Republic of the Philippines

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY
Brgy. San Bartolome, Novaliches, Quezon City

COMPARATIVE RESEARCH STUDY
(On the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program)

Prepared by: John Albert De Jesus Papa Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (3rd Year, Section E)

Issued to: Mr. Rogelio B. Aguilar (Professor, Principles of Economics with Taxation and Agrarian Reform) on this 30th day of September, 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS: TOPICS Introduction CHANGES IN THE PHILIPPINE HISTORY
• • • • • • •

Pre-Spanish Period Spanish Period First Philippine Republic The American Period The Commonwealth Period The Japanese Occupation The New Philippine Republic I. II. CARP: changes on the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program (1988 – 2001) Phil. Government at present: preparing the program’s other needs

AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM OF OTHER COUNTRIES (THAILAND)

Knowing about the country Economy, Rural and Agrarian = 3 Development “P” (Plans, Programs, Projects) I. II.
III.

Thai National Development and Social Plans Agricultural Land Reform Program (ALRP) Other more ALRP-related Projects

COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM (CARP)
• • • •

Back to its past Coverage of CARP About the Implementation (Agencies) Present status of the program: the results

COMPARISON CONCLUSION REFERENCES

COMPARATIVE RESEARCH STUDY ON THE PHILIPPINE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM John Albert DJ. Papa, BSICT-3E

Introduction

The Republic of the Philippines is one of the countries in the world that has some source in agricultural products. And because of this, the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program was born. It is the one of the widest programs in terms of its coverage. This program affects the almost 30,000,000 hectare land area of the country. As the time passes by and the government changes, the program also changes and added with some constitutional laws & orders that will support & hardened it. This changes lead to Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP),a program of the government that aims to transfer effective management of a land ownership from the landowners to their tenants such as famers or workers to have their an economic and social development for a quality of life of each. Now, it covers 26.8% of the Philippines total land area (or more than 8,000,000 hectares). Also, the CARP provides support services to the program beneficiaries to ensure that they are able to make lands awarded to them fully productive. In this comparative research study, we will see how the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program changes and what does the earlier heads of state protect and support the program. Also, we will see what the other countries agrarian reform program similar and different to ours. Lastly, we will find out how our present government sustains the needs of the program for the benefit of the people, especially for the people and sectors in the field related to it.

CHANGES IN THE PHILIPPINE HISTORY

Now, how can we understand the present situation and development of the program on our country? One word: HISTORY.

On the “Land Reform on the Philippine History” information came from the Department of Agrarian Reform website, we will see that on the following information from the different “periods” of the Philippine history in regarding on the Agrarian will help and also guides us to know and understand the background of the present program on our economy and governance and also compare them to its present situation:

Pre-Spanish Period

In Pre-Spanish Period (before the Spaniards came to the Philippines), the Filipinos lived in baranggays headed by a Datu (most of them are chosen for their nobility). In that period, the person has a chance to get some “fruits” of the soil. And rice is commonly known on that period as a medium of exchange.

Spanish Period

When the Spanish Period began, the Encomienda (Royal Land Grants) was introduced. The Encomienda system is a system wherein the Encomiendero must defend from external attacks, protect & and maintain peace & security within his encomienda. Also, the encomiendero must collect some tribute to the indios (natives) and for supporting the missionaries. But the result of this system is abusing of power. And the tributes that collected to the indios became land rents for the few powerful landowners and the indios became shared tenants. Unequal land distribution and landlessness are upraised on this period.

First Philippine Republic

When the Philippines got the independence from the hands of Spanish colonizers and resulted to a Republic country, the first president, General Emilio Aguinaldo planned to bring back the Spanish estates (or the “Friar Lands”) and other large lands to the Philippines. But unfortunately, the Philippine Republic that Aguinaldo headed by was short-lived. In result, the plans didn’t achieved, especially regarding on the Agrarian reform.

American Period

There are some bills and acts enacted on this period that the Filipino farmworkers (or tenants) and landowners can used their rights and privileges. The following bills and acts that enacted on that period was started on the Philippine Bill of 1902 which is setting the ceilings on the hectarage of private individuals and corporations may acquire: 16 have for private individuals and 1,024 have for corporations. Next is the Land Registration Act of 1902 (Act No. 496), providing a comprehensive registration of land titles under the Torrens system. Also, the Public Land Act of 1903, introducing the homestead system in the Philippines. And the Tenancy Act of 1933 (Act No. 4054 and 4113), a regulated relationships between landowners and tenants of rice (50-50 sharing) and sugar cane lands. However, the Torrens system (stated on the Land Registration Act of 1902) that existed during American Period didn’t resolve the problem completely.

The Commonwealth Period

Under the Quezon’s Administration, he also imposed some acts for the economic status of the country that time. This acts aims to help the farmworkers and landowners, and also build a strong relationship between the tenants and consumers. It is started on the Commonwealth Act No. 178 (An Amendment to Rice Tenancy Act No. 4045) dated on Nov. 13, 1936 is a provision for certain controls in the landlord-tenant relationships. The Commonwealth Act. No. 461 of 1937 is a specified reasons for the dismissal of tenants and only with the approval of the Tenancy Division of the Department of Justice. And the Commonwealth Act No. 441 enacted on June 3, 1939, which created the National Settlement Administration with a capital stock of P20, 000,000. Also, the Act No. 4054 (Rice Share Tenancy Act) is the first law on crop-sharing which legalized the 50-50 share between landlord and tenant. He also creates a corporation called “National Rice and Corn Corporation” (NARIC) on the year 1936. The purpose is to establish the price of rice and corn for helping the tenants and also the consumer. These acts were initiated until when the World War II in the Pacific began.

