Visibility of objects
• An object has to be seen against its background: the road surface

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Object is seen against its background
- co ntra s

t

luminance

illuminance

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Revealing power
Visibility: ability of motorist to detect objects

Revealing power is used in road lighting as a reference to evaluate visibility of objects

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Visibility of objects • An object has to be seen against its background: the road surface • The visibility of the object depends on: – Object luminance (cd/m2) 5 .

Visibility of objects • An object has to be seen against its background: the road surface • The visibility of the object depends on: – Object luminance (cd/m2) – Road luminance (cd/m2) 6 .

Road luminance luminance illuminance 7 .

Design parameters Luminance ( L ) is the brightness of the road surface as seen by the driver / observer Lav Expressed in: “cd / m2” 8 .

Design parameters Road Luminance (Lav) 9 .

Road luminance: Observer position s 60m w 10 .

50 0.75 11 .Road luminance: Impact of luminance level 0.

Road luminance: Key influencing factors • Lay out • Photometry • Light source Reflection coefficient as per Asphalt CIE R3 : Q0 = 0.07 12 .

LUMINANCE : Field of calculation 2 luminaires in a same row are enclosed distance max.50m Observer in the center of each lane 13 .100m distance 60 meter height of observer 1.

for S ≤ 30 m. in metres N : number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction with the following values: In the transverse direction : d = WL / 3 d : spacing between points in the tranverse direction. 14 . N = 10. the smallest integer giving D ≤ 3 m The first transverse row of calculation points is spaced at a distance D/2 beyond the first luminaire (remote from the observer). in metres S : spacing between luminaires in the same row. in metres WL : width of the lane. in metres The outermost calculation points are spaced d/2 from the edges of the lane. for S > 30 m.LUMINANCE: Position of calculation points Spacing of the points in a driving lane : In the longitudinal direction : D = S / N D : spacing between points in the longitudinal direction.

5 m above the road level Operative value of average luminance is the lowest calculated 15 .LUMINANCE: Position of observer • Observer is located at the centre of each lane • Observer´s eye is 1.

Visibility of objects • An object has to be seen against its background: the road surface • The visibility of the object depends on: – Object luminance (cd/m2) – Road luminance (cd/m2) – Luminance uniformity 16 .

Design parameters Uniformity: Uo . U1 Shows how the light is distributed on the road 17 .

Overall uniformity: Definition Overall uniformity is the ratio of the minimum to the average road luminance A good overall uniformity ensures that all spots on the road are sufficiently visible 18 .

the lowest value is considered : Uo = Lmin/Lave Lmin is the lowest luminance occuring at any grid point in the field of calculation .LUMINANCE: Overall uniformity It is calculated for each observer. Lmin Lave 19 .

2 0 0.1 0.Revealing power: Impact of overall uniformity 100% Uo= 0.4 50 75 RP U0=0.2 25 Uo= 0.5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2 20 Laverage .2 0.4 U0 =0.

Overall uniformity: Key influencing factors • Mounting height ( h ) • Spread 21 .

Longitudinal uniformity: Definition • Longitudinal uniformity is the lowest ratio of the minimum to the maximum road luminance in the middle of each lane A good longitudinal uniformity ensures comfortable driving conditions without the socalled ‘Zebra’ effect • Longitudinal Uniformity U1 = L-minimum L-maximum 22 .

the lowest value is considered Lmin Lmax The number of points in the longitudinal direction (N) and the spacing between them shall be the same as those used for the calculation of average luminance. 23 .LUMINANCE: Uniformity lengthwise Ul Calculated for each observer .

Longitudinal uniformity: Key influencing factors • Spacing ( S ) • Throw 24 .

Visibility of objects • An object has to be seen against its background: the road surface • The visibility of the object depends on: – Object luminance (cd/m2) – Road luminance (cd/m2) – Luminance uniformity – Glare control 25 .

Design parameters: Glare Sensation caused by Brightness of lanterns within the visual field which is brighter than the adaptation level of eye. 26 .

