .. ,

:N·C-750 .. :DS 2004,

7,42=dc21

Manufactured in the U nited States of Am erica

Dover Publications, Inc .. , 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola, ,N.,'y. 11501

8

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Ch,apt'er' 1,,: F:UIND,A.MENTALS 'Diminution" 9

:Foreshorten:ing,,10

Convergence, '11

IOverlapping ,", " ;; Shades and Shadows, 12

Colo'.f and, Value Perspective ~ " .. Detail and, Pattern Perspeetive , ,. . Focus E:'ff;ect, 13 Professional Application's of Fundamentals, 14

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IChapler 2,: IRE:A,LlTY A,N'D A:P'P:E'A,R'AN~CE, ~ ~ ~ !, '.' ,i 4, ~ • ~ ~ II" 'I 'I j , ~ ~ '. ~ ~ ~, ~ ~ 'I • ~ , " ~ " ~I 0 ~ '. ,. , , '. ;, ., '. ,i ~ , • ~ 1,,5

In, Perspeetive Drawing 'You Draw What You See, Nat Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 :Rea].ity' and A,ppearance-Examp'le~ United 'Nations Buildings "from :Differe~l't. Viewpoints" 16'

B I'"~ and A- E I' P k S-, h f n!.£il' - 'V"· I', - 7 , ea1lty,,-',I'-"', Appearance-osxamp e: :,',Qr' rsenen trorn i_ ·liJ.:e,ren.t ,"-,'leW,polnts, 1,'

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'Chapter 3: HOW W'E, SEE FOR PER,S,P'EC'TIVE DRAWliNG I ,I ,I ~ .' i, • ~ ~, " I ~ I ,il • ~ ,~ ~ I' • ~ " ~, ~ ~ ~_ ,~ '.". ~ OJ., '1'8 Cone of Vision " ~ ~ Central Visual Ray ,I' " ,~ PIcture Plane, 18

Basis of' Perspectfve--Lfnes of, Sigh,t Through a Pic-ture Plana 19

'Chapt,er.4: 'W'H'Y APP,EARAN'CE, DIFF:ER,S FR'OM R,EA,LI,TY - TH:EORY ~ '.' ,~ .' .' ,~, '. ;; ~ e- ,. i ,i ~, ~, • ~ • ~ ~,., ,2,0

"Lines gf. IS"ight Through, Picture Plane" Ap:plied 'to Diminution, ,20

"Lines of Sight Through Picture Plans" Applied to Diminutlon and Convergence, 2:1 "Llnes of.S,igh,t Thr.ough Picture Plane" Applied to Foreshertening and Overlapping, 22

C'hapler 5: PRIINC:IPAL AIDS: V,A'NI:SHI,NG P'O"INTS A,ND' ,E,V,E L,EV,EL: (HORJ:Z'ON LINE)

Aid N'o~ 1.': Vanishing :P'o,iinb:i;-All Lines whichin Reality are Parallel will Converge toward a Single Vanishlng Point, ,23

Vanish ing' Pomts (eont.) ,-When There are Many S'ats of Parallel. Lines going in 'Ditlerent Directions, 'Each will. Converge, toward its own 'Vanishing' Point, 24,

Professional Exantples~ 2'5

,Aid No, 2: Eye Level (Horizon Line) ~Ail Horizontal Lines

Converge to a Single Horizontal Vanishing Line, 26

What Locates the Vanishing Ldnsfor All Horizontal Lines?, 21

WhY' the Observer's ,E,ye Level Dictates the, Horizontal Vanishing Line ,-, 'I'heory, 28 'What Locates the Vanishing 'Point of a, Particular Set: of Parallel Lines,?, ,2,9

Why' the, "Parallel Pointing" Method of Loeating Vanishing Points Is Important, 80 Nature's Horizon Always A:ppea:rs at Observer's :Eye Level. Ther·efore, it Can be

Used as the Vanishing Line for Horizontal Lines! 31-

Why Nature's Horizon Appears at Observer's Eye Level=Theory, ,32,

What 'Happens 'to Eye Level (Horfzon Line) When You Look St.raight Out, Down or 'U'p:?", 83 Professional Examples, 34,

'What: Happens to ,E:ye Level (Horizon Line) When You, Look Straight Out) Down or 'U,P' (cont.) ? ~ ,35' Reasons for Ch,oos:ing a Particular Eye, Level (Horizon Line) , 36

C'ha,pt'er 6;~ DRA'W',ING, T'HE C,:UB'E - ;P"R'ERE'QU.:ISIT,E :TO U,N:OERSTANDIN'G ,P"E'RSPECTIVE. 'I' 'I' :3'7' Jntroduetkm, 37'

Looking Straight· Out at the Cube, 38 Professional Bxamples, ,391 LookfngDown at the C'~be;, 40, Professional, Examples, 41

Looking Up 'B,t the Cube, 4,2 Professional Ex,am.ple,s, 43

Cube, Studies Applied 'to Drawings ,of United N'ati.ons Buildings, 44

Cube S:tu,dies Applied ,to Drawings of 'United Nations Buildings (eont.) , 45

M:any Owes, Oriented in, the Same Direction Results in Q'nly Two Se'ts of Converging Lines, 4,0' Cubes Oriented in Many Directions, Results in, M'an_y Stets of Converging Lines 47'

Why' a Thorough Knowledge of ,Simple Shapes is Important, 48

,Ap'plicatioDs of' the 'Basic 'Cube and Brick Shapes" 49

'Chapt.,r'7': uONE~POINT'!' AND i'ilT'WO·;PO'INT'" PE,RSPECTIiVE-,WHE,N: AND W'H:Y? .. ~ 'II" I ,', ~ ~ ~ 50 Introduedon, 50

Professional Examplea, 51

Distorted and Correct One-Point Perspective, 52

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C'hapter 8:' MOR _' ON L .. OOK'ING U:P~ DOWN', AN';D S:TR.AII'G,H'T' A .. H:E'AD I I ~ •• ~ •• ' I '. ~ , '~ I I ,I ~ ~ ~ ,~'. 5,3

In,· tr rodu ctlo i n . 5~'3-,

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Things Seen b1y 'Looking Str'ai.ght Out and Things 'Seen 'by' Looking Up, 54 Things See,n 'by' 'Looking' Down, 55

Revle,w': Lo ok in g, Up, Slraight Out, ,Down., 56:

Looking Straight Out 57

C'ha,pter 9: P'ERSPE'CTIV'E D I:S,TO RT:ION ~~,. 'I' i 'I' ~ ~ ~ i 'I 'I ,~, ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ,~ • ~ '. ~ ~ ••• 'I' •• ~ t ~ I' ~, ~ ~, ~ ~" ~ "~' 4' 4 ~ ~ 58 'Related, to Vanishing Points and to Cone of Vision.,.58

Observer-Cone of V'ision=,Vanilshing Points Re'lations,hi.p (Horfzontal Distortion) , 5,9 'Vanlsbin,g Points Too ,Far A:part .. ,60

6·.-.11

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Height Lines, 611

Heights Related to Eye Level-l: Heights 'When Observer is S.t;anding" '6,2 ,2,: Heights, 'When Observer Is in Elevated Position, 63

3,': Heights '\¥hen, Observer' is Sitting ~ ~ ," ,4,: Heights 'W,h,m Observer is, Lying Down, 64 'Heights Outdoors ~ . fI and Indoors, 60'

Professional Examples, 66,

Detennining' 'Widths; in, Perspective-Width :Lhles, 67

Ch 8,pt,er 11:' D ET E R'M1N I N G DEPT H'S . ~ ., ~ . .' . '. ,! ~ ~ ~ ~ • ; ~ ~ ~ I, ~ ~ ~ .. ' I, "1' ~' ~ ~ '.. '.. ,~ ~, 'I' ~ ~ ~ ~"I"I' ~, ~ ~ '. '- ~ ~ 'I' ~ ~ ~ &a

Fmding Center Points by' Diagonals, 6a ,E,quai Spacing' by Diagonals 69

,S'ubdividing' ,8. Surface 'by' Diagonals . '., . Dividing a Surface into. Equal Spaces

b 'U· M' · Lin d SnecialV ~ hi P ~ , ,.

',.Y .. ~smg a ,:."·_easutm.g s •. ~: .e and a" .'pecla" ,·."·"an];g".ing _~om.t, 70

,D~v.iding a Surfaea into 'Unequal Spaces with. a 'Measuring Line and Special 'Vanishing' Point, 71

Dete ' ii',". . 'D"" th,··, ", d: 'W'id' ths 'f' Ro···· " .'. Int ,', , .. ,. " ". "b'" th . M" ." , .. , ii.- .. L''':''' 'M"'"' th d 7'2"

.se rmmm.,g , ep' ..• s an, ", __ ,J~. -o':om '_ I ,_' eXl.or:sy _,e c:> oosurmg ,me" e,: o."~;'

Another 'Way of Gettma' Depths: The Sliding:' Ruler and Diagonals Meth.od, 73

Drawing Equal-Sized bur Unequally-Spaced Elements-. Vanishing: Point of' Diagoaala Method" 74 Diagonals' as an Aid ,m Drawing .Concentrie and Symmetrical

Patterns on, Rectangles and Squares, 7.5

Any Design or' Pattern can, be, :Repr-oduced, In ,P'erspectiv€ by' Means of a, Grid that 'Locates its Important Points, 76

Cha'pt,e'r 12: I Nell,NED PLANE'S .... ,. ,', ~, . ,," ~ !,,!, ~ •• ~ '''i' ~ • ~ t ~ ,~ ,', ..... ~ ~ ' ••• ~ • ~ ... ~ • ~ • ,~ ... ~ ~ ..... ' '. 'I' ~, 4' • '. '77

Introduction" '77

Vertical 'Vanishing Line and Horlzon Line are Based on Same Theory and :Serv'€: Similar Purposes 78 Uphtlland Downtdll (Inclined Planes) ; :79

Some Applicanons of" Inclined Plane Perspective, 80

Chap,ter 13:, CIIR'CLES:, CY'lI:N'DER:S AND C:ON,ES· ,~, ~ ~ ~ . ~ '.". ~ .' ~ ~ i· 'I' ••• ,~ '. i' .' ~ • ~ ~ ... ~, •• ~ ~, .. ~, , ., • • •• 81

C'iI;,1 d' am 8"1

' rreies an." , ~' . IPSes;,

Drawing the Ellipse, 82

The Center' of a Circle Drawnin Perspective Does, Not Lie, on

the Corresponding' 'El1ipse"~JMaj'or Axis, 83

Cylinders~ 84,

Cones, 85

Professional Applications, S6,

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C,' apter 14,i: ,SHA,DE, ,AND SHADOW

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Introduetion.B?

'Parallel LightRays (ISunlight) Parallel. to Observer"s Face, 88 Application Sketches, 89

Parallel Light; 'Ra,ys (Sunlight) Oblique to Observer's Face, 90 Parallel LightRays Ob,liq,ue to Observer's Face (cont.) ~ 91

A -l~ t~ Sk - h 9'2

,:_,pp lca;::lon " __ etc' ,es~ ,',;. :

ProfessionalExamples, 93

Sba,de and Shadow Created by Local Point Si)urces of Light,; 94 A:pplication, Sketches, 95,

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I N'TR,QI,DUCT'IO:N

,AN U,NDERST,AN,DING Q,P PERS'PECTIVE ,is mandatory for all students and professionals involved with representational drawing, This includes a wide variety of fields:" such as; Illustration, Interior Design, Architecture, Industrial Design, Engineering 'Design, Scenic Design and even Fine Arts, 'While each of: these areas, applies perspective techniques for different purposes and to varying degrees of thoroughness artists in all 0'£ them, must be knowledgeable and experienced in basic perspective fundamentals and principles, This book provides those essentials.

For those concerned with mechanical (Tvsquare and triangle) perspective it explains and gives life ,to all the theories, 'upon 'which, mechanical perspective is based,

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'or rnose concernec 'WI."" rreenanc perspective ,1. provmes au tne ,IIDPOJ.:wis.l· pnneip es,

insights and "shortcuts" necessary for effective drawing and life sketching.

Furthermore, this volume has been planned as a practical reference book for the experienced .... '''"'''"lS .. ' ,'t' ~r· delineate -, who ,." fin ads tha t passin ,'.g' :-, tiro' ir :e: has .... rendered ce, ertain techniques or princip ales

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vague; and this. draftsman who, immersed :in a maze 0'£ mechanical perspective guidelines, feels, the, 'need to review certain fundamentals,

D ti ul f' .' tiill id d f thO t d t' b f' tt

ogmatic ru es ror memorizat on are, avon '6_,'O:r 1,'1 ey reno ",0' ne torgo ten or, even worse,

,stultify the imagination, Instead, principles are developed in step- by-step fashion, accompanied by' explanations of their origin, 'value and application and often by' their more or Iess rigorous proofs .. Such a presentation hopefully will breathe vitality into these concepts and thereby result

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In a'.' .. earer, more mnma e unc ersran mg,

'l't must b e em ph asized th 'O'U- -g" :h' tha , t for th e beginn ne r the se prin cip les 'will, .~" ha 'v' e little value

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unless they are tested and experienced, This means continually observing perspective phenomena in, reallife and ~ more important -- constantly sketching variations 0,£ each, As. in swimming, golfing or piano playing, proficiency fs achieved only by total. involvement,

Practice should result in a sound knowledge of (1,) th.e actual form and structure of scenes and objects, and, (2.) how these objects and scenes change appearance from different viewpoints and under different li,ghting conditions, Essentially, perspective drawing deals with this appear-

ance o:f things" i. e., with how three ... dimensional reality "looks" and how it i.s best drawn on twodimensional surfaces such as a canvas, sketch pad, or' Illustration board"

Once these fundamentals are understood and thoroughly' mastered, they might be used either

in '.' e xt rem ely "reali ·"!,st· io' draw :m"'· "g: s '0' "r- in , m 'ore a: ibst ra ct or 'S"U' s 'g' 'estive 'O"O·_- 'es'-" In eith er case 't:!iI ',W,-' ork

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will bemore vital and effective, for it will be based on visual truths,

It might be. worth noting" however, that all pictures are a form of abstraction or symbolism, Perspective drawing neither claims nor is able to, simulate what the human eye sees, Our eyes constantly:move about, change focus, see depth and color, change according to light intensity and see things wi.th time and therefore motion. Drawings are static, Bat and of a limited, size,

Perspective drawing is nevertheless concerned with achieving a, sense ol space, 'of: depth and of the third, dimension within the limits of the flat, drawing surface, There are, several visual principles which serve this, end, such as 'D'IMIN'UTION, :FO'RES:HQ,RT:EN,ING" CO,NVERGE'NC:E; ,SHA'D,E, AND SHADOW, etc. The 'following chapter and, much 'of' what follows explain and explore these basic eoneepta,

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C,ha,pt'er 1 ':,

FUND,AMENTA,LS

For instance, someone across 'the street appears smaller than the person next to ,YOtt, someone down the street appears still smaller, and so ODi ,A good way' 'to see this Is to extend 'your arm forward 'with your hand held upright, 'Notice howsomeone close by

(sa,Y' 20 .f't,~ away) stands about equal to your hand he i ght, while someone ·50 'ft .. ,a,way approximately equals the ].en:gth, of your thumb, someone 200 ft~ away equals your thumbnail, and finally, someone 1000 ft~ away (several blocks) equals possibly a, hangnail on, tbatthumb~

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r ' Ioi!:!I II;J[-U.,.' 10 , see'Ing, W 'En ,a:pp,.I!.lS,· 'lrU :a, UJ.·tl,wmg~ .IS a __ tmr ,amen~ m,ea,ns 0 'p,rn: :ucm,g a, ,sense 0': space an ' , .,. e,p,. +

[10] F'o;reshort,ening: - ._lines O':r S.urfaces Para.IJel T'o The ObsEuver"s Fa.ce Show Their .Maximum Si~e,.

As They Ar,e 'Revo'ived A.wa.y· From The O'bserve'r! They App·e,ar lncreasln.g:ly Shorter·

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and maximum length,

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·5. This tube or oatmeal box seen end ... on will appear as a. 'full circle, 'N one: of the sides are visible ..

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6 Wh' it .. .. ted Ii+ htl th ..

fill .•.. .' en '1 - .18 PI,VO '.. . S" - ,g-" .Y· ',e Cll:-

cle "foreshortens" and appears as an ellipse, The sides (which were to·tally' foreshortened) now 'begin to appear,

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7. The ellipse fereshortens evenmore (it becomes, ,flatter) while the sides ap . - I -g-r

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ens to a simple s'trai.,gh.t line and the

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COftiVergenlcle ,_ L.'i'n'e,s Di1r IE',dlgeis ai'f Olbj'ecls Wh:I'ch ~n 'Re,a:iiit,' Are Pa,flalll'el,Ap!pealr 'To Com,• Togeth:e'rl (i~e~llll ,Con'v'ergle)' As The',' Rec1ede :FrGm Ob,s:e'rve,r

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U,L .II, I!. ... ,e 0, se1V~:r ,8, I. 1 "ILS pOSI won anu .00" 8, .. own ... 1 , e, wa ',::! .. eO_'I.leSe, ,mes, cease ' :' Ift,ppear ,pa,ra,lliS an .!. "eve,,· W 1L1. ,

the ground and instead. appear to come together (converge) a;sth,e;y recede

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CONVER,GE!JNC ~Q'UIALS DI"MIIN'UTI'ON p!LIUS, iP'D,R,ESHORTENiINIG: Th'8 r:1\i,Ckets of a fence, when viie'wed head-on, ap,pear equal In, hei,gb.t and spalcmg. ,Also, !h,e to:p and bottom lines! ale parallel and level,

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But if the observer turns his head and looks "down" the fence then, the top and, bottom lines a:ppear to co,nverg,@:" 'No;ti,ce that th]18 eonvergenee relates dir.-ect'ly to. the diminution of the pickets ,liS 'they' recede, Furthermore, tbe: true: length ,of the 'Ien,c·e: no Iongsr la,ppears~" but Instead is ,foresho!rte:rietl~, (Note: how the 'sp81cm,I' Illnd wid,th 'of the 'pickets,

iI'!:liiP' "pe' ,'. 'B'r' n !Orr-~iI:U.B'r mil .' 'tho, he d :-I~ stan ·,ne·' )""

lab ~ ',~' .. ' a, U'-¥ll~·· - .. . _ii:I! . ...:'.- . ~ ""11,_,'

'T' '. rh· ·1~i'll".Ii!!ii~'i"'ii.'li"a, n.nn'l '1IfII,1r,!IS\i!:lI.'n,,i"IIiiOI; ;t;Ij'an' I b a 1.'t..'RU-· !ll1'h' t, nf' 'imll rOi tL,_ ,.,;J'lm-··, ;',~ ;riii ~,~ n H ,nt'" ~'~ Ai 101:11 '14j i:!i oaced ',;a!:~ D"m' a M't,~ -f'Oh'l!th:li o.';''7D A -d ,.:-, _Iii t·· hn ·C.' p'll oil Ii!:!i;D

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f'or.-~nCi'h~i .... j,Qmn~-:'fJ 1~lm~""-:- P,Q; th Q, ~ll'1'p,i!!Ot'la .j:iI!:ii not ~:r~'DIW·· ·e· 'd:-:', head .. n,Tiii

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I, -' r ..... - II \ __ .: I lf~: O'VlOllS an ' 've'fy' ,Snn:,p, el~JJLU,qu,e no : OB!:y ,S,ows W.tuen o~ JOO~ are m, 'Icuft' . iU:W, 'WW'C\I[]. are, ,m

L 0 hk-c ,t: ",~ ,g,ll,~ 01 Vfi"'Y' ,~'it'ft nortant w' ,ny: . A;Jf A ...... hi evin '. a ·H, ,i:'iIO'1l"i,eift O-''-f- d" '~'-p- 4'11.,.. and '~,ng #1D in dr --01'91;' in .. O'Q 'N"_' 'o::-'~~ £La d-~ lail'"ii,,"'L 00-'" ~ ,I" '. """'Iii Ani ~D"'~!,,····,-;Jl; ~ 0 o_J.[~ Q ·"·'I~,Jl.~. DllJlr-~ i~l, ,',"~." .. / vI: ,QCIJ._.<'G.'W .... _t). g ~~ _::..'" .. I~ •. !-W.I~~:.:" Qr~~ I" .!_,!~.~" ... _2_ ~bY~ _:· .. _I,._:_.~~ ,1}I_I~l:' ~'Fl4ll ·· .. ··.ULllUiD=uu.

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'W:- en, oVler'~lpp,mg' ti~es :no _: ,exm I':, , .• "",(1;:£' .,., "

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'!i!ll;h- ,;Sinl V' .'111 iitiw-- ed in -." '~i'1Ii't'M,ii:i; form --,'- 0·' Jil '1 ~'a"h··· ,~, D!O' t' ,- ,]'''',·t:P i!i 'f,DA 111 ... ,", 4-,!'I!.,. __ , sha ...11 ........ 1 ra'rlilld- ..... ,L _, ·d· lA~lim' created r.bv' ,.j.L. ,:'~ '11~:!fI';b' ·t" LL, ..... ,£, 'r- -, - d' ,- ':--i th'- - .... 'L, ~~ n,·· ~~, ....... ,'.,- ~,,' . 'I, ~v.U..I!~ .. ,' -.1 ,J!",,,_,I:!\Ii ,,Ll . . ' 1IiJ.' "~~ ~ '_---'_ :. ,~, c,u,~ ~lU;i::I,'· ;Vyyg ''''''' - .. ,iIiet.I ,,jIf,,.[U,~1 .~' .• I_II,.-D.lt,~, _.- en. er .,--,el I~:a,~

"readable' Q"I!'iii.;;Ji ,;J':'~. -----_-,- 1.'...·1· I ~'.""", . ,,--. ,'- 'kin''" ,,- - : - ,'!!i,·th-:-I U-li "- h.£ , .... 1.._...11.... - ':- - d· .... 1,..,_..::11',,'1 ", "'11 .,.;.),_. '-, .. ""'~, ... '0·"" 'L .... 1I , £_, _~.II , '. c 'dr" --. ,~-- -- f:'~- .-,:-- -. ,

, ~Ua . e c.u. ... uwsceJDa;u,e,~ l~ WOl''--- '''1 W.I _,-1110" ~Ye, ,aD-, ~wuOW WI· UIanJ_a'ucal~ ,De-JILP :m 1.I:V'~i III i_' ,aWIDJI ~,urm

d f t'he third"~ d '" '",

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CDII!o. ,And Vallue Pe,l'spe,ctiv'., Values ('bJa'ck 'm white range) and

1~,·1i_¥!irjl. '!il!i'rl"i'.o ·b--=;'-r·.-I~,a·'J..·;l,. and elear '!i'fth:'-an- i£ii~~n-'~W\~g ,aJln~ '._" _;,",tJ~ll~ lmA,," ~-!W~ _. n",_ ~\_:"'" ~~.

close: u;p but 'becom,e' [grayer, ·weaker,. and generally more nS:D'tral. [as their dis,t.auce. from the observe'f mc:r~ases~,

Detail An'd ,Pa.tta.r- Pe'r,spB:clive 'Details;'1 ·texttmea and pattems~ SUM as blades, of! griMS,; the bark of trees, leaves, the djiB,tmguishinl' f.eatures, of pooplle~, etc~,. ar-e alae clear and. dls-

n'n'!i!iTii'!t'ibcc'11~ h~hallml close b u·t- beeom . fi ~:,r.~".,__

~-~I',.lu._lfl~l ~.i1f~ '"',:._:~~i&J .,_:II.·:~W' _ .. ~" ~ I~~

!!71· ~, .. ·'i" and lI'OI:!!i~ , .... harp W' "h'l- en" A""i.;."i':~".ii:ii'[

l~' .I~_", ~_& ... ~. I~aaj m~~ I '",_' '.~., - -_~ •. - I~;W~'·Wll~.

Ia..wa:y~

'Th,ese· .prm,cip,ies are ra.rely· diseussed in, per~pective books ,yet 'the,Y ~SUI';I:est 'ueefWl technilques for Inereas .. mg 'the: "eDSe: 'of' depth land. space in

dr '0-

a, a:wml~1

C""'·n .:. '. '. , .... ,l!,·--·-·h····· ',0" th·,· ..... .'."., f'" ".-,.' .. -". . ...

u ··.VeJl"[St:a:Yi! W. en ·!_J3 ,eye .OCUseSI on

.fnre.gcou:nd objects the baekground

-""1'1 ,--:-·'._,C- .. · ~';' 'r'1i ~-::-d-·· '- "-'d"'~ ", ·····1··:-···;-·-··

wn appear UJlUl.re·· Ian.:' WlJC,'le~r;;,

(T'-~~''''' 'P"~~MI"""I'" ,'i,' I rar -·:-."1'" .' : sd be

_. _l.t~, .. , .&, u.J1.CJ.P Ji! • , ".' ,e ,Y use· .: e~,

",. t"",· d ,;;, ~. t...

cause artists Ilta;W1l11' til Vle·w' 9iUC_llJl as!

... 1!..,.: .... , "ll f' -ba· .... ,·... d f th' I '" d

'L~~ 'WI ... ~:ocus' ,/·_licA. ml.~ lio.r· - .~ .. m. or _-Ier

,ii-.A .~!~- -' ad . ..J, .... i!iIi ... - , .... 'Il -.,. ,,i!.,.....,.1I_,, '1" .. y' .,.;£.

IIJU see Ian· UlL-p,W 1!:l.U, parts esear y.,,! . ,el~'

l~'f" em nhasis ,I"'iir· a U~lp' "'0' ··t 11~·'i'fII'·'L.·'4i-":!i """"'ii!:!i·C·' i-

1. ~_. 'tpl_1D5 . I U"" fa] l~, _ . "," .", .J!., '5I~ll!~ ~.I~ ... {b

d ", d ""':1...::: ..... , II" - tho - "ii. • f ,;;,

'were _ ooue' ··uWj ''tru:1 '. - '.~'" !o-" seeing

ld Tn ''IJ... 1'''·"".,;1 \

COU ."C. _. welJ1 ue a.pp:-,~ '!Wli. J

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[14]'

'T . prot sinnal exampl es a p·s··· m" . '. t"

WO __;<I!"O leSil:lI::' jl .,:, ~Y,F~, 'I ,": "' .. 1,-

,ing and ,3 landscape drawing, employing the fundamentals of' D'IMIN'TI,-

T'IO""'N' "FO""R'~ES':'HO"R"~TE'" 'N--::'C':r-N":iG'" C':'O"-'N'

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VERGEN'CEt- OV~EiRLAP:PING'" SHADE AND, ISH: DOW', V,ALU,E

P , "S' P"'E""'C'" T'I"'IVE'" 'A" I!"'f'IiI'T'IiE'RN' PIER"

, ,~,,' I ',_ t, .. ' ~Jr 1,,',1 .1,1,.-,1,: ... : ,~, ,1,..,-: _,

S,PECTIVE,~,:' tc., to achieve a S", nee

.. " .. ', . " .- nd ·d:'I" .. nth , 0,11, spa,ce:an:, -,epl, .~

No Paseins by.·, Kay: SS;D'e Collection

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f' Wbi' I 'to M' f A ~

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A . '''y -, kl rt, ' ... 8'W .', 0 '. ,

P'li'l\ll"il;J~_n't:,: [or F" ' .... a;. 'H :r,..,l;'H D,:"'I Rooseuelt ,- U ¥L-.. Uill' -.f.~ ~"'l""~t.. ' ".' ~ . - v~ .- 1!L?1~'tI,.

,Me',morw.l' Park: Joseph D'Amelio, Architect, Don, Leon, Associate. Rend,erin ",n' b-L,y- J"loB--p'h D'Am -'H"'-

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his'· - t· ad t" - is' -1'1 dr-I - til" . th- ~,

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p . -1m, . · Br_ 111"1 WI ._ ··;,a"w .' em 1 "IIi

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way' re,gan:ue •. o:~' Vlewpo,mt .' w.· t '" -.

children- - be -, - tho . I 'k visua]- .-'

~~- · ,-~caus-e "_fiY' ·8,C., '1 .. ''':. . :per ... ,

caption" art-ists, because they' wieD to'

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- d ill' th thing .. I 'I!' - th'"

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dr ,I< - th 'i ''"d- tal II,

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a.w.m,1 ,_ ellr .JL_~ ea or .mm_ .~._ lmage

of' I' th . iI!:l :-"i"I'!!-'J'" ect ;-

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The true a:p~pearance of. dishes, on a

fa- b 1, .'. '.' - .. ' :I-d"'- be _~11I':' tj· .... .".'il111 ... 1....... .-' .

.. "e wOU,-," .' Il, ~p ,\Jit!t ~Iapes on a .

;; f- h t- d f

'. r. "'1:- '1 •.. : Ii .... j : :,,~I.·, - .. ~I .: -:, I" .,-.--- .... I'.· . j' .. 1 ,-' -''''J '-, . '. _. ~. ,"',

COD,yerl'l1n,l~ ... o.reso.r.en.e, ... · .. ISUl,lace

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The '--b - «'IinMi er.dra · " rJ L_ t' iii'

:.' ." egmner, w-tiWlD~ a lrun,~' \fJew'

of the face, would ·tend. tOi draw the Id gQ 0- ·f ,g, '-0'- AB1D (:I-It) ;'\n Lt, ead o' J:; '" ,. ..... ] .:... .'. ~'C" ,q ,~_~~, . ~'. M~' e ..11. I.~

foreshortened appearalnce~

Th ' .-,.'. '",. d"··'· , .. t' d- ,t-'·'L··~·",,; .

__ e MlmlelieD~,enC]1 crea.·e:- .. l~ un-

, '. '11 ~" t' ;;'., '.". '"'. ld .- . -, ''". . (' "'z.. ")1

reansne e!ye: m 81':_ e VIew .' rz.'t~I~, '"I

A ~. th '-d d !i, d ,~ _.gam . ne l'~el., was e rawn ,mB·tea~_ o:~'

''':~e'''' true ,jl!i,p,--, p.·.t"i;iI'!ii"WO:!'l!i,'!t'IilAe:-:'_

1WLlJ·- ~_I.-ILI· PL,. ",' ._ ,~,~~' ",!!!

W fi·' fr-' t tho

1.'\"':-' .~'.'."} :-'-':' ,.:-: -I ',-"_'-'~"'-," l -.::,--'.~' -.' ,'.

_ . ave ,your . lid.' a. someone. ,8,C,[lOSSI •. e

'-,.".,,,' :., -.' 1-' t:: .' -- f:)I\ 'f'~ ,,' -." !. A",', b .. ··,:c ~~C'-.,-.- . ".

room., .' u· or ,&AJ . It-~ away... " ", -eg,lI_nner~

·t··hinkinD' '0·:,011" 'y" '0--'£ .,lL·D LU-'- a iIi:!,;'lI'!IrOii!ll of

'. I _:_. - ':,_ - :_$.I t._., .. _I., .:..... .':_ ,I, W-11t;i' ~-.-_~. !aJ~~a U

hands and people, would :pllobolbly

Ie d m-' dJ~ t'''b t"his'" (Z f' )

, , ',~ -":---~-":,~,.,-: .. , -.}._ .. - '-'-:-11'1--"'- ,.,' .. ,"

n~ I -.,'-' raw. - . e scene _- .... way.· ·e ,t>,.,

B'u,t the careful observer would

- ._ =-' ~ • ~ ~ ,~. - _ ~ • " "" • "- -' , - ._-

g- .. tb-,· t th h d l' t

no CD' 1:_3. ... I' "'e, , .... Ian ,.' was, amos' ,ono-

.. 1..: ... ~1 .... !I!...- 'L· ...... ,,:'O'h·'· ·t-'· o~ f' ·th'·'~'B ft':'m11"A and ,t!\-: 1WtW~'U. ~ J.~t:'~:,.- '. '_; ... J. ~ '--C_;,D~--" c;:u.,I, ••. ~o

dr '". 0'" ']a' 'Ii! d ... 1

3'\V' ,11110; I .. ". 'Yer ' .IPPiDlI an.··. vwu,e .pel''''

:spootive, help to {lrama·tiz~: ·the respeetive nearness and farness of these

e,~i-;"""""'"'o'lll"l +n, ' ~_I~.JIJ'Iii:I'1I!

T' ted' Lobs child el b

" 1'-" I ·t· .-," - '. . i'.,.,." _- : 1. .... j .' -,'. < ., . - '.: ... :._, ... '. '. ". '! I

_ 0 a sea 1_ o,erver" a. ,I, ' .. ~.oS'e.y

and an. adult fur.'fher a.way m:llh't ilp .. peal' this, 'w,ay" and should. be dr,g.wn

.ilL ii, .y ~ - 11-' I -d f ,-

tms way...tOur-mte· .' ,ecWa,.l_OO '0 'the

'1 ,a.,';:' hei h"""'"' .. f' ._L ildr d-- d'" ~:it 1.....,

re. ·a'-Nve .•. _61g'_'~ 0 ,. ~I_'w~en an ~ . ;3, .uiL.·:~

mia_hI' t. 'f!I!1ill',!:f:E!i'\i!i:iI:!!t-' diff:Dr'~D-' 'to ··ly.··. ".

'-D . ~UJDID'~ ,. - ~ ~ - , .. , .11

A- jft='.'-' ,... ·t- . d'-- dire" ,~ -- , - tl - t- - -

'1 j • I'" .' ..' -, '-, . '.... " ". . I. . " . .' .' , " . ...,' ~ .. 'j' . i

re· pam,e, .. ,- _ .. I •.. c·y a, ,yom eyes

- .. !I' - hl- t . to, ._. - - - f- ii 'h- t' '"' t

--' I ,. ... .... . . '.. - .'. . '. . -, ,,-... - . - .- _. .".

mIl • . : .no_ ap.'pear ver:y r.-g·" 'e:nmg 8!

,n ... t' ~:-.,.-, .--,- - har-' dl' . I .. th-·, .]- ·_·thBm'·- .~

.Illj~ : ~ .!lor 'von - _ .. y/ 'ifll,08.··~· . .• .8' .0.. 1_

~ -.~ .:1 ' .. - --_... . -,. g!l;;;O. . . .... 'II

- - - d' ]1 -.- -

Yi~·r"I. ,-:~na ~'I;rZiliIil!:li'nn',n' ~ _ ~ -. 'UU~J '"'~rU'!!

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'1l1iWIFj' aD kno,W 'that, the U.N ~ tow1er ,is a simp]ie rectangular prism whose, faeades are all 'pme r,ectan.gles .. When it: :is view1~d ditectly 'from, at distance, say' from, aeross 'the river" this :pure· geometry ,is revealed,

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'"(~ But 'i'ftC"hn'H. l~'t- :~, t!lAiI'Ji.'li'!iil .L .... "m-~'-:- n:-'-~p-~' th:'a,

;& , "_ ,ILl"", ~, :..:_ ~, I~~, .l,l(:U,-,,-J.:: I >_; ~,

ii, J;.L".... ";I;..,.", f d-

river or ~ avenue, na raeae ,89, appear'

f-o' ,~~...;'t..n~""'~!_ . ..l' and .l.l..,_ ''i''~~f''':! and U1'm'~;- -: 1_, .- ~1..uIJL-.LCHJt't~ OWI.j.r UI~ .JLruu,· ~~ _ _:, .,' .. ~:_"

dO'w lines seem 'to eonveege, 'Only 'tb.e verrical .Hnes m,ain,ta.m, th,elr tru,e· dir·ootioDS;o

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41 Upon .looking' 'up 'we :oo,tice tha:t: for the flrst 'time the vemcaJllines, appear'

;1.._ eon ,.,.,t!ii'P!i!TiOo 1('U'P·f~';!!!ij'~...l: .... ,), AI'~ 'ii::!IA, 'iiLl.,.e'" 'lP:O" o~ ~ lIl!r.tV1 .. 'Y~D~ ..... I' , '!II!YU£~!_: ~I . I . ~.,. ;U1-c. ,JL,l._ .. '.LIl.

and. window lines nOIW cO;D,Ver,le downwards! to the ],elt and right

6 '-FYi--C--- ..J1'':''i'O·-···~·t'-·l -: .. ab -', '-: onl ,- t:hL,:, r-;C.j'iI1..

ill - rom UJ~-eC} _ y anove, on. y ae rec-

,i,,,,,i""'" , ;'1' c' ,... f, -th- t ,', "00""" . ,,"" ",-, " ",".' 'f' .,'", ,,_ .',' .' 'T- 1:... ~!p

tang e 01,._ ,e, '_ .. weE. S roo' IS, seen, _ .:II1]~'

barely expresses, the building's form,

A- dl" t bw"'ld" .. ·th .'

: IJ'!!"Jl'bn:n:' ':--'-'1- mgs 'w»-:'" ~n-'--'iV. 'C.'fQ'·Wi::- l[f'

l. O~~_&. ._". -:_ .. _,,1,: ~l •• _I. .. ~V'" ~ 'IB' i,,_ '5

facad laC!l 9·1J".c!iJ more comprehendible raea ~.: ,~~ are _'~~Jv.~~~. iW: :~ reneno ,::'~ d~~l

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1:~ In ~eality~ 'this 'beu[®, :is, com,posed, of simple rectangular prisms. A 'boJr [clim'b'mg a tree would have this rare v,i.erw of i'ls true ,geome,tr,Y.

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- J ii 'b ~ _:l''!1!-!I!' [!;li "'" "'''''11 .. '" 'ild-' 3~ Itmlur~ 'We '0 lB, Q,[.IuJ( a' m, ta ",1' WOw,

. '. ''-' ~'t'" ,t[-:m=' , _..;!j:.:::t'f, ,.-~'tly-' ~'--:- Th'" "" ..... ~,;fto; ... l,

see I" S _- -' u..uJLemn I" ',' ~, ,[13: v~ ll\dl:guS

tr· 01' tj- ioal hil til

" ,', ,'.,' __ -- '--'-','~ 'c-;, ' , ,'-' " ", ',", ;." ~ -', ,.' .' . I' '--'-',

now appear'rn y verncar, w,·: ~e I ie

-hoti2tOn:tallmes ,stUll converge,

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I mt..~' .... iC:C " 'u ,Oi, L!clJ'

- ".Iii.H, ' worms I~y" /e: " '~. '!Il:~I-'e' W'·: '- w'ill:, ' ' -ID-',.g"

'_ !!! . ,. , ~, '" Y". '_ f '_ ,_---'_:--' .. _, U -' ~'

'Wri;ah"t r1'lililt-' b -:-,,' ,,('_,1(li''Ii11i:i'' ,n! ,'. t-':1k..".... , .. ' I' --- d

WLLIl,ci! "_ ;~~ _ [ry ~.,.... un _£~ grOUD.,

and 'IRA'king' U-~" ,....a~,~1 ,itiI, '1Ii'n" "'n '-'"'n'lllii ~ 'P'l~ j!"IIi' ,~~c ,_IY"VI_ J..::_ _'_p~! ou[~ .. ~ Ql.-..o.w.",,_'g ,,' '-'-

' ..... '11 ..... 0. 0-- 'f th' .' D ~~,n~L rn....;ojo;, sub ::: .'-,~, ;~ 'riOi¥~ ~}UJ.,I~ ,'. .. _-,JiI;;' U~,..~;;; ,.l,,~ ~Q .c' ,IJ,[~[Il!, .Ib3 , ,Q_.II. 'G-

1"1'," ,-1!''''';8' 'H!"~ '~' ..... - -' J:.:L,,!',";I 1(""" -' ,1.1". ~,....,..t--)' '-, -!! ~ "

£J' LU: ··/n-, ...... u:um ILoIIIJ'J,OF ·I.J[le ,_UJ,~_,. new"""

",," t- . _'l!< ,,' ,it- !., -. ',', '1 .. ,. ;iLL!' .... --.--

pam - SllD'OO, 1 " lEI rarey SOODIUUli' way",

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"'. 'His paten ,;l.A ~,t Ifn"-otmd level misht

!Iiii:;. _.:_: _:. ... ~ L: - . . ,~I M ~J'..a. _.' . '_ - -', .. '" . ti

b.c--·:::, oLL':,.-., " .~ -f" '. ~t,.:, ho ... i'~A,",.Ii. .... '" ,:- ,- d '

.. ave I~ Vlew~ J,.,.ue ·U:ll,~l~ an.,

" ", .-'~ti- ~ ,fti'li[)'::: ']' in " " ,,~ ,,:- 'P'~I'P tift #IiiFiI-n- ~ - ri[i'lii:ii, and

vle,r_~, ., ,,·ss a .. ~ . !!.;II' ~ ·,ve"e;~ ~"'C'

':~'-l-l __ ",,,-J!i. - ':- ~ " .-' -;'- ,·' .... ·-,-,~,,',h- - ---- I -t' '. ~I ,d' (' 'Tb: '-,C' ':

a " tj[U\.["'!LFl[ces are ,lUres· 011 ene :.:.~ _,., e

vertical lines, give a, sense of vertical''"f-'!fiii' b t th ,--. "t, tu '[1' ,-. '" '-.' ':-1:-1,···:'111 _l_1L.J out L~,--ey are nOi~ Be,~.· a_"y para e;&,

,""_ tbe-:-, edee ~f tb,'e '~Ia.tli')·.··. N'o'ie f,L,~"t,

IJ.U ._" - _ ~. - D~ u~ __ ' __ . ,r~~J'-" ..... lLl-W_

thls- -. .. t Ii; Un'"' tbr-,

, '!rnB'!D1TIft,m"·' 'i@ m··~ -0- ,''Ii''e·· ~'n~.o- - .... or 'I , laJl

_ y~~~~,~u 1-, _ • ~ :_' ~'_'\&"'"' A~Y~~ ... _ .. ~ .. II ",

the firSlt~

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II' 'If', J'UDl' .-,-' '·o'--'r·' 'HlIaIk:Dd.- around th ~·I-.o b n,n(~L

'.~ " ",l. .. ... '. ""'i~·· !G ~ ~U~~.~·· _ ~ _. ~alaJ

and 'I "k d ,- tb £1-' h d th

00" ,.ii§,",-, ~,t· -' 'I,. B £tn[· [-- 4°1',. -on'~- .1 -,n

I ,t .... _____::___~._ .. , ~L .• _.~ ~j-, ,'- ~"'" :._~ ._\ :.!t#

true eeometrv of the end rectanale

_" " _ _. ~I' ~ ._." - 'J .. f· ._ -._ . •.• • - - -D' .

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WOUJl._ c' aplpeal~, , ,,·e; ut:=.Dcu p, It< ... O'Dg,

-.--" :ld'I::'~, .. ;~"iI1II' '~'-,-,"~ :\.,.,:- .' 'd' f-'-,::,,·

woo I_ .·1 ,s,w-y!n.gq !convle'lle [an", rose-

sh rte . N"" - 'tiJ~[, ,- ·tha' " t, 'the I , h -, '" " tal- -' ,-,-,

n -I.' inl "0- _ ',Aa . 1 • .•. ' I· _. . ,ni,'li!'"'II"'.nw" nISi.

_ U ." .~.I~. . ",_ .' __ ~ I '.' . __ ~. '-._ ,:_·_:V~ ~.~ ... ' .. __ ' [~l

Il ... 1....,... .,;:'_'1 11::-. f' th d w.e__ as '~ Vi9I,-WU;U, JLiueSI D,~ t ,le en·

main rtain ,ii -th' e:Jr.~' 'real dire 'e'g' ~"o'ns'

--' I "I . --'", ',., --: I. '_' 1 -," ','

.". .-_". 'I.. _", ':...:. , , . ".'.' ..• " . '. : .• ,'I " '_ •. _ . Iii

.... :. ··h:···s·rp· ... er 3--:'· H· O' -··W·····-···,'· W····::-····'E S':EE FO" 'R','· P'ER····S· -":P:'EC'~"~'

'._. . .. ·l I _ ~ : .. I" _,_ . 1 _ r •••••. •• • ",.".. ': -== -":' ", - _ ......." . . ", _ _ 1_ . - ':' .: _-, , • - I' .' .

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, perspective. 'Urawmg will look [correct o.Wy if the artist:~s yjewpoin.t and, his direction of viewing the mb,jec't are

r-:,I',,;j.':'t;:rti!:fj;,lIly~' 'fi::~'vC-"d- iThi" s, '. L!l;j13j'1i"iiill!l! dr-'-:'" ~'.-.~ '~". - 't--b"- .. 1Innl! -l'"'te':-"d· "'6',', ·Id .. '. f~- II, 'l'"·O"''Ii'!Ii n Th"'--~· n ld·· _!!':c-"" ...... 1·1·, ,.,!' :UII' ····d:' th·,,·· . C'C:'O-"NE" '10' ···-'-FIVl-'··-:S' 'I'O'-"N":

, etAlw·If~I. > ,n.e._o; - '. ,9 ,m~"JI._ awm.,1: W,} J ,a, 1 :_" .. _ .. 1'.'-_ ,[e· I. 0 VIS 1;1,,,"'1 . II ,n.el, .:Ui'USUilU_Y' C8c_ e. .. e·,~ ._._. ".' . J'-_, '_: ..

bsca !nii~le'-: DC"f_' th"'8' :\~rl!,_:''''e, -num- ·b· "er'- 0"1' 'S"'I"'lilr-,·t· 'Im'L- iI!!iJ~ w· ·bi~""'~ ~i,..Ji'iIilIite,,: fn a" cone Iik epa' ··,·t.a. ..... - ·L.-m, a by- '8' (In r·",...._ ..... iI'~h,!iJi· th 'DiCI'iI!:!iJ 11m I;; ,aa

,. . ;!!.OID _ '::_:., . -,-.: U'W.IIl~, c__" , .. , . . '.' . , . .u.. '-' c_; 1~1i;!I ..' 'CJ[:1 ... P..Yi.,l-U, : :." . ~ , ~":'c' _::.. .' c I ,~-U RU!· I. . ~ "':; ~\., '. .' 'tstIJ.J.l'Jl' ~.. I ~,

are liD'hi' rs'Uls oomiDtt irom ''';~I''''' Ii!!U· b;J~'~ct to the e'y:~a_) Th'-" ··'e' anale 'of ,~I..,,::,- CO'" ne is ·b-·~tw""'·e··en· .A5-: an .. · "d'~ ll!O; d's'Dire' -" ili!!liJit!lI 'If" a- ~a",iO'!ii·r·

1 __ . -II . .. I'. J I ~ ._ .. _::___:___:___. , \D I.. .' .... ~~ ~I - "." ,~.'. [" .t.l' "" ~[.I _',,~,: ~_:e;.., ~ ....... ,tWlm . .... .' ... ~ : ,¥I . -. '. ~ ... !_:: .. f __ Q-. . ·,al. '~ii _:_:, I," '] .n&~ac= !

an i I ale ~1I::ii 'Ii'IIC!!O'd~ ln ,ii'JIil Id' r~!J!m!'C-'-lg~' lilt' Implies '~I mo vin 'g CO''' "'0' e o"f-' 'V' :iE!inO' an d th~ "A nie ture w,!· '1 b Q d·' '~iD"';i···"'II'!!;l."""'d y." '0-' u ;iiJiIllIiMi ".ft~, y- -'07 'or"

.' - t!jr ': ~ MO~ ". , ' 'I al .' . ,Q'ry. .. ~._ .,', ." .. ~:&.JI •. :' J:~.·~~I g ,J!..il..lI._ l'¥ ..... J :.: ... : =.: .~. " .: '~r.l!u.l. - . -' ~::~ '~"'~l p .... ·tt..W",~ ,.~ .. ':'_Y' ,,~ •.... &gLU.&-W._.' _!I " "" '.' I. I~ ~'I;i .... - ... ,1 '".

