COMPLEX ANALYSIS
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International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics
G. Spri.nJer and E. H.. SjMllier, Con..ulting Editors
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
An Introduction to the Theory of Analytic Functions of One Complex Variable Third Edition
L13i\~:~:. ...,~.:;"....A r '\·. .
Q~~~LR1)j
Complex Analysis Bentkr and Orszag: Advanced Mathematical Methods for Scientists and Engineers Buck: Advanced Calculus B'U8tJCker and Saaty: Finite Graphs and Networks
Cheney: Chester:
AhlJ1YI8:
Introduction to Approximation Theory Techniques in Partial Differential Equations Coddington and Levin30n: Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations Ctmte and de Boor: Elementary Numerical Analysi~: An Algorithmic Approach Dennemeyer: Introduction to Partial Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems Dettman: Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering Golomb and Shank3: Elements of Ordinary Differential Equations Hamming: Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers Hildebrand.: Introduction to Numerical Analysis HfJ'USWkoider: The Numerical Treatment of a Single Nonlinear Equation Kalman, FalbJ and Arbib: Topics in Mathematieal Systems Theory Lass: . Vector and Tensor Analysis McCarty: Topology: An Introduction with Applications to Topological Groups M onJc: Introduction to Set Theory Moore: Elements of Linear Algebra and Matrix Theory Mour8Ufld and Duri3: Elementary Theory and Application of Numerical Analysis Pearl: Matrix Theory and Finite Mathematics PiPM and Harvill: Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists Ralsttm and Rabinowitz: A First Course in Numerical Analysis RitgeT and Rose: Differential Equations with Applications Rudin: Principles of Mathematical Analysis ShapirQ: Introduction to Abstract Algebra Simmons: DiJlerentiai Equations with Applications and Historical Notes Simm0n8: Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis Struble: Nonlinea.r Differential Equations
..
ito
Professor of Mat ematiCS, Emeritus Harvard University
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Lars V. Ahl'!'S
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COMPLEX ANAL VIIS
Copyrip.t @ 19711,1966 by McGrawHili, Inc. All richu f'Oklved. Copyript 1963 by NeGrawHiII, Ine, An rich" reaerved .. Printed in 'United 8~tee of AInerica. No pari of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system" or transmit.ted, in any form or by any IIIe&Il8, elecVonic. mechanical. pbotooopyiDa, recordiD& or oiberwile, without die prior written permiasion of the publilher.
u.e
16 17 18 19 20 21 BRBBRB ThiI book wu"
96 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
The editors were Carol Napier and Stephen W&«Iey; the production auperviaor wu Joe Campanella.
in Modem SA by Monotype Comptlllition Company, Inc.
u.....,. 01CoaP' •• Cat.......
Ablfon, Lan Valerian, date Complex analyfJiL
in PuhUoatJon Data
Ineluct. index.
(International aeries in pure and applied matheJnatics)
&
1. AnaIytie functiolll.. I Title. QA331.A4S 1879 515'.93 7817078 ISBN Q.074J006671
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1..
ii .
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2C
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• ~
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Xlll
. IIUII...
.
.~ Inequalities lJ.
.
". .!
!
..
.I.
33
..n. ·1~ Justification
1
..
ER 1
COMPLEX NUMBERS
1
1 3 4 6
9
~
The Algebra oj Compla: Numbe.... Conjugation.:The Spherical Representation
Representation oj Cornples Numbers Geometric Addition and Multiplication
12 12
17 18
15
'I
2
COMPLEX FUNcnONS
21 21
22 24
28
30 33
_ .
!
." . . ~ ~

...
.
.
I
.
..
.13 SquareRoots i.1. .. .e Geometric
!
.
.: ..I
i
Contents
..
:i
I
I
t
\.":1:
"
••
...
' ••••
I. ~
.~.
.:. Absolute Value 4 ..
.
..
The Binomial Equation Analytic Geometry .1 Arithmetic Operations :.:"~
I
I
I
.
~.
1.~.~"./.1 The Linear Group
i"
Harmonic Functions
6.6 Locally Exact Differentials 4.
I I
i
1 Elementary Point Set Topology 1..1 The Use of Level Curves 4.4 Cauchy's Theorem for a Rectangle 1..3 Homology 4.:i~"..'.:.i :
:
I
3
Linear Transformations
3..3 EValuation of Definite Integrala
The Calculus oj Residues 5..2 A Survey of Elementary Mappings 4.4 Power Series 2.1 The Residue Theorem
148
152 154
162
148
. Multiply Connected Regions 7
I·
I
51
54 59 63 66 67 67
141 141
138
137
2 !. {..1 Weieratrass's Theorem . .>?:.'i:.¥II
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
2.3 3..3 Conformal Mapping 2.5
3...4 The General Statement of Cauchy's Theorem 4.1 The Exponential 3.
!
35
38
41 42
42
.
ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS AS MAPPINGS
Removable Singularities.
.3 Uniform Convergence 2.1 Arcs and Closed Curves 2..3 Elementary Riemann Surfaces
89
93
.'.1 Line Integrals 1. ~~. Formula
193 198 201
. .!
.
I
.2 Metric Spaces 1. .4 Compactness 1.:£<.
144 146
142
5
69 73 75 76
5.3 Connectedness 1.2 The Integral Formula 2~ Higher Derivatives
114
3
The Exponential ond Trigonometric Functions
3.
..:..t.2 Analytic Functions in Regions 2...3 The Periodicity ·
3.rtla.
!
Conformolity
2..5 Definition and Basic Properties The Meanvalue Property Poisson's Formula Sehwarz's Theorem The Reflection Principle
The Cross Ratio Symmetry Oriented Circles Families of Circles
78
83
76
80
84
89
165 166 168 172
175 175 175 179
162
4
Elementary Conformal Mappings
4. <\ :
.
I
1 Fundamental Theorems
.''.2 Rectifiable Arcs 1.
..2 3../.4 3.1 Chains and Cycles 4.GHAPTER 5
. Espansioru
r .4
of Analytical Functions
Taylorfs Theorem
46
49 50 50
CHAPTER 3
~ ..\.5 Cauchy's Theorem in a Diak
104 105 109
112
101
Partial~ ..3 The Laurent Series
I .4 The Logarithm
120
124 124 126 130 133
137
114 118
'I
I
I
43
44
3 Local Properties
·3 .
":". 12 The Taylor Series :.
..
Cauchy's Integral Formula
2.:" _ _'
" •
.2 The Argument Principle 5.:.I
I
:
CHAPTER 4
COMPLEX INTEGRATION
101
101
~ "rt~
1..2 The Trigonometric Functions 3... .. 1 3...3 3.:..3 Line Integrals as Functions of Arcs 1.'i' )/·~:.
. 1 6.1 The Index of a Point with Respect to a Closed Curve 2.2 Simple Connectivity 4...
.. Zeros and Poles The LocaI Mapping The Maximum Principle
.
191
..6 Topological Spaces
.5 Continuous Functions 1.
.2 3. Froctiona and Factorisation
~
184
187
187
1..
The General Form oj CauChY~8Theorem
4.
.:.
.r • :
SERIES AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
_ .:.
.' .'~a...3 6~4 6.. I: ~. . ~ Infinite PfOduets
Canonieal Products
The Gamma Function Btiriing'.2 6..1 Bets and Elements 1.5 Proof of Cauchy's Theorem 4.:· ~:_::....
I
I
97
. .:.":::":::.
::
. POUJer Serle..5 Abel'B Limit Theorem
.4 Length and Area.''::~!.\.> ':
."..
.
... _.
2... 2 Algebraic Functioru 2...s
~
_:.
.1
Lacunary Values
4
The Dirichlet Problem
4.....
.
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•• . ..
2.. '1 Ordinary Points
1
I.
I..
I...3 2.2
... _..
.:
.".1 Subharmonic Functions 4. . •• I
.
:.4 Families of Analytic Functions 5. '. :.1
I:
I'i!: .
• .
'
~
.
.llel Slit Regions
I
.3 Functions of Finite Order
I
..
4
The Riemann Zeta Function 4.2 The Functions r(z) and q(z) 3..3 4. 1
265 265 266 268
270 272 272
273
5.2 Solution of Dirichlet's Problem
245 24li 248
..2 Functions with the Meanvalue Property Hamaek's Principle
241
242
243
.'
..: .:"
'.2 Definition and Properties of Algebraic Functions
3CKJ
300
2~4 The Triangle Functions of Schwarz
241
. • •
4:..4 The Canonical Basis General Properties of Elliptic Functions
5 Normal Families
5~1 Equicontinuity
.
•••
.i I".4
.:. DIRICHLET'S PROBLEM
229 229 229 232 233
CHAPTER 8
GLOBAL ANAL rnc FUNCTIONS
The Riemann Mapping Theorem
1.~ ~ineGT Differen..._(T) 3.
• ::'...5 The Conformal Mapping by >.
'. :.::.
:
~~.. . •
I.3 Behavior at the Critical Points
301
306
304
.' '.~(t..
"
.4 1~
:1."'.
5 Canonical Mappings oj Multiply Connected Regions
5.1 Representation by Exponentials 1.
I:: .7 Branch Points
284
287
289
291
295
WI
2.
...1
.2 Extension of r(B) to the Whole Plane
4.~ .
I
3 A Closer Look ot Harmonie Functions
atl 3. .4 Analytie Arcs
1 Analytic Continuation
11 The Weierstrass Theory ..... ... .
•
. ..
.2 The Schwarz. 
.(1")
5..
i:
I..i
284
I'
i
Z Conformal Mapping
2.
. ..2 Normality and Compactness
Arzela's Theorem 5.
275
277
279 283
CHAPTER 6
1
CONFORMAL MAPPING.. ..::.
..1 The Period Module 2.tial Equations
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~.
1
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I~:"r" .':.1 The Resultant of Two Polynomials 2..'.3
:I .. : . The Monodromy Theorem 6 1..
~":'1'
'::'.:~
7.
..~~.
. ~.s Point of View
Harmonie Measures
Green's Function Para...' ..:/"'
..
.
I: i
I
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
".
'. ..5 The Classical Definition
223 225
..
!
214
216 218 219 219
220
2 Doubly Periodic Functions 2.. .
".1
of Polygons
235 235 236 238
1..
~.
:.' .Fourier Development 1. :~
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••

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.
3 Entire Functions
3.: :.
..
307
308 309 311 313 315 318 323
'
. '.
.
'.".::.3 Solutions at Infinity
II::
Regular Singular Points
'The Hypergeometric Differential Equation Riemann. ' ••
...'
".4 The Modular Function ). .::.
. T.1 3. .Christoffel Formula
The Behavior at an Angle
Germs and Sheaves Sections and Riemann Surfaces Analytic Continuations along Arcs Homotopic Curves 1.3 Use of the Reflection Principle 1.
283
283
<
!
I
1
I:
i
1
.3
222
3
The Weie. ..
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Picortre Theorem
3.
.... :'..
••
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.2 Unimodular Transformations
2.strass Theory
it 1 The Weierstrass pfunction 3. r~: ....
.1
251
252 257 259
.::"1'
:1····:..3 The DiJJerential Equation 3..~
..
5...>.
4.2 Boundary Behavior 1.
!
5. r.3 Mapping on a Rectangle
..
:
_...2 1~ 1..:
r"_.2
206
CHAPTER 7
ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS
263
263 263 264 264
Jensen' a Formula Hadamard's Theorem
207 208 212
213
1 Simply Periodic Functions
1..
:::':
.
.: J...
_'..:'~~~~:'.. .
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. .
.1 Statement and Proof 1.:.....'::.
...2 The. .
.':.'
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..:.··:~·.1 The Product Development 4. .
:.4..
t:~=:.':::"
'
: . :: :
• • •• .4 The Functional Equation The Zeros of the Zeta Function
:!
.
. F.. To some degree this infringes on the selfcontained exposition.
. for it forces the reader to fall back on for the definition and manipulation of double integrals. There are no radical innovations in the new edition.'.I
II
I
Preface
I
1
I
!I
I·' ..:/..•.... . and for this reason the introductory chapters are virtually unchanged.matical terminology.. ...~·..
Complex Analy8i8 has successfully maintained its place as the standard elementary text on functions of one complex variable....
I·
.. ':_:'
'.and aims . c·
'. It complements but does not replace the old proof. Otherwise. 4.. never~.~
I • •
•
..'
. A short section on the Riemann zeta function has been included ..: ..... .
• •
i
I
I
j'
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.<:
.uy's theorem.. partly because of differences in student preparedness
I
._ :'..
.
"..third editions can be summarised as follows: ._".
!.......
..
e. ~ mapping has been added.. 3.••.
(~. It is due to A. In Cbapter4 there is a new and simpler proof of the general form of ~~~.II
I' I
'1 ~
. . The tage is minor.. ~.::.~ I
~

.....':':'>0
..
. .' .. partly because of changes in current mathe\.
...". need for a new edition. 2.::
.ae to reproduce it..
..
Ii
i
!
. . it was desirable to clarify certain points that exhas shown to have been a source of possible misunderstanding or · " Misprints and minor errors that have come to my attention ve been corrected.theless. the main differences between the second . ':: >'
..... .. .. Notations and terminology have been modernized.....I
... ... !: .... who has kindly permitted . 1.."::
. .. .1 .a." .... . ~ . :!
. has been retained and improved.~... ·I:'\. . In a few places..:)....~
»
. There is.: .throughout the book. ·:··..... The author still ~believes strongly in a geometric approach to the basics. ... Bearden.. In Chapter 2 a brief section on the change of length and area under . but it did not ?Eem necessary to change the style in any significant way.
It goes without saying that nothing beyond the basic notions of sheaf theory would have been compatible with the elementary nature of the book. The author has successfully resisted the temptation to include Riemann surfaces as onedimensional complex manifolds. I am particularly grateful to my colleague Lynn Loomis. The main purpose W88 to introduce the reader to the terminology of germs and sheaves while emphasizing all the classical concepts. weaknesses. and errors in the second edition. Large parts of Chapter 8 have been completely rewritten.
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
Lare V. 5. who kindly let me share student reaction to a recent course based on my book. and the proof of the functional equation illustrates the use of residues in a less trivial situation than the mere computation of definite integrals . 6. AhlfoT8
:.PREFACE
This always fascinates students.. The book would lose much of its usefulness if it went beyond its purpose of being no more than an introduction to the basic methods and results of complex function theory in the plane.:"
I
. It is my pleasant duty to thank the many who have helped me by pointing out misprints.
.. Zero is the only number which is at once real and purely imaginary..
.2:~:&~..::·~:)~·h.
""7"'(
_:~:..
reader is acquainted with the imaginary unit i with the property s~ :: 1.relation is 1 .··:•..
.. . h1.
..
(2)
(0:
+ iIl)(_.'
I
:
!
i
'1
. . If the imaginary unit is combined with two real numbers aJ /l by the processes of addition and multiplication.1.110)
+ i(a6 + fJ~) .. if ~ s: 0.. We begin our study of complex function theory by stressing and implementing this analogy.·· :.":~>
I :. + ia)
(a.
. Addition and multiplication do not lead out from the system of complex numbers. ..
From elementary
algebra the
+ ~) + ("I + ia)
!S
= (a + y)
+ i(ft + &)
and
j'
I..
In the seeond identity we have made use of the . we obtain a complex number a + ill.. . to be purely imaginary.
.~~~~~~:~k
. it is of course real.'.
~.
::II
i
..~g.. Assuming that the ordinary rules of arithmetic apply to complex numbers we find indeed
(1) (a
1..·..
:
.:fi~)~~ . the number is said. Two complex numbers are equal if and only if they have the same real part and the same imaginary part.l. It is leu obviousihat di_on ia also possible..:i~::i.~#{.
.1. ::.~.' .i
..::··::~.' ..1
COMPLEX NUMBERS
:L THE ALCEBRA
I
OF COMPLEX
NUMBERS
I:
It is fundamental that real and complex numbers obey the same basic laws of arithmetic. ~:.~·i~\h1c... If a == 0. Arithmetic
Operotioru.
.:
..
.... a and J3 are the real and imaginary part of the complex number. ..:: .:: . We wish to
1

.. . ..:"':'<'.
~1~"4.. 3.
== 7X fJ == 3x
+ "'Iy. ...(o: + V.
+ i~)(x + iy) . We have a + ilJ _ O:'Y + fjll + i fl'Y 'Y
2xy :::: fj. complex
number ~ 0 is given by
+ v' 2 + (jl) = l(.....
Together with the first equa.
I.
IDlution
the values of
5
". its value c~n.2 2
.
.2
1..~v..
2.2
COMPLEX
ANALVSI."
·~ere the square
we find
+ y"
=
V«2 + fJl.
+ (Ja + 02 +
0:8
aI'

This system of simultaneous linear equations has the unique solution
x=
.. They eorrespond to values of n which divided by 4 leave the remainders 0. }
.y=. + i3)("
(a
. i. If the given number is a + ifj.
.::
x
+ iy
(x and y real)..
~ ctthe·vaIues are
± v. .:..... .
&y
(1 ±2iy1
for all combinations
r..be found in a simpler way. .* .. two opposite values for :t and two ~he .
± i .. ..~.I..i6.. Square Roots.
+ if>

. a'Y
. = "'(2
This is equivalent to the system of equations
(4) thus the result
«8.nnot be combined arbitrarily.ia) 
+ ~a) + i(~ 7 + a'
1
. we find at once
a il3 1+ i~
·~Beneewe must have
X'
+
=
+ i(3)(. if a
~ 0.
i(a
0:
+ i~ =
1
a~
at
+ (jl
that these quantities are positive or zero regardless of the sign
We note that itt. provided that 'Y iii F O. If numerator and denominator are multiplied with 'Y . Iii .
COIIPLEX
NU"B~RS
3
ahow that (0: ifJ)/(r ill) is a complex ~umber.
root is positive or zero..~~~ equations (5) yield. But ·these values ca..i8) _ (cry
.
l
x' . i 1...
·thlt ~ jII.
. We shall now show that the square root of a % complex number can be found explicitly...a + V at + fj!). we must have
a
+
+
+
2..~
j.
EXERCISES
L Find
cr..it!.:
..i)·. Hz. for the second ~ ru (4) is not a consequence of (5)~ We must therefore be careful 3: ..
..\iI
. ·0> .y 10 that their product has the sign of fJ~ This leads to the
1I... has only four possible values: 1. If the quotient is denoted by x + iY.
Y for we know that ""It
(3)
p. Show that
z'
z
+
1 l'
1
By (2) this condition can be written
a
+ i~ ==
(1'X 
try)
+ i(h + 'YY).: Falll
.
. (.. we are looking for a number x + iy such that
+ iy)'
=a
+ ifl. .r
t: + Val +.
.. .'
+ is'
. 1
(x
and
and we obtain the two equations
a
of signs.: + ltl! pi) .. '.i.. in general.... . 1.
x2 yl
=
As a special case the reciprocal of
a
8.a&)_
~ft·n~ (4)
" . find the real and imaginary parts of
~
1
z
+ iP
= (..y' From these equations we obtain (Xl
=a
+ at is not sero.oR _ ± (
(1
3 +41'
+ sj*' + (I
..and . L.t + a
+ y2)t
= (Xl 
Nt)'
+ 4x2yi
~ as
+ fJlfo
Once the existence of the quotient has been proved.
t
.obvi~us1y does not convey much to a student who ie not already at leut vqueIy faDllbar "Wlth the concept.
Although the above charaeterization of a field ill eomplete.a E R+.
is uaed quite.
e an
is a positive number. genarally to indicate a
. and the equation + 1 = 0 has exactly two roots in F. In other words except for sero. It 18 understood that all square roots of positive numbers are taken with the positive sign.. Let ttl < (12 < (II < · ..
+
t
+
~"lI!III
.
I.::.
EXERCISES
1.8 < all < A for all n > HI. For if . In the first place.. Since both square roots are in ...
t...COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
NUMBERS
5
if a < O. . In fact.. ~ots. satiBfymg the (l880C1alive commutative and diBlributive law. a :i! o.. except for trivial verifica)Vhich the reader is asked to carry out.
:. They coincide only if a: + ifj = O.
.. ... Hence R contains the natural numbers.rtifici~ and should ~ avoided.i'.
...
2.. . .:: II..
00l'f'&0
.
sum. Also..0.. 1O one. respectively: (If 0 = a.. and since it is a field it must contain the subfield formed by all rational numbers . Finally J R satisfies the following completen. . Denote & ·aolution by i.
bet_ two
~~
.(11 . We begin by recalling the characteristic properties of the realnumbr::r system which we denote by R..
. So far our approach to complex numbers has been completely uncritical.. (3) the sum and the product of two positive numbers are positive.a. Solve the quadratic equation
~or
Z2
+ (a + i~)z + ~+ i8 = O. textbook in which a full axiomatic treatment of real numbers is given. but this distinction is e.ff)2 J and this is .lJot~
ooe.uesof _II:: ~4r: I. F.r'. < a. a system R with the postulated properties. < · · · JI and assume the existence of a real number B such that ~ <: B for all R.
an?
18
th
o.hkdl:'Ja:~ . JusiiJication...
·Ii". only positive numbers have real square roots and only ~egative numbers have purely imaginary square. Our diseussion of the realnumber system is incomp1ete inasmuch &8 we have not proved the existence and uniqueness (up to isomorphisms) of . The equation Xl + 1 = 0 has no solution in R. hence (a .:.. 0 can be solved... ..is another field containing R and a root i' of the equation . Then the completeness condition requires the existence of a number A = litna~ a" with the following property: given any g > 0 there exists a natural number no such that A .Fconsisting of all elements which can be expressed in the form « + ifj real a and Ii.~ ...S. .eneral complex. Moreover. The set R+ is characterized by the following properties: (1) 0 is not a positive number: (2) if a. and lower align in (6).. We have not questioned the existence of a number system in which the equa. They are real if fJ =. It is most easily defined in terms of the set R+ of positive real numbers: a < fJ if and only if (j .. thoroughly familiar with one of the constructive processes by which real numbers can be introduced should not fail to fill this gap by consulting any . 1 + 1.
: _. for at + 1 is &Iways ·:~·positive.
Find the four v&l.•ubfield. We could of course distinguish between the upper. This representation is unique."oOIl.tJ.xl + 1 = 0.. the field R has an urder relation a < (J (or (j > a). In particular one finds that every square al is either positive or zero..a..."' "_ . and· ~. (If • 1 _ cx for all cx.tion Xl 1 = 0 has a solution while all the roles of arithmetic remain in force. · We have found that the square root of any complex number exists and bas two opposite values.)(x ..tm
t We
aaaume that the reader baa a working knowledge of elementary algebra. Suppose now that a field F can be found which contains R as a ·. are all different.
. The numhem 0 and 1 are neutral :Uements und~ addition and multiplication. ~'.. therefore 1 = I'
Vi. . the structure of C is independent of F. t The student who is not . The correct way is to treat both square roots In a symmetric meaner.e88 crmdition: every increasing and bounded sequence of real numbers has a limit. By virtue of the order relation the sums 1.0 either a or a is positive.. Let C be the subset of ...<~:. The subset C is & subfield of F. What is more. and in which the equation Z2 + 1 ::. Thi~ means that addition and multiplication are defined. 1.a! == i(ft . .nd ~
w9M
fields is a onetoone aor.. every field integral domaift: et/J . i and i.. 0 if and only if (If = 0 or 13 =
o. In addition. only if a = ol. (J = If.. it 18Dot possible to distinguish between the positive and negative square root of a complex number.:.a')' == ..·. this is exACtly what was shown Sec.~ "'~i.::.an d V J . d'NlatioBetMt are 00nBidered. _.~). Compute
These properties are common to all fields. for a ifJ = cI + i/3' · a .. ~ . 1 1 + 1.. Then 2:' + 1 = (z + . Compute v . the equation of subtraction f$ x =:' a has always a 801utionJ~d the equation of diviBion {jx = a has a solution
+
+ +
'Whenever·(1 ~
One showe by elementary reuooing that the neutral elements results of subtraction and division are unique. ~ is ..B jiefil. " .1.~]>. imporiaDt
.:.respondence which pre.. a ~ 0 and purely imaginary if fJ = 0. From these conditions one derives all the usual rules for manipulation of ineqUalities.
. moreover.
As an application. } .... . In order to give our definition s meaning it remains to exhibit a field F which contains R (or a subfield isomorphic with R) and in which the equation x2 + 1 0 has 8 root..rc_ WIth real coefficients occur in pairs ofoonjugate roots. Absolute Yalue... thtn f is a root of the equation
cor + ClzA1 + · · . and the element 0 + it satisfies the equation x2 + 1 = 0.. .. ·
4>
. t.
'. Im a.
:: .#1\~ii
.. 2.~ynomial x"2 + 1 .:. The ~~rresponding property for quotients is a consequence: if ax = b.' . A number is real if and only if it is equal to its conjugate.t tid "'" a. • .polynomials with real coefficients modulo the irreducible .c.Z + C. .p IS calle~ complex c~J'Uflation. ~ tr~ormation which replaces Q: ifJ by Q:. 1.'
.
:": " • e.b.. and we can go baek to the simpler notation· a + ill where the + indicates addition in C aWl· i is & root of the equation Xl + 1 = 0.. There is a onetoone correspondence between C and C' which B880ciatea a + ifJ and a + i'(j..:. namely. ' The tarminOloir &ndnot&tioliare jUtified hT
0"
. w = U + WJI and when used in this connection it
. r == ~ + i'l1. to make free use of both notations.. let R(a. !}
R(atb. 'U.the field of complex numbers .. The simplest and most direct method is the following: Consider all expressions of the form a + i~ where a. .. )
:=
R(4. though. ~s The real and Imagmary ?~t of a complex number a will a180 be denoted by Re a.c.. Ita nonnegava aq~ JIOOtra'hIIecJ the mod~ua ab. A complex number can be denoted either by a single letter 4. The formulas
tac:
+
+
Re a
=
a+·4 2'
Ima =
aa
2i
These expressions are elements of & field F in which addition and multiplication are defined by (1) and (2) (observe the two different meani~ of the sign +) ~ The elements of the particular form a + iO are seen to constitute a subfield isomorphic to R. More generally.
1.!.
:::I
it1y understood that x. Direct verification shows th~t . all rules must remain valid if I. In deriving the rules for complex addition and multiplication we used only the f~ct t~t .. . and hence (b!a) = 6/4.~ 1..
(~. . It is more convenient.
..
.. . root of this equation. ==
==
':If f is a. The·field F has thus the required properties." + {JI is always positive or zero.. f and t are roots of the same aqua~ ~ we have the familiar theorem that the nonreal roots of an equa~ .
EXERCISES
(For students with a background in algebra)
a+5=4+6 ab == a .. if the coefficients are real.Uix multiplication..:::
. it is identical with field)"
+
?Xpress. · Th en
j .a.
. we obtain in fact {O il)2 = (I + iO). There are many ways in which such a field can be constructed.... .4. 11 are real numbers.this is indeed so.tol~ ~ue of the C9Plplex num~. It lIJdeootedbyltlf •. We now define the field of complex number8 to be the subfield C of an arbitrarily given F. but we have not yet shown that there exists a field F with the required properties.
The existence of the complexnumber _field is now proved.8
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX NUMBERS
7
the corresponding subset C' is formed by all elements a + £'/3.... ~. Since i has the same property.
particular.· + c.»
..+ c. the real and imaginary part in terms of the complex number and Its conjugate. The fundamental property of conjugation is the one already referred to. · . y. Show that the system of all matrices of the special form
~bined by matrix addition and JDB. or in the form a + ifJ with real a an·d /l.. The conjugation is an i'IUJol'Utory transformation: this means that d == 6.
..
o. and i is not an element of a. representing an element of the field C..... We have just seen that the choice of F makes no difference. and Q: .b.
'"

. Other standard notations are z == z + i1l. that
die corresponding subfield C for we can write
j
a
+ ifJ = (a + iO) + /3(0 + i1). symbols (+ does not indicate addition.i".) :' .' The produo.. Conjugation.!:'·':·~~i~1. It is thus demonstrated that C and C1 are isomorphic. consider the equation
coZ"
+ Clzta1 + · ..c.. 18 everywhere replaced by i.b.stand for any rational operation applied to the complex numbers abc ' . is isomorphic to ·. ' then ax = b.i{J is the conjugate of Q: #t The conjugate of a IS denoted by tl.. and this correspondence is evidently & field isomorphism. By systematic use of the notations a and a it is hence possible to dispense with the use of separate letters for the real and i~ry part... Show that the complexnumber system ean be thought of 88 the : ~d of all .~J. {j are real numbers while the signs + and i are pure.
.xZ + eft..
O.
::..~..:.:'."~~~~:(~:~ ~':':...
+ Ibt
l l 
ia + bl!
~
<Ial + . Find the absolute values of
'·bumbers .".all
2 He
ab.: :}.. . It is perhaps well is no order relation in the complexnumber system.' + 2 Re ab.:~~.iy are conjugate.. ~". ....'~.'....' .0.. \
:~<~
~·~f:·..4::\)~~"".\ ~.. ..'..
t
lalc2 ~ • •
a.
.
.t) (3 ..t. In the· general
'. (10) : This is called the triangle i'lU?AfUlJlity for reasons which will emerge later ...~. ~ :' .
~b\:)..~~(:': ~. .
2i(3
+ .t == 'all · I~' · ·
G..%~9i~4~'{r.
+1
(3'+ 41)(1 + 2t) . The reader is well aware of the importance of the estimate (II) in the '.is real and .:". I.
. for the difference is (7')
(8)
EXERCISES
=
..la\1
==
ad
+
(ab
+ btl) + bb
1
The equality Re Q =: lal holds if and onJy if a is real and ~ If (9) is applied to (7).form Ihlt(ajb) i: 0. ~.:. Find the conditions under which the equation az + bi + c == 0 in one complex unknown has exactly one solution.. Jly induction it can be extended to arbitrary sums:
and by addition we obtain the identity
+ btl + la ..~i.:.::~:_i':....
We find
la + btl ==
or
(7)
(a
+ b)(d + b)
=.'
. "L~·".:.:.~.)(2 + ~)(1 + ..s. =: 1~ What exception must be made if lar ... and observe that la:l == product we obtain
lal.~ . ( .':. ... ~ 0'.....':.·~." . we obtain and hence
o..1 ..•="'.!. '.:" .~ case.Ij
z
for z = x + iy and a = % .hi.:. ""...<" . = 11' Ibl .~.:~~. and compute that solution..
.. L Prove Lagrange's identity in the complex form
lOOl == 'al · Ibl
1.':. .\"'1'l~'\·it':'~·(.:.::.:"?t. lnequolitiu.:.• It is clear that this property extends to arbitrary fimte products .: '::i.~~..t.~~i.. ' .
.~~·~·7·::\~'
.:
:.bt)!
The corresponding formula...)
and
..0
. ::"j.
if either la1 == 1or lb. and··it·js benae ~WIIent·'to alb .. ties must be between real numbers... We shall now prove some which will be of constant use..
'
. .
For the absolute value of a
labll
and hence
= ab ~ 00
.0•: . .8
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
NUMBERS
•
the fact that the modulus of a.. /:..
I
1db
a
b
I
:::11
where la.t.i..
. holds if and only if a6 ~ 0 (it is convenient to let c > 0 indicate that .. satisfies bee/b) ==
Ibl · la/bl == \al.
.:: adhb ~
'a'I'b. We repeat the definition
.:~ ·:.. i~:~' itt· .li ~:::i...'
:·.:: abab .·~it<j.
la + b1t la la
btl
+ lb. ~.:·.'»'·..~.: . ."..1~ :'.
~.:.·:·..:_' (Il) The abaolute value of a BUM is at moat equal to the BUm of the ab30lute Nluea oJ the terms.~..':.:. Ial ::ii 1m a ~ lalA
The formula for the absolute value of a sum is not as simple. Let us determine all cases of equality in (11)~ In (10) the equality .~ .. JI!.~}..5..
e
1~1·
important Inequalities to point out that there and hence all inequali
The quotient a/b) b F..::.bl
== 2(lal2
+
..:..~:}.'.\}.'
.~.·... • J ~:~.'.::_ :~ ". If' b.'.:v'::.A:..
...~S..<f: !'~':~~:'~~'.\::J. 2.'~.~:.._..~ . /.:.~ . or
and hence we have also
deduce the inequalities
lal ~ Be a· s la.. ~ 0. O·~ condition can be written in the .~~":~~ ...:.
.poajtiue).<.. '. ~:.. ..~ ...~>.'\... :':O:.~i".:~'.... ad
L Prove that
== lal'. ~~: :~:.. real number coincides with its numerical value taken with the positive sign ..0. ~+~:if. From the definition of the absolute value we (9)
since both are ~ o~ In words: The absolute value of a product is equallo the product of the absolute
values of 'IJw !ackrr8~ .\~i .
.\ '~..... o.: .?:~..f·o.~~ f:: :".. and we aball find it no leas imporlant in the theory of complex
L Verify by calculation that the values of
z.
1 .. and these inequalities
which is equivalent .
+ •
To prove it.t : show that
}
+ · ·· +~. are proportional to the 0"...1 (1 + 1::1 + · · · +~)
laJI
+ \a21 + · .~ ~:. Foremost is Cauc"vs inequality which states that
. L If 1401 < 1.
• I...
I
a.. /.o. Show ~t. .
To Bum UP. By (10) we have also
if
and ooly
any
for if the denominator should vanish there is nothing to prove.n~
. thus the ratio of any two nonzero terms must be positive. +:."I:_~''''': . I.• .IbII·
Of course the same estimate can be applied to la A special case of (10) is the inequality .:. It seems pointless to b"n its 1J8et
4.(I1. 4) ..
...
:
. Many other inequalities whose proof is less immediate are also of fre
L Prove that
·"nt
use.. . Substituting in (15) we find after
simplifications.: the 8ign of equality hold« in (11) tWo nonzero terms i8 positive . and if a2 'F. =
(AlGI
+ AtlIs + · .. ..Ibl s la .. .b\...
t.4.
'..
2.bl.]2 ~ in shorter notation.
.. ':': ".. This choice is not arbitrary.
to (14).l = \(al + at) + a$ + · · . '.
•• ~
are ~mplex
u. . • • • • • • • • 
.n and >"1 + ). i . Cauchy's inequality can a1so be proved by means of Lagrange/a :..b Idb
I
<1
Prove Cauchy's inequality by induction.0 we conclude that aI/a) 5=..~~albl a b.· + la
if 1M ratio oj
ft}. ...
. reason Ibl .
:1
•~
'~.. 1. _.J < 1. . + a2 + · · · + a..':i . Jet). used as a subscriptt cannot be confUBed :with the bnaginary unit.l
l)
: if
101 < 1 and Ibl < 1.
.... identity (Sec.1. o. Assuming that at '#. ...
..~:
.. .~+
(lall!
+ · · · + lan(
2)
(\b I
l2
+ .
From (~5) we conclude further that the sign of equality holds in (14) if and only If the a. Suppose conversely that this condition is fulfilled.. 0 fori = I.' ••
t i is a eonvenient summation index and.bl + Ibl
can be
lat .
t·~.. At: .. ~Icl·· ..... Ex..1 = la." + x.... •.
.:~~.
1a 
b1
~
IIal .· · + Ib.XIRCISES
ia + il3l ~ ial + ItJ'
which expresses that the absolute value of a complex number is at most equal to the sum of the absolute values of the real and imaginary part.. ..0 we obtain
+ . ' .3)
+ bl. . denote an arbitrary complex number... I.pnbersz satisfying
II "..
la
+ · ..10
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX NUMBERS
11
case we proceed as follows: Suppose that equality holds in (11). but it is dictated by the desire to make the expression (15) WI small as possible.11 + ~ + · · · +:: = lall
=
(1 + :: + · · · + ::) = ja. by (7) (15) This expression is ~ 0 for all X4' We can choose
We obtain
la. '
or For the same
combined to (12)
la\
= I(a 
b)
+ bl ~ la . then
1all +
Hence
1a21
But the numbering of the terms is arbitrary.+ lant~ la1 + a2\ == lat' + 'a:l. ~ tI
d.~· + Ia.~.tbere
.lal s: 1a . + Ia' ~ lall + latl + · · .+ ~r ~ lal + 421 + las~+ . .~ ~.::. ..
If the polar coordinates of the point (a.:.a points from the end point of a to the end point of b. but also by a vector pointing from the origin to the point.a we draw both vectors a and b from the same initial point.1~Geometrie Addition and Multiplication.
2. lL
Vector addition. and we shall often speak of the point a 88 8 synonym of the number a. In order to derive a geometric interpretation of the product of two complex numbers we introduce polar coordinates. = rl'I[(COB fJl 008 tpl .t the manner in . Hence the distance between the points a u. . The symmetric point of a with respect to the i~8ginary axis is
Hence we can write a == a + ill == r(cDS fP + i sin 'P). .12
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
NUMBERS
13
if and only if lal :S lei.'Violatesour principles.b are the diagonals in a perallelogram with the sides a and b (Fig. t)u. and we denote it by arg a.aJ 4 are the vertices of a rectangle which is symmetric with respect to both axes.' . With this interpretation b the triangle inequality l4 + bl . Observe that a b and a . this formula can be extended to arbitrary products. . We must be fully aware. however.. . '1: _ ".':.~... The orgumem of a producl ill equal to the BUm oj the arguments of the jocttwB . In this trigonometric form of & complex number r is always ~ 0 and equal to the modulus [c].
':.. If this condition is fulfilled. we know that
a=rcos9'
. For this reason we shall use geometry only for descriptive purposes and not for valid proof.. and the argument tpl 'P2. . The number the point and the vector will all be denoted by the same letter a. and not from the axioms of geometry. To this end we let a co~~ number be represented not only by a point. which we have ani"" at~ the·:formula (17) ..::.'~'::. By means of the addition theorems of the cosine and the sine this expression can be simplified to
(l6)
alOI
== rtr2(cos
(" 1
+ IPS) + i sin (lP 1 + rps) 1.
. ' '~."
.. The geometric representation derives its usefulness from the vivid mental pictures aa80ciated with a geometric language..4~.')}~x.': •• ~. In the
.
. and we express it through the equation
+
+
(17)
It is clear that.'~~'::~)h:_.
.
':'
.) + i(sin. then b . ..'.~) are (r.rp).. what are the smallest and Jargest values of izl?
2./:. This attitude relieves us from the exigencies of rigor in connection with geometric considerations. This is fundamental.
.. """. The addition of complex numbers can be visualized as vector addition.. An additional advantage of the vector_ representation is that the length of the vector a is equal to [e]. The point a and its conjugate a lie symmetrically with respect to the real axis..¥i:.:3! JaJ + Ibl and the identity la + bpt + la . The plane itself is referred to 88 the complex plane.«.n~ b is Ja .
fJ == T sin e. To construct the difference b .ti. and the second coordinate axis (yaxis) is called the imaginary axis..
. As ~ual we identify all vectors which can be obtained from each other by parallel displacements.. . The polar angle f{J is called the argument or amplittule of the complex number. The first coordinate axis (saxis) takes the name of real oai«. l. THE CEOMETRIC
COMPLEX
REPRESENTATION
OF
NUMBERS
ab
With respect to 8 given rectangular coordinate system in 8 plane.
:
• • '.a.~. .tJ).r1(COB 4'1 + i sin rpl) and 62 == T2(COS VJ'l + i sin ifP2).. .<\\0'~1~:~fi:i::j}fY~~~i:. We take the point of view. __ '.tpl COS CPI+ cos 'PlSin 'P2)]. Their product can be written in the from ala. however. ".
'.
We recognize that the product has the modulus rlf.:{:c/:.'. This representation is constantly used. unless the language is so thinly veiled that the an~ytic interpretation is selfevident.~~. we can therefore state: . that all conclusions in analysis should be derived from the p~pertieB of real numbers. Consider two complex numbers a1 =.. The rule that we have jU8t formulated gives 8 .l~. deep and unexpected justification of the geometric representation of com~ ~.
The four points a.
...~ numbers.
. and . the complex number a :::::: ifJ can be represented by the point with coordia nates (a. 11).sin 'P18in 9'. Then a + b iB represented by the vector from the Initial point of II to the end point of b.~j..
+
PIG.bll == 2{lal' + IbP') become familiar geometric theorems. Place a second vector b 80 that its initial point coincides with the end point of 4. The latter result is new.
Thus it remains to define the argument in analytic terms and to prove (17) by purely analytic means. we must agree that multiples of 3600 shall not count.. i:
. and secondly its proof rested on the use of trigonometry. Express the result in symmetric form. We remark first that the argument of 0 is not defined. 3. 1. . offers a much more direct a. 41a2. all are vertices of an equilateral triangle if and only if a~ a: = B1U:2 + G2aa + aaal. This leads to .. and to a computational proof of the addition theorems. a1 is similar to the triangle whose vertices are Of aI.
2". :. 12). .equation
t'L .(20) . and hence (17) has & meaning only if al snd ~ are #. that the powers of a == r{co8 rp
(19)
+
From the preceding results we derive i sin rp) are given by
The geometric construction is the same.= arg 4z 
opposed to real analysis.....3.
t. Prove that the points al} at. It follows indeed that the triangle with the vertices 0. Until we reach this point the reader is asked to subdue his quest for complete rigor.::. The points 0..
.14
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
NUMBERS
11
first place the equation (17) is between angles rather than between numbers.. The clue lies in a direct connection between the exponential function and the trigonometric functions..
:
..analysis.
.
.ark: A perfectly acceptable way to define angles and arguments would be to apply the familiar methods of calculus which permit us to
express the length of a circular arc &8 a definite integral. the polar angle is determined only up to multiples of 360°. 2..ngle with vertices at. . . ... .
= COB
n~
+ i sin n"
...<:. The reason we do not follow t~ path is that complex· ..1(008" . which provides an extremely simple way to express cos 'nf' snd sin nIP in terms of cos tp and sin tp. Sec. Suppose that a and b are two vertices of a square. given. . .. For the moment we postpone this proof and shall be content to disCUBS the consequences of (17) from a less critical standpoint . 1. EXERCISIS
with respect to the lines which bisect the angles between the coordinate axes.. 88
=
rl[COS (rp) +isin(fJ)J
it holds also when n is a negative integer. a2/al. :
._. at. and sinee
Rem.
:Then (21) takes the fonn
o
1
PIG. Find the center and the radius of the circle which cireumseribes the tria. to be derived in Chap.0.pproach.)
=
0. To find the nth root of a complex number a we have to solve the .:. 1. . til. except that the similar triangles are now 0. For this reason. this similarity determines the point 61"2 (Fig. Secondly..p
Bilppoaing that a "# 0 we write a = r{cos
z
+ i sin (/') and
==
p(cos B
+ i sin tI} . 5.isiD. at and 0.
vector
multiplication. 2.. if we want to interpret (17) numerically. Find the two other vertices in all possible C&8eS. aJ... & correct definition of the trigonometric functions.rg al. By means of (17) 8 simple geometric construction of the product alOJ C&Il be obtained.
This formula is trivially valid for n
aI = ..."::
(cos
IP
+ i sin ~). For r =: 1we obtain de MoivTe's formula
:.: :.
....
L Find the symmetric
points of
a
+ + a:
al
a.~fJ:j}:+:·:. The Binomial Equation.
t!'
·'1' .
.
.. 12..
== a. 02. :.
. and at being.In the case of division (17) is replaced by·
(18)
O:J arg ..
:<:.t~a. But this is not the only solution. parabola in complex
+
+
sin 2"
I... Prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and
$hat the diagonaJa of a rhombus are orthogonal..
+
+
+ ·· ·+
+
form . ~ aD . and we find th&t (22) is satisfied if and only if
Vr denotes
6=!+k'~'
n
"
where k is any integer.
.
s.. . The thing to remember is that a complex equation is ordinarily equivalent to two real equations.e] == r.
(21) is given by
However. In fact...Wi + Cc)2l

