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Stephen Mirdo

Table of Contents

Object ………………………………………..………………………….………….…. p. 1

Theory ………………………………………………………………..……….....…pp. 1 -3

Procedure …………………………………………………………………….………...p. 4

Results ………………………………………………………..……...……………pp. 5 - 6

Appendix ……………………………………………………..…….…....………pp. 8 - 10

Object

The object of this experiment was to determine the force exerted by a jet of water on a

stationary vane and compare the experimental results to the theoretical results.

Theory

A moving stream of fluid carries momentum. Momentum is defined as the

product of the mass of a body and its velocity. When a moving stream of fluid, or jet, is

deflected by a surface, a change in linear momentum occurs. This change in linear

momentum results in the water jet exerting a force on the surface it is impacting.

ΣF = ∫∫CS V ρ Vn dA (Equation 1)

Equation 1 is the general equation for linear momentum for a deformable control

volume. The components of this equation are V, the velocity of the stream of fluid, ρ, the

density of the fluid, and Vn, the velocity of the fluid normal to the impact surface. These

components are integrated with respect to the impact surface area and yield the force the

jet exerts.

To calculate the theoretical force a jet exerts on a surface, first a control volume

must be defined. For this experiment, a Pelton bucket will be used for the vane. A

diagram of the force exerted on the Pelton bucket by the jet of fluid is seen in Figure 1

below.

escaping water.

1

To calculate the force the jet of fluid exerts on the Pelton bucket, a force sum

calculation is used. A control volume is defined such that the fluid exits at 90 degrees,

normal to the defined control volume. This definition of the control volume allows for no

fluid to escape in the y direction, thereby simplifying the force calculation. It is assumed

that to the left is positive on the x axis. The velocity of the fluid escaping the Pelton

bucket is calculated as follows:

The force balance equation for this system, with to the left on the x axis being positive is

as follows:

Simplifying the equation by factoring the velocity term and substituting Equation 3 into

the force equation for the velocity of the escaping jet of fluid acting in the x direction is

as follows:

The force the Pelton bucket experiences due to the change in momentum of the jet of

water is equivalent to the force of the water. Therefore, the equation for the theoretical

force of the jet of fluid exerted on the Pelton bucket is as follows:

To calculate the area term, A of Equation 5, calculate the cross sectional area of

the exit of the nozzle. The V term, velocity, is the fluid jet’s velocity at the exit of the

nozzle. To calculate the exit velocity, divide the volumetric flow rate of the nozzle, Q,

by the cross sectional area A.

Q = VA V = Q / A (Equation 6)

evaluate the moment the force exerts on a beam. As seen in Figure 1 below, a nozzle

emits a jet of fluid at a constant volumetric flow rate that impacts the vane. The vane is

connected to beam that will rotate about a pivot as seen to the left on the beam. The

impacting jet of fluid, having its direction of momentum altered, will exert a force on the

vane at a fixed distance from the pivot, do, and cause the beam to rotate

counterclockwise.

To assess the force exerted by the jet, F, a mass jockey is positioned on the beam

so as to counteract the jet’s force with a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in

direction. The mass jockey will exert a force due to weight, Fw, in the downward

direction at a distance, dw, from the pivot, thereby exerting a clockwise moment about the

2

pivot on the beam. The tally, or leveling device, of the apparatus will register in the

neutral position when the mass jockey is positioned at the appropriate distance from the

pivot to counteract the counterclockwise moment exerted by the jet of fluid.

(Source: University of Delaware, Department of

Mechanical Engineering)

Any subsequent increase in the volumetric flow rate, Q, will cause a proportional

increase to the impact force the jet exerts on the vane. The increased force equates to an

increase in the moment exerted by the jet around the beam’s pivot. To counteract the

increased force, and therefore increased moment, the mass jockey must be shifted further

to the right on the beam to a position dwi to counteract the increase. To account for the

force at each flow rate, multiply the weight of the mass jockey by the difference in each

displacement with reference to the initial position and divide the product by the distance

from the fluid jet to the pivot.

3

Procedure

Equipment:

TQ H1D Volumetric Bench (SN: A7771/2)

Pelton Bucket Plate

Stopwatch

Experiment:

1) Close the drain in the catch basin of the jet impact apparatus. Open the flow

control valve, turn the pump on and set the flow rate to a desired value. Using the

sight glass on the side of the device, measure the time taken for the volume in the

catch basin to rise from zero to an arbitrary volume. Divide this volume by the

time taken to achieve it. This value is a flow rate, Q.

2) Obtain a theoretical velocity by dividing the flow rate Q by the cross-sectional

area of the nozzle. This obtained value is the theoretical velocity of the fluid

exiting the nozzle.