CO"· "1 .. ·-.f iaio .. D b . '. 1 - .. - '1 .. ':'_, I'. t"'1 iif1h'" :1l... d'· " 'd" .'. c-;:-!':: ' .• :c-.'-: : ".- c-t -tr.' , .. ,.L_L .. d " - --"-.' : .. -" land,' .- t'- "'f:'~ e, 'ht'

_ _c)S 0, VI~[I.", .. Y .~OQAJ.Ug S IraJ.:i:c_Il,j aaeae an swm,g.mg your ou :s. ,O:Iu..aJLe··, anns ml" .. ~ OU,IO'_ g,lJl·· . tI.

'Wh:':" . "-.' . ··1 · iI, .. ··h· .. ' i't' iCi/CUI!:!' -·n..:.::: ·Il . ' ..• hat -.;~:r..-'. ·d- - ~'~ ,D'C' 'il1iC!"- ,iIllI, lI:friI'i'linnDCl!Js·II'-:· c--:- ·:f· ,c- ···o"'e '0',:', "een ·~' ·-··f· :or, ·,.c.--~J:!It " ~iIl!Iil;il!i<t.. ,····bj .. ieh

.. ,I ,en, we~ _DOlfi, ,3 =OU,_.,. ~e . ~_'Iy WU4 .we ':' O,~ .l«J,UjQ. u,pon 0. !k'Jll,,1.~,·IOn, 01 IP'bD ., .. ~~ .~~~ ,01. m~;&l~:~1 [III ~~. 0·. W I. I.

~ - J!!.~~_ . ...:I b 'Ii D'h' t 1.;:'._ - ,~, I. ~'L. ·t eente .. r 01 £'L.. .n.n;n- . of" !!nlS~' 1'0' n rnt... !'..... l'~ - . .: ~ liII:!I\n'm' at-;''iI'iP'Iii'iI'~I_.jCiI- .... ·'111 d' the·, ... "een #- ..... IW 11.':Wir..,.. . fJ . ~'g-'b';"l~~

IS, U-At::U:;y a 81m :.1lUe g,1.I·,rue Bx:aC.··:![ _- .. ' .. :;::1 'I};UJe' w~~ BJ: .. ,,<:, .. .l.aJti ·me ,~I bu.I~· ~~ ~e: I".·-[~~. - ~- Uuc' 0<. :SlJ'II,lb

- . the' I "if. ,-....... I dir ii '. . t'· - - - f . . . III . "~,I W;-C'" - ..... 11..." ill'll __ Hi ,Ii.£. ,&;L·. ·C·- E- 'N'" TR' I I.' :A' L V' "I'IS' U.-· -A" L-' B' A'" Y" .'~ C-W',' fL·. - '1 k th '. . . 'b-" .

OJ.'" I:' e cen.W& '.: . lee .Ion I[) see;mg" :ule' tiN,-laJILl ~ ]jl, IdIlie:.~_-1 . :,. c.:_ c_ '.'- - , .... _. ~_-.'~_~,. ~IJllen, ,you .. UO [,lOUIl' I, a.

- 1- h ld iI'" tho' ~t !I' t til ,. ..... 1 lb' '"l~ II tI ... ·1 • ....... ·li

te escopeor Oc.I· ,8 pene:r. so. I-~:L'tl' appears, as a point ':"'LB'~ esoo,pe,o·r'· ·_e penCt_.lS exac' yon y'our eentral VlSmu. ray ...

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To understand perspecti.ve drawing' a Pi ·.CT;URE P'LANE must be i:ma,.gined "betw,een the, observer and subject

THIS, pC' LA- ,·"·N··E' H:'~·S>··· A,',' IC··:·,lO:.··N····' S~cT·A·····NT····:·· -' ·!·IG·:··'HT-~- -A::'N-·~·G::-T"'q!l HE·: ·;·LA··:··T1· "~-·O·· ","'N'<g"H!PI ..:: W·~~~ITH·~ C;'·,Ei-N···TI 'R·--'A:'·····L·· Vl··-rS~-·U-··A-L-.,- ·R-:A··...-Y··:· -

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So' w·"h~on dr·' ;a""· 'fII ac:c ·~'"'·'iit.']~~elifii·t- ·w·b,o..thl e:r ';··t" ·li:ii abeve be 11 O. 'W' 0: .. ii!!j~;orht -'L·_·-d·· imaam· 'S'" ·v.·l'~e···'w,;'ftI~ IIii't f.L·_ .... U· ~ih·· J!!:Ij,n ·o·:·mm,,·-'~nlt·

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,from a :6xed 'riewpoint~ 'Your lines lof Isilht:J the mn:ltitnde of! s.tr,ai\gh,t lines 'C- eadm,g' from your eye to -the: subjec,t,; 'wOo ,

all, .~.' ·tel .'-~ th'· _.''' ... c ..'11 ..... _ .... Th' ~. 'O'P ..... .:If'.,.... if:·· '., ~'iIIliill :-~:.'.' ' .. to'·· ·c- ,AL. 10· . t' . - .'";i:IL,., g' ' ... - ..... -' .. : .. - ... eil ".- ". d ..Ji_,,: : the 'Ii. ' .... - .. ' ...... f'· the ,...,..; .. '1 .••• ' ..... .".;1.

. __ , ml!:. J&,,~'. ·.IS P,UUJL8. I .. ~~~ore,.1 , yoUl were I.. rea~n .,U I Wlw, ,a, ' r'ease penlc_ an", IULiI,W . .. e una,ge 0 .. ' . ~U,IUJ~lfI;

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,....._ . .,.,. .. 'It, :'hTnold'j • L .... tba-- _. 'It VAU would 'have 1r,,,,trlUlS,ferlle.du a real three-dimensin.,-~ll o··bJ"ect': to', .. :. ~I ,a.... ... ,.__,dime·-·nsi---""'i1 plana

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Y·· .... , .... , " ....... J:_..,. this ... .. "', "., t-e b , , . ou can ceuue .~. I., expenmen . ,{y

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verncai WIUl· , .• ·,nzo,n j.: ar pane e IVISJ,OBS"

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llC3uy ~OW' iUJ!9. .utuilC __ oory 0 per-

spective .. In, fa,ct"l the ''W01lld. perspective

ooim" ,am '''r-'''"''m' 4-J,..,.... '1". ann I'"· .. wo·· . d.' tf'pi01N.'!!~

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ta" hieh ...... look

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y'OUR CANV' AS 'S" 0' . Te···· H P'AD' '.

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:FORE, IS 'I'HE PICTURE PLANE,~ ,ON' IT IS DBA .. ~. . WHAT'WOIULDI

BE SE;EN IF ~T WERE TRAN'SPARB'NT:: AND,· .... : :1 HE"LD- 1 .' p·;q'R·:p·DN·····

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Y app ,:y,ml ., ,_e DOIWon _c ·me. a I~'" wu,lu'~I' ,8 pl .. ~." I,e pUIlle l/U DU&.I.P e VIews, tl· pen. -, .. 10· ~:ga&. enl' I. we, can

,-- ,-- ','" ",_. 1,,.,11' d" ..... dl_ ...... ,;L;L , -!I! , 'I L.,oiiiii'· . f D"'IM" IN' '0' TI-~' 'O':'N'" C·'O-···N·····W· 'R:"GE"N':"'CE' Fa'" RE' SH~I O":-'R"TE' .'. "N"" G"'I AND' '.,' " l'O"VE~-'-::-"Di

more ,pt-ecJBev 1 Jt:B1J,iC 1iHCi 'V.1SDa· UIIL~' 0, "'.": Ir· .. 1 . __ ,,1_: .='_:". ·~i.I'::I[,.: .. I .. ' . 'i ' ' I,', ...'..1-." I I". ··, 1 I ...• J .' '.; .. ~ .. , _'Jt\r"

'LA' '.' -p': .p: ;TN" 'G' '-'-. 'd' m,"!itn'lll'""": .... .3<i'iOiIJlr·i!:lli1li'li"lln"'hD.tj. ~csl1y w· :b· ''U' ·th· - "D' a'ft'l""U)g'l!iI!tIi:nn.'J!!j, ID"I~ Dftl 0" b· J"' Alit· a'A L-m1ian4.ly .. ..!I!.iI!!!IJ't:'!CI .I....-.."W'fi -I-hi '18-1'''",-'''']0

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O·:·B·iE!lDR--:-·VE···' "R' '-I'N:-"; C"tHE" . A:'S-''''''''S' Thl" --" -- , . ,!1._, ,. '00" th-,- tandin .. -..-Z ct)"] I ' ii. 'ht (:'b' t', - - dir ~-- -1.'1111 'II Ii,.. 'lith'-:-,_·

:::I__:"~'D ..... ". ' •. ~'" .: r .,', r., '.\EJi ";, " 'e.se pe~nc~ are·: .. ,,"., S'Qu . .l.:.:_~~g' :pec.l.,'B:.: .,y up,rlg ': ." u.' no -, I' .IB(lIb!JJ.y m me WI:·'. one'

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ano"I .. eJ' - : ' ely were,~ ~. rear pe:1lCI1! W01.l '. e over. ,a;ppe.cc_' an~ 'COD~e· '.' II eDen. . aplpears ~JDa. eT_D peDe!" ' ~

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rl ,I .&Q' ~ ~caUlDle 0 LJ:~e manner .m w , ... ' .. ' . e LllcWS 01' Sl~1 . I ' ieaJu..uJ.,bl uum eye .,' , O. :IJre",11a m,M:a~,;or pro,l"ea~ OD:l;U·

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PIICT'U,RE PL,ANE AS ~·eEiN ay O',a&E:"VE'~1

-D' '--M" "'IN:-':'U'TI'" ·O····N·:I In"" .li,l...!_. 1MIii£!l'u 'th·,] -- 1'\ili'J"!i1.:-':::'I' .... 1 ,-;-,- • l"'lJI'i"'1M:I' miO' ,,' " .... ;-d'e· m; ,o':Jn Q' ta ··b,l. to' ··In pcin .,J.':-'fI' a'n"BV 'fro': .,.-;--.-. ·th' - ,~. ·-·'baa··!'- V'op A'·"'g- illiii~n

" i . -. _ ". ~ _.I_. 1.IUJlZ'J~,. _'_",8 IC"~CJJ!ll B.r'e. .!I!.J" _~ I 1!.a.U'.., . 'c,' [~." .' .. I.e I,Y:r. ' ., W.1:1!iiI' .',",'I .• i1 .. ~ .m, . __:__le· 0 I .. ,!li!I;"__: .~ ~ ':':-; __ , _ Q.M;I

the n.An,cl).A--tbest· 8'W1'av' an1na!Q'rB and is drawn shorter, UrL.,,~~; 'this· is a", is $ID'IitiIlinl expo 'I1_~_, ...... ..lI' 'bu .. - ft'DV m~r'~ whiCh the

.-' .. ~.:__'.' -. I,rw- r.: ', .. '1 . '~II' l_ ,r.'r~:·~,:" _'_' _" . .:.... .1 ~:____: ."_._,, .. :__: ,- . '. -,":.'Ii ''I'''~' . '. I ~ ._~ gD'I&;!IF~dll .itLU,1.Ia.I !"_.~' _ •• "~., ."' • ", :_:'__.-._~ __ -:._'

lines of' 'lml"" .... ).."t'" 1-',ofi,d1i'¥,I;_"_, ,.",ji:t. ." .",,",::i1 lDii'.·"~A·ct·· . ·th·' '. pll'"'_.".·._ ..... -~·.1.~. __ ,

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IULllln-'es O"f is:lin'ht, Thl~OU8' 'h- P'-lc&II:lIre' 'P' II:an· e'liii A' pp- I-';e-'d To D-'nlm' i!'n·ul·'.·' . - A' 'd C,,'onv'e- rn - -- -eo'

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:.l" ,--' " "'" 'I, ," [':-.: __ , case,"'1 pent.a,Rj' are a,gam y,m;g_·oWD;[ .u)~ VA.l.cuJ!!e, 1,,8 0 selVe'l S . acel~ .. e!l!,", par~~ Ul.JI!

tb 'I! 'Ian ) Th - d ell Id d ~ dr '1- tb' th 'iii I Th' - ~ ii, ,.

a 'po ': m~"""'I'i"L""e, --' p: , ,'~' -'ie"~ ',' ,_ ' '. ' e" 'f'o::~atoun( p,~ ~,: WQ,ll i a, 'p" ,~aj'I"' .. an:' :90' i,~, :', awn .. Ioneer ' ban :~,e rear PI -:'e'-nCl I~ , " IS is aeam

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explam.e"',,_, d·' "'1lI:'I"'tbtQ lines o···.I,~li[D'htand th e~';:'Ppoin,ts'ofiD"nirsectioD with:·,· the,p~-i,c.tu.re pl .... ,_~ s·-::.....,"dy-', theso lines- S,u'P"'P'osc" m, -. '!;[i'HV

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'-,- ',-, ,-~",-~ cUs l' "m' , '".- t,·: m!'- .': ',,~- .. "'I·:' ma mn . 'I'iT,::,.u)" '-d":- ,,i.L':S· ,',' ,t: be !'d~'-'en-'--"'ti-~ca' ',1' rlth and xnla @"fb'"'' ,~.:;,.- "'I-!" ohe :." ~~. AM'O"D'

,m,OI'spen.,,_- were B",_,DU" .,a,BDnla.r, __ .er .. 1",0 ,·LID.· ,no _,)L,, __ ,_', IWl,.,aD, exp,oam,le,dlm,llsrp enom~",

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ftl ,fI""'TU- ~ IRE PL'" ,: N'E' .,A -= ~&EN 1!!Li'W'" ;~CC'RVER,

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C"O:""N['1~RG''''' -E"N"'C' -'E· ..... P[A.·'RA"· 'L'T"D'LLINES:" A: P:P E'·AR· TO' ,.' AP·'" ""P'R'O'-"'A-,'C'··.'H-· EA",C" .'HOTHE'-~I--:::'R'" AS", "" T'HE'::- ··Y":·' -RE" '.'enE'DE''- '1 ,L,L_,!, .... ,

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eXBiDlplle tha pen aeils are Iy': 1D""~'t!I n~lJ'iane, to' '.' Q'·Oe.· ano~L ..... - po ,'mill-. '~ifi[iFir a>w:ay'i'" ·;......,.,m- the'll.·c observer The'y," would ap:"p'OD"II" to

'." ", '''., _c.J~ ,_'_" ,_'., ",',_, "'-\D ~,.:_." , '," ,--=-> ,': ,.LI.ICE, ,,'ilrU,1.;& _', ", .... u, .... __ "_ . ~" ,:_-" .. ,- ',: '. ,,' '. '." -'-' 'I'~' --

• " - --- - 'C -- d ., . ..l,_ -- Why' ,- - , LL!_·' ,;0'. - ,," ---. 'I .. ' '-"...:1 b' .', tbi - - lln f' -~'.n;I." Tb-" ' 1 .. ..lI!, ...... - to 4 ..... ' -. -- ds , f~ ,I.L.

oonvelige, an'. are 10 nrawn, . :,., ':.' rms IS SO.18 agam exp amea ~_ryli •. e " es 0_ S~.";; . aose e8WUig' to me ar enn .. ',0" "19

(,;,;1..""" 'Ii _.li d ... ,) '.. th'-,o; 1 ..... _ 'Ia III '1- 'I' to tb Tb to th d' tb

.tne po 'mt~ lenu.·· mterseet ' .~ e p. ilCmr,e piane reo DVe ViC' lose ~[:EFe i, er .: .nose I".~·-e near en~ ,I, (.' '·s: eraser

'. .. I "_ _ _,., ' _ .. _ _ . _. . 1. - - -~. . . .. I!:IiI " . - - _, ., , ,~. " " . - _' .. _

ends) mmT,leCt 'the 'plaine, furthe-r apart~

A,-:-.Jl.:'i,.. c·,- - .. -, -::-f' ',' ;;;' ..• ",",,,,,,,,1:~,·, . '-"f' "- '. -,.', .', ,,,_ th·:··-·.!_'I .. , :~'f" ·',t· (" .", ,.,,1.11 -_,.Ji '--' -' ', .. C.' 3:::):' ," ,-, ' '_ '. t' "f- d' "',., Ii_:-, t'"' , S,.'· ....

,ftBOII!IIl:er way 0--, VlS,LU:UllZ1DI conve:r.gence lS, ,W 1 D,a 0-.: 1_ as exp amen on page .- ",' as a res I" or [,J_m·mu, 10D,., ,} 0

eomnare ,i-ib:'ii!!I! '..1' .... 80';'1'10' Wl~tb ;l,L '.' - n abo V'S ,: '''D-!~-' in .. 00"1&. d,)lI'S'O"'F'!li'l'nC .. iiO; I . ~'d' 1-';<I'1;tL, to· ~'d[e,t:-,,-:u ~e' et and' .... - - - 11 squa'r'" L!liC!

- ,~" WUa UJ!~.',",.;.:..a:- [ _:~_, IUJe, on~ ,:, .,' ' .. ~' -:.e ,.cJG!i,' : lr! I. '., _~ .... ,-:.w.~. ~ :__,alL·, (lUi. i'" '-_!.,fU-W It'~ . .Ii.-,&,-'!!i..ii '. ,:~ eqlU)J ",., ". ~Q,.

Tbl - Li/,_ ··fa' '. -' th· - -. ...:I_ ..... ilt_ ..1L .... tted', I , - linl'" ". jjo -, th" '1·-' '. dra III .'- uld 'be' .. - th . -- 'i1-' , "f" "ill.., d<!j' - . - - -- . b" , . -. d' , . ,'_ -'h ' I'd 1.... ....

, '~,e··.r,e [_e uw:., UO~JL,~_· - lea ,m,s' ,-,owe,r. i awml co ,', .• :.',,8 penc, 'c.S D, W-Ie .·.lagram a~!'o,ve an,[·' ,as S.UCc,,-- WO'U~~ ~

'-ub: .i!!i ............. d to fI·'~ ~ d ~L __ ..l bo T'_'" ':'_.t=,_': ,",._'IL... f;k'L· ' d' , '. .' - .

,8· .. J~,~ _:'~.~.Jrrunution as, ··escrl~ a~··:,·'ve~ .u,i, J,aet, an, uuuute :n~er' o· Olt,ULer parallel an!'·, eqnallin,es (e,.g'~" the

Ii' h£"· d' 't£ .... ...1 'I'· ):,. ~ll II d'" '" '" h _ - ~ 1- d fh' • nd- wiIl-' '(.' 'I' 'th· 'to I'" f' I' ·I.LY ' .• 0 Wu" I m,ea,) WI ,a ,[~m:UlTllrE progreE,llve Y'~ an·. - ,'~~Jalr e--"·· '9, ':' I. tra,ce out ,or :to l,ow') ,Ie. ioon:V'ef:gmg , ines 0:.·

;1:.',1,.;. . __ -, - _':1 ...

L.IIS' p.en~i

P,C.TUI_'. of 1'0:-: ITIO,N -

F'O':'R"E' S~' H-:::: 10"'" 'R"TE' '," NI·, .. .r N':'J'G' \~ T T~"f'CIlS···· A'-\N~" ·D·'·· S····'· -U'" 'R-"'F> A:," C", EI: ·S- A: LW': ·.":A·,····y,·:: 8<1 A'''',· P-"P'~A'" R'~ r, .'0"-:-" N·'_:·IG·:· '. E' :,S·'·T'" W"·"··."· HE'" ' , ·N:··" P'~RA:-:": LT' ~L-" TO- ! ":

:']' ,1 __ , -.','rl .. ,', .1, •. _.,' II!! J-.I.-~.,~ .... 1_', .' •• ' •••.•• 1 ..•..•..•• '_" .. ". "' _ _:,:,:",,_,." _'." ,I D· '[J._ •.• ' '_ • ....:.._. _:.......'_ :. __ ,_:1 .. __ , ft ... ,:__··uJ::.I·· ,.-."

'T'I"'" 0"::-:"B8' 'ElD'VE" 'R'IliS'" 'FAC':E" (~ T'Oe IrIBE P'I"C':"TU'RE' ,', P'LA" N" E)···· A'-' so. THE--' ~',~ y"", RE'V' "Q"'LV"'E .ilW~~':'A'Y'" F"RO'" "'M- " T- 'H-"'I'S""

.]:J .. : ':'_ ':.[.,,,"UIl!iI.l~".'> ',: : _..:.~ ' .. ..'.,' ." I' : l,iI.e:t'lII· - I-~' =. ," ,' ~ ",' .. ..: _;' ' .. ~~..:....:..'._.:"J':.!I!I! .. ~ : .. ,-r;- .' .,', ._:~- -: ' . .'. : ,~ g,.,.' ~'.:_:_ .. - ----: ':] [ :....: L;'-_"

'-'O'IS'!TI-=-"![O<'iN:" ~I '~- .. ,y.". A' ,·P''"P:EI AD 'IN": 1 I' C" :·~;R·IE-' A'-' 'S-[ 'N:tG-:-' L-.,.:r IS,':' HI 'rO;R'TE':" R' Wh'··"··l .. £1...:', ''''.I ..... -:-. -- be und . stood .- ,,,:.' b· . ' .', ;.i_i·,_ how tLbL- - .,,' , ' .. ' .'. '" .J. ~ , ,~~.:....=- ,~~, ".1.. • 'I., ... . .·~.1.1. ' .. ' ',' -' .. ~ c_:. _ .. , .,'~ .,.,1,3' LlUS m SO lcaD. ue. UD, .en, ,,: . _y DOL.UJl,g OW ." e

, -

lines Dlf ligh,'t ,mtersect 'the picture 'plane: for' each, position of the pSDcll~ (Note: when 'thiS pe'DCil,a,p~pealig as ,8, smaJ]1

!I' , ...... " .... t th th ~ ""' .... ....1 d 'OJ'~ ,. tb ... 'ii'OQUI ~ ,_~'L - dC" d l~ d ith th

,CIr'C e, s.e., Wileen J[U8:'~ .' '_La eraser or .• ·e poilliWU en';_, IS .m VlS'W, .,I~. en it ,IS £:.1 .•. ; 10' ior~IO"rten ..... an .. a 19ne". Wi, -II .' J.ie

C8D tral ''II,,.i!iO!ua]- -. r.~'u) ....

. ._7>._ .. _ _. ..... '_ 'y~ _ .11 '._'~'ili'

'1

iii'

O~"VE"':' '··R'L- A' PP"I' N'.'·;G·L" T[ ··b· is ob • '"i1!'lIiil:!! 't'ac:-bni' ··'g'u' ,,' 'm---''Ii''iii:O'.j. b'" ,,' . ba-"s-~'l7ed' 'L, ..... , __ ,.,.,m-;-· 'mao 'y" b-""-,friinna-r-m tenc to· .. ' UI!liI,![10··'·' It

_ '. '_ - . , .. " ., ,:___;.,'., 1118 O._.Yl.Q,1;IOi1iI!I "II!OO' .. '" 'c.:" ._e ,,--,--,--~be ,emp " 1;hIi;I ... ~~e ,]I_ .. ', ·e·D.--~~__;~~' ., .... u .. u,¥,'. .If.,

- .

It .. 'L_, .... ed[- I.L f - ... 1.. _, 1 :'_ .. 'oi h ii' .... , .... w__ £. ..... ..:1 by b 'I' i-.' ly"_ £L .... ·t 'b .. ....... '11.., d

. is l~ " . on, tne .,ct 'gmt Wiles 0,' SI,I~_t ,m,~~pl~ ... ,. an ops'qoe· 0 .rlec~· BlDlp ~:. SIWIP" ,so '['1m) 0" Jec~ us:yon. are

'~A""'i~11y:: "-.' to tall ,~ ',',' . ~ ,- ' ...... _, ... 'fIl.ed' ",.- (·'1<11' ........ ·- '-IJ-1 . ""'b' 'I .... '1 ... , ...... ...:1 c:.")' 'Th'·' .'-, '. <'uti ,;Ii. :' - " 'rtr-, .. '" ,,-, .·,c,.," 'C o"'f' ~'C·,-:--,c ,al"'- ,,-'. nd " id bael .. ,iIlH";" - -d-·

~ '1Iu;i1. 1_. or. __ '-'/ con,~ ':"_ ..... l~:,a [,y _ OC~ IOU, . 'O! . I. to res" ,:LI IS, a & nDI ,sense: ' .. JI(JreD~U , .. , .. an ;, l~,b~,g-

:plane,s\I! lorwardnsss, and beyondDe.~ m other 'wo!rd.~ DEPTH~

C·· ".' --'-t·,······ 5~' 'iii P····R····IN···· IC"· ·"I'P···'A······ L A--ID·'··'S·'·c 'V" ')A:' ,"'. N'II-S",'HI-N-" - 'G"·,- .... p' 0", .... -····I'N·:,· TS'" 'c.

"sp le,r \, "'. 'II '.'--:_, '.1.-11,,'_' __ ' / .1, < .•• '/

AND IEV'E LEVEL, (HORIZO:N 'LINE)

" .- - ]- if-'·· d" h- Ii- '.. 1" - Ii ... """"· .. ;... ..... Al th 'I el ("b'~ I'~).o; 1;0 '"'b'l d- .. 'L,J: __

''f~_ ''IoT1liftar.1I!!I ,Af·· .... ;00;.._;1 ' . ': ·e'··· .i1!iIM· r .... ;li~.'li~'a -<'O~ ]D' . , ~;I!!jj l'Iitf!ltiC n'lCII.r.UJL ~. . - .. ' e e,y· e ev ~ ." ,-armon- m~, '. 1IiL':! ..G''II'!i,e·' y~' 'II:,'Ii t!·'l-·· e an '~liJjjg

,UI ,.,.~"qIU'J.~·""_·_·"~' _I ~-'.I:!\L~'~ &~ _..&~_:alIi,~ . ,p" ,"", " - - " .~ .. I._ : .. ",r _.~ :..'_.:_' '_;'_:_!~~'. ~ .iIl..UJ.i.:. I:. ·¥~I_.< .", .. ' .. _.-._ '_ "_"!I:Jf

.. :...,j., '!I' ...... , ......... -1- " ..... C'.-'- .... , ", "1 '-yo ' .. ':-'. '-'It' ,+1... .'. fu)- ,-il'.,·""fti'lI!"'Ii,~"~'.n<o,niil"ll."_, o··f- ';'L,if:!ljli:liO. ,An'n:" ~ .. = .",>1; ... , .. - 't·· b ,I" " 'J' , ·d'-· .... , -. 'too' .. ,.. .. ..:l '·W·'·' 'n'r',L'~'ftiR . ·"'t"b·· '.~

po'm;~1 Y.,lIUi:U ,,,!! De:yer are, .. "Ie, U.lL,e, 1.1 .1 Slii~~~i'i!!w.le '>'J iW,l~gu eoneepta mus. ,';e C ear,y un",em.: .. U.,_'.iV',DdU-1!6 WI. I. ,an

Di~!il!ii~.'hCiaL'll 0'- Z ,jI,'iLem and actually" Skei-"';LI:-'a 'them in tempo(larilu alre 1I'\P!r~pective drawine nr.e~eq"· u-i:sit· ~Ji:i!:

[_'"",!~,:~~ . ~ .. I.& iOlt _: -~ r_ .. ..: :_. _' .. ~.r._ .. _ ._. -";.:' ['_. "~~D . I," ._. - i ','1.' r ; .••.. r. __ - ~. ,',_ r-~'~l :.__ .... " .. " .... 11-' ", ..... .., ~ ',," ..•• :_ ..•• ~'" J: .. _.,~~"

. - -D N' - VANIIIISH.N"G PO'IN"YS"

,AI .'1 ,_"DIl 1:,'r 1I,>~_- __ ,:' _=-" __ '_~J'c

A -''1'1' t·-·, .., _ , :, Iines ,&.""'''''''t ',,'. .' ,~ .'.

,~ wo or more . .cBS 'w:w) are m,

rn .... 'II;:~,.. 'FIoii'i,1i'¥i, Ua[-'wi ]] :J!! ifi'V"''''''''D' de- • .a·41i'n ... 'wft.U.llI:~ ~ au~·_ '_, _. ':J' ,JJI,. !~,U::: ... - _ ~U LIL~

d·-I .... ,c,-,;,.·.·.:I,'Il.. ., .... . .. ' , t-.......... ., '. . - 'fr-.· ... - ;I.;L , ..... , .. ' l':aHUU:U~,J',. a,ppear 1iU' come 'l.\iU,glh,.;Jttm" or

',-- -·.c,:~ ft. ,.- ,t ,-, :--, ':-'.,"":-.~ t· "j"L,,:' .... --- ;-·'m!li· - .. ,t ,~~: 1,7 '0""""]

,mee_ R_ ill poml_i! ",:RQi po ... ,_ ~ ca· mI,

,.iLL. '1::rA"~ Nl-·'·).--,-··S··:····m'-.---N·:·-.--:G,···.-', p;O-·' lINT' < -" - ::.,~' ... 1... ..... ,.-.,

n;ne~ '¥, '-"_.' l-;:t .. ,., ' J_ OJl, ~e

Th elassi dl tJill;o<· I I 'b' 'I f

ft, .. - .. ,-:-', .... '.;iI'1i! ,g'iPii .• ,i!OI~.j i :'~!il!it~ ~aminil,A 0.' ,

_~ I ..... ....:._I:__:__ r~, ~_._ lQ._._ . _ . ...:.~~l_ ~ .. :r I~ ...

thi· ':-h iii' til .f.-_1I ... - f-

S 'p .. 'lenommoD IS, I· ae w,',a~ 0 a

_.::;l',_ ..... d 'Th" -. ,- .... ,~1 ... , mil". - r' ......... ll,~<h,jO, parallel

C~i~,~l!i -~,.e: :r~'" , ~,~ .QL'(UI, .. ~

appear! to oon,VDr,le and 'ultima,te~y' meet ,trI,t a 'pomt in, the, dj'starLt :hor.,izoll,~

Many historical painti:ngs, ,of clmrcll. mter.iolS, Iook !something like this, If all the, column ~pitals on each. side:, -a:n,d 'O]J~n, ,all the column, 'bases" w,e~re

,," ..., . ... £.-...::11 ~:J ·d· th···· , ':lI.:: ........ .-~" liC'b" ,-- . ,_-- ,,.joh,t-

- -ICOlUl(,U:I~J aD_ ·.l_.~,ese ilUJILes 1'~roUa ., '

'!I!..,""",~l~·'-':!II m'· "'_. ,;;t.:L- ''''(Iii etur e' .i.'L Io.y' ul·~'ull'· d' ,-

~~li.. . I' ,w we .a.J ""...... I. ';, MJ~,/""i"V' .:

meet 8:t, the same 'po,mt: as other ,s:jmj'.., Iar]y"'ll\fien~ted, parallel lines such as

tb .... -;'"""", ..... :( .... 11.- -.-, th ' .. 'p~., ·A.ji;I . salon e cenll!.Ci[ I~' or me ,_:'ro~_ ......

('r'iI'flIk.n n""i",1II,y:- .ii!!lv~,n,'i.:'o·' ·n· to- ~i...!...." ...

JlJ]lIl;;;f "..!la.· I~FLJl, .. , '. ~, Occur,S,

. hen .... th ''riii,;(ll1~,~111 ~'I '1 :-'.- .... 1 ,. .... I'" .., - .... .'1

W .. ' ... e: ~,~e·· J.U~ He 130 ,S() ,parw ..

lel to, the observer',g, 'face ,and 'to the,

I . ~, ., "'1.1 t, ,-.~,""" -_--. 'T,,,,,,, ,iiL]L:, ·th--- -:- -" ..

P1Cl,;luJ.:l~, p.Q:1U,e~ Ul W,U,S, case~ I" I 'ey

neIther recede 'nor' 'Clon'verg',e and, ther-efol,e do ,BO,t have ,0 va.niSbing· '~m'" ·,t' 'UQilI!l examp'1! ..... the e·;::r,fI'~' - f' thi ii,. :~~I! ~~~,. ~ ,~- .. '_: ~_l ~~AL" ... ~j '.t. 1ii.: .. _. U5~ 0:. . ~ms

b lick' --·aU' -d all .. t,s t'" 'I d

. ,'" I ."" I . ". .. .... . '.. ,... ,- .. " .... , . . '. ~

l:l . W '_ .. IltD·, ._;.:, 1 .' ver,lc.a an:· .

h ~ ;',,,,,",11 ,", ~" . ,,1' .... ]111 l

,·Ol"lZOD'Wiw., j.omts are le:u:c,wY pal"i:"WllJJel,

to JJ.:1,..a ·D·I'L ....... ~ .. ·-:-,....,.Si ;#'C "-,, .. - ,c"-'d" ~ .... 't-'l.-·· a. . ii'. '=

... ~I~: ,~J;Vel:- ,..,1 ,IDee ,an· _ IW' . ue pIle '

h'ii<.......... 1 .... ,.......... Th- ~I tb ~'" ........... ''Ii

I;;UI.l,II1;# Pt~~, ,- -_. erel,o:ro, . ~ e ver'~ll:~$1

. 0- ';':1' ..,- -. ...., .. - ,,_£: .......... '111- - - d' th bo"

9 . I appear veJ:'b!l,~ ,an,_e' .' 'rlZOll-·

mIs stell a~I~Jili1l" Imlrizontal ,and" paral-,

rIlF'~ ~

lem to one anotb,er,~)

~i"··

, . . .

- -

,_ I - I

. .-

- _" • I .: _ ~

- r .• _

.. ,_ ..

...

,~ - _ • .J..

1"1" -

, !

I

•• .. ,t I II!! 1'1

i !

" ,

The DIA,.o.a].·' "_~LL ····,f,·· .,.~IIl:-.~." .. , --·d· ·dr: : .. ;;'.-." .. i'(' .. ·.-:,::-'.4 ·f·_I·'·~-':th· ,'.' ",-- .. · _::.ilOjI;11 .~.-:-". L " .. ,). iii. ~ A:"'LL L-lNE:<' . IS": '1_'1'l'1~~~iT'C"'H": IN:·:' RE·:'I."IA··~···~·'1jlTY""···'···:

, ,"~ .. W~!Ul.w. 0 , ,see'Olg an··· , .. awmg .. ex,oo:pll.' ~nr __ e spe~ case ,~)b .. l!uv,e,·. E. :., ~ '-'-"- . _. - ". =-:.::. nJrJA,··· .• ,_ ,_. _" .. _ .'." . ..LIJl,_ ._

.ARE PA_BALLI1L··,· WI···':>:::-=L-- ··L·I-'·, CO··:-.'····,N·····I'I:~,'RG,-·:': .. ··-E·~·' T·,O:.···W·······:A·_.···,R':D···· A'_"" S···.,IIN:·· .. 'G··,···LE'···· V,.·~··NI·· .. ·· S ... ·W"'I ·N·:·'·,G··,:·· PO- ···········'I··N·.'··T· r·_

._. . I , , . " . __ 1 ._. _ .. " .. " "I Y·..I:i! .. _"'_:." ,I ,"._. ' .. "", '. __ , _,-,1.:..: __ ,'" ': '.'_' _' _!.nCo. -':."): ",'. :'1 - .. : .... I .... ~,

~ - .

I " . ,t I " '.. ~

I.. -_ I . : I I' J' ~

, ' .:' _'~ I '., ,', ",. . 1-::,' , " __ ,: ",

- "

"', ... .. I -

• ~ - II

2·, I

:] . . ~:

/.

,J!_

,"~

[

T· .... ,'III ... - .. ,. ~·-.'·h·'·· to] "tfI'IB' "pL. O· ,. ft h:-- -.' ~'" (' : .. ,n'f~' !IlIiift;v A .. L. .. ·· b··i!l;·t ' ... ,th·· a'B/ver,a] ~-.,= "", ...... ' t narallel 'I:: __ '£I!)' m.n,·d,- 'ftin:th~ iI!i!,I.;;;;;"j\·!ill'~tI!1I:.., .... -~..Ju.it!Ii and

_ l'lIA,@j, a p . O"'·l!Iiilll.:·\Ii1i, .. I. !g. _'Iouse 10'r. 'U! . ~' vliU.OI' O.J8C WI, .... ~'",,,,,. Si9:IW'J.Q .r--.II.' .JI UI~Iil!II .. gu" '¥TJ.i. .' !i;lI!l\i!Jj,~.lt!!Ir!I-.Il.ILr~br~1 ' .... &

1011- """'_d'! .l.L .' 1·;;:_ til-':- .lL ,i. N" .. h th·· .Id'"' _,.!''' ••• h..l ills-- te -":'11''1 . Ii

penei, eKOOii~· tUlle conver,mJI' .JW:leB 'UD ," ,wey :mee~" . ···![o·ti.ce·o'w \I·_;-_e SJ(.lng,.! WUlU.OW lSI, .:" ete., W).JJl converge m one

d';~iiI'II,,-=IA," ':L.. ,..::II-O-·/SII! InlD''1~'lli!!IIPal - In m.~' rI!:III'M_th· 'er' ~'IIii'!i'id'- fbi' - . Cil·'·· ps.,.l' roo·f:' sbinlJ'T. '.- .... _ in fS1t'U-"'1 an' O··th· I ftf' E.'g·ch' . ~e'" 0" f' parallel

_~IWW~, l;U..e Uu: '.IL." . [U'''·I~.Iii;II, e:_,"~:; ,,' aJl,IIUI!] _ .., ~_ 1:.", e I~ 0 .:. U '.:', '.:.~: '~"~~.Ili.eB, e~.:; .. ' ". ':,' .. ..:.~ . ~ .'~ .. ~ .. , g -'It. :]~1'·1

1':]_._,.., m<l.· n.j,La~ n:r;'.-'-.,J ... L .... , .... l'·' ... ·"!'Ii '0' .~[ V~' .a,.I'fII;;a: ..... .:-[g· - 'po' "'m'!!! . t-

-Ul1eti,' _ u!!W~\l.nD~, I'~ ',Iit!! _ ".~ .. (;w'UD,U'uI,.: .... ".'

Therefore: :RE[GARDLESS IOF. .DlREiCTI[OIN;, EACH SET1 OF PARAL'LEL LlNE;S, WIL,L CONVEIR[GE 1'OWARD

'ITS" ·'-'1 ·O·'·WN-:···.·· 'V·'····A ·N:·:·IS··· HIN'·······[G·· .. .l, PO·:·'I·NT:·~ C··:h,··_l,.. ·":'L..,r::li!ii f···,,· .. '..... .- "'1£-''-- '"'. ·,th,:-- -: -.~.~ .. "1-"' I·" '" .,.11·_··;,·--.·.·-··'.1·.·.·. ",.,

,. ~. _. ' .. _. . ..•.. ~'. . .. ", . . ... ,_. [ 1 '._, ... _' .. " .... " ' .•.. ,.1] .'. ,Sea, w.~ ...:01" yourse ' .. m _. c..:e prolllMosmona . examPleBl acr0&8 .pase~

'D' ·-·t- .. '. . _. ·C· -··· . 't· p ~' , '1., .. , "" .. - - D' "Am" '. :. . ·cc· '-I!ii! .'. &~I_. t;j"_L -', . '. " A" _,L·!4i. -;-...... 'H:' .:: nd nrmlOl, -. ,r!iI b y S': -'- .. ,-,~. '- ·d' ·H,"'""'I1\;.,.... 'II''IIi:!:';o'''I!!!

,rill .nam I, ··,OUR. 3', iKl;Y'I.01USe'". ,_'-- cc-~_ ·,--e_l:~O ~,,J["1UI"JiSusert-,, ,r'Cl,UI~C!W:!l'i1 ,-e,uL ~.,I \~ >_ l_aIU~O'~ ,_vu.g,~

B - - :11.. H' , ''Fi'iJAm-' 'U- & H- , aha ArChi' ,~ . , ,_. 'i b Sani·· .. - d H' ba

e-anr::,;e: . ~ oUl'e - ,LJ!-' - - e' ' n . I, I ~ ... -: 'lIJII'!IiC'i ,-\A" -M_'- -:- '''~;i1i.j!i ~ --,d . .t!iI'I!iml 'I,': - ." y·.-' '.. - ...... , 0:" f!Ii'!! .: [ 0: .-:'II'1li1llOB"WI

- _. - '~_"_'_.!!!!"_ I . C • ~y 1. "_. --.:.~ ••. J~-"J! '1 •. - . i~~~!I! ~ __ ~iI.,[ _.' I_' .,' __ ". - f·.···~,··, .... -." -__: .. _.-~.

(,28~J Ai,d Nlo. 2:' 'Eya Levell,(IHo,rizon Litne) ,_, A~I Hari!zontEd Line,s Convergi. To A S~i,ngle Hor'iimn,la,1

Van'lsh'inal 'Llne A,I: E',. llev'.',

'Take, a suitable photo or ,ora',wing and, ex,mnd all oanve:rgmg' lines tha,t are in 'reality horizontal (i,",e~", paFBlU,el 'to the ground) '" 'Then, connect: the res-ultlng vanishing points and notice htl'lw they an line 'up 0:0 a, single ho:riz'on'talliDe;~, ~rms,

;c:!I' ;L'lI!...'~1 ''1::r.-I .. ':!'I .... jt...,f...,.'I,'.' 1,:;',,"10 ~o: ,'i!'! ,,,,,:,'1;11 eonv :,.;g)j"gm:.:'.":-~ g'" h aorizon .t-. ~'-',

~I ·Llle. -Y'_~~I ~_~ 1.1 ,.~, ~ L,u,,· , . ~_.I.. ~ .1. " .. C - .Jl..:I.£itU JLa_ni.

" .. ,_. - - - . _.. ._ ~ - . _.- - - '. --- '- '. - -

'B d ~', t "J".... .:'_, .... ,....,::;11 J!: 'b h ed d '1...:...... ii, "-.... ~'~] ,lecallSE! our' man-mac ie· environmene ,cumJS~ pr,rn@~uy 011 EL'"S,pel wnose e '-R'eS ana marzmgs llppmXlImll'w v,e'rti,ca'

and 'h""o.''II'!'~;Il7,nn''~ 41...- 'ill II 'iI":-aC! tIde! h o""qii'"'li'O'C' .1-. .... .'11 'V- ~'!<3i"i''lili''lI!'lh'" m''''·O' l~ -m"' 'c plays m, 'Ii''il''e',v' 'ro:·],g; m~':"- ''I''''\;P'l'''il:'!,p .... -t~'li:J'8 dr --g~ftg\'

1:U1..:' I I' ,- iili..J&.UU;· .. JLaI. LU.lcc.!, ~ ... '1iiJ! .. !. ~ •. ~~U~t "_:.La-IL -,'_:"QJlJIJlClt - - 81 l . - _ I§ .~:.~~ [, .. _ Q a!._:J' .. :",_, .~l • -:_. " ,ri~~., .~IU.-¥.;rv ,I .. ·,Q,",Q-~b,i

'U71.._,," d .£ ..... ~ ~ .• -.~ £'L:' ...... 11;:', .... ,' '''H~ 'I' .~' ';;;t .... .,;]? '-H'c~ ,~'-, d:--" .", ii"t -,.~ -,J" ..Ji .... _, , ,._, - ~?,

¥¥ I_m',Ij;: !e'il.!t;if'lnlllllBi~' ,WJl.e~, ~, oj, '" ,,,' OW lS, 1: ... US&l .. ; .. ,~, ,i, - ,.' JJ:W .~. fOeS 1._; ,~_, ee'l!; w.~wm.gB!,~ I~ '" 'Ii'

AI.t .. ~ -,Ioft, <ry;~ b'I~OIJ""~~O' 'D''"-'' 'Pi !Gi''I''8·· Dol '~'~-.i!liS

, ~e ~ v.w, _ I. Jl.;;Lj. 'W,.I " ~ __ , 'Ii;,;' .!Il..IlIJ~ _

, .. , 1 'Jdt.. b ,,!,' ~

eenverge to pam'. alomg' L!Ue ,~ orizon-

~ ,]. '!!, '1...,:_ 'III.: .....

fa VamBlI'iu.g nne,

Ill'll''IIli::!J!-.rnti'' '''Aln 00'" 'II ''I 'li'!;tII-.--m-V' o·~ Ib' -.n W'· 'Oillll~,",'''~ _ .. ·,·~UIQ;I .. _~ ;u:. :. >_ .iWkiL~t.C:~:.i· .: .411. 'l-~: ~ ._':. ,', ~~U_I.;~_J

"L"I .... Ai':"" '!" ' 'R' ~_1_, ilf"'i\-,--:--'ftAi'i'1V

lLIODSe ,., 1: , ,r,i:l.ftjS, \.AJ~AJ'

IC,T[U~E, PLANE

"1'1:T&"'i![h!ii, l~iil:IAfi ~L: .... t th ~'~ 'UD~'~--'t'V1ir--~n'ii""'t~ 'Jm:~' g is !~itr-iOl~g[-':a:...J. and 'hn,rizontal but·: W-~-cb8:t determines its location-? 'V···~· "~A~ s:bnplv'~ IT 'IS,

y'·I~~"·~QIIiirt~.ljl,lu-m Ll·.ll_El1 . ··.~~~,·1all~1,· ._ .. _~,I~.a.CLI.,.~I--JUtlp.a~:.:,·~, _"_," _1.· .. _1,' .. -~ , _. __ " __ ,,_ ._,-_ .. _ ..•. 1 ......•.. _', ...... '.,._. ',- ,II!I '.:~-J.' _:_' __ "' ,'_"I!i [' , .. 1.,

A- W'-"'A' ···y,,:·s·--, IO;'-"'N-"·- m'U1~U-' - Q'A:··M-'qI '-L'Dl't:~'L A:-"'S':' -T'- "HE[ "- ,O::-····:B'S'-·~E-··'·R-:··V·-m'R;~S·-· E·;Y,,'·'''D!·S: -In-' ... ,~L ,-' '. _. "rd~'·· ,-,-, th :',', ""b~[·,--·"·[:·,-~,~·,-,"'~l [ii:,iI: ... ::-: .. -:;c. 1-;: ,~'11"'---

.".,,', '.> [', ,.L~ O:~ __ ·-_D ,'£I ',,]!;i , '.:'._ ,--, , -._ : _._,',~ '. C' - .DI~ ,~, .. CLller WO., 1 ,0 o'··,server ~ eye. eve:ll. ~ an,

:;.....,[8.· ·[gm~- arv ·p··)I'o'ntll. [~It' ,!L~.ft, 1:- ii~liiii~'.i!i;'il1 [nlf' [ fL ...... ay;~fie "":"'_"...1i narallel ;1.-[ th -'0 iCtIFfi[UD" 1'- [d·.·~ '-' ~'~C·+·"""t-,Oilii!i th-[· .~ l[A#'i;O·rR,n· (, (~_"'il,...."'!> b~ID';"h-··t-,· '~o-:m--'-;- £ ...... .0,

JL.IJLI_.lJ.j· _. ,13.: 1.7- i-'~~~ a " LIJL.;;: I !I;=-l"~JL u ILI~ ~::.' ~ i11_1U ~. I~ 1 ILlJ ' .. - ~ ;p;ll;;U _ '. I D...Il .. ~ wgl . i_~ • u~a,lliJl.v' '. "J~!!J~!I' W~ :_ _l~iJ!;tJ-· '.' .Ir .. _ -','-'~ ~~

.. ~_. ''''iii...,.A)·-.~ ~ .... -;- ~'!f" L.'~ri "H: ..... ,. '. 4!';,-- ...... lcl·'L·' ..... 'rw'l!7n<n-: ;1._',,",,,, m[~:-'- ['::-, iDi'loo;uan..j,,-~,'Iflmi.-,-idl'

;grolW,IU.' O\1i, !Wl'-e ¥ anJ,S~w~1 .1U1@; .!I,or iU" .W, ,&UU, 11La.~ . " II ~I "~,,. UJt'~ '" .. \!S'.[

A- -d ,. J![ th dr · 'b- -U lUI:. e view' 01L :' .I .. ,8 t '1- a.wm[Q' a love 'wi, .