•
II
•
+ (l)1ilw(ftl)A?
==
Vr( coS. ..
:
. Problems of finding intersections between lines and circles.• _ 1"'1'· l!·. tangente. multiple of the full angle.
They hove the mme
B
~metrically."
:
..3. on a (tiantetB. 2.~. A straight line in the complex plane can be given by a parametric equation z ~ a + bt.. The lines are parallel whenever b' ~ a real multiple of b.l)A
~
0
for any integer h which is not a multiple of
:.1 are called nth roots of unity..... . w". Express the fifth
and tenth roots of unity in algebraic form.... parallel or orthogonal Iines. ...
Then are n nth roms of any complex number modulus and their arguments are equally trpacedt
..1. the parameter t runs through all real values.. . parametric representation. observe that it depends on the order in which the lines are named.E
(23)
w
= cosflo
. ~
G·
. In algebraic form it can be rewritten as (e .. and the like usually become exceedingly simple when expressed in complex form .. k = OJ 1. and ~ ".. The roots of the equation z. Simplify 1 008 f{J cos 2".. COB fl.
ft. ~. ~:: . prove that
1+
+ . ... · · · .
EXERCISIS
L Express COB 3~.expressed ~ radians the full angle is 2Ir.: ':\ .tP' and sm e
1.
the nth roots are the vertices of
regular polygon
with '" sides.
.':O: tp.. (22) 1S also fulfilled if ~8 differs from i{J by s. (oJ. 2r Ism
n
all the mota can be expressed by 1. and sin 5. then all the nth roots can be expressed in the form wi · Va.SEI . For instence.18
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
NUM8ERS
17
This equation is certainly fulfilled if obtain the root
z
p'" =
r and
fI.. The fact that this equation is invariant under complex conjugation is an indication that it represents a single real equation .a) == r2.a)(i .L ~ . Prove ~·aUy that the·midpoints of parallel chords to a circle
ur + (a)u
+ ' · . _. If '" is given by (23).t~~:·: "~:. the equation of a circle is Iz .~~ ~ that> . COB 4". hyperbola.•. An inequality Iz .a)/b < o and a left balfplane with Im (z .al < r describes the inside of a circle..
....a and b' are real multiples of ·b.~.. The angle between z = a + bt and z ~ a' + bit is arg b' [b. and they are equally directed if b' is a positive multiple of b...· + sin rup.... •. + isin~}
where
the positive nth root of the positi~e number r.n 1. only the values k = 0. · ... Write the equation of an ellipse.
and 1/4 intenJect the
. In classical analytic geometry the equation of. where a and b are complex numbers and b ~ 0.. 1.. If angl~ aTe.." . It can just as well be expressed in terms of z and if sometimes to distinct advantage.
L When does as bi C == 0 represent a line? 2. Hence the complete solution of the equation
z_ Vr[ C08(~ + k~) + iSin(.t!
O. · The case a = 1 is particularly important.. of B directed line can be identified with arg b. . J n .
Henee we
L What is
the value of 1 . aXERC.~'""1'::'
'"
_:'
.. Analytic Geometry.. in terms of cos .pefpendimtlar to the chords~ .. The lines are orthogonal to each other if b' [b is purely imaginary ..r :.
. Similarly. in order to obtain a genuine locus these equations should be essentially the same . + k~)} k = 0. a directed line z = a + bt determines a right ha1f plane consisting of all points z withIm (z ..•.(0)_1. and if we set
.
Pi...
:. .I ..+
W(w. ~~~.. · • · J n :1 give different values of e. 2r
+
.~:t.& locus is expressed as a relation between % and y. .
. Two equations e = a + bt and z = 0' + bll represent the same line if and only if at .. ~~i".a)/b > Ot An easy argument shows that this distinction is independent of the
. It is also quite evident that if Va denotes any nth root of a.. The direetiot).
With every point on S~except (O. and for an = aa it represents a straight line.18
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
NUMBERS
18
2.
Indeed..OJ1) as shownin Fig. Writing z = x + iy we can verify that (27) and this means that the points (x. In function theory the sphere S is referred to as the Riemann spMre.y.. respectively. : .xa = ao.. Its advantage lies in the fact that the point at infinity is no longer distinguished . It is Impossible. For many purposes it is useful to extend the system C of complex numbers by introduction of a symboJ 00 to represent infinity. The points in the plane together with the point at infinity form the extended compkx plane.1::::~:.
or
Ul(Z
+ i) a. no bsIf plane shall contain the ideal point .
For Qo '#.aa this is the equation of a circle. It is called a stereograpkic projection~ The context will make it clear whether the stereographie projection is regarded as a mapping from S to the extended complex plane. 13.XS)...:~>
... and the converse is also true.
. It is desirable to introduce a geometric model in which all points of the extended plane have a concrete representative.~"/st~. It is geometrically evident .4. We· note that the hemisphere x..)i'~i. Its connection with the :finite numbers is established by setting a 00 == CoO + a = for all :finite OJ and
+
QO
b ..' ..:.::' ·. To prove this we observe that a eirele on the Sphere lies in a plane atXl + atX2 + a.f>.1) = ao(lzl:
1)
[zF' = xi
and hence (25)
(1 .": ~'. number system.i)
+ aa(lzll
.. To this end we consider the unit sphere S whose equation in threedimensional space is xl x~ xl = 1.'. the transformation (24) takes on a simple geometric meaning. . and (O}O~l) are in a straight line./:. .$.2alx .
.a.
. i. By special convention we shall nevertheless write a/O == 00 for a ~ 0 and bj Q) = 0 for b ¢ 00 . CIO without violating the laws of arithmetic.
~" •• ~"<'
i.
._.
.
. The Spherical Representation. where we can assume that at a~ ai = 1 and 0 ::::ao < 1... By contrast. . . Conversely. In the plane there is no room for s point corresponding to f but we can of COUl'Se introduce an "ideal" point which we call the point at infinity.
. any circle on the sphere corresponds to a circle or straight line in the eplsne ..
Stereopaphic projection. and we can thus regard the sphere as a representation of the extended plane or of the extended. oo
= oo . In terms of z and i this equation takes the form
++
(24)
Z=
Xl
1 . the equation of any circle or straight line
Further computation yields
(26)
Xl
z+z = 1 + Izlt
zj
2:2
= i(l
+ Izl~)·
The correspondence can be completed by letting the point at infinity correspond to (O~O.
• "..
(ao 
(Xl
+ y2)
.":} . ...: <:'" <!:.Xa) '2
+ x~
1
+x
x.. however..2atY
+ 40 + aa
=
o. to define CIO + CIO and (.. from (24) we obtain
=1
+
+
+
and this correspondence is one to one.':::_~'\:. '. ".
.. or vice versa.<" . More generally.
..0. :.1)..~::..)plane with the XI...O) (X1JX2..~.
11...:.XI
+ ix..l).x.: ::. b=
a)
for all b ¢ 0 including b = 00.
..
3.. .)
ati(z . In the spherical representation there is no simple interpretation of addition and multiplication.O. ."
.'. If the complex plane is identified with the (zl. We agree that every straight line shall pass through the point at infinity. < 0 corresponds to the disk lz\ < 1 and the F. hat the stereographie projection transt forms every straight line in the zpJane into a circle on S which passes through the pole (0.and X'raxis corresponding to the real and imaginary axis. Hence the correspondence is a central projection from the center (O.l)~we can associate B complex number
IX)
hemisphere XI > 0 to its outside 1z1 > 1.
.Z. and complex functions of & complex variable. A cube has its vertices on the sphere 8 and its edges parallel to the coordinate axes. . ·'. '. .·:.
.) Howevert anaJyste are traditionally minded and
21
.· .2'12
·
1..

_
. .':
.x~) we ha ve :first J
2
COMPLEX FUNCTIONS
z... we shall use the term "function" in its modern
meaning.~.._.2G
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
can be written in this form..'~.. r. and use this to derive (28).da for the
COIItinue _·lIP ttk 'eI·:· tv. when stepping up to complex numbers we have to consider four different kinds of functions: real functions of a real variable.) J (3:i. iI:..
..
. and let N be the north pole. Let Z Z' denote the stereographic projections of 2.for a v. " Nevertheless.
•
•
. only the analytic or holomorphic functions can be freely differentiated and integrated. ..: . Therefore..). i:·_:.
function and f(.zit) (1 + lz' I')
+ \2'1
21z 
.
L Show
The theory of functions of a complex variable aims at extending calculus to the complex domain. Both differentiation and integration acquire new depth and significance. ~e problem for a regular tetrahedron in general position ..:
• I
.
. .. They are the only true "functions'} in the sense of the French "Theorie des fonctions' or the German "Funktionentheorie...·:of the fuaotion. complex functions of a real variable. Find the stereo graphic projections of the vertices ...z)(z' ._ . .. at the same time the range of applicability becomes radically restricted..
+ ~~ + xa~
(8
=
+ i)(z' + i')
.
(Xl 
xi)1
+ (Xt 
x02
+
(X3 ."
."..::j.
. 4.I~~..
"
.1)
2 ) 
From (35) and (36) we obtain alter a short computation Xlz. '. Show that the triangles NZZ' and NzZ are similar. .:"'1..~~!:!_~'... .
". ~"':"
..fanetioa 1(. thus. . real functions of a complex variable._ "":.:z:~. .re denoted by (Xl.z)
(I
+ [zI2) (1 + Iz'l2) (1 + lzll)
~
+ <'zit (1 +
(1
.. The correspondence is consequently one to one..' . Indeed. As a practical matter we agree that the letters e and to shaH always denote complex variables... When we want to indicate that 8 variable is definitely restricted to real values.·i· r. a
result we find that
(28) For ~ ." . By these agreements we
.~
.
l)(lz'lt . It is easy to calculate the distance d(zJt) between the stereographic projections of z and H the points on the sphere a.2(xtX~
+ x~ + xaX~).. Find the radius of the spherical image of the circle in the plane whose center is a and radiue R.
t Modern students are well aware that f 8tan..%t.
00
ANALYTIC
FUNCTION

the corresponding formula is
d(z... INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT OF
AI.. 5.
.~)
=
V1 + Izis
2
EXERCISES
that z and z' correspond to diametrically opposite points on the Riemann sphere if and only if zi/ :::: 1..:
:~~.t The notation y = J{x) will be used in 8 neutral manner with the understanding that % and II can be either real or complex. to indicate a complex function of a complex variable we use the notation tD == /(z) .x~)t
==
2 . we shall usually denote it by t...(z .J. 2. : J.: ..
tends to zero through real values.
= .~"
f(a
+ ill)
.~·lL. If !(x) . the quotientj(x)/O(x) is defined and continuous at a if and only if g(a) ¢ 0.: :qliotient continue to hold in the complex ease.. t
is one which is continuous at all points where it is defined.wall sometimes use the pleonastic term ai~alud
.::.
•
•
t.
=
Im
Ail
(1) is a consequence of (3). a product or 8 i quotient are all valid.... =t:'1~."'~ .... for it is the limit of the quotients
+
I(a
+ Il)
... The formal definition.function of a complex varlabie:either baa the derivative zero or eIae .: +. The jundion !(x) is said to have the limit A as x tend« to
(1) lim f(x)
a. mined by the chain rule.. There is nevertheless a fundamental difference between the cases of a ::.
is said to 'be continu0U8 at a if and only if A continuous function...:..:. Limits and Continuity. ..~\:'···. .. . . an alternative simpler notation we sometimes write: !(z) __.:...~/~~:.. Since the ~ 'of absolute value has a meaning for complex &S well as for real numbers....'~ ~·r~\i:..:r:""'""+G lim 1m jex)
~(I
lim !(x) =
A. In other words..." ..:.
1.~ ••
. .' .
.. . but in the complex case there is only •..!(a) On the other side it is also the
h
. nown results coneerning the limit of a·Sum. The usual rules for forming the derivative of a BUm. '::::TbiB
'·~..Ihe.. :.is
. '"P: .f(a)
ih.:::.
..' . we can use the same definition regardless of whether the variable ~·the function J(x) are real or complex. for A ... : :. case we can distinguish c W1t8en the limits ee and . Thus a .J_..
. :. ...'
.••••
:.. . .'_
.':
·
: . then f(x) is defined for all x sufficiently close to c.. "_"
I···...
.. '.. In the real.
. until furtber notice...':::. ... and k &.e... :. J u:aDYit ~ u...:. We trust the reader to formulate correct definitions td·Cover all the possibilities..~) be a real function of a complex variable whose derivative exists at . ·'··Thereare some familiar variants of the definition which correspond '~.: . . .ed.
•
•
•
• I.. t It is not· necessary that a function be defined for all values of the independent variable. ..::~::.
. For the moment we shall deliberately underemphasise the role of point set theory.~..
a
X
definition makes decisive use of the absolute value..'
..::.:1. ase where a·or A is infinite.. quotients. by which we mean that if f(a) is defined.~ as such purely b&ginaryil· ThCreiooo f(o) must be zero.. . '.... 1m f(z)~ and lJ(x)l.
. Therefore we make merely an informal agreement that every function be defined on an open set..~.
._~u
I.r. ::~ : .... 1
The following basic definition will be
adopted:
Definition 1. ~·_..·1J!nit of the ..
.. .J_.
."Y. :. value of the variable.
:~. (4)
f'(a}
= lim f(z) ~G
lea) ... .'. all functions must be weU defined and consequently. :".. .
=
A. 80 are'" Re !(x).r:. <
5
for all valuea of x BUCh that
1$ 
. the proofs depehd only on the properties of the absolute value expressed by
.
. Ii. The derivative of a function is defined as 8 particular limit and can be considered regardless of whether the variables are real or complex.....
t We .
.is continuous.
0 with the property that ai < 0 and x . It is essential that the law by which a function is defined be formulated in clear and unambiguous terms. Then I'(a) is onone side real.
if".
The function f(x)
= f(a). ~.
5::'i"
. .: ~·:£if·:' .only if the /oUOUJing i8 true: For BVerY E > 0 there exists a number 3· >
'1(%)
f .r..
'.
Condition (1) is evidently equivalent to (2) From (1) and (2) we obtain lim Re fez) ~ Re A (3) Conversely.
I
A.
. To illustrate our point.rI: a. a product. . ':' .'! ·:The well. The sum/(x) + g(x) and the productf(x)g(x) of two continuousfunetions are continuous.:tive UUCB ftAt q?0. lim f(x) ..CoO.". singlevaltl.
.~ and a complex independent variable..22
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCT'ONS
23
do not wish to cancel the earlier convention whereby a notation z = x + iy automatically implies that x and y are real.~·:k:... :infinite limit.I:_! ". .::. :.. :.
and
ftmdicm to underline that the function has only one value for eaob.
'.:.~!..
r • ::. Indeed. let .:.·~... without further qualification ... The derivative of 8 composite 'function is deter~ . The formal treatment of point set topology' is deferred until the next chapter.
.. moreover. 2
These are the OamhyRi61l'f..~!"~~~.
(5)
lim fez
hO
+
i~lf. !Ie
f(z) For the quantity
=~
+ i8u.::::.ann differential equations which must be satisfied by the real and imaginary part of any analytic function. B:0d in particular the mixed derivatives will be equal. from
The last expression shows that IJ'(z)J! is the Jacobian of u and v with respect to x and y. By this fact u and v will have continuous partial derivati~ of orders.. (18261868) are reprded
'IfOI'k9Dlpbui_ the I8O. t remark th~t the existence of the four partial derivatives in (6) is implied by the existence of /'(2). ••
.. The sum and the product of two analytic functions are again analytic.
tb!l"..::...
fgu~of..)
== 0.•
24
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
The case of a complex function of a real variable can be reduced to the real ease.~~<~::~:..:.
~_: ..~.. ~
= axl
b' a2v
+ a'u
ayt
a'v
m!E
0
+ ayt = o.. .
' •••
.. The term holtnnorphic function is used with identical meaning. . ~Di:· ~:.....
.n.(1~l857)
aDd..."':" ... We have thus 1(2) .8 complex variable has farreaching consequences for the structural properties of the function. For the purpose of this preliminary investigation the reader may think primarily of functions which are defined in the whole plane . s. and v satisfy the CauchyRiemann equatIOns _(6)J . .~p.. The complex notation has nevertheless certain formal advantages which it would be unwise to give up..then v is said to be the conjugate harmonic futu>f
.fez) h . .
:
1 '. We shall prove later that the derivative of an analytic function is i~lf analytic. The investigation of these consequences is the central theme in complexfunction theory ..
ay
+ h)
h
._... H we write z(t) ::: z(t) iy(t) we find indeed
+
Similarly.""~.. Strictly . .
...f(z) . _.~~_. ...':. In contrast....
... the existence of the derivative of 8 complex function of .
fez)
II!:
i af
ay
=
i ~
ay
+ ~.. .:~..) of two analytic functions. I(z + It) .
. this very typical ease will thus not be included in our considerations.f(z»
==
0 · J'(z.Aartl
RMttum. if we substitute purely imaginary values ik for h.
As a first consequence J(z) is necessarily eontinuous. H ~woharmonic functions 11. The same is true of the quotient J(z)Jg(z.. Analytic Functioru."': " .0
It follows that fez) must satisfy the partial differential equation
~
ax 

i aj
ay
&
which resolves into the real equations
w)
h
ax
=
ay'
av
ay = 
h
ax"
1..::
+ i~.:':.::~
:. a:e ax
iJx
If (z) 11 =
(~)I + (au)' (au):! + (~)2== ~ax av ax ay ax
=
'1'(z)12
we haveJ for instance.. but it will be clear that the results remain valid except for obvious modifications .~'~'~i:1.
Au = a'u
&
H we write J{z) = u{z) + iv(:) it follows. .~"~. H we choose real values for h.:"':~?~~~ .' ..~.
'.
•
.
m
.f:ij"t~~:'(.. ... that u(z} and v(z) are both continuous.
A function u which satisfies Laplace' 8 equation Au =: 0 is said to be harmon~. we obtain
f(2)
=
z'(t)
==
x/{l)
+ iy'(t). provided that g(z) does not vanish. The reel and imaginary part of an analytic function are thus ~mc.aj ../(z»/h we obtain
:I
Indeed. and the derivative becomes a partial derivative with respect to x. The definition of the derivative can be rewritten in the form
f{z) "'" Iim f(z
.0
lim (J(z
I
+ h)
... . ~~:
C!fIIII~
·0...~~f!l~~(s:. az a~ a.. ...
. ":..~..
ay
and the existence of z' (t) is equivalent to the simultaneous existence of x'{t) and 'II(t).".n<o.:
::
.
.. .. In the general case it is necessary to exclude the points at which g(z) == O. The limit of the difference quotient must be the same regardless of the way in which A approaches zero.speeking.. (f(z + h) . the simplest is
.
i I
A. Usmg this Information we·obtain from (6)
e:" . Using (6) we can write down four formally different expressions for j'(z).(. The class of analytic fUnctions is formed by the complex functions of & complex vsriable which possess a derivative wherever the function is defined. then the imaginary part y is kept constant.).
that the function u + iv detennined by a pair of conjugate harmonic functions .f(z)
=~
ax
and z~ By comparison with (5) we find that analytic functions are characterized ~Y the ~on~t~on aI/iii = O.. however.z). In the same sense.y)
= j[f(x
+ iy) + l(x
. y = j..lI) we obtain by virtue of the rela
+
+
+
+
tions (6)
f(z and hence
+ 11.
Since J(z) _ only determined up to a purely imaginary constant. The analytic function with the real part z'l.
". u = Xl . We present this procedure with an explicit warnmg to the reader that it is purely formal and does not possess any power of proof .. is not quite accurate.
imaginary ~ .y) mul . + ik)
.nalytic with oontin1U)U8 derivaf... ~i..y) =
vex
+ h.
It is reasonable to expect that this is a formal identity. a14/ily = 2y.y)Whieh
to
_. respect .N o. isdeflniteiy limited functions u(X".fez) =
Gi +
i ~)(h
+ ik) + '1 + iE. constant. Substitution in the second equation yields tp'(y) = O.0).y' is 2xy e where c is a constant. This is not the place to diSCUBS the weakest oonditions of regularity which can be imposed on harmonic functions. Introducing complex variable z = x + iy and its conjugate z = :c .::
.y) of two real variables.wiU : c .yl ii' hence z' + ie.1'(0):0). then I(z) = 1&(z) + iv(z) .
fP{y) is 8.
.. ~ature ~f analytic functions. that we can write
u(x
+ h.(fv k
au
aU. It is proved in calculus.y).v(x.to z and may. The conju:pte function must therefore satisfy
_e
fun f(z
A+iJ.. . :1. The funet. without use of integration. With this notation we can write down the identity·
u(x.!I' + 2i:ttI . we can wnte x =:= i(z z). In this form the in8tIi.i~z .. The conjugate of a harmonic function can be found by integration.
av
2x. as complex functions of two real variables .sfy the CauchyRimumn differential equations. We are thus tempted to say that an anal!tlc function IS Independent of it and a. For instance. although traditional.Y) have CO'Jllin:UO'U3 jiraturder partial clef'ivative$ which . is analytic ..
+ at
+!t. function of y alone. so that the use of the definite article.
+ i~'
ax
conclude that /(2).
it holds === z/2i
1
ay a3: .y7. z/2t.
~ !(~ ~ ax·ay _ (Jz 2
4· ~). we would obtain
tID:
+
ditions. .. v is deterrn. .t:. and converaely.y) as a function of z and z which we will treat as independent van abIes (forgetting that they are in fact conjugate to each other). we denote this function by}(z).COMPLEX H COMPLEX ANALYSIS
FUNCTIONS
titm of u.
+
A: pqrely
.y + k)
.i derivatives.. is harmonic 'and au/iJx = 2x. We remark first that the conjugate function f(zj has the derivative zero with. With O. tend to zero more rapidly than h ik in the sense that al/(h ik) 4 0 and E2/(h ik) 4 0 for 11. From the first equation v == 2xy + rp(y).. and for this purpose we make the explicit assumption that 14 and v have continuousfirstorder partifl.od. If the rules of calculus were applicable.ined only up to an additive oonstant. and in simple cases the computation can be made explicit. and then even w~n z and y are complex. e. y we obtain .f(x. under exactly these regularity conI
.
at Ctf) ai=2 1(Of ax+iay'
ax h + ay

These expressions have no convenient definition as limits but we can nevertheless introduce them 88 symbolic derivatives with' respect to z
where the remainders el... Actually.nd the most general conjugate function of z:' . . an. be considered as a function of J.. the notation j(z) = u{. By similar formal arguments we can derive 8 very simple method WblC~ allows us to compute. which implies J(O) = 1'(0. Observe that Zl . therefore.ion f(z) can thus be computed by means of the formula
1(1)
==
21£(z/2...ig.u(x. + au k av .. We wish to prove. U is the conjugate harmonic function of v.) .8 always analytic. where rp(y) is 8..y + k)
.. With this change of variable we can eonslder.ive!'(z). + iJe) h + ik
. we ~y is ~ well assume that 1(0) is real. There is an interesting formal procedure which throws considerable li~t on the.. z'l. Consider a c?mplex fnnctionf(x.iy)]. the analytic function fez) whose real part is a given harmonic function u(x.. Henee
:s
:=
av 
2y. If we substitute x =: 2/2.(z/2) z/2$) = IU(z) + J(O)]. ik . a.(x.ch are more adequately described.at·.y) =
iii 11. If u(x.y) + iv(X. be &dded. function of z alone. This formal re~ning supports the point of view that analytic funetlO~ are true functions of a complex variable as opposed to functions whi..tO
+ 11.
In other words.. their common value is called a zero of P(z) of the order h.«no
1.aeroa.. show
that gU(z)) is also
... L Prove that the functions u(z) and' u(!) are simultaneously harmonic. :.
.
where the (Zlt a2. Since the sum and product of two analytic functions are ' again analytic) it follows that every polynomial
(7)
P' (z) =
Z
1
at
+.:
. Prove rigorously that the funCtiODSJ(Z) andf(j) are simultaneously analytic.. at./.)
t For
formal reasons. I S 2.
as a PO~
its degree is set
and consequently P'(z) ~ 0. Suppose tha. 2. Successive derivation yields P(a) = P'(a) = · ..
~
..: .::>''.· +
The notation (7) shall imply that a. Verify CauchyRiemann's equations for the functions z and z . we have then
==
+ 2atZ + · .:. the factorization is uniquely determined except for the order of the factors.. known &8 Lucas's theorem: Theorem 1.
. Moreover.~
..
"1m
Z
bal"
<0
JI
(8)
equal to 
PCz) :::: a. If a.
analytic. simple zero and is characterized by the conditions Pea} = 0.
i
..
.:''':. .
From (8) we obtain
(9) P(z)
a'u
1....· · + ~
~l<t
is an analytic function. for the function must have a meaning for complex values of the argument.. The simplest nonconstant analytIC function 18 Z whose derivative is 1..(I.. S. · • · J a. it is shown in elementary algebra that (z : (ll)Pl(Z) where Pl(z) is a polynomial of degree n . ".):.
!1
L.. .} also contains the zeros of P'(z). P'(a) '" o.3.:. If exactly h of the aj coincide...... ~\~~
.
But the Imaginary parts of reciprocal numbers have opposite sign. In a sharper formu1ation the theorem teUs us that the smallest convex polygon that contains the .3).=I b
mb
za_1
al:a>O m b
·
t
P~z?.
EXERCISE. = P(4l)(a) = 0 while P(lI}(a) '" O..a)lP1(z) with P1(a) ¢ 0.::' ..' S. 1m b(z .. From the factorization we conclude that P(z) does not vanish for any value of 2 different from aI. A zero of order 1 is called 8. · (z .(z ..a.«&:)1 < 0.. Show that lL harmonic function satisfies the formal differential equation
lJz lJi = 0.. is ~h~n said to be of degree n.
"f. .0.al) (z' .
are rational in x and y. 4. end the polynomial. of P(. if each zero is counted as many times as its order indicates. a polynomial of degree n has exactly n zeros. 'I
".28
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
21
.a}/b < 0 (see Chap.. As an application we shall prove the following theorem. Every constant is an ana1~c fun~tio~ with the derivative o. +
z .
..: ':. the order of a zero equals the order of the first nonvanisbing derivative. Therefore) under the same assumption.. • · . More simply... Then we can write P(z) = (z .) • .
.t a is a zero of order h. "#. 7.. If g(w) and f{z) are analytic functions.
P(z)
P'(z)
=
at
ao +
alZ
+ . We find that the sum of the orders of the zeros of a polynomial is equal to its degree.:':<':<':::':. if the constant 0 is ~
00. 1/ all zero« of a polytWmialP(z) lie in a half plane. Polynomials.S
1. Suffice it to say that the method ean be extended to the general case and that 8 complete justification can be • given.. Determine the conjugate harmonic function and the corresponding analytic function by integration and by the formal method... If Pial) = 0.... This IS the socalled fundamental theorem of algebra which we shall prove later. 1. . The order of a zero a can also be determined by consideration of the successive derivatives of P(z) for z == a. considered as a pol~omlaI! IS In many respects exceptional and will be excluded from our cOnSlder~t~ons. .
Its derivative is
Suppose that the half plane H is defined as the part of the plane where Im (z . is in H and z is not. an are not necessarily distinct. The constant 0. For n > 0 the equation P(z) == 0 has at least one root.. Find the most general harmonic polynomial of the form ax' + bx1y + cry2 + dy3. If this is true for all k we conclude from (9) that
1m bP'(z)
P(z)
=
11.. then all zeroe oj the derivative pi (a) lie in the same half plane. Show that an analytic function cannot have a constant absolute value without reducing to a constant.It Repetition of thlS process finally leads to a complete factorization
Im ea.. Sec.
fJ ••
if
where the power Z.t! 0. de~ of G(z) is the order of the pole at co J and the polynomial G(z) 18 called the singular part of R(... The result can be written in the form
(12) R(z)
With the notation
R{z)
+ atZ + · · + ~ == ~bo~+~b""'). :
:. The· number of poles is the same../b.. and set
R( ~) = Rl(O)..'
. Aceordingly.by one." .
z
The transformations
=
81(UI} =
form. F.zao
I
==
G(z)
+ H(z)
we obtain
R1{a) ==
!lli'
+ atZ.
of the decomposition
< 11. it should be noticed that the expression (11) does not appear in reduced
Such fractions. R(z) will be given· the value 00 at the zeros of Q(z)t It must therefore be considered as a function with values in the extended plane...._. ". and as such it is continuous. .
at¢'
1 I
where G(z} is a polynomial without constant term. 4
(to)
We turn to the case of
8
rational function
We can now count the total number of zeros and polesin the extended plane. a has the same poles as R(z).. 3. which we can rewrite as a rational function R1(z).L~ ...zn.. balf" + ba.': ~~. 00
9
1'l
. including those at DO..+ · · · + a. and if the roots are counted as many times as the order of the zero indicates.
COMPLEX
ANALY81S
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
31
1. 3.."I'"
_ .~
.QI(Z)P(Z)