The Japanese Occupation

The World War II was started on 1941 in the Pacific, including in the Philippines. One of the members of the Axis Powers is the 3 rd colonizer and occupied our country, and this is the Japanese colonial power. Since the Japanese occupation in our country was begun, some of Filipinos in some provinces began to create a movement called “HUKBALAHAP” (HUKbong BAyan LAban sa mga HAPon). Being an anti-Japanese group, Hukbalahap controlled whole areas of Central Luzon; landlords who supported the Japanese lost their lands to peasants while those who supported the Huks earned fixed rentals in favor of the tenants. Unfortunately, the end of war also signaled the end of gains acquired by the peasants. Upon the arrival of the Japanese in the Philippines in 1942, peasants and workers organizations grew strength. Many peasants took up arms.

The New Philippine Republic

After the war, 1946 is the year when the new Philippine Independence was established, but the problems of land tenure and reform program still remained. And it was worst in certain areas. Thus the Congress of the Philippines revised the tenancy law.

Since President Manuel Roxas is the first president of the New Republic, he started to help the agrarian reform sector by enacting a law. These are the Republic Act No. 34, establishing a 70-30 sharing arrangements and regulating share-tenancy contracts, provided that whoever will be shouldered the expenses on what the plantation or agricultural land needs and the Republic Act No. 55, a provision for a more effective safeguard against arbitrary ejectment of tenants.

President Elpidio Quirino enacted the law of Executive Order No. 355 issued on October 23, 1950, replacing the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the

responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.

When President Ramon Magsaysay turns as a Philippine President, his administration made the laws, for the continuous help in the sector. He implemented the following laws for the program. The NARRA Law, which is the Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954 abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to increase free distribution of agricultural lands to the tenants and farmworkers and resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao. Another is the Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) states that governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing sharetenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations. Another, the Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations. Republic Act No. 821 is the creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration, provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.

Now, during President Carlos Garcia term, he just continued the program of President Ramon Magsaysay on the Land Reform. In result, no new legislation passed during his time for the Agrarian sector.

When the term of President Diosdado Macapagal came, he enacted the following laws like Republic Act No. 3844 of August 8, 1963 known as Agricultural Land Reform Code, abolishing the share tenancy, institutionalized leasehold, set retention limit at 75 hectares, invested rights of preemption and redemption for tenant farmers, provided for an administrative machinery for implementation, institutionalized a judicial system of agrarian cases, incorporated extension, marketing and supervised credit system of

services of farmer beneficiaries. The RA was hailed as one that would emancipate Filipino farmers from the bondage of tenancy.

On September 21, 1972, the Proclamation No. 1081, President Ferdinand Marcos ushered the Period of the New Society (Bagong Lipunan). And five days after the proclamation of Martial Law, the entire country was proclaimed a land reform area and simultaneously the Agrarian Reform Program was decreed. President Marcos created the Republic Act No. 6389, the Code of Agrarian Reform and RA No. 6390 of 1971, resulting to the creation of the Department of Agrarian Reform and the Agrarian Reform Special Account Fund. It strengthens the position of farmers and expanded the scope of agrarian reform. This is the one of the best contribute in the program. Also, the Presidential Decree No. 2 of September 26, 1972 was created, declaring the country under land reform program. It enjoined all agencies and offices of the government to extend full cooperation and assistance to the DAR. It also activated the Agrarian Reform Coordinating Council. And the Presidential Decree No. 27 of October 21, 1972, restricting land reform scope to tenanted rice and corn lands and set the retention limit at 7 hectares.

CARP: changes on the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program (1988 – 2001)

The year was 1986, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino’s Government. There are many changes was did during of this administration from the previous presidents. Ratification of the Philippine Constitution by the Filipino people is one of those changes. Back on the 1935 Constitution created under Manuel L. Quezon’s administration, it’s stated that “The promotion of social justice to ensure the well-being and economic security of all people should be the concern of the State.” However, from that year up to the Marcos’ Administration, there are still some missed and needed to changes regarding on the Agrarian Reform. So on the year 1987, Filipino people ratified the constitution under Article II, Section 21 that “The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.” Also, during her administration, CARP (Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program) is one of the changes on the Philippine Agrarian Reform sector that until now existed. It is started on the preparation of Executive Order No. 229 of July 22, 1987, and stated a

“provided mechanism for the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP)”. Corazon Aquino wants that the CARP will be the “center-program” of the Philippine Government. To support the said program, the Proclamation No. 131 of July 22, 1987 was done. Instituted that the CARP is the major program of the government. It’s provided for a special fund known as the Agrarian Reform Fund (ARF), with an initial amount of Php50,000,000,000 to cover the estimated cost of the program from 1987-1992. Continuously, on Aquino’s administration, the passed bills and became laws (or orders) are more on Agrarian Reform, because of the CARP. Those orders aim to help and give the needs of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program for the Filipino people, especially to the landowners, tenants and farmworkers. And when June 10, 1988, Republic Act No. 6657 was done. This is also known as “Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law”. This act instituted a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and industrialization providing the mechanism for its implementation and for other purposes. This law, which became effective on June 15, 1988 is still the one being implemented at present. The other orders implemented that support the program are:

Executive Order No. 129-A, July 26, 1987 – streamlined and expanded the power and operations of the DAR.