• _. ~. ~ . l . _ ._." __ • __ ".. " _ tijl I _... '_.._. ..

~~:bow the ~ye. le,v,et and the grOU11,d.

n,~ .on,~. L,__ thl:···· ~.~' .• , 1a:~![D~.::!i' and ''':; ...... ,a''''',af' n~iI!:!I;

~1-~1~~ I:I."UJI_I. Q~. !Ibr.-U,;!t)~~ ~4L-', -1C1L~'I:;i. U~~

·...1'ep· -~'n't the - -~ o[m-'- -:- ,g i:!!I pal' .... ['llal h-· '0" ri Q!'jj,.'1lini'JIk .... '11

'Ui .. : .. :.~ ,d'~~: _. '~ .. ' " lQ,g! :"~ aJl~w.: .. _ ...... ,~~~~~,JL

11:""'1"1'( .'-" -H~'·,- '. L'Il..".".. - =;~~''Ii-e:' p[' . Iane I' > : I' .. ' "1

. . .uJes~ . ef"eJ; WIU PJ!'~Il.oW;I.. .,.. ,gl,'~ .:U'S, [a_so

flu lts ed

;j!5;,a~ - - -- - -' -- .... De"

~eD. _ ,m I. ~ .. ! .. ' -,. B' :;.,

UJ
Z
C'
J ~ ~ J
W W
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C :'1 'C
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C U ,~ C
r:.; .- I: L
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. Ii' w1e 'now look at the picture plane "front la,m"'[ {as the o'bselV'er 'views, i.t) 'we alsin 98e· the ItaY'e level ·plan.e .in [edge-OD, 'view .___ as a. line. Here, 'fh01Uilh~ the Iine also :r[e,pre.le:n-ts its .projectio[D. on:to· the P]ICtttt[l!. plane,

m·· .• :::. -[ [e··t-[ '~h-" Q'r- ,:t>'h'iD ob se ·r·t::lio:r J'~'um- [p" ed I n["'

..... - , .. 1, ,;~, ,. _,:__-_V U,_'1:!Ii., I. 'I' ,,",', r .. _.~' : . III;;;!',

'Il~~e"A 11)od-: _ and '~n r~ ~:!m-'?'..-1 n[. 10'-: !iu,O' . red .. =- ''L ':'i:l!j AJJlr._ ~,Il¥ .. _II aJLlL·." ", Igv ,la~t#U u· ... ~:,.- '"'~I[~" ll~Ug

eyle: level" tllil 'rela'tioDs·W'.p WOIl].d remain tmCbmle(l

'TH'EREF[ORE:: 'THE Ey':E 'LEVEL NOT IOINLY 'DICTA,TES :B[U'T rs SYNO':NY'YO'US WIT:H' ITH"E VA.N.ISHING LIN.E; 'IfOi:R, HO"RIZO'N'TA.L :LINE[S[.~

'V'AN U!!11i411 N,G .~~'.[eYE,

'.

In the dlm:winrs above and below note ' ' carefuDy the lines, o,f si,gh'l, Those pomtin,g to the, 'o~reltolDld ( 1.,; 2)

'~k:e :rleIatively' :s,i.eep lUlgles, with, 'th,e~ ·

,g,r.QUDd", whtle, tho,S!: ]mlmtmg' ,fmiher

awa;7' (3~ 4" ete.) 'ma'ke, m,creasing1y

lunaRer angles, and beeome mom and

,more :hor.izontat :1£' f;h,e tracks 'went~

011 en,dlemily' Ihien th,e: sight. lines 'v,~ew,-

:ing them ,af~' infiDj,ty (00]' :mus,t be

'virb:milly :boriznn,taJ~,

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.. '" '. '0 m '.' '0;".. ~ -' ... ~ '. ': _ 11

.' • I'!" '-!. II. 'il ~

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'I"---li,i_,H '!!!it -I.L~', .... iil!I!'~'Ih''iiI'Ii:'!i,ti·'--- ,I:w. .... - -L" ,-., mote 'tb' at ,,,"Le '1':"-1i:i!i:l!I1 of': c::!I';lh,t em"'b~a'i'!ii'n;fl' the -Wl~-"d'-tb:-: ii"liif: £L~ '10' re·-·iftiN'\"'''-~1 4l':::oc::!l denart ,LAJ!U~;' 'i!;1.'"' .~ ,~iIt'UU,1 -:_on, ,"Om, a;uov@" WE! DO :~ . <'","" ·.Ii,[.J;. ,W,Ii~ ..•. • ~..II\' ". : ••.. ' .'.&~ """~;~- :,<-~:~ ~-,'_'---,_, Ye, 1l\ill'E:: "_,!:1~"""!W.ru, 11i.I~: ~:J:.'!'~~

L....__ ""I... '~b' 10 ""d 'I d tb t t'L.!:... I ,,_ ;; 1 ']-)-' f' '"' h t '-I II< ,"--, U!I' - - ~'Iii"i;,I'!1!'1I'

'InJUllWJ.e: ,o',lerve-Jr' a:J,Ij, a. WILe angie, 80:,8" J~~ 8Dge :leLaI progressivelY sma· ,eror Sl,g;_:;,'~~ unes so 'jBS progr8sslVd.j

,~,,",-·tb;· .. , ", " W'" ~ " - tho - .. - ~ f ~ - .. -- -- . lud ,£,L ..... t ·t ~-lfi'~hl" .a.'L! .. .. I·' ~ . infin:' -", ::-1. ...... '"'--~ - .. 'III ,ilLL_·t - '1',. 1 --~: h·,t Iin . - .. - L_

,.lUJ,~ .i e:r awa,y -r :e eFtD _' ... ere ore: lconeu e' um,_ a, .. ,1BD1":J IUDS ang e lS, so .. Ii .lli~SJ:DU'lill wa,~: ,tl,Bmg,~le 811,-1", 'e' ean De

' ........... '_.".,..J 'TI'_ .. 1..., .... ,~, ·· ".l ul'a 'i1r.l',o",", .. :ld~- ""iC!,Qa.;,:t Q 7 f·:t-- --:~-)!'d~: nPni:'!i~ J..: ... 'b . -ft:OT'iHI~'~ "-"f-: C,.· slnale ,.,.,;g:b~·,,·t, l!''''1'i£'iii~ to ....... " dil'~ ,~''!'-- - ~"' .. - zould :h-l--. , ',,'.

I~~ ,J.n,wm,;L! case: w~ W' _II!AI'_.:" ~¥ Q;, ~ "": ',_ ~Wl_ ,e ~~i",we, , .. y m~~ 01 a. s _. "lJf- lli;:!i.ll.e·',' llU'~:f .: .. WlJ. .y",lD1lnUiIl.lOn wo,· '." .·IRve

occurred and __ ,ly a ~bl't DTowd: a' '·P1"W)O'.' on tho 'po - .[;nJ!;.'w_ .... p'I .... _,_ m1l...::i .... , ''I''IiI'\m'~ ~ t, of' course is"_bP Y-l1DiSL.:- 0' noin , ·,t' 'of' ,,,"'!I! .. 4 ';il..,..an'l' ........

<:> '~'~.< - _' ,I .. ~_ .... v· . _. .. ~~:> .. ·.l,~ ._ .. ·"·.:~.I.:.. I.. ._ ~ 'l'~r'~ .. ~. ~.~. _- ~ Iv.; .,~I"UL,~, ._:IiIIWi ,,:I.:~1m ~.: "!.J I", .... ~ ..... ~ ... 'l.-.~ .. , '.~. lr. .:_.~ '! · .. A:W~iIlUIIbj 1~~1. :_ . I I .... L1:t~ I-r'· ~JUiil

No", D'J' ], ..... -.."..~ at 'th': ' .. 0 ,ml~d' le-- V"I'ii',a'H~' B' I G'~m"-·, '~I'H·d' 'n'- ··o··~ t~,n ~1...: .... t-:' ,n .. ,:',... ~mt;) sin ale D;,a"h'~ Iln ,. ",a, ~m'''r-- 'tiUI'O!' £-"1": -.. ,!_l:-:-I!',f,'I( (' 00 ).. 'll'":e ho ·.-ii~ifIi,1l'ii'£.""I" . :.:. .. 1'"- _~ a. . __ ~ lei J •• ·r.. .. I uWV- ~ . ",A, I .. ~_..:_~. ,:__ .• _~" ...• ¥ LOa.. ~_~ ~~ ~ b I~ I~~ It!l II . _~ ~~., _. _ .:. __ ~ lLU .JI_-IlliIH!~~1 '. _.. . ! iii' I . JL.~v"~-WLI

(Le,~" :puaJ,lel '10 the ,lfO,uud) ~ Ther,e{clM the vanM'R,in, ,po,int of the ttac,k's' mllS;f ,be. al ;f:oo obslerv,er',B' eye Ile'lrJe'l~

In, 'fact,,-, all horizontal Iines if ,extmuted, indefinitely like the railroad tmckEh would, ,appear to converge to a 'po:in,t ,at, the o'b'sener~,s eye :Ievel.,

so rr IS, ,AOCURATE AS 'WELL ,AS 'US'E,:F'OL TO THINK, iDF THE, En LE~'WL AS THR VANISHIN'G :LlNE ,~OR .AL'LH,OB_lZO"NTAL ,LINES A'ND :PLANES,~

,',

-,.... "hat b :ms-" !IE

.•. -_ 1_ '-'1', .--, '"I ._ .. ' •... - " ..... - ".'-'.-'::'" 1,',.1

This ,lSI" ._1, -, our o,server sees,.. : -

'1 __ '1'~ til' _,_":.,;,1...~' '1.:'_.." 'L-. iii

,~ye! w:¥~ ,m " e Vw~1D1 ,wie liar I;llUrt ...

liD.~ ( A-&.., .. ,-'11 ~ - ii' '1_,_.

,17n'D-' i ,-' . OG! - I AIH;JIl.ti:u V' - itt IS a P-·.-UsEJle

I~U__:·_ .. '~I! .: I ,_. ~.'~ - l'~' l~ I.] I •• .___: l _ ••

eel - - )

. _ .....

IilliiD~n" UI'&OD.., .

,~!I,; t!l1 - - c'

Biut, 'wha,t: :loC8,ted, the specmc VaD.,;,

'1;"C!hina' 'T)O\m'~~'-t:"! A;i'WPfti!liC' 'nD:Q'e w,e la:BI.!tIi1,i'

ICI_' _____:~fi 4rF~' _ l.. --' _~;U~ irA!:;! .-. ' .. -.- ~."'

..I,L.. ... ,·t- 'tb(:-,--- he --\, _ ...... '!./'riil -~'~ht, r- '11"0; ..... ~-.' ~'" - ',- _...::I'

11aIi\iI. . e " Ol'lmn~ 15111·· _ llD1e all1l~,

- infini· '-' '~t)r pamDlel- - ,- ~- .I.'IL - ~_',1 ... _ ii ......

,mj. -, .-' , '.' , :--:- . _, .:~ 1·'-" 'w ':KLe 1IlI:D.~ 'I'W'ilim.&!!

I~I~::_ I, .. l. . .~'" [' l' .. ·.t. ..:_. __ .:........ ..:. ,::,:,.' _ ... _ .. _'.' - 1'- £ •• _.. '_ I .r~- '_, .~ . ..:..1

,._ ]!,,"_ ,~D.,· -,J'i'I~PV' limnll~'fii'~' ;"L,~ :if' .. n",;~'L,t~d' ILU ·,II~, ,C_ "T !iii_"',., pq ~ ""fie VW'iI'lo'!i;1I.r,~,,~,

p,omt: 101 ;the tnJcka is the ptJ;int at

:wh:ieh, 'he' "iBnt line' ~lleJ '0 t'he,m

~ t' .. - !Ii- ,. L -- __Ii' .. ,k.t'H . . '1 ..... ,_ C·' !I'irIL,.... - . .

,m~ ersec~los' "II.'e p,Ie"," 16 pMJ'e@, ... " &UC, VD'"

.' L.:::_ ,;!j, t t· ! ... ."'II'ITI' I, ;i;.~L'!_ h •

lBIILUI-11.poDl:· ,essetll_l:mLIlljr IS' WiJ!Zl, OrmDft""

,j._:1 .'. ,L'" ']-.' "__, "4I0\'IiI d')- AD' ". 'R!U SID'J;i:1I ' me seen ,uijm 1~1 en- ,t .•• ,',- .' ,

'~Di- .. r •••••• _ - - --_.... '.. •• ' ~ _.-

1,: '-j 'II .11 £_ .t','(....... "__ . ..,..1 .. _, .1'11 '1:-. "'"',.

ll![J.es ,para. S,ll, Wi LI~ IL!l.lQl3IilI WI .natu-

'/Pal·U. a'JI~.,n Ili'iInfii'l~~iii'!I' :oa, ~~rd"~' I JrL,'!',iOio ea.ma ~ ·~.·iII :U; ,~"-iIUuIl.cill.,,!!C\iI:., 'Ii;iI W'''''u ,I -', UlIJJ!II' - ~. _ ' '1,;1

Iii t JHJml~

IN········( O--,···TH·-·," E--:-R·· W·~,O_.·:_'BD~'-,··S·:, THE" .' ...• 0,-,'8:::1,_

. . . " . ,[I _. 1 _ . , _ ." '. _'. ,. . . I. 1. . .

S:ER'V,E'R S,IM'PLY npIOI'NTED'~'

m'TI"'H H' 'TS' 'Dy" "'ElS"'-' 'p'A 'D ALI EL' TO-- - .. '.-'.-'.

= . -,' . ------= . _ .. .l1'" ~,'~' ~-.: ... ,_!. .. ~- _.' ~-"s .:'~ 1-' .. ~.

THE GIVEN SET OF 'LINES IN

O'R·,'DIE···· 'R··' 'T··O········ iI"O·.······C<A·:····'T·'·E::;· 'TIH'~ 'E'-_'I"R~ .:-

,- •...• - I' ."_." ~ .....• "ti I' - [' . 'L' ._.

VA-' NIS- H'- -r-N'G'- PO-"I'NT

_ ,'- >_ ~~' i ~ ir:,IJ_. , .. : '_ . . " "'~

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'Th,e follow,mg' 'will show' that ,this,

.. ~

,bn;lds, tru:e rlJ"Clr~less of the [d',irf!lction

0', the ,set of lines' ..

H:e're the ~acks are at an angle to the :p,ictur,e p']ane ..

Th--ili:lii, C!iil""·d· -,ii!3. 'lIn'AvD 0 ~~Ii:':'il '1"iIi,g IO'D ~: !If\r.:Iilm~ .-

,- :..__~ Ig_ J ... _ g ,,',JIJ~:'n' 1~~,&.IYi;:i;l1 ,~~~~ ~tfJQj._ ~

a.pplies, so we mow that the infinite poln't 01,' rCoD'v,er,gence (vanishing poiD,t) must be, ,D,t e~e level,

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N;n/ffl!ij' '1·-::-··= 1;o;J:'i_g; [ t··~ £L,: .... , ,.",,' *- ,. -'"'." " '., I . '. ". ,,t,L_t· ',:" .. ··h,,;I. 'II,~-., .' '. b .. ,,@., ~ , .. 11- .', . ,-·:@~'th'; .-. -- ··f· ,"'~:- ,If----,'ria,Slro·· .. ··un· d·':-' 'ti' "'Oil::!! ,.lI''"!'ono''II'''t· D'D 'be----'i'O' rre",

_ U'¥¥',' ,-,OOaali3 [a,I" WLm n~ew u.J,P vmw, we see '0_ . :B\llgtr UJl'ei, e:D1 '.r,8[cm:g lLUe Wl'UJ , 0 -" W[e J.LO~:~,a:· -- '. . '.' . ~g ~,r-"-"I . 1! ~_ .~ til'." ,,1,,. -':Ii'

, · .. ·t'_, . - .'·'...)1 . '. . . ,~,'ilI, 'u:, ,U .. , --.' ,,& _.,i.~ ." - " .' -,~ 'f)'h~. ,,- .' ·.1L , ..•. hi '. . - .- .. :"' _1'l1li'l1li' [~- 'ill! .-. ,;- nd _'~I,,,,,,,,,:" ,-:: :.-. '.' -" _:-, '-I""" ~ 'I "1'" Jo,_ fi-'I;., ,;0;,',' ii:IIii~,ti

a,_ [I. WIQ~ angle. ~or w.es ),W"w,el' a,way· m !~IJe se~I'" ,pro.pesSllV~ smauar an _I IWtiU rums, ,mQ,re,tIl.nu, more w l!,d~ rl.& -I]

'When 'the' ti,es are finally 'viewed s:t, Dmni,ty golly' S! sing'I'e Isigh,t llne remains and, it is v,irma]ly' para]'I,el to the traCks,.,

mt... .... __ ,-Jt .. ":-,' ,J:.:L"'!" ,-, ..... =-h.-···t-, '1.:'_ ..... ,~,'iN'!i,1111,1 ,-"1- ,._ ,,i.;LoO!j;; ~-:1,!,- .u: .--,. -h;iU ,..__ ,;i.1l.. .... ·tr-_I,!." ... !- '. "'!"·r,!!, ... 'L~- ~ -.-'-i~-,-"

Ji",lJe.IIeJ.oro, wm SllI. _ ~,_ !JJ.lC ,~'aue,,--, LV 'UJ,IQ ~Q.CA:B pcun~ wwm : a~ ¥a!m.!1tiIWlg pom,Iiio,

nrn..·'.:' 'li-',:Ibii.~I-· . __ ii' ·······t-· __ ould - '---'kf--' A.''h.nI ··-t- '-f - 1111-1 '11,:: 1.., £ .. ' _.. _ .. ,-- ,·····---d)'I-- 1- ·f·-; ·'h_£L. -,' .. 'Ii.. ;--,

;i.,,1~ _ILI~ 'expenmen,_:- 1'10· ~ J_, 'wor •. · ·or ~:'I '. Ie:: 0 ,paraue,_ UQ,~es '~~I!,i 8.ppear'",O COD.ver,ge:; ~eglar.- ·ess 0 -- w.· leflUer.wmy

b 'i tal ii' - bl- L .... ,,£.'L J.'1!... - b "II l1i .... .:_ -- tb - Ii' 'h -, . d Th- .' I.'

'were, ,Ol'mon :c' ... VIUtlcaJ. Otr o_'i,nue,., or 'W,IwmBrure o;servt8r Wlel'BI J,OO~lg·: up. at . '~em~ [s,tra.i;Dl', t ,oot, or.: Ovni., -_-~Ierel,ore

~ - ~,.. ..~. .. .. ... _ ~ - . iII' . .~. " .. .. .. . . , . ~ -~.,.!. - . . ~~ ~- ~,,. "~~ ~ ~

the universal rule is: The ,vaR,i,s,hmIIPO,int /,ar arty ,SS',t of' para:llel,lme,s' is ,As' ,ppi'g,t' at which ,the li'g,b~' ,line pam' Ie ,: [to' :f,he set· iRtersectl' ,the:~ictur,e n,lane ..

,1f:E' !~

'IN~'~ IO~frrl -~R-[· W'~'~'O·""·,iQ-'D- ·.·S~-:· ~ Q······i'QaE-~::B-"1~'R·'·· 8:·1- 'M"-" P·:L-'~ 'P-, ··--'O····-,IN·-··.---;'T~IS·-·' IN;·' THE S:-A:--··Mr:'··~ D~'l--R·:-E:-·-C.-:-~TI-~'O···~·.·N:-' AS, THE LINES

J ••• _,-,.~ •••••• "~ ••••••• &~ .. " .. ~g.I~.,_,.·,~I.i' ... r.~ ... J !1.ll.·.-··.,1···.··. _ .. L_ ··!~·r:-·~D .. ,.- .... - _'.--':' ._ .. I .~.~.'

IN:'--' O··--···RD·ipb Tl-'O'" 'DI'-ND"- '. lP"'Ii"I'E1il---;' 1'1:i:'I' ·-·'lR' I V--'~A'--NI-'I-~HI' --'N'" :""1 P"O'-" 'IN' T1

~ .: ·.:I~ . ·._·._)gOI '_il .. ~ . .-1·1._.f.'.·· ," .:. I~~_' .: .. ",""'.:. _ :.-_ .. 1;:1]_, . .:______:__ <_ UI 1·· _.·· _ [- 'Ii

[301'

In T .. square and 'triangle perspectlve, this, method of Iocatmg vanishing points 'is an eels-mud :step~,

Thus, to draw the -obj,ect below; we 'fir,st construct a top view' or plan (,lett) ,; showing the obj:ec~ the prichtl.e :plane (seen Ii!:lIIII!:!I a Iin ae )" 'iEll"n'd"-' the '0' 'L.' .... erver's 'no- sltion 0" "'n J.'t...,;ig plan "'ilJ'~g'ht Iin _- £i!!i2"" po in , 'tm~' t:J' p--, ar \011.0.11' -f.. ...... th 'Q oL1i,~t 'rj'i"",,,'iBi;~ n'¥lQ

I .. :.ii.;t~~ a~1 :_:! ,i" ··'f·· _.'. ~.!LI~/ . .:._.~~ .~.Uti! :.~. 'VI,-'_:_ I~ P<"~ _:_~ '_'!I'" '.' -,". !;'.:. WI~ .'.~ Jiu ·1 .. J~ l~.lr. J:_o_J ,: ~<' !.):~~ :·_:·u .. ~ ', __ ~~'b ,,-.Q _:1_::'_:'~.Ii IW ,_- ~ ·:_::,VIJ.~'_:- ,WJJ~~1 ~~!

drawn '00 locate the vanishing points 011, th,e, ,p,ic'ture plane, Other ,sight Iines "proieet" the object :its,el.f' onto the picture plane, Tbe: pi'cmre plane line, therefore, shows the relationship of the objeet~'s Q,ppar,en:t, size to the vanis'b'lnl' pcdnts~ This "measurement line" is then transferred to ,the: actual pieture (ri:g'h,t).t 'whe))e, it ,is superimposed on ,th,e, ho,rizon:tal vanishing' line (,~ye' Ievel) i 'W,bether th,e ~subj!ect is ,DOW' drawn above, below, or siraddlin,g: this line" 'the relationships remain the same,

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In. ,freehand dr,a.wmlJ! wh,ether.' :from life or from, imagination, tbis procedure na'turally' is inappHcablei 'The 000-

1!il:]!'e'll'!iDenA~ 0''" Iin iii:li.D 'f,jJ"i'i ... at:l;b~"i'ir ,a:.. __ ,':; 'n, a' e,j.n m 'III'IliI:!I,t- In e-4L ......... ·d"- be d- iOJ termin .. -, dJ bv careful n,"b'lI:IIe'!t!l1:':r.a,,i;.:;-'D o"-r VI~ suall -'-tiil!!'nT'lii ¥-.II.,t:!ii,,',-,~.\Jl. ,Jl.i"~:Jl ,!!!i.;l!!'Jl.~Ilil'~' .'I~~:I,MiII;aJ,-':!;.I~'i:; 'c'. ~_ ,_:, ~';~'.-, ! eterm ,,_~e, --J I~JI;,':':;"~'WI. . Iyl_ ~J.;"Q.IUU,_ ,_, .' '_ ~._'JJ:Zi::I!': 'v..ll.i~

iIIl

'Y-gi;i. 'lD-~-' t-~'L,':,,,,, t, __ ok' the n 'D'1l'1I~ nf" O'i'"il nL''''li!iiy.'i:~'£!ir p- - oin "t-l WOO - - 'g- .4l,,,,,,,,,w' ard g n~'c;ll.",..., .......... - p- - '1- 0",.0 p-Oi!"OII- ~ .a,..... nb"']'" eet Iin - iDa _"':::1'11 be , .... 'L.n,wnc- - -

,~ ~ ~'~I ,~' I, ,~~~~ lJU' ~"~ __ ~ ,~: ~ Ub ~_~ lui, ;!tL&iIIi v.u:!i'~ '¥:I~l~ "~"V" '~_,~ _;I, ' __ ~ 1,1 l w',·, ;~~!,' " al ~)~'" ::L~~, " ,I 'W&~ t '_:' ,anIl.JU "~ w u '_, '. ~ :1 .. ,~:_~ w:~ ',-~' =. 1tUV-" ',_- ,_~~

repeatedly, fn order to em,phasize the importan.ce of th,e observer-to-sublect 're1ationsh:i;p even for. :freehmd, drawjnl',~,

Tb1e observer's 'view,pomt and cone of' vision, ,his distanoe from a s,ub,ject" and the ,~ppaTleDt direction IOlf tbe subjrecfe lines are the, prlncipal determlnants of how things appear ,in real life and 'ths're£ore In :pers;pecthle dr,B'wbtg", A,g, these :factors change, so will 'the p.f.~e .. , Thls]ll the key ,to any ':!'s,ystem;" ;D'I: perLB:pecti¥1.2: m'w:inll;,~ Beoomiu\1 awa;r,e of it and understanding it willi eaan,gt.han ylO'1l.lr ,POWIB,f.S, ,of visualization and observa',Uo,n~

Nlaiurell,1 Henri.an AI"'"I Appe:_fS ~'I: Obse:rverl_ .. I, _' Lev'al'lI Tih.;refa'nI. 11'ICan Bil' U,I:ed A 'T.h, V'n;lsh,in:g L,lnL!' For HDr'i'za;nt, I L:in, _.il

In "-et~· T!lii'iI!Ii~'iIi'fi!ill .... :!I';£ii1 i'-'."_ "~'aln"l'l'i' Clme'" .... " 'W' .. JL-,.l1:...e··jp.i; '!ii.ria]!!-b'il'e·· '0'- W!!, ~·n·~IiOi·:-I'''''...1 (. 'b'u' ,;i.'L~_ m··nUDI . ,;1....,.:_ ... - for ~'ii:"iIilf!i;l.,n._A.ft or bv 01 "Ln,'I''IIC!ioa '''-aem 0" . 'I'!!' ,.I.Q, ' ,III £~II;!UJl;.!I;:i!la lLW&,.~I!i;#..ul . r " '", '-:.fIe,~!_;t_\II.;y~}11 1,&: ""'''. ~.tsiU "',i! MJ.~ .,I"V.' -,IWilJl!,Ui~" _l_u ,g,wlLitiU,Jl.~~ '.'.,' :UJ '~'UV~:I! 1l..1111l;1<,i:::II.I;,

1"\ai"\'n~IA)' 'l'l'fill·'~'~ _'1-:- ,~I~.· ' b ",,,", ,;l.t.., .. ' '. '- -.-;-;';, .-"" -, ''iii I' _. ·'1 '-Th-:'-' '" 'II '1~1 : .. '. ba""""" -.[. c" .-:: ;;', the' v"· , ,', ~. bin"'!!!' .; 1,!' ,., . 'f·", . ,_:11''11 he _ •... ' ''''·'':1

p~~~--,1g ',' ,',", _'~ RI'WB;y&, ··s B~, Ulile 1 senrer s eye JIl!eV9;!!I I. ~e ,eye ,wve',;. we ,"" v:e Been,t IS! " ". vmus, 1 .I,g ,lllle ' or i:UJI. OrDDn~,

'11';n.~' i'Th'" iiI!!I:r-'i!!ii:;Il'~- , "'\'14.~'.... 11-::...... '. . L ,!'. 'h' ,,": I bgi'.,j,)1l..,. .... ']._ , · .. ·1 " d: " 4".:.-.ft~, -: L, -' .'" '~-, "f " ~' ._ " . t- ':'." "tan- " '.' c· f····, ,- 'it'-" ,,11..,. ,&, .... ...1

lI!.~~!! -,' .~. ,....,lUJje~ ~,JWJ!9, WDJ.C_ c. IS '.' ~,·w,. e:ye . ,9veJl ane ~la,'bWle S 1.10r.lZOD, llS or ,grea.' nnpor. '.11 Jcel" . Of on ll~· are ~ocaiLeU

'the vaniis~hjnl'-: '~m'ts, ,of all IC!A~' ,n,f 'hn~'~n':-:I '1::-oil!'!!

- .- _. --"Il~-j· •••• !~_ ~~u:_::,·~&,~_-_·II;CI-_:.lU-I~\~l

r!! ,Ill. l" • !II' •• III '1'1 •• '!"

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... • iI II'" ~ •• ~ mi' 110 .-oj'il 'r ~. _ II!! • .;;;. .. ,r;; • • II 'I - ... ~ II •• l. '. II ... !II •• :' • I'il ,+ - ." ..

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And, when the olbserver J.is on. fta.t

d .LL_, ho .. 1.=1'_ j)' I)' .' I]'

,croun ILJ;W·' .. ,"rJZOD, Jl.1;U.e WI" sth.lA' ap'-,

pear at 'his ey,e ].evet (In this, case" ,thuu,gh" 'notice 'h,t the amount o:f

, .. , .. __ .3 'b-JI 'L,!j_ I ~L "':'b

,gr-owJU .' :tll~o:re ,1W'U ,Beems: I egs~uan. rr e

amount seen :from the higher' level.)

And, :u:' the' o,bservlu;' lies on the lJiound], ,the horlson Ime 'will. sii'll appear ,at· '"ye! le:velL (But notice' that, here, the amount of gromd area leading to the

ho '~l!Tn,'n' ,,1':_.6 '~Ii:ii£iIIIIIT '··"1 a, ~,':!P'ain less t· l...,__ m"" .. :_'J.\.~~. __ . WJI¥ [1ii!I!~_U_~ ~,,~!IW~ . ~ . .'1mI.1 I I

the above 'two 'views.,)

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::-N'< 'AT" '_lU'M" I' ,'ii:."!! '9' -O:-'RILZ" .:0- 'N"'" L' 'IN'IIE" - (: s . . -h' .. ' '. ,.i:l........ _'1 ... , "n;oo,~ "'"- . neef ,t'L .. - .-:- ... , ..... ,.: ,'~" ,~ .' '. d'" ." ·t)", .. J.. .... ,_L_!_II" , ,':',.1"'.""-0 ,., .. ' .. '·"·c_"· ,.' ".I,",:,",~e~ji w::ore Wle ~:Y a,p'~Q I!A)I m,oo _ _JU.e ocean., pra)l',le" or ,.··'BSm: .. ' IS i~~:u.n~"y

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,"'I'~lFi1114.,LlI"C'""C diU"'"' t" , '.c.... .... ,. --. ..L· ... i - :--,:- _,. .:- -" ""C' 'iii.·, . '·1 'Th'~ ',', .'. I' '., ,], 1 .... , .', ~'.,: .. t ....... ·.,.''II,' -, 'hoC .. -~ -, ,C ,-.,,,"_'1' (".~, .. ' .'",.' .. ' " ..... ' ...... J.'II', , ',,',.' ..::iI'.:: .. , 1', ' to- .'" .

I ~uy '. - , ,eren,_ ,JlJ[uM iQ~erv,e£ S eye jJ,leve ~ " e e,ye eve pm,ne IS, ,JJ,:IWY ...!_omODWlll, '" ,J ... e~, cOns~.U.d,y pe'l"peDwCll,"ar . " •.

th·- .. Iii' ..... ":1 'th' ,- .',,' ." 'b·'"£'!i·-,:-""' er's bod ,,')'" ", ,h,'"I" ·"h'e . ..,.., .... rth a....:J.,.''''' ... ,11,'iIi:!Ii' " . ",: ':. ' ... """, 'f' ,." ... ,·th','·,· obser ',-' - In , .... :ill'1I ,~'~'- -·c·:ti'.!'-nli!li Tbi'-a, d:ia"-= T".

e ,me O...cJB' o~erve, 10;1' uO';3'. WI :,e It.. e 1eaJ[ "". "l;IL.U.dJt.li.,Jf CON,es awa,Y rom" -,-,9 o~ vier . __ H.U, 'UJl.re ~ _' O.iL..IL"!l!I" ,,",~, J ". gram,

,shows this" 'but wi'lli, tremendous exag,glera'tion~

(peOPLE' D'AAWH IHERU! - A;Re At:.. TIU' A tJi,.;V' 81, A, NT".!S

.... A" ", N' w· ~AII il, lIES T'ALL)-

lFl"·· _~' "I ,.,.,.,., II..!! -'_,'

la'vB L.."EVE.l... P'L-ANS'

1_11 __ J ~'-="=-. ~.~l _,~~,~,~,~,_..;;;;;;;;;;;;!,_, l __ , _I_' __ '~'-' :":; -=~=--,~ - l_,"'_ , ..... l , '. ,_,_I_,~,~,~,,=,.=iilIl_, __ I_='

L I, N. Eo, 'TO ,E A~', A·' T u""::'

- _' - - . .., ~

C'E'NT'G'CI.

If this ,rfcue~ through, the earth WBf.'e drawn, oorr:ectly with, the i~y'e level close to, the :gtOuDld and, the ear.,th~s ,curV,a.tmtl

. """' ... 11 - Ii ,', ld I T··tll.. ..... h" f "," .:' ..... ,t:!!: .... '" '", 'I f' t b, ''Il...'l ,..3' ""

mawn, to seale, tl'me diagram below' wow l'\esti,t.,c__J;_1le eart >.Si eurvaeure as so infinitesimal ··or mos O~jse.tvaoe: eis-

, ••. :,L,"""t ~'" - -- ''Ik.. - ...J ~'.... . . ,0031 .... ..::1 Th'"'" .. ,,' ·th-:t·· .""""""..., . ....t- . . d' . bs ,j)! ~. ,- '11 ,,,,,.:11 'w' d th ..... ,_""".~"' -,.-, be ::-4L.,'iii- '111" ,',,', ". '. "D' .. ' ':1

tan.ces 'L,ua'l, It can ue ~"l-e;larll.1i~[i' " ·.e ear I, S, snrrace ane o_server S leye ,J(e:v~ WO"_ 1;,;_.lL~eJlore .~ e Vn";(;UaJl y para· ei,

C IU A,VATU II. E

IrlI e-' A- - - &T- '-' ":~;~, ~,~ - I'~

IThUS.~, the diagrams an pages 28 and .29" ~h,nwin,g a. flat ground 'plane, parallel D) observer's ey'8 ]erv'e1,., are realis,ti:c and the, conclusions drawn ,from, them. are 'vallid,~ In f"act~ artists .Mv,e' ,fi'ar ages, and .. in evtezy fleld of' :fine and app·HedJ. art, used 'die concepts ~"eye: Ievel" Mid "nature's 'ho,riz~:)n Iine" :interlchMg'eabl:,y~ In .. practical terms, tb~ia means that: as the Dbserver~is eye ]'9:vel, is raised ori lowle:red" nature's horisonllne ,always accompanies .it 8_nd a:p,'pea:rs at the same horizon'taJ Ievel, I.t also means h.t a painting OF' drawing 'whiCh shows, ,any part of nature's horizon Umnedia,te'ly' ,indicates tb.e ~ist",s, ey,e~ level and, his rlelatiolls:Jtnp to the subjeet,

In, the, ilbliS,tr-ation 'be1ow~ there£ore~ the observs!Jr"s ey,es 'were' exBJ,ctl:y level wi.th. the p,i~C:turfi's "center 0'£ m'terest;;~~ Note that, both, the: horizon line: and the line ,o,f 'the: dun,s poin:t to :it ..

n,.~~~ ~"""d,', 'b'~' W·.·' "il,'I'": -,--- A',', S-"--;-t~,·th, - ~ , 1::.' d.'·L, ,1;. ii_"a """.'"_~ .

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1.0,', 'O"'I{I"N<'r'G-: 'S-TRAl" :.1 -"-T"G':"HT~" ··'·I'O·;UT"I H'" '.', -". th- I . ~'t·lr~'''i:I .. ''''=',_Ii"' ..... 11 "" I" .. ~ .. ~""" h- .... ·-·--· '-·n'·~r.!Iilll'ili!.1!' (paral 1~1 to']", th'_. .,-; ID'PftUD'~d'-)" I't -+L __ L-:"

_ .. ',',( :,\": .. , ' '~_c'., .. _ '.~ '., !Ii ._ere)! '. e ~",w.-w y~~ ray pom.'w:liIOrlZO,I~ ''''_~;' __ !t9I. 1_ .'. iSI lti"'"U..· ,'ii! _ 11W.eI"-e:I:Ur8

Hri!lio a;v'o #w&.lV I\-n- L1....o ,Oi:'UO ''II1oV' e,l 'po ,~"i-' .- ,', e ·iD,:_· 'ifIII01l1lICllm ;iLL'e" 1~':M'e 10" :f- v.;C!I';nn-· ~'ClI m-ymm:' ,'" ,·C,£.]i!;,"""' .... '" ~ ~'nn' a'" th' ·~'n ;r;Iiri!"!i.ft,~ ... .'~1 'PO;! ;j. .... o o· L-L~"'n"l'!!'

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sees as ,DiU&l.I ,RUU'Ve e,e .avls', as UUJ,OW~ _.1 IWe ,PIClJIUI . .-'C", CODSeqUsnq J ._[0 e;ye _ev~' -_ nzoln, lB·· lSI iLYIlA __ W8:r .. .... LW1eeD.

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.',(1" • .1,..11,;".1 I -. -__._ . '.. ,I ~.Lg." Ul . ~1L.IrilU!. y.~'wu.u ~~ .... """" .. u:I_v Q.'IJ Wle IUJtiILitUJ... . o:r~LlIL .' I _ 11;1 ._:fJI:: .. _: 8.'_ ,Wit:! ,,~tI.C.ll.ti,. ,J.IH:: COIDIe.: UJ.

vision;, thEmefa :e!, just 'barely includes tbe i~ye ley'e] plane .. , (Note the 'prozimity of b>P m,ght, lines and ey'e level) In.

,I.L ·Pl'~·.,.-,..... ·,.:",-...,.,I_"'·re'· .,.t.,. '. , 'III, 'e1.:" ,'L,_, -'" - --:- 1':,_ -). "" ".1' 'to· -. ~L._ to e r .

~ , ;- !Cilr~UJ. &, w.~Cl.v . _.~ WJ,t: rSiye leVI luunzOD, .U!.ue·. ,11, ICJ.Ose . ': _ 1 .... 11;.· .:.:~

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.. ' .. ' " .. '~ . " ... ,' .:. - .' . -~ere, '.: :.. lce.n'Iiijt·: "yJl!awru. lay ]JOm,m, B. isomOk\lDI m .~ ~. or' ,a·._·.e· tolp 0,1 S, H:Jlsgrap .• ' po!le'~, .;LuG lcone

of viSion. 'barely ""sees." ·the· eye level plane with ·its lowest isight. lineal In. 'the 'picture 'thereiolre,,; 'the aye' !eve~ (horizon

'liD- • ).. ~ la to th bo'

i 8.: . i' C --'--181· '.~ •. ~: s· ~=-,ttoDL

An examplls D, Ulookj'n ,'Up/'f The hor:izoD liDs (eye ,level) :.', low in

nlJ~~i:'ll~JtI"t ~ !II'UJL---;':;'~

Drawlu:1 by Joseph Bertelli for the Long'Island Ci,gr SaVDtIl ,Bank

An ,,~, . ar-'; . I ,,' , . 'f' '1~1I ........ ,,,,:"!,,,, 'I" "~, (II! , . "·b·· t ,'., "r ~ ~ , e;Lmp,e D· .IlIJ!U.lI!ii.BI J is w~81I·· ',. OU.IiI.

Th.D, 'io. _'~'",ft.'i"li '~I,:" .... .i!!!ii (';i!lrV'D "I-J'I!~e' I) ;a s' Jl

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bottom ID,f p'.ietur,e

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Cla',I',Ic Lall,d's'o,apis, b1y C,hBrleB

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'~I"I vuurlJlidlY 0 ~":__mi _'_._e.I ( __ ,J!!

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ID~ extr· -, 'e,'m'- cas' eel the-_···· eye 'level"" ("'L''-'r:iI7of:n 1: __ ). ';1ill!I11 ,rIi,I'l(mpleJ. ..... lly, ,a,"bn1ve' O'fIf!! b_illlnW-' th"1i!:L dr a-:wDlI"" .. ~e' a',I ... _.L ...... 'L_ ... " L.._llif1cW' 'j'nd_icate" .

.-" liQI'·O" .'. ...., J.·1 I DU, ,yl'~:' LUre _ ~I" '. :re' .. ' a. ~"\lI,-' 1tS",,- - gl .... ' .. "- ,.L,g ~~~ Qe'J!rv"'1 -I' -, _

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rup- acti·, .!'L_ - tha' L_ t· y -'U - - _. 1- 00kiD'-'- III. g d-:- Aiwu'wards'" __ ...:I npw-,-..JIII- .:!iI·t' atm--· ... :-, e4.-eper·- 'Qiftli:-,IIi:!iii311 tbAiD 'b-J!in'l'!!li:i

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'II ,"aUIIIN'-~ D·I'!!IUI'N··-' el!!!VE~' -L~·V··:IC:L A' ··.aMV··~E---" IOllc···-rl11Ine-"

lllJW'-1 _"_ ~ III -, '1IiiiI " . ,.,1· .. · . ~_ ,.:::-' 'I _ . IiF ',_ . lli( 1 u ':~", . : pr"I'_ ~ I w.,. ''1

S" '. ·0···· 'mhil' - .. ,'1 e-" I~t'-' 'I'na,'v '~.....,. 0'- "'-b'v' ·l'i'."iii'll'III a .... 'Li~'_tL '-W· -:-1;.. ..... 'n· ''IJ':n''IIlII 1 -_'I .. U· p .. "YO" ····U iC!!ia.a, 'rnn.'I'!ii!!i ,n):....:!!" 0" "II!' 1~;~II,':'ft,,8 _ .... '"":",..J 'il'Qb-~; v:n:1I'!II '1- 00, ' •. : k-" ,..;I~-Wfft V{I',n~ C!i~ m-- ,~,

. >. w(_ _~_!. ,~~,_I ~ ~ _',_ .. JV~ -~,." .' :.QC ._~ ";;'V~' BJUA, _,' _::.-"_ -," _:"~' [~I~~' .... .iIi. !Li~l'iJ i:1ILU n·,·· ~ ~-'~'~' ~ ..... - UUQ",aJL ~ UUIJ ~c . U.li.~1

,gm'DDd ior loor" WM,t ,is not ,quite SO obvioUSi is that the: ,eye: level .. ',ho)',izon line: (always on ,a, horimntal plane 'thir-ough, the observer'ls; eYlea) ,Shifts up and dOI\Vll, linv,e'rse,ly .. ,

iTherefb~e~, if, '.heD you start a ,mwm.g', you place the 'eJ',e level (ho,rizon line) ~Sh, O:'D, the: lcanvas, or' shoot, ,ou mus'" be'lookinl dOr\m on, the subje.ct; if. :you :place :i.t mid .. y" 1'0'U must 'be lookiDg IGUiit, ,borizontaU:y ('the ceumal Wtu.aI my ]& ap,IJ,mximately' en the ,eye le~velli ,plane); and, ,if you plaee ,it aIon,1 'the oo'ttam you mus',f be lookiD,g up at the' :mbjeet~ This hOmds 'true 'whetlher.' dra",ml or pain'g'n{l' 'fr-om W:e or ,from. imtl,lination~, Try it and &ee~

So-- I ·b··aGi• m'"'I~'-' 'mmlj- '~' ii' ainu' _.,1l1-~-'~rntii" 'R:JI'h'-l~ P'\.'I .,.,.',J,.,.~nM '0' r- !I!f!IU:-ogj!!!jj-S--""'" l~~· e'Y;d '16'JJ'el~· .. :-h-A~''''.l''ii.n,· Iln Ie' ]D" ·!j'U\ll!ll~i;!i!!Ii,h·· 'ly": m'l!' .. - d' ~';il!MI""""'" ;1.:1.. ...... , ~'W!!",: ... 4r"'1i!Ii

- .. ~ ,- c..:,-,,-- :...;'-'U;, ~. W:-IB,n'~A!!:!I' yy. vn mJVWQ i:I!.' .!I:!i> ~.I.i::i!i "G:!!i './ ~~,¥ .. " . V"'~""_ . ". . .. _ ~ ,,,',Q.I,".:. '. .~I~,WW Q.;II. ll,imlll! m

dmr"~'ftft onf- 1il;,uiLlt, ,--,..;II .,,1l... ...... 'iir-A- .. ' tb·· "e', .6ub··l~.8;i!'!1i·t' D"8'jCJ ":l'l~'B'IrIl'~d:·'·' ·fr' !.nm-·-· ~:~DI' 'I:!P1e'" n,'IfI below " oi"fII'f h ead ~n'

1_, ~'W'U,&;l, lu:...c. ~bg ii!l,J;:lU,''I'.I.w w.~ .... " ",I, ,,~!Ij;;; ft'l' 'g!OM' ,g n ~. . .. u ". ,g,IU.· ",' I . '!!!.I\L _~_ _ . '. " 'U_, '_ :~~ . _'-UL,-I;I,

Bl2'low" An exam:p·]le of i~I~Ioo~,~-"n; down ,'" The horizon line (ev's level), is aioovd tho, 'p,ich"IJ- NtJtio'ool COW'~IOU Halla",

..•. .:....I_-_:_.I __ ..,;jjl ~·'l"···l.:---·_-..:.,I .. : , :I ' ~. '." 1_ -"11' i ti ."[": 1 rl I' ..• ' .. _,.,.:/" "". _'.: .' ....•. _ .'~' _._~ .>;-;Jr . .:_;"UJL¥!! ,:r." ._ j_ •••••••• '.' ••• • •• 1 '.,!~. I··~·· .