Q{Z)2
+ fJ
+
3
exists only when Q(z) :..If·... However. fJl..... The derivative
(11)
the rational function. • . This common number of zeros and poles is called the ord6r of
given as the quotient of two polynomials. the order of the zero or pole at order of the ·zero or pole of Rl{Z) at the origin.mJ and if m == R( 00) :: a..Z+~"'.
. I ·. function of
(12) we can write
r with
IL
pole at
r=
QO.
'. 18 equal to the . Rational Functions.
I~:'_'..... . .. zero or pole at CIC.n at c().
:.:. The linear transfonnation 2 + a is called a parallel trcnBlaticm and liz is an inversion.. . and the order of 8 pole is..: :'" I.
:':. We ca..
R
")
\Z
_ P'(z)Q(z) . r
... If a is any constant. The zeros of Q(z) are called poles of R(z). The count shows that the number of zeros. .0. and we find indeed
with a8 . if m > n R(z) has IL zero of order m .~ : ·~_:t... R'(z) has the same poles as R(z).. if
m
The function R By
UBe
("J + i) is
IL
n.. that P(z) and Q(z) have no common factors and hence no common sercs.
.~:'"
"I'{~
. the order
of each pole being increased.. In order to derive this representation we assume first that R{z) has a pole at co.. the latter interchanges 0 and
CD.~ I'~~~'..
.by definition equal to the order of the corresponding zero of Q(z). The zeros of R(z} . ~. and this is essential..
.. :.+ · · . Sec.
.e) at co Let the distinct finite poles of R(z) be denoted by Pl.. I t is therefore preferable to consider the function R(l/z). In case Q(z) has multiple zeros.:j:
.
. the function R(z) _. We assume. and H(z) is finite at co..tional...::_ :. but this definition would not determine the order of a..
.~. and consequently the same order...:.. . the point
at
00
is a pole of ordern . Greater unity is sehieved if we let the variable z as well as the values R(z) lange over the extended plane. We may define R( 00) as the limit of R{z) as z + co. . as arational function defined by the righthand member of (11).a are roots of the equation R(z) = a.rry out the division of P(z) by Q(z) until the degree of the remainder is at most equal to that of the denominator..."
. ...~:' . :...fJ~ :F
o. or linear transformations will be studied at length in Chap.
TID
aw 
+a
fJ •
8 and 81 are inverse to each other. J A rational function of order 1 is 8 linear fraction
S(z) ~ az
~t. belongs either to the numerator or to the denominator.. .R(6~'+:f)~_GIG}+Hi(r)lI':.
.
If R1{O) = 0 or ac.
C()
is defined as the
Every rational function has a representation by partialfradiorut.
.+~b. greater of the numbers m and n.
. we can state the following result = A rational function R(z) oj ortkr p haa p zeros and p poles and every equation R(z) = a has e:tadly P TOOts.+ b. For the moment we noie merely that the equation 10 = S(z) has exactly one root.. The former has a fixed point at GO.
~~~. ._
.. .
'
A.:
'.. chances are good that the sum will also be analytic... spd.. . .. The test reads: A~ i8 convergent if and rmlll if it ill a Cauchy sequence.:I:~('..
{.. ~ Oeuchy's eondition.
_ . Use the formul& in the preceding ·exercise to prove that there exists a unique polynomial P of degree < 1l with given values CI: at the points «l (Lagrange's interpolation polynomial) . If R(z) is 8 rational function of order n. A sequence will be called Jufl4amental.the 8UfIi~y.. ..
• 
.l. == 00 7 the sequence may be said to diverge to infinity.I8 and rational. O! all series wi~h analytic tenns the. A rational function without poles must reduce to 8 constant.....
.m. and the same
This is a rational function which cannot have other poles than ~~. . 80 is the sum.A\ < .
This representation is well known from the calculus where it is used as a technical device in integration theory.~ ._
.• ~ ~ I ~ '.....
EXERCISES
l.:: .~ .11 ~ no it follows by the tria.32
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
33
or with a cbange of variable
R(z)
Here
=
Gj~
~
(3) + Hi(z ~ fJ}
in z ~ ~ without eonstant term. .. 1 ~ 'i '_
.1 < I whenever n ~ 110 and m ~ nO..1Iowever we wish to use 1 the . If a rational function is real on IzI situated?
can the order of R'(z) be?
:L ELEMENTARY
=
1. power series with complex eoeffleiente are the simplest. and if the terms are analytic funetlOD. show that
•
oil
ill
and if P is a
A'
A. ..ngle ineqllality that la.~. . study when we are not yet equipped to prove the most general properties (those that depend on integration) is that we need power series to construct the exponential function (Sec ...(+ 2)·
. If a......1~~~~:. .. ..·~ . For tn.::.
. '_. .. J .. What is the general form of a rational function which has absolute value 1 on the circle lzl == 11 In particular. and if this constant is absorbed in G(z) we obtain
(14) R(z)
= G(z} +
itt
Polyno~a.: .
Gj
(z ~ .: ('.8.o~toxie . finite limit is said to be corwergent} and any sequence which does not converge is divergent If li~.. . .._. .bers. . If the terms are f?nctioDs of a variable. eyery bouaded .
I . T~e test that serves this purpose bears the name of Cauchy. :.... .. how are the zeros and poles
Gj(~ ~ (3) is a polynomial
Consider now the expression
related to each other? 5..... . .... 3). .. 
. or a Cauchy ~.
". ..
:.
.~... liIiVIoonce :of real numbeD haI~ JimitA . : . ...
~:.'
. ..... ._
•
. .!\ ..:...7."ay in which real numbers ~8D be introduced is indeed to ~~~..:. how are the zeros and poles
the singular part of R(z} at fJi'
s..
.. a.
I
. In this section we study only the most eJeme?tary properties of power series.. Sequences.
. fj'l and 00.. At z = ~j we find that the two terms which become infinite have a difference Hi (z ~
(3) with afinite
is true at a).
'11:1'
... .. !he easiest way to achieve greater variety is to form limits..~.'' .( •
"
• .'
":=
s...
.
"
• I
"
"j
:"
<. no."!"\:i:~:~ ~~ . one . .._
r..
.. (jtJ .. For instance. . ...
. if it satisfies the following condition: given any e > 0 there exists an no such that Ia.
~.~ ..AI < e/2 for n i. A sequence with a... Therefore (13) has neither any finite poles nor a pole at ao. 2..:~j.li has the limit A if to every E > 0 there exists an no such that Ja.£ for n ~ nG. i.
~
s: .." .. .G(z) 
it!
OJ
(z ~ fJi)
limit.' I .. _
:...~:
i
I
I .1.. 2.~: ...t
J
.).
in partial fractions. ..
. . .". how large and how small
for
z = fJj~
(13)
THEORY
OF POWER SERIES
R(z) . the sum of a convergent series is such & limit.._..
•
I
1.. .
~
e. < E+ The sufficiency is closely connected with the definition of real num...
"p p
..1 < 114+ law. Use
the method of the text to develop
zt
%3 _
1
and
z(z
+
1 1)'(. . . A strong motivation for taking up this. + A we can find nG such that Ia.. .a. However} it is only with the introduction of complex numbers that it becomes completely successful. Only in rare eases can the convergence be proved by exhibiting the limit so it is extremely important to make use of a method that permits proof of the existence of a limit even when it cannot be determined explicitly.1 . called
The function
. . .. ~ :I'_f"... .a.
~:/".. If Q is a polynomial with distinct roots at.
~. polynomial of degree < n... The sequence {4t.... CIa.. The necessity is immediate.'
.. . (z ~ fJ) is finite
6.
I
"I
.. functions are very special analytic functions..
so does the original sequence.
8
3 By definition of a and A there exists
... < A + g for n S.. It is clear that {At} is 8 nonincreasing sequence.(%)} converges~orleverY. which is impossible. the new series converges or diverges together with (15).. tends to ...
4>
••
.o such that '1. .(z) . beIonp to E there ..8. If A is finite and e: > 0 there exists an no such that A.a (ata.. The sequence of partial ·sums of (15) is 8 contraction of the sequence corresponding to (16).exlsts an·n.u. be the sum of the series which begins with the term.a.·~dt... if e > 0 and i. ' If a finite number of the terms of the series (15) are omitted. The reader Mould prove the following relations:
the series. + 00.tl . Consider a sequence of funetions I. < A + Et and it follows that aft.. ~ . Under this condition. This condition is necessary but of course not sufficient. A very simple application of Cauchy's condition permits us to deduce the convergence of one sequence from that of another. The sequence {a.:.
Now we return to the sufficiency of Cauchy's condition. hence it has a limit At which is finite or equal to + 00 • The number Al is known as the leas: upper bound or supremum (l.} (this is not a standard term). a. .co • In all cases there cannot be more than one number A with
(. or wp) of the numbers ~..}. for sll 11.1~ Ill.
+
R)
+
2...a..+ la.
.. If A = + there are arbitrarily large a and A = . +
==
at
•••
.
A == lim sup ".... no. Applied to & series Cauchy's convergence test yields the following condition. Given a real sequence {a. the sequence {b~l may be termed a c~~ of the sequence Ia. . + tt.2.a == (A .~+ a.. a.} i we shal] set a == max lai. indeed.
~
(A .. It follows that A .. It may be finite.· ·
~+1
formed by the absolute values of the terms.. .. and if they converge._ For this reason we need to prove the sufficiency only for real sequences. of s. From I~ .1 for all pairs of subscripts. then Alia ~ A . ~ no and p ~ O.
I' :.(x). or .. .... < A". . . and it follows that A == lim an and a = lim a. In the case of convergenee.
Associated with this series is the sequence of its partial sums
8.... :
_. for 'fir ~ no.. I t is quite clear that the limes inferior and limes superior will be equal if and only if the sequence" converges to a finite limit or diverges to + 00 or to . and if this is the case the limit of the sequence is the BUm of
+
Ji•

(16)
lall + 1a21 + · · . In the opposite direction... convergence of (16) implies that the original series (15) is convergent . it is the least number which is s:: all a..00 ~ In any case we write
(t.} i is nondecreasing. .} Hence convergence of {a. and we denote its limit by A.. UnJjatm eo"... an a" < a + e and an a.i(2i)1 < ~for n ~ At.. let R.+
Itis easy to characterize the limes superior by its properties. if tlA :::: A . Hence a :::s A J and the sequence converges.e.. Construct in the same way the least upper bound AI: of the sequence {anI: obtained from the original sequence by deleting· a1. are both finite..
. In other words.a) < 3e...b.'
:.1..... . For p == 0 we find in particular that lanl < E. there are arbitrarily large n for which aD > A . then the limitj(x) is spin a function tiit'R~~~<~ BY·:definition..
. tIw+. We use the opportunity to recall the notions of lime« superior and lime8 in/eriar. that is.b.. on z.. for
.
34
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
35
The real and imaginary parts of a Cauchy sequence are again Cauchy sequences.ence.
. If it is true that lb. Then the sum of the whole series is 8 = B" + R The series (15) can be compared with the series
The series is said to converge if and only if the corresponding sequence is convergent.am) (a.+ll + · ~· + l~'.ee if and only if a.
these properties .
A
2. :"
. The series (15) converges if and only if to every e > 0 there exists an no such that la. An infinite series is a formal infinite sum
t
(15)
a1
+ at + · .C A.. a.I + . If a ¢ A choose
e=~
fore.. . contrary to the choi~ .. is the greatest of the numbers CIt.e with m. > A . .fjnedon the 88me set E.
+ as + .. Hence the general term of a convergent series tends to zero.O'fatl < E we obtain tanl < laaoJ + e for n ~ no.
Ia. A series with the property that the series formed by the absolute values of the terms converges is said to be absolutely convergent . ..... if {an} is a Cauchy sequence. Series.· + a. .. .. so is {b. but no is allowed to depend. .n ~ nQ.. .. The notations are frequently simplified to Rm and lim. .. ) a
and determine
corresponding no..} implies convergence of {b. .. ~ the sequenee of values If..· · + G.+l + · · · 4n+p 1 < e.z that bilongs to E. . +
+ ~.00.+lt'
~
14tt1 + ia. I.... The limes inferior can be defined in the same manner with ioequalitiesreversed.
.!m(X)' < afar alltn...:.
for 8 majorant if it is true that I!.. then the sequence (f. For any E > 0 we are able to find an n such that
for all z.38
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
37
For instance. > 0 there exists an no such that 11. it is true that
lim
11"""'+_
(1 + !)._. Show that the sum of an absolutely
convergent
for real values of x...(x) I eonverges uniformly. Utili) (U1Va + u. prove that UV =: UtVl (UIV.f1._.+l + · · · + 4. prove that
:: If(x)
.)1 +
...). : " :
..v"2 11:VI) + · · .[.
_
_
~
. in most eases it will be found that the convergence is uniform only on a part of the set on which the functions are originally defined.
.
<
2.. s. Such an no exists for every fixed x..!(Xc) .'J:
...Xo I < 8.
+
+
+
+
..:. 4.f(xl')l
Therefore} if the majorant converges..1. However..:.. The most important consequence of uniform convergence is the following: The limit function of a uniformly convergent sequence of continu~
flex)
has
+ J't(x) + · · · + fn{X) + · .(z)l
+
IJ...!ft(xo) I < E/3 for all x in E with Ix . 2. &.(xo)~
+ 1f..
.1 .{x) .xi == lxl/n < e for n ~ na it is necessary that no > lxi/I!.
series does not of
change if the terms are rearranged .·?~:.. It has the slight weakness that it applies only to series which are also absolutely convergent. Under the same condition on x it follows that
If(x) .(x) 1 is a contract_ion of a convergent sequence of constants (a.(x) I ~ M ~ for some constant M and for all sufficiently large n. If lim Zn = A. the minorant converges uniformly. hypothesis means ~hat \I. Discuss the uniform convergence of the series
3. _ ..(%) .t~~'~~. In Positive formulation: The sequence {f.. partlcularly simple. The general principle of contraction is more complicated. .a + ·
t
. ~ Suppose that the functions f.·
al
the series with positive terms
+ a2 + .(xo)
. .l on E.(x) I ~ I: for n ~ no and 'all x in~. .
..z
n
::::::=..1_ " . becomes . and the. We say in this situation that the sequence converges pointwise.(x)
+ /"+I(x) + · · · +/. )
+ + . If U = Ul u.. In the inequality If. . but not uniformly.
.
:rr..
<.. but the requirement cannot be met simultaneously for all x. con. ..(x) are continuous and tend uniformly to f(x) on the aet E. For the sufficiency we remark that the limit function f(x) exists by the ordinary form of Cauchy's test.. We say that a series with variable terms
Junctions is itself continuous.• ::. Hence the convergence is uniform.
.(x) .
+ a. in a somewhat weaker form .
..In the case of series this criterion....Cauchy's necessary and sufficient condition has a counterpart for uniform convergence.. provided that at least one of the series is absolutely convergent.(x) ... Discuss completely the convergence and uniform convergence the sequence Inzn}r.. are convergent series...· · .z:
elusion follows immediately by Cauchy's condition. + a.on E i.. but in order to have 1(1 + l/n)x . :: .. ..(x) . In the theory of analytic functions we shall find uniform convergence much more important than pointwise convergence.(:1.
...!Jt(z)' s 1a. 'I:'he. Try to arrange the proof so economically that the absolute convergence of the second series is not needed .:
..1(x) I < E for aU n ~ no and all x in E..f.(2:) .(x)) converges uniformly to I(x) on the set E if to every I > 0 there exists an no BUCk thal If.
i·
. .4. In these circumstances we have
If.jfl(X} \ < a we can keep n fixed and let m tend to 00 • It follows that 'f{x) .
and we have proved that J(z) is continuous at Xu....(x) . (It is easy if both series are absolutely convergent.
1/. . V = Vi + Vr·+ • .: . ~ no and aU zin E...{ .
. For practical use the following test is the most applicable: If a sequence of functions tf.
EXERCISES L Prove that a convergent sequence is bounded .0+. The necessity is again trivial.
. conversely. M(a . Because JII (x) is continuous at XI) we can find a > 0 such that 1/..
: ...: _. 'IIjII
lim n (21 1
+ 21 + · · · + ZII)
=
A. the first series is a minorant of the second.(x) I is uniformly convergent. but has a wider range of applicability. )..
. We assert: The sequence II.f./(x) 1 < e/3 for all x in E~ Let Xo be a point in E..f and only if to every F. This condition is frequently referred to as the Weierstrass M test.
.'
'"
..... "
Proof. Thus 1aazlt I > (Izl/p)ft for infinitely many n. Since the maj orant is convergent and has constant terms we conclude by Weierstrass's M test that the power series is uniformly convergent ..26
z~
%0
·Itl..'·:. P01. Itfollowsthatla..':
:_. To prove the uniform convergence for Izl ~ p < R we choose a p' with p < pi < R and find la. The derivative can be obtained by termwiBe differentiation.etric aeries
l+z+z'+···
whosepartial 1+ z
+~+ . For every power series (17) there exi8t8 a number R.(z)
where BIt(Z)
=
ao +
41Z
+ .=.5.
I
+ · · ..... ['ol < p < R. manner ..
(17)
au
A power series is of the form
+ a:tZ + aza2.
""
.
an)..+ · · · + ~z~ + .· ':_r"\::. Then IIp> l/RJ and by the definition of limes superior there exists an no such that la.·.R is called the circle of cmwugenc6...
.anl
110
1
== lim
R41a
8~(Z)~
(iii) In
lzl < R
.
Zttl
This is known as Hadamard's formula for the radius of convergence.~(Zfl) /1('0) •
= il(Z) . Set Vn of the binomial theorem n = (1 + cl! < 2/n.~~. and hence 6" + o.1·+
i.._lzttl. 0 ~ R ~ co...z) for lz' < 1. we shall prove the following theorem due to _~bel: 2.
~:.. because
n«lnZftl has the same radius of convergence. and is consequently convergent.. This gives
L anZ"
Q
•
=
8~(Z)
+ Rn(z)
R.a and thevariable z are complex. generally we may consider series
which are power series with respect to the center Zo.. called the. (Xc)
. p < R the convergence is uniform [or lzl ~ p.
A little more
where the coefficients a.i~%·.+
lz=
lz
Since z/' + 0 for \zj < 1 and IZ"I ~ 1 for It 1 ~ 1 we conclude that the geometric series converges to 1/(1 .. We ~h811show that the assertions in the theorem are true if R is chosen according to the formula
(18)

Z
1l~(tD»).The series converge8 absolutely for every z with lzl < R~ If 0 ... .11/it < 1/p.. AB an almost trivial example we consider the geom.
'"
... It turns out that the behavior of the geometric series is typical ..
.:. .. . and the terms are unbounded...+ 4. If Izi < R we can find p so that lzl < p < R.
CIO
sums can be written in the form
The derived series.(...>
=
1
+ 8".
...
atZ " .:_.:.
.
""
.I . Ia. . More precisely. and the derived series has the same radius of convergence. I > 1/p~.
~IZO
+ .
the sum of the serie8 is an analytic fumtion. and the aeries is
Theorem
cO'n8et]tt.4. diverges for Izl ~ 1. =L
and also /1(%)
. radius of convergencet with the following propertie«: (i) . H Izi > R we choose p so that R < p < ~zl. Since lip < l/R there are arbitrarily large n such that 1a..r
.
1
lim sup
vra:l...
=
.. (ii) If Izi > R the terms of the serie« are unbounded..
1+
Then 0" > 0. For lzl < R we shall write
J(z)
=
Vn 4 1.znl ~ (P!p')'" for n ~ no..
L na..ll/fl > 1/ p. but the difference is so slight that we need not do so in a formal..zI < (lzl/p)·forJargen. nothing is claimed about the convergence on the circle..(%) and
z
:2'0
8.· ~+:Jo * + z!t) '.:..
'"
:
'"
""
. Indeed.
=
(8. so that the power series (17) has a convergent geometric series as a maiorent.
We have to show that J'(z) Consider the identity
(19) l(lI! . except that it may happen that the aeries converges only for z = 0.8ntly divergent..11
....
The last tenn can be
lIB
=
.(16" Series.l < l/p"forn ~ no. or that it converges for all values of e. Ia... we shall find that every power series converges inside 8 circle and diverges outside the same circle.8~(Zfl») + (8~(Zo) ../1(")
+ (Rtl(Z)
where we 888UJl1e that reWritten 88

The circle lz' ==. and by use In(n .l)lJ!.31
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTtONS
31
2...
.~z. n].
of
1 in powers of
3
1.Zo
e coDvergent? .z"
0
•
tend8 to f(l) bounded ... By the definition of derivative we can find o > 0 such that 0 < Iz < a implies
zo'
I
when 0
s.(z) .....
.
•
. 1:
~1
~
n!Z". Limit Theorem.
.
.': .: ~.
•
...
1:
zn(1ql
<
1).:
m a positive integer.f 1 Za ) ( '~_...) .. :. There is also an nl such that '8~(Zo) ..R..
ProoJta
We may
aSsume~~~.l
R".z. what is Zn'a_z"? L If l:a~ and ~bgZn......
+
...5 . Choose 8 fixed n ::: nfl... There is a second theorem of Abel's which refers to the case where a power series converges at a point of the circle of convergence.:.
. (z) . have radii of convergence ·R1 and R:2t show that the radius of convergence of I~b.
We have proved that !(zo) exists and equals
Since the reasoning can be repeated we have in reality proved much more: A power series with positive radius of convergence has derivatives of all orders. and they are given explicitly by
I(z) == an + atZ + 4zZ' + .
. .00 ..
•
...
. 7...~
Z
Zo

8
I(
"
ZO)
.. '.
In particular..(zo) 1
z%0
< _!
3
L nl'z". prove that 2':a. Expand ~ .... if we look at the last line we see that air the power series becomes
f(It)(O)/k!...s.~·
Remark~
This is the familiar TaylorMaclawin development.
II
•
•
•
•
.
.40
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
41
and we conclude that
EXERCISES
L Expand (1 ...
and
TheoreDl
3. namely that every analytic function has a Taylor development... .. but the main part is still missing.zal
<
8.
..:~(. but we have proved it only under the assumption that !(z) has a power series development.
•
•
•
•
.... We do know that the development is uniquely determined. 111(z) == 2«2 6alZ 12aa' + · ...·
+
.
If
J(z) == 1(0)
+ J'(O)z +
!"{O)
2!
Z2
+ ...
.!l(ZO)\ < c/3 for n ~ nl._ ~:_ .J.: .
Geometrically.
2: zl
for n ~ nO.. what is the radius of convergence of ~a. . Same question for
il(. . . in
2
powers of
z..
t . Abel'..
Hence we can find no such that
convergence? 3.. If limn .. the condition means ~hat z stays in an angle < 180° with vertex 1.... ~ o·
•
OJ f~ this ~~ be &~t&inedby adding
.:~~...
•
j(I)(Z)
=
k1al:
·
+ (k + 1) I aoHlZ + (k + 2)! aoH2Z2 + .z).
<
[z . symmetrically to the part (.
•
•
•
.
...: 7:··:.
.(zo) ~~. 1a I /\a.....:..1) of the real axis.. It is customary to say that the approach takes place in a Stolz angle..· +
4
/(·)(0)
approaches 1in BUCk a way that
z~
L~ o
•
convergeBj then /(s)
= ~ o...
~ If Zasz" has radius of convergence R..
~::
.a~z!L? " If j(z) = ::z.. Find the radius of convergence
of the following power series:
q*.... What
is the radius
The expression on the right is the remainder term in a convergent series.
(18
Z
11 
zl/(1 
1z1) remains
n!
+ ..2'" is at least Rill".\
I<
<
3
..~· f(z) == al + 2U2Z + 3032' + · ~..~ z ..'
I tit..iWt~~:····~ . if it exists..
. .~:...az "ttl? of l..
L For what values of
z is
f(z) ~ f(z.
.a+ l~ = R. I! 2!·
:=
2.. We lose no generality by assuming that R == 1 and that the convergence takes place at z = 1.
2.
•
.....::..has radius of conGO R
When all these inequalities
are combined it follows by (19) that
vergence
R.......
l < s for n ~ m...
.:~.. R similarity between the Taylor developments of these functions..
. We solve it by setting
f(z) f'(z)
= Bo =
+
· · · + «nzn = 80 + (81 . for ... we must have «n1 = nan.
IL o
".· ..' . and hence to the nongeometrie definition of angle..... e*) == O..l · er= + e· . For real x the series development (21) shows that e#t > 1 for x > 0.z)
! 8nZ"~ o. This is certainly 80 iff is defined in the whole plane. and since ~ and ~ are reciprocals.
converges. + 2~ + . Choose m so large that \stt..
4!
.lows for z == a... is then dominated by the geometric series
E
e'
= 1 + I! + 21 + · · · + n! + · · ·
Z
Zl
2ft
L Izln = elzl/(1 CID
Izl)
< a/(l ~
:i
. defined by
(23) Substitution
The trigonometric
functions are
in (21) shows that they have the series developments
co8.yt. and (22) foI. and if willing to use imaginary arguments he will be able to derive Euler's formula eiz = cos x i sin x as a formal identity..
3..
t
The person who approaches calculus exclusively from the point of view of real numbers will not expect any relationship between the exponential function e and the trigonometric functions cos x sud sin z.
.. We conclude that et.. from n = m on. It is a consequence of the differential equation that e~ satisfies the addition theorem
(22)
The first term on the right can be made arbitrarily small by choosing z sufficiently close to It and we conclude thatf(z) ~ 0 when z + 1 subject to the stated restriction. ~.
"I •
...' .
(..~.. no doubt.
. au
au =
av
av = 0 = ..· + (S3 .
v..
.":
.
we obtain ~ AX iJy = ax iJy . ( ...'. .' ~
..
..oJ
. We may begin by defining the exponential fU1lCtion as the solution of the differential equation
!Jill.~~ . r. We must show of course that the series
(21)
We are assuming that \1 ...
.i1+ ~ (proof by the reader) . and .1
It follows that
8~i
lJ(z)l
11 
z\
1+ Ke.
.. The fact that the series has real coefficients shows that exp j is the complex conjugate of exp 2. It does so in the whole plane. cos Z and sin z for complex z.
. h. The value of the constant is found by setting z == 0. · + 8'Q~1(Z"l .2..~
..." .::
•
. We have used the fact thatf(z) is constant iff(z) is identically zero.~:~~":'
~
~. . ~ With the preparation given in the preceding section it will be easy to define e&'...z$ + . We write SA = Go the identity (summation by parts)
8~(Z) == ao + atZ + = 80(1 .42
8
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
43
constant to ao.
~
~ .. .. At the same time we can define theIogsrithm as the inverse function of the exponential.22:
z .'_ ••• • ~:.
all'
If (20) is to be satisfied.a) (80 8IZ
+ a1 + · .'. so we obtain the representation
._. these functions seem to be derived from completely different sources and with different purposea in mind. He will notice. and the initial condition gives ao = 1" It follows by induction that ~ = lInt The solution is denoted by ~ or exp z} depending on purely typographical considerations. say.~.
+
depth.
fez)
=
(1 .'~'
.:
..z) + 81(Z = (1 .'.i8 never zero.
"

"
I
.
.
.lzl). and the real version of the theorem shows that f is constant on every horizontal and every vertieal line. THE EXPONENTIAL AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
we find that D(e= rr~) = e.zt') + 8". Indeed..
...
"":
. But it took the genius of a Gauss to analyze its full
S
Remark . Hence leiflll = eli' ~rill = 1J and \eriiwl = e
S•
. and
make use of
Sn_l)Ztl
(20)
JI (z) == f(z)
== 1.). ~ a particular C88e of the addition theorem e· r' ::::: This shows 1. that e. : \ ~
~. ... The Trigonometric Functions. ..~~..
The. and to derive the relations between 'these functions..
+
8.the logarithm leads in tum to the correct definition of the argument of a complex number.
I..
v
~.+ an.
I • .. and that 8" ~ o... Indeed. The remainder of the series ~B~.zl ~ K(l ..BO}Z + .
D
with the initial value 1(0)
at
+ at! + · · · + ~zt' + ~.:~:.··
.
..'
_..
'
....Z2) + .a:.+ na~l + · · ·
But 8nt" + 0. ec~ == «. :
.~
.z.· · + 8 _lz»l) + 8$'. c = a + b. Hence e ~ ·e= is a constant.~1+21
~... Exponential... For iff = u iv.. 0 < et: < 1 for x < 0..
Consider now an arbitrary period w. then w .t.sin a sin b = cos a sin b + sin a C03 b
are direct consequences of (23) and the addition theorem for the exponential function.. 2.. For every w with Iwl = 1 there is one and only one y from the halfopen interval 0 S Y < 21r such that w ::= 8'''4 All this follows readily from the established fact that cos y is strictly decreasing in the "first quadrant. ~~ .sin z. The other trigonometric functions tan z."•... :. namely from lover i to 1 and back over i to 1. :F 1. and that they are all integral multiples of & positive period Wo...
The smallest positive period of fill is denoted by 2r~ In the course of the proof we have shown that
e'riJ2
L Find the values of sin i.nWa
would be a positive period < 6)0.COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
41
Sln z
~
==
z
3!
21
+ 51 
Z~
. • •
For real z they reduce to the familiar Taylor developments of cos x and sin x..'
..~
. Express them through cos iz. Show that
[cos zl2 = sinh! 11
=
i.. and hence e4iw.'~:._ 1_" . Therefore eW".
•· .
Observe that all the trigonometric
EXERCISES
. .. every period must be an integral multiple of Wo.'c) ~ J~) '.1. eU
we have sin yo == + 1. which in turn leads to sin y > y . which shows that cos y is strictly decreasing.iodicity. descri bes the unit circle Iwl == 1 in the positive sense..~. In the same way D cos y = . cot z.3.of·. Of the many ways to prove the existence of a. It follows that c = iw with real 6Jj we prefer to say that til is a period of eU~ We shall show that there are periods..
. or et:: ::: 1. We denote it by "'0.y2j6) > y/2 > 0.·:bQJb~. The
:.sati sfies e+~ == 6.... r. cos i.
efZ
1=
008 Z
+ i sin
z 1 ..ift(. = 1...
The addition formulas cos (a sin (a
+ b) + b)
= cos a cos b . Because sin y is positive and cos' Y + sin! 'Y == 1 it follows that sin y is strictly increasing.
D sin z = cos
2.~. 3.. I • •
of·~.. that nwo ~ w < (n + l)wG" If w were not equal to ~G. tan (1 + a.. TheP.
•
and
[sin zIt
= sinh111
+ Binl!:r.. From (23) we obtain fwther Euler's formula
".:j_~)~:'f~~~~i.. Thus 8 period of e.th~p6riDd c... between 0 and 7:/2. either by integration or by use of the meanvalue theorem.y'/6 'and finally to cos Y < 1 y'J/2 + U'/24.sin y > y and cos 0 == 1 gives cos y > 1 y'J/2. The double inequality 0 < sin y < 1 guarantees that ei~ is neither ± 1 nor ±i".WI"'rI..
• • •
mnltipea.
..~?i~~
":~:'+. = coshZ 11 
cos!
X
=
.J~:::~.:
. We have shown that 4yo is a period. To see this.
~~..sin'll oX
= ~ (cosh 2y
+ cos 2z)
cos 23:).. sinh 2z. take 0 < y < YfJ~ Then sin y > y(l . Actually) it is the smallest positive period. the point 10 = ei.eGinples numbers with absolute. and therefore there is a yo between 0 and v'3 with cos Yo = O..+ cos oX = cosh'lI
ll
.value 1. and hence sin y < sin 1JI = 1. sin (x + iy) in real and imaginary parts.
+

r. .). When 11 increases from 0 to 2r.. Since this is not possible..f~wd·
by all"integral
8.ez)/2. The hyperbolic cosine and sine are defined by cosh z == (e' + e·)/2t sinh z = (et .." that is.eY
e
U
. There exists an integer n such.
functions are rational functions of eH .. and formulas for cosh 2z. 6''' ::::± i.
'~
L_
"..~''. This inequality shows that cos v'3 < 0. with the significant di1ferenee that we have now redefined these functions without use of geometry.
!
(cosh
21/ 
These equations demonstrate the intimate relationship between the numbers e and . Use the addition formulas to separate cos (x + iy)..~~~if.. Because cos! yo
It follows likewise that D
C08 Z
+ sin'! yo ==
1
= . sec z. betweenfhe additive group of real numbers and the multiplicative'~~group . They are defined in terms of cos z and sin z in the customary manner.!\. period we choose the following: From D sin Y = cos y :s: 1 and sin 0 == 0 we obtain sin y < y for y > 0.
as well
88
the identity cost
Z
+ sinS! z =
for sJI z.. ·From ··an algebraic point of view the mapping w·= eiv establishes 8 t.......
We _ythat/(z) has.. +.·~
. : . sin iZt Derive the addition formulas...::. that is.
en
=
1 . cosec z are of secondary importance. We find for instance
tan z == ...Qf"lJIt'Ii8BJ... and 4yo is indeed the smallest positive period.
If a is restricted to positive numbers. prove that the sum of the angles is .~. Forwhatva1uesofzis~equa1to2.0 the equation e'*'" == 10 is equivalent to
(24) eil
the equation
Finally we discuss the inverse cosine which is obtained
1( . First of all.. the real logarithm of the positive number liD'. . (1)2'1. The infinitely many values of are cos w reflect the evenness and periodicity of eos z. and all has 8 single value. Find the real and imaginary parts of exp (e.. 1 + 2i? s.it is also satisfied by all y that differ from this solution by an integral multiple of 2r.l) .:...4. .
EXERCISES 1.::: i log (w +
+ V' WI

1)~
for w + v'w2 . ~. and then a" can be interpreted as a power of a or at If b is a rational number with the reduced form p/q.....: ":i.. L Determine all values of 2'.. for instance.
. and aPl has in general infinitely many values which differ by factors e2riRb• There will be a single value if and only if b is an integer n. L Findh e v aIue 0f e' lor z .. and it is interpreted geometrically as the angle.
log (ZlZ. In other words. Show how to define the "angles" in a triangle. 3. log a shall be real.1.. since ~ is always ~O. Therefore..
== 2' . _:
. For real y. :'.: .. . 1L Show that the lOOts of the binomial equation" a are the vertices of & regular poiypn (eq... it has one and only one solution in the interval 0 S Y < 2. . t
va..~ '/'.:..
z = arc cos 1D = i
±
vw
2
1).).) = log at arg (:1%2) = arg %1
+ log z. Together with the exponential function we must also study its inverse function./w2 v
log (w

1 .* sides and rmll~)~
.~~_<~. 2. '
.. show that every remainder in the series for cos y and
sin y has the same sign 1:\8 the leading term (this generalizes the inequalities used in the periodicity proof. If we want to compare & value on the left with a value on the right. ". the logarithm.== w.i.:
. )1 3 2..: \ . .
. The righthand member of the second equation (24) is a complex number of absolute value 1.:. 3' n.
. For 10 '#. < 2 ~ ri3 .
. The inverse sine is most easily defined by are
SIn W
•
log to
== log Iwl
+ i arg w. and
_
==
1D
+ .) + r' = w. positive number shall always mean the real logsrithm.i. In addition . that a < . By convention the logarithm. bearing in mind that they should lie between 0 and. unless the contrary is stated..) . even when the exponential function is not otherwise involved. t.".
I . With this definition.
This is a quadratic equation in 6u with the roots and consequently
aU
The first equation has a unique solution x == log lwl.COIIP~X
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
FUNCTIONS
47
3..
by solving
cos z
==
to
/1101.. between the positive real axis and the haIf line from 0 through the point w. of a. 7. (Compare with the remarks in Chap.1 and w . i/2.
11'"
With a change of notation. then we can merely assert that they differ by a multiple of 2ri (or 2. Ute number 0 has no logarithm.. ..cI~ly implies
4'
It is worth emphasizing that in the theory of complex analytic funetions all elementary transcendental functions can thus be expressed through ~ and its inverse log z.:III:
. ~~. This notation is so convenient that it is used constantly.'2' 4 Tt.. .. == 2 IF . measured 'in radians.t~y.I:'. Sec. The imaginary part of log 10 is also called the argument of w. 1 .. srg w. ~
~:
. :. By definition. Determine the real and imaginary parts of r: L Expre88 are tan to in terms of the logarithm .
. then ~ has exactly q values and can be represented as W.. ... The symbol atJ where a and b are arbitrary complex numbers except for the condition a ~ OJ is always interpreted as an equivalent of exp {b log a).. The Logorithm... See.. 1. ~. Z == log w is a root of the equation 6. 1.
+ arg z"
but only in the sense that both 'sides represent the same infinite set of complex numbers.. .i:~
~
~
.J ~.:. We see that every complex number other than 0 has injinif£ly many logarithms which differ from each other by multiples of 2ri.
We can also write these values in the form arc cos w . there is essentially only one elementary transcendental function. The addition theorem of the exponential function . Prove... as we have just seen.'. : j'
.are cos 1D..1 are reciprocal numbers. if \z' = r and arg z == 9J then z ::= rei'. . ii. According to this definition the argument has infinitely many values whicb difier by multiples of 2r. :
.'.'V w2 . Otherwise log a is the complex logarithm.". ~5 f(_~ ill
..2.
. It is perhaps more appropriate to sound a warning that greatest possible generality should not become a purpose.
. in a preliminary waYt the special properties of mappings defined by analytic functions. for otherwise we would soon be forced to introduce 8 great number of ad hoc definitions whose mutual relationship would be far from clear. . only loosely connected with the flrst. The second and third sections.. ·"::"..
. In order to carry out this program it is desirable to develop the underlying concepts with sufficient generality. If the student feels that he is already thoroughly familiar with this material.. The purpose of this chapter is to study. ..L.
.
. There is no need.. .. .<
. : . At the same time we try to stre8B rigor in geometric thinking. for our main concern is with the properties that are essential for the study of analytic functions. Since presentday students are exposed to abstraction and generality at quite an early stage. to go very far.." : ...3
ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
A function to :: J(z) may be viewed as 8 mapping which represents ~ point z by its image w.
~
.. no apologies are needed. he should read it only for terminology . are expressly designed to develop geometric feeling by way of detailed study of elementary mappings.. . The author believes that proficiency in the study of analytic functions requires a mixture of geometric feeling and oomputationel skill.. to the point where the geometric image beeomes the guide but not the foundation of re~~ : . In the :first section we develop the fundamentals of point set topology and metric spaces.
:.... it will be denoted by We note that. ... Two sets are equal if and only if they have the same elements. •• I.
e ".troduce. and an element as a point.. The logical foundations of set theory belong to another discipline. 2.
.. 1.J
I t is helpful to keep in mind the di8trt. to say that. but should not be taken too literally. It becomes a metric space if we define distance by d(J..< Ii is called
of
>... We recall that we
1
have defined a distance in the extended complex plane by
~x.y) between any two points. Subsets of a given space are usually called point seta. a nonnegative real number d(x.
.\.Dutive
laW8
X U (Y
X
r..
'
. What we need to describe nearness in quantitative terms is obviously a di8tan.50
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AI MAPPINGS
51
L ELEMENTARY
POINT
SET TOPOLOGY
and the De Morgan laws V Y) = ~X f'l ~ Y .
•
. the set all continuous functions defined on the interval a :!i x =! b....the complement depends on the totality of points under consideration+ For instance.
' ".V(l
2lz .':.y) .z) s: d(x.y . .:." :
.
'..y) d(y.y) = l~.z). A set can also be referred to as 8 space.. One can of course form the intersection and union of arbitrary collections of sets.: ..
•. d{x. Sec..
'_ '.".b].
~..."
. we iD..
.. (Y
r. This lends a geometric flavor to the language.
".ci. The intersection of two sets X and Y. in that case a "point" is a function...!'~i~t::':~f~. Metric Spaces.'
... ( .
:.
.:' .
. The reader is familiar with the notation x E X which expresses that x is an element of X (as a rule we denote sets by capital letters and elements by small letters)..y) = 0 if and only if x ::::y.~:¥j:. if X C Y we can consider the relative complement Y X which consists of all points that are in Y but Dot in X (we find it clearer to use this notation only when X C Y) ..x) = d(x...: ~
:..is formed by all points which are elements of both X and Y . For instance . Sets and Elelnents.0(%) I. .' ~ .y~)t... The n. Z) ==
(X U y)
n (X
V Z) = (X (\ Y) U (X
rv Z)
V Z)
(see Chap..
.: t." In the spaces Rand C of real and complex numbers.
. d(x..ce d(x.. and this relationship is indicated by X C Y or Y::> X (we do not exclude the possibility that X = Y).
.
:
. . The term is traditionally used in a very wide sense and without strict limits.
. R and C are metric spaces with d(z.."
.
:' .':. respectively.
.
••
"'....is the set of real ntuplea
+
with
B
" distance defined by d(x.:c:._. An example of a function space is given by G[a."
"I' ""
1"'."
.(X rl y) = ~X U .
.~{:~~~... The last condition is the triangle inequality. the foliowing terminology: For any. yl < £.& 0 an. The union X U Y con· sists of all point. . whether finite or infinite in number. ..z') . for every pair x f 8.
~J}~~:f. a set of real numbers has one complement with respect to the real line and another with respect to the complex plane.. X is a subset of Y if every element of X is also an element of Y.. In terma of dlstanee. we shall have occasion to consider spaces whose elements are functions.
. d{y.::"1:::.
1.:'.
1.
:
'_.. In our language a set will be 8 collection of identifiable objects.::::.~l:ot:~ 2: E·~ w1t~d(x.etric space if there is defined. •
. For instance.:r~~
. The complement of & set X consists of all points which are not in X.::
. including those which are elements of both.
.. Similarly. 2.~Y·iI e ~Jthe.
.y). and the first systematic study of topology
was motivated by this need . in keeping with the fact that all our applications will be to very familiar objects+ In this limited framework no logical paradoxes can occur. ~ . We say that a set S is a m.d.
d.. For all considerations of limits and continuity it is essential to give B precise meaning to the terms "sufficiently near" and "arbitr~iJy near. Topological considerations are extremely important for the foundation of the study of analytic functions.dimensional euclidean space R...g) == max I/(x) .s which are elements of either X or Y. The empty set is denoted by 9J..y)! = ~ (Xi .. :. such nearness can be expressed by a quantitative condition Ix .'%::~ k~..".:.yl < L For instance.
~(X
The branch of mathematics which goes under the name of topology is concerned with all questions directly or indirectly related to continuity.. Our approach will be quite naive. since this represents the euclidean distance between the stereographle images on the Riemann sphere.
'
::.
These are purely logical identities.. denoted by X (\ Y..y) in 8U~h a way that the following conditions are fulfilled: 1..
. the triangle 'inequality is obviously fulfilled..
..~:::..=".~t B(~. and they have obvious generalizations to arbitrary collections of sets."
'
""""
" .~'i. "..... its elements.4)...enlly near to y means that there exists an e > 0 80$·· that x EX whenever Ix :_.yl .cl + lzl")(l + 1z'11)
. X conlainli points· arbitrarily near to y if to every e > 0 there exists an x E X such that lx ~ 91 < 5.... a set ~ contai7UI all z wji.
.
"
"
.0." """:.:'~:::.1 .2. More generally. YES. 3..
i).d(y.~
:.. _.~ form a closed set. Show by strict application of the definition that the closure of lz .
••••
. A point belongs to the closure of X if and only if all its neighborhoods intersect X.. A
set N C 8 is called a neighborhood of YES
if if contains

a ball B(y.Z 6~~ 3.The triangle inequality shows that B(z... . A complete list' would be more confusing than helpful.
In other words.Z0' < 0 j 8 lz . a neighborhood of y is a set which contains all points sufficiently near to y... .the :accumUlation points of anY. (iv) The exterior of X is the interior of r.and that X is open if Int X = X. is urged to interpret the proof in geometric tenns .\ . it consists of all complex numbers z which satisfy the strict inequality I: . Verify that this condition is fulfilled in the preceding exercise.
. A set is said to be discrete ij' all its points are isoleted.
. (iii) The boundary of X is the closure minus the interior. We say that x E X is an isolated point of X if :t has a neighborhood whose intersection with X reduces to the point x..:
.
center y and radius 8. It is also referred to as the ooeigbborThe general definition of neighborhood is as follows:
Definition I. 3. It should be noted that the last two statements follow from the first two by
use of the De Morgan laws.. The la..
. As sueh it can be denoted by . There are many terms in common usage which are direct1y related to the idea of open sets.52
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS
MAPPINGS
53
the baU with
hood of y.I == X'_I. to distinguish it from the closed baa formed by all x E 8 with d(xty) ~ o. We have just proved that it is an open set.IX.== X. Hence B(y.
:'
• __
:
.. and since z was any point in B(y. .
•
•
:
.. for d(x...z) < 6' gives d{x.
~. Show that a diacrete. Siio~"that . and the reader. It exists. The inleTsectioo of any collection of closed ssts is closed.The following is an immediate consequence of· the triangle inequality: Every ball is an open set. ~ Observe that Int X C X C x..a).. We use the notion of neighborhood to define
apen
set:
A Bet i8 open if it is a neighborhood of each of its eiement«:
Definition 2.. They are said to be equivalent if they determine the same open sets. infrequently by CI X..6) is an open di&k with center Zt) and radius a. aX? L It is sometimes typographically simpler to write X' for .. Show that d and al are equivalent if to every is > 0 there exists a a > 0 such that d(xty) < a implies dl(%~Y) < e.6..
+
exterior.:~ ~ ... closed if X... X C Y implies Int X Clot Y. An accumulation point is a point of X.
.z) = 8. .·aet·in·R or C is countable .
. or the intersection of all closed sets ~X.. .. Suppose that there are given two distance functions d(x.: .
.. A point belongs to the boundary if and only if aJ1 its neighborhoods intersect both X and t"'JX. if Z E B(Yto).6) is a neighborhood of z.. The closure is usually denoted by X. what is Int Xt X>..) C B(y.. '.:'
j..
space.
The definition is interpreted to mean that the empty set is open (the condition is fulfilled because the set has no elements). It can also be described as the set of all points of which X is a neighborhood ...i) is an open set. The complement of an open set is said to be closed..z) > 0.'
. For added convenience we shall also introduce the notions of isolated point and accumulation point. If X is the set of complex numbers whose real and imaginary parts are rational..
:... . It is clear that x is an secumulation point of X if and only if every neighborhood of x contains infinitely many points from X. 7. In any metric space the empty set and the whole space are at the same time open and closed. and vice versa.
.. how is X1I related to X? Show that X'I_.
The proofs are so obvious that they can be left to the reader.y) = ~(xty)/[l d(x.. for it may be characterized as the union of all open sets ex.X_.. . Notation: Bd X or ax.X. We denote it by Jnt X... :v.:.. then 1/ = 1.
boundary.zol < a.which is not an isolated point . and we shall limit ourselves to the following: i1) terior. In the complex plane B(zo.. X~ C Y. .y)] is also a metric
The union of any collectitm 01 open seis i8 open~ The union of a jinif£ number of closed sets is closed .8) we conclude that B(y._.y)~ show that 8 with the distance function a(x. (ii) The closure of X is the smallest closed set which contains X.
. (i) The interior of a set X is the largest open set contained in X.:. With this notation.y) and dt(xty) on the same space S. The following properties of open and closed sets are fundamental: The intersection of a finite number of open 8Ct8 is open.... Z..tter space is bounded in the sense that all distances lie under a fixed bound..
:
+
..... 'I
'1
•
'.
.. .
...
EXERCISES
L If S is a metric space with distance function d(x. closure. Also.. Indeed. For greater emphasis a ball is sometimes referred to as an open ball. .:'" .... and there may be other sets with the same property. It is also the complement of the closure.y) < ~' d(y..
a < x :s: bt a. It is always understood that a < b~
t We denote
open intervals by (a... .. Because the line is connected. .y) a8 on all of S. . .. We can therefore state: An open Bet i~connected if it cannot be decomp088d into two open sets..b2) and continue the process indefinitely. if it exists.. The nonempty connected
IJ'UbsetB of the real line are the
intervals. A subset E C S is said to be connected if it is connected in the relative· topology. lower bound. one of them must fail to meet E.. limits included. then the semielosed interval 0 .
=~..~ x ~ b. .. ~.. a space is connected if it consists of a single piece.00 or b = + co this includes the semiinfinite intervals and the whole line . Cor instance. The easiest ~8y is to give & negative ehsrscterisation: S is not connected if there exists a partition S == A V B into Open 8'Ub8et8 A and B. It is understood that A and B are dUjoim and nonempty. t Returning to the proof. ~ ~':~. Henceforth. but not open in R. in contradiction with the fact that" a is the greatest lower bound.b) and closed intervals by [a..b]. Consider the set A of all lower bounds. when we say that a subset E has some specific topological property. complement of A is open. Similarly. A contains a largest number.' The most important result is that the whole line is connected.
.. . Neighborhoods and open sets on E are defined 88 on any metric space. ~. relatively closed means the same 88 closed. This contradiction shows that either A 'or B is empty. In the case of the real line it is possib1e to name all connected sets. if we regard the closed interval 0 ~ .'~':.x < 1 as
Theorem 1. it is clear that a =' + 00 if and . we msy conclude that either A or B is empty. . a < x < b.+s:.
9f •.. is defined in a u corresponding manner. is called the grea~Bt loue« bound of E.
t The s~um
..__.b) did not belong to E.... If A is empty. See..
".x or sup x for x E E.
Another common practice is . We denote this interval by (a.bl or ta~b(.. Trivial examples of connected seta are the empty set and any set that consists of IL single point. and we conclude that t must belong to E. apace is often used in the following manner: Suppose that we are able to construct two complementary open subsets A and B of S. Intuitively speaking. A· and its complement cannot both be open unless one of them is empty.. AB to A itself it is easily seen that A is open whenever it does not contain any largest number.. and this is indeed one of the fundamental properties of the realnumber system. '.
. If E is any nonempty subset of 8 metric space S We may consider E as a metric space in its own right with the same distance function d(:t. none of the sets is allowed to be empty . Again... If neither is empty we can find at E A and hi E B. if E is closed. 2.:. There are thus three possibilities: either A is empty. we shall always mean that it has this property &8 s subspace. seq~ce
wu ~~~
~
i~ Chap.ctJ.. it is commonly denoted 88 g.l.
.. Suppose. Suppose that the real line R is represented as the union R == A V B of two disjoint closed sets. and hence R~is connected..
II
COMPLEX
ANALVSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
55
1. Then the open sets defined by x <·E and x > E cover E.b[ and semiclosed intervals by ]a.8. t For· a = . This is meaningness unless we define the statement in terms of nearness. To avoid confusion neighborhoods and open sets on·E·are often referred to as relative neighborhoods and relatively open sets.
"
.
.bi) with a". or semielosed interval with the end points a and b. and a dosed set is connected if it cannot be deccnnposed into two closed sets. we may assume that at < b1• We bisect the interval (al.I
'11 ".... The connectedness of a. elosed.
~.} have a common limit c. The largest number ·a of A. if 8 is connected.r·~I:I~:·· . The opposite assumption would lead to a similar eontradietion.
{"
"
:. .
:
.J and {b".only if the set E is empty.
I':
I
I
. . Then ~ would be a lower bound. An interval is defined by an inequality of one of the four types: a < x < b.
We reproduce one of the classical proofs. At the risk of being pedantic we repeat: Definition 3. I t follows that E ~ an open. the cases a arid b ··. In this way we obtain B sequence of nested intervals (~.. It is evident that the ._. :~. x or inf % for x E E. Connectedneu.. but an open seton E need not be open when regarded as a subset of S.." . based on the fact that any monotone sequence has a finite or infinite limit. Since A and B are closed e would have to be a common point of A and B. we assume that E is a connected set with the greatest lower bound a and the least upper bound b..
~"t••
.
:~
". we agree to set a· == ..
• .. or A is the whole line....h. Before proving the converse we make an important remark. . I ••
.to denote open intervals by ]a.b .. The least upper bound~ denoted as l.·:+.
. Suppose that a point ~ from the open interval (a. A ltUbset 0/ a metric &paCe is connected if it cannot be represented as the union of two disjoint relatively open 8ets none of which is emptYt If E is open..~ x < 1 is relatively open.. 2. All points of E lie between a and b.. and if A is the whole line we se·t a == + With this convention every set of real numbers has a uniquely determined greatest . As an example. and its subspace topology is called the relative topology. E B. a subset of E is relatively open if and only if it is open.. that no point of E lies to the left of ~... EAt b.
(0. and because ~ is connected. With minor modifications the same proof applies to any interval .~are to be ·~tnCtllae(t ..
a subspace of R..1. Let E be an arbitrary subset of R and call a a lower bound of E if a ~ % for all x E E.bt) and note that one of the two halves has its left end Point in A and its right end point in B.... The sequences {a.
The notion of & [oining polygon is so simple that we need not give a formal definition . any two points in A can be joined
o. a component of a set is B. Then C(a) is sure to contain a. For future use we remark that it is eve~ possible to join any two points by a polygon whose sides are parallel to the coordinate axes. . A fl B == JJ.· and we conclude t'h&t C(a) is connected. It should be observed that different
Every set has a unique decomp08Uion into components. In other words.
':
. Since A was connected either At or A:z must be empty..all < ! contained . in other words a component.'. consider a point a E E and let C(a) denote the union of all connected subsets of E that contain a. '. The representation B•.COMPLEX ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
17
proved:
In the course of the proof we have introduced the notions of greatest lower bound and least upper bound.. the set must lie in a finite interval.
'
'. if C E C(a) (\ C(b). 'r'. then it is a maximal connected set. .. but the following characterization of open connected sets contains essentially all the information we shall need.~I < p. First.. and for this reason it is sufficient to consider the case where at and Bt ~ joined by a.. an open disk 12.d: JJ such that C(a) s: A U B. disjoint.
'.. so that in fact C(a) == C(c).
• .
open. T~
+
Theorem 2. then C(a) C C{c) by the definition of C(c) and the connectedness of O(a)..
". If we . A region is the.1. and we have proved that the condition of the theorem is sufficient. connected subset which is not contained in any larger connected subset . let 112 <I
be a neighborhood contained in A~ If a point in this neighborhood could be joined to a by a polygon. they must belong to the set. 0:. which is precisely what we
by way of 0. • I'
want to prove. hence AI is empty. In such cases the first step is to decompose the set into its maximal connected eomponenie. in which ease they are ealled the minimum and the maximum. The theorem generalizes easily to R ~ and en~
Definition 4..
"... in A40 All points in this neighborhood can be joined to al by & line segment. Suppose that C(a) were not connected.~~'J:'. and consequently C(a) = C(b)~ We call C(a) the component of a. if at E At.. Secondly. : ::.
A nonempty connected open 8et is called a reqion:
A nonempty open Bet in the plane i8 connected if and only if any two oj ita points can be joined by a polygon which liu in the set.moredimensional analogue of an open Interval. Indeed. Then we could find relatively open sets A. The same is true of any 6neighborhood in Rtl. The closure of 8: region is called a closed region. We denote by AI the subset of A whose points can be joined to a by polygons in A~ and by AI the subset whose points eannot be so joined. Let A be an open connected set. Eo () A. and we have proved that the condition is necessary . and all points can be joined to d.atl where t runs through the interval 0 :S t ~ 1 The subsets of the interval 0 < t < 1 which correspond to points i~ A · and AI! respectively. and nonvoid. and from there to a. Theorem 4...
.
contradicts the connectedness of the interval.. .
Theorem 3. Hence a E C(c).. As the name Indicates. But Al contains the point a.· () B... such a set is said to be bounded. In order to be sure that the bounds are finite we must know that the set is not empty and that there is some finite lower bound and some finite upper bound.
The structure of connected sets in the plane is not nearly so simple as in the case of the line.J beE.... and choose a point a E A. Hence the whole neighborhood is contained in AIJ and At is open.r
If E is the given set.'
... This segment has a parametric representation z == at t(a2 .can show that C(a) is connected .
By Theore~ 3 the whole plane. and by the same reasoning O(c) C C(4).~~~ ':

. Choose at E Al) a: E At and suppose that these points can be joined by & ~polygon in A.. If the set is closed and if the bounds are finite. . We may aseume that a E A while B contains 8 point b.: . It would follow.. ·Any doeed and bounded nonempty set of real numbeT81ias a minimum and a maximum. part would be empty. moreover. then at: could be joined to this point by a line segment.= (Eon A) U (Eo n B) would be a decomposition into relatively open subsets. B . and we conclude that Az is open. Finally. are evidently open. Let us prove that At and Ai are both
regions may have the same closure..In order to prove the aufliciency we assume that A has a representation A z:: At U AI as the union of two disjoint open sets. and from there to a by a polygon. This is contrary to the definition of A!.. ~Rt .. Similarly C(b) == C(c).. for instance in the course of a proof . if 01 E A 1there exists B neighborhood Iz . The proof is the same. line segment. This is a·contradiction. and ~C8: . and & half plane are regions. that any two components are either disjoint or identical.. for the set consisting of the single point a is connected. ·We have
One of the sides of the polygon must then join a point in A 1 to a point in A2.. . Since bE 0(0) there is a eonneeted set Eo C E 'W~ich contains 0 and b. We prove first that the condition is necessary.
: .
I
. It happens frequently that we have to analyze the structure of sets which are defined very implicitly.
Defin~tion 6.
"7
!
'I~
".= 8.. L Prove 'that the closure of a connected set is connected.~) • ~.... for it took a.r: " . Compactness.
~·.
~:
. y = sin 1/X'. and that a closed 8'Ubsetof a complete space is complete.
t: t" :. open (closed) subsets of X are precisely those ~t8 that ean be expressed as the Interaection of X witb an open (closed) subset of S.:
. A set is said to be discrete if all its Points are isolated..6) C C(a).~. furthermore.o) and because B(a. For R and C we have proved the converse.2..' .. . of a point a contains a connected neighborhood of a.open ~t must contain a point with rational coordinates.
This is &. Sec...... whole generation of mathematicians to agree on the best approach. 3). Let us say that a collection of open sets is an open covering of a set X if X is contained in the union of the open sets. and a finite covering is one that consists of a finite number of sets. . IS.l·::···
. but not conversely.'. that the number of components is countable..
ic"J 
I
.in Rft...
'. We. namely that every Cauchy sequence is convergent (Chap .. I
.. "to
yo
. and may thus be expressed as a sequence {Pi}.'
•
1_
'~••
:==
• : . every open subset oj R is a countable union OJ t8J0I open interval8.y that 8. A nMlrit space i8 aaid to be compli!U
is convergent .: ~I':.
: :: ...& subset of the natural numbers.. . A little more generally the assertion is true for any space S w~ch 18 l~y con:netted.y) E R2 with x == 0.': i
·'r ~...
rt'
. Hence C(a) . We shall sa. The proof is left to the reader. for he will not be able to discern the purpose of the definition.
I.:
' '
"
.
r
... re thinking of X.. In the case of R" we can conclude. . . : . The outcome would be that we would have to repeat essentially the same proof in many different connections.4. This is not surprising. consequence of the fact that the . We shall now introduce the stronger concept of compactness. Consider a E C(a) C E. compact if and only if every open covering 01 X
In 'this context we. . ... special name...x) + 0.~: ..: .
~
. 1# d· · ·m For instance..
.Oneighb~rhoods . There are several equivalent characterizations of compaetness..
.. Show t hat the union of two regions 18 a region if and only If they have a common point . Cauchy sequence if d(xa. The consensus of present opinion is that it is best to focus the attention on the different ways in which 8.) .. To different components correspond diff~nt k.1).&t0 ~ x ~.
A set X it. A subcovering is a subcollection with the same property. Verify that E is not locally connected .:'. 2.. ~
. Show that 8r
discrete set in a separable metric space is countable . If E 18 open It con~ns B(a. determine the ~ma..:
'. :. '. and we would say that {xtt.. set E_ IS denae ~n S if E.
. and it is a matter of taste which one to choose as definition.
".l·is a. By this we mean that any neighborhood. ...
I
:
.'
.. 7... As a matter of fact it will tum out that the compact subsets of Rand C are the closed bounded seta. and consequently the set of components 1.. Let E be the set of points (x..
"
a metric
. The reader wiU~·findno difficulty in proving that a complete subset of a metric space is closed. The notions of convergent sequences and Cauchy sequences are obviously meaningful in any metric space. 'yl ~ 1.8) is connected B(a.. ...) + 0 as n and m tend to 00.CISES
show that the relatively..
Definition 5.:. and it is not hard to see that this property carries over to any R1I...'..
58
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS
IIAPPINGS
51
Theorem 5. given set can be covered by open sets...
containa a finite BUbcovering. Indeed..
if every Cauchy
sequence
countable. To see this we observe that every . . IS ~~en. but this would be unwise} for it would mean shutting our eyes to the most striking property of bounded and closed sets of real or complex numbers. It is stronger than completeness in the sense that every compact space or set is complete. conclude that the components are in onetoone correspondence with . Prove that the components of a closed set are closed (use Ex.are connected.

. as a subset of a t.. The set of points With rational coordinates is countable. Whatever we do the uninitiated reader will feel somewhat bewildered. It is clear that every convergent sequence is a Cauchy sequence. and we shall say that a metric space is separable If ther~ exists a countable subset which is dense in S.
t
1... For each component C(a). In view of its importance the property deserves a..y) E R2 such th..8
~: ._}. s.llest k such that P* E C(a).....: " ...'
.
".
A subset is complete if it is complete when regarded as a subspace . ~a.
In Kit the components of any open set are
op6nt
i
: . it is possible to analyze the proof ~d then:by ~nve at a more general result. we would say that x" ~ s: if d(x". Again.
EXE. 'I :_''''::~. ~
~
space 8. . We are led to the following result: In a locally connected separable space every open set 18 a cQ'Untable union oj diBjoim regiOfl.
~ I:
'. and let B
L If
xes
be the set with x > 0. Let A be the set of points (X. 1 and either y = 0 or y = lin for some positive ~teger ft. In view of this result it would be possible to dispense with the notion of compactness" at least for the purposes of this book. Is A U B connected? .x.~ .t are !he co~ponents of E? Are they all closed? Are they relatively open.' ~ J~.
• . 2. The definition of compactness reads.8 .::
.
. In one direction the conclusion is immediate: We know that a compact set is bounded and complete..r:tr:ir.::.8). We choose a fixed n ~ no for which d(xft.y) ~ d(x. We prove first that every compact space is complete... d
bounded . ..But if U is an open set in 8} then U (\ X is an open subset of X (8.} be a.. It is convenient to define a stronger property called total boundedness:
trI). (better.} there exists an e > 0 such that d(x.: .lies in the fact that many proofs become particularly simple when formulated in terms of open coverings..r0 U · · · U B(xo. for since each U.
". e) contains only finitely many x..=0·..
"r •
. with r = max.. It follows that the eneighborhood B(y. I}. ~. and we conclude that 8 has the HeineBorel property..:~~ of:C. t UN.~ totally bou . neighborhoods wit~ centers on X. .
. .Y E X it follows that d(x. . Suppose that X is compact... If y is not the limit of {x. For the collection of all balls of radius e is an open covering. n ~ no.. (The preceding proof that any compact set is bounded becomes redundant.r.e).neighborhoods should be with respect to X or with respect to 8.
. . We know that S can be covered by finitely many B(xt E. It converges to a limit y. and the compactness implies that we can select finitely many that cover X. . Determine n.
..~. Then B(xft..tXn+l) < en and hence d(x"... and the squares can in turn be covered by disks with arbitrarily small radius.:.. and our proof that bounded.Xj). Forthis reason the ambiguity is only apparent. I) . This proves that X is totally bounded. Therefore it must contain a finite subeovering. contains x" only for finitely many n). They form an open covering of X.xo) + d(y.. it contains a finite subeovering. Its importance. and we obtain a finite covering by 2.x d(xtf. (T1t • .
t
>
0.
+
+ ·· ·+
ft)
+
Corollary.
A Bet X ie totally bounded ift lor every covered by ftnf... Suppose that there exists an open covering which does not contain any finite subcovering. Choose n so large that d(xjf.
. formed by Us. .. it is not clear whether we require their centers to lie on X. which means the same as X C B(xa.) We have already proved one part of the following theorem:
Theorem 6. To see this. and this y belongs to one of the open sets U in the given covering. suppose that we have covered X by eneighborhoods whose centers do not necessarily lie on X. E B(Xl. When Definition 7 is applied to a subset X C 8 it is slightly ambiguous.r) .
"
. and let {x. it contains a ba. For the opposite conclusion we need to show that every bounded set in R or C is totally bounded. is itself totally bounded we can find an x. for it is not clear whether the . A set..tely many balls of radius t·
. E"n+l €n+pl < 2n+1• It follows that Xn is a Cauchy sequence. X C B(xo. Consider now the collection of all open sets U which contain only finitely many XII. If X is bounded it is contained in a disk..Y) < 8. for if X C B(Xl.txn} > E for all m ~ no.y) > 2e. but R and C are complete.. and can be dropped. X can be