Executive Order No. 405, June 14, 1990 – Vested in the Land Bank of the Philippines the responsibility to determine land valuation and compensation for all lands covered by CARP.

Executive Order No. 407, June 14, 1990 – Accelerated the acquisition and distribution of agricultural lands, pasture lands, fishponds, agro-forestry lands and other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture.

Regarding in this E.O.407, directed all government instrumentalities, including financial institutions and corporations, to turn over to Department of Agrarian Reform all lands suitable for agriculture for the coverage of the program.

When the election for a new Philippine President came, Corazon Aquino didn’t run for presidency, but she supports Fidel Valdez Ramos. By counting the votes of the Filipino people, Ramos won the presidency. During his term, Ramos adds some implementations and laws to continue on what Aquino did for the Philippine Agrarian Reform. He strengthened the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program that written on the Republic Act No. 7905 of the year 1995. On the year 1997, in giving conditions on what type of lands may be converted is also Ramos and his administration concerned. That’s the reason of implementing the Executive Order No.363 and the Republic Act No. 8435. And in the same year, the government gave 50,000,000,000 pesos to the program and extending it for another 10 years, under the Republic Act No.8532 of 1998 which is also known as “Agrarian Reform Fund Bill”. Until when 1998 presidential election, Joseph Ejercito Estrada won and took the oath as the 12th president of the Republic of the Philippines. Continued with Estrada, known as “Erap para sa Mahirap” he started to create the Farmers Trust Fund (Executive Order 151) on September, 1999. It tells that the voluntary consolidation of small farm operations is allowed into medium and large scale enterprise and access a long-term capital. Executive Order No.26 is also initiated during the Estrada’s Administration. This order tells that it provided the lands covered with the Certificates of Land Ownership Award (CLAO) shall now accepted as collateral to secure loans of the registered owners, with the consent of the farmers cooperative as the members, government financial institutions, as well as, the private financial institutions. Provided that the loan must used for the agricultural land productivity and other related activities. And last, the MAGKASAKA (MAGKAbalikat SA Kaunlarang Agraryo). The aim of this is to bring investments into the countryside. Investors will be encouraged to become partners of the farmers in establishing rural business enterprises, particularly in agrarian reform communities (ARCs). They will contribute capital, technology and management support, while the farmers will contribute the use of their land but not the land itself. The land cannot be used to settle obligations of the enterprise. This ensures that ownership of the land remains in the hand of the farmers. But as we all knew, Joseph Estrada was ouster by the masses on 2001, and Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo, his vice-president, was took her oath to be the 13th president of the country that year.

Phil. Government at present: preparing for giving the program’s other needs

“To make the countryside economically viable for the Filipino family by building partnership and promoting social equity and new economic opportunities towards lasting peace and sustainable rural development.”

The vision of agrarian reform program during Arroyo’s administration is more on economic opportunities and rural development for the Filipino people. Since we are now in new generation: modern technology and modern society, how this “technological” changes affect the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program? The government developed a “projects” that under on this Agrarian Reform program. These are the “Land Tenure Improvement”, “Provision of Support Services”, “Infrastructure Projects”, “KALAHI ARZone” and the “Agrarian Justice”. Now, since we already knew the differences and changes of the agrarian reform program to our country, from the colonial periods, during of the “different” presidential terms and up to the present times, is the government’s giving the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program needs, especially in the present Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, will result as the one of the “best” agrarian reform programs among the other countries? Or is it one of the “worst”?

AGRARIAN REFORM OF THE OTHER COUNTRIES (THAILAND)

Knowing about the country

The country of Thailand (or Kingdom of Thailand) is one of the member countries of Southeast Asian region. The total area is 513, 115 square kilometers. The capital of Thailand is Bangkok. If the Philippines was divided into 3 regions: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, Thailand was also divided into 4 regions: the North, Northeast, Central and South consists of 76 provinces. The official currency used here is called “Baht.”

The population of the country is approximately 63 million, consists of Thais, Chinese, and Malays and the rest are the Mons, Khmers and various hill tribes. The country’s official written and spoken language is Thai.

Economy, Rural and Agrarian = 3 Development “P” (Plans, Programs, Projects)

Regarding on the income generation, the regions of Thailand has a different income level, depending and relating in their location, promotion of economic activities and development on their economic zones such as natural resource. For instance, Bangkok and other vicinities got the high income level rank generation because most of economic activities of the country is concentrated on this area. While the lowest income level rank generation is in the North and Northeastern regions. The cause is the limitation of natural resources, topography and other factors that affects for the investment. In result, the North and Northeastern regions are the rural areas in Thailand. Central and Western regions can be classified in medium rank income level because there are both in urban and rural areas, some did the semi-economic activities in the city cause of the development while the others did the agricultural practices. So how the Kingdom of Thailand helped its people for the progress of them, thus helping also the agrarian sector for the economic and rural development? Are there any plans or programs that already started?

Thai National Economic and Social Development Plans

On the National Report of Agrarian Reform and Rural Development of Thailand, since 1961, Thailand already started the NESDP or what they called “National Economic and Social Development Plans”. Also, this plan aimed to: • Maintain the financial stability • Better quality of life and environment • Accelerate and achieve the sustainable development The NESDP period will takes five years before create and launch another NESDP.