'~; _,,,",' M-' ,-, '" 1- 'III' Okl h C'i' ('0 ...... .;;]1 --,-..III N . ·,_" ..... 1' ,1"';' .... ; . ""~ J! A -:iI!..l,': '";' - "".:1' n:_ 'i

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oi'nftl ,)., ~'I'ntmel-L 'D··'IAm··~·.··- ··_''li,:=!'O··A,_--:L':';I,-J , .......... ..;11 Bend e·'l·\I!!!I,W!Ii ,m,au&lli.:iIi./ IUlUIiOJ _~, ."",' .. II:'-.U .. , AE~UIIJLII;#~," ,lUlU Ql:!c . __ ,.~

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. 'PSI. en ·e, lOW. ,iiJ i i .' _".1, leye ""'Vie·. w:.Ie!Yf89, 0·· WJ.I QJ..u,.iIl,Sw:mr ian . ,8.ppear as Slmp!le I.JI1leSIl ii ii' Ii, ,~, ,~ CODy,erIJn_

L ... ·~ ,·.,.,"_11:_ .... ·,·, ~~··,-·-·--,·wiI!I!·'l·te-~dd'···· .,·_ ...... _..:IIn''iii1i.k.b_, '··-00··,·· .. ·· ".,".'. ·1 ........ ,.. ... ]:-- ad - '~'=--~;o\'ii -~:1l.."" L ...... 11·· A- t' ..... ' '1 ...... ,-.1 "'1..."

1l0f1ZOIDIG.I JUJeB 0,1 lP~·' . ·~D.2z_ownW'~ ft~~ SL .. ve eye· wve . an: UPWUW'- W:Den Ln9OW,~ ~ 'i ' .. : ' 1_ eye! wV~ !i!P~Y

B 'D'nlll:!ii!(lll 'IIII!! ,iftR,danl.l_, 'L -';~AD"" .... _11 C" ao·· 'lIUh- ft'ti"\ Y' 'QU" I Innk m·t', ;mil .;J -S· . 'H7i'l"ll. ,;I.'I.-·t d~- fiil!!!liil:!ll '0' O· '. t '"!",L,"""W'·- n g· .... I]'II.; r- . e";'iI:!Ii 'L,,_td.-ft'g- '"';:'-e''' y>n;'lil ~Oinl .Ii,.....1 lA;.'r~- ,~,,,,~~:IJ!' ,JU.UlIo~¥' '.' 'lIiUl.lii:!! .n.·, ~ ,_:>. ·,uu'··~ .. g. 11l,;U", __ "¥¥"u"&,Dl LIlA I .. ' ,v~!ii;!l1 . __ :. tiIlU· .;I,MiA.~!l.U..I_~ a '[WI&.-~ .. , ,.!UJI-."~ . ~w ,~ ,u.u.u __ ._. " .

. .' .. ' .' 'I , _1 'I.w-", ' .' ' ..• :J"I"II"iI'!I' tho - - ..3'::-1[1' h :- -""-., ·r tall', . ,. 1.''' J 'r-' 'p·I...,.._: ',i.'ii... ,t ·-till'"' 1 di!!iJ .. - ho !I!. ' .. -.- tal- - . l!I th' . . ~ ·-·f- .lL .. _ '11- __ ',"" __ """, __ ),,

eye ".Bvw, u;y ,DO~ . B reosu..uJJ,b . lorman" ,.,.me. 0;. ,1,'I,:W.,e QIU, .. lB. . fIl&ippeaJ'S ~ __ ~rlZOD.· ........ ie~,,~", _Ie lli!U~ 01 wt::!~ ..•

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DI~-~ tal : _-. ee" 'f-ft'n_

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Object depi'Q:bad abo • ., ~Y. mwel in

lorder to 'undsidel'

Artoltber' reason :101=-.- choosing e, 'partictdar eye level is 'the nature 'typicall;, aean.from ,above, (e.~,'~,., furniture) o'tbers are typlicall,Y leen frlom Its ,m,Qst cammon vie\VpOiDt helps, to expr:eBS ita function~

e-__ be'l,o'~' (" dan -i'!iiil>M;;1Iiillr ... ·6I!i')·1 J.£lUUJ _~ __ r. "'~ ·,',gill,ij, I~-~~" ..

C:h1apt:8!r 61:: D RAW 'I 'NGI -_H'E CiUBE -- PR,-:--IEIQ", IISIITE, TO IUINDER,S -A,NDIN:G PER,SI'PI'EC'T'IV'E,

The- - _Iii "'"'d' 1-, ,:,1: -, -r:L, C: --- ---;- - -- '1-:-

: IBm S~ _ est 10! a enne "or $1In::u fee-

- - ~

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'n:rlal'l1' G'7i!'a ''!!'.' - , '---,- , .... ' --, --

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Is f,-, all' ,- I 'Iin- '. - 'Wb' tb' ~, cUb-

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(") '~' ',I ~~ndi' 1'"'_,,.''11,'''''_1 '1.: .... , th' '- 'e-' il:i'TttlUD- 'd- I)'

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8D,gl. 'to ea,ch,IDIh'er,.

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,~VEHTl:CALS, WIL'L :BE INDI~ e.ATEDI :aY PIPES

,_ ONE, saT OF HO.R1Z0:NTALS! 'WIL,:L, ,B,:E IN'D'I.CAIT.BD BIY CHAINS,

....... ,~, ~R··· S"','E:"T'" O··'IF-- H" 'O,-,,',RI-'·-I-_

& I~ u~ .I. Ir=1lCI_ _... I _ ',_ ',_'[ _:_ ',_.' .' =-_l. '. :

Z'O:-'N:'- "T- -'''A·''~,,·· 'L'-lD W",-·,,~,,:'I'L-L-- nUl I: N' D,"·I" .,

.... - -'.J -.,'m D __ ._- . DB ._ ... -'-'~-l

CA~,rEID BY WIRES

'NOW' A, QUI:C,K :REVlEW: 'We, ,flee thi;ggSI"r ,as Shown on pages 18 and 1'91~ by'means of: a central' viSual my ,BUlm)UDded

b'U" a, ~I!J!'Ij~ .nr,-' ,~:j:'~i;O:-'!Ii!I ,~~ .ftA;rii,oI:.-,,,;ill v"",,';'~'iIi-.jlj'1i!Ii!1 '!li'iAV' "::'0" ~11i:!11BC!lr u 'nnn 'tb··-,: ·'e--' ~1Ii'iIi'ter ~f~' 'm·' , t .... ~9; t·'" . ft,:L':~e~· 'tbe~·" ~ne ,of 'visio,n defines 'ille

~. ,~u."",.~ Ul v.~~ .. ' "·t.,!! J.t'~ ~UilJ.ll ",,~~ ,~,~ .. I .. ~ .. ~~~! .. ¥-~& .".' ~ ,'. n v~ " .. 1~1b.i ) ., ·~-Y,I-UJl. _ ,,~, - r._. . . w •• -_ - ~

''IV'iI!O' aL,l'Yi" ,--: _~_'iii 1 ,,,,",_, ''I::!II,'P4jl!1J 'I'Il'l!!"'·'t .. :='_ W' 'L,:: ~t.. 'IH~, ,~'¥l'I iIilI~ ~"",:'tiI,,1i!IN'!I ..... le- arlv 'p' ~nidi-- :·', __ ... :1_,_ '........ .&:'1,..,0. eentral 'llTI'~:li,,",,'I' 'r" a'v is the, .nict,ure

,&IU._ ,~Irm.;_, !I;;M~wtl[' I~~ D" lWllLI .. ;1~Ulm~1 ."~ !L.&LI.. ~w ~~ 1Jll::.-a-L I~ ~ _ ~.iI...-~_~ ... ,~i~-m -rral~ ~'.L~1Li& '. ,¥'~I"'W "--;J" - ' - . r ~ __ . -

plane~ wMCh, :1D81' be 'husht of. as a piece, of' :1_' or the drawing :Pltier lo:r canvas itself~ The observ,er'B face ,\ViII also 'be ooft,i3i:d .. ~;"'!,....~ _""""_,_,~,~_,,",'l,,,,, __ ~I ,;Ii~~, ~~ 11 ''Ii~C!F·,,.,~,l 'II"!1'V',_ 1,.;.~_~-'1;~aVCl, narallel 'to 'the 'P~i.eture, 'p,", )ane- :KeeJ~1 'this schema,

-----~, ,~~,~u..u.liWW" Ul,J !k'll.~ ~LI~'iii::IU. ,..wiQ!!lUiU,.IIi.-., 'I ~ iU."'---.1'~ ,~- " , " ",.-- - .. --- c_ lI! ',r

"'- , - ,",-- d

mmm··.1

Also recal:l' ,,1m ,'oUowm, ,paml.s:

Lines ,and ,plan. 'pardlel to file observer's face (aDd, oms~Uy to 'the picture 'pkme) under.go :00 IdistomolD,

bu ,t ''FrIin';'n.'''_':'_' ,j,.t... .... ~"iiil true direc~'Anili! il!!liind- -L.-·rW:ilid::l! ~ .. ' _'. "U_~_Ii:wa.u;~I, -I'IIC .... ,- -"; I: 1.:.-:1. ,.I_.W~ 1aLu..::., 11l!IID,.r~~

L'ine9 and planes 'whi,cl1, D'e nOI,t :pamJlel 'to the: observer"s, face ,'picture 'plane) lappear' 'to conve',rge and 'fbm9:horten~, (iSuch, lines s're :sormetim'e£I, described as, .:lrecediDg,~':')

The 'V'BIlisbing point for' ally se:t of' receding paraJIel. lines .iisl the point, R,t whIch the o'bservsrs sigb:t 'line paJraJ]'ei to 'the, set m'fe.nects, 'the piertur,e plane, TOt locate, this, 'point;, the o'!bserver :merely "pointa" ,m the: :Mme, direction, as the liDes,~

,

~ '-n- Yr' .4 'G- ,--, RA' ., ' . -M· _- I 'S· - 0' "=--NC-:-' THE ''li:TV'XiT-' s'c rp''I.'f'C''fD It '1" - Pl A ·0' :E" :er!iA" 'D'DI ·B'AS-: ED ·0'- :"--'N" THEr . . 1- ·S-rD "F- '11"'~1"'I"'li •. ,~,cNT·~!A 'I"

.&I~ ,- ".~ , -1'·_·'·· .. 1·':.!·_.~.·1 I ~·.·c·~;· '.~:_ .. _1 ~'II!Ii~:i.I~: ·_··:_:JD.Y',~ ,_.~~: , ;'_~CI ~. _ :.:: _"_'~' 1'~ ~' ,~ ,~ .. ~ •. _ '·:.-~·~,D . --'Y'J..:'I~HiY.JU::J.···_ l~

PRINCIPLES~,

[In, 'the, ID,Dowmg' examplesl you, can ieither think ,of 'the:; observer as 'ws!Jking around the: eube, or of' the cube asl r-ewlvinl'~ The :M!u~lts aee :ildenti:,caJiJ)

[31]

The pip. are parallel 'to face (and

~, " ane) Iii al~ 1~'Ii> tho .

PlCture puuW ... J' lSOI :m .... _C." 'Vle~; .'; ... ·ey·

. ii' I 1:b ;Ish

a~ pp- ';Bf3,'1'1 ,ii!!IiiC!ll ""--"e'" v'it!I;;~cas "- ,0, ~!il~9Dl~, ...

,1:"",., ~ c:u;l!1 LL~lI··,. :tEil:!b.IJ.-.· .. -'!J .. :_: .. ,~1 .V'! _' "', _;

i I" : .... ~ .:.r.....1 fa·,·, h "" ,..;'jPjjon'fi,l. ..... '111- st 1...,""", ,··t m _ •. poIDlLa . · .. ·r , . O£~"g~ OllIS . ue a

·-··~~·B Ievel ( r 'rnlhi··'~,_L ~I-' -.111,,..,.... "-,-. ~'L...:lljiji nndi!lft

leI" ~ . _ .:... c w. Ill"!, IS BJ1tilJ milU'u!l1 ~

the nlane o-:rf ... 1,.";,, IC~Dtral vm·''',,:,,'I. 'ray)' 10'

. r Ui.A&~ ~ IfUD ~~~ ~ . - - u.w '_ .. '

Th~ " ·to'····· ,. ii',., \CIi' L,-' . -. ,-':. ,., : .. c--- 4.1.. 'd-

e _'iP V,Iew" uelOW· ow.. "'.' meWJ.o __

f I tin tho .1 ..... 1

0_ oca'! -'1 '. . ISsei po:mWli ..

1 .. IP·,e V'I,E'+N

"Th-~A chams and JirP-a~ 00" Dv'a~e" and ~o· ·r~:L.-'_"'-n f'f'iII...""'!'-,j.,. 'V'S'D';:A'hina po····:~'n, ,~ . .iI!Ii~ iB.qm-· :-··..1~a~-t;· ''-nm' . .L'·1....'s·· . 00" "ne~ D'o',f' I v·';'~~'aD·'· m@;"'''''-P

:_____:__.-··u qzW~~_ ~~~, ,_.~.'.II.L~ .~ '., . :~"IlB.! . a _ JLll~}~~~~no.1-LC _ .. ~JLWu '.:~' _>Ll=!.il:jl I: ,,~I. fjLi!'lJ ELL~ ~~.~. ~~!j~I:_~1 ,1£YI.· I WI· .- "." ["-"! ·j&g . .III .. :... "', 1iU1~.:

c:-'!'·~ . ImL_,·_Jtc .... til."· , ... " " .. -". ··d"I~,·}I;""-i·t ~-, . cub . c·. !i. - ..... ..........,""' __ N··· ... -::te·-I- -1i"!'HI"II,iIl"Ii,11 .. ', '1' de

Vl8W., . .I~fit20l:le _ ,sy are equi l.S~: .uum.~c .. ,e m Pb.;«;LWUi ..... 011.:.:::, e~UGI.I, ani es,

'In' 'til'·' . "1- . . _'1,. .&:L,,_·- !!'~ .. I .' ·~h-·liIi.~ -~.' . "_. ·tb-·· .... '," ... "".,.,_, - ~·.1_"""i"'._. (' c; .... ~,'iII, .... 1I~ -I. '. ·the-~·· c .. ' . , .... .' ," .. dj:' .' ...... ,iji,l#1i;!'Iili, '._ ".'''-)'' .... _,..::1 th·· . ""e'~~AI'II'I!a oii;L"'"rV

1;11. case" Oftly ~ WIreS are 0\ ..' lque ILlY :_c. e P1Cb\J.,l:~ pu:u:re .. 8:C,,,,Il,JUI·..:Y, . .. _, are pe:rpen .. !l;;1~ N l~.> 1i!:U:il\U I. " 8: ... , .. I,y~ ~ lL!;lm.,

ala '8 conv,tIi.Pd'le- Tbl" ,ft ~Qn·tral '117isuaJ. ray· l···iself polr"'int& to. theirvan'ishinl' PO~"'-int I Sse IBalMn,l.e aCirroS9' "a'de)

:':_'_ .~'- 1=1 .. ..:.~ _._ ". ·U.AIIIIl II -:._:...~~ ~,,_ . .:_._ '¥ "_-I - : . .'.,' _. , .'.-.. .' .-,'. . -."... .._. _ ~_:: 1: .... :.:,.· _~ \ ... _::"_" . ..:, .. '. I' It' ..... ,,_ ,:._.-_.' r _I' .' ..

~,

A' . "'" "'I - ,I, ll'·":-·, ,.',' 1 N~"""--' ,- Y·,·'-'·-·'-"r·l., 'C""",~l<' 'D"'~ A·~:-'l.:,nl .R ... '0'''''':'\., ..... , 'I, A_~~.:~ ........ , .... ", ... 'iQi""",,-..::I1 .I~, ,'h.1l" J ,"., _'-iL--' D""Am', . ,- ,II' .'::ii! ~ par "men" ",' "OUSB", ~'''.' ew" 0·", ". ,- ~",y,~ .' ~e, ·,IOU Wi ,~user:J' ft.;[i1;.lU.~u:Il\l; ~uerml UJ '.' osepu ,____: .' ~,:__~_ ~euo

M.IJj.l:~,' C=-"Jm'l, - ';':iffi :z:;'Iftl:""'-I'i''nJ!!i'''', 'D"'A'_I_,ll':O~' .D:.. Bo': .... "'",'l'IL"I'!I1C!1;O:1:'!I • _...: ...... ';!'t'B·......a:.... n,·'·"n .. ··d·: .D'I'Iimli' I" 'L.u' J'nll!le,nh" 'D"'IA"-'e'~'~o--'

:__._~~,~M' .~·.·6_ .... ..,!IIii- ID-f·!f,"_"W\f.'i!\!IWi~~~j I .,'_ ~l._lLt1U. ," ~ .. _._I __ ·.oa'~~:IIIIp. ~111. ~.·_.ILI;LD.. ~ .. ':~~' __ '_.' ... ~u~: _:W~. _!j I ,~-.U.' " I!I

- a'ldll D' A" 1-' Th C·· -b-

. '~I' ng.' own _~, : .. II:.U _,a

'The. pipe.s are DO lo~ger-' parallel to

ob .' .. ' ;'. .4-.. ( .......... ..:1. . .. ~, ...... ,- ,- '1' '. ) 0<; ,server s, liitl.ce I ... auu. Pl1t:,liw.e pane,

th al d 1- h

' ,', -::-,~-,-. ," ,,'-:-' ... ,.--:-:--:-'~.- .-- - ,.' ... '. ',',:<' ..... ~".- .. ~~ --'---;--1

BO ;ey 'c_ .• :. so coDVierge Ian· Hores ',' oeten,

mL. ""':,- Y'IDiIh ~ ~ t 'iIIl . ..,..,b,'!ll_

.I,UCJ.I,- '_,,~m. po,m: 'on pl~IiW.'~

~,.1 ..... _,._. ~. Io .... ·ted-~ .. :- ~I" - ·m-'· -.".;: ...... , d .,,~.-

p~ l.S . oca .~ .. " u~ po J ·[IiM""I·· OD.u..

H!I!- _..J .... 1ft ~L.rB:;,~ ..,lI';;:-~~"'::I- 'n-'

,"W~UIIi ~ 1WJ.'¥M 'u.u.~LW Ii

The vtmishiDg- ~ 0;, I h iii' tala'

. , " .... ":1 :'; , ' ,: 'T"iiI')1'n'C- i nr . n ~'~'nl .-1 '.

~ ':r . - '.' Jr,'~~.1. I iU IV I[~!.....-..... •• '__: ••

. b ... ~L" 1'1 hori I'"'

must, ·~e on me ,eyie ,.eve .'"": :'orlZOn me·

(', .", i . ,i. ..... ~. to'- ,,' by··;· '0' ........ L·B~ l!ir~)' Th" ··e· 'ft!:Iil~'Ii"II1

: :pomw-u.. I '~,_: ....:.1 WUi.~ ~J!,U. 'O! .'.:_;' .YJJi.a..Ii,.I:.

.. 'hich · Iii b I

ner'" m'"'· " 'Ul" _ .. 11' ,.\ .. a po··m"";in,iIilP 0':·' .,a~""1e1 . 0 .. ,

_'" .f_, ft .. : :1 , __ ~.-.'._ ~_~ -,_ ~y ... ,"

tb 'b ' ill~_ '!! -, , .... 'iii....

lcates em, on t~]1 ,uiie :IS BliIlD, ~iOWD

... ;l..L.. .........3:,8 t- ,,_ •

m ';~ u.:weren _': 'wp y' e,Wl1i'

I

No-i,j,iI!...o,!("i! 1~t.. .... ;rft'l!iIl -D-'n~ ·WI· 'iii~i:!Ii ar~ ':-0 nt:l!ilf;";a]]e,:t ",_. p' ·i,i"rh·'iIi'iiili .... ' p .. 'lll_ ._ . iI!!Ii I!I·O: b· 0: 'th·· ,"'Er"y-nv··e·c'i'iiiiDII!!ii and ~ .e'n.~~'h,nr.·8D· 'T' lL ...... ;,'II'!!' 'Iil"SlDig ..... ;;'n," 1F'W""i'm",· "'- ~'ii'iD

~YlgJL I;1LQI~~,' tU1.L 'o_-:', :L~' .-=.~_l~l .~!. I, - I. IW :', l~!~lLll~ . J!.DJI;-.w;l, [C'o' _~ - .. ,11 '_"_ ~. '0' " • :I,..I!. t:lj~~ l:_ I ,,' [IIU~~ ~ ':u~ .. ~ . .,. ',il - -.Jl,W.UIIJ Y-2:r~~ r~\ 1_ 'llial ~l~

I til !ii' .. ~'-t f • ~'!iI_ ..... 'b 'b th- "'.. '~~':""'i"n_,'t 6..-.. f' I .. '.

eqUlL'lI~,., :rmm, p:ll~.,wc ,.Jscanse _'O_ ~ i_"::mting arms Brie eqw~KU:l.i: :Ktim CODe 0'·' VlSlOn.,

A __ .'11. ft,,·' , -'Dd " i!!i .'. "·:-b·.'l1:~·-·, tor'·;-: p,i •. _,...", _ · .. lane , b ··th '.' -",," __ ,..JI .- s .. .,.. - .. -4--., Th'1 .,' ····b .~, .-:11 ,', _;,RJ..l:Ii_, .. " .. :1 ··t-

118m., c~ams, ~ WIres ar-e' 0_·· uque I· ... ,T JlC.I;!JLU~' P ._ .. _ .. 'J! so ,,01'., OOiDVlerlrB: ,W·N Ime~OJr.M1nl! [ I·,!e C~mI 'luumJ.u.uil pDlm._

ila A--.£La'l'!!' [!ft 1I1A 'v' L ............... 'tI .. 'il!II& £L.;i!Ij p-- 'o'm'" .I.~-I 'Ii'Ii]1 rDl'ht i!Iii'~ i,1i!!! 'fur' , rth A'ItI!.I...--..LL D ~D- e' o' ·f: 'mariiO- '0--

.!UiI ,~'IICId:l~ A;-"~~' -~~~ lWl~ 1-- ,," .. "~~_'j ~D OJ '_ !~.M& ~ ,,', _'.I~ ,l :.C& LlVJU w;Jlv· ~.. ,_). ·1'·~.L·-·· "ill)

. ,

, '

-:C);' ~CP ."

. ",C)"VI·o··iIi""i\(J .

1 ~.

-,' ",.I"

~

.. '

I I

I I

I'

I .. ,

I

, I

~, ..... .:-,... . ']' to to iI .a.:t.., 111 ..... ·]· d" 1..,_.. tal {' If-':-' 'b~ to "''''''d' i ii' th· .. 61

vJ.lWMm ar-e now par ,·c__eJL .... ]Jlict'me :pllsne ISO. Lilley ,B,Ppear ,paraUe . an,' . uunz:on· .. 1\ . o\.-.server pllm'.~·.' I, In . _L . ell :.' 'U"OO. OD,

(d' tt d I'·' ') he .... ,'!lId ~ .. ,..., ." the '" ............. r-..... 1 ) "W"" t- aU I to the'·-" '"'cture Ian A- '1'p- t" iii:, ....

I <'0 '6-; me" ,. / WD'w never mwrsec~ rie.' p' ·1l.;i.w:~ PI' ane ' .. 'I~! are 'no'" p~ii'"-: IS'" ,.' ", P'II' ~ ... ~ •. P'I' - .i!!ii '. 81' . = .!UtiIA

.. - ., __ !. __ . '_' .,_._ ' __ ,_,., .. ,_. _._ . .:......:.-::-.,' l' :__ . _ .. '" ".'. .:.;_) :._, '_ .- '~"'. " .. _.~. . ~wg ".,' '-. " ~:."''''': ... ',", :_. ,I.,' 'r,- l_,_' ..: . _<~,._. t~~"l' 1 '~ __ " '. _.:....______:~~,

paraIlem to the wires (located directiyabolV8 the Icentral visual ray') pomte, to 'their vanjsbi'u;g paint ·on eyle ],eviet

Ii

I,

Two examples of ~(lookin,g down," NOlte, the, do'WJlward convergence ,of' ve,wcaJ lines~

18t'.h-ce,nt,ury d'rauJling b,_,:' J'obaDD Sehnbler, Comtesy of The Cooper

U-'T' .' _ M- ,.' ' .. ,,':' _._. N··-·· .. , -y.::"" ,:1 ... C'" .~ty.~:--.-

m~on,- '"useumL, ' .. )ew ' 'C),l,A,· . ',J, ~.

. .

MiI,d',night .R.idle [of .Paul: Benere, by

G" - ant W'" d Th'" M' ..._ .. ' '"';i,ri"!i_, . ," ,-:-·rlD'_,' 00-; .. ,e ,-'.i ell.o,JI,lo.PO .. ,1W1.U .. ~lIU-

seum ,of' ,Art. Courtes.y' of Associated

A ".,.:"'_ . , • ......4l.,.!','+ .... menean .fU.·~lS liia

1-'4.2] L .. DkinaIUpl At Th,I.! C:uba

Tb':A pll1'I'1;i!!11!!!11 D' In tl be ,i1"l1'~ na.~I"le'·1 to· I . face'- . ','

.. ~ .. ·.r~.;.l -u .... ~ .r-~-·- I.' '_:._-.:__:

land 'p,icIture plane, will eenverge and

&. 1...,_' Th!l' ,. b' _. '. t

iloresi;-Wrten. "'_ .. : en vanlSl)jn.~ 'p- -' om~, O.D

- Dl! I

..• -~,~-. p"-l '. '. ",_. leea .L-...J b'y' p--"omiO'·--·tin'l ~- -'fII' PJIIC~!liW:~ .••. ,ane· IS . 10 _' ..• IIIe.U. ..... I .. ,...:_~:~'·' 'iEI,

\

I

___ -...J,N I. £'L, ·i' ...311,:: oiI __ , ,,:: Tb

'UPfWI~ mw:ieur IWreC:uQDi '.1.:' evan""

::: ... i....;j\ I '1" t, •• ii' ... '''''''' ~... h':'" ,,.; , -.- .J..· ..... '11 Iln ."', I .'. '. ',. t

RW1 .. pJmlLD ~o:r _L_OllZOIUw:u., .... :_!as mUll _

'11.... ..... 1'-:- :-n' ny:: e Ie" 'V' el-ho .'. '!Il!!'''I ... ·... 'I:I"::'~-' "'1 ~L_ to - i

I~ 01 ... ~,'.c' .. _ ~ , ,~lZOn uuS,., ..I,JUC ._.:..p

, -}' .. , ,'! 'L-,i'- f" .~ tll'oj'n · ..... 1,\..~~T 'bft .. ' 'th·· .(',.': '. ·'1

VieWS ~. ·,ow .~!..:,.:. 'C__' m:l.u.n .u.uW .. e" a:r-e

'1 .... _ . ...:1 a1 th··... ,",

OC8,IIlCU.: u onl .....• ' me ..

'!-ace I

- , . ...,., IDllIlnaaJ:JCI.U., " I I' ~- . ,. _ ..

J

I

CL_,:_,... 11 1 -'-- '. '1'__ tb- • · .... _ .... '1 '1 d" hi - ~- .. .i. ..... '1 (~... •. tin!', "'_ 'd' ... 'L ........ '!Ii ""-'b" - -

:I.-uu;im pe paraue eo pIcture :pm.uS: 10 ._':,sy remain ptttw e ann ,-Ol'lZOIl.tw~ 1·,.L,a:,Y' po:m 'I~,I 'ww,ar' Laelr yam. ,IJll'

_ - - II! ",,)'" W,"!'., . .. ,--.- t-·· nar,-''Ii!· .... 'iII ,,L_.. • iI'!iI ..... ,!!I, ... u p'I_,_"""1! '0, h,Arr-.;'!!T-I'ii.'H, .... ,_ 'II !9~!arbt'- iI: ..... o earallelto .. ··tIt':··'if!ij'WI-'T.i.e-:-·!illi,(ln,ni!l':!ii';Ii, .... d d: lr SCL1y' 'b"eln!IIII'll' lPO,m~h :'HBS B'I'tB.! no ~~w Hal ;11,.0 pl~;IIW'~ ·.~:I u; ~ :'~J." .~uIUi:l!. glll!lll:__:'__ . JUDr~: r- .. ,.,.rn ~. .: . ~"._~_ a . ,!I"i!!~I~.' .. ,I IW .. ' ,:, un

. , ..• ' . 'Ii th i ., ... __ :,li'iilL'::-. Ii' I 1111

tb ." 10000.tral·vlsual. ray) pam'tal to_:,e1rvi:U~l,l po.mt en Ie;Yl~ evei"

:Ne'ith~' Chains nor 'wires a:rle parallel to the picture, eo both oonver,le and, foreshorteni The c:baim" vanj:gbinl' 'point is

- _ _

,&;,~ ... 'L.ft'ii!! afi!!1!II''U' be ili'\lili!!lilut!lle' "lj.., .... 'p''"m'" ;·-·'t· ~'ftlld' ·fl:·Ol' ..... 't' ~i'll\!l!'M'!lil ;;a ,fur, ,,;i.:L._~ fr': ._-.... .' .'. ' ... ··· .. f·_! .. iI!:,:1II1 "'M

.I,IW;WI~."p-.l.1 __ ~'!iiI__" we .~.u '. 'l-~ ·:....:m.lJL ~"J!~ ,p:I! .~. _,~ . am. lcone iO 1 'VWO.l,IIi~,

[43]'

Tw .- --'"'1- - . f' "Cl'~ .... ;'",-:!_ - - - - -- " N- . .'- . - te-

, '0-" D'VOO:'n'lIi'P" es 0'" - l.iUOIUI;1 D' U" n, 1- 0' ,,'

.. [G.:~I :..- '.: _ _'.' . I ___:._ .... _:.. ' __ - 81 'r-r!i ~ - ,- -.,'

th -e- . U' ntlJiIill'rd' - ,: CO' ,', 'n-''1:IH'r-: D"An'~e', nf ''i:~'.£jj,,...,~.t;''"'':'- '11

... ' '_. ,'r··I1!-",g__·.'·, ··.··.1 .T~ l~~-'&_JI,"'-,., I~. l"~!Ui~

'11':_. ,

J),ud3S~

W';'n" ,.,jo-;'w.'" ,I!:'" 'fIr!y' Oharles Shee ,I-'a" C' '-'O'll''II~..,

!.-_ .. U'· ~_~ ai, ~Ul"" ~- ·~13' . -.1_,_1WI': .~,iIi -,"-_". ~

t'· .', :" . "-. :-, 'f~' ;L\.. -. jIi' ..... - - '41. ..... , - 'G': " . 'U" . ,- - ,- N",· :Y",",,:

'esy O\'IUle ,,lIlJUWDLUwn "_.ill ezy", ", til : ~

(: B'~-:-: .,'. 1· .) p."" Ii, .' 4i._...::1 b'·, . .' - A' ". ,'1.:,..,., D_'" a~ ,Inn, I, ,_:e,ow .. ,':, SlDwo,-,Y ""USLlu! QJlrl;e,e~ Ji~: ... ,

M··_·C'·"a!':I·ll .... , .. 11"'-- _.!ii', ".' 0.', I, Hlii ma,azme,

C' b II d'·Alft 1;'...1 'T D Iii' 0' 2 U-' -,I.-II N' I &1.1 B .11-'....:11·

_ u_a ,',', 'U'~ les .... P ~eu ~,' D ~,rawlngs: 1''''."1 "",nlh.- '\ .lil,an. ',Ulilulllgs

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Here':, ,many parallelcubes, above and below eye level, are viewed, 'simwtaDeousl,,. (witbjn one COD.e: ,of v,i1ionJ,~ 'There, .... :fore: 'the chains, (all horisonal and parallel) will convelg·e 'tow:ardl one vanishing poin'i) and. tJbe 'wires, (horizontal and, parallel"" biDt, ,1O:iDg' in B, differeD'i, di.mc.tion) will OO11vm",le 'toward 8, dffferen,t vanish,ing 'point.! The: :pwpe9" 'be'ml' 'parallel to th,e o'bserver"s, fllce~ will remain parallel,

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(If any were emctly OD eye ls:vell the:y wow,d Da'trutralty' appear horizontal.)

These simpi:e; princ~ples are eviden,t in the, lletls"pel.div18 :r-ende:rin;1 sbolNll belowii'

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COD'verD',;Di and th·, "'e' Iin .~ • emaln ''l'''Hi1i'":a)'''', '10"1 Qj['i'j['d'~' horiso tal' -Th'- "e' p'~cture"--"".,,, abov A ;iC!I based ,A'D' ~'L..,': .... ,li\!il\1iib- 1;~"'7 ~ ... 1~

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, o~ 'U-Ul.: .·"'_ls: FaJ.m an .' e ,an,cymes converge w _ ,ell correc,· Y,itU,ua.LI..I.£1J6 pam_ ,IU ~ .. '~' croa&-·,IBS itILUa. ,>' ,,_J;JIr.

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.lm,9S, Wj .·le· are,~ o--Ique Ul.J ,w,8 PIC"Ul"t;' p<>8Dle .,' see "Opi vIew : an, ~OUJlj~i CODve'qie ':. I e, ¥,anlL~D'.:: " pam,., m .' . C8.1iC :

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" . A Th' - - -- It' "'. .i.L., at the" ~-., t· ed iJ th .'£_.,.. ".,_ t, Del"'__ th ti'l!' t.'Ii"1I:.,.,':',_ I'"

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'bas' ,-c-''''-~''C-'-- P'o~'I'\f1!!~V' e ...3'-a'wm"· iI!I" nr'm!ii' ,,, rfi~'p'I;ftD, Hi'n,d results mill' a. v'~'~e·k:r- o"f dl'isto,p-ti,ft'PII,s a'ft,d- ~,cilll'!li.aml.aal

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..I!.:L_,.:i_ d!"'Ri-'lIil:,..,?, 'm'Oi-~-' CO'" ··m-'-p·-,'II!'"',t'i;!I:IIIte,· . T-~'-~'q" 'I'I,!i1!Ii,~ and ~iAnl'le' i'\DI"P- ~,ti-·,"i"Uji 'C'. :"'1" ,ilni[il''ji ~ iI ,i!!', ,-- ..... p' ~'b'~'" ~'~" f'·'eh ' ,d- " --1.

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The,relol'e" 'when 'ib,o vaniSh.in,1 pO!Ul't of' one set o,f' lines of a. rectangula ~ object is p •... Iced at the' vertical ceD.te~r of iB,

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l.U1:l,WlBIILllen we Ol!!Uer Ie o· ~es .,8,. ng" ,an,1 es, .. 8,O,..c""._ ap'pear ,para .t;lI an· ",onzonIHU .. I .. 1,.".,g~j6'p plc:_,ure prevwUll

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Vlewpo'Ul:t',. ','tel ,ot' ;it:F set o~·' ,'lUI' 8',,0'IU,"; "6.,m to ioon,ver.ge to d glSta",t :van.l.S",ng pol:nt,., (I!tl:I:~' b01t.tom. pic,ture ,pre()I,ious

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JU:U:ILCS' ,al/am ,IL~ ,pages ~' ~iU.I.' -'""", w~ !~ C11~, was YIeWeu _y llOO&..UJI u-OWD, ann _',OOA.U~I up" aD_'_ nOIi~I.mI_ IWle

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o Bee'IQI,IUJ.m ru ,e _ mJU 'OWD. m o.r,:er I 9Ul),P-lI;Jy' matters, _'u.. suea sunP,.!lIC8,tlon ,m ·:E!',PJ:W, Oi-uY m, meC,Ltii.U~

(T d-:- ..... ' .. , ':-1) pecti'"':h ~'o"' 1_ I'"' ..IL __ d draftin to ,.jL .... :bJ'~ h d k " '..'JUIII!fl1rPD Blft:Li:._:iaDU e 'RiD'1'S ... - '-'.'y:e 'W:" e~e ioonverS11iM:i" 'ver 1-ca..uJ 'tne.anB oo,mp" lca.i~ Wct.iL··I'····I:·' eliWi ']L n·'Pii~ ft:Pn'r-"-:-'

_ ~"":I,I~_ 11!iiI!l-Y_" '.' I!!i' r.o,-.- .~. ,...... . .. , .. ',' .','.. tJ,~ . "".'1.., "" J., . <" 11,"'" .t •..•• '._ , ..•.. ,:'" ..•. ,~;I '"'V",

, , .. ·tIl' dis' I~-tam", 't- , . _!ii' 'hiD~-:- .', .... ;;; .. fa' .' d' .. '." ··'I~1 - too---····· eed to' ,'. d ·'ter·· ... '"' ..... vert·· "~ ]-. - . -.'. ~. .-. - ··t-··

'I'I!'] J',' . . '.' 1 '!i:!J'aDIUt. . a 'l'V"\1D-1·. . i4!!1ii'li'll '~m,' p" IlliG. I. -,--". p' 'Pft ' .. ' '. ill'lIiMiIi!!ii-C!l ., '.' I . ~ ,. -m. "l.ne· '., .. 't,lIi'Ii1!iIll. 'Hf'ii,i3;gi5''iI'iilI~'Iii'Fi.' IAn .. ,,~

n·· II ."" . l . _:___:, ~.' y. _' .. " J. -:.. .. .. 'Bi~' .. _ ,I! I_.J..' II ~ .' ... c~i. -." •• " , [' • '£IU .. ' ~. . 1t.U. ~g! I . . WI"' .. ' . , . '_ '_. _'&~" ,,,U~@IUJI,,!I;i.lL.aILI;iJ .. _a J~'I!1

ThS,miOM;l 'wben working freehand, (Iwi:thout drafting consideratioll9) .ie,t the visual 'tnJ'tb dieta'te(~ H :YOD have:

d IfR_, .. 'l'~1i!'- .'.'. t--·'· til _III' cc,,- .. 'tb:-, " .... L ,~ II·" ,'I!- - .. - . m'~'" 'L· __ I'

\1 IGW,~:J' ~:tC~p -l1li ~Uli Upl .. " ';I HJe JlO ... 0911111 W _I ,.lie .Pii

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''!"- .. ,.:I .... o, B 'L ..... ""'"';k· ' ..... ,_,J' hi' old II't· -' 'b' 0'" ··r··;l!J!nn- ta llv . JL 'il.~tQ.i g, [DU\J_.~. !WWl .1. D.I ~ I' •. ' I, ". ~ ",' _ , 'J

m'iii this· -,'!I!. mmm-' ' .. '-'sr" - (·"le-'·-t-'t)··

.. - . . - l' .' l ., _ .'

• _".".' .. :' ._ r , ' .' .=,' .' .'. ~

'Wha·t you. see fright) are Iines 'OOn.-'

· ........ tr 'I '. 'lIl..,'::,'_, II! t

'v'ergmg ',1lo(J 8, am·~:~ll_:., 'vmuSffiiI.__g :pom',_~

at eY'j4 'rI1.n,~,~:--,l B-'- a;'1n1I" - iCI,fi,-,-..;I .... ,_..J l"U31~nAni .. Q,,_ < ~ JLl~''I'[m.;o ': _ '.~ _I iiilIi1Il!ij,UUit,I--u. r-iIl.~'p","",!!!<i!'

U-,",,:-, '.' dnt·: _. -"~wm;-~·!iiJ·· '1'" :t.hls.. "[~ . .., - "m8!' .' , . .;I.;:ty.'- &eee':- .... '--pW-" ~ ---,

·V.-;O I." ,,: .: , .. ' . d •• d' , I ~- 'OU_::.':,." .'. ~'I_ '.'

~ C. 1. . - _- . I .. .. . . . .--.--. '.. . . J .

N··"ft'ft"l" ho . 'I'd" "'L~, book .. ' v- -\a"Ii!J·t::-lii[,~ ..... ;l-ly· . j"Jii L'''';;':iii'i',1Ii!ii ... , IU-" .' .1I ". 'W~ .l.JUUt ~.' "._. G)J;, f __ [~~ ,·.·.)1 ~lJU~'~:

Yft,I"'¥i h .oil!lid- I m~" ,oiL.'L: .... , 'iIi¥Iln:'nn,ii!:l!;:r- 1(' l_tt,)·, -,-,~ _ V~. :. ~ . "J' ' .:' 'YJJ!Z!i .!u:KUU.l~: .' ,i!Ie~ . ' •. , :!I' a,a-IU,

• '·'t it ... m- cl the·

~:. -( t,··. " ~ -'. ::.- ': t·I·/';·-:-·;:· r .... ·1'. -:.~ 1'·'-·: I . 1"1 "__. ,',' I' ".-',

VIS,VI .1.. ,.1 approX1IDS.c. ,7 ~ same

anile,.

Wha·t yOiU see (r-'ig'ht) is eDlct1;y tile

. .' '.', I ' .... _....... .. '. ,~, l' ,'., ,~-.- . - ,- ~""',- .-.-:-. -:ft-.-. ~- ~

,ssm,s ,as ~.IU:re~ O,uY·DOW !1!;,Ue ,col;.lJ.ver,-

tl'ftM~ i:;a; Dpnr!Oi'~d-' '~'i"IiI,i!jt"it!i!(!id o"f~' b-'A'.ri'II7...wO,i- .... ·l It;f~,;ww ~ '._~ ~ : .. ~"_'~"'.~. _' D,~'_-'~~ _: . ~", .' U&IO~··_iwu.~

The ,. the" d' h

... ,' '.J ' .. ·.-~ ".:··I~ \" ___:'''_''-'-:-I··-~'''I '.';-.-"-:-" .'. '.'-. '.

(fe, ln~e~, . .' OOBver,lence an.·· .. eDCe

_. - •• _ Iii! '. _ -

'th·'-·· - ,--~,,,,,,,--, Ill.. :'~I .... : __ 1 ,~_ 'L_ .... L.

. e Pl.C~Ul~: lS, .1.U:eDw'CitJ .uum. ,IJ!O IiU

'v,iewpotnt,s. T:H::E, REASO'N' lS, C!TM·····. PI-Li y .... TH""-'" A···'T'r ~ RE··'· .-.-, LA- ·,····,·TI,·IO.-':···N;·"

Igl£ __ .• _, :",,_, ___:_ ,~_:"l;___:' , ,L~ _'l_ .. 1_;.][., .",':_ ' .. _l

C"LllTp; 'B-E'·J'T'f'U~E, 'N·.·· E·'YE··:·:·" ···_-S···.' ,(~'S····· 1,0····· "'H~ 'T' .'

,C~JL ,........Iu n' b . ~ _ . _., .. "__:. .... ·1' ... ' ,I

L- n..:~,lC]1 )I~ '''''"Tn'' ~'U·· n-"E~·C.·"T· -,J 1(" Hi: '0.' "'O''-;'K' );.

__ ~"~1~1 .. ,. ~~--=-'., ~ .... uu _'. ':',' .... 1. ~":', _ "(.'

IS"'''- IDENTI'C'·'L lIN' B'OTH"'" '. -' C·· .. AS""DS"

!~. . •. ,', .. : ,,'ft.1 .' ,1._, . -.". :,~""',B.,

t N"#iliI.:Ij' ,.·nal .... , _..o.... )

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But a,ga.in why' is '-, pward and ldor,m,ward CODve'l'I'en,cs: so 'mllely used,? The reason is that '.e 'usually lee thiDI91 'by

)oo·· .. -kinL .'. -g mo- -'-re or '_. - 'ho·n'"'zontaU· -e :'y N"'ot:· O'nI-' -. '18· tbj' .111 •• ·t·U"'tud- . "re natural to 'the··· . ana'" '.' to mll"'cal' . I s'tru· c·tur' e" 0"£-' our' D'eck-L and" '.'

' .. ' ... ' . . I ., ':' .. ':,' " I··.· '," '-'.'1' . ': L ., I Y ','1 " 'iC!I. :iIlll· . e'm'-o ' ... ·1·" ... : .:. -1"'''', '.":" ". ., ,'.' j 1. :" .. ' . ':'.' .:.

_ •.. __ -:____:~ 'I _ .: .. _" "_. . ",'", I I .. _~' 1_, __ ,: _ .... : it. _. - .. -.~_I- 1',' .. - . _,g a ... I •.•. _ •... ' -e __ .:_ ~~ _'~'I • , __ .~ _l:... •• __ " _ '_' __ ' ", _.:_~ " •• ..:._: '. : ... :.~ - _~I _. _. __ '. I _.' -, _-_, •.•. -.- . ._"_._

head" b,g't 10 much of 'what 'we see exiSd .~. a"t Qir 'near' eye level.

Therefore!1 DlOS_· of 'tile m:a our central visual 'ray Is horizon,tal; and 0011SeQlenily' Dim imaginary pb~ture plane! ,is

"'I'_~'~'II '(" ~.d at. ri,alh~ .', 'fI~D~ ~.n . .&L,o O'Po-"un;--d~)' A:' ·u-" d'~ under tbr.-· 'i!lia~ oo:-··n.;al:'~o-,ni:!ii '·!I:1D1!'''I'i, .. leal e· li!!!IMI' ,iI!!f'n,"'_' contin . '11'1116 to a" 'p" ,I'\Pi:AP ·'_~ __ Il

'wl'-r-W,W-A I., ~Ii~.~ ~_' _ I _ It. I~ 1___ -a.~J IiiU lliiIJJW.J DfA. '. . . '" '. [II " _' _' . _;,"_ _,' .~.L __ . ~~ . :. ::...~~.UJL1W. ~, .... ..,JL ILl~ ,'''~. -' ~.ilILa LiV-.&'" - l~ _-'_. _",_. ',r~' '¥'~'W~!ii

J

JII'!I·liC!!I··t s· ,l6n~' Q···:f' ,.i.L,-c: :._A_~"'n D'·ti'n'lli ..... '--r·· a~ f ;L:1!,;.':'-a'a ,h:JI"I!"JI..;',.nn, 11 11 "'1'1' iI3!.i!!i.i!:!fI'lli,,mt e'Y . 'lil!§!v·e)· ("N·· .. · .::--" .... :tru~··- '" ...:11·.;: ....... ...,.0·"1'·· '.-:: ,', ... ,r-tica11.!_ac!I -)'

_ 'MI!!'I.: ~_, JJ~":.., me "iU.u.IU~: .I !lIoU.g~; . '.' lWu.ui!fEII 1iJi3li'.iIlI~UI.JI' ~ Q .. ": I..:; @i: , '~ " .. :...~ \,_. OIL/U·:. S '~'. - :00 0 ' Vier~, .LUIc;;m.,

'Wb···' "A'JII'III th' ' ·en would Up I"ward or ,dolftl'ln'lAi"I\ft;-...3] eonver II" en, ee .... _ a: il'ip'~O' 'p'" uriatei' FIOl' one +.]L...:I'-I" it At,.'Ii .. · .. ;1I·d:.· be used n:r1.. .... _...::I'-slma or

",: ~II. ". I , !. .:. -, ," "' I."' _·_._"u:WQl~U ~'.'~_". _'_' ~-. I.Je ~ 'r .1&".-1 -; ... ,-Ii ,_, J .:_";'j_ '. ~',':iil &_ wu'W··, ".!C! ~", -YY11:1I:'-'-1a l.l1~." _,. U I

~ ......... -. ,.", . d'··· "'- . 'd" 'BI ,,"" tit· '. 'ba~ ib 1·· - ..... ,'1............ .. . ,;II.. .'. "h' '. '., ·el" ·tedl. '. to tb-'~- '.' L'ii''Iiii -. - t-· L;L.._, - .......... ~ ... ·-L, u_, . 'IN-'-- O······~I I~';- ,; :R' I

,m~Ee811i W8S:··emre~il' 'Uil! lL pro= .. :_ =, y ~ mOBIl.\! sense W len l.· .• a,l, .... , ... ~~~.e ,na,tJUJ.,e 0,- LI.W .jUl}Jlec~ mal'JR::,r,."····'JL~,,.