This is certainly true of any compact set.d(x.y) :s.H
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS AS MAPPINGS
11
and the covering is by open sets of S.
'. Write til = 211. except for a small point that should not be glossed over. Cauchy sequence in X. eft) C Bf:y.ll B(y. This is a contradiction.xtt+'p) < eta. that is. d(x. But that is clearly impossible. and complete subsets of a complete Space are closed. it follows by the preceding reasoning that this collection is an open covering of X. If each had a finite subcovering..8).~~:.€:) U · · ·U B(x. and if X is compact.xn) < E for m.). and conversely every open subset of X can be expressed in this form (Sec..:r).. '. £ 1) which does not admit a finite subcovering.
&
totally bounded set is totally
: ... It happens that this is of no avail. Let us take the case of C.
bounded ... then any two pointe of X have a distance <2£ + max d(Xi... and hence in a square. a compact set is necessarily bounded (8 metric space is bounded if all distances lie under a finite bound). If it does contain a point from X.. The square can be subdivided into a finite number of squares with arbitrarily small side. If {x..} is not convergent.x. Because U is open. T For any X..: ~s. But boundedness is not all we can prove.
. Then d(x""y) ~ d(x$tY) .) < tit implies d(x.' rr.€I) such that B(x'be."'. in other words. The property in the definition is frequently referred to as the HeineBorel property. 1. choose itt point Xo and consider all balls B(xo.: . namely by the single set U.":. Secondly. If such 8 neighborhood does not meet X it is superfluous.
A subset of R or C
is compact if and wdy if it ie closed
and
Definition 7. for d(x.
To prove the other part.ty) > 2e for infinitely many n. . In fact. such that d(x. The reader ~
. t It is clear how to continue the construction: we obtain a sequence Xft with the property that Bex"" E:R) has no finite subcovering and X.
11).. is compact if and only if it is complete and totally
bounded. Because B(xl. it wou1d follow that the given sequence is finite. ed is valid. and we have proved that X is bounded. Therefore B(xnr £:ft) admits a finite subeovering.) has no finite sub cove ring..
We have already mentioned this particular consequence. relatively open set). then we can replace it by 82aneighborhood around that point...Y) < 8/2 and Eft < &/2...••••
t Here we
are
usinI the
fact that any subset of ~ this . hence there exists a B(Xl. 3 For this reason it makes no difference whether we formulate the definition for a full space or for a subset. . We observe that a totally bounded set is necessarily bounded.xfJ) < 2r. ~ Ex.+l E B(x 1 The second property implies d(Xty. assume that the metric space S is complete and totally bounded.:.
ev
R.. contains only finitely many Xli.. the same would be true of S.
. . I t remains to prove the converse. Suppose now that the space is not totally bounded+ Then there exists an ! > 0 such that the space cannot be coveredby finitely mimy eneighborhoods.00 the set of aU sequences x = {x..~. :::::> B. The original formulation was that every bounded sequence of complex numbers has a convergent subsequence.~~ '::.··~~~~.~~:::. we just pointed out that a Cauchy sequence with a.~_~~.
bounded. .: ~.. ~. ~~..}. : . The first part of the proof is a repetition of an earlier argument.e..:
.
..} that converges to y.~'
.~':iZ1:~~"i~:1=:i~~~!:t~~~.. If y is not 8.12
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS AS MAPPINGS
13
There is a third characterization of compact sets. ••• t X" have been selected we choose %tI+1 so that it does not lie in B(x}.::.:> · · · is .. Show that the HeineBorel property·can also be expressed in the f?llowmg ~anner:... For strict economy of thought it would thus have been better to prove Theorem 7 before Theorem 6.. Indeed.uoWl. f UI continuous at a if to every It > 0 there exists 0 > 0 such that d(xJa~ < 0 Implies d'U(x}J!(a)} < I.' ~ ~
•
. We shall consider functions! which are de6n~ on a metric space S and have values in another metric space S'.m. .~ {~: ..to take value~ in the extendedoomplex plane. Th_edefi~tion of a continuous function needs practically no modification. In the compact case we could select a finite subcovering.
Show by example that this need not be true if the sets are merely closed S.::.5.I
·~)ii·:.e) V·· . This is always poaaible because these neighborhoods do not cover the whole space..:~_·(k~.."x > ! for all m and n. the function. If y is 8 limit point.·.._::~>~ .If Hi
. ~. It came to be recognized as an important theorem precisely because of the role it plays in the theory of analytic functions.
..~.) contains infinitely many X we can choose subscripts nk.~... for d(x.. L . :::.. limit point must be convergent.. : .
.18 regarded as a subspace.:... by induction.+ O. end then we observed that a Cauchy sequence With a limit point is necessarily convergent. It should be clear that results of this kind are particularly valuable for the purpose of presenting proofs BBconcisely as possible..~.. In view of Theorem 6 that is what we had to prove. £' 1) and nitl > nl:L It is clear that {~} converges to y.:~~ :. ~t.
) ~. In the first place it is clear that the BolzanoWeierstrass property implies completeness. suppose that £1.
ft
The ~~er should reftect on the fact that we have exhibited three c~a:actenzations of compactness whose logical equivalence is not at all triviel.. We showed in essence that every sequence has a limit point. .
..·:i~.e).. It deals with the notion of limit point (sometimes called cluster value) : We say that y is B limit point of the sequence {Xn} if there exists a subsequence {x . In most cases it is safe to slur over the distinction ~ a function on S and its restriction to a subset are usually ~enoted by t~e same symbol..
A)
bers has a maximum ... Observe that fUl(X~)) C X'.
i.. ... . and f1U(X) ::> x..
.
.. .
EXERCISES
proof of the fact that every bounded sequence of ~ompI~ n~mbers has a convergent subsequence (for instance by use of the Iimes inferior).RB.
. If every B(y.·.. and when Xl. Use compactness to prove that a closed bounded set of real num
:> Et.
.l. .. .:.
.1 of real numbers such thatonlyafimtenumberofthex .td. .
.. We construct a sequence I x" 1 &8 follows: Xl is arbitrary.. Let 8.~. . in such a way that X"'i E B(y.Weierstrass theorem.. If there were no limit points the open sets containing only finitely many x.8 called the 'mage of X under I.rj·.:
: :: •••
.. The converse is also true. A limit point is almost the same as an accumulation point of the set fonned by the points x. .
L Give an alternate
Theorem 7a
A metric apace is compact if and only if every infinite sequence has a lima point.:.:_..
I . NaturallYl we shall be mainly concerned with rea.:.:/~i.The spa~ 8 is the domain of. and it would follow that the sequence is finite...'.~... same point.'
:...
'. Contin. and we wnte J :8~ S.. The inverse 1 1 11IUIfer (X') of X' C 8 consists of all z f 8 such thatf(z) f X'. Indeed.'~_..or complexvalued functions. We are of course free to cOIlSl~er.:'..~~~·:. are ¢ o. .• .. but we preferred to emphasize the importance of total boundedness as early as possible. occasionally the latter are allowed . This theorem is usually referred to as the Balzano. Functw. except that a sequence permits repetitions of the. every neighborhood of y contains infinitely many x. V B(x". '). If X C 8 the set of all values J(x} for x E 8 1. then the intersection
r:.. ordinary distance being replaced by distance on the Riemann sphere .Every collection of closed sets with an empty intersection contains a finite 8ubcollection with empty intersection . We are mainly concerned with functions ~hat'at'econtinUOU8< at an PO~ts in the domain of definition.m~~~~ L . ::~ :~ .~.. is not
decreBBing sequence of nonempty
empty (Cantor1s lemma). Defined(x y} = max Ix _ y I . FunctIOns ~ also refe~ to as mappings: we say that! maps S into S'.E..
~~
~~
.
1. 2. would form an open covering.. '. in which ease the d?~a.
. We conclude that the BolzanoWeierstrass property implies total bound ed ness. .
.
i:. and it is denoted by f(X). ~~~~::.a
compact sets.
..~L~.~ : .'..·. The previous time we used this reasoning was to prove that a compact space is complete..
_. limit point of {x_l it has a neighborhood which contains only finitely many Xn (abbreviated version of the correct phrase).·~·_::· _~. Is the space complete? Show that the aneighborh~ are not "totally·
.functions f whose domain is only a subset of S. But it is clear that {x"l has no convergent subsequence..
). a condition 18 said to hold uniformly with respect to fir parameter if It c~ be expressed by inequalities which do not involve the parameter.. It 18 said to be onto if f(S) = 8' . . but the function z~
18 not . but this is a deep theorem that we shall not need ...

x~
properties has an inverse 11.I~ •••
and ~. a function f is said to be uniformly continUOUB on X if to ev?ry e > 0.. "" "~"
~oron.)rf(y".. ~
<I
•
(~
~OI' one
to one)
~. ..p) .)) '< 1/2 80 that d'(J(xJ.:..Pw/2). :1 .. For Inatanee the function z is ~njformly continuous on the whole complex plane..
.!(y./2 & !S:.:. The notion . Under a continUOUB mapping the image of every compact set is cmnpact.. A typical application is the assertion that a realvalued function which is continuous and never zero on 8 connected set is either always positive or always negative. Let 8 be the sm~lest of ~e numbers pt/2.VjI(U. Suppose that f is defined and continuous on the compact set Consider a covering of !(X) by open sets U. and suppose that d(Xt.... 0 ::: y < I} which is neither open nor closed.. A continuou8 realvalued /unct£on on a compact Bet has a max~ mum and a minimum.. In fact. A property of a set . if f and iI are both continuous we say th~t f.there exists a 0 > 0 such that d'(!(xl).y. Suppose that f is continuous on a compact set X.
10.auch that d'(J(x)J(y» < E/2 for x e. It follows that f(X) C U1 V·· · U Us.X2) < 6. .o! u.UOUB function
is 'U. But an interval which contains positive and negative . In this situation. Co~lder the covering of X the smaller balls B(y.:.
hr
+
On sets which are not compact some continuous functions are uniformly continuous and others are not._ o.: . We conclude that SI is 0
The proof is typical of the way the HeineBorel property can be used.". A fUnclion i8 ccmtinUO'US if and only if the inverse image of every closed set is closed. COrollary.
==
A ~a?pi~ f:8 + 8' is said to be one to one if f(x) =+ J(y) only for Y..: or 0 Jl(B) = Of and hence A :::: or "B. the words "open" and "closed.p/2).
~.
. If 8 is connected either jI(A) ::::..n. The emphasis is on the fact that a is not allowed to depend on Xl. the image is connected.~. ihe following is
bers also contains zero. There exists a firute subcovering: X C B(YhPI/2) V··· V B(Y." when referring to the inverse image. and we have proved thatf(x) is compact .. . maximum and a minimum follows by Theorem 2.• ay.!(x'JJ) < e all P8Irs (X1tX. It happens to be true if S = 8' == Btl (invariance oj the regt. For instance the mapping I(x) = x2/(1 + x2) of R into R has the image feR) = {y. Then B == jl(A) U fl(B) is a representation of S as a union of disjoint open sets.. not for the direct image.» < 42 and d'(j(x.
Ig~
t~
.. we have proved that compactness and connectedness are topological properties (Theorems 8 and 9). Quite ~~era11y. here p may depend 00.. For every y e X there is a ball B(y. . .lingui8ticaJly clu.. " . it "satisfiesf~I(f(x» == x and f(Jl(X') = X'."""*~""".).:
I. should of course be interpreted relatively to the domain of f~ It is very important to observe that these properties hold only for the inverse image.
Under a continuoUB mapping the i~age of any connected Be'

We may assume that I is defined and continuous on the whole space S.
connected. There 18 a Yl With d<Xt...may ternuJ can (It "" to\ A"'" ". continudy will be in constant UBe.f(x2)) < f 88 desired.1I. The inverse images II(U) are open and form a covering of X.~ .. defined on 8'.
I:· .. and consequently closed.. . TheoreIll 9. If f is not defined on all of S./2.·on). y.. In this connection it is perhaps ~ful to point out that the property of being an open subset is not topological. Hence d'(f(x.B(y. Because X is compact we can select a finite subeovering: X Cf1(U1) U · .. Accordingly.
x
true:
Theorem.X!) < o. For mstanoe..t ~
1.. In fact. and that f(S) is all of SI.lea is aaIled ~
be re1B_."~.:hich 18 shared by all topological images is called a lop<llogical properl.84
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS"
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
85
The following characterizations are immediate consequences of the def nition : A function is continuous if and only if tM inverse image oj every open set is open. and hence an interval. "" The image is a closed bounded subset of R. 8.. and we obtain d(X2 Yk) < pt.Yk) < Pk/2.num.: \.
Ibappmc WIth both propart. .p).: .is a topologual mapping or a homeomorphism. 1 .: :. ". Suppose that 8' = A V B where A and B are open and disjoint.J with d(Xl. If Xes and Y C 8' and if X is homeomorphic to Y there is no re~n why X and Y should be simultaneously open.!ifor... 0.i/ormly
The existence of a
is connected. On a compact set every contt'1I. .t A mapping with both these
fOr'
Th~rem
conHnU0'U8. In twa example I(R) fails to be closed because R is not compact. ~ .
:
}~
.
1r CONFORMALITY
Definition 8.~ .
"
.~:::
... . makes perfect sense to speak of a compact topological space. an are is not merely a set of points.. However.: z{t).._....1. then.~_X.f its sub8ets. if x#<1I we require the existence of open sets U.continuous on the whole real line: sin z. But if x. 01 points as z :.» define8~ 8NIle ~D.
+
'. As a matter of fact.. L Prove that every continuous onetoone mapping of a. Prove that there exist x EXt Y E Y such that d(x..~ . The observant reader will have noticed that most results the preceding sections were formulated in terms of open sets.y) is a minimum.
.. Prove that a subset of the real line which 18 topologically equrvalent to an open interval is an open interval. and the theorems remain true. . + x and x" j. The point is that it may be unnatural to futroduce a distance in situations when one is not real1r needed. Closed sets are the complements of open sets.
..'. (iii) The union of an arbitrary collection of open sets S8 an open Bet.:_ ".

"
.·· A topologicalsptJCe is a set T together with a collection o.
Definition 9. : .. boundary. _. z if every neighborhood of x contains all but a finite number of the XII..
.
L Const~ct
a.~.. Such examples would necessarily be very complicated and would not further the purposes of tills book. but they are rather convenient: N is a neighborhood of x if there exists an open set U such that x E U and U C N. "(1") m8. ordered by inCI"9a8ing values of the" parameter. 11 E V and U V = /2J.
.
" ..
. but there is really no strong reason to do this.::..... closure. This awkward situation is remedied by introducing a new axiom which characterizes the topological space 88 a Hausdorff space . Theorem 6 becomes meaningless.II
COMPLEX
ANALYStS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
17
EXERCISES
1 onto the whole plane.
.. compact space is topological..$ pi onto a ::. x sin (x2)J \x1i sin x? It is not necessary.
:.)·:.::
'.
We recognize at once that this termin?logy is consistent with 04'llr earlier definition of an open subset of a metric space. we used distances to define open sets.. Let X and Y be compact sets in a complete metnc space. topological mapping of the open disk
lzl <
convergent sequences. called open sets.. and so on. the reader that distances are dispensable.
.6.. and it is immediately clear how to define Interior.
. and not always convenient to express nearness in termsof distance.. When following this custom it is preferable to denote the mapping by z == "r(t).. Neighborhoods could be avoided. If a Dond~functioii t .p6 tW interval «"..... The HeineBorel property is also one that deals only with o~n sets. However.
..) . (Show that closed sets are mapped "on closed sets.
'
_'
..
2.. The reason for including this section has been to alert. the first serious difficulty we encounter ~.. Which of the following functions are uniformly . Therefore it.. t ::.
~. :
.• '.(. Indeed.
:.·:~.:s 1". The definition is clear: We say that x" j... If we deci~e to consider the open sets as the primary objects we must postulate asaoms that they have to satisfy.
. s. (Consider the effect of removing a point. 2. Topological SPOCeIJ. ·
A topological space ill called a Hausdorff epeee if any two distinct points are crmtained in disjoint open sets. ~"
... We can also use the complex notation z = z(t) ~ x(t) iy(O which baa several advantages. . x sin x. but very essentially also a succession of points. As such it is eompaet and eonneeted. The following axioms lead to the commonly accepted definition of a topological space:
1. = 2(. :. ....~ Hence the definition carries over to topological spaces.. .. Considered as a point set an arc is the image of a closed finite interVal under a eontinuous mapping. and Theorem 7 becomes false: ~. Wlth
We now return to our original setting where aU functions and variables are restricted to real or complex numbers. =. . The role of metric spaces will seem disproportionately small: all we actually need are some simple applications of connectedness and compactness. . We shall never in this book have occasion to consider a space that is not a Hausdorff
n
space."~.. . In the presence of this condition it is obvious that the limit of a convergent sequence is unique. The whole section is mainly descriptive. ~ .
'
.
... Connectedness was defined purely by means of open sets . P.
. properties (ii) and (iii) were strongly emphasized.
in
This is not the place to give examples of topologies that cannot be derived from a distance function. It centers on the geometric consequences of the existence of a derivative. . True enough.
. y we are not able to prove that x = 1/.
'
.. The JollQlUJ'ingconditions have to be fulfilled: (i) The emp·t:y set r& and the whole space T are open aetB.) .:. It is also customary to identify the arc ")' with the continuous mapping of [a. and (i) is trivial. Arcs and Closed CurtJelf. V such that x E U. The equation of an arc 'Y in the plane is most conveniently given in parametric form IE = x(t)J '!I = yet) where t runs through an interval a ~ t ~ fJ and x(t)J yet) are continuous functions. . In other words. (ii) The intersection of any two '?Pen sets is an open set .:.sJ.. .
.
.! t . The correct definitions of a.) is defined and has a derivati.
. is the arc z . a .z( t). The opposite arc of z = Z(t). 2
88
a definite
+
When we consider the derivative
f'(z) = lim fez
/t900
+ h)
h
. ¢O.. . and this is its most important purpose it serves rule to distinguish between C and C. A junction /(z) is a'lUllytic on an arbitrary p~nt set A if it is the· restriction to A of a function which is analytic in some open sef containing A. t ~ Ii and z = z(t .>(") is strictly increasing. It is important to stress that the open set (} is part of the definition.I.. the initial and t. If the derivative t(t) := x'(t) iy'(t) exists and is . Opposite ares are sometimes denoted by 'Y and . it is of course understood that Z E A and that the Iimit is with respect to values h such that z + h E A. For closed curves a shift of the parameter is defined as follows: If the original equation is z == z(t). This convention saves us from writing down the equa. Observe that f must first of all be a function. since the components of an open set are open. also. defined on an open set 0. and hence singlevalued..II
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
II
We say that the first equation arises from the second by a change of parameter. at these points z(t) shall still be continuous with left and right derivatives which are equal to the left and right limits of z' (t) and. defined on a set ~ in the complex plane.(:J) can always be brought about by a linear change of parameter. As a rule one should avoid speaking of an analytic function f(z) without referring to a specific open set n on which it is defined.0 the arc iR said to be regular. we choose a point til from the interval (a. We will use this standard pfll'ametrization whenever a circle is introduced. . . Another instance in whieh the mention of Il can be auppressed is the phrase: "Let I{z) be analytic at %0" It means that a function /(z. if z(tJ = Z(t2) only for h '. Sometimes one says more explicitly that fez) is complex analytic. in the case of a piecewise
+
needed. can be considen:d as a closed curve with the equation z = a re".a. The existence of the derivative will therefore have a different meaning depending on whether z is an interior point or a boundary point of A.
I
+
. as we will. A constant function z(t) defines a point cunJ6. depending on the connection.:. We shall say that the arc is differentiable if z'(t) exists and is continuous (the term continuously dUJerentiable is too unwieldy) i if. regular change of parameter.l£d junction f(z). A complexval1. . We give a formal statement of the definition: Definition 10. For instance. .~.ii! il. a ~ t ~ (I. 0 ~ t ~ 1 arises by a reversible change of parameter from the equation z = t it2. sometimes by . regardless of whether one equation may arise from the other by &: change of parameter.tio~ each time it is
+
+
regz~ 00. is said to be analytic in n if it has a deri~Ve at each point of Q. for regularity. Definition The last definition is merely an agreement to use a convenient tenni~l~gy. An are is a closed cuTtle if the end points coincide: z{a) = z(P). which is one of the fonn t = GT + b. or a Jordan art. we speak of a differentiable or .(.fez)
+
of a complexvalued function. and if fez) is analytic in OJ then the restriction of f to D' is analytic in ll'. . the simplest course is to consider two arcs as different as soon as they are given by different equations. This is a ease in which the set Q need not be explicitly mentioned. The way to avoid this is to insist that all analytic functions be defined on open sets. for the specific choice of n is usually immaterial as long as it contains A. in addition..&.>'(r) is continuous and. When this is the case. 1 2.! t ~ (. and . z'(t) #.:'i 1. it is no loss o~ generality to consider only the case where 0 is connected.Ii a) for {l ~ t ~ to {l .01'0. a > o.. Analytic Functions in Regions. A commonly used synonym is holomorphic. 0 ~ t .
__0·· .. In following this course.=:: tt. it is customary to denote the restriction by the same letter [.:. it is important to show that certain properties of arcs are invariant under a change of parameter. An arc is piecewise differentiable or piecewise regular if the same conditions hold except for a finite number of values t.1. A change of the parametrle interval (a. A circle 0. originally defined as a locus Iz ~ e] = r. An arc is simple. ~. The J!urpose of the shift is to get rid of the distinguished position of the initial point.~ified. but the rule can be broken if it is clear from the context what the set is.It .enninal point of an arc remain the same after a change of parameter . For instance. For greater flexibility of the language it is desirable to introduce the following complement to Definition 10:
a
11. In particular..:open neipboriaood of Zo...fJ) and define 8. new closed curve whose equation is z = z(t) for to .ve~ 8Ome·. The differentiable or regular character of an arc is invariant under the change of parameter t = tp(r) provided that v. that is to say
regular arc.!Ot the arc ~ has So tangent whose direction is determined by arg z'(0.. The change is reversible if and only if v. differentiable or regular closed curve and of a simple closed curve (or Jordan curve) are obvious . Logically. 0 ~ t ~ 21. If 0' is an open subset of 0. the equation z = t'! it4.
. m. w.continuous then U.l

+
t:ve
=0
+
+ w!
IZ1 and
IW1
t21
=
Iwi . ..IV . . for this would k is it possible that u < 1 2 rna e Ie. Itt :.. c \lWl ~P: m O~ .I are reciprocals and hence real only if z parts of the real axi ~a. u.n o an an ytlC function in 0 satisfy the Cauch y. v. we may choose for n the complement of the negative real axis z ~ 0. .e"'tl 5.1D Aw40 M
D arc cos z = i z
and we obtain .d v sa tiaf y these equations in 0 and if th · envatives are . Then
cannot lie in A.. For instance..1 ~ "11".· su a value they are all in the u r half smee l IS an analytic branch of log (z can the~fore define o snd e. this ha.0• S~ 0 mee 1 .. Denote the principal branch by W =U i" = log a. and s given e > 0.1 <:: .unc~on such 88 log z the choice of the branch define s sing1eval~ an: anaaJunyt~ambentalhfact that ~t is impossible to This will' . In the case of log z we can use the same region fir obtained by excluding the negative real axis..ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS AS MAPPINGS
71
70
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
Although our definition requires all analytie functions to be singlevalued.. In 0: one and only one of the values of Vi has a positive real part.z. Indeed. has to be specified It . M oreover z t P e an · en V.r. .
+ ~1
I
(1 + ~
)=
1 Vlz!
with the same branch of Vi.min (P.2' ]8 never _I m .yzt=T and 2 _..'
..
.. but this time we have no algebraic identity at our disposal. and assume that
where ~ has a positive real part...'.~pellB only when z lies on the excluded ot z in ~ eeause n' 18 co~ooted... %2 e fi and denote the corresponding values of w by WI = 'Ul iv.'1 in the first exam I d tb set v z. or Me cos z. and for sufficiently smell a it is not empty.lities ltD ..l.. = 'Ul with 'U1.
"
.1 '
'. n p reursr.w~1 ._ the continuity must be proved.. Once the continuity is established the analyticity follows by derivation of the inverse function z = 1O~.
. Again.YZt=T .fIJUl. ·e partial + 1S an .eVil < B"
.:: e'" _ lIt > in the disk ltD _ w I < e ~d he e"1 > o.zsl Wi \ < Ul
Hence
and it follows that w ==' is continuous at Zl. provided that they are restricted to a definite region in which it is possible to select a singlevalued and analytie branch of the function. p is.1 has consequently 8. it follows that all values eh are on the same SIde of the real axis. :.. Corollary). &. In this wav we obtai m ai 81 evalu ed analytic function between singl agL ~ part lies
+~
+~
+ ~)
w:~ W. lremwn valid for functions which f alvti . former case we would obtfti ' . oJ . For a given point w. /1w 11m :=:: ~o M
I· _..w:l1 · IWI + 'W:ll
+ 102\ ~
1h
+ Uz > ttl·
v'Z
tZl ... lv.Z2 8. _ 1 are both .we can define VI . with the notations used in calculus Az ? 0 implies
l!w
+
The infinitely many values of are 008 z h i log (2 +~) In this ~ t e same 88 the values of the h If lin · case we restrict z to the complement 0' of a ~ ~..
z
'. _ 1 = i~ ~_ . Choose & "..1 .:. are analytic on an open set' art". and define the principal branch of the logarithm by the condition [Irn log zl < 1r.
. . minimum p on A (Theorem 8. ."
au
OIl
au
8ii ~ .
Therefore.zs'
= leI . and we are forced to use a more general reasoning..i! log 2.1C raae of log Z in certain · be proved in the chapter on integration regions. . y == 0 and x .~. · real and ~ es x 0' 1.~' ti . . All the results of Chap II C Se 1 2 .d.
._. n . let us prove that it is continuousChoose two points 21.:
if u an..e...... an al"l7f·i f . for 2 + .. > O.R·. :~.'Wli ~ s.L ~l . .._.ii~
av
+
'Zl . This minimum is positive.
~.'.• IS never real ill n'. . With this choice 10 becomes a singlevalued function in 0. u e as a ve that the Neither
Th~n
Wt
eU.·red~ to a·eO~~~ l"{Ma
. and V 2'1. This set is closed and bounded... ~ if It. ~~nary iemann equations parte
i
+
ax = ay'
Conversely deri 4'.. . consider the set A in the wplane which is defined by the inequa.e"'J. 1".le"1). . the real and Imaai n.J
arc eos a == ilog {z +~}
in 0' whose derivative is
o. or U2 etta > I Ytlog 2 ind> Ul > 2. z.0'" ' .
.
"
:'"
'"
. the cun 1 ~ i6 = ti..\ ..21ri. and si . log z._. it is possible to consider such multiplevalued functions as 0.et'lo(g.... The continuOUS function Ie'" .h + W1.. . An anelytLc fwction .1m !J. = l..... this set is indeed open and connected.. on IDOl ¥ we concl d bo derivative exists and equals l/z. ..u. an 10 th e latter case Ie"" _ ew.101 
=
IW1 . There 18 nothing unique about the · · singlevalued branches have been h w~y ~ which the region and the each time we consider a f .:... ... must lie function of z Fro1m th'e c . Therefore. C osen In t ese examples. for A does not contain any point w.1 11 . Hence w.'.t&ve proved that w is a continuous 4.
3. effected by the transformation w = f(z). the modulus.. contracted or expanded in the ratio If(zo)t.
+
(2)
argw'(to)
=
argf(zo)
+ argz(to)..
If u2
+ v! is constant}
av u+v=o
au. Show that either Re fez) > 0 or Re J(z) < 0 throughout 0. In other words. tangent at Wo == !(ZI). IS Independent of the direction. if arg f(~) is constant. ~n the equation 10 = wet) = f(z(t» defines an arc "I In the wplane which may be called the image of r.
u
au + v (tv
ay
ay
== u ~
au + v ~ = 0. region can be joined within the region by a polygon whose sides are parallel to the axes. t ~ (J.
Theorem II. we can only assert that fez) is constant on each component of nO. It is hence independent of the curve 7. But 11. In view of this p~perty the mapping by w = f{z) is said to be conformal at all points
and hence f(z) must be constant. In general this change of scale will vary from point to point .ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
73
72
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
the following theorem we shall list some simple conditions which have this consequence :
An analytic fU'Mlion in a region 0 whose derivative vanishes identicaUy must reduce to a constant.kv is the real part of (1 + ik)!. and let fez) be defined and ~o..!(zo) I . and prove that it is analytic.. is contained in a region g. For this reason curves through Zo which are tangent to
each other are mapped onto curves with a common tangent at Wo.ntinuollil in D.
If u or v is constant. In sense as well as in size..3 we remarked. we find that w' (t) also exists and is determined by
(1)
w'(t) ~ f'(z{t»)z'(t). It follows that 'U and v are constant on any line segment in n which is parallel to one of the coordinate axes.
EXERCISES
1im \J(z) ..
The vanishing of the derivative implies that au/axf au/aYt ilv/ax. at least under additional regularity assumptions . C~nversely. 1. i~ is clear that both kinds of conforma1ity together imply :he existenee of f (zo)4> It is less obvious that each kind will separately Imply the same result. Hence /(z) is in any case a constant. ax ax
av
A related property of the mapping is derived by consideration of the modulus \f'(z&)I. Note that for this theorem it is essential that n is a region.
~
We will investigate the meaning of this equation at a point z& == 2(to) with z'(ttJ) '# 0 and f'(zo) '# .. and we conclude again that f must reduce to a constant.0' (to) ~ 0" Hence y' has a. We have
These equations permit the conclusion au/ax = avjiJx = 0 unless the determinant u2 + v2 vanishes. Suppose that j(z) analytic and satisfies the condition If(z):ll .
+
~nd t~ ~eans that any small line segment with one end point at %0 is. In t~ limit. '.:£
X'
(to)
+
where
the partial deriritiris' ~':'taken
i£
veto)
at .3. precise definition of a singlevalued branch of ~
in a suitable region. ConjorlJUJl Mapping~ Suppose that an are 'Y with the equation z = z(t)J a =::. the imaginary part.Y ·tftiS can 
~. or the argument i8 ctmstant.. Same problem for log log z. . In Sec..let us a~e that thepartial derivatives ai/ax and aljay are continuous. avj8y are all zero. we can set u = kv with constant k (unless v is identioally zero).
ax ax
and
WIth f(z)
¢
O.. Consider the case of an fez) which is analytic in n.) can be expressed in the form
ttl'(to) :
is
. 2. Mo~vert two curves whic:h form an angle at to are mapped upon curves forming the same angle. If not. . ~ ~z.~ ~ In' 'terms of
r(t. But if u' + v2 ::= 0 at a single point it is constantly zero and J(z) vanishes identically. . We conclude that u iv is constant. Finally..i~
ax
ay
=~
ay
+ i ax = 0 ' av
we obtain
This relation ~rts t~at the angle between the directed tangents to "I at Za and to ~ at Wo . To be more prec~se.
2.ZGI
= If(zo)t
'
v'l="Z
1. that any two points in a. in connection with Theorem 3. f'(z)
= ~ . Under this condition the derivative of wet) = f(z(.IS equal to arg f(zo). region U... ~h~ linear change of sc:Ue a~ Zo. Give a.11 < 1 in a. The same is trueiJ either the real part.:
::<::"
. and its direction is detennined by
o. The first conclusion is that 1. If z'(t) exists.
."'/:'"
I ••••
..OJfor then the derivative of the inverse function must be equal to 1//1(%) at the point· z ~ jl(lO).~.. •
I.O .. '.r...._.::
. but the images overlap.. I •• :~I·::.:
..O.. and hence we must have
+
F'IG.
.'I· iJy} e I()to
1( aj at) J( + 2 iJx + t·ay ~ tD..~.
and in the second case
at · at ax == .. ~ /i·· '<. :.:c
"I:
~.
. • ~:~
••
..".:
• •
. I~ · .:.':":'":" .~. To .
r.
.r~: ."""'.~
:
:~.
. A mapping by the conjugate of an analytic function with a nonvanishing derivative is said to be indireetly conformal.J1.. .
: :.:.Lt
:1 .
•
.
. ~..• :
••
•• _.' . .~:.
in
It is customary to use the shorter notations
(5) L(oy) ""
f .:. 'J' ...As a.~. Its length is thus
L(.:'''..•.:
: . ... then the inverse function z = jI(W) is also analytic.!: ~..
....
•
...r. "..."' ~':::""': :u.. . r "_ .... ••
.''I=:: ..~... .::~. '"~..\ ..
•
.... ~.
.
~:~:.
••••
. the point represented by (3) describes a circle having the radius !l(aflax) icaJ/iJy)\.. • 1.~ *"~7'1=:.=
. ~
. .
~_'t::._ i.
..
.: : : .r"r_' r ··::1"· :· "'1' 1 :. .. ..y) at the point ZQ is 11'(zo)12 and hence 'F.:..• 1 ..:.."+. . 1 ~~':I. ·5
~.. . 1+ I: . ·1· •.:
r . ~... In the first case we obtain (4)..1 "Jl.:~~_... •
' . simpler proof of this important theorem.~.

r
'I
:
:::::"
..~ .:.1 ... This is the simple and fruitful idea used by Riemann when he introduced the generaJ..:
• ••
_
...~.: : ..... 1
.. We shall prove later that jl(Z) can ne~er vanish the case of a topological mapping by an analytic function .(. Because the distortion is the same in all directions."'": :.
_....•• ._. .
_ ·~"I jr I. .. Here the mappings of the sub
=
2
1(
aJ al\ ax ..
.. . Now let E be 8 point set in the plane whose srea
A(E) . :
~_.::. .:. We have found that under a conformal mapping fez) the length of an infinitesimal line segment at the point z is multiplied by the factor If(z) I..··rv. is given by
+
L('Y)
=
J" V'x'(I)
s
2
+ y'(t)2
=
dt =
w(t)
J"
4
Iz'(t) I dt. ~.•
: . .. the condition that the change ...... The argument cannot be constant on this circle unless its radius vanishes. ~\ ::..
T
_:
~
1:. r"'IIJ
\i
~tz.. :':i
:.. _. We know from calculus that the length of a differentiable arc 'Y with the equation z = z(t) = x{t) iy(t)...L .~
I.· ~ .ay
·The last equation expresses the faCt that fez) is analytic.
••
••
. ..1 (t) .
Doubly covered region..
··1
•
. I .
~
O:. we cannot assert th&t the mapping of the whole region is necessarily topological. ·t\~.
:
'.". Idzl.:_:..' ~r. ':<. Let us put this on a rigorous basis..
(4)
at ~= ax
t
· aj
ay
which is the complex form of the CauchyRiemann equations . :.
..
.."...::.
.~" .1
• .. . ...
"'.ls for integration with respect to ..& 0 is sufficient to conclude that the ma~ ping is topological if it is restricted to a sufficiently small neighborhood of Zo. v := v(x.
..r ·1··
'..."
··1.~~~~::.
L( "t')
=
f
If'(z)
~
Ildzl·
Observe that in complex notation the calculus symbol r. J •• .. ·1. ... a ~ t ~ b. .. :1
~.:J~..
Ii c. : 1...1
~.....~
•••
••¥
•••
: . ~: .r ~
..."J ~~ ~ .': :::
.i~~~~:"!. If the mapping of n by w = J(z) is topological... The knowledge thatJ'(zo) =. 31. It evidently preserves the size but reverses the sense of angles..' .:·.. n.:..: . i' :a..~_
...:. But even if /'(z) ¢ 0 throughout the region 0....
dy .arc length is replaced by Jdz I.:.
.. ' ...
••
.
.
... Length and Area.·.: ···..of scale shall be the same in all directions implies that the expression (3) has a constant modulus.
..•.. On a circle the modulus is constant only if the radius vanishes or if the center Iies at the origin..'_. ~~ x>.1
..
The image curve 'Y' is determined by w ur'(t) = f (z( t) )1..') =
= f(z(t») with the derivative
f:
If(z(t» Hz'(t) I til.. ~ =: .1 . ~~.••
••.1.. arg t/(tfJ)~ The expression (3)
srg [w'(to)/z'(to)1
must be independent
of
must therefore have a constant argument..
I ~.•
'A
__
. This follows by the theorem on implicit functions known from the calcuIus.. r..rg z'(to) is allowed to vary.
•.••• • _ •• ..ill~te
2~4....
JIrlz
•
.
regions 01 and O2 are one to one. •••
. . infinitesimal areas will clearly be multiplied by tf(z) 12. ~#:i"t~· .::~. ». for the Jacobian of the functions u = u(x...".ized regions now known as Riemann surfoce«..
.~..y).'G ".:~~:._.· ...
•
.: ~.. •••
•• .:... Later we shall present a. Quite similarly..!·. " ~..~~~: ~. .74
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS AS MAPPINGS
75
be rewritten as I() w to
what may happen we refer to Fig. ~r' s"" .. It is helpful to think of the image of the whole region as a transparent film which partly covers itself.
.)
If angles are preserved.. .This follows easily if J'(2) F.~ y.
For arbitrary complex k #.
All linear transformations form Or group..t'%
'f'(z)
we obtain
(6)
r!
mapping of an open set containing E. is a Totatioo if Ikl = 1 and a homotheti« transformation if k > o.. then by virtue of the CauchyRiemann equations. for it will equip him with simple but very valuable techniques ... and hence w == kz can be represented as the result of a hom 0the tie transformation followed by a rotation..
:. The ratios %1 :Z2 ¢ 0:0 are the points of the complex projective Iine. and for that reason their importance goes far beyond serving as simple examples of conformal mappings. With the latter interpretation it becomes obvious that S is a topological mapping of the extended plane onto itself.
by 8z.
transformation has two normalized represenother by changing the signs of the coefficients. bijective differentiable mapping.
3.
=
Cla!
+ dle:
a1b2" + bid!)...:_:
:.
10 =: Z
+ «. except for remarking that the simplest linear transformations belong to matrices of the form
with ad . H c ¢ 0 we can write
The first of these.
. the topology being defined by distances on the Riemann sphere.1.J
The formulas (5) and (6) have important applications in the part of complex analysis that is frequently referred to as geometric function theory. :. For linear transformations we shall usually replace the notation 8(z)
a parallel aamlaiion. 1.
.b
. If we use subscripts to distinguish between the matrices that correspond to 81 82 it is immediate that 8182 belongs to the matrix product
. :··0 C2 + d == c!(z + d/t)·. 2. The second. See. The Linear Group.71
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
77
can be evaluated as Or double Riemann integral.. . and
or} in matrix notation. we can also identify it with the group of twobytwo matrices with determinant 1 (denoted 8L(2. then by the rule for changing integration variables the area of the image Et = feE) is given by
A(E'}
=
fJ
1'U"v~ 
'UJ':c! dx dy. and (8) identifies the group of linear transformations with the onedimensional projective group over the complex numbers" usually denoted by P(l.:
•
•
••
. The reader will do well to pay particular attention to this geometric aspect. If we use only normalized representations. We shall make no further use of the matrix notation..
= ==
azl
CZl
+ dz2
+ bZ
I
A (E') =
ff
E
Ir(z)
JI dx dy.. obtained from each A convenient way to homogeneous coordinates.y) + iv(x. w :::::.~.
. if Be
(8)
(7) is said to be normalized if ad . the associative Jaw (8182)83 = Sl(SttBi) holds for arbitrary transformations} the identity w == z is a linear transformation. and the inverse of a linear transformation is linear. ~
is a conformal
u. The third transformation.
. is called an inversion.. w = kz. w := l/z. C lbz dId!
+
Of all analytic functions the firstorder rational functions have the simplest mapping properties} for they define mappings of the extended plane onto itself which are at the same time conformal and topological.. express a linear transformation is by use of If we write z == Zl/Z2.be = 1.be "# 0 has an inverse
z = Sl(W) =
cw+a
The special values S( co) = ale and 8{ dIe) = co can be introduced either by convention or as limits for z ~ ao and z + dIe. The representation It is clear that every linear tations.C). Indeed.4 that a linear fractional transformation
(7)
w
= B(z) = ~
az
+b ce + d
dw .
3....~Io.y) is a..
The main advantage of this notation is that it leads to a simple determination of a composite transformation w = StS2Z.. The linear transformations have also very remarkable geometric properties.. C))..
• ••
1 . I~t_:
. W = 'lOt/WI we find that
WI W2
But if f(z)
UJJ. : . except that there are two opposite matrices corresponding to the same linear transformation. If fez) = u(x. LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS
(a
1
bl)
dl
Cl
(at
C..
d2
b2) (ala! + b1c. We have already remarked in Chap._
:
.0 we can set k = lkl · k/lkJ./~~ . is called
az
+ b be ~ ad .
.Z.) '.
.ZI.Z:2.Z2.
":
.:::: (Z.71
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
71
and this decomposition shows that the most genersllinear transformsion is composed by 8. TZ2.· 1/
ZIJ Z2.Z. OJ co invariant. translation.....
L Prove that the most general transformation which leaves the origin
With the help of this property we can immediately write down the linear transformation which carries three given points %1.).:I:.:. For an analytic proof we need only show that the image of the real axis under any linear transformation is either a circle or B straight line...
Theorem 13.~. then (Tz]. 
Z. an inversion. . 
. 0.'.. and a homothetic transformation followed by another translation.&) . The correspondence must indeed be given by
(W.
The er088 ratio (Z1..
2:1.. Tz" into 1.cd '#...Z. :"
. for under this conditioIl: the coefficient ad _ c~ cannot also vanish.':_~~.~..8S.ZJ. B will be given by
(9) If
Z2.. W2.Wa)
fixed and preserves all distances is either 8 rotation or a rotation followed by reflexion in the real axis.
2.i '. . then STI would leave 1. ':
cb)w
+ (bc·_
J.
By cross multiplication we ..::.%f into 1. w... : . T2Ttz and
=Z
z+2
+ 3'
Tzg == z
+ l'
==
(ZlJZ2.)~
7l1Tse... .: ~': s . By definition we have hence
(TZIJ Tz'l..
.arg
z! Z2 
Za
Z41
.}. 021..
df2)w
+ bd
_ db ::: o~
The definition is meaningful only ~ tional value can be introduced as soon distinct.ZI.) ill the imtlfJ6 of Zl under the
00. The
CT088
If T were another linear tl.Z3..ZS. then.Zt. A convenany three of the points are
0 this is the equation of 8 straight line.
or z.(. Tz = (Z. r .. i is not a linear transformation.obtain
(ae ·ca)l1Dt~
+ (ad~~
:i :.
In more
z" are diatincl points in the extended plane and T any linear trans/ormation. aw+b cw+d
and if the points lie on a circle this difference of angles is either 0 or +1rt depending on the relative location.8 7'1 carries Tz1.0 we can
':.Z.
2
T1z
find T1T2Z. ....._:.Tzs1 TzJ == (Zt.~.msformation
transformation TI and nowhere else.3
with the same property.TrUs Z'p..
. 00 in this order. and we would have 8 = Til We conclude that S is uniquely determined. this condition is of the form . there exists SMear transformation S which carries them into 1.. a rotation. Tzi) . 
If
ac _ ca ==
.
aw+b . in the extended plane.
88
are distinct.a. If none of the points is co.%I)Z. The Cross Ratio. Given three distinct points 2."
.. 3.
EXERCISES
L Prove that the reflection
The cross ratio is invariant under linear transformations. ZI.
In general it is of course necessary to solve this equation with respect to w.~..
.... The proof is immediate. Tza. The values of 10 == TIz for real z satisfy the equation Tw Explicitly.
.
.
Definition 12. the inversion falls out and the last translation is not needed . .:::: STl(Tzt)
::: 8z1
z .Z. 0..%a
=
(ZJZLZ2~Z3) . Za to prescribed positions W].< ...z"
respectively. If c == 0.• .ZS. 00.~
.
point8 lie on a circle or on a straight line. Direct calculation shows that this is true only for the identity transformation. • . Show that any linear transformation which transforms the real axis into itself can be written with real coefficients.ZI. 0. Indeed.. precise formulation: Theoeem 12. for if Sz :.WltW'2...
cW+a
linear transformation
which c. If at .. Z.Z"
ralio (ZI.. ==
00
the transformation
Z
reduces to
ZZ3
Za
z . but this is unimportant . 28.Z2.2.Zt) is real
if
and only
if the four
This is evident by elementary geometry..Z" )
= arg
Zl Zt _
Z3
z_(
.Z4) is real on the image of the real axis under the
=
Tw. Tza. for we obtain
arg
(Zl..
10
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
11
divide by this coefficient and complete the square, putation we obtain
After a simple com
The po,m, z and. a* are said to be 81Immetric tJJith respect to the circle C through z 1, Z:,. Z 3 if and ooly if (z *,z 1ft i,Z,) :::;;(ZtZ) ,z1~ZI)..
Definition 13. The points on C, and only those, are symmetric to themselves. The mapping which carries z into z* is 8 onetoone correspondence and is called reflection with respect to C. Two reflections will evidently result in 8 linear transformation .. • We wish to investigate the geometric significance of symmetry~ Suppose first that C is a straight line. Then we can choose %3 = co and the condition for symmetry becomes
(10)
which is the equation of a circle. The last result makes it clear that we should not, in the linear transformations, distinguish between circles and straight further justification was found in the fact that both correspond on the Riemann sphere. Accordingly we shallagree to use circle in this wider sense. t
theory of lin~~ A to circles the word
z* 
it!
Z
is
The following is an immediate corollary of Theorems 12 and 13:
Tbeorem 14. A linear tramfornt.ation carrie. circles inlo circles.
EXERCISES
Taking absolute values we obtain 1:*  ZIJ ~ any finite point on C, and we conclude that from all points on C. By (10) we have further
1.1' 8tl. Here
%
can be and z· are equidistant
Zt
which carries 01 i, i into 1, 1, O~ 2. Express the cross ratios corresponding to the 24 permutations of four points in terms of ).. == (Zl,Z2,ZS,Zt_}. I.. If the consecutive vertices ZI, %1, ZI, z, of a quadrilateral lie on a circle, prove that
1. Find the linear transformation
1Zl

Za\ .. \ Z2  z41 = IZI  Ztl · 1Z3

z41 + Iz!

zal • Iz1  z41
and interpret the result geometrically. '" Show that any four distinct points can be carried by a linear . transformation. to positions 1, 1~ k, where the value of k depends on k, the points.. How many solutions are there, and how are they related? 3.3. Symmetry. The points z and z are symmetric with respect to the real axis, A linear transformation with real coefficients carries the real axis into itself and z,. z into points which' are again symmetric. More generally, if a linear transformation T carries the real axis into & circle C,. we shall say that the points w = Ta and w* == Ti are symmetric with respect to C. This is a relation between w, w* and (J which does not depend on T. For if 8 is another transformation which carries the real axis into C, then SIT is a real transformation, and hence S'w = SlTz and 8lw* = SIT! are also conjugate, Symmetry can thus be defined in the following terms:
and hence z and z* are in different balf planes determined by c.. We t leave to the reader to prove that C is the bisecting normal of the segment between z and ' ... Consider now the ease of a finite circle C of center a and radius R. Systematic use of the invariance of the cross ratio allows us to conclude 88 follows;
(ZrZl,Zt,Za)
==
(J 
=
(z  0,21  a ,Zt a, R't J RZ,
Z1 

4,,%:11 
a)
.
a Zs  a z,  a
R2)::::;:
(
.I 
RI
a
,Zl
_
a,Sl 
a J'I
'
a)
+a
"'" (.
~!
a + a,zl,iI'IJSI)
This equation shows that the symmetric point of z is z* = RI I (I  a) or that a: and 2* satisfy the relation
(11)
(,.  4)(1  ti)
== Rt.
The product 1:*  01 Iz  at of the distances to the center is hence R2. Further, the ratio (z·  a}/(z  a) is positive, which means that z and z* ~ situated on the same half line from B.. There is a simple geometric construction for the symmetric point of z (Figt 32) .. We note that the 8ymmetric point of a is DO.
t This agreement
will be in force only when dealing with linear transfonnations.

t Unl_ .,. ~cdde &iid He 0. C. ..':
I
.. .
',:
",
:~~.:...
.
. ....
.
. ~:.':'.:,' '.~.
12
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
13
Fie..12.
Reflection in
8
circle.
in the circle lz  21 == 1.. L Carry out the reflections in the preceding exercise by geometric construction .. ... Find the linear transformation which carries the circle ,z\ = 2 into 18 + l' ~ 1J the point 2 into the origin, and the origin into i. . ~ Find the most general linear transfonnation of the circle lzl = R Into It8elf.. 6.. SupJXI8e that a linear transfonnation carries one pair of concentric circles into another pair of concentric circles, Prove that the ratios of the radii must be the same.
2. Reflect the imaginary
axis, the line x
=
y, and the circle
1zt ==
1
(The symmetry principle .. II a linear transformation ) carries a circle 91 into a circle C" then it transforms any pair of symmetric points 1Dith respect to (J1 into a pair of symm.6tric points with respect to C2•
Theorem
15.
Find ~ lin~a.r transform~tion which carries lzl == 1and iz Into concentric CIrcles. What IS the ratio of the radii? .. Same problem for Izl = 1 and x = 2~
_. 7.
11 == }
1.4. Oriented Circle..
Briefly, linear transformations preserve SYIIlmetry.. If C1 or O2 is the real axis, the principle follows from the definition of symmetrY.. In the general case the assertion follows by use of an intermediate transformation which carries C1 into the real axis .. There are two ways in which the principle of symmetry can be used. If the images of Z And C under a certain linear transformation are known, then the principle allows us to find the image of z*. On the other hand, if the images of z and z* are known, we conclude that the image of C must be a line of symmetry of these images. While this is not enough to determine the image of C,. the information we gain is nevertheless ~ valuable. The principle of symmetry is put to practical use in the problem of finding the linear transformations which carry a circle C into a circle C' .. We can always determine the transformation by requiring that three points %1, $2,. %3 on C go over into three points Wt, WI, Ws on C'; the transformation is then (W,Wl,W2,Wa) = (Z,ZhZJJZ1}. But the transformation is . also determined if we prescribe that a point %1 on C shall correspond to 8r point WI on C' and that 8 point z, not on C shall be carried Into a point Wt not on G1• We know then that (the symme~ric point :of z, with respect to C) must correspond to (the symmetric point of WI with respect to C').. Hence the transformation will be obtained from the relation (10, WI, W2, w:) = (z,zl,zt,zi) ..
Because B(z) is analytic and
S (z)
,
=
(12
adbe
+ d)*
;¢
0
the mapping
== 8(z) is conformal for z # die and 00; It follows that a. pair of intersecting circles are mapped on circles that include the same angle. In addition, the sense of an angle is preserved. From an intuitive: point of view this means that right and left are preserved, but a more
to
precise formulation is desirable .. . An orientation of· a circle (J is determined by an ordered triple of points 21,''2,.1. on C.. With respect to this orientation a point z not on C is said to lie to the right of a if 1m (Z,'I,'1,81) > 0 and to the left of (J is ~ (Z,ZlJZI'~*) < 0 (this cheeks with· everyday use because (i,l,O, QO) = ",. It 18 essential to show that there are only two different orientationa, By this e mean that the distinction between left and right is the same for all triples, while the meaning may be reversed. Since the cross ratio is invariant, it is sufficient to consider the case where C is the real axis, Then
w:
w:
zt
(z,ZljzJ,%.)
+6 = cz + d
az
B
can be written with real coefficients, and
simple calculation gives
Im (2,%I,Z2,Z.)
= Icz + dl' 1m s.
adbe
EXERCISES
L Prove
that every reflection carries circles into circles ..
L
t,.!ii.~f~;~~P1.~~;:~.L~~~.~ :.!l~~:~~~ .._
....
:.. 11:" '. ~.. .. :.. ~ I.. • I•
We recognize that the distinction between right 8Dd left is the same as ~n.~; ~JMl~ ~~; ~w:er.~alfp1&1U'. Which is whieh
~~. .~
.,·~_i;;:
.. :
.",
,.
_
..:
...
:. >:i~<\~_:·':..
""',
.,
:'.<.:.
. "'::.".::: ...:.. : •.. 1
.. .:.
: ;.::.'... ~.·:~:·»;iYi»:,~:.<':~..: /~.. '~.,~ .
• .... .'... '; 'I' .
.
..
,
,',:'
.
'.'
.
,'I:
.
:.. :~: '. ... I.~=.":.. ~~
.....:
':""\
.'iI.~.~,i.'::;',~ .:~. ~·~d: :·~·t~·~r~~..:f~:ntXf~
..= .' ~. _.• :.... : .. :_ ......
..
., .:1':.
..
·COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS AS IIAPPINGS
85
A linear transformation 8 carries the oriented circle C into a. circle which we orient through the triple 8z1, SZ'l, 8z3.. From the invarianee of the cross ratio it follows that the left and right of C will be mapped on the left and right of the image circle. If two circles are tangent to each other, their orientations can be compared, Indeed, we can use a linear transformation which throws their common point to 00. The circles become parallel straight lines, and we know how to compare the directions of parallel lines .. In the geometric representation the orientation 21, Z2, z. can be indicated by an arrow which points from %1 over Zt to. z.. With the usual choice of the coordinate system left and right will have their customary meaning with respect to this arrow .. When the finite plane is considered as part of the extended plane, the point at infinity is distinguished. We can therefore define an absolute positive orientation of all finite circles by the requirement that 00 should lie to the right of the oriented circles. The points to the left are said to form the inside of the circle and the points to the right form its outside.
EXERCISES
,.
.;.
..
..{: ..
... I:
I~ .
circles through tl and b. On the other hand, the concentric circles about the origin, ltoJ = P, correspond to circles with the equation
I
zz
al b
:: p/lkl·
These are the circle8 oj·Apallonius with limit points a and b. By their equation they are the loci of points whose distances from a and b have a constant ratio, Denote by 0. the circles through a, b and by Cz the circles of ApolIonius with these limit points. The configuration (Fig. 33) formed by all the circles (J. and C2 will be referred to as the t:ircul4r net or the Steiner eirde« determined by a and b. It has many Intereeting Properties of which we shall list a few; 1. There is exactly one O. and one C2 through each point in the plane with the exception of the limit points. 2.. Every C1 meets every Ct under right angles .. 3. Reflection in a C1 transforms every C2 into itself and every O. into another C.. Reflection in a Ot transforms every (1. into itself and every CI into another Ct... 4. The limit points are symmetric with respect to each C! but not with respect to any other circle, )
are points on & circle, show that ZlJ Z3,. "4 and Z2, ZI, 2:, determine the 8811le orientation if and only if (Zt,.Zt"Z" z.) > o. 2. Prove that a tangent to 8 circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact (in this connection B tangent should be defined 88 a straight line with only one point in common with the circle). S. Verify that the inside of the circle l2  e] == R is formed by all points z with Iz  al < R. ~ ... . ... The angle between two oriented. circles at a. point of Intersection 18 defined 88 the angle between the tangents at that point, equipped with the same orientation. Prove by analytic reasoning, rather than geometric inspection, that the angles at the two points of intersection are opposite to each other.
1. If
%1, %2, Za, Z,
3.5. Fa.milies oj Circles. A great deal can be done toward the visual . ization of linear transformations by the introduction of certain families of circles which may be thought of as coordinate lineaIn a circular coordinate system. Consider 8 linear transformation of the form
w
=
k.. za ., zb
..... ..... Steiner circle& ..
Here. z == a corresponds to .w == 0 and z = b to w :: GO. ~t fO~OW8 that the straight lines through the origin of the tDplane are rmagee of the
.
..
.
.
 ..... ,. . : .....
..
'
. . . ...
:' '..
. . •''.. •
. ·....' ..' ,,: (, .:\;' ,';,_',._, ·:·.::>;\;'i"~\:>:: ,:i,~";':;_" :;.;4:"';,.~,....,;;,i£:i~::;;1,;;;;;:":> :(i~ :,;_;_;:;"_, ;
:
:'.
::
.:.,
'J
..,"'~.: ,. I' • . ._._II ••••_.. I: ..... ,..•• I',.. , 0'·  >. . '
.,. =:.~ :··~··T·
:,. I
','_ :.'" ..''.':~'''.''
I': ",
••
.,. I ·1···· ,. _." .....:r<:,. , '.•• ~,.. . .... .. ....,... _. • ••• ".  ~....... . . .:!, <~:. .. ;or'.. _...!I;': ..
: •• ,' .. ~.: •
.
'.
_.
'
:.:.::.:..~")
::'.:::'11.':
~..:.::;7:~~:~.~::
.. ':{;":_":'::':i.: ::.~.::~~~.:~ .. r"::' .: ", " ,:
',1 •
: .,.,.~
I
..•.
•
:11''
!!:'=t?~:... i ..··.,, :.it ~.. l .....:.:.:
',', :
f:.:,.;.._(,._ ~:.T..... ." _ 
~:<:o..
r.~ ~_"~"ir. :.11: ., ... ::':1
~~~ .:...y.
I
. .'
It is clear that T transforms the circles C1 and CI into circles C~ and C~ with the limit points a'. ..
".
..
Degenerate Steiner Cll'cles.
..' • ~ .. and it is convenient to represent z and Tz in the. The consideration of this How provides a very clear picture of a hyperbolic transformation.
<
We can then use the Steiner circles determined by G. dow circulates about a and b in dift'erent directions..
.. moreover. " .For the discussion of parabolic transformations it is desirable to introduce still another type of circular net..: . 34). i.. ....=k
1Da
wb
za · zb
. We have C~ = C1 for all 01 if k > 0 (if k < 0 the circles are still the same. The general linear transformation with two fixed points is the product of & hyperbolic and an elliptic transformation with the same fixed points. J. however..~'.' . .. if w = u iv the lines u .. transformation to == Tz carries G. angle arg k with its image C~J and the quotient of the constant' ratios Iz .
.:. The transformation is then said to be hyperbolic~ When k increases the points Tz. oints of a linear transformation are found by solving the p equation
'.
. We can write any linear transformation in the form (12) with arbitrary at b and use the two circular nets to great advantage.:.•
COMPLEX
ANAL V. "
...
. however.. ~
'. the points Tz move along the circles a2. that the roots coincide. If a. ~_.' 
I
. Since the properties are invariant under linear transformations.. h' = b..IS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
17
These properties are all trivial when the limit points are 0 and (tJ.._1
.. Transformations with this property are called elliptu. ~ _
. In particular..
It is evident that straight lines in the wplane correspond to circles through a.... The value of k serves to identify the image circles C~ and C~. .. The corresponding. Z .
... The case C~ = 01 occurs when lk\ = 1..
• c •
: .... When arg "k varies...
:Jt {.
:
.'" .. If the equation (13) is found to have two distinct roots a and bJ the
transformation
can be written in the form
•
t ~...'. Indeed.1)2 = 4fJ..
(13)
z==
az+~ • 'YZ + a
In general this is a quadratic equation 'with two roots. if 'Y = 0 one of the fixed points is co. Then a. they must continue to hold in the general case. but the orientation is reversed).. the line v = 1m e corresponds to the tangent of the circles el..al/lz .':
~. ".a..
)' )
....'
'PI "
. its direction is given by arg w.
..llellines correspond to mutually tangent circles . when the C1 are lines through the origin and the 01 concentric circles. wb'zb
.~. will flow along the circles a1 toward h. ' '.I
..same plane. para.
~r .bl on C~ and Ot is 'kl. Under these circumstenees the whole circular net will be mapped upon itself. The fixed . b are said to be fixed points of T. z # a. Consider the transformation
W=
za 
w
+c . The situation is particularly simple if a' == a.
. Cleerly.... We shall denote the images of the lines v = constant by Cit the circles of the other fa.. ..
_w~_a_____ _ k .
+
z. :.. b into a' JI b' it can be written in the form
(12)
.nlily by Ct. that the method is by no means restricted to this case. The condition for this is (a .
.. A linear transformation with coinciding fixed points is said to be parabolic.. .. with appropriate orientations Cl forms the . It is determined by the point a and the tangent to one of the families of circles. It is important to note.e...
. b'..
. It may happen.=.. ~:' . This configuration can be considered as a degenerate set of Steiner circles. The special cases in which all C 1or all C'2are mapped upon themselves are particularly important. b. IL
.: constant and v constant correspond to two families of mutually tangent circles which intersect at right angles (Fig. b to discuss the nature of the transformation...
_. determined by a' and w'. 11 acts as a parameter and can be eliminated or retained !~rding to convenience . we naturally wish to gain information about the specific geometric properties of the mapping. It is therefore natural that all questions connected with conformal mapping have received a great deal of attention.. In (14) 8 multiplicative factor is arbitrary.1.nsformations.... One of the most fruitful ways is to study the correspondence of curves induced by the point transformation. . They.
By this transformation the configuration consisting of the circles eland O2 is mapped upon itseH. By consideration of the Steiner circles it was possible to obtain 8 complete picture of the correspondence..u.IQ
+ c. A linear transformation that is neither hyperbolic. We proved in See....
4.tion
Se=
lIZ
+ b' cz + d
oj Level Curves.== toa
OIJ
c...orthogonal..
L Show
which satisfies 8 z :... L Find all circles which are orthogonal. nor parabolic is said to be loxodrorntea
EXERCISES :L Find the fixed points of the linear transformations
W
The conformal mapping associated with an analytic function affords an excellent visualization of the properties of the latter..... ~ilarly. special case.may eonsider the CUrves' u(~~lI)' . Suppose that the coefficients of the transforma. which we shall not try to make precise.plane.
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS IIAPPINGS
II
Any transformation
which carries a into a' can be written in the form
. conformal mapping enters naturally in many branches of mathematical physics and in this way accounts for the immediate usefulness of complexfunction theory. we .. In more general cases it is advisable to begin with 8 study of the image curves of the lines % :::. .'
:~~:. In an obvious way.~I'~
~"
~:
... (The limit is the aliract'ive.J
.. .. What happens when n + ..
. hyperbolic.'
". parabolic transformations? How many linear transformations leave a given circle C invariant?
." .zo.
z == 2z _ l'
to
== 3z _ l'
2z
to
=
az4
z _ 1'
w==
z
22
. 8 family
. fixed point as n :+ CD..... elliptic. When a conformal mapping is defined by an explicit a.and are called. into curves of a family of wellknown character.y). Then every CJ is mapped upon it8eIf and the ~bolic transfonnation can be considered as a 80w along the circles Ct. hyperbolic if a + d < 2 or >2" that a Iinear transformation some integer n is necessarily elliptic.·U. . We suppose now that a == a' is the only fixed point.
:~t Wf~
. '. .. the same for all z. Then w :: fIJ' and we can write . If S is hyperbolic or loxodromic. and we can hence suppose that e is real.. Topther. provided that straight lines are included as 8." .. . or parabolic? 2.)
S._.
Such was the case for mappings by linear tra.' The image of 71 1/1 is determined in the ... The
USB
are normalized by ad.y) + iv(z. elliptic. toa
61
== za
w
+c. ... the image of z == Xo is given by the parametric equations u ~ 1£(xo.Y). :. in ·the . 0 way. ELEMENTARY CONFORMAL
MAPPINGS
.: XI and y ~ '110. and v(z.ttl ? What happens in the parabolic case.!iii
_'"
. except! when z coincides with the ot~er fixed point. the curves form an orthogonal net in the tDplane. Find all linear transformations which represent
rotations of the
Riemann sphere. Any such information will strengthen our visual conception of the mapping.'
. lrt__ .
.
7. parabolic if a + d .. show that S"Z converges to a..
(14)
of transformations depends on a certain number of real parameters..~ ~.
Is any of these transformations elliptic...of Uiaad t'_
. .nalytic function to = fez). In addition. In this section we shall consider those mappings which can be defined by elementary functions.'.. 3 that a linear tranSformation carries circles into circles. progress in this direction has increased our knowledge of analytic functions considerably.. it can well be compared with the visualization of a real function by its graph. One of the most important problems is to determine the conformal mappings of one region onto another.
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
.. II ~ v(.be = 1~ Show that 8 is elliptic if and only if 2 < a + d < 2..
"
.. "::.tI} .. the other the repellent fix:d porn. to tz\ = 1 and
I
lz 
1\= 4... How many real parameters are there in the family of all Iinear transformations? How many in the families of hyperbolic.. If we writeJ(a) ~ u(z.1I). .== ±2.:::: for z
ft
.
It is clear that the circles 01 and C2 are carried into the circles C~ and C. The special properties of the function fez) may express themselves in the fact that certain simple curves are transformed.
.a. Let us consider the mapping w = z' in detail. 35 and 36~..
+
and represents a family of Iemniseates with the focal points ± 1 The orthogonal family is represented. the image curve must have a loop (Fig~ ~).::.10
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
11
In other cases it may be more convenient to use polar coordinates and study the images of concentric circles and straight lines through the origin. .::::yo is v2 == 4yl(tfa + u).' . of w =: z« is defined by the condition
In this region a unique value
eplane ...y! and v == 2xy.d OJ but an angle 8 at the origin is transformed into an angle a9.arpl) in the wplane..
"