Back to its history and for us to get the summarization of this plan, the First Plan was started like what I’ve said earlier on the year 1961 and ends on 1966. The basis of the plan was on the development only of the economic growth. And because of that, the objective of this is only accelerating the economic growth. The plan focuses on the investment of infrastructure and other development projects utilizing what they called “Project Analysis” technique and emphasizing the “Physical Capital Assets” for the accumulation. When in the year of 1967, the Second Plan was started up to 1971. Like what the first plan’s objective, it’s just continuing the objective that to accelerate the economic growth. And like what my reference said, “Prosperity decentralization to regions, particularly northeastern region was commenced.” Also, this second plan is concerned on the national manpower and it has been taken seriously. The “Sectoral Analysis” was recommended as a guide for the direct initiation of development. After 5 years, on the year 1972, and the Third Plan was launched. It focuses on the economic growth and financial stability. For the first time, the population growth rate was included. It discussed how to reduce population rate. This plan was ended on the year 1976. Again, another 5 years, the Fourth Plan was started, covers the period from 1977 to 1981. Since that time has a political uncertainty, the plan focuses on the general problem analysis, solution and framework designation. However, suggestions on a development plan with multi-objectives, regarding on the problem analysis, was crucial on the part of the status of Thailand. Next, the Fifth Plan covered 1982 to 1986. It emphasized on consistent economical growth. Project planning practice was shifted to "Programming", particularly for those plans regarding rural development and the East Coast development. Even though “Top –down approach” was in practice, planning authority was decentralized to regional and areas. The Sixth Plan, which implemented in 1987 to 1991. This Plan aimed to achieve economical and social objectives simultaneously. Programming practice was applied to at least 10 operational plans. Bottom-up approach was increasingly valued as well as administrative system improvement and reviewing of government role on national administration. The Seventh Plan, period was in 1992 to 1996. Sustainable development was highly recognized in this plan. Three development objectives were determined focusing on the creation of equality of economic growth, income distribution, human resources development, better quality of life and environment.

The Eighth Plan covered 1997 to 2001. Its concept was shifted its development paradigm from economy-centered to people-centered development. Bottom-up approach practice was applied to this Plan to encourage people participation in planning for national development. The Plan focused on equilibrium social, natural resources and environmental development. The Ninth Plan, which is on the year 2002 up to 2006 adopt the philosophy of sufficiency economy bestowed by the King to his subjects as the guiding principle of national development and management. The philosophy of sufficiency economy, which based on adherence to the middle path, is advocated to overcome the current economic crisis that was brought about by unexpected changed under conditions of rapid globalization, and achieve sustainable development. Now, as we already read and understand the National Economic and Social Development Plan, it focuses on the general economic problem of Thailand. But how this country helped their Agrarian Reform sector specifically, like what the Republic of the Philippines did, which is the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program? The Agricultural Land Reform Office or ALRO is concerned about the agricultural status of their country so they informed the people that Thailand is an agricultural country and the greater part of the population is engaged in agriculture, hence land is an essential factor in the development of national socio-economic conditions. Unfortunately, Thailand tenure systems have caused inequitable distribution of income. As the result, a greater number of farmers are poor and get into debt. They mostly become tenants and landless farmers. Poverty is therefore widespread in rural areas. In addition, the population continues to increase at a rapid rate with reflection to scarce land resources. As 2005, the government program namely the Nationwide Poverty Registration Program was formulated to identify the problems urgently. As one of the most serious problems is landless and inadequate of agricultural land, the number of registered people was about 2 million in the case of landless while the number for inadequate agricultural land was more than 1.5 million. For the solution on those problems, the Agricultural Land Reform Act was promulgated and the Agricultural Land Reform Program has been conducted since 1975.

Agricultural Land Reform Program (ALRP)

The 1975 Agricultural Land Reform Act is taken to mean. It tells that “redistribution of land for farming and residential uses by allocating state land or, land purchased or expropriated from landowners who do not themselves cultivate or who own land in excess of what is stipulated by the Agricultural Land Reform Act of 1975 to farmers who are landless or do not have sufficient land for cultivation, and to farmers’ institutions by means of lease and sale. In doing as, the state will provide supporting services such as resource development, marketing facilities as well as public utilities”. Regarding on the Land Reform context of Thailand, reform of the land tenure structure in Thailand has the following objectives: • To convert the tenants and the landless to owner-operators.
• To provide landownership to squatters in public lands, and • To ensure fair share between tenants and lesser.

Land is acquired from the private land domain, voluntarily through direct purchase and, involuntarily through expropriation, from large and absentee landowners. It is then leased or sold on amortization basis to tenants, marginal and landless farmers. It the public land domain, land is earmarked for distribution to the poor. The option is either to lease or to buy from the government at a discount rate. Eventually, the land reform beneficiaries are encouraged to buy the land, so that they can become full landowners. In cases where land reform does not and cannot apply, efforts will be made to ensure that both tenants and landowners get a fair share from leasing arrangements. This is in recognition with the fact that leasing exists and cannot be eliminated by land reform or even by any legal means. Reform of the production structure has the principal objectives as follows: • • • To attain optimal farm size, To prevent land fragmentation, and To increase agricultural productivities.

Farm size in terms of the amount of landholding should be small but economically efficient. Land fragmentation should be prevented for fear that farm size may fall below the optimal level. Land is to be devoted to produce more intensively. Crop diversification is also recommended, instead of mono-cropping. Like what our program’s one of the objective for helping the farm-related sectors and people, reform of the supporting services structure of this Agrarian Land Reform

Program aims to achieve the following objectives like to ensure that farmers receive supporting services as needed, and to upgrade the standards of living among farmers. It should be reiterated here that supporting services, if they are to be of any help, must be available and accessible to those in need. The need arises from the production process and also from within the farm households (such as health, education and domestic water consumption).