3) Use the theoretical velocity to calculate a theoretical moment exerted on the beam

by the jet.

4) Turn off the pump of the apparatus. Ensure that the flow control valve has been

closed and open the drain of the catch basin so as to let the fluid in the system

return to the pump.

5) Move the mass jockey to the zero position and calibrate the lever arm of the

testing apparatus by adjusting the spring via the thumb screw.

6) Turn the pump back on and open the flow control valve. Adjust the flow rate

until a deflection of the lever arm is noticed. Leave the pump running and move

the mass jockey to the right until the moment created by the water jet has been

balanced. Record this distance. Do not adjust the spring.

7) Increase the flow rate of the water jet by an increment of two liters per minute.

Again, slide the jockey mass to the right until the moment has been balanced.

Record this value.

8) Repeat Step 7 for a desired number of data points.

4

Results

values of force exerted by a jet of water

Jockey Mass 0.600 kg

Nozzle Diameter 0.010 m

Density of Water 1000 kg/m3

Distance from Pivot to Vane 0.150 m

obtained by using Equation 2 and Equation 3.

Volumetric Volumetric

Velocity

Flow Flow Force (N)

(m/s)

(LPM) (m3/s)

10 1.67E-04 2.12 0.6054

12 2.00E-04 2.55 0.8718

14 2.33E-04 2.97 1.1866

16 2.67E-04 3.40 1.5499

18 3.00E-04 3.82 1.9615

20 3.33E-04 4.24 2.4217

22 3.67E-04 4.67 2.9302

24 4.00E-04 5.09 3.4872

26 4.33E-04 5.52 4.0926

28 4.67E-04 5.94 4.7465

30 5.00E-04 6.37 5.4487

using Equation 2 and Equation 4.

Volumetric Volumetric

dw dwi-dw1 Velocity

Flow Flow Force (N)

(mm) (m) (m/s)

(LPM) (m3/s)

10 1.667E-04 12 0.012 2.12 0.4709

12 2.000E-04 19 0.007 2.55 0.2747

14 2.333E-04 26 0.014 2.97 0.5494

16 2.667E-04 35 0.023 3.40 0.9025

18 3.000E-04 45 0.033 3.82 1.2949

20 3.333E-04 58 0.046 4.24 1.8050

22 3.667E-04 72 0.06 4.67 2.3544

24 4.000E-04 88 0.076 5.09 2.9822

26 4.333E-04 100 0.088 5.52 3.4531

28 4.667E-04 113 0.101 5.94 3.9632

30 5.000E-04 130 0.118 6.37 4.6303

5

6.0000

5.0000

4.0000

Force (N)

3.0000

2.0000

1.0000

0.0000

10 15 20 25 30 35

Flow Rate (LPM)

Actual Theoretical

Figure 3: Theoretical and actual force exerted by a jet of water on a Pelton bucket

6

Discussion and Conclusion

The Pelton bucket is a component of the Pelton wheel that is found in impulse

turbines. The raised ridge between the two hollows of the device essentially splits a jet of

water into two and deflects each nearly 180o. This deflection prevents the jet from

spraying out of and away from the device. By controlling the velocity vector of the fluid

jet, the Pelton bucket is able to extract more energy from the moving fluid by changing

its linear momentum. The fluid that leaves the Pelton bucket has a small fraction of the

velocity it came in with, concluding that it has a very efficient design.

It was that the theoretical and experimental forces have a significant percentage of

error between them, as seen in Table 4 below. Most of this error is due to the theoretical

calculations neglecting the force of gravity on the jet of water. When the jet leaves the

nozzle, it will have the calculated velocity obtained by using Equation 3. However, after

the fluid has obtained any height above the nozzle, the force of gravity acts on it and

decreases the velocity. The reduction in velocity can be determined by using Bernoulli’s

equation, where V is the respective velocity, g is gravitational acceleration and Δz is the

distance between the nozzle and the vane.

Experimental Theoretical

% Error

Force Force

0.4709 0.6054 22.22%

0.2747 0.8718 68.49%

0.5494 1.1866 53.70%

0.9025 1.5499 41.77%

1.2949 1.9615 33.98%

1.8050 2.4217 25.46%

2.3544 2.9302 19.65%

2.9822 3.4872 14.48%

3.4531 4.0926 15.63%

3.9632 4.7465 16.50%

4.6303 5.4487 15.02%

7

7

Appendix

Data Usage

V = Q/A = [(10 LPM * 1.5e-2 m3/L * min/60 s)] / [(π/4) * (0.010m)2] = 2.12 m/s

8

Bibliography

William S. Janna (1993)

W.D. Callister, Jr and D.G. Rethwish (2008)

William S. Janna (2008)

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