.
.~l) S 2. where 0 < 9'1 .
==
a _. On the other hand} the image of x == Xo is Vi 4x5<xI .
. i :\ ...11 = k in the wpl&ne.
. we recognise that the level curves u == Uo and 11 .. J5.~\..::= Vo are equilateral hyperbolas with the diagonals and the coordinate axes for a.qJJ).yf) k2 . The mapping is conformal at all points z ........
. Both families represent parabolas with the focus at the origin whose sxes are pointed in the negative and positive direction of the uaxis. shaH be formed by all points Z . This function is analytic with the nonvanishing deriva. . and in this case S(fPl."1 + n 2r} is geometrically identical with S«(/J1.1
+
The mapping is one to one only if a(9! . and then we may as well suppose that a is positive. . for their
general shape is clear ~thout ealeulation.> 0 must have the form indicated in Fig. There is no point in deriving their equations. Their orthogonality is wellknown from analytic geometry . . For a ¢ 1 the transform. 37. It should be observed that S(f{Jl n · 211"... by
t
<I
Xl 
y' == 2hxy
+1
=
and consists of all equilateral hyperbolas with center at the origin which pass through the points ± 1. Among the simplest mappings are those by a power 10 ::: zz.rg z satisfies the inequality
(15)
It is easy to show that S(~l.
. The families of level curves are shown in Figs. In the case of the third power 10 = Z3 the level curves in both planes are cubic ~es..
arg w ==
a
arg z
PIG..
.) but may determine a different branch of Z".tive
Dealo. . Since 11 == %1 .symptotes. : >. The sector S(~l. family.qJ2J is a region.&tion of the whole plane is not one to one. the curves ~ = flo . and if a is fractional ~ is noteven singlevalued....
":... and half lines from the origin correspond toother balf lines... Similarly. consider only the case of real a. They are of course orthogonal to each other.rpl ~ 2r."
':
'_
.l..¥'l) is mapped onto the sector B(a~l..
. Since
We
arg
'to'
= W=
a arg
'zJa
z
concentric circles about the origin are transformed into circles of the same .\
~:
.((J.~ .
. In general we can therefore only consider the mapping of an anguler sector onto another.u) and the image of y .. .' .:I! 0 such that one value of .
where arg z stands for the value of the argument singled out by the condition (15)..
. The equation of the inverse image can be written in the form (x' + y2) 2 = 2(x' . It is a folium of Descartes. we find that .
w z
For B different family of image curves consider the cireleslw . For instance. if we follow the change of arg w when z traces the..
. line x == Zo > 0 .
and if Y2 .: . Hence
tD
=
e.
.. . Firat.. the general problem of conformal mapping can be reduced to the problem of mapping & region onto a disk or a.
J....z = %0 and y == Yo are mapped onto circles about the origin and rays of constant argument . cut off by the im_aginary axla. The left half of the strip'. The main.... by the exponential function.. Any other straight line in the zplane·is mapped on a logarithmic spiral.YI = 11'" the image is a half plane. A SurtJey oj Elementary Mapping8.
wpbme . tools at our disposal are linear transformations and transformations by a power.>. and hence onto any circular region. and by the logarithm . Y2 S 2'F is mapped onto an angular sector.
The mapping
'I
w=r+l
tl
.. We are thus able to map 8 parallel strip onto & half plane.. When faced with the problem of mapping a region Dl oonformally onto another region O2. we map 01 onto & circular region. The function t == ~ + 1'1 == e~ maps the strip r/2 < y < 1t/2 onto the half plane ~ > Ot On the other hand. and then we map the circular region onto Ot..12
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
maps ~ > 0 onto
lwl <
1. in Chap. In other words.~. half plane. By these means we can for instance find a standard mapping of any
FIG..
by 10 == e% is very simple.21
< r/2
can even transform zero angles into straight angle 8. . The mapping is one to one in any region which does not contain two points whose difference is a multiple of 2ri. For this reason. 6. All these transformations have the characteristic property that they map a family of straight linea or circles on & similar family.
.
. and with the aid of the exponential function we maps the strip IIm.. that this mapping problem has a solution for every region whose boundary consists of 8 simple closed curve. it is usually advisable to proceed in two steps. The power serves the particular purpose of straightening angles.2.. corresponds to a half circle. In particular) a horizontal strip Yt < Y < Y2.
. 4.. It is useful to write down some explicit formulas for the mapping .+ 1 = tanh
el
2
z
on the unit disk {wi < 1.. We shell prove. :: :. their use is essentially limited to regions whose boundary is made up of circular arcs and line segments. The linea..
.~)
. ~ ~:.~) (z +~) := 1.1
z+1
maps the wedge on the full angle obtained by exclusion of the negative real axis. we begin with the preliminary mapping Zl :: (z ..
Elimination of
(17)
(I
yields
and elimination of (18)
p
t!mt
Zl =
z.
.. .. : .. half circle. if the third angle has the ve~x a and if the sides from a meet again at b.... 1(_
w~z~.. . .
The sign of the square root is uniquely determined by the condition \w\ < 1.e
For a mOre detailed study of the mapping obtain . The fina1 transformation'
map onto
by a cubic polynomial w = aoZl alzt + 6tZ + 610 The familiar transformation z = 2'1 ..
. ... or its complement.. the linear transformatIon z: = (z .
"' . for (z .
~":.. It does not. . :.
+
z. Elimination of the intermediate variables leads to the correspondence
(16)
Z
=
~(tD +. ::.b) w?ieh transforms the given region into an angular sector... A little more generally.:~ . Such a region is either a circular w~et whose angle may be greater than 21'". The correspondence is illustrated in Fig. ... Clearly... allow us to map the inside of an ellipse or the inside of a hyperbolic branch.:.
p
(p + !) cos 8
p
SIn
fI...
.. r:. Next we define
Hence the image of a circle Iwl = p < 1is an ellipse with the major axis p pl and the minor axis pl ....aL/3ao allows us to get rid of the quadratic term.nsformation Zl = 1/(% .
.. The region is a wedge W1~ the angle 2. Let it be required to map the complement of a line ~gment onto the inside or outside of a circle.a)J(z .
=
vZt
8
as the square root whose real part is positive and obtain the right half plane. In fact. and a suitable exponential transformation maps the strip onto a half plane. In this connection we shall treat explicitly a special case which occurs frequently. If the end points of the arcs a and b.. If the circles are tangent to each other at the point 4.
As a final and less trivial example we shall study the mapping defined
+
w==zi+l
Zl
1
maps the half plane onto ~wl < 1.."
... the tra.. 39. ::
::. without loss of generality we may assume the end points of the segment are + 1.COMPLEX
ANALYSIS ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS IIAPPINGS
region whose boundary consists of two circular arcs with common end points.. half plane.b) maps the triangle onto a circular sector.p..
(16) \Ve set 19 "" pei' and
x=~
y
:=:
2
1( 1). ~f plane.. .a) will map the region between them onto ~ parallel strip.
. the same method applIes to a cireular tnangle with two right angles. The preliminary transformation
ar.
.. however.. The ellipses (17) and the hyperbolas (18) are confocal.:. the transformation (16) allows us to include in our list of elementary conformal mappings the mapping of the outside of an ellipse or the region between the branches of a hyperbola onto a circular region.