The objectives of land reform

With the above definition, the objectives of land reform formed and revised to fit with the ALRO’s mission. The following of objectives are: • • • • To distribute land to farmers according to the Agricultural Land Reform Act; To enable farmers to access capital resources; To strengthen and self-development to farmers in Land Reform area; and To increase the perennial plantation, food resources and income generation.

Land Reform implementation

The implementation of land reform in Thailand consists of three main phases: preparation, land distribution and development activities. In the preparation phase, with the regards to the preparation for land reform implementation, primary and secondary data are collected and analyses in order to select potential land reform area. It should be emphasized here that land reform law takes effete only in the Land Reform Areas (LRA’s). In private lands, the basic criteria used are the amount of rented land, the number of tenants and the level of farm productivities. Areas with high tenancy rates and low farm productivities will receive greater attention than others. In public lands, in which data are relatively scarce, prefeasibility studies are also carried out, covering a wide range of subjects such as topography, geography, location of existing infrastructures, climate, rainfall, farmers’ institutions, as well as social conditions in the area. The basic criteria for selecting land reform areas in public lands are the size of land held by farmers without land use

permits or ad kind of land documents, and land classification itself. If land is classified as that for conservation purposes, it must not be used for farming purposes. The prefeasibility studies offer only rough guidance, because there is a time constraint on the land reform decision-making process. But they are quite adequate for the purposes of planning and identification of development activities. In this phase, land reform implementation in public lands also requires cadastral surveys. After the selection of suitable areas is submitted to, and approved by the National land Reform Committee (NLRC), the ALRO will proceed to declare them as LRA’s by royal decree. The land distribution phase involves partitioning of land into lots and allocating them among farmers. The public lands belong, by law, to the government; hence there is in principle no need to purchase or expropriate. In practice, compensation is paid to squatter families for acquisition of excess land, which is then sold to poor farmers. On the other hand, the private lands have to be purchased or expropriated for subsequent redistribution. Compensation is paid at the rate established by the NLRC. The mode of payment is both in cash and bonds. After lad acquisition, farmers are selected and allocated with land plots. In private lands, they are required to pay annual installments to the government for the purchase of land. The same principle applies to the case of public lands. Land reform beneficiaries are required to pay rent and can even buy land from ALRO. The purchase price depends on the length of time the beneficiaries have cultivated the land. However, it has not been determined in actual money terms, and the farmers because the latter for all purposes regards land as already their own. The development phase of land reform implementation can take place before or after land redistribution, depending on the type of activities concerned. For example, agricultural extension may be carried out, regardless of the final rearrangements of land plots. But any major on-farm infrastructure which could benefit directly absentee landlords would likely increase their reluctance to sell the land for the purposes of land reform. Activities as such will be conducted after land acquisition. Under this phase, development activities include agricultural extension, agricultural credit, water resources development land consolidation, development, and public utilities. While it is imperative that agricultural development must accompany land redistribution, these activities are by no means an end in themselves. They must continue in the broader national economic development context. Based on the current policy consideration, ALRO was assigned to take action on solution of the poverty alleviation and social problems by utilizing appropriately agricultural land management. The key operations for poverty alleviation divided into seven issues that have been responding by multi governance organizations. Inside ALRO, out of seven issues as one; natural resource and residential management has been implementing by putting them on the process of land reform implementation. Is the ALRP effective for the agrarian sector?

Implementation and Results of the ALRP

Something like sufficiency economy philosophy and sustainable development strategies which stated clearly in the Ninth Plan of National Economic and Social Development Plan are also part of this program. The aim at alleviation of poverty and the upgrading of the quality of life are highly applicable to the development strategy of “The Agricultural Land Reform Office” (ALRO) very well, as the major responsibilities are:
• •

Land allocation: ALRO conduct land allocation for farmers under the Agricultural Land Reform Act. The land is from both public and private land. Development: ALRO undertakes agricultural infrastructure development in land reform area by supporting the construction and maintenance of access road and water resources to enhance the better of farmers living and the capacity of water use for consumption and agriculture. Increasing income: ALRO carry out an improvement of agricultural production structure, establishing Agricultural Land Reform Cooperatives, providing agricultural credit and production inputs, developing and supporting on-farm and off-farm occupation.

In addition, ALRO enable farmers to participate in natural resources and environment conservation in communities. Thus ALRO co-operates with related agencies in improving farmers' standard of living according to the existing local conditions of each area and farmers' needs.

Public land

Public land is the lands belonging to the government which include forest lands, common lands and government – used lands. Most of the public lands particularly forest lands are encroached upon for farming. Moreover, land transaction and transfer without land certificates have been made among the squatters themselves. So far the government has attempted to deal with these crucial problems by means of land

settlement, thus making certain squatters to be legal landholders. Hence, it is not surprising that for the time being some parts of public lands are converted into private lands. At the present, the operation of public land in the whole kingdom have been allocating for 1.49 million households covering area of 24.94 million rai. In each region, Northeastern is highest region in the operation of declaration area with 26.26 million rai and land allocated area with 12.85 million rai as well as higher number of households were distributed to 0.761 million households. While, the South is lower region than other in total of land reform area declaration and land allocated areas.