W~ 0"RD' '.1 Ie THI"'j"~N"'G"" S' US' ·U A .. ··LL··Y··-··'· S""E'~~EI N-'! vRO··~'M·· B-"'E'W" ···W·,c·-:., .. O'R~" DR··'O·:·····y···:: AB' ··O·VE···~-· ,CiH'O'--;"U-'j L.' D" B"'E" DR' A' WN···-··-·~- WI···· "TH' "

.: ,....:.: .. _·D, .. 1.1 .. :. ' .. ''':'_.I .. ' .. ' ,.~.', 1','·:, 6J,.:.' ..:. .. _ · .. _.L~ ... '·:. . .. ,~.~" ,r.,. \1 ...... , .~ •..... _1:, . ~;. ..... " .. _ .. ::.. '.' ','. ' .. " .... ' .. ~ .. '_ ...

OO'NVERGING VERI,TI,CA.LS~

. .

B'llfm' '1'. I". f"' ........ ; .. -. h:r!l!"liIi_'.i1'il·-I··: .-:--- · .. i b ']···-k'"'···' .'. II ··b··,·····"-".,.I , .. , .. ,_ ... _l·ly' '-"00'" .. ' ,- 1---"1 (N .. --_ .. , ... -..31 . ,.. .. ... - .. ,-~

·-L p. ea 0 .. wu.al,I:fJ. ~~'lVilllJlU, '!I seen ., .IOc;Lml up, 1.6'''';1 O,:~Jec'~ ~ILUU.' ,8 .. ':::.ve eye .eve·,~ ... ·.llots UP'Wwu,IOODVeI':18o.,ce WI

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So when 'we look up or down. B·t. an ,individuallelemen~ sueh as a siBl'le eube, each 'viewinl ·angle reslWlts in a Idi1lerent CODv,e'r'gsnce of the, verticalliDel .. At righ:t us: the: resulting p,ictures for eaeh viewlDJ angle mO\¥llIB·t JelL,

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Wn n:r-..m.~~ £..,.. ba ,-,1 ... jl!j;W,\iO,Y'" 'iI!li'iI"'d'" f vi OJW,,: a"ll ~I':'L ,,'_ ", 'b '"'~-!IIW!' UJll __ ,- _l.3L IQJ'" .Ig~ .... QdI~~h" 'T' !It:r. ,'.: . '. IUU:=·

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ICU~ ISJ!JDm"w-uOOUSy ",I!'6 .. " ,~,~ Wluw_"J.

, ,,' "',' "",,',~ ( " '~"f, ,,-.;_,'i,, '.', " ')' , ... 'b" , ,-+1...,~ ,', tr-' , , "'-1

DD'I! ICone 'D,-" VlSlOD,' 14.lieD, ;~-,Il'e een _- ,Ia '

visual ray' 'would, be, ap,pr,05imately'

h"",~',--£.,""lI and ',,", '- I· , ""',, d: ;I.:'t.,~, "[1;,,,

,O.llZODILa.!I! ana our l!a,ce ,BIlL "" WD:::! P.lC-

tore Ian II, t I rtl'~c.a]-

, p,_~,'!;'e .pp;rmama·-e_~y 'ye_-Ir:~,':,:",._~"

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mt:..':~l:!i m~':;-:- ,iitiI~,'nrli:!li l.J1i..ia't,'I, ';""1'1111 th",\ I' e v" a-4.-,;i~ 111,"'"

~~lIiJ.l .. ~y~ '1flI '_I,. I~ • _c. .·~!-~m

'wo,uld, a,till appear 'vertilool ... (Note also that, the VSini's'hiul :pom'ts ,Must be further .apart -thlaD ,in, th'0 'previous

~iI'llI',e"'~' ·~.t!i;;nml1l 'I'~B ,;tIL,,,:, ,n'D-server ~~ ·f~:'I, .. ;I.·,L_'jI!! ''r', _,In~ tU~l~~ ~ u· " ~ I ~ILluL-Lllt'-t-&l

.waYji,)

1~'~''Il':lIlrI'l.l,;II; 'Iniil"lii'I'I"f~;i!1i'ff!I iI!l!l .... i'I!i;lii'ah,:, t'r it'iIoiO' 't-( ~,~ '~o" , '1~~e' "' ~:'t&_&~ I' uuA...&iIi:~b ~Wg- -~{ . '_ ~ _. _I 1.Iti;I! l~.I_ .. 1"1 .. 'JJI.Jf

:nal'tural and eemmon, this vie,wpoin,t ,isl .prObably 'the! most frequend,:Y used in

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If we were :now to add more eubes ,above and below 'using 'th,e uMe VlUl,~ ~I JPOm.te IU b.,~e", these :new cubes 'woUld aprpear d.m,torted~ TileR front: comers (as ,nD,ted) 'would, 00 .leE than .right anglell!' .A wbe, would never ,an~sr' ttdjR 'WftiV ..

. "-Ir.~" - ~ ~ ~~~ ~

The reason :Ior. this ex:cesdve oon~ ... · _ ii "

vergence is simply that these 'new- ,ii' ~ 'i III

__ ~,=,-,'_J~~.-,-,--,~ .' '--, .~ __ ,~:C- _.: ":"_,, ' __ . ,. «: .. -

cubes are outside of tb,e obeeJ"Ver,s

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00·,n.8· Icd 'CleM' VISIOn, .' .. !' ~

'In r-eal ,life, if· the obs,rvirsloo:p,ped. baCk. he 'would see :mope~'cubes, Ic~ea;r]y (:i.;e; ... " his eone of clear' vision, 'would

~, _'illiii"~T I~ '-1 dC-' - ""' f- th-·- .-) _..:I th-

iSGD~~ 'me' u,s!mo:re 0 .. ~'mn.,/ anc te

d!l' - -,~ old '~,,,, (a ...]!"

__ .toruon WO-·~.I:.'uu;@:ppear',"ciee Ig:~·

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Is IR,ellfl,led Ta Sp,ac~ngl '01' V.nish~ in'"g, " POiiflds: And Cone, 0'1 Vii'sihJn

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In a perspective drawing this djs;tor~· tiOD is e]1 frmfna ted, aim:ply' by pIa,eml'

th- .. h'~' - .. m' f thl part.

- '0 UG''Miill'D! ~m' .. 10 nnm" I ' "I"'I'~ - B:'II'I Oi~ . --. "

- ,,~, T'Ig&~~___:_ti .~~:_____:._. __ " '_ LLIi [._ 1I;i;i . .I; a ..... _.' . l. __ 1

Tlu~, ,di:,a,gram at ri,lht SbOWi5 that the

ifiij'L';"--l'!i'I[fIia; iI:,ii:--- m'" . dJ.-n."iii' .. _, • . -. mil', FJ"I .~: .....

'lIi~&;w·~r' JHJ . Wi, W ,mcreas, - 16' :'!I ~,..

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~'~, THE:RIIFORE:: PLACIN"G'VAN-

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IT g~'EIA,N'S ,O,:S,SE:RVE,R BASI

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S,·T:B·P,PEp BA,CK, AND' SE:BS

'!to!

MO'RE"'-":~ Wl·--:·~··-~TH·I· U'if!D 'FI-I-V'"mD' !C'·'O·',''h.~

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/ aiiv,e,iy close together (see tOIP oieto)

~==~~:::::i:l~=~~===~~~~==T=CI~~~~~~= .~=~~~ and the COiIU~· ,of 'vision Includes only' a lew cubes a,t the: center" 'Cubes, outside the' eons of' vis,ioB. are ex-ce.ive'ly distnrt.ed and. th'e'r,efore nnrea ··9,tic (see

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elements, that are place,', aorizontal Y·.,

, 1I:r "all" r I '-'" tha c t, 't'b'" ,-- 'C ;"n M--::;IOli:!!i - nd

'"e IS ' ' ,see ,I,,'e pr.~,Lp,,~ lan,

solutions are the same as before,

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D"isto,mon dUe to excessively close, 'van'j'sbing' 'points ,is a ,oo,m,m.on 'error because 1~1.0se '~I J)l'Jm,ts, :iD leDeEM :ttre' 'easier' to bamUe: thml dis'bmt, enes, So' dODjt Ilet lazmess 'trap ,you.

Bu,t also avom, 'tile, o,pposi,te Htreme~ :Plae~iB.1 vauiSldnl :pcdn,ts t;oo,far a,part; is also 'WM~I beeause ,it results in 'minimal oonYer,lence and hence a sense: of fta'me&9 .. ,

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S,uch is 'the, CS!fJe m, 'Ib,s dJra:wiDg above, (r,ig,ht) ~ ThiS &rtne89 is the resul,t elt'ber of' vi,ewinl 'the sub,jeet, from, 'too l£eat,

0, .d';la"';n'llili'~ ~ ,~:#. 'I' ';"l'i'~"'i!i! ~'LA~'"i"n.winl to'" o'~J'!i'aII!i*'ft V,,\O'M:I' n Qi(II''I'!!' the ftftn~-!iIi! ,Ai~ ,llf-a AR,D,'D, o',fl'~: ''!I~Dli'O'':III'1Ii' C" Od~ m:~~..J'e' ~i'll;e)I'J'~) _ HO-',Bi' -;iCil' ,]'it"

IA U.~I~,:t U.I!. UtI. -'~IIIU-&& :~Q lU-Q.:·, ~ ~ .. ' !_." ,-D. ~'I.a . ~"'J4'- ~J "~ ~.~. v.l: 'w.~ ~''''~ ",_, . y~ \&. "~~~ QiUJi· !Lf[IJ·.··,~·. r~ ,:..._,,_0,.,." ~ '_ ,I

oomacted:?, Since o,ther obj'ects or. ,far-egro'!W1d 0)'"' background, fea,tures (clouds, trees,. rlOQ,m details, ete.) would'DO!rmalmy be vbdble all around 'the [subject), these, ,if drO'WD" would, gi'.y,e the: picture: 8, r_i:s,tic 'thr.-ee~dimensi;Dnal doot., (The other ,solution, is to "move ele ser ,',.i tol th,s subjec,t ,_, i:e., use ,closer 'WID_hing' po;ints. ,and stronger ,oonve'leBce~)

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If we: wished in draw Eli 6~,ft,. man at POirl~: )C, 'we wOlu'ld, simp]:,. iF!S,tend, fQr~· ward. the s',ppropria,te 'botto,m, guide line and ,heilh:t Imei

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'Du:ppo,~e .~ J,~b-Q were no:_ 0',0, an

,exisi-i'ft,;ft g", Did,e, line 'but ,foE.' Instance,

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In 'that case, fir,s,t dr,B'W' ,tJh.e ground line

;11._, .i.L. ..... 16,f' 't- 'v"iIl!Ii,T;,;cl!'bjnD" '~Im'i~"- 't·· 'Wb' :,-.~~~; ;ll.L.::'~1

~~ l\LIJJe ~ "_ ',. 1~.Il~_·_:_ ,1 D ~'~~_:.!I! .. ', :_ __ ~~~ 'L£D.a

,m:terseets the, fa,ee of' the, cl1be: draw a vertical line (sho,w,n dOIt-ted)~, (Thi.s,

1Dl······~.h,~ L~ ~tj]]I, n'll"lillli"ill.":.,.+'Ler·· .. '" Q:·f·.t-' ,-·hi·'~Di'hc. po,·:.'iil:i,t·"

D I~ ~ O.~- _. ~'Y:I lJ-!!. ,II _ ~ _. 1 _. - ~.

in :penpectiVB,,)

F'r-'~m-'-- ,;L~~. '''-n iI'!W,'fl' ,,iL'L·,j,jljl ~R'IIi.a,. D'~''TiIi !iI:I''P-'v iI"'V"IIS- ,'+ I • i'V:, .. ~ I-U,r- y iLl~l.Hil! ~~ BI&&~lJ ~ -~

..J!_. . . -, -tb---- ,-, ,-, - ..: .... ,1... ~~ .. - '1- ~',-,.-- 'P"IIiit..,,:::... •

I~W aDOI. ner V'D,nlJtsulD:1 nne, ,l.,IW;!Ii HI,

the, 6-ft,~ :he:ilh.t :line for spot. ®~

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Ii. the constructions e'bow: 'were ,jmal:~ iBad ,as ,ll series ,ofi 18.,.,f't,i, .. :,hlllh piCket :fences, 01:' walls, then the' ii';'heilb,t line'" wo,wd be a mal ~I' insitead 10£' S!D

DIU1.rinarY guide, 'unel Hetel W"Si ,lee ,mOI'e ,clearl,,. ho'w 'tbese, Hn~es eElta'bBah .iudlh,ts, as 'they ,are I~~car:ried ,OQ;lIDdl'~

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In this case,,. ,tho,1e :PerlOm1i (1) of' about 'the same hei,ght as' the! eb-

~.a.'!P'Iif,~a'nli~ !C::!I'~""~din. no', 'lb' a c:!IHlllIilrW'ilHi!:~!

!g~ 1"'~JL auIJ:;LU g 1l-tUJl .. _. I I 115 V· J • ~ ~~.

g;ro:~-"'l''1Tiil'id'· .p .. 1 ..... -0 'VlTng]-.' 'd· I 'L,'"i'''::ro, ,Ji,it,.mJl" ,''''':--: O'-Y',;fiiiii •.•••.• ~r, ·.·.~u nv ... f.I., ~f¥~, W_··, . ~. IW~I

. . _. . - .. ~ ._. . .. -~ - . "-.' .

at th - ~!!OI''I'YlIi'e 'ilil·.c/V·;~iiil' lIi~!iI;iO oilL;a o.'b;j!!!lml~j'~'llt!II ~, i'" e '~m;li~ 1.~,~'1. Q:dW~~_'~:':'-lI'~:';', Q

(zLe''O)j' on 'tJhe horizon. line).

Those (2) a, :few m"dhes Shorter {e;.g~., most 'women) would have t.he tops Off their heads; appm,ximf:rte,i,Y ,at eye.~ IS1leL

Children, .~ met~'SI say' 2'~· ft. tall, abolu't one-half 'Itle h,e:igh:t iQlfi an adltlt,

would n - 0 '~'ii_ .... , lI·'iI.-y,.cc. iI... · .... ·'I:7;i!lii th' - -0':;'" h' ead - ~-V-iW,.::_:, :_~-aJ~UJt~·,-: .Jl.Jtl·ly~' .,~,,, !'.:_ ... ~ . .!~ .-

tops about half 'way 'op an,Y' Stan..ditn.1 adult figUre". 'Thlsr-efore: - 'no 'ma"tter'

'~h' nr~Q ,.Ll,.e··,v ar: r., :::ec" nla ..00;; .... ,..,;1 ,(.' '3:')" .~ tb·,-·· ,iIi:i, ..rI:iI!!I

'",:." !Ei..I_~ [WI" J . __ :,:1.:.: ~,' ~, .. _ .. _ .. _>" '_ ,I ~I UJLtIi~

tanee from. the 'rops, afl ths:ir' heads to eye: ,~ev:eI .. must equal theu' 'body ·height.,

W·jjthl: -. cn/Y", "ec' 11 "'P'~1i:~nl- abou r ~ .. ~. f~~- '~""'m" ~Llli

~ _- :- ~, : .. :: WI y' ~ _. glJU _ 'I~I 1l} I ; ~I!I I.I'-u· _- _ 'W~

floor ~ 8. 2-ft~-bigh was:tebaSk,e't ( 4.) 'wlltdd stand, ~e,mver.' it 'W1ere placed, at the bottom .2/oi of' ,S, verti .. , cal ,from ground ·to eye level,

What about, 'th.e 5""ft. men on ,5 .. ·ft .. ·

L :'.~L SIti!· ,~. .j:.<"oi'? :Th" .. ';6 'f-·niliii~""'''''''' 'iIl!Ii .. a a' t- ;D"ya l.:.IJIJ{pa '. _:. ·,~Lell 13 . I.!__~' 'uu1iLJL ~ W3!1 !ItII&!Ci _." ~i~ . r c;

ley,ell;; tberefo:r-e these~ llO-·unit .figures (5) WOlild ai'w.,ys appear one-·balf allbovl; I.ye llveli ,and. one-.'bali belaw:~, regardless Orf: wbere tiley' stood ..

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Th,e. proportions used a(,'o ve lor h,el'g.h:t'S, rekued to eye leoet are all veriJied in. side :view;; Tt mauliJ' be' noted t,IJrJug:h ,thot these proportion« c,an be w(J'r1t;ed o,ut "in. pers:pec't:i.oo;" wi.t~lu),ut ;th is aid. Blevie.win,g the' s·,tep,s' IcWlQUe' UJl,ill SliOW' thts~,

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[II]

2• H8!inhil" Wh'~',a'" IO'b' s~:

• _ ;11 " ,Ill" ,

Assume the obserYls'r (1) to be 12 :ft" a.bove IfOtDld (s"I""'Jl a 6-ft,~ .. tall man" on a, 6-ft, :la,dd,.) lil standinl on the lJO'UDd would ap!peal belo,w !eye, level

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[·,,·;··.-..1 ·U.M1D-~' ~~I~iII~ ~I~I, ~:=--Dll~t~~! "w I." I ..

always stand at th[s bottom 'half of: a, 'vem,csl line Idro:plped fr,om eyle: lev'el.. 'The dotted, line is their ~'~heilht, line'~·'

Ther,e!'oN' '6-ft~, ft,gmes (4) drawn ,an,ywhe'r~: Ion the ground would [stand at' the bottom, half of a 'vricsl dro'pped from eye level ..

4 .. ft .. children (5) 'woULtd s,tand, at the: bottolm, four-twelfths, (on8-,third) ,of[ a 'vertical :fro:m ey'e level,,!

rool of this system --. BO,d, still another w,.Y' 0,1 determinin~I' hellhts-can be had b:y' .first 'connecting the hel.ds, and then the feet of aDy' two ftgm,EUII

'f- - ", '~!·IIJt:!ilI-~ 'he- ~Dh~~~' Th-- 1li'-sa bil!!lD'

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b h ~ b ck --:'1'11 t t ~ ,"I'~'iIb iii,

,muII :t, "11,,.-, ',~ W.w mee~, B,'" a 'V8UUIIEun;1

point DID the horizon, line: (see' "lo:tted ,lines) ,t

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Hlei'gihls When 'Ob,sarvl."

Is S'Ming

Here the otu;ener"'s eye, level ,isl abou~t

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w _, 'DweliSI are ,R'~~J;,I \ ,,' WO'!W'-,

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alSO £mV!O WU:u e,\.1~ ,[g!,~, •... :,.:, ... , ..... ,lIJ,~y,~I,ii!

D~,_..l !" .... ,- ,G' .' .(." 2~ ')' -' '';;;'iiill'd-' ~ 'ill. - -:-. ,

'0 ~UHlffIi .u'mn"l~, ""', 'W,O'w, .n !i:U,W~IV,li

. '_ -- _-_ - l~ ''ttlll!ll.tLilln~ -_ f :,' •• ._- --~-

, tIl·,~ h ds--I bo )' eI 'If'

:-. .". (- (..... J'., .~.~'- .. ~ ," ':' _._ .... ~'.'-" ~. ~.' I "'j- ~ ....

bave . etr ,ea-.:_ a.~n,ve eyeJBVt, ~ '.

they' 'were ,6 :f~ tall then their mower ~,. .i! ,,.1..,.- .(. ,...___ tb'j'rd's )" '-:-.- .-,'- ul - dl ~"w~ay' . " ,t!

JlI,~lX,!Llm ,', IlrWU-' ~~'-'C_ '.' wo ~·u, ifiUl.. ,', ~i

- .~-. -- - _. I _

'be below' .ye level, an,d, 'theB' 'upper

"_ _ _!~~i~'L._ (:-"0' ',"" A ... ,£""":'-..::1 ). -:lutil!1Viililii ,....'iIl,.;._,~'!I!\i!!iJ

"w-u~_~:llllltl ~ -~_. __ ' .. ' lill.·"·~~ 19l r~i.'W'~

( " thei;r'c 'i lb - old I al - - be

. -::-. -:- . I ' -- ,,' ,', _-' ,']1 II'" _ , -, i ". .' I, .,". : " .

. • Ie- - .' . . II ~"l!!Fes, wo' '.. ,~~ .'.

I I, .!IIIJ!! . _ ". _ ~1!Ii' ... - - . J - ~'J!!"~!hi!I -

t- 'I _11\

IB, _' 'E!iye, .. 'evw.J

A L-v' I( ~')." 6';'1!11!'\I!!!i.....&:1'vAl ,ft··-~ lr-:I' ,b···· "l'ft'n .. , .. iII .. ar .,'1 ... ~~. .: 0 "" ~cal.iLl~ .. I "!Il .lUi. ft'u·wu. Ito

ha - hie:!' - hea 'd' - 1- - '-1- ~ )-

'. - - -" '. : ", ~ ,t" .' I .' -':' , I ' :'. .' J' ~ ",_ .: •. -

WIQrS!, ve ms '-'-'~_}':." !.~ eye ,eve.~

Altl'in;, H' the :heads land, 'loot of any twol figures of! eqgal :hl~l;lh',' 'wem eon-

........ ~ ( .~ d' J ", ')' th- 1-' !II

nec~ i.se1Z uQ,tt£r:. I~me,s', mese <IDes

would, always converge: to ODe ,on the: hor:izon liDe, ..

"I"\nlm·i 4-, ,P'" - ~

4':' Haligl1ls; Whlen, ObS.IIVc -iP Is L,.in:g Down

:H:ere, the, observer's eye level is ,aDout

1 f-... _'L_.~. £'L.. lIft"nun-'d 'TL~·o·· 'I"\Oi ob

I :. ·IIL. ~'ye l~ute~ I~~V~' _ ~_ '_.1: '[Ii JL .l1~~lr.::.IL~ u_:,' ... -

jee,is, smalme:r t~ban 1 ,ft, 'would, lappear 'below' eye level. (e .. g~", most beach 'balls' ,- )"

;. . .

.- •• - - _ ...... ~I

AU taller objects, woUld, have their. :l,..,ft,~ ]leveJ, at: !~ye, :Ievel, - e'~',.,l" tbi0 8-:ft~~ ... taIl :&gurles (2:) 'wotdd ,a1,\'nlYl appear

OD&eixth, 'below and :five,iiis)ixtlu;; above eye, level,

mL~ ~'-',f:.t.: ,_:L;;·· .: 'h-' . '.'~. ,'JI ,(" :~: )'" '." . ,,,, .. '1Ii ..;;J ~I~a;'r

Jl-,~ 'iI-- . _, ,Ji.~g -.' p, \.~ WO'UJU.I. 'Q.rr-"

,n:'ftD_~ _ilb. ·h·....,~In-'Ifi 'li!II'ill'llid' to' ~ iI,jr._',6f~1..,""IO L.-"~v'e· y~ nlW. ,.eJ..V'H ~ .. ' ~1l;U. ,c' IIIiJ.U!Ii u!U'J!,_'

. .. 'I' .... ,,,,,_1 ,-'. - ii1'!'f\i'.!iIl~IAmt!fii .. f:' 'il11· .. ' ,t I'.. '.

,eye: , e'vm ,re&,g.L~1 0,·' 1Il0Cll, ion,

mLl '. '-." tI, flo hls IL 'd' ..... ' ('" ,0'11 ') ,- .... , .. 1...] , .. ], , - ': .-

Jt U\U ,,",,i'"'c_ (o ... '_ ,In ~ .0g'II:I' WDwn, a ways

haIf- bo and hal I-

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appear on. .' ,II .... ··ve .... : _-', o~ .. ;

'~""'1'" ." .. ' .. ].- ... ....-1

tJt: ow e;ye . BVWli'

And the, to- f" b" 'I' It-'l h .Igb .. 'd-:-

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'. _.: .)11 0,,- -_~, ,1_, ... , ,1'ii-fiLl~ S8ll-

ICU,.' (',5)'. wowld ,an~ar' ,at eVle :Ievel ..

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In _'1 .. _ ........ 1..,:;_ .. J. ...... ~,

..• 1 ,~;~I;I a room ,m,~rl0f'1! mao:y

heilhts can be, "o'DIld, 'by 're]8:~1 'them, 'm, wall, hei,ghtsj

YJI! s··· '~m-'.,. ,~'it!Ii, ,01, ,ft:·,·~,--, hi,<j],gh-. ,iI.'Lo,n ~.;i"Lm-'., !Ji!iII~,

.0: _ _ ,"_'!L,I!I'U' .AIIii:I! 0, \0, e _,IIJJ~.a, I~: ~

'where: alonl' 'the: :rear waU, (1) or

,ahmg DDe of the si,de, walla (,2') ~,ck off 18, equal div.edoDS~ A 7,,',ft'., .. hi,gh, door' :next: m {:1) or (2) is, easily Idmwuli'

IB,imila:rI'~i a door knob ,3 fL above the ftoo,r :is bloated, by th,e ,3 .. ,ft ,hteilht line ,(3)~,

Suppose, WIIil wan:tm 'to dlrs',w rat '6",:ft.;

.6iliJ'I'I'IIV!i. mi" ,,.;1..- ~-:rAii!Jir'Inj'l''lin~1 'Tbl' .,-. d- n ...... _dl

iD~,!I;;i ,~_, [We J,1U!: l~e- ... ~u.ULI~, ", ~e .,~,u'lLIU;XI. " ~--1~;~~""*', ...... ~ ~~"'~~~~' __

line (") 'woWd, prelude! 'the 'beilh,t~

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'1De uu8Jr :u:um I. , , II.!., I€LAID ,lSI u:ntiWD

by' llS,ml the pdde, Imes ,awn as, anuws~

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I Th· Surrender .t,: A/ :ninn",","n"f.I"i·~ p' aln ted b i'U' Kv: ,8" ·n· - R· ·'·Dsy ... ·~·r-·- Life 'M· a·J1D'·!'O,q,m'"'· -r ,,' W'~'e' atl' P' -'0"'- In t· •. Il&e_· 'U_lm ,CoD: et ~D_"- '-.\,.

~ ~ _1 I6lr I ~'-'PU~'II ~, I '11"'\r-~-lfjlilr-ur.~[IrU:LAi~ _ - _ ttC. .. . J' " ",'''-' -. ':__:_IIW, :,: ..lU·· ~~. ,.: ..... , __ "-_'_-IOT~ .' '," ii ; t:l1 '," • ILl r _ __

-La Grande t/r(Jtt8J b:y Georles· SJe'Uliat., Courtesy of'The Art Institute of C,' '100'_;0',,,

The groulld slopes to,war-d. the ',·a,teT·" The !8,d,ul:ts standlngon the 'higher gr,oUrui .. hav1e ,tbe'''- :hle!ld-to'psi approlXimartel.y at e3lte' ]e.,v,el (horizon. Iine) " The, adults sta , ding' ,Ii 1'0'0 B' the shoreline have their head .... tops :ren'srally midwl&y between

• ·th··~.· IDi O'''_'''',iii'ftd' ' and L'Le'~ horizon ·iI·{jna N-' ote Ji-~'l"'·t· th "';[0, IiFIi:L'~D-' g. in I' '-[1:1 __ 'l, .... ti·~I"""",ii;ihi·~n nf' head h ,iP'i.I'"In''h't-~ ~ni h o··,.,;,"",~, ]1 in I 60 lm At!llt bfi7.'iI'!I!i"i''!l,B;'''lu;;A.I!'III!T

.~ tlJLU!~ .. - ~iL, . Ii-U. .. U~~v· .': . .Il...IUI'"'~1i1 ,'., .. ' [t.I~ I, ~ 'IWl16:l·· ':' ....• ! I.~ . Jlj~~l: ~ V .. ~ ~~ _, ~. tiiJU._. I~U ,'," - UiLI.u:iIU'tIi::iI I' . ,~ul Uti:I!l.~!L; ,1lJIiD~~'~

l'''£iov:p'la·· '1"-''Cil!l!.'' tha '';'-b-'~Ie····lan· -, 'd: ll~jl!Ii alouin ,- a

~. . l;n~ L· . ,II. ',1 .' ',',. '" ," j;J.l [hill .ur~ . DJil>

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'In 00: pictur-es we know' that '_~he cross-ties, are 'r-eall,y equal-sized, eiernen,ts,,, Yet djmlinutio: 'makes them, appear

S- -, .. m;;!vely smaller' , Th' s' rail- dla 00' ·-'nvergm----'"-·'"'-- 'g' ,-to· a 'v' anJBhiD"~'; .. 'I' pam'"' '1;' act' as gw' ~de' Iine , 's f)' or th·· wid'!!!" h-" 01-' tb' .-- -- BS-6e~'-'

'1'ii1'VI.alC'l '! ,', ," ,_.'" - ", I .. : ; ,,"""". " .. ':" ,,' .. I'" --". ,,", , ", ,',' ..... , ,'., '. ,-., I.'A' ' .. 'I" .. '" '_"'Oli!ii!:!IIi iII1I1P.n: .-' ""8

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The- din - )"'IlU";o-'- - f' -Jl.L'A",'P "'.£I' -.P' . - b- '"' aJi'ii;&..iI"'ii mu' '.

~lID,~--,i 'i,ldi., .: D 0, IOIw:J~.& ,. naIL ,0 ."~~'"' 1!IIi, g ,'" I

f !I' '·':--1 ""'-dd"l.. ·~I _ '·d 'ill·'

ctdlYer,lenDe 0 SDnl_Ilr' !I'W,i,"IWn gw. ~ e "Ines.

am bo '. a~ ~I'iii!il! 'f'1D;n~lD l'!I!:!I'I"n'd' n .- 'L.,_,_,~~ .... "''''' can': .- b" d ,'.Il. .... __.,.,;_, .... ,~' 'b-' ,., ,;1.1..,..,...

I. ~' .. ~,. ~!Ii;IJ! ,r--w',tJ.I'!W' Q~ v ,a ~C'U.;; t::: !IiJ;;r~" _ ~ -"-' ,e, ~eLt:!.l.-1DUJl.t::lU. ,~ w:JU

PO~ 'H-" V:'·'·M·' '.p. LB.' ., ,,'.

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Sketch lb· firs'" t' b-ect ('1)

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.- ·.lDI.ltI~.J ....... '~ ,'. I . ~ IIAJ '~~ ll;.iiy!.-.t

will deAne U 'Pdthsu lof equany IODg obj:,e.cte in the sam,e :6.le 'e 2) ~

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:..; .. !!! II i' ~ II! Ill' 'I! .J. :i' II III .' II II! Iai iO II' + 'iii i II I!o "" "

:t' II!!~I .... ' II II of! • ~IJH~ r!~~ _ .... ~'!!

• • II; I 1Il~, ~~ .:t .• .s 'iii: ., [I.: '11': II' iIo. :.:. _" II' .~r ! I! II! ': !!' , •

• '. _i.1! • "! -! ,-. ~ ", II !I !II'" <.II II ., ,- Ii I. • _I! :; • ~ •• if. 'Ii

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1;" I rt",,11I i;,~ ~ "'P : ~,05 ;II. ;II. iii

~ ,,~ ~ ~ II .. , 1I;!!"a. 'I i r. II 111 -+ .&. II 1111 .'!ti .. 1I';'!i!'

• ·.-III.l·fIj,.~. '11[11,1,,1, 10 '" mill r=, .; I0I011 ;f! IIIiI III -:. II II

Li l .:11 ... 11 011 II II II

'11 .: : :. _. ~·II' ;. • • - :Il : : ... : : IrlrJI ~01~ [: !! :... + Il •• ~: [.rI'. : II

.~,<: :.::_~~ ":~,",: "s. ~. ~i' ;~. _, _'::.. ." •• ' ~ ,;, • • • '~. ,_ '" ~ ',:. '_"': • ::,. ~~. '::' ••• "., ,::.

_ ......_ ,i, iii • II .... i!. .. 10 ;II II,.. III -II r'l! 11

i=~'. • .. _._:.. !!:."!II -!!' .!!" ifI rio.,· i!!!!I .. , !3 ,-~,

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J1n·' Thll e' '""·d-,,j.,,,"·ft "". iV'n!lla'llI-,a:'~ed'· o·':b-i,~'B....A.a, ~'L!"":L dimmish In 'I"lQ:rJQTle··cccJ.:'v:','e' can be fa· und b"Y' m··· a~""Ci o··"f' ..m·d:~· tniliid:-,a

rtiMfI". 1 .,_:.' '"m&~''''''' uk ~~ ...... ,II a.Ji.:a'·'-", '" ~~~(~ 'I',,'IU!La~ J.lUZB.I - _' r~"·~.r:.: _ld..:, .~.__:__, __:_c~ _., .... ,~. '_ "." •• 1' I ~ '_'.' "~ •. ~ 61~i E:i

lines, 'that CODVe:rg,e to a po,mt,oD tIlle horimn line"

S' - 'iii iiIl'ill I ... r "_.lI b'ii ta- ;oI!.,_ LL,._ lei"" ~ ,L.

.·un)lar~~:~,sm~ olec'·" 'IW tne "Ilt or rlgElt can

,pide Ilnes ,B,t the :point desired.,

b dr '~I' b ... _ .... '_,""" 11]- ti-" to 'I fit ," ht £L ~dth' f" th

oe nrawn 8>mlpiy~y w.,W~ 'ng i'_:. ,ei- or ng: - IU~,1e~ WI" . 0'- "Ie

IBimiJarly...sized elements above ai' bellOW are dm~wn w,!!'tb 'the aid ,of vertical guide Iines oonstntcted, at the ~~propria'te, 'T1inm';j."... ..... ill·oc. 'n tI, the' .... , . w'· . ·id]i"":lthr Di'li11'dm I ,Ii ·eell

.P""" .. ICI] IWJ - '~Di .' - .. ' ' .. [ . ", .. D ~ ., ~ . :DI!

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The following' coneept is the 'basis 'fOr most of I' the. ,aids emp'lolyed, in fiDdin:1 p~pectivel depths,:,

The, diagonals ,olf' any squ&rie Qlr'rectangle (see above) wiD always intersect tl"t the emict center ofl the Dgt1rer ~,in . ,G,iherl worde, at a pO/"I-:~.i, equidJstantl from top and bottom and from left [and rigbt edges ..

Th., - ',- .... LI..':, ... , ,ii.. ."~i I '''n'b''):C ( ....

,us;, On,iw;:u;ti p,m, _ 1 pongl&l.::_,e seen,

. .l'!'_ £,,1 II' . ab £L - ~ d'!ii' - .--11,1"'-, u'u~,eCiI4.Y _:,om acove. tne [",'wD •. ··Iago~~

'will ns,turally' intersect at the net -- .bj- "cl.., i! Amrfi'1'...lI,:'--;i._,~t' fro~ ". m·· th··· eo' end ClI·

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, . '''''':Ii l'¥,.~' ... II!:ii' ita. ._"' .Kill UJ."lliln·JI;.L, ,f"'-

" .' 'cli' 'lOr . ,,.... .. ' . • ... ;'I;..,ou]-.·· 'd ... :\.. -..... '- ..

spe ... . ve, wJ[.lere au.' .. 1 .• ". ~ Hie ne'l;; ~ e

. . . " _·.;11·" I'r'" - quidis ~ . ..,..-:--, .... 11-............. 1.1.. - DM~II"" P 'BL"UU.", .cl e: ... lS'WU;.I,~1 1l.:WU, Iwe ~~uef

the 118Suit- is WfODg (oelo1w ) ,~

B t "f~ 'I ted' - t the~ 'i ,,"-_, .... _,I.!_ of'

U . , . . nca··' .,". ~, i- ~.: mlw.1l.'IIcCQUD " .... '

__ "_ 1 ,_U . __ [_. 1 a. _. l·. __ . 1

th d~' (Da~s. tbl - C!j .... ;1 '" remai - ~"'A

, __ 8 Iwa:IO:~;k~ , . [: e re~IW,jl;4·. S_lm.B1 H~U~\~

(Im_lme, 'tb,e dialDDals U iactuAllines ruled th" tal-I .. 'bl 'I' )"

•• L •. . '.' 1- _. ," ,I . - . .' [-' I

.... ' 00, _::...e ,,' e~

'I'RE' i-'RE' 'C"·,FQ·····RE': I.~·III' TO- .. ···· LO"IC' "A·TE" .'

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T~ ;3\_,Uli' .nuIIIY:"'ilInD-'" 'recediQiJi AliI!lii..-.

u [LIl __ n" ~,~. _ .' _,- -Iu.:~~ .. ~! -:.-' "_ r-. .. ' . ' ... '!til' ~_,_~~-j

ch ') firs k teh

'm' . 1O:'FIiI'.,."'!O D'i'll 'DiD amp·'i'l"W'lats·· : ,.', -to ;~ 'e' ~-

,," _~:&!LII' rJi!lllIiI. _ ug. ' ... - --_:"r~ -,. .. J _,'_ IiiJ .:_ ,_ .. -'

""-.",,.. .. 'I',' ,,; .... - ~:-". 'I... ..... L,...., ... , .,' ":L., ·d-',- ... ,::, ...... _..::III .... ,-' ... '. !L,WO 0 lU;em, lUCl!.een ill...Ue, , .. ~ YJ,p

__ A '1--., -, ,-, 1i'IIifiI'iiii,::.I '1::"'" 11. d "-,

&U.U wttorn, ;&I~el ,Wies, ,l.celL'IQ,1 'to

their, ¥9D'iShlj'nl :pomt~

'N' Ie't' 'I dC-I 'I th' 'Ii further· :', ,. ·d

' ... , A'$ ,_. _ Iil!! ,- ~'I::r.ii!!i,.nIp ~IB' ~-I ~ .. Ii;' ,. m- " 81' - .• , ~,

[" .. u.-",' .: . 1,. ~I ,._. '~.W. w._· -=-:I';"=-=~"', "'. '." ... .-". ~I

view (fer rilAtJ ..

,S,I.,I A::: ,Draw di~8lOnalls 'between, (I.)

. . d""' ('0)' '<&_,...J ...... £. ... --...,.::-,.... ' . '~'d' . ". ,'_ A" aD~ . ~ . ,luJlli oe'~:J..UIDJ,t;i ,mil _ ';pom,1i., :::.:-~,

horizontal ,line: through this, polm't lives, 118 :mid:_po,mt, of ('1) ~ (2) and ,aD sCimiil. vertic;Us",

,S,I., II: :Draw' alona'IA, :&.om (IJ 'tbm'lJlh ,midpomt of' (2) 'I 'to loca,t,e,

(S.l ~ I,ium the diagonals, pllace (2) em~"midwa,'between (1) and (8), the ,'OOB'tiDD, ,of .(3) must 00, oo,rmct~

Slap c: S~nl, ,equidistant verti~ eals are, located, by' :H:mulu' 6Iona')S"

(Norte::: :It; _,'t ,necessary to drs:. both 1~lonals~ One of' tb,em~ used with the IceDter line,. lives the, :ptne c,~ ~ 1 ".)