. By m~ans of a power this sector can be transformed into 8..
. :.~:. the half circle is a wedgeshaped region which in turn can be mapped onto &. The image of a radius is half a branch of a hyperbola. If the sign is changed) we obtain & mapping onto \10\ > 11
+ urI)...Mapping by z ... By an appropriate power w = z~ this sector can be mapped onto a.a}j(z .
. but they are reciprocal and yield the same value of w.. ' . Elementary Riemann SurJaees.. for instance a tag or a color.. (Lindelof. The whole pattern of confocal ellipses and hyperbolas remains invariant. In order to obtain a. p/2 correspond to 1D == 1 and w == O. . It is now easy to visualize the correspondence between the z.:. Map the outside of the parabola yl == 2px on the disk Iwl < 1 80 that z 0 and z . the COrreB. The coefficient for z is chosen 80 as to make the derivative vanish for z c= ± 1.mspping by a power 'W == Z". ~.and seplenes..) L Map the inside of the lemniscate lZI .y' == 1 on a half plane." Corresponding to the " angles in the zplane we consider n identical copies of the wplane with the cut..
.y2 = 3 and the xaxis divide the splane are mapped onto half planes. 0 and the vertex to w == 1. . I ..
I'
4. but when z describes an ellipse 10 will trace the corresponding larger ellipse three times.
. r
1
We note that each z determines two values {.1..
W = 2' 
3z.. Points with the eame tag are considered to lie in the same sheet or layer.. If this is not the case.
'
·:
. 39. a radius arg 9 corresponds to hyperbolic branches in the z./n) < arg z < k(2r/n).1)(2.) Hint: Consider on one side the mapping of the upper half of the region by w = Z2 J on the other side the mapping of a quadrant by
I::
J... The inside of the righthand branch of the hyperbola corresponds to the whole wplane with an incision along the negative real axis up to the po~t 2.
.
1
•••
.:::
EXERCISES
All mappings are to be conformal L Map the common part of the disks le] < 1 and I' .. p~e ..2. We know that there is a onetoone correspondence between each angle (k . . . k . Map the outside of the ellipse (x/a)! + (ylb)' == 1 onto lwl < 1 with preservation of sYlllmetrieS4L L Map the part of the eplane to the left of the righthand branch of the hyperbola x2 .
. .yt ::::. 2. Similarly.. and one with the semiaxes p~ + pI in the tDpiane. : I: ... (Lindelof.. ~ they are distinguished by & tag k which serves to identify the eerreeponding ~Ie~ When z moves ~ ia... and never in logical proofs.J. Map the region between 'z\ ...... and in the wpla. three of them onto the upper half plane and three onto the lower. Making use of the transformation (16) we introduce an auxiliary variable r defined by
2==r+~1 1 r
Our cubic polynomial takes then the simple form
1D
==
r' + •. For orientation the reader may again lean on Fig.:::. Map the inside of the righthand branch of the hyperbola Xl . (Lindelof . unique r we may impose the condition ~rl< 1. but then the segment (..
_
.. This idea leads to the notion of a Riemann aurJau.1:· I·. The image of each angle is thus obtained by performing a "cut" along the positive axis. this cut has an upperand & l~wer "edge .. ) 7. we can still give our imagination the necessary support by the introduction of generalized regions in which distinct points may have the same coordinates.3:.ne the corresponding angle is 36. _:
.
'..
. 4. They will be the "sheets" of the Riemann surface..
. Map the complement of the arc
lzl :::
excluded from the splene.(J with the positive real axis. Choose the mapping so that the two symmetries are preserved.
.
r .I. For our purposes it is sufficient to introduce Riemann surfaces in a purely descriptive manner.. very similar to the one in the case of the simpler mapping w == :1. It is not our intention to give) in this connection...1 and 'Z == i o~ a half plane.
. The simplest Riemann surface is connected with the . y ~ 0 on the outside of the unit circle so that the points at co correspond to each other . . The visualization of a function by means of the corresponding mapping is completely clear only when the mapping is one to one..~... (Lindelof ...at on the disk Iw1 < 1 80 that the focus corresponds to w . We are free to do so as Iong ss we use them merely for purposes of illustration.) s.a21 == pl(p > a) on the disk lwl < 180 that symmetries are preserved. To the circle Itt = p < 1 corresponds an ellipse with the semiaxes p~l ± p in the splane. . In order to do this it is necessary to suppose that points which occupy the same place can be distinguished by other characteristics.and wplanes. We note in particular that the six regions into which the hyperbola ax' .. the one in the aplane has an asymptote which makes the angle .3.
.
.e except for the positive real axis.RC?nding
• 1 • • ••• • •• . where n > 1 is an integer. nJ and the whole wpIan.11 < 1 on t~e inside of the unit circle.. For the region between two hyperbolic branches whose asymptotes make an angle ~ 2r /3 the mapping is one to one.. a rigorous definition of this notion.·11
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANAL YTIC FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
17
and by obvious normalizations we can reduce the polynomial to the form tD ~ Zl .2) must be
1. The situation is thus .
_.
•
..
except for one or more cuts.. JU.I) ..
. The reader should bear in mind that any two points on the same level can be joined by an arc which does not intersect any of the cuts. ... Same problem for L Sam.. attacbed . The sheets are. The Riemann surface corresponding to w = e.
.. ~ The cut along the positive axis could be replaced by a cut along any simple arc from 0 to IX). as in Fig. What is more. and a curve must wind n times around the origin . Each strip is mapped onto the whole wplane ~th cuts along the real axis from .
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
AS MAPPINGS
It
point to should be free to move on the Riemann surface. The origin Will not be & point of the Riemann surface.QO to 1 and from 1to co. completing the cycle .1). to each other 80 that they form an endless screw.
1)
associated
with
the function
'11.. For fundamental regions of w == c~ z we may Ch~OBe the 8t~ps (Ie ..before it closes. In the last step the lower edge of the nth sheet is attached to the upper edge of the first sheet.1)1. The point 1D = 0 is in a special position. one white and one shaded.
EXERCISES
L Describe
the Riemann
surface
_ 1( w==2 z+z·
FIG. We will illustrate the procedure by consideration of the Riemann surface defined by 10 == cos z. A region which is mapped in. The choice of the correct junction is automatic from a glance at the corresponding situation in the eplane.co). 1). _ if it connects h sheets. The line :t Tar eorresponds to both edges' of the positive cut if k is even. In more general cases a branch point need not connect all the sheets. the point at QO IS also a branch point. ~ . 311. For this re_8.DO.
. the introduction of specific cuts is necessary for descriptive purposes.ll the sheets. but the idealized model shall be free from this discrepancy. (1. The result of the construction is a Riemann surface whose points are in onetoone correspondence with the points of the zplane. If we consider the two strips which are adjacent along the line x = kr..'. Each region corresponds to a half plane on which we mark the boundary points 1 and 1. the Riemann surface obtained in this way should be considered as identical with the one originally constructed. is called & lunda~tal region. Whatever the advantage of such representations may be..
to the edges of the negative cut if k is odd.
"
.1. It connects a. < z < Ie. & onetoone manner onto the whole plane. the lower edge of the second sheet to the upper edge of the third.
" "
.
.. the half planes must be joined across one of the three intervals (..
2.is of similar nature. but . The resulting surface has infinitely many simple branch points over 10 = 1 and 1D = 1 which aiternatingly connect the odd and even sheets . the cuts are in no way distinguished lines on the surface.. The interpretation is even simpler if. the clearest picture of the Riemann surface is obtained by direct consideration of the fundamental regions in the eplsne... The reader will find it easyto construct other Riemann surfaces. It represents a cross section of the surface in the case that the cuts are chosen parallel to each other."
. 310. In this case the function maps each parallel strip (k . this conespondence is continuous if continuity is defined in the sense suggested by the construction. and 80 on. In 1\ physical sense this is not possible without selfintersection.. For any two adjacent regions.
The Riemann surface of eos z. . we find that the edges of the corresponding cuts must be joined crosswise so as to generate a simple branch point at 'W = ± 1..p~bIem f~r
1D 
1D 
(z2 .. (1.e.
Fundamental
regions of
COS .Sa.
FIG ..
_. it is said to he of order h ..
.80D we must attach the lower edge of the first sheet to the upper edge of the second sheet.. corresponding to the fact that ~ is never zero. A point of this kind is called a branch point H o~ Riemann surf&C~ is considered over the extended plane. In other words . we introduce the subregions which correspond to the upper and lower half plane. The shaded regions are those in which C08 Z has a positive imaginary part.1)22" < y < k ~2r onto a sheet with a cut along the positive axis... ·and
5:. An attempt to illustrate the connection between the sheets is made in Fig.
we sh. N aturally..~ 1900). An indefinite integral is a function whose derivstive equals a given analytic function in a region. H. Porcelli provedthe existeiloo·of·alfdeii. Am. . Connell and P. Math. or that the higher derivatives exist. that the derivative of an analytic function is continuous. Une Intepals.1(t) == u(f) + iv(t) is a continuous function. Actually.
'81
1.
derivative (Bull.sJl prefer to define complex definite integrals in terms of real integrals+ This will save us from repeating existence proofs which are essentially the same as in the real case. If . (Bttll. 87t 1961).tiv..
'. L.4
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
L FUNDAMENTAL
THEOREMS
Many important properties of analytic functions are very difficult to prove without use of complex integration. MGut. the reader must be thorougbly familiar with the theory of definite integrals of real continuous functions+ The most immediate generalisation of & real integral is to the definite integral of a complex function over & real interval. For instance. T_ Whyburn. in many elementary cases indefinite integrals can be found by inversion of known derivation formulas. to say the least. E. &c. Soc. Am.As in the real ease we distinguish between definite and indefinite integrals.
t Witllout use of integration R. it is only recently that it became possible to prove. Plunkett proVed the continuity of the
.. Both proof8lean on & topological theorem due to G.
.1. The definite integrals are taken over differentiable or piecewise differentiable arcs and are not limited to analytic functions.... They can be defined by a limit process which mimics the definition of a real definite Integral. At present the integrationfree proofs are. without resorting to complex integrals or equivalent tools. much more difficult than the classical proofs. t .
and by a change of variable the last integral can be brought to the form
When a ~ b. the interval of integration 'has to be subdivided in the obvious manner. we defined the opposite arc .
:: ..' . It is quite clear what is meant by subdividing an arc 'Y into a finite number of subarea.
.. b ~ t ~ a..102
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
103
defined in an interval (a.'
••• I'. let it be tacitly understood that 7 is piecewise differentiable../tk·~ ~(1.»)tl(T) is the derivative of Z(t(T» with respect to T.
This is our definition of the complex line integral of J(z) extended over the arc 'Y.
. if z'{l) is not continuous throughout. The old and the new initial point determine two subarcs TIt '12. if c = a + iP is a complex constant we obtain
(2) for both members are equal to
~ut z'(t(. and the invariance follows from the fact that the integral over '11 + 72 is equal to the integral over ""12 ""1... the integral over
+
Using this notation.f tk . z(t). In Chap.) /. mtegr&l (4) has the same value whether 'Y be represented by the equation z = z(t) or by the equation z = Z(t(T».~ .: '.
J. .. "" 0.uced by
t II is not defined
if
fa" f dt.i fJ onto Q ~ t < b.h{iii)
". '.: :. H the functionJ(z). 3.1. the fundamental inequality
h f(z(t} )z' (t) tit.
"
..
..· + . lar.
. and (3) results. real (J in (2) and find
== e" with a
The integral (4) has also a very obvious additive property.
'
...""
4>
value of the integral. Whenever a line integral over an arc 'Y is considered..b u(t)
G
dt
+ i fL v(t)
G
for changing the variable of integration we have
dt. A subdivision can be indicated by a symbolic equation
~ = 'Y1
For
(:I
= arg Ja f(t) dtthe expression on the left reduces
lt
to the absolute
+ Yi + ./di! ~ (J.. The most important property of the integral (4) is its invariance under a change of parameter.' '. In addition to integrals of the form (4) we can also consider line integrals with respect to it The most convenient definition is by double conjugation Finally.: ::...2.' . then f(z(t» is also continuous and we can set
(4)
and the corresponding integrals satisfy the relation
(6)
1"1
J • • • +"'"111f dz = 1..'Y by the equation z ::. . but then there is nothing
to prove.... ·We have thus
JJb (au
(3)
.
/. A .
+ tlu) dt.
a
We conclude that
(5) To see this we choose e
holds for arbitrary complex f(t). Sec .1..change of parameter is determined by an increasing function t = teT) which maps an interval a ~ T .flv) dt
+ i fa·
J__ /(z)
(av
dz
=
J_~af(z(t»)(z'(t»
dt.
This integral has most of the properties of the real integral.b f(z(t))z'(t}
In particu
dt
=
f:!(Z(t(T») Z'{t(T»)t'(r) d1'.._
. By the rule
closed curve is also invariant under a shift of parameter.
B
···+
IT'/ th.is defined and continuous on "Y. and hence the . line integrals with respect to 3: or 1/ can be introd. we assume that t(T') is piecewise differentiable . In the righthand member 0(·(4).1th+ /.b)J we set by definition
(1)
J{~ J(t)
(J
dt =
J./ dz + J'I'*f dz + +~+ . . t We consider now a piecewise differentiable arc ~ with the equation z = z(t)~ a ~ t ~ b.
.
1)' s Ix(tl) . .
+
which separates the real and imaginary part.} + · ~· + IY(t.. An important class of integrals is characterized by the property that the integral over an arc depends only on its end points. In other wordS.. An essentially different line integral is obtained by integration with respect to arc length.z(taI)I
. Of course we could just 88 well have started by defining integrals of the form
lx(tl)
:.z(t1)1
+ · · ~+
\:(l.x{ t'l). In the elementary theory of analytic functions it is seldom necessary to consider ares which are rectifiable.) ..
(9) is a consequence of (3). Rectifiable Arcs.z(to)l
iY(~l) .104
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
101
With (7)
f=u
+ iv we find that
the integral (4) can be written in the form
j.2(t1..
/. and if the integral
1.Az1 an example we compute the length of 8 circle.ys tha.y(t.. if O
'Yt
'Vi
and .z{ t.z(~I)i
1l.. 1.) 
z(t.
. then "I sod T have the same end points..x(ti 'y(t. 1'1 J To say that an integral depends only on the end points is equivalent to saying that the integral over any closed curve is sero. III ·
The ineq~jty
Ilk]
~
Here the limit is of the same kind as that encountered in the definition of a definite integral.»Iz(t... Indeed. An arc z == .2(10)'
+
lz(tt) ..) . (u dx 
v dy)
+ i J. it is clear that the BUms (10) and the corresponding sums
Because l!(t~) .~ < t. ~ . . H this least upper bound is finite we sa.y that the arc is rectifiable.+ Ix(!.s(tlVl J Iy(ti) .
f
')'I
closed curve..
:. = b. but not piecewise differentiable.. have the same end
is
&
closed curve.. then "II curve v~j~~ it
where a = to < t1 < · .
. the notion of rectifiable arc is one that every mathematician should know. The length of an arc can also be defined as the least upper bound of all sums
(10)
depends only on the end points. It is quite easy to show that piecewise differentiable arcs are rectifiable...(t) is rectifiable if and only if the real and imaginary parts of z(t) are oj
bounded variation.Conversely. If "f is rectifiable and fez) continuous on "Y it is possible to define integrals of type (8) as a limit
/. Two notations are in common use.t}l
IT P d3.flrlzl
=
/.
in which case formula (7) would serve as definition of the integral (4). we obtain
lz(tv . It is a matter of taste which one prefers. 0 ~ t ~ 2'1'". of a full circle we obtain z'(t) = ipei. if 71 and 1'1 have the 88Jlle initial point snd the same end point...... (u dy + II dx)
'Z{tl) .'
.J dz I~ f. Idz\ which is by definition