Design parameters: Glare • • Disability glare reduces the vision Discomfort glare creates unpleasant viewing conditions • Threshold Increment (TI) represents both types of glare TI = the % increase in the luminance level required to make an object equally visible as in the absence of glare 27 .

5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2 Laverage 28 .4 TI =7% UO= 0.Revealing power: Impact of TI 100% 75 RP UO=0.2 0.1 25 50 0.4 TI =30% 0 0.

Assessment Bad Moderate Good Key influencing factors: • Lay out • Photometry 29 .Threshold Increment Threshold increment % > 20 10 < 10 Operative value of TI shall be the highest value among observers.

Uniformity and glare Uniform. glare-free lighting : • Early anticipation when driving • Smoother traffic flow • Relaxed drivers • Increased road capacity 30 .

Surround ratio: SR SR is the average horizontal illuminance on the two longitudinal strips each adjacent to the two edges of the carriageway and lying off the carriageway Divided by the average horizontal illuminance on the two longitudinal strips each adjacent to the edges of the carriageway but lying on the carriageway SR = Ekirb / Eroad ≥ 50% Sufficient lighting in the surrounding of the road creates a proper adaptation of the eye 31 .

and equal to 5 m. both carriageways together are treated as a single carriageway unless they are separated by more than 10 m. 32 . or half the width of the carriageway. Location of strips with width of strip equals 5 m : 6 : luminaires SR(1) = E1/E2 SR(2) = E4/E3 SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) CIE 115 EN 13201 For dual carriageways.Surround ratio: SR The width of all four strips shall be the same.

Surround ratio: SR The width of all four strips shall be the same. or half the width of the carriageway. Location of strips with width of strip less than 5 m because width of carriageway is less than 10 m : luminaires SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201 33 . and equal to 5 m.

Location of strips with width of strip less than 5 m because of obstruction : obstruction : luminaires SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201 34 . the width of the unobstructed strip lying off the carriageway is applied on the 4 parts.Surround ratio: SR In case of obstruction.

Summary of lighting design parameters and related influencing factors Level Visual performance Visual comfort Lav Lav Uniformity Uo Ul Glare TI TI ↓ • Lay out ( h. S ) • Photometry • Light source • Lay out h → U0 S → U1 • Photometry ↓ ↓ • Lay out (h) • Photometry 35 .

Norms and recommendations as per CIE 115-1995 .

Lighting norms Lighting Performance Luminance Uniformity Glare Total costs Installation cost Maintenance cost Energy 37 .

Motorways Provide main transport link between the towns • • • • Motorized traffic only Separated carriage ways No pedestrian crossing High speed traffic (80 km/hr to 150 km/hr) • Number of lanes vary from 2 * 2 to 6 39 .

separated carriage way provided for slow traffic or pedestrians • Pedestrian crossings at road junctions • Traffic speed 50 km/hr to 80 km/hr • Number of lanes vary from 2 * 2 to 6 40 .Major roads Provide main transport link within city • Motorized traffic only • Sometimes.

Minor and residential roads Provide transport link up to major road • • • • Mixed traffic and pedestrians Low speed traffic Number of lanes 2 Many crossings. parking zones etc 41 .

medium . separation and mix . dual carriage way roads Traffic density and road complexity .high .low Traffic control.good Lighting class M1 M2 M3 M1 M2 42 .poor .CIE 115 – Lighting Classes Description of road High speed roads with separate carriage ways Eg: motorways High speed roads.

separation and mix .CIE 115 – Lighting Classes Description of road Important urban traffic roads Less important roads Eg: residential and minor roads Lighting class Traffic control.good M2 M3 M4 M5 43 . separation and mix .poor .good Traffic control.poor .

0 1.5 1.CIE 115 – Lighting Classes LIGHT CLASS All Roads Roads with few Junctions U1 (min.) 0.4 10 10 10 15 15 Surround Ratio (min.5 0.5 Roads with Footways Lav. UO TI (min.7 0.0 0.) 0.5 0.) (min.4 0.4 0.4 0.) (max.4 0.5 0.7 0.) M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 2.5 44 .75 0.