Private land

In terms of land tenure in private lands is identified by ownership and leasehold. The holders with ownership basis may have title deeds or temporary land certificates. For leasehold, the holders must pay rent to the landlords or do not have to pay any kind of rent depending on the agreement made between them. In the agricultural sector, tenancy problems frequently occur in certain private lands and aggravate rural poverty. As far as the tenancy problems and land ownership problems are concerned, the government has included the private lands into the Agricultural Land Reform Program (ALRP). At the year 2005, the operation of private lands in the whole country have been allocating for 30,419 households covering area of 0.470 million rai. In each region, the Central region holds the highest land allocated area which cover 0.295 million rai. Moreover, numbers of households in the Central were distributed to 20,676 households, which is higher than other. While, the South region has lower land allocated area.

Other more ALRP-related Projects

Under the Royal Initiatives, on the year 1969 on the hill-tribe village at Chiang Mai, a province at the North region of Thailand, the King visited it and helped them by funding a Royal Projects Foundation using only his own funds. The reason is because he is concerned on the farmers on that village for doing earning of money from their peach and opium production. Later that year, the government, public and international

organizations, joined the King by contributing more money for the funds of the said foundation. On the year of 1995, the Royal Project Foundation funded a large number of development programs and projects, which have benefited 295 villages and 14,109 rural households. Of the three key development areas of the Royal Projects, the area focused on marketing-related activities involves research and development on postharvest loss prevention, transportation, and packaging, processing and marketing. Another regarding on this foundation, research and development in processing of food and other farm produced. The prime objective of the program is to manage the surpluses produced, while increasing their value added through appropriate processing. In addition, other income-generating products in particular handicrafts, are also included. For this, three food processing plants have been constructed, two in Chiang Mai and one in Chiang Rai. A marketing outlet of these processed fruits and food from the Royal Projects has been registered in both Bangkok and Chiang Mai under the brand name of “Doi Kam”. Another one is the Traditional Folk Arts and Crafts Program organized by the Queen of Thailand. The Queen of Thailand has long been organizing a program that has provided rural villagers all over the country with training in the skills of traditional craftsmanship. The program, known as Silapacheep (artistic profession), also provides seed money for the rural villagers to obtain necessary inputs for the handicraft products and a guaranteed marker for them. Among the hundreds of handicraft items produced, the outstanding ones are the luxurious lady handbags made of a water grass called in the vernacular “Li Pao.”These are now a highly valued export item from which rural women have earned much more than they have from any agricultural product. Under of this program for helping also the Thai people on the rural areas and also on agrarian reform are some projects. As the start of this project, the Government allocated some of the budget to the villages and assigned the responsibility to the Ministry of Interior (MOI) for the implementation through the Community Development Department. Thus, the Poverty Alleviation Project has been implemented since 1993. The support to target households and village committee are by educating, monitoring, supervising, evaluating and reporting. In term of benefits of the project are both direct and indirect to the poor households under poverty line, which was lower than 15,000 Baht at that time. The aims or objectives of this project are:

• •

To have a fund for occupational investment in the villages; To provide the poor people with an opportunity to have a loan without interest; To increase more income for the poor people so as to improve the quality of their lives; To create responsibility and sympathy toward one another in the village; and To strengthen the village committee potential and to empower the local organizations (decentralization).


Also, the Poverty Eradication Center is one of the projects under the TFACP of the Queen. Aiming to serve as the core agency to integrate plans projects activities and funds for all related government units, local administrative organizations, and private organization and people’s organizations, in the flight against poverty. The main objective is to tackle poverty in a holistic manner. The Government had announced the poverty alleviation policy as a national agenda. It launched a nationwide poverty registration program to allow people all cover the country to register their grievances with authority since 2004. According to the outcome of the registration program, more than eight million people came up to register with a total of 12million problems. People in the program were divided into seven categories: landless people, the homeless, illegal business operators, needy schoolchildren and students, those who have fallen victim to dishonest schemes, debt-ridden people, and those wishing to have their own house. The result is good. The progress of the Government’s efforts to tackle poverty that among the problems raised by registered people. And the most serious one was the debt problem. About five million people registered the debt problem, around 2 million registered the landless, about 0.25 million needy schoolchildren and students registered the problem of financial support for their studies, and about 91,000 people stated that they had fallen into dishonest schemes. Moreover, the number of the registered jobless and homeless people was 6,521. Almost 6,500 people registered problems concerning illegal businesses. More than 1.3 million people registered other problems. The government was planned a poverty eradication caravans. Those caravans will help to solve the poverty problems across the country. The Cabinet of Thai government approved guidelines for poverty eradication caravans arranged by the National poverty Eradication Center. The caravan project comes after the nationwide poverty registration

program. The project is in line with the Government’s road map against poverty, which is divided into three phases. The first phases implemented in 2004. The operation was to involve analysis of poverty problems and guideline for solving the problem. The second phase is implementing since 2005, its period cover to 2006. This phase aim to involve the easing of people’s hardships and other related issues. And the third phase which will carryout from 2007 to 2008. This phase prepare to calls for sustainability in tackling poverty and other related problems. Those are the programs of the Kingdom of Thailand regarding on their economic, agrarian reform and rural development. They do this for the benefit of their people in their country. But how about our country, Philippines? We must go back to the recent program implemented since Aquino’s administration.

COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM (CARP)

"A nation where there is equitable land ownership and empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries who are effectively managing their economic and social development for a quality of life".

Regarding on its definition, some people defines that the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program is a program of the government that aims to transfer effective management of a land ownership from the landowners to their tenants such as famers or workers to have their economic and social development for a quality of life of each. Some tells that CARP is a social justice and poverty alleviation program which seeks to empower the lives of agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs) through equitable distribution and ownership of the land based on the principle of land to the tiller. It likewise provides opportunities for a dignified and improved quality of life of the ARBs through the provision of adequate support services for sound rural development and the establishment of economic-size farms as the basis of Philippine agriculture. Whatever their defined the CARP, those definitions relates on the vision of the program: "A nation where there is equitable land ownership and empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries who are effectively managing their economic and social development for a quality of life". So we will say that CARP is a program for the economic and social development, not only for the agrarian sector, it’s also for the Filipino people, to make a quality life sustaining the needs of each.