The a;ppHca:tlon, of' these steps, in, 'perl..,

on .. ""' .. ~#.,;;v\O, , .... -.::11 'n,m~ .. "ii~ sq' ..... , .. , .... 11~, .... anQ~"'!" . ..::I

~~~" u ~I ,."lIJ. ~J!I.I!LL ~ ~. ~1'UiIlIY' '~~Iueui

ele:mmm, drawn wi-th, :prope'l conv,eI'-

po.-.- an-' "d' I-gresh"" D'rbmin'" "~ '--,

iI'I'B: ".; ". j.. .':.... '. : .. I , .: .'. g'.

~'~ _~. ' . -. _ . . . _ • )1111

'V 1- E· W,:·,:··'.""

- ,..I ' ,_

III Ii

~ ,.;

". .

'"

B~LO~-w,,·-,A.'~'~: s:·'E,:VE,',· ··:RA .... ·· .. ,·'··'Li E- .",yAil.Ap' rLE' ' .. '-··S,-, O·· .. ·'·· .. F'~ THI'S "ai.Ii"Dl /"THI'-" O"'D" ... , B·tTU·; ··D····!'y······, ~,'.', .. ', .. J.'

,_~Ql'~.·.-: ~ _.~ ~., .. ~~Wl.·r. -"_'" _,-,' I "_:_ . .LVJ.l_D, .11i.·····-.·I.l .. 1 •• , ••••• - •••••• t.a,~

..

'VARIOUS AlPPLICA TlONS~

I

II

!!!"

Suppose we wanted. to divilde :face .. A,

.' 'f' 'thi' .-. ~. .. ··b· .s "-., ··t- ;<iFiI,£""'" '1 . 10" [eg .... _1 .. ·:,,""·1 ~'n!3'''iI!liil!!

[0; _ I 5I[ Q[_,Jee .;LI..&W' ......~. ,IUN. g[.it"' .... 'IIj,--..;,;.~.:;

f ... B':' .. - - .&.._. eli· ., - al ·na ~'ii:!l1 . .". __ ...l ~l... D

ace ", • mto J[,our equ".::. s..t""a,~, UJ!J.U 1t..U~'

toPI .m:to eilh.t eqUal spaces.

BELLOW is .r - ~e [-lolntkm. when each tace is viewed head-on .. ,

N.aturaUy J tII'is method wor]!m only w:hen iblo number' of spa.ces is 2', 4". 18, llGj 32", 64t le,tc~ S,uppoae 'we wished. '00 dj,vide a 'face intoi 7 or 10 spaces" ne'n the foDowm,r method [should. b." used, lor it war' ',', £01' any number of equal I.;paces

(Ple,qse follow the' numbered st:eps.) ·STEP 1:: From llowest corner of' face tot

·b·· m" '"' .. '''d ··d . ...J,.... . ho , .... --, nta 1 Iine ,!!!!II,'It'IIIld: .. e [, VI.- e. -- [Llilrl!W OlrlZO - Y1I Wl! - C4IIoI."

O·_il[,... o fI: -" the- 'e" n· .. ''''_,.;lI,.....,.,;- [o"f'~' Aniil~:ol sp:. ·-~.a··· ces

~ . .c-'_' I...: .... ~_ '.-- _""1_' .. _ .. _._

d· ""d (. '1 _.!!' - .l.:L..:!i .... -.- .- )

I emre .. - '.1- m 'LUB::I case. II!

ST P·• 3: I 00::'··· [ . -. ,- j.·th~· iD'IIi!!! -9~""!17' po ..... m"" .. +n ..... -"""[

_ ~ :__ I. .. ·IDll6C1I.! 1(1 ~ [, '.iL.Ao ._'. I -,---.~ UJf

.' .' . ,";_ 1 '. "''W'ii,;"..L.':r'" 'po-'" . [[ - ,- t: T' - ''II-- Dele-" £I'I,'Jid": e'

ISpeC B1 V'WJRJ'IUII!.].II c" . - . - :___: .u.~. til ~ .:

-I' wiD' -I-I!' . ·tersec· .-- . -.;t 'b-"- se-' lin- e of' -obJ"'·ect .. -··

, , ". ... - ,< • - ~ • '. • ". , , I '

mes.·II,_; Dl:.·' " .. ,~ ,·R '-'.. .. '. '-" .... 1" .•• -'j

tin',,, , - - - - _. 1 -- . - I m~ per

.,' - ,,'~' '( - !',,1' - '. ':,,: • '. . " '.' . _- I' .' - .~

crea l_ I.' seven equa B,pace'~1 C,' .•.. ' , -

iD~":U'e'"

iliiJ.~w !W.''I'' , ..

Not;e,: The· [equal [~.ces tickled. of!' in. step '1 eould be ,at any scale, Those mown are e3[oo ~i{' sp-aces, but could

-b 't.l N' lL" I.l tJ - te ·N---'-a;l.",,·- lIy D,![jS'PV"

~e 74' .~:r.2', 'i8 t ete, '~"- LW:-,~~JI,"'" ~"'I":'!&.~

[~pa.cirnl ·wiII shilt the speeial vA!msh ... inK pom't) but 'the ree,uI,tinl 'perspec-

ti' !i -!"IiI1 &1--- b the im[;m'niIi

ve~ S;parcmg' "W JJJU. (:'. _ ways·.e. '--.' same,

Why this is SOi is, explamed .. in. this top"view- Let',s, divide! the -me :f8ce in two~ using ditJierent spacings" From. 'the lowest comer' 'ti[ck oft two units of

lL#1 ea - ~O" ol[f: 1-';'- and ~";i"jIol-' [2'jl'

.72 '~_- ,. Il,.W! ", . . . ~ -. I!.W'u ,_ "'

Now, CO[DDect eaeh second tickto the far earner (3 lines S.hOUJR dotted) ~ Then, .from 'the .6:~s·t ticks" ,dr;aw linea

P-~'Ile.'l4;- tho S',C!O N·,· D" ·te·· ;i,:1...'~I·t-1 t, "'e' second

t:iI..ll:I.J .'. !LU[ I' -' .~;; _:: .... _:_: _ . 1ldJj2.. .. . ... ~~ .. l,l__llJ,JIl

lines all intersec- at thle~ m·ild:_j-:-.~ [btt '0,1 the faee, Therefore any o,f these spae,ings WOUld, w;clrk, even. though eaeh :resulting se~t of-~ ':·._c;alIe·l ... ho[rizon:tal 'Ji'nes w,o;- iii .. 00.'98 itow:n (special) Vian ... ishm.g point (see across ,pa,ge) "

~"""'( 'IIiiiiiiiIiIiii __ ~~~ ~~l! ~l ~,~l~ ~ ~- "I' ,~,_!__ 'of!!!!!!!!!!!!! ~""'_'!""""l_

' ... ~, SPECIAL VANI"WIN&POIN'T "'I~"A,NI'511-lING, PaINT

. [F[oa !GUID'E UNE5[ FO·. 0 .. ~~EIC,.

ST'EP"', [2- I C· . - -_._;I.. - ... e, t- 7 "......-:- .. pnnlll!l.~l-n, -, I' / Ii ·o,nDJe~I'" pam -- '. IW 0 . r:....t.~I~

. ower [comer' [and. continue to hiDr,izolD

I", ~ .. ::: ..... 0'''· .--- D 'nta a-' snecia -1 "lI1i1'D1f'ii';!iDL'~"";a me, . .I..~ grves I~c spec !.> '!f~uoiJ'll.Ulb

.. f· - ~'dl Ii .... 11'1.111 ]- I. .... 'pomt 'ioir a gm.·e. 1 meg, paraue to

this

one U Dr!

:-:.- MI&ASoUIRIING LIN[El

, .

... ~

5ST A S5:'T e

SET C·

-

P,il!J"II'I."& L "A·N··" '. . .....

P1:~~ET·C ~

I-

I - ..

SET [A SE-..T' B·

613' C

[l'IJ

- ..... ,

/

.

..... ,

.......

I

: I

This is the pflevious, to.P view dia,gram s··e'·· in. perspective.i, So remember': THE S,PA:CIN'G USI:ED ALONG ~rHE MEAS:UBING LINE CA:N' BE A,T ANY' SICA.L;Et

T,'ht . "m 'eas"ur--'m'~ Ilme'~' . :i'i' m' ·-eth·-·- -d-[ f d II!

'1 .;iI;)j ' ' .. :1' '('. .... . ·[ .. ··1 . n 0:'1) '·1,-

~ " .. ......: -'., - ," . . .. . ',:: . : .. I. , _.' _.' . _!-v . ...:____ .'. .

y .. ~ . ..l!,.!"-r:I 'pe'" ··'ti~·'l'\AC,;;Io,;,- .. -' •. \ ,,' 's' m·· ','-!Ij"Y" '8·1-'~.n ..... ,ll,UJ!IIB .:" JI.,gl:""'~ wve ·sur ace·, .. ,A'.: "c ,,~

L._ iIi'lllE:!!-...:r '"'th···· '_., .. ..... r 1' ..... 'II' [IlrP"'n ftB~ S·' -.~ , .- .' . - .

lie: ~tt.U WII·. uneqDlJ;J, ~, .. Q.~~,., ·" .. ,p:poae

. [2": !_II·t· Ii1"'ik'P'~;DID'''' 1'.1 !i!' -- ,jI,[- ": .... ;. 1[',· - ' ·t··· ·d·· .. "n a·

s, ... 1'" u : .. 1;;;; ..... I . ,B, P.JII .·9. oea,.·e. 0, ','" '.'

W· ·all'l· snaced a' "m b· ..... ·lo·· '

". "-.1"'..:." ii:II, .a·_· .. ·I!!'

Ii!! 'Ii [~ !Ill ~ L. it ...

l!j. r. II! iii. II!

if !i! III -e- !!!

Ii

Ii'

III l!I!l -Ill

I

. II 2

[..... .. """'

~

•• 111.1 I

II!·I ~. III 'i! .• , •

. ~ ,"' .

.......' . ·h·

'. .

~ I~~ ~ .. ~+~i

I!I' i! • It! 1.1

, ill I. oIi. !!o [I 'iiI 'i!' __:,jf__ • ~ .1 ill

- '.

"'" .

I F:ol'I(j:U'~; 'n ji 'm'; . b' 'e' '1It- J 'Eit-ern,f!I a····' :,ID' b' ··.af··n'liiA )

\. 1:..- ... ~ '-~M-!' ~ ',I' ill eu. ~I . .' rQ! g ", ~r: U!II" ~".'

. .. T' ··ckt 1f'''-'1 iii '.' 'i'

ST' IE-Pl'ii .1.: .' 0'" -. ' unit 2' un . l'~'. an' .. '. 'd:::

, • _... , '- ,:II . ,~" '- - .'~'-

4 '.' ... 1-'· ('A b .-,

units on measmm,g c_mI8'F..<S .. erore,

the un:i.te, can, be ,B,t 8Dl:Y seale, The prin- 1ii1"'nLI e' :;1m ':,'L,"e a'rnr ..... s· .-'!iil!I ~' ... , 't-,1i...e· cftlil!!ie'C" _L.o-"-y·s- ) I~ 'r' _. .!La -1kU- ~;A-!l:'. ", _~ ri I . I .!lllJ _ . '.:Q~- ... , IUrU c .. 't . ',,- II

STEP-··. B' t, th 'I' •. t- • I

. ~, ; .: ·'.(lng: 01 :_:::€[(" 1D119S; ·':0 s:peCla

'II:"a' i'DbL . m'i' d'P ~'- . t I-Th':- ,. "Jonot· ,~

.[ : .. us I "l:~, i_~om.L" ,,···I,S,· ::~Q". us o,p.e:nm,g

IDD wall,

Once correct ~acinl' is found on walll,

the'" Id~'I)"rC!I;"""'~I~~ eeuld be 'Q~I"·""····'D· ded ~O'llI!Ii""

. , 11 g IW:IJlll~ ...... 1 ~} UI~ .. , "... '~AILJt.', I ,u~ _. ", Jt._ .. I& I

'ward (:from Isft, 'v;anishing pam't) to create" BBy'j a ,2 .. :ft' .... 'wide walk or a 4 ,ft ...

Oing bench,

Or, b,y' carry,ing gu.ide lines 'up the wall. and over the roof, ,8. 2' ... ft,,-,w.ide

-:L·.= ........ ,De· .'. Y' eould bs drawn. '8': D', 't:· n 0-"""",

UJ!.laIJI.i,1 _ ~ u.l .. ~ IJUL:~ .. ·n'.nlL.Il I _ ~ • ~

'that to Ox the depth, of 'tb,isl ehimney (1. ft~) ., 'we need [8, new' measudng Iina and special vani:Bmng :point, and .. new ,guide Iines (show'" dotted) ..

-w

2,

4

". - .J -

_ . '

;I ....-i

.. - .

[MeW' 5,PECtA,L: _ .. VAIN:,t'5lt-ttNG PO'I:~:t ,

• I i II 'I'

I.

, u

_

, "

I 1 I I ..

. ,

• • H

. . "_

"

I I I' ;II" •

• 'I ~ ... ~! iii

• I,

.. .

, .. !Ii ..

'. "

.'

. _ "

, . .

,.

! ! i

.. i' I

" .

. .

..

.'

..

iii i!I

iii r. • !!!I.r.

:t3 'I'

,.

• (II

. ~

iii i

-= II

~. riI. !i!

!(,72]

.·thad

'H"- fl'"

, : ere, Boor to cei 'm, aereens are

I ...... __ ..l -,. . 'b·· "['- ';'I!'!i. ......... r-~ '~nD'ft'1I! b-'" 9,10' 'il'ii'l'

P1At;.~, aSI I awn ,.LILli. lLUIl '¥~" '.'_C •. "~

,

. ...'L,_ b'" d' '11;1. ....

,Also at· .~ same O:De--t:'··lI.·, pomts

,""':,._ .... ''1 III Ifn - -.- . ulli' II - - - .

arre' ('WI 'Wa.u. - I ·ss, re .. g' .. , m .. '",ODS;o

Iii '~

- ' ~

,;

r , • III 'il: ~'~

. .

. '~ . ~ ,

• III .~,

I,

III I

I, I'

I I '

'5'PEC1,AL -;,-:

_-,,,IIIIIIiiIiI!!!_I!!IiIf.II!!!i", ~., ~_~, .~, "'I ,......".....-=t- V'AN .. n,

iI • ~

, .

I,

, I ',1

i !"". 1-:;;

., "

ii'll •

. '~

I

I

I I

,,'

I "

~ ,

T

I' ~ ~

'II"~'~ -- .' ~ .. ~ ,~." :'.

---I&:--~"""""""~

..

.j.

.. . ...

• !!o

,

. .:;;

I

·110; - •• • 1

.1 ,.~ [L _ r : r .. iI I !"I' III _,

. -

;;: ... J!',..

- o.lI I! r. _ .~ !;II

" ,

.

., .

, -

. - .

:: I,

'~~ ... ,' .... '

r .'. ': I. . _. ~~.' "

I' :_:_," -: - ,: "

11", 'The g,eptn, locations of the mnl-

Iions 1(' and so :Wh!"~~"~)" '1IiiIr'l'i\f:[i found a' . Iiii::'!! b-·· A-

~ .,~I_, [a.·_·.mJ~~I~., ~~ I}UII .. lldnl!· '_Jg _'.~

~. "0' '7- I) b . ii' k· ~ :Iore (Bee pp.. i I .. j '" ' " - . 'lY tic~Jn,11 OJ'_(

,i.:'L._ .-', tCW'''Il11'!1lal sp"a'~" - , -- -~'--'DQml'ff~m''', "

liLU~ee ~' .......... _ '-, - .~8 rOD a m~~,1 R

1:'_,· __ ,..1...1...., "'W' :,''''--. - 00'" '0'- -n''lligi''FM:l1 I:'" ,.,- ~; lJ.UE!: aJlI,U (Ira,; ·1,:.:, v~-""O~"'&.Ues 'w.

;0"1 '"'hiD t

·_-c-;-·.----:-"j". ! ,-' . ~ :", - -.' '[~i :. •...• I -".

S :~~Tii,;I!I;. V!i!'!lI':"I'C'!,.,; - ·1" paml'lI

gp~~~&Q, _ ~~ ." .. ::.' - .

.- Tbl lei . h- 1i tio' ~ tb

,. , ." . ~ r-' . I' . ',.--,- 11." .

2~ 1 e>,t to 11ft' . oea :'- ms 0,,-_, e

~~'ft.m 'arii!l th oYiI, 'I 'nun' d b' "'y-' ' '-m~ -:-'D!o'na ,Q:f'

r.1I~~~ .' r~ ~ '. ~~~ ,I·U _ ' I_~: _.J 1Ih'-'P.r.&.~ ~., 1

th ,'" Iin £ ..... - 'iii -

ano _ar measunng ,--~~e :'~ umta

'long (2 + 2 + 4 +, 2) I (Units ma;y be

at- g'nv seale H': -:-Ie", each ''II'lrn'':t~: :lLN )

-'~....,. ~., B .. ,-, e ;"",~lal IU!.I~ _: ~ 7:2 'Ii I

3 'Tb'·' loeatl ,,,- f'~ ,i.'L ! 1'" . - - .---; ,_.,_IIl_._ "

": i!I' - ,Ie ,,~ lion 01[ LII~ meas,urm.,g

1"'-'-:-'1 ~.- d ;:;·t,·-·,··, .,' ·:""''-''d'' b ill!...1::_ -- --- -111,-

me IS .:.:_Iei _ermIne _ .y 9uu,ulg 1(, ,ru"er

b ].. d- ~ tb' tilth d I;' ..... ...l

,ac. aD .. ,JiOl" DIlle, [" oS, II-',emw ·num ... ·

ber lof units fits exac' -ly' be,tween, pro-

II I.' fth ft· li

'1IenM'ODS D" --, e.",' 'I: O','D"r- , lIi1!'lil~a

I" .. _.~.IIr-.~..... _. ..,._ E ._. ••• I l~-!I

In ;£.1....:'_ - ilii £l.......... ts ..... ,-,..:1'

'UJ..Q!j to,PI 'Vlew" tne e ,emen' -.. recea ...

'"' .I.!- 'b - ... ;111

mg rrom 0 :: server are un,equw;y

an""'~""-..J _ B' "11' t- Gr,1I:!1 DrS" 1,. .... 'i:rt~, laeen''-''-'- ,- on· '-I tb'·~ .. , S'

!W!:r'~1 I, .... , ~n'·" .tI.:La.'!I'!I!iOi' r!i!O!l' _- __ -:.: _. ' "

. =-', -'" .• '" '. ( " .. -', 'tb' , __ :,' _,,-.ij-t.,.- 'd'" ~,;n

preVlous page~, _'-Ce same, IJ1W'Ul'D,·· ~

L_ used ~~.'-'-~

, e

.. iIII. i!! .1 I. :; Ill" ..

'.'

":: I. Ii

I,

I t

I ,

I

'iii '!II .!II;;jI... IIIl [I' Ii 'III

I!!I ~ i!!" ~ ." •• 1 !!i

,

, -.

• e iI

'" ..

.. '

to ... ~ _ - III

II

P)I

, '

• ; _!II"

• II 'I

, .

..

,

, - I

(.. -

Ii • + Ii.

S

-

til'

Again the: depth locations are: .found by tiCking 0,& the a:ppropriate spaces along the measuring Iine, lconnecting the,

lo~t' 'ti' o. pll .... w- -).! 'tbi - ro - om' :t"iiiI"tt~,a. tornd-" 'tb,Q'T'I1 '"~' "'tb' fi'lll'" ti- ~ ....:1....... to' ,- th l . . - iI -g 'in: "".:L:..... !! t- T' L.:.... I - ,j,. ...... ""'1 ,. i!;' - •• ,.:1 - tnl D" tb' 'Ief' t

,~. ,_._I~"ni., ''-:_~:_. roum V~·LJ.~ili ~-- .,:c~;I,". aq ';""-,~ . I~, '.-. 1-' e Specl, V~ItU.Jjj,n,lt pom ' .. , -,~'Ucai~ spacm,I' IwO,u..B_"le ,'.,'

n- 'b' - f-' . -. hi' '"' ..... 1l.., lt I , 'iio d-- th T- - hi 'I ft 'F 'h' 1 ' · th Ii tb 'L. .... _ __, . .:111 wa.~ase'llmm w -1..aJ 1 a, ,lSI carne' across " ':e lOOln., .ne ,e..: to ng'-'\ocatlomJ, are: ',;e same as ,In '_~8 case 800IYe'IK,ULU

o~ ";n,rft!'ii;d· 112Jj,1l!: la,L1'""'!II:re-' ~ ~ ,I.VI~ill!.lId.:'·· AQ ~UU1.1.". i!

--~sr···r---~f'~~--f=~====::::::~

.~

~·~:~ii:~'_~.,·, .-~ ,STEP 2::: Con:v,er'ge ea",c.h tiCk to van-

.i8hmg' POint s,t rilh,t~ - I

S ",_,A 5- '1 ~ ;;;'--, 'I

i1I'i,n~C.lo WP Wall~ .~. eauar 'l.:rer:Il.J:ctU,

!IYIlI~'r~-~~ - ~ ~ - - .. ." T-

di ,,. .. ~: :0;. ,. ~... 01.1..:... . .'. ~,+-~n'H'I"'" rt',4!,....... ...]1- .

. .. ·Vm;IOillS m '~I r-e~·~·e I,,",IWI W;,aw"

,~ .1 ~'-~:-*nl-RD .~ .·~'u.Jly _~L,'=:'~1i~ hooks)

lILO!' ,mSI'ml.iI.!i, •• ~,. U' le'JJ,~ ··-,LIIll'CJi.: .. ~ ." ,0;

. .. 1 S-'" '1 ti ...:1,.; ~'.Lit.. 'i d

S EIP" ." - ~ '.' .:. lm'P':I' .y'" .. "leA IOiJl Lbe '"FAii"I11lI",o= .

, I". !IJ' . l ...... : , _' ': .. , .. ' t. .' f '". ... V'~ __ - _.~ _:.:.":

'I!fp' iiOi ~jrFli €I on some V' ~ti- ii' line 'by, slid,,,,

~ .. ' a.",",.;u.~E:ii .,. -' .' :.IWl~. . ~_._. ~ '. .' I. .' _.

ii, rul ( th .,. ) ...

,- .. -, - I' " ' " " I • l '.J '.. . .', - .-:",. ' .. ' . ..'...' I . .••. I'. ",. .

,mg a ; t,er I as laD_ . e ,preV]OUB, palEt

·In. ,s-d" '01 '~C2iI~''''_:''''''''n W· here 11::. Rf'i! ...... I .... 11 '.1'11'"1·;' ..... m ,DO', u r~-'1I.di.Y ,. ~ 1,: Ui ~"'.t, IlJ.\m ~U,JliO

.e·t-~ (" ""-TO=-·4:~ ~L,.-t·· liI!:i,'; £\. er ,,@,::-l{.ii'o,r5·,

,U,,!i@!1 ' .. "Jt""tl ""~ IUUI. ~w~ I ·u .', 17i '~._'.'

~I Sl,tl' would '~""'"' e.k.) ~ 18 . ... '. --, ue:. Y'- ." .'

S'T' -'. .. 'Dna' d'~ I h

I EP I[ il: ·,··Tn I~' ",m !l!rn1na- .' 'iOll~1 JI!:j. iI'!liOWIi'liI

I . .'!i!!I .. 1_: J'IT ',- '-iLU1B~' _ ~ ~ ~1_~VW~1I!

S~:'-l-'E'P-' ,I: I D" ~'"1' 't:'~e'_.I!.!,~''II ''fI',;:- .... 'OC!ll a'- ,t eaeh

. '. 1_ '~_l' '1111 '",\&,1-'1'" .¥I·~·-!.I"'W~I lUJ}~1 .: l ~I ~~,

,. . t-' f- 'i!" ~.' IPT'JII..,. -- -ll-' 'Ii

po~m .. Ifi<', .m:I!I:e.r,S·OO-~j)On.. . .t.-uf!SJe ''VI . Jl cor ....

, ,

ctI: d - - . equal:-- di'" ~ 10' ,~

" .-::-. ..", ,",,- ", -," ," ," "" ,~ . " :-.... .." ," ~ _'-. '_ ·----:~:-·I·~· (. '~'. I-=-I ' - .

lie _ y. em all'"cate. 5 ' ··VlS10D_S .m

nili!i\~,'i'U1~- - - r~ ~r,";"I;;IWve;;,

-

Wh- - y .. -c thisl is 10 is ,svnlai'ned. bry-- these

l~~' -_. -~." _' _ .• - - •. ~Jt-"" - ._- --'-. . -_ - ..

:~.-. t-··"':-- '. .'·f-· ,.IIi ..... ,-: .- ' ..... ;iI.~_, ,·1 ". t;'Th:-I'-e"

UoniC, vIews 0, vano1!.B1, recWUJ,:g M", , ".1_'

,...:3'.,:'.- [0' -._,n'I,.,. ..... lI'~:-Q,.Ij'i~ ~:':'::w"";:d"'~, ;&;'1....£'1 ad :J~:~·;t'i.~j'"l't:' u:.!I.ab 0,1 m.HII, Il.!I..W~ g UJ;. '¥ .J" ".~ ""'"Q U - -i I. M~;II;· )

!stdles 'I'\'ronnirtiona.', .... :l·~:~ 'I' In IQ,therl words,

.,F Ir'Wl' ~i

&- . . ' .. - ~-, "'. ,.' .~ .. f.~' "':L,.- ...lI1.!,..., ~'M,Di 11 ,,""t,. ~. '-.-'-, _.':-, '. -

y .means a_c. ~ lum!;i,_~l. ~e ,s,pac,m;g

alon D' ,'-, .-, -a'!l'l~'-"" 'ilil 'Bd:lmr~ ";Ia hfi'nliltV~fi~~' __ . _~ a" VII!;;'I.·U~ ~'. ~~ ~' U~IJ~"';L.!I;~U

"nllP,'ftlpo'" "'L1I"'i.='---I""','~····:Iy .... · to ..... ~, L-~i''lif.ni",,L-,·l_~·I··--,,a

Ir'&'U .lIl.,~~-tI:l. ," ." ~D, .1,wr~LI.:~1 ~.~,gili

S·· "'L - ._10' __ - .I. ... " ... ,,.;!' .. f-:' L .,0; .. ".:U: . "'d'·I ..... ..::II .'!i' - to'

cc·,uppose·, .msl'~[U O .. ceml' wVJ;<.bU., :m,' ,.'

an:ua1 E;na1iceB- the ~ectanD"le were to be

~._ '_.-_ l_.:_j~ ~!I! .. [ I. ,".1 . ,Dl . ", _,_" 1., ".' . . .-.

d'!'··...:::A ... ,d: 'UDailTlll!glI11,-" D ... , ' .. ·····mn·lID, ::-'--1

1 . Iv JOe r . I· . g'"':l~UY;;1 For. exa~.rJ!~.j on

.. ~L, - - . - .. - 5' ,,- 't,;, 'I,' '. '. -all ]-1 . ·t';1 - ..:1',_. '.,

I.iUErI ,mDlel'~.~mnil,\i"', lDn;fJ W< c_. ,e, s UE3W

i!I'!i Q ... um· "~'t" ..al_--'iI'!! '10' .. ~,~ ..... ..JI '1 unit ,mln!i!!I!lI"tili" from l~ ,~- ,_' . ':.:...~. : IUJJUIJL ... _" ~J;WUJ u.&JLJL _- q-"~ ,&lUI ...

the ,front end. The dz,a:winp at Fi,gb.t Show 'that :t'he ,IOnlS' method' lean, ,be

ii'iII'IID,-....I tA,P!!I'., 1nn\IJuul .8 nn~ind

~euJ ~ !LI,. ~,it'~~'l:'" - ' r'~!Wl'· -'Ii!!!!

'N:""n+-"~ -- 'lI!'ID.!Ilva ~"'-'!ilit '''''''''''"'~iiiI!Jll''1 lIll!Ii'f"!Ijg.n..... \,'.1." rW,lIIC~ ii:Ll·.-""~"l~i ~~ .: v·~ -w~ £IIF"-i!'~J

'iT1I,1!t ~~~",,,,!,,, .L..ntm···· L'L~ '~ama to'-n '""~ ·'I!..;..i"iI;U-im:-"· ~ JlllillJJIL:ti LI~u.' - . -w~ Q .. _':_,_g - . '.:p ~ Uu 1~,Wc_::_::_!

..... ...3, -- . .,. d-=- ~'ii!!!ii'D'In'-'i ... 'il1 lB:;.d ,., . .,£:,.,.- '-' ~';IRi'~t- '£'L.·· cu..ge, as ··~tJi~J.Q;U,l .. ,"i'b"'l!!' a,~ J.W~ r,l~i ;. Wie

1~1~1ii!Iii.,~ ..... n,·1 i!~'"""'-f- a:·'t-- 'bo,U-i"iom", tb"'A~oL~

~~._',uaJ., ,!!;!I'~ I~ .'" _ ._.' ~IW! .. ".:J. ~ ,...,IU·,iL 'C!

,,;t....- ~, - '. 1iO·_I.. ... 11' .... ,,,,,,, th)

'we l-um,t tiDA aJlIj(j starts ·"_ere~.

Thisl :mefhod, is also applica:ble 'to

h·ni~i'i!';"'D-L .... , 1 p'llIl!!I',",aD iI!:iI'U- :--,·r'il,..· 'iI:Ii:'C!' B' -tfI1" nHr"

.u~~~u .. taJ.. ..Jlr~:~ ~ __ ~ 'aQ . Huul"lii

.A:lam~ equal or l-mequal spa;t-in~g' can

'b-1a, ~1A'''[iI!!j,-,jl!'If!i''Ri':;'!t''Nili!!!iid:i-'

l .. ".~ IUJJ.lW-~LL.lIIJL.JLUJI~ ,_ .. !!!

FOl[ insteince'~ let,'s divide both the dlepth and w,~' tb. of this pl!an,e .in·.to 5 letp.Ul1lIB.pa.ceB,~,

ST-EP"· '!I'ii :~: ~p' ~....a~ I~ :14'1 6· .. ,-·t-' ·h·,ii:!ii't'!e·." il:Ii,'tiIi.id··:'

~' ~ I~: 1 till!! U iD .. ·a}~ilIif-~ ~ 171 . ~ .. ~" ... : rw.a! : UiL&J,'

so can 'be used to di:vid,e ·the wid't~b"l

(O.ll use 5 Imitel @ %"'" bBlaW'i~)

STEP 2: Draw guide lines, 'to vwnj'sJ,b ... mg' point, then draw' dia.gonal~

,S:TE'P 3,:: Draw' ho!rjz'on,ta] 'Imes a.t .m" .. , ·tenact_ion poijnts~ T_e are the· :r.equil,ed ,5 ,equal :s·pa.ces .in depth ..

.,"'1 ~ • ..,

!II' •

III .'

~: ,- ~ : K :: ;:.~, ' ," : Ai',

!IIi] -r.I,ti ! ,g[l

-!i ,.. 'i-l

~] I! ::I

..

ji'!I,.;I'! -ill I

, , ,

, . "I

..

:~,~. . .. :.:' ',: ')(.. ' .

~ .. ' • .• 'N'

, .. ;; t··

101 -! ... ' j', '

• ~!ii

..

"

.•

III •

..

III III,

I ~

,;

iI .'.

• il -

81 IfT- .

. ~~:. 7,8 -I,e~,s

-= ,0 I.J' .UI Tii!!I!l~I/Z.,

I ,

. :

_~ __ I

, .

.1

. I

[I

I ...

,I ,I

Su- '. PP'" . 0: .ne.g iina.;l''"'!!,II~i(~'f' lo·',n ~ shape, Pil'ii"';;1.; '~'!~ , .. .c'~":' '!UI'C~ n'l,,"", IUJJ.:!!;,O w 'Y;.Ui;.:I' ~ . :a _ l:::;i:J! ,~uUI aa

rectangle Aj and wished torepeat it

,(. ,'~. I :"', . -;i,"""_i, .. , -. ~ .. ,:' . dei ~""I Id'M ~' .. ' '-::-1 lin- ~~, - -;-

.... ,iIl'or me;,~J,oo~ .m, or", er ,w w-,aw 8" .. , , e,

ofcars on, a road), H' the rectangles Wiele ,touchin'Q!I~ thel method of diaz-

-e '_'" - - - -~i'l'" -. - D

.' '. -. 'I , .... L .. ,.·.-: ' ... "., .:' ', .. ',' ,t1!'g:"1 eoul d "b"'"

OBa,Ji ,MlOW11 an, pale ~,',' C'D',_:_ ::"e

used - 'but sines thley':,' are DOlt ... another

__ eu." L-_" l_. -.. -- -. -- ~

th d Ii' d d

'me' 0: .IS, neeaea.

STEP" l' ~ Dra W" ,,: th -e" diaeonal 0,:,'11: ,t, he

, I IJ ,~Jtl···~ .. ,": -'._:' . IB.U'~~ "\ )11! ",

_. d Co dl th'

fi:rst rectangle an}, le:xten; :, . .1.t: ,tQI' ie

'boo ''¥I''!7nn'~ Iin '. lii:i. Tbj" , is loca ;i, .... "", ~]4,itlI. v' .o::iJ'n';:sh. ,-' .... '

c. lt~~ ... I"-'~II!' ,1[I.g U~~~ Hl~ ,~"U -J

ing :pom't fur this and all other lines

an '1 - '~t

''I'li.AiI''\ ,~ 1-. ..... , -;"'.

r-~!- ~-" w ~ .it!

s· .. ··'r P' 2' 'II 'E-~ ,oIk ... nd tb'j'-' ,',!id'·", .. ···, .', 'f" ..... ,'1-

....... ~. ,'-~, "X,I~' ne sl"es (1. ree

'11 A'" h ~ ~, '1l,..,,::_ ,. t

fan,g,~e,i" 'to, t_'ed" 'VlmiS,\lLmh,l.g pam',

T' I 'b' , , -,,-- - ths !Il'~ "'d' 'th' .' "'d '. 1,,:' ..... ,.· .. t~ , nese are rr e WI·.·I··. gm ·~e J.JYJ(es,

J! ,:>~-, . ':-11 _-i.~_ ,I', ,,'':-. l~n:-, ::- . ''"th·· ') ·1 ,~L.·iD,

.lUI' a.· ,ree W~..!_tllg;es m 0_ m«re WJ" _ _: '- LlJl~,

';£, .... ·'··t-:

,tu~S _~

ml..,~~ m. Ii' ,D,~L"",;I ~iJl~ w also W" ·'·o::·'r·l!~ rO:"''II!i' 1i:rD~, ...

~,J..~ .. f~'iWUU, ." .. ,. l __ .Gi-·· _ ;& Ir.·,tIL Y'~

... ,;:,- .... ;11 pla ... AC! iC::!!U~'I.,.,~ iL1! iGI r- ,00000,,"O .,,', bnild 'iii,

Iw:.~" ~.I!!,~~'J!~' ,Jl:a,l, 'U·t;!I Q. _,un IOu .UU'·,_,

II!' . -, f" -. . d:-' ,i1 . ..ll . f' ~'" , ... :11....... . ,t:'

m t;t! 'aca" ,es S:rueS O· il.<l: UVJlUj a I ~I

, '. ,lEi!! . -' '.._- '." j -' . , .' " ..... . ',.'. ',~~' !Ii.;I,",

The p'rocedur,s; is exact]_y as above

:fl:llftd' I tb' 'c d-~:Q' O"'rn'~' ;,1tjI ; ,d,:: en ti', Ieal 1(:' 'R·,: tJi~

~., ,_,_I. ,._~,t:I!,;I;.!fLLJLJI,,aJ.>;;I! ,,Ii.',:' '!i;i , ,-', . " ... - ':c' ,~"

'S:J'"ft]UQ. this book - 9·' .0.···: desrees and ~'o.e' , )~"I

-Yv' -y,-!~. I~' .,1 · .. v,u· > I -.... "-'10 ~a CIJI_JIL g-~ .. Il'

Note th "R" tl" the b·-,jiO;l'~"7Rn- Iine -,f·· th' 'en

ulL-~ __ ", _: . .: .. ", I.~I [~ .. UJL; 'Jllt.iU !...JLI.JI -, lUll. U

'fi.rs:t case nOIW' 'becomes, a verti',cal

1- ''"' 'B +, -]'::"''''' ..il.L h ~ 1· .AL,.'

me, ,I ~:Dtr ,~e me aonzon nne, tms

':V· 0,·"1'" ~_1 ...... e n~~-V-in~ ,;t!iI'I'1 Ilm"l I ·ell:!! on" or "p:-:-'qr

\'~*I~- ·~L!W ... ~I:::~_~~.·.·~~, ,0. I ... ~ ... gl ," 1.1" .: .. ,.,' .- r- a .,-

,8U,e1 to, the, wall :p]an'e" The diag .. , onals, therefore, eonverge ,to a point . ' c - .... :'t.,'!-:- '1.'0;--· '!i"'ii,,~ ..... hown ('l---C'f' 'th'e ath af

on IhUJS ,me, ~ ~I)""!il''''."" ' . I, 'i.: () I 00·

, f- di ''II... (. h dotted)

set 0' !~ iagtona~ . 'S"own aoue«

d 'h!l' ~ "bin: ...

were use, j' t, - ell VanIS'- ~. ~ "',g point

I-d' -b' 'b 1 -) 'b- -, -- £L

WOO ,; ne a Jovial 'E3:ye, J!9vel,u,t on 1L.UJ9

Si:lm;jgj''II~''jiI'''~'~ ..... 1 'lin Q )'

- .' _:_~. ,_~ '~"~JL -1rI..~m '_ ~ J~[I!! ,:

r. II

... III III

. -

,0

• n ;;; .•

! '.' Ii!' ~

",-·.1

, '. · . ~

. .. .;;

C'

,

II'!. 'I.

.1,.. 1&I'1l

, ' .

~ : • ~ ,ill'"

~

,Iil.:r III .. II

. . .. •

• ~ ",. 11IJ _~

Ii, Ii

..

• .

. ,i • -i, II

I'! ~

~, . .:

• • Ii, ;;; _

- ..

. ~

-i lll!!

• '!!II

~ .'f!

~ .

.

I .i •

• ... r ll!!

.. = r I, ~ •

!II! • .'

II ..

'II!! '.'

I .. '11 : II'! I. n ,!!'

!., T

!!i'1< .'

i !! ~ - .,-

'I' • _ • 'Il'

.. .

Il!! ,I II I

r ! • = r

• ill _ •

I' ~' r. I!ll

~,~ - + ~ - ~ ::

1- • II]!!-

r. ,ill

III ii'

~ ~ _.

. .

iii

D-AGnN-ALiiIiI:L'

I'~·.·,"(; i~'_",._:~1

V:AN' IISY,~ 'NG, rPO'I. N'T

,IrEP 3::' 'Draw friant line: 0:1 'next; ... ,. shape (lj,hOlDn. dark). '", Then :fr.om,

po,mt' 1 draw line: 'to d:iag,ona]s" van ... ishing ,po:il1t~ 'Intersection a,t 'poin,t ,2'

10" iifiillil't,GC:!' J.'iL_ ba '. '1"'i"'~'T '1! ..... Q and ' ,f;;1!..~a·b-:' 'U

J" ,-~, .y'g ww ... ~, ,lU..l~ I~._~, tltU1I:iiIL It::! ~ ~.

il'lill"iCI_g4!.'-i!!! :01 D\""'~n' d r' \i.G.n~""'-I'iJ"le'··· ..... _,:11,'":1 ,t ..... ~'&,ly"Q.I~~ g, ~~'V· . __ _: _:. :. ~~~:1l1tl .. ~. ~.~ [IAJ.

. ':_ ,," the: flr,Sit~

A

,

,

. ,

~ 'I<

I

I

I

I

I I

/' / /'

./

/' ,./

/"

/'

/ / /-

/

'.

.il ,_, III. f' th Ii' f J. il..,_ ~J1 eXW1lImltIOl1, 0 '1,'· ,e top v,l,e:w if) , 'LD\e

n .... ,!.L, ,-::'-0 "''''',,,'-1,--,, ( ..... ']1 .. (',11-), I" 'd ..... "L .... ""d'-:: ,-'"',-::--.

,JJlLiSk: ,examp 'e ' '6: ,I,\. .•. ,8J}I" IrU.t' 8] • e, vu~:w

of 'th,e; ,seoond (al~lo,ve) will Ih~DW why

tlWJ ks

'R"nr- ,; , .,.-

',YU. .,"

'N'ote thJt, once the width, or 'bei"lh:t lines u@:dr.awn·,all'll'V'set·':,of'"smIlel

.. . --' _. . '. - - Ji ~'V _'_ . '.' ,lit" - '_ - '-'

,STIP' .': :F:o.l' other :[,ectangles" follow

th - .' .. iced -ld'l ti'~cal'" . ..lII'"

, ~ iI=!!,il!i'rWIII,o, 'po 'PA ... ':__i .. '11'1].';0, , .. !Ofn '1"'- ILI]Ii~ ,£I' ... ,

.~ ~~ . _. ".lLl-U·.· .. -. :1.rU.~1i ... ~.1 .- .- .. - .. ' .__::.__:~

n''Ii''Ii"Jil!i'''ii!'i1 W. 'l~C'llI ~,d", I. ' :. '''id'" ;-,- tj., ,"'i' - : 'I 1ii.~~

IU.ll..Ii~~. I. I. ,l-">i.'-A.I.u.ce ] .. en,. Cft:_;, J.i;.'~

tangles,

I

.

/ ,I'

.I /

.

'.. " : •• ; .... : ;. ~'rJ.' ,,"'~ +'

."'0'.' ... '1' .. ~.: ~I,:I II = :.. I. ; -

- -'1 _ _ I I. ,I. , ,

-

;,

_ .

. -

. .;;.

!io .. I I'

.'

_" :i' .. dO.

l~

'il .I. ~

'.'

'11 '.

,10. 'I<

-i. ~" lo,p.

Ii ~.

• ~ • : 1I'1l

/iii'"

/" ./

/'"

/' ./

,/,'

/' ,;IF

j "

/ ./

./ / ,/

/

"I ~"'.., I '\: .::111"11 ,- tr:-~,n"" ..... ,- .. '"1Ja 11-'-::' .• ;,-I,n"nII(J' ~L

mea, WUJ! I.·._~ Ou 113"'1'zlj",JiY ,:_;~~ ;Il;,~1"

4.A-o"I·· iI!:!j: b"'-y" 'L.' .... ·"""'m" 'm'~ "'1: 'tb~,-.:-·~'1I'I' ..JZj-'fI ., I' ,I!!i

'~.ltt:l!l' 'e!i!\i!'_: ~LlU,··".· '. eM 'DmirJ'ODa i:!I',~

A _...31 .Iii. - th" . ... . all' _11: .L:L_ .... ,_ 1! ...... - .

..f'U.lU emce ",Jay' are par .:, , 'm L1~ ,llI~lL~es

- 1-

' ' ,h :'I'I','II''I!', .".- ·-"n:,.ft'PS·':: ,~- .£!14.,,,,,", aiil!ii''Ri'IiI _-'. ' ,iii', ,t,

,na'lliUill-W.IJ!' ctl· .·Vw ·Ie W, ~ D~e pom,

m~', " .. ,,-,.~~ .... ', I,jll,L , ~:-, : ,,~,~111_: --,'J " .. ~ .-- "'e.1!...· ...

_~_ pels-pee 1I1ve, \ ~,l1e, IU1J:I~IO\I'.IBJIJ 'Y,anm_Q

inS point)~,

W''"'''L ii' i-......... I olti'

lldlJD ,f:l sg.uare Dr ~eCl:CUil.ej am' .' . ,'"

.... ,,.,dD nf-' ~'nAO:n,tri- 'iC-' n@i U .... _h..., ~'R be'

1I.ou. •. ~ IU' ~v' •• 1!I;;,f.~~~~1 - • . -_ ~_!I;I!I, Ilol~ lG11 ,~v& _ -. - - _.

drawn in COrIl@Ct, pers,pecti.ve by hrm.ring ,ho'lizonta1s to their' 'van.Uh~ ing' :POiintj drawing verticals" and i'ftwninll't the::pa Hem, at ·the d ial}Onsl];g:"

'E" '1i!!1i!l'!_n;~ -::- ]-'1v' .LL. -. 'd' ~.--:- O'tA--i1.... ,g'-ll---::---"

, ,·'~-~!ld!a L""~ 't;,.Q'e' .-c.lia~uJJ.~ ·IQ_·OrW

,.O:U to "'fcarry ,the, pattem illOlIDd."" tbere'by ma,mtaiDiu,1 !il,ymmletry.,

Dltu-' I' 'd' 'U"i''nI'iCt J::La, '~;:d'\~~ 'in"e=_R't no(" th' ,~, 1..:lI~!_l'n!'fi! [0 . .._ Ii}' '~D IW~, l~,"", 't~ 'Il,A" 'n" vll I _._, _~J U~~a~

_. t 'ri'(J'h·t --'-ill:'" h _. __ lip ov-'n'lam~ . :-bo'ft<J' ...:L!i_ a; ~~' r ~: 911,,- .m ~_- ~~' '. ,I ,'wLUUIi,

'works in 'lperspective,~

.

I-

I

- ~

Ill, - I~ Ii . ~, . - .. :

.'

Suppose~ 'you had. determi:ned. one

~ t ,~-:- -I (- 'b f

pam DD. ,8 r,eh~~g e . - sue,. I as ODie. 00,:

£'L -,. '1_~. 'lb,'!!!1 - ·f· - ~Elrd~ Io) ,,", 7 'd', . ,~' ~ 'h'",.::!II ,'"-

iloH6 .A.UO. _:_ i3 Ol__: a ,r~ _JLV ..... an ... _ WIS., eu IUU

10· ··te . 'th:!· ... -, - . . tri-@o'a11lyI-

., n!i'i!li"!. , ~'nili"illl' -- ,o.r 1il!'l~1nI"I AI, --' ~: '.- '

. _::_~ __ . ~Y_ !!GO' ~J'~'-' ~ ._- - .... ,"'

t t

t .

'/

-

I I" . j , ,
I II
I' I
I
I, II
II 1 i
I:. I - ' . ',"",Ji!"'iI;,PI V,I E- ",W·-.···.· .. ~

Il:~ _ II ..

1[7:5]'

- :1.- '

. - "{

.~ /' -:

- ~- ,: ~.-

'. I'

i" - ~

• ." _, • ~ - ....... "~ •• ..... "1_-' - .. "" " .;;- .... ~ I .... _~

il\A'·'~i]l!'ill."IF' lI:!'UTnrn,~tri~'1 pa'_. t;l.~~h'" I~Oi,", 'be drawn aeeuratelv and: q'. Wc:1~lu' bv usine di:a'~nals in a"dB ft"'Ij'mnn,~,~

J;VJl~' ~.7~'b.!_--"I__;~. ' .. _'_~-.Im ~ "-_:__ .. ~ c_,-- --' .. , ._- lliLJ' ' . ~.1 . ,J - ·6· 8;'!1.1. -.,.c_. I '. ~~"&,;;!

I

... _ -I,

, I' i I I ' I'

III
II

I I.
,


I ,
I
I
I . ,I
, I 'I, I
I I
I ,
11'11 ' ,
.: I II I
. III
, , , '

'f711' AnJ' Dlesi',gn Or Pattern Ca. 118 RelPfDdluced lin plelrspac:lliv8! B,' Mleall. aliA, Gri:dl IThls! Lalca,les Its Impa:rlanl: ".'inls

Fori exom.ple; in the: cirawing 8\'lt right, ,gri,d lines ( l'iS'hf li'nes) 'hav\e been dra:wn 'tblloU;Jb, the design's key' pomts", 'This grid ~CJtra.na£eft1I~1 'th,e spao.. ,me of 'tbe points, 'to ,t'be ledgesl of 'the :BUlTQUDdmns rectanl:le", thu cr.eatiDg' mea suring liDl~S .1 ,Mld 2~~

, ,

' . . ' .
'i' ~, -
~ ~ .
., . ' ~
~ ~ -
.. '. ~
.'
~
'1!!'
-!-1Ii ,~'

.,

,~

..'

[!iii!

..

I.

'. ~

I~

• "e

~ .

.'

..

, .

.'

.'

..

""",~ SP&C,I_,I. IVANISMI.,

BA,il LlI.IT- ,ILJI,O I r'!!!!!iil!!tl~' ",'!II I

Tn IDCi'Ie" th- "e _1-[lI'gB' m'I' , pe'l\specti''"'¥e''

. • . I' I' . • _~ .' : .' " • "[' " . • ••. . • : - '.- •• ~ .' , .. .. - ._. ..' '. _' ~ ... ,', 1 ..

'" ,', _,", ,_,,' _ .: : _ ',' ,:,,' ,,', _,' ,,: ' , ',' :, ,,~, I _:" _ ,_,',,_ ' '. ~ ,Ii

- .

II' b" dr' tb cbm 'I b

.:-- ,-. -f:-"- _-c-:- ~-:-:-" . '. (-.". _. - -_." _ .... ",' -.- I'~ ~ ~.'~ '-.-' .--: . ," -.; -"~-.-: I

we SUDp", ", "aw " e re, ,: I.,--;g, lery al~""

i!;' g' and then'" m t-

proXIma: -_ on Ii ~', •• , '~, :I,_ay OUi_~' :m_easlur-

·inil:t '1m'" ' .. Q!IilII 1--1 _,_..1 2': ~m--'; I 'hnlm:I!1·· ,t' , A' Ga;

'~! l'_ _. ~, ,WIU.. ,UU - . ulr-~ .' a:J:I!

''''1'"'0''' Rilfii"II 'B''-y'" U· iI:I!;!11 Di' ~L. - ~'I"U'i ..... ':' .... 1 'ii:'iiO-_,::""':L;- a till· "',",,uij; ~ .~. '_:_I!l!!-"'1t!! lWJ,e "'r ..... CIW .".~_- _' ,_., "':":'----"---,13,

points ,of these l'j'ne8t 'we eAn 'then transfer' 'tOe ledge: meavsmenumfs 'to the

PIi!!(,pa;~~'1'''~ 'I"'i!!ii;t!!!.a._- g'liOi !I'iI'fL ':::'... '';M "l. ... ,_ l!i;i~ 1!;I!~1U1bW,,,,, ~ ,.Ii.,~\,iiiW:UI,DJ,~;" JlIJH,. , ...... ..L ~J.l..iI'

allo - -,,' --,- 'to' dE' -- the-' - , "'d' -._, -, - ---,- - _

" ' :;' , I ' c· '.,' I" ' ,,' ,.'" ,,', '" 1"'" ,- - ,,' " -

ws us' '. .... -' - ,BW I "". ,~i-,,~, ,m "er8~lH}o

.r:;.;IL. l~ IF

~ and th ~d' ci temec - ~, 'hi