J.z("'_I)I_
1:1
This integral is again independent of the choice of parameter.3..Iz'(t) 1de ==
as expected .

•
. and if the integral over any closed
fol1ows that
/'f1 ~ I.y(tiI) I ~ and lz(t..! da = lim l J(z(t.
!o2r
p
dt = 21rp
It is then BSSUIned that p and q are defined and continuous in a region 0 and that 'Y is free to vary in o. From the parametric equation z = z(t) == a + pei'...J1
and consequently points..y(tI:1).. + q dy.... one sa. When the latter Burne are bounded.
I/. General line integrals of the fonn
For f = 1 the integral (8) reduces to
I.1 ds = f.. Line Integrals GlI Functioru 0/ Are«.. and hence
102. and that the two definitions of length coincide .)
. we require that p dz + q dy = ( p d:e + q dy . trast to (5) we have now
In con
while (6) remains valid in the same form.t the functions x(t) and yet) are of bounded varitltibn.. p th + q dy are often studied
B8
functions (or fWlCtionala) of
the
length of 7.t}
ft
...
•I
• ~.. and the definition is (8)
are bounded at the same time. if "f is 8
the arc 'Y.y(to)1
+ · · ...2. However.
L "'"...f(z(t»l:l(t)1
dt.) ..
rep~'ted by the""eqUation z == a pe".
th~~"~exPre_on it
'fc.. if it exists.COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATtON
101
FIC.y) tb:
for all closed curves 'Y J provided that the integer n is ~ O.q.'~~/. is uniquely deter ..
aF{z) _ ~~() ay
defintNl in OJ depends only
U(x.ayt
The sufficiency follows at once.) EO. To prove the necessity we choose a fixed point (xo. In the same way.==:
t
... by choosing the last segment vertical} we can show that aU jily ==."th:~ 0. " . The line integral
of(z)
ax 
.nD equation

on the end points of 'Y if und only if there exists a function with the partial derivatives au lax = p.y) = /''' P(X.the Indefinite integral is still analytic ~ ~singlevalued. (z .. Thus an integral depends only on the end points if and only if the integrand is an exact differential. but ~ I.
L (z 
a)" tk = 0
/7
P dx
+ q dy.2).S'"~t:.. Observe that p.aF .y) ==
Under these circumstances we shell prove later that fez) is itself analytic. q and U can be either real or complex. 2.·i. On the last segment we can choose x" for parameter and obtain U(X. for if two functions have the same partial derivatives their difference must be constant. For ~n:= 1.y(t)
tit "
The integral /. for if the condition is fulfilled we can write. B function which is analytic in the whole plane. 1. It is customary to write dU == (au/ax) ch + (8f!Jily) dy and to say that an expression p dx + q dy which can be written in this form is an exact differential. tuith coMntWUa J.a)'" is the derivative of (2 .U(x(a). we can keep y constant and let x vary without changing the other segments.AB an immediate application of the above result we find that (ll)
" if and only if f is the derivative of an analytic functicm in o.fez)
/7
.
Since the integral depends only on the end points..
From
O~. the function is well defined.J dz would
Dn
not be
defined) F(z) is analytic with the derivative /(z) (Chap. . TheoreID I.
"

"
"
"
.. if we choose the last segment of r horizontal.. (11) does not always hold.. Sec. The function U... _
ainee fez) is by sssumption continuous (otherwise
/. When isj{z) dz ::: f(z) €!x + if(z) dy an exact differential? According to the definition there must exist lL function F(z) in 0 with the partial derivatives
The following theorem gives a necessary and sufficient condition under which a line integral depends only on the end points.
J dz.a)tt+l/(n + 1).t "aulax == p. FCz) fulfills the CauchyRiema. join it to (x"y) by a polygon v. . au lay == q.
and the value 'of this difference depends only on the end points..
""
. Consider ~'/~~'""C ". contained in 0. the aame result holds for all closed curves which do not pass through 4J for in the cOmplementary region of the point a. Moreover..
"ee~~" 2r~" : We: obtain"
"" "
""
+
the lower limit of the integral being irrelevant..
}
"
+ eonst. tJZ4'
p tk
+ q dy.
in
Q
aF
8z
. In fact.....41
follows at once tha.41) and define a function by
U(x.
... If n is negative. _whose sides are parallel to the coordinate axes (Fig . with the usual notations.y(b)
.y)
If this is so. depends
Dnly
the end points
of
== U(x(b).y. mined up to an additive constant.
fr P ax + q dy
=
feb (~~
x'(t)
+~
y'{t}) dt
=
/a" ~
U(x(O..y(a»)..
2).. ~ . then ( J(z) dz == JaR
o. 3 Sec.. in two ways: first..'L
. Show that
The proof is based on the method of bisection.101
COMPLEX ANALVSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
101
This result shows that it is impossible to define a singlevalued branch of log (z . Compute
If
the function J(z) is analytic on R. by observingthat
.. by use of and second.a) in an annulus PI < 1z .
for every closed curve in o.:
.
_
J
:
J
. Cauchy'S TheoremJor IJ Rectangle. We refer to this closed curve as the boundary turve: or contour of R.
for the positive sense of the circle.
. We recall to the reader that such a funetion is by definition defined and analytic in an open set which contains R. On the other hand) if the closed curve y is contained in 8 ha. R{Il..
k..:. z.: .
P(II} di?
A1i8We....·. and we denote it by oR. The following is a preliminary version of CauchyJ8 theorem:
Theorem 2. (The continuity off(z) is takenfor granted. function which is analytic on the rectangle R. In the theorem that follows we consider a. notation
'1(R)
== JaB J(z) dz (
11
which we will also use for any rectangle contained in the given one._'!.d). ... Show that J.
.:..... t We emphasize that R is chosen 88 a closed point set and.. (b.J{Z)f'(z) dz
is purely imaginary. what
Ie
for the integrals oyer the common sides cancel each other. a rectangle R defined by Inequalities a ~ x ~ bJ C ::: y ~ d.) 7.. There are several forms of Cauchrs theorem.
8 parameter. (a. 1... hence._. ..) L Assume that f(z) is analytic and satisfies the inequality lJ(z) < 1 in a region n. We consider.. for in such a half plane & singlevalued and analytic branch of log (z . but they diJIer in their topological rather than in their analytical content..61 = R...a) can be defined . • ".
t This is Itanda.c) .: :::··:f~:'i1.. Compute
to 1 + i.
Let us introduce the
s. RC.1f plane which does not contain a. 42 is helpful.d)..
for the positive sense of the circle....loglldz
is meaningful and true.'··\':>·'... If P(z) is a polynomial and C denotes the circle I: ..:2?riR!P'(a). <. . The order of the vertices is thus (a .
.a}. specifically.. and we shall WI8 it repeatedly.
I:
•
.
"
_"
.
(12)
where 'Y is the directed line segment from 0 .e] < PJ. Nevertheless. I. (The continuity of f'(z) is taken for granted..4.rd notation.
". It is importaut to note that this fact can be verified explicitly and does not make illicit use of geometric intuition. Suppose that f(z) is analytic on' a closed eurve v (i. Note that by earlier oonvention aR ill alao the boundary of B M a point set (Chap ..: .c) ..
'... ._
..
:. (b.
. 4. If R is divided into four congruent rectangles R(l) J R(I).. 1.\. the integral vanishes.L Compute
x
== ~
(z
+!) ""~(z + ~) on the circle. is not 8 region.
... It is natural to begin with a case in which the topological considerations are trivial ..e. Its perimeter can be considered as 8 simple closed curve consisting of four line segments whose direction we choose 80 that R lies to the left of the directed segments..1
. we find
that
(13) '1(R) = 'l(R{I)
f
is the value of
f'(z) T j(II)·rb = 0
I
+ '1(R(U) + '1(R<') + '1(R(t). . a reference to Fig.I'
X
dz.
EXERCISES L Compute
L Describe a set of eircumstaaees
under which the formula "'" 0
/.f is analytic in 8 region that contains "().
(::...110
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
111
(1'4 d)
.. if several R(1:) have this property.
Iq(Rft) I :s: e ( J 'R.. it is clear that tin = 2"d and L~ = ZL. then
lim •• (. denotes the length of the perimeter of RnJ the integral is hence ~ d'ff>Ln.~H.:.j'(z*)
I<
important use ...z·1 is at most equal to the length d..
.
..fez *) .
... By (16) we have hence l.z·... · with the property and hence
(14)
In the last integral Iz .
1'J(R.z *)f'(z *)] dz..e: is arbitrary.
. . is contained in Iz .
a
If(z} ... 2.z ·1·ldz I·
Bisection of rectangle.2"*}
for .z*l < B.')~.= apply
(
dz
=
0
It is sufficient to consider the case of 8 single exceptional point r.. which could hardly be simpler. k 4..(z .."
.
.. If it i8 true that
Theorem 3.. is due to €4 Goursat who discovered that the classical hypothesis of a continuous f(z) is redundant..." . This beautiful proof. We 88SUme that a satisfies both conditions and that R. 2...._ :. we choose 6 so small that J(z) is defined and analytic in 12. will be contained in a prescribed neighborhood Iz .
. < 8." '.. We shall prove at once the following stronger theorem which will find very
I
fez) ..
f
R(2}
~
. the choice sba11 be made according to some definite rule ..
ft
and comparison with (14) yields l'l(R) 1 ~ dL e.
R(l}
. ..(R) = 0.~
~z .(RIl) l :s.f(z*)
Z
z*
. for evidently R can be divided into smaller rectangles which contain at most
f aR~
. We· dhWe~B....
(bid)
•
i
(~ £')
FIG..!*)!'(z*)l
< liz .
.iDm ~ine ~
1. respectively..dL E.z*l < 6 as soon &8 n is sufficiently large. 44... must satisfy the condition
==
1.. Lit J(z) be analytic on 1M set R' obtained frmn a rectangle R by mnitting a finite number of interior points ri.. 4.::.z*1 < 0..(z . This process can be repeated indefinitely) and we obtain a sequence of nested rectangles R ::> RI :) Ht:J .. The hypothesis in Theorem 2 can be weakened considerably.. At the same time the proof is simpler than the earlier proofs inasmuch ~ it leans neither on double integration nor on differentia.
':': . First of all.... Ie: . we can only have . and the theorem is proved .. It follows from (13) that at least one of the rectangles Rei). " :. But if d and L are the corresponding quantities for the original rectangle R.
~
1 f
(b. . e)
These trivial special cases of our theorem have already been proved in Sec.:l ..
Z
dz = 04
as~·ab....
.)l ~ il'1(R"~l)
I
The rectangles RA converge to 8 point z* ERin the sense that Rn. We denote this rectangle by RI. 1~1.
_ ..1
J(z) dz == .ri)J(Z) == 0
J
~·..
.. We make now the observation that
) 'R". of the diagonal of Rr. we can choose 8 so that or
(15)
Since . 4. 3
J
1'l(R(l»)l ~ i111(R) I.::..'~. If L. tion under the integral sign..
lor aU i.. We recall that the proof depended on the fact that 1 and 2 are the derivatives of z and z2/2....(8 . By virtue of these equations we are able to write 7J(Rn) =
B(3)
.
o. :'..J(z*) .owa~in·Eig.tJ.. · ~ R.....
.
tl
R(4)
and it follows by (15) that
(16)
J'R"
r
[f(z)
. Secondly) if B > 0 is given.

.
.~..
where u consists of the horizontal line segment from the center (xo. If the corresponding equations (12) are added...Yo) and the vertical segment from (x. however...':>' '.. .~~f:...
. of the theorem i8 certainly fulfilled if j(2) is an81ytic and bounded on R'. .(~~iv:·.. We define a function F(z) by
(19) F(z) =
1/(2)1 ~ Is on aRo.1
Theorem 2 to all but the rectangle R« in the center.. and we obtain aF lax == J(z}.
:.s.
I
I 1
I
I I
lcz 
(
dz
2ri
Q.: .~~: I_:..·:'~·:~ ~.'. In what follows we assume that {1 is an open disk tz .'.y).
u
.
s
/. A rectangle.. .' obtainMl by omiltintl a finite number of pointB fJ from an open disk A. We observe that the hypothesis..Yo) to (x. j
.k.. If f(z) mti8fita the CORdititm lim.... we obtain.:. 5.
seen that aF/ay = if(z).
·. ..\~~~. 
r
I I I f
when C is 8 circle about a.4... :.·.. If j(z) is analytic in an open disk A. For the applications it is very important that the conclusion of Theorem 4 remains valid under the weaker condition of Theorem 3..
..>.. after cancellations. Clearly.. It is not true that the integral of an analytic function over a closed curve is always zero..\:>::.

1. Uien (18) hold3 lor any closed
58
curve ""t in 4. :: .A~. and for this reason we must restrict attention to a very special case.
~•.
.. elementary
esti
Thus we obtain
and since e is arbitrary the theorem follows.. the same proof would go through for any region which contains the rectangle with the opposite vertices %0 and z as soon as it contains z.i:r. _ . it is necessary to make a special assumption concerning the region D in which J(z) is known to be analytic and to which the curve ~ is restricted.
. and hence Theorem 4 holds for any of these regions...
:: ~>. or the inside of an ellipse all have this property. '. ..·~:.
(17)
!/(z)
dz = 0
If e > 0 we can choose the rectangle Ro so small that
The proof is a repetition of the argument used in proving the second half of Theorem 1. Cauchy's Theorem in a Di..5.:
:~.. '.0:~1M~:~2:::.... a half plane.~_'.. :.. :.A with the derivative f(z). : . and /(z) dz is an exact differential.. ~
:=:
). in A. "~.zol < p to be de noted by 6.J? _
.~< ./: :::. then
.'...:s~ '_u ''...·1\8
mates show that
we may.:
~. . tl.. we have found that
I
~~~~~~~~~~~I~.. it is immediately
Theorem.~~ ..
"I'
112
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
. In order to make sure that the integral vanishes..'
_
".:::..i..'·.
\_::{~~L.. (18) for every closed curoe . 1..lz I~lrl'
that Ro is a square of center
r. We are not yet in a position to formulate this condition. Let fez) be analytic in the region ..
.~~'". This choice defines "the same function F(z).:.:..··~~.:. . . We state this 88 a separate theorem .ri)/(') 0 for all j. Hence F(z) is analytic in.• Theorem 4.
By (17) we have thus
g
rl
Lfdz
! /IJS f dz 1 ~
If we assume.
So·
"K'
!kr..~ ::~ .'~:..<>·:..~¥Jti~
:
~~\~J~:f{:(. by Theorem 2 a can be replaced by a path consisting of a vertical segment followed by & horizontal segment. By this method we cannot.
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
113
I
I I
I
·~
•r
•
Indeed. reach full generality.(a ... :.. .
.Yo) to (x..· :·:f. On the other hand.
and the theorem follows....
"10. log Iz ."_.a) vanishes except perhaps at a finite number of points. 1~
Lemma 1. If the precewise differentiable clo8td curve "I does not ptlN through the pmnt aJ then the value of the integral
r
..r
is a multiple oJ 2ri.a
z'(t)
INTEGRAL
FORMULA
a very simple application of Cauchy's theorem it becomes possible to represent an analytic function f(z) as a line integral in which the variable z enters as & parameter. has numerous important applications. By an obvious application of Theorem 3 we find that the value of F(z) in (18) is independent of the choice of the middle segment..a
It is defined and continuous on the closed interval [a.' :. the defi..
The proof must be modified..za dz 2ri
•
With a suggestive termiuology the index is also called the 1IJi. This proves the Iemma. nition can be based on the following lemma:
2. for we cannot let a pass through the exceptional points.
.a).tnmediBte 00ilBeq~. z(t) . unique way ..
. and it has the derivative
h'(t)
=
z{t) .a)
=
f
y
d log Iz 
al + i
Jd
"1
arg (z . /:: .. a ~ t S (J....··.
. In case there are exceptional points on the lines x = Xo and y :: Yo the reader will easily convince himself that a similar proof eanbe carried out J provided that we use four line segments in the place of three..COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COIiPlEX
. It is clear:that n(. If the equation of l' is z = a(t). ~=I
'.·~I . s= n(')'.. The simplest proof is computational.a
Since z(JJ)
by the equation
z{a) we obtain elOO = 1.1. :. The...
"..tIo.. let us consider the function
h(t)
==
j'
a
z' (t) cU..... Through
whenever Zl(t) is continuous.th respeot to G.de% oj the point a with respect to the curv. The
n(oy a)
J
1 = :
f.8'1. it enables us to study the local properties of an analytic function in great detail.. Assume first that no fi lies on the lines x = Xa and y = Yt). Z
£ I
I
_1
. 'Y.
:.
.a) increases or decreases by a multiple of 21".a) .
"~
'
: . .:::".
t.al returns to its initial value and arg (z . 44).
.. We conclude as before that F(z) is an indefinite integral of f(z) ..
.:. .
:
.

INTEGRATION
111
~l . z(a) . . As 8 preliminary to the derivation of Cauchy's formula we must define a notion which in a precise way indicates how many times a closed curve winds around a fixed point not on the curvet> If the curve is piecewise differentiable t as we shall assume without serious lOBS of generality..~
~ .. Above all. This would seem to imply the lemma.
2. We can now define the i'l'l. This representation.4(.a).c) (z(t) ..rty ·"···ani.
=:
Indes oj a Point unth Respect to a Closed Curve... of Theorem 4:
"..=. . moreover. CAUCHY".a. for we can write
r
=
f
T
d log (s . .)'0)
This lemma may seem trivial...RdiRg number of ~ wi.. From this equation it follows that the derivative of .. . but more careful thought shows that the reasoning ia of no value unless we define arg (z .a) in 8.. be either vertical or horizontal.:
::
.. known as Cawhyt8 integral formula..liri~pe. It is then possible to avoid the exceptional points by letting f1 consist of three segments (Fig."~.~
lTz dz a 
a
I
(%O· .
When z describes a closed curve.
.. We have thus
~(I)
= z{t) .. the last segment can. and since this function is continuous it must reduce to a constant.. . and therefore h(/J) must be Dr multiple of:2ri~ .
: .
2.. We shall say.. we find that n(~~O) = n{C. If 1 is sufficiently large.J.:<.:.. 02. each contained in a.j}
~
(i) 1f'Y lies inside of a t4rcle... Let 21.a) :: 1 particularly important. As 8 point set ~ is closed and bounded. :.
'
.. Denote the subarc fram 21 to Zt in the direcl.. prove the following: .:..za

zb
1 ) dz
==
o· '
Pic. T determines one and only one unbounded region .a) i8 constant in each of the regions determined by "f.. the components of the eomplement.a)
== 0 for all points a otdBide of
t.
. Its derivative is equal to (z .:
~
.:disk that does not include B.·
~.b) is never real and ~ o. This proves that n(~.. and if iy does not meet the segment we must have
in
(1 J..
••
. Let tl.. Introducing the closed curves Ut :::::71 82 :" 01 . But cr1 does not meet the negative axis.b)l. Lemma 2.. polygon which does not meet y... It is possible to define n(l"... . . the case n('Y..a) on each subare.O) + n(ul.a)/(z .
. L" intersect & circle C about the origin.
.O) + n(cr"O) becanse of cancellations.
.
'. then n(~.O) = 0" For a similar reason n(a"O) = OJ and we conclude that n(y. Suppose that %1 lies in the lower half plane and Z2 in tk 'Upper half plane. . and it is desirable to formulate... .!o
• I
¥. n( Outside of this segment the function (. Its complement is open and can be represented as a union of disjoint regions. Denote the directed line segments from %1 to f1 and from %2 to 12 by 61.. there is exactly one which contains the point at infinity. Consequently. For this reason the principal branch of log [(2 . :: . . . 8J be two poinl8 071 a closed·curve 'Y which does not pa88 through the origin.· •• :..
unbounded region determined by tTl.: "...a) = O.lh....:' I. To justify the definition... the arc C1 from tl to i2 does not intersect the negative axis. be the directed line segment from the initial to the terminal point of "Yl.ion of the curve by 1'lf and the 8"UbarcJrmn %2 to %1 by '1.
·EXERCISES
~
For the proof we draw the half lines Ll and L" from the origin through ZI and %2 (Fig . Give an alternate proof of Lemma 1 by dividing "f into a finite number of subarea such that there exists a singlevalued branch of arg (z . Let d"j. .b) if 7 does not meet the line segment from a to b.
\ .
...:
• J .'
~
.. If "'{I does rwt meet the negative real axis and ')'2 doe8 not meet the positive real a:tis:t then n{ 'Y .u) for any continuous closed curve 7 that does not pass through 6J whether piecewise differentiable or not. For simplicity we take a == o.I
· ·
.
.
:. If the complementary regions are considered in the extended plane. (ii) As a Junction of a the index n(~. We shall find.
COMPLEX
'NTEGRATtON
117
tire 8t1me circle. hF. • I . for short. For this reason it is sufficient to prove th ~t n( I)' ..a) = 0 in the unbounded region.. '5
hence n( 'Y . Pay particular attention to the compactness argument that is needed to prove the existence of such B subdivision. 7... Any two points the same region determined by 'Y can be joined by a.O) = I. and we obtain n(al... ~ . . i:: i : . 1. They serve to illustrate the topological use of winding numbers .a)1 . (a) the result is independent of the subdivision. :
• ~
0.01 . ~ .. a geometric condition which leads to this eonsequence.
'~:JL
.2 ~ a)/(z . . (c) the properties (i) Gd~(Ji)0( the 't ·continue to hold .O) = n(C.b)] is analytic in the complement of the segment. :1·..(e .0) ::: 1 .j
. Hence the origin belongs to the
J
+
I:iiiji:
+
These are not routine exercises.
~ :
. and set tI == til + · . tT2 'Y~ al .a..«) == n ( 'Y ... 45). that y determinu these regions .. .
.. . ...
...~.:. (6) if "(is pieeewise difFerentiable the new definition is equivalent to the old.....
.b) . fl be the points in which L1. . If C is described in the positive sense..J
111
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
.... and the arc C1 from f2 to rl does not intersect the positive axis. cr•• We define ·n(T}a) to be the value of n(a.a).:·· .. ~ is contained in a al disk 1z1 < P < la\ and we conclude by (i) that n(T. . For this pwpose "t is divided into subarea "(I.4) :::::: "t. and zero in the unbounded region.
41
+

.
(~) there exists 8 segment of the positive real axis with one end point on "1.1 < 0....
.
..2t>(J. The most common a.
This equation can be written in the form
f
f(z) tk = !(4) dz. Then fTl ~ 0"2 = 'Y or 1"4 The positive real axis intersects both '11 and "'II (why?)..J..s: ..
~ . We .J(a»
0
which is the condition of Theorem 5..
For. The presence of exceptional points fi is permitted.~\'~>#/~. in this case n(1'.
.
....
'
.. . We apply Caueby's theorem to the function
F(z)
In this statement we have suppressed the requirement that a be B point in A. Let 1'1 and 'rl be the arcs of 'Y from %1 to Zt. together with the fact that f(z) is analytic in A.a).J(a).
. The Integral Formula.. The notion of winding number leads to a quick proof of one part of the theorem. Consider a closed curve 'Y in '....
¢
e. '". '. 'Yza 1"za
f
J.:. We have thus proved: Theorem 6. We have then
(21) J(a)
= ~ r !(z) dz.
"
. '
I
:.. (e) the first intersection Xl of the positive real axis with "Y lies on 1'1..
r .:
. provided that the order of a with. (b) n(ut.:
.pplication is to the case where n("Y.4.. Indeed..a) and the integral in the righthand member are both zero.a) = 1. Let J(z) be analytic in an open disk 4.za dz. . hence n(O"I..a) ¢ o...
I . '
· r . 46)4 Prove the following: (a) n(C1trX2) = 0..
..
': ~'::. and no other points on.z) == n(u2}x) = 1 for small x > 0 (Lemma 2). Z.z) == 1 for Z E 1'1...:..a) is the index of a with respect to
points).. n(T. but it
=:
. Let 0'"1 be the closed curve that consists of the line segment from 0 to 21 followed by ')'1 and the segment from %2 to 0.a) == lim (f(z)
~a
.yiP The points x between the end pointe satisfy n('Y ..
• ~.. and that there are points Zl.. 1m Z2 > 0.~~~
~~'tlSlrra~~k~~~~~~~~
~~~~~
. (excluding the end
and we observe that the integral in the righthand member is by definition 2ri ... namely that the complement of a Jordan curve 'Y has at least two components..
2ri J~ 2

a
and this we interpret as a rtpresenta#on formula.. Indeed" it permits us to compute J(a) as soon as the values of f(%) on 'Y are given..\... In (21) we may let a take different va1ue~.0. f(z) 2ri
7. :..
.
1
It is clear that Theorem 6 remains valid for any region 0 to which Theorem 5 can be applied... respect to "f remains equal to 1.
: ..":. :".
fez) . and lei 'Y be a closed curve in A.....
=
...
'
1(.x ) = 1or 1. hence n(O'"l~z) == 0 for a E 'Y!..
2ri.::
..
. These points may be chosen so that there are no other points of 'Y on the line segments from 0 to %1 and from 0 to %1.may thus t~t a as avariable..a) • fCa) .J .
r: .
I' ".'
.
'
= J(z)
za
....'..
:
I
•
. This will be so if there exists & point a with n(~..
(22)
.
".'
.. ".. .!.
_.~¥:.
We conclude that
f
Fie.
1 .
I
•
'. and it is convenient to change the notation and rewrite (21) in the form
. '. We have done 80 in view of the obvious interpretation of the formula (20) for the case that a is not in .JT
.
where n(~.
. Choose the notation so that the intersection %2 farthest to the right is with ')'1 (Fig.'
. the other on 'Yt.:~~i .... Suppose that /(z) is analytic in an open disk 4.. z! E ~ with Im 2.2. (d) n(cr"Xl) ::: I. ' . I.:. provided none of them coincides with a. :'..:r:1~..:::
a it is not defined. The Jordan cun6 theorem asserts that every Jordan curve in the
plane determines exactly two regions.
.
.
".f(a) dz
"f
Z
a
= O... and a point a E A which does not lie on 'Y.dl(r) s. We may assume that Re z > 0 on y.:. f.
Part of the Jordan curve theorem. and let 0'2 be constructed in the same way with '12 in the place of ""Ii.....J.
. For any point a not on 'Y (20) 1&{. :"
i' _..) .111
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
111
This function is analytic for z satisfies the condition
lim F(z)(z
.
'.J. we shall have proved the existence of sll derivatives at the points inside of C. Actually..... we shall prove only the following lemma which is all we need in the present case: Lemma 3.<r 
'P(t)
dr
z)"
all
ill analytic in each 01 the regiona determin. }a (rJ(f) Z)R+l ...(r.. Suppose we have shown that F~_l(Z) == (n .!:!~~~
I·''··~··~~~
~~:~t.. . .zol < 6/2 we attain that zl > B/2 for all r I! y. ...df fer) 2rt
G'
2)1
tenda to the limit F1(Zft) as z + 10...*..6~
.
"
".r!¥~'~:·:~~::~2·::f~~~~:~ . Compute
2..~ . 3.F 1(20)
..6.(z..~.!!!.. Since every point in 0 lies inside of some such circle. Theorem 6 can be applied to f(z) in l!J. Compute
Isl
Izf . We consider a functionf(z) which is analytic in an arbitrary region O.I<..>!
< 12 .l)F. Suppose that .ed by 'Y.The representation formula (22) gives us an ideal tool for the study of the local properties of analytic functions..I:. We must remember that it is valid only when n(Ytz) = 1...•
. .f ~~)t"]+ '·)f~ ~). ·
..)(. a circle C about 4.:_~.F.(t) dr (r .. From
'1 
Ft(z)

F1(zo) == (z .. ..
1.e) =. and that we have proved it only when f(z) is analytic in & disk.
"
"
.:..
f.
..
:
.zo)
f
'Y
fr

ql~~ Z
rdf
to
)
we obtain at once
IF1(2)
.(z). ...
2ri l c
r
and this inequality proves the continuity of F1(z) at Zo.2)(r 
%0)
n»
= _!_
1.. : The general case is proved by induction.
.II).. .(r) is continuous on the arc 'Y.:..o)
(24:)
( dr !(. F19m this part of the lemma. and its derivalive F~(z) ::: nF »1(Z) . the existence will be proved in the whole region U.
L 1..H:
.{z) .(f)/(r we conclude that the difference quotient F t{z) . and in . ':'I:':>'I.120
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGAATtON
121
It is this formula which is usually referred to as Cauchy)s integral formula.a.~ !. At the same time we shall have obtained a convenient representation formula for the derivatives ..:. Higher Deri".~..
z
=
Provided that the integral can be differentiated integration we find
(23) and
under the sign of
z
Zo
f
7
.i1::'' f~:~::~~::~'.F..""_. or we could prove a general theorem concerning line integrals whose integrand depends.20).(z)..
We prove first that F1(z) is continuous.ZD! < & so that it does not meet 'Y~ By _ restricting z to the smaller neighborhood Iz ..~.. To & point a if 0 we determine 8 aneighborhood !J" contained in 11.
.tioos.
:.~ :....
. Let 20 be B point not on 'Y and choose the neighborhood !z . F.t:.··zo) . 2ri "
•••
.B) = 1 we have n(C.. For such z we obtain by (22)
fez)
z.:": ~ .. .:....(z) =
2Z:t ~
1
by decomposition of the integrand in partial fractions. which are then also analytic .:{'_·:~::·. analytically on a parameter.. Hence it is proved that F~(z) = F. From the identity
·F.
z
.
(z . For the justification we could either refer to corresponding theorems in the real case. .)~ ~ .. Compute
IUACtion
Then the
J 113
idz..[I.z) = 1 for all points z inside of C..!ldrI
J
= ~ ( fer) dr..:
.. .'.
is
under the condition [e] ~ p~ Hint: make use of the equations zJ ::: p' and
!ck! =
ip liz.ZD! · :.
EXERCISES
1. In particular we can now show that an analytic function has derivatives of all orders. <f . .~. a ~~. Since n(C.. applied to the function .0
H the differentiations can be justified..
.uchy integral
'P(s t) """ _!_
.\:.Zo is bounded in 8.
. The hypothesis means that If(t)l S M on all eireles. A second classical result goes under the Dame of Li.. It is clear that Lemma 3 is just what is needed in order to deduce (23) and (24) in a rigorous way. S. find an upper bound for tf(tI)(z)I in \t' ~ p < R..+l(zo).
. and has the limit F +1(zo). I. Suppose further that rp(z.
:
. If we apply (24) with z = a. :
~.~ ••:'" :'. applied to 'P(r)/(r . and if
all closed curves y in 0. v. . the object being to minimize the function M(r). . We know that P(z) + co for z+ co. that 3 /(z) is the derivative of an analytic function F(z). ~.
I...al = Y.
f 1'1
Iz .
..:.
. 0 fur
The hypothesis implies.:
_.. the equation P(z) =..=..:.~.
r.n be stated as follows: If fez) is defined.~ ~:
.
.
. The first is known as M arma'.Z)M dz.Zn).t) df
Fill in the necessary details to obtain
I
and use Lemma 3 to prove (26) .. the first term t..
that a function which is analytic in the whole plane and satisfies all inequality 11(z) 1 < Izl.alc ldal (Ial
. . The remaining factor in the second term is continuous..
2ri}crz·
(
'P(r.. polynomial of degree> O. as we have already remarked in Sec..
=.
point can never satisfy lJ<")(z)I > nln.. the quotient in the first term tends to a derivative which by the induction hypothesis equals (n . and in the second term the factor of z ..122
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
123
we can conclude that FA(:) is continuous.
'
".. and therefore l/P(z) tends to zero. there must always exist an M and an r so that (25) is fulfilled.~ . . function of both variables when z lies in a region 11 and a ::S: t < fj. and conHnuom in a region 0.. A more general form of Lemma 3 reads as follows = Let the function rp(z. Hence we can let r tend to and (25) leads to f/{a) = 0 for all a. _...t) be continuous as 9.. If fez) is analytic and If(z)l ::: M for 'z! ::: R.Zo and let z tend to Zo. This implies boundedness (the absolute value is continuous on the Riemann sphere and has thus a finite maximum).0 must have a root. Compute
an
represented by the formula (24)~ Among the consequences of this result _welike to single out two classical theorems.
. by what we have already proved. If fez) is analytic for 'zi < 1 and 'f(z)l ~ 1/(1 .
r.. If P(z) were never zero. :..
..'~ '.
'.8 theorem.. For the proof we make use of a simple estimate derived from (24) Let the radius of C be T. the function l/P(z) would be analytic in the whole plane . Hence F~(zo)exists and equals nFD+l{zO). Prove
f
z'"(l .: :. neighborhood of ZG~ Now.!!
p). Since this is not so.
. Show that the successive derivatives
of an analytic function at a Formulate 8 sharper theorem of
(25)
F(z) == is analytic in z and
(26)
J: 'P(z...
. 1. ~:'.. and assume that If(r) l ~ M on C... Indeed..t) dt
88
For Liouville's theorem we need only the esse n == 1._.I.
··1.:. It shows above
(X) .
I
_
_ . Suppose that Pea) is 8. The inequality (25) is known 88 Ca~hY'8 _mat6... '
that EXERCISES
:I. by the induction hypothesis. the same kind ..
••• _. We know now that j(z) is then itself analytic.
To prove this represent fP(ztt)
a Ca..
.
.for some n and all sufficiently large Izl reduces to a polynomial.ouvilWs theorem: A junction which is analytic and bounded in the whole plane muat reduce to a constam.. we obtain at once
t
analytic in
o.p
IT f dz . then /(z) is
lilt 2 2. and it ca....
. We have thus proved that an analytic function has derivatives of all orders which are analytic and can be
JI
the successive derivatives of an analytic function cannot be arbitrary.
~
.ends to zero for z + Zo.zl).. Liouville's theorem leads to an almost trivial proof of the Jundamental theorem of algebra. :.
lit:
.where M(r) is the maximum of 111 on It . In order to make the best use of the inequality it is important that r be judiciously chosen.
S ::
'I'
••
'::
_:
"
•
.t Cauchy's inequality will yield ..... and by Liouville's theorem l/P(z) would be constant. . We conclude that the function is constant.
. if we divide the identity by z ..':.
.l)F. find the best estimate of 1/<·)(0)1 tha. Then
5.t) is analytic as 8 function of ZEn for any fixed t.
SUpp086 that fez) ie aft!1lytic in the region 11' obtained by omiUing a point a from a region it A necessary and sufficient condition that there exist .. and so on..a)J{z) = o.
'.. This remark is more important than it may seem on the surface. .
used in the proof of Cauchy's formula. Cauchy's formula provides us with a...
=
. . it was pointed out that Cauchy's integral formula remains valid in the presence of 8 finite number of exceptional points..t24
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
125
L LOCAL PROPERTIES OF ANALYTIC
FUNCTIONS
We have already proved that an analytic function has derivatives of all orders.
an analytic function which is for z == 4.
'.... as z tends to a is I'(a).. It is natural to denote the extended function by f(z) and the value (27) by f(a) . .. Indeed..
for all . provided that none of them coincides with e.
I'" (a) ==
of Taylor'
nlf . .a)'1. Let us denote this we can define an analytic func.. Repeating the process tion !2(Z) which equals (Jl(Z) . .eDl
(28) fez)
8. It will include & classification of the isolated singularities of analytic functions. . We showed moreover. and not by their intrinsic nature.
~. is valid] and we can write .a)f1{a)
+
(z ... function bY!l(z). . This was an essential point in our .) . . .1..an analytic function in {)which coincides with j(z) in rt is that lim (e .
_!_ ( fer)
dr
:.
. Hence there exists equal to F(z) for z '#.·.(a)
Differentiating
n times and setting z
==
+ ~· ~ + (z .. Cauchy'e formula.
f(a) + (z .(a).+a
fez)
=:
/(a)
+
(z . Taylor's Theorem.. it is p08Bibl. If J(z) ill analytic in a region UJ comaining a. for we were required to apply Cauchy's theorem to a function of the form (f(1.
.
== J(a)
+J'i~)(z 
a)
+f'i~) (z 
a)i
+ .
a we find
The necessity and the uniqueness are trivial since the extended function must be continuous at B. We shall prove the following precise theorem:
. The recursive scheme by which f~(z)
form
~.a)P(z) == O.f(a)
za
3.a and equal to J'(a) .a) for z ¢ a and fi(a) for
is defined can be written in the
j(z) fl(Z) . In this section we will make a closer study of the local properties. It follows that the exceptional points are such only by lack of information. The extended funcUon is uniquely determined~
. . .. ¢ a inside of Ct But the integral in the righthand member represents an analytic function of 8 throughout the inside of C.11(a»/(z z == a.• ' _(
.a)2J. ... Removable Singr.a). representation of fez} through an integral which in its dependence on e has the same character at the exceptional points as everywhere else... It is not defined for z == a but it satisfies the condition lim (s . in Theorem 5. . In Theorem 3 we introduced a weaker condition which could be substituted for analyticity at a finite number of points without affecting the end result..J(a»)/(z . .a)'lJ~l(a) + (z .
== a we obtain
From these equations which are trivially valid also for z
Theorem 7.
._ .derivation of Cauchy's integral formula. Finally.
" "
. To prove the sufficiency we draw & circle C about a 80 that C and its inside are contained in o.
for z = a is analytic in D..(z). We apply this result to the function
17(z) == fez) . ..lorities. Consequently.(a)~
This determines
8 theorem:
the coefficients i.z
." :. . ..a)f'J(Z) .. The limit of F{z) . Points with this character are called removable singularitie8. the function which is equal to 1(2) for z ~ a and which has the value
(27) 2ri}cfa.
.. .. that Cauchy's theorem in a circular disk remains true under these weaker conditions. r.a)/l(2) = fl(a) + (z ... all satisfying the fundamental condition of Theorem 3. and we obtain the foUowing form
fez)