Back to it’s past

Like what the Philippine history told us, Republic Act No. 6657 or the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL) of the year 1988 under the Corazon Aquino’s government is the “basis” for the implementation of CARP. This law embodies the state policy of processing CARP aimed at liberating the vast potential wealth of Philippine agriculture by giving the majority of the Filipinos the real and rightful stake in the land. This is what I think the “most” change of the Philippine Agrarian Reform. Year 1992 when Fidel Valdez Ramos, the next president, create the Republic Act No. 7905, an act to strengthen the implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program and the Other Purposes. Until now, the CARP was existed.

Coverage of CARP

It covers, regardless of tenure arrangement and commodity produced, all public and private agricultural lands as provided in Proclamation No. 131 and Executive Order No. 229, including other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture More specifically, the following lands are covered by CARP: • • •

All alienable and disposable lands of the public domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture; All lands of the public domain in excess of the specific limits as determined by Congress in Section 4 (a) of R.A. No. 6657; All other lands owned by the government devoted to or suitable for agriculture; and All private lands devoted or suitable for agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon.

About the Implementation (Agencies)

It is good for us to understand how the people, especially people that need the information about and benefited to this present Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, know and relates themselves to the said program. In that case, we will say that the CARP is was implemented. One of the factors is by the help of some following agencies like: The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) is the “lead implementing agency” of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). It was created in 1971 under Republic Act No. 6389 to replace the Land Authority, which was the agency created in 1963 under Republic Act No. 3844 to carry out the “Agricultural Land Reform Code of the Philippines”. As “lead implementing agency” of the CARP, DAR’s mandate is to carry out the principal aspects of the Program, which are Land Tenure Improvement (LTI), Program Beneficiary Development (PBD), and the Delivery of Agrarian Justice (DAJ). How does the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) help the farmers? There are specific ways in which DAR helps the plight of farmers:

Distribution of all agricultural lands regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodities produced. For non-land distribution however, the DAR strengthens and protects the farmers security of tenure in leasehold and stock distribution option. Delivery of appropriate support services such as intensification of support services; rural enterprise development, promotion of self-reliant livelihood programs, continuous social marketing and advocacy campaigns. Agrarian justice for agrarian-related cases (e.g. legal representation & adjudication of cases)

In DAR land distribution program that uniformly implemented in the country, it would depend on the hectare target of the region. There are regions with high CARP scope and the others are high on non-Land Acquisition & Distribution (LAD) programs. Those with large remaining land acquisition balances are those with problematic landholdings which are currently being worked out by the DAR. (e.g., CARP balances in Negros, Region V balances, etc.). DAR also has a continuous education and information campaign. For instance, the Agrarian Reform (AR) Advocacy Program is conducted regularly in schools and institutions who would like to be oriented on CARP. Also, the Department also farms out information kit, newsletters, brochures, primers and other IEC materials for dissemination and distribution to the public. It also accommodates walk-in researchers from different sectors. This policy holds true to all DAR offices (local and national).

Regarding on ARB (Agrarian Reform Community), DAR, in coordination with the Barangay Agrarian Reform Community (BARC) registers agricultural lessees, tenants and farmworkers who are qualified to be beneficiaries of CARP. These potential beneficiaries with the assistance of the BARC and the DAR shall provide the following data:
• •

Names and members of their immediate farm household; Owners or administrators of the lands they work on and length of tenurial relationship; Location and area of the land they work; Crops planted; and Share in the harvest or amount of rental paid or wages received

• • •

In the part of ARB, his or her obligations would be as follows to qualify as a beneficiary of CARP:
• •

The agricultural productivity of the land should be maintained; and The change in the nature of the use of the land shall be protected except with the approval of the DAR under its rules on conversion or exemption.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is also concerned on CARP. The 8,061,864 hectares of agricultural land that is targeted to be distributed by the Philippine Government under the CARP is divided into:
• • •

privately-owned lands, government-owned lands, and public Alienable and Disposable (A&D) lands.

The distribution of the first two categories of lands, which comprise 4,290,453 hectares, is the responsibility of the DAR, while the distribution of the third category – the public A&D lands – is the responsibility of the DENR. A total of 3,771,411 hectares of public A&D lands are targeted for distribution by the DENR, primarily to those who have occupied and cultivated these lands for at least thirty (30) years, and have religiously paid real estate taxes on them. The DENR issues “Free Patents” to these persons and these Free Patents are eventually converted into Original Certificates of Title (OCTs) once registered with the Registry of Deeds (ROD) of the Land Registration Authority