tl-I'ii'iQi " ',: -, "e, ar'll'i' lD' .' '. '. ···.w..'nT!li,.iI:I!l en.a~1 e,,,

_·L'Y~,I' '_'~ ,", I,.: .. , Ij"'&! I I. ',_ '. " .. ··.·.,UV..JL_ .. ' '!',' _.:..

to ·tmttb~ d '"'

. '. ' '. -_-. ~ ."' ..... , ", ", l - .' '.-~ , ',. . ',~ . I -;::-"" I " r '

USI ,m OODS I _ .. .:.c ~ .. e ._;esqDl

H' "_ill,, "Ii, f-::'-k "·~'L_ ....

I·ere a gam, 18 serlesl 0 -, ,ey' pam,.' ,1JiIl!j1

00-'-- 1:-:- "C'" £..n..;;;i .. - . . , ~. iII!:...iJ1 ' '1Il .. ::....:L t..., .......... ,iLL, .... ,

_,_~,en, :. OCAte!lI, on, a JI',l'lllI,,, W~I, ~~n,

been, dlmwn m, perspeetivei'

The-- ", . - - iii ',lb,"" iii ta'

,.',' .. , Uftil:!liil"l!':ll'FIIg 0" ".' ", n l'V\.'m' ',C,' 'RI',B!B

- :_-_._' ~~~&,DI ..... . ~ ,~_ " __ ,___ '"'!IiUl1

wmu,fsD)ed, fill 'the :penpective view 'b,.'

'I:'U!'I~ln,~ -m'~o ~11.mD 'II~';:""'a~ 1~'fA' ~ R·I- i" >il!iI1'I!'Id-

~-""G , .. ~D--el ,J!JJ1~1 .. , WI ,w .. ·~ .

ti'~'O··'- ll!i(jl'jl

i, _:::.' !tol g'-'Ii]

(M'-' .. 1in"II' ''''0' 8"'· me

.. IADIOiII'!IIi'l!!l'n,jfJ' . - . ..e;. I ." "'_C .. ,:..' '!lft,Dei .

__ .-:' ~:., ... ~ :_.~':~ '-'" IW ._:: 'w'Do '::!!!

nft' ........ ....1 t!I':;rnln)ly.' -by ~1i,'~'..lI,:=- a a nape'''' - _ -~,I,; .... '~,IIUtI, l"'ALulI¥" ';/_' I~I' UJlI!l. 1:_., ~ .• ~ .:~ 'W I. ILl I,

I.':'_II.--,.;.I,~ la'niAPi'n'IYi!Jl! 1.., ... ,....:1.,., m,"d: ,,e, rth-~ I,NLI;.AICU"'"'U-Uc ~r-~"'" Ul;Il~ !ICII.I,a c. JI!(l .. ~ ,

~'ilrnfr:':'~ ~'" I:.t- ~~~11~ ' .......... ,-.-"ftD'nl £L.~, p. 1'i'ift'lW"ji!i'

'UW.iII,ltaI. ,,ill.IIi!I' D. .. ~J.;;.U.., !U't:"'W\~ 1Il.!U~ I ,,,,u~,

sn;'d -:c Ones. )"

e,~---e '_ --,,-1,.,

M PAid_I' Nil II-liN

'5PBC~AL VAN'~!M,~NG [poI t,rT NO~I a

,~~~ ~111!1111-.~_~~ ~_ ...... 1.-

.~~--.~--~~~.

.' "!!!

ii ' •. ~ ~

!II~ L!i

~

. ~ ~

li ..

.'

.'

'f!'

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, ,.

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"

..

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• ~ '!

.'

1--....,.- '=T'I ~. =''IF=--+------L:I!-~~_-,, .. i

'.I'i! ... • fJ ..

V,.,N .'SMII'NG POIN'Y PCU~' MSASUAI,N& I~~NS A~ ,

~~if'"

II,

,E

~'

~ "!
fl ,
til ~ ~ ,"'

!!:l ill' !Ii

-![I! !iiI ~ -

i~. !I"

'I'NTR'- "0-" ·O···IUIC'·-····'T-:I-·O·,····'N·· -

! I _ ~I <.[ ',' _.> . ," ," __ ~ ·.·· .. :1_··········.

B 'and- b' "'_ . paraD' .. '. ""'1 tb(-i_._ ..

ax: '. .... ,'ax: II£IJ'P.. are ' .• ': Ii . :. I ,e " : .~~ .... ,

_ •• -.. _ ~'''':- _ " __ ' l_ "'0 .~.,.:.:,.'.....: [..::.~ ._. ,'_ ',_ '''':'':_ ," __ ._~~

10- Wy' anfshin ii I'"' ("

I • "... . ."'1" I",.J -. ," .. ", , _,.,' _ ~ •• 'J' , . .. ..• " i") . '.. .' ". " . " -'J

re 0···, one van ". ,',gmeeye,

le'vel)~1

Bince 'tb,e 'bottom, Df this; DOK is, horizontal., Its 1000ve.r,g,Dlglines: aI.,ays 'vanilh, 'to, iQe: l~v-et An, observer' :poin',tmg in 'the dir-ecti~on, of' 'the box: (bo:rizontally') there£oll'e poiD,ta, to ie, ~'~'Vab;i'8bing' lilley" (tus',t' drawin,) '" .

ISO, it ,is 'with. 'fbe pWVOrtiql' box 'tf)ip~, ,An,observ,s'r po,ill,tins in the, WDe direction, as, this 'varml"ly~,mclfn.ed plane points fD i'tB' 9UccessiY'B 'vaDisbinl' ~j:n_,esi

~

.

, ,

.

Ii' I", : I I I I ; I' ~ II

I ' - I

I ,I I I

Ii: I i I I I I I I

1,1 , I II' , I .

-H·.APft ,+'L ii!!iJ L...... ~-p. Iii "'iI'Vii mii' - 40;;0;;::11' I~"m~' ,~.'n'jI!... -t'"

,'U-I.,~" !Wlli~ llNA !I,.!!U!. e F"."!\-=-': I~ ~y, II. ~nfllm,

below ey,s level, 'therefore it OOlDV1erieB

.... _ III t ']i- h' j.,1 bel -I I

,~ a ,pam,-: s ' g.:!.LI,Y Ie: O'W' !ly,e . ',eve~,

I('-N:' '·O(··'·'TE· . '. THA"""T"~ ~ V:·A' 'NI····- "S··: H'"

... ~ .. '," ,".--" I ,--,-" . .:___-~.- 1 .L,~ .-. ':" "--"" .... 1. .. ". l~

1- N······ 'n>· Pi ",0. '11- . "k"fl'n . .:1- - ~', !'. B' '.'··0. ,,' ~' A'_-'" ND" I, B'··'O'''· 'Xi./'

_c_c'. ,,'. _ r ._:__.1.""I.1.!i:iI. _ .':__. A, _ ,--.,-" _ . ,_. ".".' .'

T'O"P A'BE ALWAYS, O'N 'THISI

·V'··":E' - R,'TIr·, ·C·'···,A','·'L'··, C:';E~I-'~~R'-_, 'LI' . 'NE·,.-:- .:.' T- 'r~"~,

_ .. '_" .' ." , ." '.' .... Jl.'" J. JCI .,. , ~ ",Jr.u.c

IS- 'T'R' ·'··',UE-···'-· RE" 1~_'G",·_··~:n"l""\'LE·'~S·.···S·-·' O.·.·····F··· ~~!

_ .. : ••• _:_.- 'J ••••.. J~,_I_ .. _ .. "::"'_ £~,

TO- P;'S! IN--I:' "CC=:·L·' -'·IN··--'A·· ···T· ··'I'O···'·:··'·N-:··· ).

-,J ,": •.. ," ",' .'. ,"'", , ii',

:E: V IS' LE YE II..

""',.

..

,.

.

\

till Z <. ~ Il

ur ri,

::I .... '

U

,_ I

L

H . ·th' b ton ae - !i 'I. t b I

I~'''''OI '" e" .. ' i'¥V' .. ' p' CIi, li!T:am· ''Il''\i'''Iim·· ,.:i!'II .' it!Io "'tl"

_~,I~l;, "_,_1,.: t' uJ:I!. .. ",', ~Bl . ,~~ '. _-~I .:..._~_IU·"¥·

11' '1 b . b · ii' '1"11'11'

e1'1' ,lI.,eve " ·~u.t because It JIS nBBr~' 'ver~

t,!i' .. -1 lts - ;0'. 'bin- - - ~'t' '!!' tH-

0-' ' ••. -,. • ••• i . [- ", .. ' .. "'. I' .," ," ,". .' · .. ·1· .. -~-- ..... -

_l,es ,_,. 1._ VaDliS:__;_c_J g po.m, I .113, . _'I~ aWSJ" ..

.-:.-

H'rO-'!I"'\D ,LL Db" n-:v to '1"'11 11,UJ" ~ .. -";0 th 0 'l,.."""f"!II" fron ·t-

, ~~J' '~1'~: ,,_v~ J.,.t""~!JI.!J\.~ . _]~ lJU~, ,IrQ ',.11

,;;:~ p-'-- ~ .g t. -:~'TI.l~ ..... '1 '~~, ''+~,Q InL.'~iB~:~,~,J~ ,';~ na .(,: p---: 1'·'jifi!1iii

~ . ~.~ ft::I lLtJ IWIl~ ulJ~.m;, yv.I" i;II ,I_ipg!l!#~. u~

ture , 1.-- ) ;L''If.. ,-,f' "1" .'. :!Iot'~ ,.,;II, '. -/'I~'" ,_

:p&W:le .' ,welle Drs 1,· u,08S not 00,0-

"., . -. (V'· :' - ,- - ,~. 'h 10, .. _ -, . , •... ·t - -. . - ,t '!':

v@'r[ge.. ..·..anllsullDg poim,_-s, are ilL m ...

i- 'i - ')

mh,."., •. ~l¥

, 'I

I' I

I, I , l ~ I, _.! I , ~

I' ,

,

I I

_I I _' _II

i

t

I

I
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I I I I I
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1
I
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, ~ ~, '~~"=I"""" ~. _. ~~~===----~----~------ --H, -+-~~~~----H-~~-

, ,

I

I .11

I' "I'r;r ;' I

'I I I I I ,II I

I I I.

Here" the box 'kip. points, :ar ,slmV'9 eyle: level 'to i:ts d!istant v:anishul,l' poin,t~

'I I .J 1

Here 'fi...'e·' '00····· """"" -iI'-"P""s' v'· 'an: .. , i g 'L,'~'-!iJ' p.nm:' . ··t' ,~,t!!ii

'~WJI Ildl.,· ".1 •. . -."" !LU " ,"' e . :. I _.IlC~l.U~lti,.~ ..... u .~. ~I ~

:sUII. ,~dJ()'ve e:y!e level " but closer ..

S,VIIi LEVEL

I I'I I I'

I' ' I I

I I ,I I:

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Iii I, 'I

"):"

. .

/

I I'

- _. 1'- - ..

- .. - I '

I ~ II I ' :

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. J

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,

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, 'I. I, :Ir' 1.1

I ' I

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i .': i I I II

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-

~-~-,-~~-'--i'~"'~~--~~----~

...• =~.-~~~-.

I I' . r; '''','' I ','

I I I

I . I I I

.,I,IJ III:' ._1. I

I II

1.1 III. .. 1

~,Fir:8t let~,s reoieu» The top and bo,~

'+'-mc" e"· ..JIgoii:!lrj[1l iA,~ eaeh ~:" !OIig, iii"lIIlf"~ .... L~ "L;.""_""!"~~:"""I lfA.I . .' U'ti~ u~ ~~, I] ~t5I'~ U, I, 'W~ ~

_·t 'I!gh-' - t 'lie- ~'- . nh -~ - -- ta -1 - I - 'C' ._. - -

, . ,'. "-' '.' .. ' .' .. '" .. ',. ., 1'- .' - , .... i'., ,.

a .. [JIJ ,c~-., on , __ o:rmon~ I, p __ anessee

I,ide: v',ieW) .. Ther,efbre, ·the,'Y m11st all conv,erl~ tOI the horizon line: {eye

-1-' ~.:' ~,C-I)·.'·_ ,::~,~",,:L. ''j.~.n, 'r- ,: __ .... 1;'11 '·,1 '-·l:··.-\-"~"Ci:! n-T"ll _JBV€! _. " .. ' ,p WUJ.\;II,"~, '--, e~ l!S ,a.wa:y,~, U~~,

, ·0···· - ~. ' . - -t. .... Lnls -. .. thr -, ,,'. ",' h th .. '- - '-b-'" ,11 .: ' .• onzon~ pane' _', I ->Qq'" .• "e I[) ....

iC!!Oiij/l'i:fg-r-,i,if!! D'U',aetl - - ; D 'n~i'IP' .... 'll]"llli!!il t' '0' t'b"'B

~'Y~,_;, I~J I~".~~I'-' ~~I~Ii'; ~~I~'., ._ ..... _~.IIV

...... ~Li"i .. lnOJiE'j, m'"' . q06i:!t- 1~'.A'n (S··'.n - J'1t'fdn". 2'·· 8-'-

:~~I~~ 'I'~ ," .... ~_. W" iy :: __ ~ .. -', ·~'e r-·~5~,~.'~l , ..... ' ... _.:

_,..,J nI9" 1-' f:- --11. III ):.

rll:!lU, ~. -: ,f OF' ~ I,ur'~~er reDZe'm'~ ' •. , ,

:Now suppose: we held the book 'this,

'!E!ll!Im V (1.:l;f· - ll''" ~ 'W"C~ A'Pn nosslb .11,0,). ,~n ,£'1.. ..... ·t' beth .-'.

:¥yl~' .. 11.:t.. -e- ~,~ ,~ua~ .. ,Jl.~l· l!Q!y,um. lJUI

,;l~1...I~ '!ii!!!"'.!"';1n;~:ji and "botto nn" (here lcr..,~t-

'L[re W,r I~ •. , lJ\J _I t_ ".: I _ . . .. ,;__._~.,IIirF'I' .~~ _'

·andr.ight) edges of the pages are ,DOW bounded by v,e,rtj,cal" 'rather than, bor.izon'tal~ parallsl planes, As above,

,;II.L.!llllel',O '~~o···· 'n!lI'~:"'"I'na'II' n;iI·_ ..... ,;;!iIot!!! and aI·· II'~ th: .g Ul~~ ;~W!.~. ~IJuUJL1~, .r.uu..I~g~1 ~ '-", _ ... 1 ~

'111';: ~-- - ..... -.;LL at 11,;:' .... , 0 - ·th' j_ - - - - """""::'11 - - -n'i:',i!!I'I!'!~O nnes wJiji _ ,00 ,·:n~'· em, 'wu·· CO: ~'¥~-6'~:

to one 'v,aniShing line, But in, this,

.t'L, ill L,,~..... J ~~, '" ........... 1

case LHIe 'VmuSllliig' I me· ,11; ·ver'th:'ID ...

'Wh,rere. is ,it lom·ted',? As In the case above, .it JiS, si.tua.ted, on a pla~ne tbrough the observer's ey,es :QD,d 'par-aDel to the, p1lanes in 'qu,dti'on (see top l},£re.w',)"

'~-""-'

". ".' .)

. ",.'

I Ir;A:l.;iII!!III!!~ Ii"- 1

I;

II I ~I

[',

:JI

~

.

,

TOp 'V~I 'E,W

til'

S· I ii - oi,. - _1: - - - Ii '11 • ''1....:...... l~ d tho, hori "11="_'_ ( 1 , ... :111) . Jl.L

~"" 0 ,llt .1s nnportant to reallze that v'ertiea.ll vam.s.li.llLu.gm,es ;a11;'. '.' . e ~ 'or,mon JlU~ ...• eye _,evei·· serve, ili[i'9, same purpose

,~,..,.ilI 0' - .. ' .. ,~ - ,'"1- '.- 1 ,."'-.- . --. -.~ '- -'. " .. ·-t- Do' I. ,,;It.. if.~., '. '"_i~_''''' th '-,:, '; - ." ,- .. , 'b" "'( .... '. c .. ~"i,,,,, ,#'-,-- '. "'1 ,""1'1' ""[ iIi::l!'i.··,J. .... -. f'~ 11·':_~S- . ,~l1t,:'c' h '--. '-11''"8 non-' nQ'lIr':"""11i'1ie'l planes

~,lU 'C!lI'e ,SlIDl .ar m 'OODiCe,p .,W con,~:.!. I ... :e Y8D1S .. ' 10g pam W3 J.,or par~_.e c. ,~e·lW" 0 __ JLl!Ue __ . W,lJil__: . ~ u:' r-'"',aJ,1 I·.·· .. 1;;OD-"

~B horizor "1,:-,· .... · .. '---'-:,',- '-'-'1'1 ~-,-,,-;l. ... \ ... 4!' 'l'~~:·--"'" '.''-' 'iI;..", --'~ .. - ... ;1., .... 1 ,····1·, .'. -" .~'::'1' 'AI ·~-~-t~ .... ,.,..l 'IIl'Jan'"~h'!!'nl' Iln I~' iI=!I~::""D~ _'iI"iIi il!\ii!:!ii;lo .... ,n,f': 'l:iw'jioftO Jl. ,iU~ .' o~, lZion ~ serves a ',. 5'e:~ 1011 ·mes on uOI'lIZOn,w:tJL, p ,anes WlJ.J..!Le A vel" _l~ \¥~_.~J~,-,-' ~, ~,'¥ 'C;1iOI!1 1i:UJJ, ~,La u· ,LI~

. .... . .' .... - ... :n -I -.- .... ',--.'1111 1-' .-.' "B' j,-.j,!L ---:'..,- ~. '. 'd' ,~- ",:'I!.., - . '.- . -'.' ::'.- -oi, '!':-- £-.,·-,t-· th - . ..Jl ... ,-"C'~· .. ' .. .I ,. b .',". ',' d' I b···· .. '11'_,. - .. ," ' . .'·'d· ., £.!;,_'1'

on, ,par~e\· ver~I'~ p, anes, J ···Ow are J!IOWl., m me same, manner; m ~,c~: i_ . e lUJ::,a,~p 2_-:ove· alt·, ··9!IUW are l"-_,en~,

..... --:--:-.-,-- ,"" .e'....._.- b .. Ii:... turned no- ,.JI_, ... ~"" - aeh - ·th -

eXlce,p,1!i ;LUr •. e~1 L~ue .• ·• D .. ueRfee9 Jll,C)m, ea,c' . o~· ·'.,er,~

The, dia Q'rams at ·the· -. b -0' -t' "'·· .. nn 'O·oI!l .&.1...! ~ P- Q ,(flO ,~.- ~ on ,th~ 'p- lrevions; p .: a.,a'e also show 'that ,the van ishino' p- ~ oint fOIl' n~l .. auEd

' _"._' "--_. ,Hr- " .... _ ..... ~ ,.~.II, ,-.1 ~I <-~o~ W~"'- ", _:.'.-y _" :.:';' '_-', .~ .. ,- __ l ._ "-. ' ••. ,'._ .' ", - .---t3II"~ .~'-.I .. ~ ~I.- _'.'

]"""1 I " , 1"",· '":. - " i~'':i"'''',-_..J ""1-. '. -,-.-. .( "-, ,'- ~ th I: . sd ;: .- -'. '. J} ':th' '.-. _-:', bo k ': -: .... --,-.,.-- -'- .: .",. - th:-· ,~'I''-:, ,,:'"'d .. --- ... ···· I'· ,'f:' th 1... ...... " "'- '·')1 :"' -..,...1 , ..... -..:1.:" ..... , - .· __ tI'_, ',:-·-·L_,;, .- . '.,' - '1,.;, .... '11'.:-:. " ,,'

mes on, mC.lLU.U~U panes, e,~g,"J' ae e."ges Ot, ~-.' e .c:OO ·c' pages or ,I !e ,19611· as tl I. e uuX, ~p 18 wways uu8C JJ.Y ,auuvo or ~IOW

the ''il:j;'-:'. _ii. 'L,~:_· , ' .. ,"- ·-t th-· .. , n . . ..... 'ld· 'L.,,,,,", "if"" 't1...,,,.. _..,.. ·ted·-- .a._ .. "bo' ,. "'. ,_ .. t ..... ]·, .. - ~t' .. '· ..

'!d' y:;nJJ5.rWII ,pam]: ' .. os:e . mes WOLU: J:JJave .. ,' ·.:.lLreY w,ere ,pIYO"~ 00 a, .'I"l'lZOD,La, :poBl_mn

,e I I

~ ,~

'Th,s btdldinl Iines, ,ttlt~ wIDdow,S" 'the briCk cofuminr:. and, 'the: s,mps" are all ho,riz'oD,talj ~efore: 'they conver-IB' to a v:anishin.1 pom,t

OD the: ho:mOln liDe (Ieye le'wI),~

The Bidewalk~ istree,t", curb! bab,. carrmSle,

~'D"lilf" DI'"d- line ni,1 m:·· !il; ...... '!ii!ii.i!'iI\ .... c'~:;ifit,n- L.e-::,"'_,~D.n-- CliF;,d'·-,~ _ _ "Klt ~ - .. 1 .. - 'u' .'-' .~~ .. Iw..u.·, U·.ib'W~~, DA·. ~

walk. and. houses, are all ,inclined '~pwar.ds,~ 'tb;·eMolle they OOO¥ef,B: to a ,point directly'

D1'bor-';M!iI' ,I.'L~, fr'~,t.l:

Q Y'~ ~ JJ..lIZI "

'N'" ', - ' '. 4!. ,&:L""" ~. ' .. ' -... "00--'-" _ .. :ii' . . -- -' I"-'_..J tho ·,.",.,_L .,. '.' -"" -Tb-'-~ .. -:-c., " ,,, -- .---!l,- ~ ,;iL'jt,._ 'II' --.} ,- .. ".- -t- .". f' ,iL,14", . tr - c·_ t-· , Its ''I:' ,.fiil!!

~JI:JW B£h,el~' ]Ice creaDl vie:, .- or s w,aglon lW__iU I .. e P'U.~.Uca.l."Ilh., a, e wagon IS on ~ .leVeL par .0, :U;li! Ii) ,ee ,t. ItO ,~ ,ILLI~'

'I"II'D.;Y!.;o;';jM-"! 'II v' n.Fi.IIV· a[,[i\lO; to" v-,,-,·~,.,.,Lm·' ,m' p:- "0:: 10:" - rs (JD the horizon line The Iines of' the 'nfushcart OD the mcHned 'pc : Iane, on the

~j~ ... J~IUIJlWul,,,' ~~. I~: iD~ . ..... IW~ .n _.... jl~ , .. ' ... I " Il, , ._ '"._ -_ r·.-- __ -~_._ '.' ._ ._-. ,. f, ,_,' _,.. ._~

'L_ .... ,d '~-'_'li;iii.'L ~I ''L._'':_ '11.;::..... ..1:' th ~ 1" d 'I B"- t Ii both _t..,:!: '1! """,,",_·, .... d::.: - t- tb'

other umi--iJ ,conVef",ge 'to pomts mong -~I_e VaDlIJIWll' nne ot ',_- ., e menne .,_ :p ,ane .. '_ ~u_ smee uu,; V'~llCI,ledgj a:I:\@; '~ILU,;ile:_~. ,ill. _:I. ~ _eJ

0'-'i761IIA·t Iiiil!IQ:h'!IiO ,iiEii,HiDr"le" f: --rom' 'I· . th ~ ~'i,dj§',.,-,n~ tb'l" e iff '1lMisIbina "oints (left and r1a"h,t) lie on the same vertimI vani8hm~ '~'':'r,-'"''

'~~~ I~~ ' .... br" I ..... :. ::..~ - ~ ~.~.":,::,_~",,,,,~",, I ... ~I •• ~ •• ·1."_'- _. .... lD' r-·· ... 1 _.... . - . ,_', ~t:ii ... _~. : .. ......: . ..:__... . .... , ..... , ,~ ,.1 ,' .• - ,.'. '_' - - ,'" . t;ii '~'i

..JI',::' ........ '"'""~l"i1:iii' ..,.,'IL..""" _- .. and '4.,",,''11,. ,- .,~- ',... .' ,;l!l"..~ --

u.u.:~IWJf 1WJ!U¥I'e ,an:_: . ~OW une lallOL!LI,er,o;

' .....

IIIII!!!!!Il '!!II!"!!

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Now wheTl' £1... a, road turns tol the' 'r~crht-

'- ' .. ,- '.- -. ,f '.. . . ,-~~, !L!Il~ . ,''IU'Q,. - -' . -, ~ . , ... I '. .. -- _.. ,1,oIi.,D 'J

what haplpens to the horisentallinee of the

h O'lI'!(!iIaa'?' ~ .... ,:.-, '!I;~ __ ,:,,,,,L ':"-'I'1iIt 'I"'W\m" - t ~'lt¥lii'!:!iI iin,1:!II ,iRI;¥i;

':_:':"~~~J .eL,.&~~ ""'An~ID ,PVf "I. &~~ ~j

tb_e horizon line! 'but sinlply shifts accord., I to.;.L. .. h'"

mg':y It.·, 'wlie :ng;_~~::~

Altd if the, road also goes downhill its 'vanishing' po,m.t is, directly' below 'tbi,s ne'w h,ot,mon pomt~ (Note that 'boitb.

d ,", __ :lb.! 't 11 """, ...... ,: ... ''1-.. ::_. ~~.,.. the '-h ~ ,jIL, .... 111 anishing~ ii, linel ~ 'be th' ''Ii ~ ii, Un ~ th . )

O'WJlU:Q.u VWUmUJlU:I[I ''I'"U)m~, are I(lD . I,., - S8m'~'ID"rmonw v; ..... ':'1"; ,-,: --, ,-~.nQUIe' I - e aDl.lJl.ifliII O"'Ji 'Ii'Will1'li1 I' ,0. ''ji,jl1!l1 'I' ,"ii'!iIo, S9rme .

_. I. " --- .! .. __ ' .: ti ,r1kil' ",.' ',_, '_' _ .. _ " -~, .'\, .. ' ._.. '_!..:." :.:. ' .:' _" ~ ~. _. ,'. ,_. __ . ...:.'. __ I~ . '.l.i!'''': ~~"1. I. ~~' ~"~'" ,'_II!! '.

'-TO-'-" RE'" "-"P,DA' IT' . 1'HE '~V-' '·'NIS·- I '-B" I-C-N··'-'G---· PO-""IN'-' ,----=-, 'F'O" 'R P'A' BII ,",iii 'L'GL- LIN'" D-;-'- O"'-N"I A' N--' 'I'N" ·C·'· L' I--NE--:-C'I- n '--":LA- ·u Ia A'" 'L"W~' ·A.'Y' S·

- , -')" ~"" -: . ',_ I' . ,,A •. , '_ .. 1.. . .• . .1. ~._: T L :" ~...,. '. '~ .. ..a::.i . ,'~ - ". ,DrS, .' _ : ,_,_,,_~,I .. ',_- -', I~' 'i p, .'. -N..c. _0,,_ -',_'A, ,_:.

DIRE'CT'L'IY ABOVE lOR 'BIELO'W-:-'~' 'V··-·,-A····· NI- sar . N-····: G- ;;0'0'- ·IN· ... · "T" T"HIO" ·:,S······E, ' LI' ·N-·····~S: 'W""""O":U: 'LD-' "-'1 HA'" - -'"-·VE·-·:i~' '"I'"p T"I 'I~'Y···-'-- WE·': :-'HE;": , a j

_. ._ 1 ' ."_. • I..' " •. " ,JlLJIl~~ _. "'_'" __ :=___. '--. "1" .JI:' ,' '11', .•• ' ..••• : .•• '!"'~'_ :_..:..... - :'__'" ',:' r.L~ ~, ", _ .1.['.' .

P1"J"QTE-"'- ,---- n--' TO-- ... A H:cO"'-R"1l'1I'70'- "NT"-:C" '- .. ''-''-SIT!' .--,- .. - . ~ \.- .-

_.!t, y~1 - .>-L .. , _' / ".',, ,,~,_::-,AL P01'_!-, __ J ON,~ (B,ee p'~' 17.,)

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• v.: "." . :~~;Wt;;:;;·m ~J:\f;:~t~:~,,;\

. I:' {.~.,';::.:,.:~}; ~;' \ i~: ~ :?:;; :·/:};:::~.~::~;j;~ii~iJ.::> ... '."""'~"'"

". ".: ~."~ '.:::.:,.:: ", ~ "~: {;,: ~ ::'?:: ~ /,~':i; ,,: " .. ~ ;::~~' .. :',~~,:~, ~::~·,~'~5~:?,t\::;::~~~;~~j

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Chaptelf 13: CIRCLE;S, CYLINIDERS A.ND' CONES

Ci'rciles And Eillipses: C:ircllles'lxlclept Whenl They ·,r~, ·.r[8111.1 T'D o ',' .rv_ .. r's F,Re., 'Will FOir.ih,orlen _ '~nd A_,pe'-' As Eliliip ••.

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s" ..... _·,..1 - ,. 'h-" t _,_ .. .3 -- .•. . "',_d .' , 'd' [ ... -._I,~ ... 'J 11,:%_,· J;,L,: ... ~:_ ..... I· ... . .' - - - - - eh t'L. .-'.'- - . , '00' .

li~ 'uprl,g ': ',: iUW plVO~ arounn la¥~.'If,I,ca, W.l!B" I~ IJH'IJ,Le· appean; mne .'Iue same as a~. ::iVe~

I

Un"!! -h'· t ,pl'l'!' ',I, ,' .. 'O'l!i3' ':-I:-la1 "'_ '. ,-, "-;-~'O' th 'nr' JI;""""'.lg ...... u. C OS p~. : , ~Jl M.I om aD I .. ~ ,

and ,at right angles to observer (i:~,e .. ,

to p' 1J'"'·c·,;I!..;o'li-O p"··'iI1' ..... me) _":1I~1 0p-- i~'!!:iIP ilI!!Ii,rL'l!! m'""·-

.' ..1 .' '.:__;ILUil,,", _i:!IaD .. ,WJJU, I~;~' '~- ~ ~. ,'"

ereasin ,,~lIv. .. I ' . -der'~ '::: lll-' '"'1'"1IIiI:'!I"1 .l.L~ .e.. .. i-"'I..,,, .... ""!!

!L.d,~c_: ~,I!.J.!' mUII.d,._.:. e '~lil:I!es, I~ liW:-~

th Le'v ii!iil~ fro·c, ,c: 'm- ,- ~jnter" , . , '1:''nIQ of ,! .nb-:-:-t:'!IiI!:!II;I""'Ii'iI!'.t);."s

_ ' .~J.1' qJL~ - ~'.,-'" ~~_. - ,u~~ y_ "41- l~~ T'~ L

,,.. (A' ''6' )'

...... ·· ... I~ " ," .;-) .. 1 .... • '.

Vl9lOD'i .,' I O,VB ....

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Horizontal clrclee. s;tacked. Dne above the o ·th" "er' and: a- t·: "'fJ:h~ t'l' G'J!'!IiI'17'lit"liti!' to·· ob-

__ _:~':_':' . _" .... ~I.-, .' __ ... ~ . ...:1 Glklla ~ . ,'. " .... _::_.

C' "'cture plan) Ill .-

server' pll.' _ ... ' '-'. . ~_ ' ~~,e:,. w: - ,appear ,as

incre,as,ilD,g]y rounder elli,p,ses the further th~y are from observer's eye

11 '} h'~ ]~' ( .. ' , '~<i.. )

"eve - . ·orlZOnme.. :.;,.' '·16llt·.,

Horizonta~l eireles seen simUitaneous~, lI'y. ~y.: ,D'D tb' . 0" In,ftA~, ~~.. to' .. ' the lie: ,'-t' an·'~· 'I dl

,I, .. , ~ .. 1;;;<,_: u.,\& .... ~ JliJQ.IL. ,.... r ...... · -'--.:_.' .. , " .

"n:'" -h··t', n'" ,~D'n,~- ill::: ..... g, lo'-f- ob .... o;,I"'n'e'1f"I'!'iI!jf]

, ;e': . Iy\l ~I~. lILH1.~~ '.' I .. 1Jo.Jr;:)1!Wl~'", .' Jl. Ii;I

.. , " _L uld "'1 bl . ..ll .... __ . ..l.-. ..

VISIOn, ;:UIO;:- ,~'., '··10 l.lta.WD as erue

Iii" d ro' til! f ct that ill i!j'

e-'1~8 - '. I Agftl"' ...... ' ' .. ;It],' "~I': " .. :; .. m(' n-I (1.,-

' __ " ... ~ _ . '~r"~' ~ g .. I ._ '~. .:___: ,_. ~

.. - "'ll'ii!iI!!II C ,-. ,- eh "". "\C!!I'],l1j p"".' . C eeti '."" .' ...... ,=-1'"

IO~O~ maenan» -u.Ji ._~' erspeet ve eire es

at far left and right. would. come tOut

,~..,..1';'I' to ._;. ..... d _nll~ "'riC!!! . as u.LSI.'. .!I, l~ .. , t;::.I.U~es"

IDrawing Th.-.· IE:IIUpS8

The two~dim,ens;ional circles on the prlevio,Ul pa:le could :~ep!resent 00 ins , phonograph f'eoo!rds;! pancakes, Ienses, ete, (right). But circles are also key

." LL __ , di ii _ ... ,1 bi "' ....

par_ of W;u;.-W-<..JmenstOIDiu 0,: ,]ecliJ.

sulcb as eylin,ders and cones, and as Hinch ha:ve wi,de ;applUcation in .rep~e .. , seD'la'banal drawiol'~ ICy.Unders are .

J.:L ..... , b all:!l!~ '0': f' - m,D ~- ~Il'.ft;~;t! DUDl'" iber 10' ;f' .

LJr.u:= \1 ," .13~ _,I aQ. ~~g - I '_"'= ", "_'

An ellipsel is an oval ls:ure with WI'OI

ual C·,~ d!li)

;, '-. ',- " -. : " I '_', • .1 '. .-'; - '--="'1 - (,,' .' I . - '. -_. --::-. -,

tmeq axes, .maJor an, mm:or •.

ll..,:,""';h'· ,. 'l~" ,t,~, !1...,'t ". '-'J . ~ ........

'W~ , ee away s la. rIg;!l' ilD,g,:_ IU3, IJU'

one. another Ii These axes connect, .1'& spectively'., the: figure's lODIISs,'t and,

.... ,Lnlp-I.aC!!lt-' dimensi nTil~1 and abo ut DICIi , ..... L ~lv.Ai.: lIJ~gll.l .~ L-'I::i.lI..I!~....v ... ~, g&}A" .. -' _:.,:::. . .:. __ - ~iC1l.

lof them, the !curve ,of: the ellipseJ is

bsolutel I-.. ~1 __ .'1 TII...,:;.;<i

8('90 ute· y s;y.mmew.l~, ... J.W') means

~ ld t!'-- '11 ..l........iN .. th' :J.... J(iom 11 ··en: .u;w. !q.uaUcan'~, WI", eacn

!!i di'~ ]liidin", g" th .. ·J:.:'I!..e!'l'!! dV'lO"n!l:]·v mlll.-- 'L ... ,"lIf laxJS _ V·.·· I'.':, I.". e OWl!·~ ~~,~ .... ','. J;1tLl

('''!IIi'' :::=; o¥ ... " ,:::::::; "\I )'1

fol!lil' ~ J! ,"" *", I

One ~ sh .,. ould II. l~;rj;'P-fti ""Ir.iio ,c::.! ,;;l!-.arw, ~,'!t'Iii a'IUi-"- '!lp' i!:!IiD.

£~r' Q.;U. : _ _;.'. ~_ I~ UJ[7a - UJia, . e . '_ , I .Q~

.e.-....~ .... _._,.,!I, ·;0.&.'1."1_ 1"- .':- --',' h.,..,,,,,,,- ,,~," .. - --i'fta'

.~m1WlP Wlw. a . Q0ge1Jl J!r~~· ,wml ... ~

, ~'1I .. " .. 'El~I~""~- A:·' ",. d B"!! - ",-, t~"_I.''''1i'!fi 8 Ll1u.a!9,., " .1Pses, "" aD, ,alie. fa:!IlICJ!n~.~1

,,,·t- .. tbis; A _ .• ' ., " -. 'mm:n~~"·' ,t.th: - ·'W",,· .:; II _ i ,. _\~ .n.u.yonfi!!' .c ,,,'-,~_c.:mr Wl .. e·· p,ses

.;;; aJjz"l! tho I~ and ,.

ean v~ .. _.",e I·e maJor .... , ... mlDor

d tba- t A" cod lUI B

'~I"U'.D!C! 'i1:IiliR aiD. "I. --;:-', /C 'IIl:m 'I' ", ,-,',:-. ~ ,; 'I 'e:' ','

~~J;l1 !l;IUldlo "'.~ ~ __ __:' _.. .~. &a! . _' __:_.- n·I····, ,_. .

1,- ,~'I~~ 'lb· . - ,; ." 'Gaa rD" !1!!i'!l:n'fn''F:n,.-,tr· y" 1'(' 'If' ',,, '. . ,alUlUS, I..: . e, n800-...,1 fi{JJJ ~~e ,_ .. ' ~ .' _'- W1B

,.lj""",,,",,, .. " S- 'LJ', ,., ,~,- ,-. '" ,.,. '. "',', th'·- .. ,~.

lBBW .' ~ 8.,_o1 axes~ we ~;ml ~~ " ~

-- .. _" _."_ _ . - ''I-' . ~ ~ - ___!'U

e~--- . . .' .. ' t, , ...... 11 __ ...... 1'iiii·iii'· N.'i1 ~ - .. ho

I UOIB, m ~~c_: t, more ~q. il . · e- Owce .:..."::W

,'.' ·.'b ,'-. ·-.-,d·''''mfft"'' ...J:-n.ai ). eaa . qUllUJ[:IiU,I,~ UDl_~giio, '.'

Then 'try drawing four lequall quadr8O,m. Not«: the ODds, are! alwtQfl rounds . ,.~, never pomted.

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MA.JOR

, .. _' ,- ,UA'II-, (Xii)',.

.•••• _[~ • I.

E,.UA,L(M)

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You, milbt Ind, i,t helpful 'to '. - letch : '.

::r--D''''"'''-,. ,_. " _'Id '~,'lIi"nlUD, ". Id· I ,i.:L1A .: ....:11 .. ·'II"I"I\IiI::lf'i!lJ .. ,.... rtf'II:...:,n I~~;~_J_~~ ~ U -" 'Ulu ~,t;A 1.:&.iELI. JLII~ ,Jl,~

ereates four more .guide linesl mthin 'which, the ap'.· . can be judled .' ~:\.cl

compared (abo"ve) ii'

An th' , ood teehn 'Iii ,- ~ to drs=- . 'til!

O I ·er'· . ' . ..' , . :",., I jlin'l'llD ''I,1Ii!II . ","1 '.: ", 'W' " ". e· '.

I, ., ' .. ,,, .. _ __,'._ I, .IL:."'t.~ ~ I,,' I, ' __ ._'_ I '.

,ji'Q'II1Iil!i'I::r- III":IiHfl'leA111 11''II'!I!' mi . AiDe' qua- . dr' lonlt mL., __ . 'U11,;I,IIi, ye '~, _'_ JL.I!.oU.I.Ji' ,i I. v" J ',' • , ' "! ' . ~~,',. ,J!"IIC'D

·transfer (tracing' pa:per' works! well) this shape, to the. lother' three quad ...

~'C- - ''''n- i'rruf th·,· .. , af'a'Aa : I ,' ... .c' __ ~.--- .' '1:,_",

rllDJIf.a UBI~ " e, I~ as re.U:::u.~ea.ce nnes

(' , - ,L,. '. . .,~) ... , .: (I[.i!lODe,·. "

,A true circle lean always 'be ,8,m ... , ,rounded, b:y strole &qua.r,s., 'The center Olf 'the a~uare (found by' ,drawinl' 'two Id!i_s,gonals) is also the center' 01 'the circle (lett) i

Tb,e eircle m pe'r,~peetive (right)

~~. ""~~iiiiii3iiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiilii""""""""""""~~~=~~~,,,"," . ...:~_ < can, also be surrounded 'by a fore .. 'C!:J . ® short ene d. square, D~8'.Wml 'the, ,dial'''' onals w.Ol therefore li:w: the cen,ter of both ;SQ.Wl!\B, and, circle, 'We ,know from, page 6a. 'tba,t this p(dnt, Is not m~idway be,tween tolp and bottom Iines, So the circle ",s, diame:'ter maMl, throuSb 'this center :pll:dnt is also nOi!,

mid b ., ..... , .... .ll b

'_ way'· •. etwe9'D, 'oop w~ _~l).ttom;;

'y-:-. :--: at':' R"e"· ''1~-,iIi''IIi'W' - (r ~~tJ:L'rIj.).·. £L .... ,t·, 'lb' ':1° ''l!'!l!"ilio

I _ ~ _. "H'._',. Jill!.U!·· .. -_· <.' ~b/'ll--._. um - . _ '.'" ~I,_'

jar ,axis, of' an ellipse must 'be mid, ..

'!I:'ug''U'' be- '~"'.i:ii~'"1 ''+'""'"P--:-' 'iii!ii,[M'i 'd' I b '0" "t- ....... ,m· .. '· lin ··,.o.m

.. ,,~. " ~w~ w . DJIL~t I-Wr-_· 1_"~iIIl

,So" omnb,minl' 'the two. draw,mp

'-r;'dh"')' ,It'ii J.L ... i!b !li.Le· m~-,ile·!ili:i!I' di

."t!>b~:"~ we see ~i#', '1liJ.iIJ,~.· ~U1,., ~ : •. _IIID1:-

e~ter falls s)igb,tly behind, 'th,e e]]ipse;'rs major axis (Note" too, that ,the 'mi:nol~ axis is always ,ident]ca).wj'th the' :mos:t fo,resh.ortened diameter 0;1 .,i!.:I.. ....... " eire "le' r. ) ...

lW.-_'· ~. _ .".... ~ .

Thel to,pl'view (l'ett) exp:lal'ins this Heming paradox, The wides,t part of the cwc]e (seen, '0'1: pmj'eemd ento the, :ple'hlre plane) is, not a diam.e'ter' but; ~ ............ ~ ............. ...._, snn:,lll!y at chord (8~howin d,ott'ed)lll' It Is this, room whiCh, be eomes the majo~' axis! of' 'Ul,s fiWpse" while the c-irc.1'e"s, true diame'ter,; Iy,ml' beyiond,. ,appears and i~":projec'tai'~ Ima!'~ller',

........... ,

.... ' A······ - '0····· fII A" '!iIwi!' -15":

"~II· .. _,< .... ~ '., - ':~.I_ll I

So' donJit make the, mistake of'

draw-inl a" :fbr,eshortened square and

I U~!mll': .. :. ,tt ll!i't~ center t' .... , lo :ii"I'lO, te the I m·· .. 'R' iI 0" 'r

LI.!a ... II . g. ~VA.Ii~ IbU W ._ .. ~ . .u-., - ' -' -[~f . t .

axis orf an e'llips~, The~ ,resuil,tinr

'~'f==""~-----::::::::::iiiii~~~=---~~' figure 'would. ,look some~tbiQg like' 'this (r,iBht)~

The: two B't r,igh,t:t ,bowever,~ are

a~ ,-L 'P-: Pftl~'r-" 'L'''''"I'lI,'1J'OiL'! heea 'III ~e··. .iLlI:,..lI!!!iii

~Q,t.'iIJ ". U V'IIIJ, ,'(mI. Y'IIWIIii1!'J! ,.~~ c wU,~

!ii' 'I J.I d'~' te~' ed th- d' 'livid'"' .

,p:'I~,~, J~,m~'J='Dmo ;' ,'" iF 'IIi~" 1111 I"~ -,~ a,m' "e, ,- 1=" ". ".~, ...

~g~':..:~~ ~;....~ '-''''I~I~ .. -,,~, ·_.I~II.-·" : ...... ,

In 01 '=1~"4.

l~-~IO!I .~,-M-~~

(])

Note: points oli tangeru::y' betweeJ], : .... ]'Ii,nse and S"narB (:1" 2: ,8,- 4).1 G-':'~ AV_

~ . .I""-= . " """.lI "~" J,' ,." ,~~~

Bcd",. at diameter lines, ,jUst, ,8S, :m 'the tru,e toP' 'view ( upper left J ,~,

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'Re··· .~ O'\B rdless of ·tb' -! .~ A 1"V\m~"t' J'D'IDI" li;"Ior ,n ft £Ii Ie C'· if: 'r.!i ft filli·'·p-'- me Its m~ I~J··'O:::· r' J and '. m" in ,.' '0' 'r ;i"i,V,ol::li;i!j H' l'w'" \lillY" :'m ap'p'OB Ii'" ,~,,: ri .. ht !!!Ii," 1DI'1- e"'IiliI, .

. .. .:__ D-Q.!.I!.-uJ . i3 -_J." ".~ Jt~nISl!~& ," Of' - y .. I~,.IDII ," .: Q,a..l: ~ _' .... 1iiJI··', . ~' " . _~ '_.. ~.I!i .. ' .1 " . OA~a I .~ • 0;; M._· g _"" _"', ~ _lI;. . '-'D aui:.&B.l -. :.a~

W· HE':: I ',',·N·> D"·R··IA, "W·',':·· 'I' N>"G"~ A.-·· C,_,""','y,""LIN' :""n-""E:'R- ~ 1'''''"8-c C'· '_E~l N:-:-'TE, R:· L'IN' '.,," ·E~l. M·~" U:-S·':-:T·' A"LW'~;.':".','y,::'·S,' - B, ,:'E"< D" RA'· :, WN·,,'·: A'- S'·'·, AN\·'·' E',~','····'··'· . :N-i,·C-;

~, :___ I .. "._ ... [_ . . K • I ~ ",' . _" _ ! . • I I I .. _:__: ". :..______::... ..' _ i .A L" . ..:. . I" . ~....:.. _ __:.' I., ,_ - .. , ...." ",I, . ..",.. ,~'. - _, . .. ,I I. _ ,~ .. - . ____:_ - 't ," I , ". ,I .... . - . - . . _ !!!!!I!

B,IO,N tOF THE ~ ._ ",.,1 'ATE.D ,ELLIPISE~S MINOR A:XIS,", Thel'efllre~l this ,cen'ter line (the axle of wheels, 'the cr.ossbar of L_,,_ bells tho, ~1,..."'lf4l- n'fl' a 1'"Y::-\'i'O'nil!:!i,"O·· ne iil!'Ii1t' A, ),., nlw·· "1J.n. B" ·p·"p<e··,oP;ilj' iiCII't 'lfl!·l'"'I,·'h-,··t- an!DI''I,-!~, to .... : th e" ma--"I" J'"01''' '~IV;'iCII ,0' f' th·-LiB olli~~ ,!i!lIi"lIilI\lI:!I~ftn-",a"';-d

',-' ~ _,t." ".~.",~' ~ ~.\I,W·l'U· _._ --'=..,_··"",vg:v ·r.·.' ~t:·"ii. ~ .... ~r!f..~ r_._l.:, .. _.·g.aI~IU' ii, ,_" -'-8iWa ,-_. '_ "_ ::__' __ ::_ ". ~EI!I ~.-~~ .. "~-Y"W" ~~~I!1tULI

w,ith It,

But ,nom :·~,~,t this eenter line connects to ·the elli,pse ,St the cen·te,rpo,m,t; 'CJlf the· cir-cle and not to the center ,o.f' ths ·e,lli:pse .. t(Otherwise 'the II; •. ··~·,ft would be eccB'ntr,ic ,-·lilerall,Y '~oft eenter," Bee previau. paB'e',,)

Bly .redra'w.inl two lof the, ob·jects " aboveJ we can see hero, that jore:shortened. tHqllls.'r,8S in ,any di~e.c·tlQD,

nmn be co,ns~"I.n~e·· ·diC' '~S' euid S!iI:!l around

~ ... I',' '"." _,"I~U-~lli.· _', rM._ iD~·g -.&.U ...

a clraJ,@.. Bat in eve ,y ease THE OPPOS\ITE POINTS Q,F' 'TAN .. , 'G',NC:Y (d',ots) will TE:BM~' A'TE,

D'I'A,,:" ME,·.',' .·cTE" '.~> " •. L11 N-r·'''E>S< ., __:c- "C':"U': G'IH"

... ' . I, , . ., 1.' . . ._' _'.'.' " ' .. , ....... ::...LiIIII!' .....

T~,':"'.'·I:-,· C· r ~·IRI ... ::··,C'····,LE~·',·,':IiiS····'·· C···~·'N···:'TE·" ·;·R' ("In-I'"

~ . ", _ . ...:.____._ - . . - .. ~. " .•. (_II ". ~I

r.i!!i.ii!!IIIJj1k:!IP tbL ,- ,i!!I;iI::!.o l-miO -:c'e-'I1" ~l!Iii'li'l\D, ,n·t"· "I'!!;lil' :L. ,,;,

~DI-" ~ :_:. ~~ .. 1_, .. : ,.1 ~.'Y' al ~,"'J JIll~

- . .

a:n;I'Iel~ )

The e1lipa·e'-: m;:jol axis (rloltte;ti) has, Do~inJ'~' tot do witb this·~ .it is merely a Illig,s. line for dr.a,wing' ,the

elI"" (N' te "th t 0I;..l.. .. elJj' iii ,

al,pes..,." __ 0" ,," :. ,81al!D '_~ , a'· ~~!l1e ,'} " pse s

center is close ttl the, o'bee:lVBr than, .l;L"e C~l .• -I' . :;,. ceo' t -r )

Lui. ',; '~.: .. \.'c.-,e s' ~; -es e' 'I' '

,Bel.o!w are ,9Qlm,S ap'plicattioDl of -th.ees prm,ciples,.

I L ......

iIo.. • _ •• _ ". .1. II:II~" I

~ .

.. :~.,.:

--~~~.-,- .

.-

--~

"

"

Co,.a.

[[I.--~

~ .-... -"nB~ ';'i!!I B.:_':'JII, .... ---- ..._ dr -a'ft"m'~-·-·g PV'lm'" ·d::-B.~ 'Th""D ii"IIi!!i.'!Ii"IIi .......... e lfn .. -f.'- a 000"a ;C!i , .... 1,;C3·A an' . iiiS'V'·--~;;o·n 0" £L __ 'il-""-d" s· Ilips :1- .u:.::u,'WlDg CO':__I~~, .am, snnnar '00 I' ·':'_,0, ,,,;,,.,:,,_. ~c .- 'lI:a.iiiiI!\~ ,'~ ~~~ ._L. e. 0 .. ~. I.· .•.. .,Q ~I itU~ .' •. ~.":~:l:g\a.],, ..•. IUW. r~~:i. ~ ui .iL,~~O II

m'"'-' . ~'. 1'"'''' '1.:. .... _ 0';11. 1'- ""db" an" ale~ to th' -e- e·lli·· !P·...,C!a"a ft!!Ij,aJ!j'o'r o¥~'i\! an- d'" lI't· co' ;nn.a~' to tb- .-. ellipse n at ·t tho -. - e'lll1'paA]lC! ~mnor axIS '" '!' io ."r...~' a.'1.\..: ~5,1.' ' __ . ,n I_~ . -"= <_ :rD~ [o'.u.m It'·.- ~~, - i ~ 'I'". 11 :" '&~"~ .-",: .: ·'e' :. ! _.~: (~a·, .... ~e: _.Iii;I!~iii:I!

.. '- .. - .1......... . .... 'il .. t· '111'" t b 'hind, 'll:·'" :S·'·-·'''"''·d· I . - tho - noe: ':I'M- - :.n'ii'tll!ill ·n....;nfti.;·p·-lnaJ m'~·:-·· t--h- [ '. dr~ ., ," u'" ,- ''Ii;....~,-., .~.

ceD:LCC pom,_~ ._UJ_.L- J~~. '~!p ·I!.!Ui ,y . _ ~ -y'" ,:IOU'WilI r.'.L~; _::~ _I: ..•. ·e·. a,wme,9, auDi'i/e~

The. CODe within the cylinder' (.rig'ht) naturally has its ee ,_. ter line: parallel to oLiL ... _L.] - top- Th" - -~ - f'- 'liiin ·th· -. e ~;n ,-.

i LUi! 1otilU_.Ie ~: Ii , ,_~[erei OJtI~' , '-':U.~e S

'R,I"\a:¥ i,a m"· . .l:.i1..'iII!:I; ,0 r. l"'I"Sio·· ·.lI-w· - th 0 '00'" 'III'fi 'e" ar'~..u§!i' I .• 1II:n,Q ~~ ,,,,' .. ) \.Ua. '.: ."" '. ·.II...IIJ,"

l'eI.ti'll un the, tablls its apex must drop

t. .' a, -)., • £ .... r , .... ···t· : •. f.iP.!fI .. -- "'I!"" 1,': __ 'f-'" ]-10!0i

\,amOUJB I .SO 11:d.~ lla[ oen~ ~ ._8. m,

. " . ~,-- -, 'ima'~-'1"in' to th····· ·..Jnu, .... ...J - ,"" e"

,approx _+~ 1··11 [_,--.[B· la~,1reU , ....• ,

Tbe ~TiiJID at Jr,mr ... · 'l'I"ll:Ph' ' .. t -i1'!C:!I ~ dr ~'a-::- WU· .-~' ~",'l.;..

l. ", [L;'·U&.l&lWI fM!' ~~, ._ . !JD I· ~ :... . .. ",.' :__.: ·n· ... WJl

J.""'.::,_ ,.JII_i ed 1.--- 'III' ( ~ :,..., - ;0

1~1'~PP'" Ic-eniwi··. 'me .. ·,":.i...Iiia motion

sHlhtly foresh,ortena the, ]ISngth and

-- - -J(j' ... 1........ lli'-- - '''' - d" "t). ma~es "we e_···irpser01lD· er,. - ..

THE· RE' '", F-'O'-'- HE" C···· O:-"N'--;-El S" L' y. "IN'" 'G"

.. ' l .,' -_ ,_~.;_> .1,',1': .... ~-::__:: .... ' .. -:--

0- NI" 'THE:-::- 'IR[ sm ""'ES~'" '-HA-"'-: VE-':-·· C( - !.~···N···:

" •• _: ........ 1][1." "'., " ,' __ . ,', '-. .:. ,"_~_" ••. .:_ ,,~. ,. ,,_..:..:".,1. " _', !IIIIII!'

I"I"'DiR':· ';~'NE':''- '-':8··- 'IN·-~cC'··L·I-··NE'·I·D'·" T" ·0····' T'IIE' .;

,&, D . , __ ' . . '_" - .! -' .. -'" . J -,,:_- c-'". .

PLIANES ON 'WHIleS TH:EY 'REST

' , . ' .

• ' • '[ .;:_ ..... ; I' . I. -. ~ "iii

The" s·i'milarl'hll'" 0···.-'··· th e e':Ui'ip'~aa at ''I'l'"'c'h· t'

• -" • • • I •• ~J . '.' .' ee- , '. :~_:''_: t w'. " .~¥~ Q.~, .& Dr I ..

mOl' -,' ·di:·:iii. -, .1,.- ;l.:1.,.-t th .... : ... - ... '. . .... [' ,~. ",''' .~ __ . calles Lml'_: .-," sse: COB,es[ ar-e· fllDll'"

'1'-_1, .-.,- ~ --.£_...:1 'b t' . 'f' ·..:II.::a'- .. -. t 1] . ~J,.,;n

.au~It" onenU5U:; U : D UB.l_" I. [er'eD .. ~elll!Siw.Jlg.~

)

C' I"' I . elli'" ';:'_"..:1,.- d ph III. d to 1'4S" A 'UI..:1.... i

"lrC 'e8 ... :',~. ,p'ses eones .. , Cu u~r9 3DJ' fiI'··;,:~erel ann le:'.' ," a' ,",pa.' "ce, 'I,e'" w-aWI\Y1it'i\I"'!Ii

- -.... I (tpl" -~~I . ";-'" . _ -' '- .. '1- -~ '. ·rr ~. - - - - ---. - - - ~

/). , ",':, ': ,"

:: ...

,i.. .... Th,e sun of course, mdiates ligh,t in aJl directions but, the .r.a:ys :f\eacbing the lea .tb" 'being 93 million miles from their

l_,-Ource,. ue 'esamtjIJ~7 a. smaJI handfulof s,in:ll.s; rays virtuall:ypara'l'lel to lone another .. Tberet;ore" when dm:w.in\I' wi.th

,,...;., .. _,'Il'" bt "'L, f :-1'"' ht" _'L Id b '"'d~ dl ""'f'!Ij,_ll1.'·'1:1

~'WU~g_I.,· 'QJJO .rays 0': .11" I: snouu :0 COBS!: ,er"8·, .~~ 'I

F 1 iJ"'Ii1L.. .=' d d ~,,,;.'IL...

", or exampJ.e: '.Ii. IUS Stl.SPS'D •.• ec ' ICioo e.

L......... 1:--- ~-.--.. 1'" h d

~ severa Sur,WL~1 m '11· .~t aDI~ sev-

eTW in :made ("those 'turned, R'way

~_OJi'iO .. lb' '. - .. H'" b;li.)· The' "'A·b'l to~ - .!

uvm _:·e . ·'11' 1,1..... ,,'.~ ·IWI··· e iL,P' IS

turned towar~· the H.gh,t and, 'would be

en- -- t-Il;'" ~,1'!1:i!!' "in lil- b- t U exee p' ·,t ~'~ the

' " ,. ~I.J . :,' ~'" '~r· .... : .~U __ , I:. '.,

·..:'L. ..... d~-Dc:,W· . f,;r,iI"IiD'~£I' ~I!., 0.".111 l~':"b-'·i'Q'· th "0 ;f'j/I1"I'L...iO, a· bove Jt1IlliI. ,.~' '_,' ~~jLil .~-~.. Ii, ,'_ 'J-' I, ~ ~L!lLUIIt;i! . lLKJ· .. ' ...

We, mig,ht say' that· 'th,e, .inte'rv·ening'

obieet's I~,L-d-"· '~~u.r~-"f· 3' lAo 1...-8" "cast" a

! :_.I~' !~) ItU:W~_.~ .. _··1 ~._'_. _.i~, (UU·'.: ~~j- ',.

n,dow on ·the lighted surface.

,Shade· and sbtldow naturally ,exist:

IOnly when there ,"s ligh.t~ Ligbt ',ene:r'aJbt :is, lof '~~_D types" de:pmding on. Its

sour<ce~ One type- produces a :pattem of paralli• .li!I'ht raYIs" the other a radial patt9m~

Th.el other 'type of' light orig,inates from, a, local point [source BUCh ,as a bulb or candle, Here, the' dlosenes.s 0:1 '~lL·- li;l.!'·I~·~ ·SO····'Ii"I~ m"MID~II~ -thal-"1. o·b-:·J'"'~'·""'!

~ -, rUlI.iI .:_ !L&lIl."-!iC ~I . _'ILl "~"". ~~

are 'meeivinl lip-, rayisl tba:t radiate

.... "' .. d:" &0 .. .- ilL 1 _. - ~"t' ,mt.._.

ou,.w,ar'~ s=m, a 1111\1 if! IlOlm:" -,l.',uerle

fore- w·-:bDo .I[ ........ ~nl--c' iiil!rjllth~··· I····~ ... I'II po ':'m~ ,·t-'

._:_., '. ,_:-~\ ULlIg.·w.~ ... _ n,ili._ _ .~ ca:u." '.'

sources 'tha ray;B o;~ tilht Bho,uld '111 mdliat

"11 .. .. • I • .. iii I!i"

. ~ ~ ..

• • .1 III. Ie • 'II '" .....

,,: . . ., ., '. '. ",.- .. • I

.:I I L ,;. _ ... I .. • _

II • I • '!"! .. ,a; '!. ..1 "I! .. '~ r _ • ..

I. II • _.. ~ • "!"-

r. : .. .. _- "! 1111 _ I",: ~ ! I I iii

" "

, .

I .. ' .. .. _ .. I" ~

. .. I' .

I] i" "',~ I -;". [i _

II Ie fll ,_ I

If' I _ ..

.

iii • 'II

..

"

. .

r. '.' ..

~

.•.

. .

..

'i: ,_,

.. .;

" ~ .

. ..

!!!I • 'Il. IJo

" ..

1'1 _ 'III

- !!!,

O!'

~ •• ,. oF II!

~ "

II!! !I !'!.'

.. '.'

II' ,. 11:1 •

!!!'

~ •. r. •

'" -

..

' .

.•

• iii !i ~ II! I!I! iii III • oj 'Ill 1.1 ~ iii e-

.. ~ · -. "'... = ., ~ . ~ ., .. ;.~ :, ~~ .: ... ~' .'~ .~~~. '" .. ~.. .' ~ ~ ",'.. .~~ ~ .~ ~,~'. ~ ..:'"',~ "'.: : ~., 1fI~ ::' ::: ~··IfI~·" EO, :. : ~. MI· .;:, -,: .. ~.. ; =.:

EA"TH· ':

., .. • . '

• .. II (iii

..

'I' ,0

.. !iI

~ ..

----=-~"~;o~~

-;-= . :Ii"

:

iii! I'

.' '"

'I'

f!i

0.

Iii • II I

• (I ·iIl zr!i

" '.

I •

: ~

, I'

~ p"

'.. I. I

,.

iii, III

E! !i ill. ttl

oj' '! ~ ~' fII

s- III 'I I 'I

[18,1 P a,ra III .. )1 Ligihlt Rar:s: I(Sunllilghlt) Pa;rallal To O'bse:rv'sr":s Face (A;nld 'ictulr8 pllil,ne') ,-

_ ~e Sim;pl!est 'C'I:s:e1 Ot' ,Sha,ld~e Anl~ Sh,.dow· Dra,w,iin!11

Tb,e top view at left shows observer

I . .'km'"" g t - ta" ble td!!'~ -h" 'has~ - - ,--. -- . sil

,", ,'. . I"" ,". ' ~ " ., " '. .., . ,.". c ".".' ~.

nO' '.' '_ ill. ,a 'c .• e w_,cJ. .... _1 ..• ,a, ,penel

( ;i5jM'ii'.A' lI'l" ,;i'ii ;:I't,c':n) seu .... 11;.., m'l! ." - 1'"';1; Th' '- B n~l1"

g''''iII~~' I\..:~":~,f,!&.,! ~il~~~,·. ·:11.i0 ,11;1'",' I',~ ,~ ...

..... 1I1'.~'1I 'ii I! ht 'i 'I! L.... .£'1.., 1 1!'t auei ,lll,g .. ~: rays arnVlug rrom tne _,e'lL_

'1!i,"t'!\iO; pari' ,0,]]01 to" . tIl·a observer's f:a~a , ......... ,..li

ii&U.,C;' . ' •. ' a ,~ ;' .. 1 I 'i~, I .. ··~ "~ -'it. '.- 13 ~~~ w:w.

•. _, • ._ • _ •• • ." • r •••• .•

;1:. ....... th . , ,.!!., j.;;''iii''iIi' , 'lan' ,-... Th" ',,1 .. '. ,~" . th;:··

IW .'·,'e P]',C,(i,'U,I,l€: Pl_'·,f!~ .. ~ere£ore!: I' e

P--en' ,""":~"1itli!jj, tj'L, .... ,~niJTIT" mu ~'IIr, Iie , .... 1I:nro.-o '~'r,~ '. _. LlU. ~ 1~I-muU~'T' '::. '~_' .. _~,~ ,UJ·: UJ .. U___'::__~I U.I¥

llgh,t 'r,ay shom1;, dotted,

The shadow's ]. ,-:-- a·th· ...lI1 .. ,.-="_.Ji_·., . ,~m:·Dw ~ ,~enb' .' Uepe.!l~ on

the angle of. the, 'Iig:ht Fay, ho,t, this can

'-,'~'" '.' b " t·. ,,' .' ,~ .. , , .. '.'... ..... ::- t'·, :':" 1(" '''',' L,t")'1

O\lUY e:.e ,seen m pert~pec_"IVle '. r,f,.'n;, .,,~

,A'II angles are, possible.. Hera 'Wile' l1Se'

... 11::, d hi' 'h ,-" ... '11.. tit b d 'til

,~:egroo!~ WL:..,C mases ,'e sl,a,i,ow"s

1· gth" , . . ";;;';0,.";' 11 "". ;i.'L....., . . . U-'" 'I ;a;'L

.en:: .. ' leq.uw!lio ~ pene S eD"U-l-

-'--- .J.. - .-- . .. . ._. .' ._ .. ~._ ,,!!I

Th· .- ·U-·:ht· . - . _ - ..... -. . - . ""- dl t;,·..:I'

e ,ce'"1' :.; :ray uum er,aser IW' .• ··O'i llIeu

lin ''-1' teg" . . th'· - -- - .... ha d' . d

',' ~ . 1'- -. • I ..... • . "1" L , '",. ~". I - • , ...... - '-:'j' -. ! ~ '1' [ ,.

.e "oea, .. _ _ Ie, er,DGer S_L" ··_ow ,Wl

'hence' "fixes" ... 'the]' ... tho .. 'f~ fb-"" cn~ ,-

.... , I : ' "1' a7l"li''Cr i·,n· .. ,n p,. n:'Il'!ir" ~.

l' .:__'" I .. " " ", . . 'w:'ilfJ!f" .:. U _l • .~ ,~' _~,:__iL L" ~

t-;;;' 'bad

.... .

en _Ire, ,9 . ' .... OW'~

S~ ~'I ..... .::'11""" ill t '::'_,,~'1! ... _ had

' ,lm)' ar peneus 'W.- 'cas simuar :!1IU.t ,-

OWS" 'Th,€: shadows a.t le:ft are all par: .. , allel to one another and to the l;JJ]chtte plane, 'Thsrefofe, hi pemipectl,ve they f-enu.dn, parallel N'olm individual light rays ~~cai5ting"" e'rsser ,Shadow,s on ,table",

'H-- ',"':','. th '.- ' ......... "'. . .. ".' .', ;~11,,,,,, ,. 't· I" " '. , I, .... ~t· ".

.'elS" . e ~wo penc~ a.~ c~ower. I~ . are

'~t'b~'~I".,-~:II':Ii 'b':y"-:~ ,m f1..,,':~..J nAn~,rll H~'L~~t..,

·._,A,,~~. ,eu, ,~" Ig] !~UJrQ ~~~u, -¥YJlJ.CU

casts a new shadofW line connecting the era.ser sha,do,ws of the firs,t, two~,

This, new sha"dDW :mus't' be parallel to :its shade Iine (b:r.idgw11' p.encil) ,'I

the- £' '. eeti bo th" sha d

. \ ~ :" ... J .'. . . l .. -.'" -. - .. '" -:-'.. . ~ -'.. I .'" ' , .. ', .': -_ f I -'. " I' _ . ' .•

re.OM., m ,persp· ..... ve'~ .. ' ; '. , __ ~,e

1,!', ..... "If:i;, 'Oi''t''ild':': '''';':-.I~~IRW·: 'II1':IC!le", 'to :h' '0. t!!I4-"R"I;,Di, vanish ...

,~l~, !Q.U. ,!tU.Jg'utV. r~". _,' ' ... I;!~ [~~ '_".' II ... _,: .. 1

inl' point, The other pencils In 'this

d1""9i:~n[ilDIPa, H~I'TI.od'· mii:. ", ,~"", ,~iI"'iI,-'I'"ft"Ii ;(li'n

1L'~'"~jL!:II1 ~'I:.: ,UlI'IW -', II!4j IIU~~ I~

liii"'iIi1""lAIM'II'e' "_~ji'!j;; d:im=nlil.'1!~ ',-'. 'I ',1, .. '1·"' ...... ,

u:r-'"!, ...... '~,~ ,~"v=~=~.'e.li~lOnat· P' ane, . ,~,

_'iL.,-....1j. ''"', ,:., i ',l.11,:'_ .... d'· . c'" 'tt· ,'.' b ... ,,'""

I~UOW ,II, DUtoJi.Lu.~ .. , exaC .. y as ... S'llore,

11!i'.n m'"\ ..... , bo ·,th-- ca 9~~ th 'e" ni'utllm"'1 D 'I"'lJiiI;'n.nJ:'I~

~ I ;'" t· .... -."_ .:, ,'- .. ·_-~~I I ... ly,._II·_ I~~ ~~':!:~.II.~,

th sh de' Iin .. 'hich d' - ii'

r' -.' , '. . -, . i", ,. . .. ' . - ' .. ',. " .' .' .... . - ...

,arel _~_Ie" a", , ,el W •. j.', '., e,termm~e:

,j.'I..,...... - -

1l"ne sbadow':s Isha:~e .. ,Ii'"

"N" ' .. , I ~·t· " I bu Hd' 'm' . b' '~. ,,t.1L,, -

'.ow 'e', s ,'WJ.~, ~~>o cunss u.sm.lw;jI!e~

'~t'"' .......... '11.-...... ldii ·This· ",

eK)A"mD" ,~~wO nlLWie9 8S S; .:-, ,C,I .. ... ;-",

". --b ._.' ... , ~. - .,.' .. _I ,_,,:, _ V- __ ,l!1 :.___::,"" "',

creates 'D0Tl'i!! _,l.. n.d:-' C'. 'iI"V"\,!"-- t·--, . t-' 1 __ ...1il '", ~ ~!l!,,;iIQ' ... ~ n ~..IUiGl." 'e rVlllJ:;, a ., WlU, ~,

'~lIli1j--Z;C' ':-h ;i"liO Iil:!Ir·t· ,""'Lr-a..31 -,' ",~;I.,1I!!Ii 1~1 -, ...... ..JI os '¥Y,JJ;U , ... :, ~"" tiD.: Jj"lOW potm,", . UHl A ,~

IThh~ , - ,', ,"',:.",,,,,", -h ' .. 1" .. , ] -t' , ,;I.'L. , had .,

,'" . ~e pomm '. e'.p . Oca,l~ U-le M,W',' ow

Iines (" D ~ .n'W-:':rii ~,,,,,.'tDd' , Ii' " '#,i"ii~n i!'i,;I,_:-: ,I ).. "''''f'

.. ' '. '~@ , ifl!''''~U A'~ g'V'~:!!!;,.., ,u~ ~u.;t'" ,u,~;w > 0"

th -- to" d ertical bad lin~

,' .. " 'I' :'.' '.' .. " . I ,. :... ,,-> ,-.1. '-. , -. _. .:- •. l· .

e B'ew ,'p ,an'· v~, " .... : .. ,S.'.·.,··e, I 'Ies,~

N' ·te' the'···· ·t' --m1- .... !'Ica) .... ' shad lin"" f

. ." " ". . , .. \,. ...."..., .. .' ' .. , ... ,. '. . . ... ,.' ..... r' .

O"~ ,. ··.'wo v' I., .',~ . , .. ,e ,I ,es, 0 .

the aoorve ldiawin,g 'ilia,t ,have ceased 'to be made; lines he're:, ,Since they' ,alii! no longer 'boundari.es betw:eeD ijtf:h:t md,

. ,~

8had,e~,

\

'\

\

The I !olllu1wi,ng' ,A,ppraaliian S,-'eich'e',s A'~I H,a'v'e S,h'.dows Casl B', Plr,alll ,I Light'Ra,s P,aria~l,e,1 To The, Obse:rvelr',s' f'ace~

TbO''I!'\~fO[l12i;, the, 'in?J.n,cjn,iM develn 'P'" ed on th ,0. P'1I"'4'ul~"iI"'IiI'II"!f!'l 'Ini,ii!!ii,~ ''::1';11' be ,o'lll:rid~e-nt·· N"': at ..... ~ A"lnw' ~ - B"~' li'n' 8'~ ,fflj,'iI".o '1- j',l1"h- t·· '~'y-:-:''e' ,. isa d"·

~~ rWL ~ .. ':' ~:J _'_'. -: p;.LL '~. ,I" _ _ f " •.• ~ ;. _ .•.. ' G" ' I _ .= 'v. . _ tiL ~ !If, U~! ,I-"'U~~~' ''1111' Iii:' .~J1 I "~ ~." ~~ ~ '" .. ~ '.!!l . '. ,.'~' [~ • ,., '_ • I~ .. ,', yU ~ _ ,~a alL ru ~~r""' ~ 1~1 : ~ ILIQ"-_ ..

to IIIi"'i~iI!'lr;lGl, '-,jft\'i,Y'il"ii1f·:'r,""", ..... t· sha "', id fi~iI!' noin ,'M, Dotte.d line's are '''~Pl ," :i"'liir- aI1liy,"" euld ,a, 1m'", "IIi!ii!i::!l· l'leq'" U' ~'Pe'd-: ,.a._ 110"'~"'-' ti!llb'-, ad' ' iftuYl

U .!U~,iL\lIl!ri' ~_Jl:.'~';I.I:ta.I:I ~ ," V 1",- r'~' ···1il.O!! ' ' .. ::.' , ~'_," . - ," ,[ l_:..: ',1'". ~ . .I.: IU.:._~.: ,!tiil~:'!~ I' I _ ~IIt:iO '. .~,._._ W Jl~- .. -~~ g . gr.' Utl'Tgl!

.

.

-,

" "

__ '

31J Now' 'bridge a peneli across the ,eraser'ends ,o·f' the two ~OWI~]~' leif~t pencils below, Its, shad(l'w' on. the table 'will, :namally oorm,ecJt tb.le: shadows of the er8JE'l ends; ,Broce the upright :pencils

t ha- do' I-I ral L tb' this' .ii - - --

~Oltt!lf I~ -' ,,, .. ~ .. _ :'ow- :m '0':' an11Ir" - . °00-... J • '. I "rIilaJW' -, '

~ IiO:II I ,,-' ,,' " ':'~ I, " ~"'tI~ '.' ' :~'bl' "" '..: '" " L~ , "

shadow'm'US:t 'be parallel 'to, 'tb,e brldl',ing' 'pencill (ahade Iine),

Th,n 0' .c;1...B''tIi' -+-_ neneils are f;[;Cn'.,..~ ~,,_,,:i!i

_ _ ~I I, IW)~.~,· IIWU .r-~_ ... ~IIW m UWi.l."' HlleLIJ HI

to liiI9Ir.'~Ij.""'O'il'iii1 Ct.'p'.' ~n;'lil'iila , ·"__"':-_~'~""""iIi!iin'~'I"',ii"'i.'Hli(!jj ii' . Y 11,;." ~il#e ~, u, "g,,'I;.I.1g1 LWU !lIUB,'!i:aK:!i u.£&a,lL

plane, ,Again, the new top shade line

al'1'1 -L-'d '~~- th' ~'~~~~--~-----~-----~~-----~~~~~--~==~----------~~~~

casts D, ,par: _ lrE!!Ji .jal, law' J.il1e ,an " 1 e

.fiir!ll,'b: ",I,~ ~~'1iiI. !La] _ ~ l~ rill

'''I Wh: I,: ,,' , ,',' " th-: .'. . .. ," re notn ....... 1'1"1 'to' "

l.iI,' mI, '. -.:9 m,yS arr0 no", ,paI'auEL .

. 'ib =" '. ~,"",,_'- f"-" -,', ,(._..,....;1 ',-~ Il!ll~'!jj'iiiil~ .p= '1'-":--" :".')"

O. ·serYlcr J!i,tliiOO, ... ~. p ,ljil;IU.t:V . ,', ,tIDe ..

&L.,gn '~L.O;'-y", :-m--f!lI'iiilil!ll"· ,t,' ,g,'Ir\'JII"Uiii8' r '''rOI 1~'ij['i'\O"t!lil'\a.

UJI~~ ~'-~_: ... j,~1 _: 'M~J.-"~'- ~-." !LirU~&_&:" fti.&. '- ~~

nro.,.,::'... I ;00],... ...

,J. U.,Iti means more camp' ex m3WDlI

b'l 1- ,~,t doe 'hI' ,- to - t

,,: D' t· 1"" " ... _Jell ~;iEIi .....Q 'I "I'II:lI ' ~'p' 'II"!~~on' '

. ,"., I, _." .. I .. l'._~1 ~).&JU:A", ~ ~ .-." ~~ ·_-&'~V_- ,i1

'shadC"''- :----- 'th'-;-' ·'iTi,;jji,,-·-'-· "I"1~I!I'I,;ffi;ll"1':iI" li!i-::- '1b'C'=-, -,'FiII'ii;

I' : .: '. .' oW'S, _ .. en~ we uolL.KUl.l.J!' ,~OO I. '.' eUiJI.

in swlligh'&,

''1':-, J.L ~i ~. '1..., .... '111. li'AI!~i£

U1 iweiVp, view ue.OiW', _',~I~ rays

-'.--,--'"".'C' atthe : ·,··:1," .... ','1...,', " :b"'" ,',' ",'--"

arE..1l.vi'e ,ft.. IUJlJe: ang e mJLOwn . iy arr-owSrii,

'~'~I'I"'~~O'Ia ;&:1.."..... p@> .. n" I! il'lif''rj'I!~, sh ~,..JIO··· .~11~' m r. ·· 'I ''I ,c;l;,

.I., 'g~'Vc:lU ~ 'wre __ . .. ,...;11, a ~,_aJLlr. 'n ell . ,LIQi II

, - - .

lie , .... .'1,,,,.,,. ,oIL'''L,_, ~1_£.&. ..... ...:I1 11'::-a~ .Ai ,ft. 'b- n",O·'··;'i'Ie

J'!!;;,i ~uaaL!U,v' 'Y;Y'I~~ j[gJ;t;'~I" ~'::'~~"').I:'"

..' . 1- j' '. ,- ,.:"11,.... .' .,- ,t ,,,, ."''''!'o·1I1 " ''''d':- ... ," . ,'lrll-1

QL1111W p. ·enc~ cas I eq· W:ll ann ~ir:a..I.1'e'

~~I!I~2t'lIi!~IL. J :_. • -.- • • • • "i ':' . j ',~'~_ ., f ..

mOO 'In this· ,., - . - thl' 'h' 'tlm' '

',' ,,', ,'1 " , ' ". ,,v.,. , ' 'I i ' ',' , ,

, .I.··OWS~ .11. I. I...:.. ms0j1i 1' .. OUg'-..;, ... 1,

shado'" bli "" to- ~'tor. l1an

. f'·' -. 1,' i ,' __ ", ' ' f I,,' '" I. "1' - - ...•.• • ," ",

'.cWS are Q l.:_que 'pJ'C .oLe PII.,,0,,

.. ......".;, () '.' '10.') J:.:'L

,so m penpecuvo, '.,r,tBif!t:,· Idle,' ,con ... ,

'C' " . , '10'--' ... , .... ~ 't-·, ... ' ~L ..... ·b' .. ' ~, ''1:-

Vel,ge ,_~ is. IlOm,- 'OD,W1e Or1Z0D. ,1IDe,~

I

:2:. ':How do w,e' dr,a.w the ligbt [,B;YS, that

determine the shadow ],enrths,? Pre'V,iowdy" when the r~a;,ys were parallel to the 'picttrr-e plane;, we :s,i'm:p~ly' dJc-ew'

·t:L ...... m··· narall . ,oil: ,~""", nine· . anoth a,p 'B" u-t no·''l'W'

.. De' -! ~ ", ,~I' " '~~,'W!u' I : .. ~ ::., J_;_)~;;~~-lIJ . '.: -:1 I!~ < "'_ ""-I!;I~

'being o'blliqu.e.~1 'they must eonverge, Their v'anmhiQg poiD,t" furrthermoM~

m- - ust ~':a ,~n- ~ ~jb,.,c, ~m'·. e":' v.· ertical ~:~:'- .. ': :",_' 'iiI... ~. "-

" ,~ 1.J.'I;i y.",. 1t..tL1_~ iiwGk " - -e- ~.& w~ I 'V,iU_LIR~1

i1.lg' line as 'Ole shadows;' vanishing' :~poIDt", 'Why? Because 'both, the ra,YB,

and J.Lo , ... 'L-...llnnf>l!1!: Iie ft-o- n!lIP;oli;.'~111- el p.l,--og r.': I lL!.llg imJalIul 'T ~ ~. J~~ V. : '] ~ -AU~'·· : ,~IaII~"

(see top nie», FO'l" a ,re'p,ie;,w ,0/' ivertiml vanis'h:ing' linee, see pag:e:s 7'1 ~(J) ,~,

OOA4 £L·':',m nnm'"", ,t' '~;I!!!l, ',c ..... ,a..l cII'" rlbt'~ ra 'va

-: I~g WU'" ~~. ._'. _. ,~,1J.A~U:1 - ,~, . - ,~,~, -!J ~

PU9ing thr.ough, the' !e:r,asem Ieeate ·the

~'.rri_·_n,i"li!I'-·' shad 0':' 'H!II' lenaths

, ZiI_lg·· ',' '¥W' ~-~D ,lrJ~lll

,L,IIGHIT F4A,VS· 'VAN '. ~I NiT

'5IUA··~·ID"'l.ij~"lL~'Alrilii~:I~IT-'· ....

" _" W' ... :~ '1(,.." r-~ ...

I

J

6.1 Notiee that each cUbe has ·at DlI'tal

e ... ,j.."........ ~-~' I" ... had . llinr' Th

1(11. on~y!iWU V'e:.~blL,ca, m,w.e ~" __ '.~,, e

n .... 't. ... 'f '~iI', .... .....,£:liO eal Ii:ri ·th-'at-' ha d' "b·~an sha 'de·'·'· lul~W·:- ''''~-'~~l~- ~ _:- 'Jjg.L. ',I "', ~,~",~~_~, [~_ . r." .. ,

"I '1:J"L.., .... , ,- • 'b 'F. ii' " '" d' of

,rr~t y,aDu~~ml :pomILj: 19 usea mOl'

",lL. h th '. behind ,,:;,1..

'~.l_e raysl W 'Jen ':ie: SlID 19, nenmc "w"i6

L.._,...., - - - - .(".. - '~r.. '~I, ). Inl Th

O~"er', 'liO,'P 1Ij',le,W fJ B'IOWI .. I ~, - . _'1 ; e

tbeary :j'E!1 exactl:y the ,SmD'B'", In per\., specsve: (rilh,t,) 'the Inelined parallel

. ~,- d

I '~'~ .• -'_ .', ,.". '., ".. . :"'j -.. ,... ' •. ' I ,,'. • ~. ,":-

rays, OODver,19 00, a po,mt, ana, as,

t... .... 'f-il"!ii,p,a '''~';:C!I' nnm~,-·tl 1~'iii'! '111~n'''~..;j' 'o-,'n:' the IJC. ~UI&'!I:ii,'i 11/1!JlJ_ic.! rwr~~_:~ - ~I l~ ~!i;iU, . :' ~ " _: _ !~

-,. ~"'Uti .. ,"""1 ---_,_,: ... ',L~'. ',,- lij·--·, tha , ,t, '-',' --=.' ."'.

VOl" : "ew Ya!U~m!1mll . me I . '. ,pas 9 I!S

i.~ .... O~''I,iIIl_.'b, tho - - ,- a ·V' .,""_ .ci .... ~~f- f1I 'p. oln '. 1& ,ti'l'rf; ·"'~.a UJ.ll~ '. II 'W .'W~l~l.uJ'" .". t.tU.¥

!11' iii ..... 'L"._ . ...1 (- '.. and'j

'nanC:ul1l" ~O~: ~.'I!nl~e; '~al'VD'-, .. ::

1~~~/."":: ~1 __:_. _'_." .... !'~-",~ . ,lCIl.II.L&~.'". .L,~ ~I .. ' ,"

'b-L """ ,.JI._ "I !!i' - .... :1'1 -'11- - ''i.ni_,_,i''i'')'

1_'. 'auUWI, i Ie: laD ,pal:ftJ.leli p.~ .... 'iii

B Jl. t;-. ~ oiIl. .... '_ J. . ..:II,~.m' d

8'· '11.1,11:. 'w'n nnpo ft..WUI! uJuUe,renceg, ":. []

II - _. - .. - 1 I • .• - -- - • _. . -- -

.av';:S'tili 1. J', This vaniSh in 'ai po .. .: int is n,nt

~,_,.,o; :'-IIl,~' , .. " ~I -e - . 'lD, --'. '., ~.- '~- ,gu ,

th ~ - It: b til ~, L"t ......

e SUD ltse_'J( .u,IU',~' IIm,PI,Y a vaDlllt;wtl

Po.int ·Eo.r a set of in.elined,parallel

,-. -, . ,-.) I· ,- b 11 J.:..... h II

Iines, 2~ .... ·'t. Q_,waYS!3ilOWILoI_iG' c__c_OI:l ..

lEi ('If-' b ,",t ... ., 'ild' .;.;L

zon .m,e~ •.. I . , 2t.· 'ove", 1: 'WOIW'~- _ .mean iW-le

,,-.-_., "." 'I . f-. -.-n,t'-:,f' '"""',.:, ... ...1 'II-!'-~·~;h':.--.'I~ ' ....... ;i~"'."'" ,SUD IS mroil,l., 0 . ,tu-lU .~. &~o;& ... g IliU WJ,U

'ObLge'rver'~i )

Th ,:: . ...1...... 'Ii b I-~ ......l.. .. ,_1 J.L

I re siJ\ue! 'vieWile lOW, ,pw,w-ml' iYle

b 'i t"·" Ehin~' 'i! .;i,...,

01' server 'porni mo 'to yam~' ~:~'-:ID" 'p-omllJ~

• • •• - ~ • -' . ~ - ~I ." • ."~ -- - D I' - - -- _- _ "

sh -1l1ld' lal h this'~-

.0- '11'. AYn a.' "m' ... '0,,' 'y.,: i ,',:--',. 'IiI,~i ,i!l!iH_

. __ "_ _' ~Y' 1_ '._ "_ ''M'W'" '- , " ._' :..:' ~ ~'-"~

/

,

a Iii!!:' ,ill, 1-1'1 •• D-

~Ig.., ,. 1._,:,.

Th' 'f th - ,'i. '" I d' 'II. ..;.J I,'L ~ t'l '''')'111 b '~d " ':-N""C" .Ii.:L ..... " ,'II- oiLL _ .. ~,_t..!ii iii t" i£

••. ere .()re'~_· __ e :pnn~pc_eI .. ' ,eye·!lopeu. on 'we previous two pages W'll ~ ... 9 e'Vl " ·en,t~ . < ate umt W4r~en I~le~ v,a'Jj]Jjj~JcllJtng pO,m:' 'IiO,r

]ig~ht ray~~s is close to tho. hoeison thesun is low in 'the sky·.' and tho e shadows are IOiDu' As the vanishine po int iin'CloEm.,S8SJ . - . . .~:_.-. . "., ~.. . ~~~ ~ b~" 'II!;>' '" ... , _. . ; i, h' ... L . ".' L ",', _. . . ., ... ,' ·t':1\...~'· - -: ~', ~bi-"":': Ii _:. 'h"' ',. g.,- . ~'" '!I;;i d cC ~~D'. . ~ :d- ,- .. , .,~ ... , :.:. _. '~~EIi, ... ',~·· '..'~"""'" / ... '. . /:' . .

m distanes :Jimm. 'we' orllZon ~ e.~t;.er aQIOl1E:' ,or' 1f!€OW ,-,'t~ ,SlID, rrses mgnsr aD.:_ '~~ue~ 11.' owe ,oeoome ~iOrl~I";,./ . ' ..

N'-·"""'· A" . ,,-.J' ir·:I:_ -, .-' ']_II!' -''L,t· .. , .. " . , .. ~! to I'" ,'. ,iii. . .. 'j,,,,,", ·t "b' - d'- - ...... _-.- .~-- t· D - ·Ll'· ' . -. - -'a" l'~' - .. . .... ·LAI.,. -d ~,-. ..

ore: .. ·r,r,oWrBu nnes are Ilu,·. F,ays usea .' toeate ,UDpo:rw'n··~ s.~~a"ow pom Jlt, _·,OU.Q'_e'-arro',we<, ._,nes are.snauow · .• uree-

t'''' ... - ~ ,f·, , ... ~i/t., .. ",", n'lt'l 0l'~A'~;1"'- . -,...], p .. lane D"-:- .I"ii#i-,.,.dd' l;"a~i n'","'- .., .... 'iiiio'O,I'"\nI,- .. , .', .: "' . ..J .. ')J~ .. c.· 1 .' ... ; "", "'d"~ ,__ '10' eat ..... sh ad iIi1I''1i!1'~'

10m, 0, Upr.lII·J!I~' U'.ll.lI;, 'B.;Ii,UW-J.U I . ,1m .. , ~~ "/ 'u,,"iCI:&' 'c.· lli-W irO'!I;;.Q '~JI;,0 ~Ji'r.._,f',ar,y gUlue .. .lDeU!il, requIre .. i II,;.UI . .. CIo,~ .... i, .. ,v '!11'111'"",,,

<, <,

'II

,_ ~ ,/

" i·"

'- 1/

·,/",1'

.

I •

i .

I

'The key' to drawing fhe Ishadow 01 In

" '1'• d b'ii '( 'iL, .).0; I t'~ -'b

i·nel,ine:.· ,10 . Ject ' OUO,Ut!' lS ,QCQ,I.mg tj~je

_'L .. .,..,~'._ .. '.' ",f .- - .. : ;::"~i,·,,·t sueh .. - . ...,.. 1'1 mt..,f:"" I~~ .e!I,u.~Uow etc Ii!). pom _" ,sue . as, , . '.' dl.l.iLQii .",

d .. ",':- .. bv ..... ......_,_:..,... ~ '" ,(-,- 'i~"'h"t- (" ~ .. ,

i' ·;(,.fte .. ,y cons U'U\JIWLllg an u,pn.g .' ". ~ .. e"'.j

dr .. : I ,. '''I~C"'·-·· - ,... ," 'c. ·,C"'t~', "., I)," f'" :::",-.-.:-. ·C .. · c, .• ' .. - ·t· l' "'-

roppmg a veE. lea c·.. . rom .pam I a.v

__ , - - - .d' . il._,£ 'n ,'1- ... ~""'d- -- ".. . . ..Jl ,;gnJUDu. pOmilj ,~, \ .. ,oCa;te '. on groUDg, ...

11.:' __ B'" C··,-····bj'· iii'.-'L.., ;h... .. ,"" h" t' ,,.. '!I' h

~, ,J' 'W·· ell, ,goes, WI)".IR,:·I,I· vamsn-

,ing pomt; and is d.irectly below tile o'bU,que pole A-B'~,) 'Then, if we east

th·'· ,c '1!..., '-"d'" .... ,' .'. ',f' ;''l,. ,-,', .,-.". c;c JII";:',b::,t' I·-In, .(. n, ..... ·:t'~ .:Je SJ.JJ8::.0W 0 I 1l,;,uB, up,rJg~,-t: '- ~.~, W-,e,

. I ~'L. . d , .... _...... ....1t.. I.t.. . a ',OD.g tne gmunt. ruw. ·uleD. 'op ;l4lllie!

.] 1) .l!..,.. 'Ii' t 1 B Th 1:' ....... ,

wa., ..... we can .IU ,pom' . . ~::,', 'ierea':'Wr~!

'~" ,'t' ,c 'nd'in til' 'BI 1I.m~'·- '. fro c -m A' .... lIi..!'iIiH,'il 1- is and uy ex Jl:L,- _..__' '1t!I, a .1, ::...:_e I ~ ~ __ . a .. '. u.n: u ~, W.I.!·,

'by~'- eennectine B~;:' '!Urit~h";:- 4!-'ilr~, Q'II"-I"i'll'll'Mld:: lin· ., ...

_':"_', ~&JLI!~I;i._ ~~I .• ~R.iL __ , ;LI'l!l~, ~ . .I;,u~._ __'.'

ii, ,"' ~ ,j;L,~L_, '111': -_ iii'

tersefl'taon 'pO,1lDt OJ! tms .w,e" 'we arnve

atthe correct s'l111dowdirections .. ,

r

!II'

I, -~-;-

. ,

J . r

'Two mriq,ue examples of shad<e: and

.... ;rb,_ ·d· ,~-. '1'.:, ·ul!'''m·' ,O!' ,~~- -:-::-. . .- .. _'11': ob' I . t

6[RI".' !,u/w,es..._~, b ,]!.JLu1n, SUlUlDi' - ..

Ice I' G·" _:r.~_... lb':' c-- :h-·:;··~'r'~l , ...... --.": 1- '~·bfi-'--· eld Co'" .. )', ... ' , ·KU-!e,_Y ",,~ ,lee· -me . Ie .. _. ~ ". ' .. '

oA~O"- ,.· .. -·f Wbj. --,~ iII'~I~" M'-'· --', _. . "'f Am',' .,. -:-

,'~l~.~ o· r : .1Wi.1ICl,J-'_- ·useUID 01 ., II' eJ!"'"

~I .A._.I!, 'N" 'y.]k.

lCBD, .t:U.-lb,1 _. ': ow' '~' Ol'Jl.,

U- - d h![_'!ll ~ 'Ib. Rob - V--: ~'iI _il~_

R'eT t"'re' owmdls- uy" ,-- --er.t ",1~~'U\

, ,,- - - . - b,l!! , , - -' - - -, - ~\J ..

C 'ill -""';'" ~ Dr id 'M' ".' J-'-1..'-'-M

0)1. cec ",on DJL _l_, ,_:" an ~ :' ~S" I' umJl. r', I'

Sb Detr '" Co'-J!! M'"'d-

.!~lUt1y, 1.··.~,w.~Olt~_· r mtesy (j,,!l'::lIJ,· ,town

G-· n'l ---~'- . 'N"" 'y'" --k---

a. ··erIe-s;, ,J, ew,.' OlL"'~

(94) Shi.d'e And' ShiH,dow' C:,~led ~Iy Loe ~ J P'ali :_,I So'urc':s 101 Light:

,A lilh,t bulbi ,hangs above a tab!le, at 'the point shown in W:P v,iew. The ,diverg,ing' light mys must east IbadOrWS, alanl the ldorttted line!"ID, per,9:pecti,ve~, these same is-hadOW lines are fotmd 'by drawing' the; same'diVel.linI lin'll from, the same' table po,int (us',ter,isk) through 'the, same pencil ,pc.l:ints,,, These lines'J naturally" ue! Dot: ':·JJht raysi" ,for the actual source' of' lig;ht., so'mewher-e ,above the table .. , :To ' .: etermine the, exac, , Jeng'ths, of ·the shadows, ":I'-Ong them" ,actual ~-,~ Brie I~ ~,,~;,wn (from, the light source) througb eraser~ ~

BU--: - 'LE-" :' ~ A- ~o· ,."",,:,....1 p"o' m'"t ,,;10, iHfi'jj'jj''Iji;fi'B; 'iiIn,...:I,:, ... "t" "~U~, div,:"e.r:g:,m~ - I" ur a:h~ 'l,iI'VI!'!' af1..~'""".:'L· 'I,nnDI'''r- 'i!liV'1;IIct' _it.., __ ,",,-w'" '1"N"iIiin""' ..... , B': '.'"" the iIm'~,~..Ji'nw'" '_ "_:_ ·_"·Iii "JI .... LB.J ,_, .. ,' .,.it! £MJ~,~I~ , .. ,l&UJ!D_i~~ .~ .... :._.~._ .... _.' ..•.. [~ l ,~,g l"I.'J.U.l-CQ ,t.V.~I~ ~J.'.' 1i.Lm.UU" ,~v-:.u.&I~~ , ·M,: ".fl., uI'Hm:v. _:

dlr:ecti,Qih, 0" lup,i"h,f Ilines' to,D a ,plane is det:erm.ined ;b'31 lines di've'r,g,ing "rom the poin't on the p,ltJ;ne ,that is d'it;eflt',l:)"

1.., IJ~, ,,' 'tl.. "liD'L,,' s,'nY,JiPAD Q'iI!wW_ ';Ie '~~I.' :. V,M'J! '!IJ.o~,~

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90000

PERSPECT VE DRAWING HANDBOOK

JOSEPH D'AMELIO

Illustrations by Joseph D'Arnelio and Sanford Hohauser

This handy guide provides numerous insights and shortcuts to drawing and sketching effectively. Describing mandatory skills for beginning and advanced students, the text covers such subjects as diminution, foreshortening, convergence, shade and shadow, and other visual principles of perspective drawing.

Accompanying a concise and thoughtfully written text are more than 150 simply drawn illustrations that depict a sense of space and depth, demonstrate vanishing points and eye level, and explain such concepts as appearance versus reality; perspective distortion; determining heights, depths, and widths; and the use of circles, cylinders, and cones.

Artists, architects, designers, and engineers will find this book invaluable in creating works with convincing perspective.

Unabridged Dover (2004) republication of the edition published by Tudor Publishing Company, New York, 1964. Approximately 155 illustrations. 96pp. 8ki x 10M. Paperbound.

ALSO AVAILABLE

PERSPECTIVE FOR ARTISTS, Rex Vicat Cole. 279pp. 5% x 8U. 22487-2

CREATIVE PERSPECTIVE FOR ARTISTS AND ILLUSTRATORS, Ernest W. Watson. l60pp. 8kix 11. 27337-7

PERSPECTIVE MADE EASY, Ernest Norling. 224pp. 5% x 8U. 40473-0

For current price information write to Dover Publications, or log on to www.doverpublications.com-and see every Dover book in print.

Free Dover Fine Art and Art Instruction Catalog (58283-3) available upon request.

ISBN 0-486-43208-4

$8-95 IN USA $13-50 IN CANADA

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