The DENR is also responsible for the survey of public A & D lands that it distributes, and for the inspection, verification and approval of surveys carried out by DAR on the lands that it has targeted for coverage under the CARP. The Department of Agriculture (DA) was originally charged with providing technical assistance to the ARBs in their agricultural production by way of facilitating their access to production inputs, marketing and credit information, and post-production facilities However, with the devolution of agricultural extension services to the Local Government Units (LGUs) pursuant to the Local Government Code of 1992, this assistance is now undertaken by the Provincial and Municipal Agriculturists who are part of the LGU bureaucracy, with the DA providing technical assistance to special projects that are of national coverage. However, the DA is still responsible for national programs for agricultural improvement. Hence, it still works with the DAR in the implementation of such programs among the ARBs, especially those in the Agrarian Reform Communities. The LBP or the Land Bank of the Philippines was specifically established by law to be, as its name suggests, the financial arm of the Philippine agrarian reform program. Its primary responsibility is the valuation and payment of lands that are acquired by the Government for distribution to the farmer beneficiaries, and collection of the amortization payments for those lands from the beneficiaries. The Land Bank is also the major source of credit assistance to the ARBs, particularly those which are organized into cooperatives. It extends credit to the cooperatives on a “wholesale basis”, and the cooperatives, in turn, “retail” such credit to their members. To enable the cooperatives to “retail” the credit to their members at lower-than-market rates, and still earn a small profit out of this operation, the Land Bank extends the credit to the cooperatives at subsidized rates. The Bank also has a commercial lending window through which it lends to small and medium industries at commercial rates. The profits that it derives from this commercial operation are what it uses to subsidize its lending to the cooperatives. Other agencies are helping CARP on its small needs such as promoting it to the barangays, rehabilitating farm-to-market roads, establishing market-linkage, etc. Present status of the program: the results

Gloria-Macapagal Arroyo creates the Bayan-Anihan Program for Rural Development or BPRD, which is known as Bayan-Anihan. The Bayan-Anihan is one of the Department of Agrarian Reform’s programs under the Arroyo’s administration. The aims of this program is to fast tracking of land acquisition and distribution, integrating, rationalizing and institutionalizing the delivery of support services, swift delivery of social justice, promoting peace, intensifying and socializing marketing, and modernizing DAR bureaucracy.

Regarding on their aims, also earlier, before we discussed about the “Agrarian Reform Program of Thailand”, I told that the government developed a “projects” that under of the Agrarian Reform program which are:
• • • • •

“Land Tenure Development”; “Provisions of Good Services”; “Infrastructure Projects”; “KALAHIARZone”; and “Agrarian Justice”.

The objectives of this “projects” are similar on what Bayan-Anihan some aims. Land Tenure Development discussed what will DAR‘s next move. DAR will remain vigorous in implementing land acquisition and distribution regards to the implementation of CARP. Meanwhile, the Provisions of Good Services tells what are the other things that the CARP must have, which is the support services such as credit assistance, irrigation, extension services, farm-to-market roads, market facilities and establishments, and training and technical skills programs. Next is Infrastructure Projects. DAR wants that the ARC’s or Agrarian Reform Communities will transform from an area that focuses on the delivery of support services, into a rural economic zone that will create some job opportunities in the countryside. About the KALAHIARZone or KApit-bisig LAban sa kaHIrapan Agrian Reform Zone is sub-provincial area consist of one or more local government or municipalities which has a great ARC population to achieve a great agro-productivity. It is also concentrated on the partnership and rural development efforts of some agencies of government and LGU’s. And last, the Agrarian Justice. To help and clear a “backlog” of agrarian cases, DAR will hire more paralegal officers to support undermanned adjudicatory boards and introduce a quota system to compel adjudicators to work faster regarding on their agrarian cases. In doing this, DAR must respect the rights of agrarian-related people and workers.

COMPARISON

This comparison statement will be also the summarization of my comparative study. As we can see, there are some similarities on both countries’ agrarian reform program. Between the Agricultural Land Reform Program of Thailand and the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program of the Philippines, they are similar that:

they want the tenants and landless farmworkers has an own equal land that he/she will be the owner; they want those people will solved the agrarian-related problems, especially on their lands by sustaining them the needed things and support services, in result that those people will maintain it; they want each beneficiaries will maintain a good life for their selves as well as for their families and good relations to others; and they want to inform other people about the importance of those programs to the society and for the country as well.

Both countries since can be classified as agricultural country, the government of each concentrates on what are the needs. Also, they want to fight poverty and lessen rural areas by giving some development, even though it’s very hard to achieve.

CONCLUSION
This study highlighted the importance of the programs of the agrarian reform sector for us. Owning land is not sufficient to minimize risks and general problems. This study also told us that the government are doing all that they can do for their people, particularly for the very poor. On the part of comparison, we compared our Philippine Agrarian Reform Program to other agrarian reform programs of other countries like Thailand’s Agricultural Land Reform Program just to know what are part of their that can be adopt of ours like their Royal Projects Foundation and the Traditional Folk Arts and Crafts Program and see how the both programs similar on their objectives.

But to be the result, differences was seeing on the two agrarian reform programs. However, there are many programs/projects that related on those two, some are successful in a certain time, but some didn’t reach their achievements. Implementing a program that didn’t think and analyze the factors can be probable reason for a failure. Some factors that affects are population increase, income gap, limit of land, high demand of world food consumption, environmental degradation, etc. Therefore, concerted efforts of parties concerned will be needed to fulfill the goal of agrarian reform and development of a country generally.

REFERENCES: Navarro, Conrado S. “Institutional Aspects of Policy Implementation and Management of the Philippine Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.” dated April, 2007. Boras, Saturnino M. Jr. “CARP on its 12th Year: A Closer Examination of the Agrarian Reform Performance.” dated June, 2000.

Department of Agrarian Reform, http://www.dar.gov.ph as of September, 2008. Agricultural Land Reform Office (ALRO), Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative (MOAC), “National Report for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development in Thailand”. Dated February, 2006. Wikipedia, “Thailand”, http://www.wikipedia.com as of September, 2008.

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