= ~ ( fer) dt 2ft lo r ..V.
1.
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
127
.. We show now thatj(z) is identically zero in all of O. Let El be the set on which J(z) and all derivatives vanish and E2 the set on which the function or one of the derivatives is different from zero, El is open by the above reasoning, and E, is open because the function and all deriva. tives are continuous. Therefore either EI or Ht must be empty. If E. is empty, the function is identically zero, If El is empty, /(z) can never vanish together with all its derivatives. Assume that j(z) is not Identically zero.. Then, if /(a) = 0, there exists a first derivative J(h)(a) which is different from zero. We say then that a is a zero of order h, and the result that we have just proved expresses that there are no zeros of infinite order. In this respect an analytic function has the same local behavior 88 a polynomial, and just as in the case of polynomials we find that it is possible to write fez) .... (.I  o)"I ... z) ( where fl(Z) is analytic and fl(a) ¢ O. In the same situation, since/A(z) is cont.inuous~jl(Z) F 0 in a neighborhood of a and z == a is the only zero of J(z) in this neighborhood. In other words, the zeros of an analytic function which does not vanish identically are isolated.. This property can also be formulated as a uniqueness theorem: If f(z) and g(z) are analll~ in D, and if I(z) == g(z} on a ut which has an accumulation poiRl in D, then l(z) ia identScaUy eqWJl to g(z).. The conclusion follows by consideration of the difference J{z) .;._g(z}. Particular instances of this result which deserve to be quoted are the following: If f(z) is identically zero in s subregion of 0, then it is identically zero in UJ and the same is true if J(z) vanishes on an arc which does not reduce to a point. We can also sa.y that an analytic function is uniquely determined by its values on any set with an accumulation point in the region of analyticity. This does not mean that we know of any  way in which the values of the function can be computed, We consider now & function f(z) which is analytic in 8 neighborhood of at except perhaps at a itself, In other words, fez) shall be analytic in 8 region o· < aJ < 0.. The point a is called an isolated riflgularitg of f(z). We have already treated the case of a removable singularity. Since we can then define f(l1) so that fez) becomes analytic in the disk < &J it needs no further consideration. t ~ Jim J(z,) = 00; the point a is said to be & pole of 1(2), and we set
This finite development must be well distinguished from the infinite Taylor series which we will study later. It is, however, the finite dev:elopment (28) which is the most useful for the study of the locBl. propertie~ :f J(z). Its usefulness is enhanced by the fact that f.. z) has a simple explicit ( expression as ft. line integral. Using the same circle C as before we have first
s ( ) = _!_
II
e
2ri [o
( f,,(r) dr.
r
z
For j.(r) we substitute the expression obtain~~ from (28). There will be one main term containing fer). The remarmng terms are, except for constant factors, of the form
F,(a) =
lo (r  a)p(r  z)'
(
df
l' ~
1~
But Ft(a)
_ 1 ~ z  a lo
r ( r  z _ r 1 a) 1
dr = 0,
identically for all a inside of C. By Leroma3 we have F.+1(a) = Fi·)(a)/r.! andthusF,(a) = o for all II ~ 1. Hencetheexpressionforj,,(z)reducesto (29) The representation
fB(Z) =
2n
1(
f(r) tit lc (r  a)~(r  z)·
is valid inside of C. U f(a) and all deriva.tives J(z) ~ J,.(z)(z  a)A
f(p)
3.2. Zeros and Poles.
write by (28) (30)
(a) vanish, we can
for any n. An estimate for !R(Z) can be obtained by (~9). ~he d~sk with the circumference C has to be contained in the reglon 0: III ~hich I(z) is defined and analytic. The absolute value If(z) 1 has a maximum M on C; if the radius of C is denoted by R, we find
'Z 
lfR(Z), ~
for 1J: 
R"l(R 
M
Iz 
a1)
'Z ._ a'
a\ < R..
BIIB)"
By (ao) we have thus
\f(z) 1 ~
(
\Z 
a\)" ..R  MR  ar R Iz
Iz  I'll < R.
Hence f(z) == 0
I(a)
There exists a 8' .S 6 such that f(z) ~ 0 for 0 < I.  01 < a'" In this region the function ,(.) = l/f(z) is defined and analytic. But the singularity of g(.) a is removable, a:nd g(z) _ an analytic exten=.
00.
.......
But
(1.1 
+
0 for n + co, since
inside of C.
. t If a is :~__ ~:. ~Y term is uae.d iIa a ~
•
;,..
.'
I•
.:
.....
~".~
1ODl~.
j..;
at
. ~
.. ',.
~!~ ..... ~ ..._,.
.. .:. •
.
.
~.
,...
(o·A:,:; .o:·~: ,:r. ,~ ....... :
• .. • .'
, L.
..
.".
.. f(~) is frequently .id ~ h6:replOr at A;·ta for aDalytic~ . _. , .. '
L
.
.
•
.~: .. ,

: ~ •.
'
I
~,.
:.~ ~:
:.. ,
I....
•
0
..
....
_
•
'
•
_~ •••
••
'
:.
••
...: • '::1
;lo,.
o
•
I~
.....~
.Jo.i:
~
,. ,
•
..
'"
',..
.~ .
..• '".:
or'
. ".::,
::
..
,"\:~:I:' ,.
121
COMPLEX ANALYSIS COMPLEX INTEGRATION
sion with g(a) == o. Since g(z) does not vanish identically, the zero at a has a finite order, and we can write g(z) == (z  a)lg1t{z) with g..(a) ~ The number h is the order of the pole, and !(z) has the representation fez) = (z  a)lf,(z) where f.(z) = 1/g1(z) is analytic and different from zero in a neighborhood of a. The nature of a pole is thus exactly the same 88 in the case of a rational function. A functionf(z) which is analytic in a region 0, except for poles, is said to be meramorphic in o. More precisely, to every a E n there shall exist a neighborhood lz  al < B, contained in 0, such that either fez) is analytic in the whole neighborhood, or else fez) is analytic for 0 < Iz  al < ai and the isolated singularity is s pole. Observe that the poles of 8 meromorphic function are isolated by tkjinititm. The quotient J(z}/g(z) of two analytic functions in (] is a meromorphic function in 0, provided that g(z) is not identically zero. The only possible poles are the zeros of g(z), but a common zero of J(z) and g(z) can also be 8 removable singularity.. H this is the case) the value of the quotient must be determined by continuity. More generally, the sum, the product, and the quotient of two meromorphic functions are meromorphie. The case of an identically vanishing denominator must be excluded, unless we wish to CO~aider the constant co as a meromorphic function .. For 8 more detailed discussion of isolated singularities, we consider the conditions (1) lim lz  ol«'f(z)1 == OJ (2) lim lz  a\G\f(z)I·= 00, for
...... 0 ........
121
o.
where 9'(z) is analytic at z = a. and find
1(1)
F
or z '# a we can divide by (z  a)1.
= BIo{,

a).I.
+ Bl1{z
 a)H.
+ · · · + B1(z
_ a)1
+ tp(z}.
The part of this development which precedes tp{z) is called the Iri l :n~!(~)guIat z = a. A pole ~ thus not only an order, but also ~eI~ 81n ar part. The difference of two f cti ..h singular part is a.nalytic at a. un ODS Wlt the same In case (iii) the point a is an essential '8Olated. . the neighborhood of an essential singularity I(~) is at ~fagularilY •. In unbounded and comes arbitrarily close to ze e sam~ tI~e 0.£ th~ ccmplicated behavior of a function in ther:eig:o~h:~a~tenzatlon tIal 81ngulanty, we prove the follOwing classical theorem of ~eo~em. 9. ~n analytic function tomes arbitrarily clOlJe 10 any complex v ue In every nesghborhood of an essential singularity.
;e~~~::~
real values of a.. If (1) holds for & certain a..then it holds for all larger a~ and hence for' some integer m.. Then (z  a)"1(z) has 8 removable singularity and vanishes for z == G.. Either J(z) is identically zero, in which case (1) holds for all a, or (z  a)j(I) has a zero of finite order k: In the latter case it follows at once that (1) holds for all a > h = m  k, while (2) holds for all a < h: ~ume now that (2) holds for some a; then it holds for all smaller a, and hence for some integer n. The function (a  a)t(z) has a pole finite order l, and setting h == n + l we find again that (1) holds for a > h and (2) (or a < h, The discussion shoW8 that there are three possibilities: (i) condition (1) holds for all at and J(z) vanishes identica.Ily; (ii) there exists an integer h such that (1) holds for a > hand (2) for a· < b; (iii) neither (1) nor (2) holds for any tl. Case (i) is uninteresting, In case (ii) h may be called the algebraic order of f(z) at 4" It is positive in case of a pole, negative in case of zero.. and zero if J(z) is analytic but #: 0 at a.. The remarkable thing is that the order is always an integer; there is no singlevalued analytic function which tends to 0 or 00 like a. fractional power of \z  al. In the case of 8 pole of order h let 11Sapply Theorem 8 to the analytic function (,.  a)"'/(z).. We obtain a development of the form
0;ch !Ience
to choose fj
If the assertion were not true we uld find a~ ~ that I/(z)  AI >'8 in neigh~r=:I: z a, or any a < 0 we have then lim 12  al'"11(.2')
ex:
a would not be an essential
ingly, there exists a p. with ~
>
O. Sincein
= 0,
that ~
Iz  allll/(z)1
J.2' «1'lf(z}  AI ... 0, and ;e arec~~~ that case lim Iz  alllJAI c 0 it would f 11 ~a 0 ow and a would not be an essential singularity of
sin.ity
n:(=~:::;a~~ _I
A
to.
of I(z) _ A
Ac
d
or
a.
fez). The ,,?ntradiction proves the theorem.  T~ ,notion. of isolated singularity applies also to functions which 1c m a n~ghborhood 121 > R of cO, Since I( co) is not defined : c a to as an Isolated singularity. smd by convention it has the same ~ of frert;vable singularity, pole, or essential singularity as the an y 0 g e :f(l/z) at z = O. If the singularity is nonessential j() z has an algebreie order h such that lim ____..,( ).  .th· , Z ""I Z 18 net er zero nor infinit d~ · ~. y, a:n zor 8 pole the smgular part is a polynomial in If · an essential cnn~ ..l it he Z.. 1X) 18 · Y. t function has Thearem 9 in ~UJ:&rl neighborhood of infinity.the property expressed by every
:aIr
EXERCISES
j
(z  a)'1{z)
=:i
B..
+ Bltl(Z
 a)
+ · · ..+ 81(% . .
a)l~l
+ tp(z)(z .
a)'
that; f!!(Z)
~ .. ~;:v, .~~~
..
I'
JII
,
•
~4
i.". ~'::._:.',. '.
.:.
4=.:......
and fI(z) have the algebraic orders 1& and _k at _ ....,~, :'Jiow z _ the onler1a. + k,JI,the orderli  h, ~41 +:~&nOta.iJlich "~::.L!)d_.mPix ~I..) . . . ... .. .:.... ... .~', : ~:..... r;· .,. L ~j1_ffr~;:,:,~:t' ~ ~. . '.,," • 5.. '5 :yi t
.',.
~.. '!';_, .
oj!
 ~ : j.. ,J ~ • '" . ~., .......... ~
:
,
~,.
••
1 ... .... : ':~
'oj: ."!;~~ '. :; ,: <, .
:'
':'
~. ~:~.:. . : . ..: ... ,'

.. . ,',.
. .::.. :~·Ii~~;t>:.t"!;t;. I,,:': Ji.: _I..: ...· .. :·/:'::;;'_'~::::";;'il1:'::".; .:,.... .: ··:.~i.:~:':~'.·4:···~.1.~ ; .:~;k;t::: .~, . ..... , '¥1"'l1.~.;"::::....' :~..:. .• . '~. ,. .:~:.:,t., 
.
 :::.,. .~,. '!.:,~,:~. ~ :~::.:.:~.:'::.'.;../ .:.:.~' •..;,~'. ._ : :
~ :.,~:.:~'>;':.:.:.}.~': .....J5·:·~/"'~.~~~·"!P, r: ... .. 1 :: .."
f#.; ~
.~:.>:>:: <., :.:'. :~::::::.~~.::>..:".':..~:..:.<'~ :..,>. ~.::.. " ..: ~ . ' .
:·,,1 • •
.,
of'.:
"';0:.
...1
.
I
.~
.~: ..... : .~ ..~"!"
~:"tl.
:,..
~
1
...
.."
.:".II~ i~..:~';::'. l
..... ' ... ,....:,
.:

i;'.!..~~.:.. ~..;. ~ : _.~

t ~ .,.~ ~'L ~
••••
•
..
,
~.
••
•
.,."
~·:;':d}'"_'·· ..:..L"Y~7:·'':· .:..
~,.,....~:
•
:0.0;., ••
~(;1.\~~
130
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
131
2. Show that a function which is analytic in the whole plane and has
8
at
nonessential singularity at 3. Show that the functions
DO •
a)
reduces to a polynomial. e, sin z and cos z have essential singuJarities i.
pass through a zero
10. Let Zj be ~ ZBr08 of a fUndum fez) whiCh 18 antilytic in a . dISk 4 .and does not fJantM identicaUy 'r each zero beina lUta:",~ ..... as many .I ~ _..........A ttm.es as its order indicates. For every closed curve 'Y in 4 which does not
Th~rem ~
.... Show that any function which is meromorphie in the extended plane is rational. s. Prove that an isolated singularity of /(z) is removable as soon as either Re J{z) or Im f(z) is bounded above or below. Hint: Apply a fraetionallinear transformation. L Show that an isolated singularity of f(z) cannot be a pole of exp f(z) Hint: land ef cannot have a common pole (why?)+ Now apply Theorem 9.
+
(32)
,
nh ,Sj) = ~
L~(~)
dzJ
where the sum has only a finite numher of terms # 0..
The function w an d we find
=
J(z) maps y onto a closed curve
r in the
wp Iane,
'
3.3. The Local Mapping. We begin with the proof of a general formula which enables us to determine the number of zeros of an analytic
function. We are considering a. function fez) which is analytic and not identically zero in an open disk e, Let"'Y be a closed curve in a such that f(z) ~ 0 on '1. For the sake of simplicity we suppose first that fez) has only a finite number of zeros in .6., and we agree to denote them by z], Z" ••• , ZR where each zero is repeated 88 many times as its order indicates. By repeated applications of Theorem 8,. or rather its consequence (30), it is clear that we can write /(z) = (z  Zl)(Z  Z2) .. • ', (e  z.)g(z) where g(z) is analytic and ¢ 0 in.6. Forming the logarithmic derivative we obtain
Jr
(33)
( dw
to
=
f jf(Z) dz · /(z)
7"
The formula (32) has thus the following interpretation: n(r,O) =
X n(y,2;).
J
•
f'(z) [(z)
=
z  z.
1
+
z
1
Z2
+... +
z
1
Zt.
+ g'(zt,
g(z)
The simplest and moat useful application is to the case where it is ~wn beforehand that each n(Y,zj) must be either 0 or 1. Then (32) YI~ds a formula for the total nuntber of z.er08 enclosed by "'i. This is evidently the CSBewhen "J is a circle" Let a be an arbitrary complex value, and apply Theorem 10 to fez) _ a. The zeros of J(z)  a are the roots of the equation fez) = a and we denote them by zj(a).. In the place of (32) we obtain the formula '" . 1 t' £., n(Y,2;(a»  2ri ,.fez) (z) a dz
:1
for z ¢ z;, and .. articularly p yields
on 'Y.
Since g(s) '# 0 in a, Cauchy's theorem
f
f
(31)
nh',21)
"Y
tt(z) dz ::: g(z)
o.
1 2wi
and (33) takes the form n(r,a)
=X
J
n(y,zi(a».
Recalling the definition.of ~(""',%i) we find
+ nh,za) + · · · + n(oy,z.) =
..
f I'(z) dz. f(z)
"t
It is necessary to assume that fez) '# a on "'Y" If a and b are in the same region determined by r, we know that
n(r,a)
This is still true if J(z) has infinitely many seros in 4.. It is clear that " is contained. in a concentric disk Ii' smaller than 4. Unless J(z) is identically aero, a case which must obviously be excluded, it has only a. finite number of zeros in A'.. This is an obvious consequence of the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, for if there were infinitely many zeros they would have an accumulation point in the closure of Il', and this is impossible. We can now apply (31) to the disk Il.'. The zeros outside of fl.' satisfy n('YJzj) = 0 and hence do not contribute to the sum in (31)~ We have thus proved:
.
.'
= n(r,b),
.
and hence we ha.ve also
l: n('Y,zi(a»
J'
"'"
In(y,zi(b».
I~ .., is. a ~cle, it follows that /(z) takes the values a and b e~ua.Ily many times inside of ')'. The following' theorem on local correspondence is an immediate consequence of·tbis result.
,
.!~..
,I
... .
.
'.
'.
. ....
...
':~, ';.';
..
'"*/(·).~ ~~.~
'..: '.:
TheonmI 11.. 8t1p'p088 that fez) it analytic tU '0, J(se} == 1Do, aM t}~:~~ f(~) ~ tDo 01 order ft at ~ :1/. >O,·ie.~tI f:mOll".,~'fJ ~ a.~ .•. > O,NCA lAta/or ~ CI ~ 141~ tD.I < 8 U&e ~
"'=.0;'"
,,"~::¥~;~i_~}gt;::~:L::i:;rbj~i~_;:, ~ "::r'~.::;:.~n,:.~·:lor:¢~ ... :
.. ~ "

~·~.H <
'',,' ,'',
y
••••••••••

:
,"<,'
'<'
"'_','
'L,
.
 ':
. . .:.
.
.:'
.'
•
•
. ~: . .:
".':
.
•. _.: : ..::.....;.~_;:".:,{: .. ... ... ,~
.:.:,'
:.~.: .: ~.. ~:. ,; , .·~L~~ > .
·:a~~!::.l$]"t;;:<·.i.,~·~::.:.;._.·:.,:::;.~!1l¥"o:'~~'....._~mt_~'~~~~~ ~~
•. :..,; :....
..!",
.
.
.
... .
.~"'.
1m
==
Wo
+ t(z)
to
008
z with
·'0 . _ ~ ..:
':. The equation f(z) == Wo bas exactly n coinciding roots inside of 'Y.. v." . {' .i"...~ '... and the mapping is topological. ..::~:~~'::··i~: ~' :.
.1~. I and 80 that Zn is the only zero of J{z) . .
r .: .. On the . .
fez)·
r(z) = (.
_~ •••_
~...it ..:: ~:.:~> __ .
·.
state:
<:Orollary 2.:·:.'.zo}h. :..q . the mapping 10 = Wo is of an ele
+ r
r
2..' _..~~.zol .
.
If f(z) ie analytic at
to ..zo1 <!.
.
•
.
'< . ..·. if the local mapping is one to one.<~~::.' /:.... and hence !'(zo) must be different from zero ...~... Under the assumption of Theorem 11 we can write
likewise conformal.
. .t.~..::\
.)g(z)
'10 
is analytic at %0 and g(zo) # o..
•
.Wo in this disk.:. For n > 1 the local correspondence can still be described in very precise terms.
.
". borhood of to..:. ..t := t(z) is topological in a neigh . .wol < a which does not intersect I' (Fig....g(zo) I < Ig(zo) I for lz . ..!Do == (z .i. i It is understood that multiple roots are counted according to their multiplicity) hut if e.
..~~~.::.'
.
<:: =::::::~.
:.. ..
~
."..
~
"o'V .. f. and hence the inverse mapping is
mentary character and determines n equally spaced values r for each value of 10.
.~:.~~~/)~i~~:.
..'. of the equation fez) == a are simple for a :P!: 100..~.. CoJollary 1of Tb~rem aQ~~q..: ..
~ • ...J~~~~'..
..:= z' z is one to one.. prove the existence of an 8.
.':' .. A
w·plane
FIe.
'
. Theorem 11 can hold only with n = 1.(z) 'such that !(zA) 1(0) + g(z)a in & neighborhood of O. I..'
....: : L Apply the representation j(2)
L Determine explicitly the largest disk about the origin whose image under the mapping tD . _:... It IS sufficient to choose e so thatf'(z) does not vanish for 0 < Iz ...
... ~..: .._~\:~.
':".
.
•
.·:.:
...'
. <'.::~<:~:·:. ~ 0:'.:.
." . 132
COIIPLEX ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
INTEGRATION
133
We can choose I so that J(z) is defined and analytic for Iz .':.'.. s taken ~ tim~..~.J.
_).: . .l"~.. ~
. 47...."._.:
~ .: z . and we are able to
Conversely.. Let y be the circle Iz .4~X
~PO~~
.:·~.
w+prane
J
'... 41. :
. IfJ(z) is analytic at the origin andf(O) P£ 0.zol < !. is sufficiently small we can assert t~t ~ roots..: :
<:..(z).: e._.: . .. Indeed.»: .:' :" '. Choose £ > 0 80 that Ig(z) .~. there exists 8 neighborhood Iw ..tplane
=
_Iplane
Branch point: n
3. :
::..( '. We have thus where g(z)
fez) !Do :. ·.
~ .~.
. ~'··~::~~~·:~··~·/'::'·~·_'.. ...
IXERCISES
Since r'(zo) =: h(zo) ~ 0 the mapping ..
::...... The mapping can be restricted to 8 neighborhood of %0 contained in A. ~::.z.:~·..
.. Same problem for to == e: (". Figure 48 shows the inverse image of & small disk and the n arcs which are mapped onto the positive radius. " ....Prineipl.~: .... ..• J:1
:
..I. .: :~/...
~
J. ..... ~.•...i. .:·r.
0"
zpane
F'IQ... S~ce o~n set~ in the splane correspond to open sets in the wpiane the mve~_ f~ction of J{z) is continuous. :{".:.
. and r its image under the mapping 10 = l(z)4' Since tDo belongs to the complement of the closed set I'.
. fez) .~
. and hence every value a .other hand. .... By performing the mapping in two steps we obtain B very illuminating picture of the local correspondence..".' .
principle<~~~
(!..' : .%0' < e.~lJoXimwn
.zo' < a.. In this neighborhood it is possible to define a singlevalued analytic branch of Vfi(Z).
•...:·~·~·:~::" . It follows immediately that all values a in this neighborhood are taken the same number of times inside of~...'~\.1001<..
.
h·
.: :.
• • •
11 has a
J
~ery
..
:. :.
~:·~·~.· ._~. :!
.....
.
"
.~:._ ::..
noncon.:..
+
Determine f(8) explicitly ...:
:.20' .a.. ..~'.with '(20) ¢
Ot it mapa a neighbor
hood of
to conformally
and topologically onto a region~
From the continuity of the inverse function it follows in the usual way that the inverse function is analytic..\ ••
:... In the C&Se n = 1 there is onetoone correspondence between the disk woi < i and an open subset A of Iz . :.~~~~·~"~~. : .
:
. contains a neighborhood 1w .Qalytie . which we denote by h(z).. 47).. ~~
... • L
Local eorreepondenee..stant analytic fundion
maps open 8et&
onto open
seta.:.
This is merely another way of saying that the image of every sufficiently small disk Is ..
Corollary 1.~ : _.': ::.
'
". has a maximum on E~ Suppose that it is assumed at z. . The equality can hold only if 1(. by continuity.:~~L:.
. and hence If(zo) I II! not the maximum of If(z)\.·{.e. that 11(z) must reduce to a constant. .::. l..zol . : ::~
'>:.. The resultioa inequality is.
. If the formula (22) is specialized to the case where ~ is a circle of center 020 and radius r.oon4i~/( . T. : ~ . gOing < <:
~.~~~~ •• '.:~".~. ~ .. subject to the condition that the closed disk Iz .zDI < 6 contained in E. _~.%01 == r and. the .:'... This boundary is opt empty and it is contained in the boundary of E.. If J(z) is analytic for Jz r < 1 and satisfies the conditions If(z) I S 1.:"":~.. Lett . If 11(z) l = lzi for some z ¢ 0....~ijQn 8f(~1f) . then if(z) I ::: Iz' and "(0) I S 1.. then II(z) I ~ M in the whole disk...) If J(z) is analytic and nonconstant in a region D....: ~~~.. hence. Consider now the case of a function J(z) which is analytio in the open disk 1z1 < R and continuous on the closed disk Izi ~ R. it meens that 1/1(:)l attains its maximum and. positive formulation essentially the same theorem can be stated in the form:
Wo
=:
The proof is clear. M"lIR. But this is not possible unlessJ(z) is constant in the component of the interior of E which contains Zo· It follows by continuity that tf(z) I is equal to its maximum on the whole boundary of that component." :'. to the function J(Rz). On the circle Izl :c: r < 1 it is of absolute value :s.lytic function at the center of a circle is equal to the arithmetic mean of its values. to f(Rz)/M. if the upper bound of the modulus is M· instead of I.. From (34) we derive the ineqnality
(35)
If(zo)! ~
1 2.. 18 contained III the region of analyticity.v. We have given preference to the first proof because it shows that the maximum principle is 8r consequence of the topological properties of the mapping by an analytic function. Therefore if it is known that fez) takes some value of modulus < M..:{. Because of its simple and expJimt form~lation it is one of the most useful general theorems in the theory of functIons.:s..:#.~ . (The maximum principle. then f(z) = ~ with a constant e of absolute value I.. :~ . the original form of the theorem can be applied.. As a rule all proofs based on the maximum principle are very straightforward. . l~~ar ~9~~ & ·~bich •• PI ~.1
I'_
'20'
maps . Thus the maximum is always assumed at a boundary
Since E is compact....
.:~ : :
.
If
Theorem 12'.
.wol < E contained in the image of o.... This reasoning provides a second proof of the maximum principle.)1 would be strictly less than If(zo)l. if J(z) is known to s&tisfy the conditions of the theorem in a disk of radius R. and preference is quite justly given to proofs of this kind.. . which can be rewritten as 1/(')' :! izl/R~ $jmilarly. . in a neighborhood of Zo. 10
r.. but should be looked upon as the result of & normalization. If Zo is an interior point.' ::.replace the condition 1(0) == 0 by an ~~~...~~:> ~.ji~ . hence. . Theorems to this effect are very useful. If f{z) is defined and continuous on a closed bounded set E and analytic on the· interiM of EJ flten tM maximum of If{z) lonE is assu1118d on the boundary of E.If(zo + re") Id8.::.~"'_'_...~(.>.
The maximum principle can also be proved analytically.:.' . ..w~ < R and] . If the equality holds at a single point.
. IS.
.
. and trus is the assertion of _the theorem.. l/r.:. Theorem 12. ~~~~~w.. . : ~.~~. Thus ~f(z)l must be constantly equal to I!(zo) \ on all sufficiently small circles fz .·: .r:'
~~:~~
!.'
_". ' < M..
_~* '.
..hieh.\~< It. in the more general case. For instance. As a result we obtain If(Rz) I :i Iz1..:.. < M.:i ...!. Letting r tend to 1 we find that 1{Z) I s 1 for Jill z. or if If'(O) I = 1.. = tD.~~. Circl.::.3) is a constant of absolute value M. and (35) would lead to
Suppose that ~f(zo)t were
8 maximum. and hence '/1(Z)1 ~ l/r for lal ~ r.
'J
(34)
This formula shows that the value of an ana.. . ~. on the.DU)~·Pnerallyt We may·..:~::. on 9r whole arc.... there is nothing to prove. If(z) I :.~::.'s.. I/(z) . 8tiU. dr = ire"" d9 on "I and obtain for a = 20
. We apply the maximum principle to the function Il(Z) which is equal to J(z)/z for z ¢ 0 and to j'(O) for B == O.· ~~ .
Then we would have I/(zo + rei·)t ~ If(zo)l.134
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
131
analytic functions. The following particular result is known as the lemma of
Schwarz:
Theorem.. as a.. then its ab80lute value \/(:) 1 ha« no maximum in o.~:·8. . flO) = 0.. .:~:~:. It follows easily that f(z) must reduce to a constant..:::.~_'. we apply the theorem to J~)/M or. The rather specialised assumptions of Theorem 13 are not essential.. In 8.. I~ this neighborhood there are points of modulus > Iwol.
~:. .
the contradiction I!(zo)l < If{zn)t..wiu. there exists a neighborhood \10 . .. and if the strict inequality held for a single value of 8 it would hold. it may be expected that 8 better estimate can be given..... r.. .l It onto lr~ 1 with .
:".0·~~:h~"1:·~D~·~·'~ ~. . we can write t = Zo + rei'.. If Zo is on the boundary.iff ~ 1. consequence of Cauchy's integral formula.
f(z&) is any value taken in 0. If it is known that If(z) f ~ M on Iz I = R... But then the mean value of If(zc + rei. then I/(zo) I is also the maximum of If(z) i in a disk lz .
.z! 1 . Such formal sums of arcs are called chainB~ It is clear that nothing is lost and much JJl&y be PJ..!(Zo) . For the purpose of studying the local properties of analytic functions this was quite adequate. Prove tha. _ . L Prove by use of Schwarz"s lemma that every onetoone conformal mapping of IL disk onto another (or a.anu
'z'
which is valid when "VI. .1.. ..~+'"·· +. . If 'Y is a piecewise differentiable arc contained in 1z1 < 1 the integral
L• •
+..'.nce1ii.
.
' '.)
R'l . .
_'. . .»: '.•. Just ~ there is nothing unique about the way in which an arc can be subdivlded. that (1 ..!~:I" '_••• :'" •••• ~~...wo)
j'
s
R(z . or 181(z)} :S: lTtl.. and check the result by explicit eomputation. nothing prevents us from considering an arbitrary formal sum ..
.. I'.:...:(~)..
. ~
1
lzt ~
1 implies
.. half plane) is given by a linear transfonnation...: :.
.
~z. _.. . '1'1 + 'Y! + · · · + ~1tt which need not be an arc..131
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
137
of the original theorem. . in two directions....Jdz + fTJdz + · · · + /. Secondly.
I· •
. If this prinoiple is Analyzed.' .. For one thing we can seek to characterize the regions in which Cauchy's theorem has universal validity.
is called the llonfUClidean length (or hyperbolic length) of~. .. the other to s point on the positive real axis.. 1 and 2.'.Rzo) 1
I .. Deduce that a linear transformation of the unit disk onto itself preserves noneuclidean lengths...
2.. prove that equality
is a linear
In our preliminary treatment of Cauchy's theorem and the integral formula we considered only the case of 8 circular region.'.. . but from a more general point of view we cannot be satisfied with a result which is so obviously incomplete.zal
101
and
Imf(z)
11'(%) 1 s
~y
x
+ iy) ... .' • _ • :.. (4) ·on~·ofan lie.z.On thi8 bUia it would be e8sy to _ a
~j
":"":
.I.
.::'1 . (Make use of a linear transformation that carries one end point to the origin. Show by use of (36).... Chairu and Cycles.
J
fdz
=>
J..ub&rcl to a single arc.' .
OF CAUCHY'S
THEOREM
is analytic and Im J(z) ::: 0 for Im
1/(2) .. How should noneuclidean length in the upper half plane be defined
4.. Derive a formula for the noneuclidean distance between %1 and Zit Answer:
M(f(z)
M'l .. 4. "(t..:. Since the righthand member of (37) has a meaning for any finite collection. " • .. and we define the corresponding. .lz (z =
S.integral by means of equation (37).. we find that the following operations do not change the identity·' of· a chain = (1) permutation of two arcs.led by considering line integrals over arbitrary chains. If fez)
satisfies the hypothesis
between the end points.
• ••••
... The gener&lization ean proceed.t the Me of smallest noneuclidean length that joins two given points in the unit disk is a circular arc which is orthogonal to the unit circle. it is clear that different fonna! 8UMS can represent the same eh~n.<. this inequality can be written in the form (36)
EXERCISES 1. 2 1 _] Zl .
. we can consider an arbitrary region and look for the curves ~ for which the assertion of Cauchy's theorem is true. . (2) subdivision of ~~an (3)· fusiOn .
." . THE"· GENERAL FORM
r
'I'(z)\
<
=
1
Izl2
.2)
2.ZlZt
1+
Zt 
Zt %IZ... vt. In the first place we must generalize the notion of line integral.og .~.
implies that f(z)

1 In EX. _.~:. show that
If(z)
.If(z). .wof(z}
..
: .'.Jdz
. Show that Boll analytic function J(z) with l/(z)l < 1 for < 1 maps every ~ on an arc with smaller or equal noneuclidean length. . Hence we obtain lSf(T1f)1 ~ lr\.
j
If(z).tion· of oppoeite arcs~· . : .:
' •• : •• "
... or directly... {.tieaI if they yield t~ Mme line integrals for all functions J. Explioitly..'... .ioZ
j.::~ .. To this end we examine the equation
(37)
1"I
transformation.:.. form a subdivision of the arc ~. :
. ~ Derive corresponding ·inequalities if J(z) maps 1z\ < 1 into the upper half planet "..
. ..
z > 0. The· guiding principle is that two chains should be considered icUm..) The shortest noneuclidean length is called the noneuclidean di8t.
1 for
11 1. _. . ..
?f:".
. and terms with zero coefficients can be added at will. It states tb. It seems quite evident that this condition is not fulfilled in the case of 8 region with 8 hole..~~~t.: ). We are thus led to the following definition:
0/
ThiB alternative condition is also very suggestive..')
. however. Let ~ be any cycle in 0. the integral of an exact differential over any cycle is zero... For the precise proof of the sufficiency an explicit construction is needed. It is easy to Bee that & disk. .
"..~k:(t.
fM'
TheoreDl 14. and the otheris consequently bounded. For our purposes it is nevertheless better to agree that all regions lie in the finite plane unless the contrary is explicitly stated...
" _ ':~ .. The seta A and B have a shortest distance 0 > 04' Cover the whole plane & .··· . union A U B of two disjoint closed sets.~. In particular. and this is evidently the most symmetric situation.~'tffi~~~
. _. and 8 parallel strip are simply connected.
• I'
I.
+
+
4. it is convenient to denote the sum as a multiple.. .~_.t is commonly accepted. The last device enables us to express any two chains in terms of the same arcs. .E A. In the applic&tions we shall consider chains which are contained in a given open set rt By this we mean that the chains have a representation by arcs in n and that only such representations will be considered.
'.~~\ . single closed curve... :..
••• ':I"~' .iJ. region. .:'. but fortunately very little is needed to make the term precISe.'
~'{
. A region is simply connected to the extended plane is connectedt
if
its complement toith reqect
At this point we warn the reader that this definition is not the one tha.:
:. Jr..y and continue the reduction of 'Y) (38) until no two '1..
.. The zero chain is either an empty sum or a Bum with all coefficients equal to zero. The index of a point with respect to a cycle is defined in exactly the same way as in the case of a.
. A chain is a cycle if it can be represented as a BUm of closed curves.. for its complement consists of a closed disk and the point at infinity. It has the same properties and in addition we can formulate the obvious but important additive law' expressed by the equation n(Yl "V1....3:..
'"th
'. We assume that the complement of D can be represented as the . and this condition is usually chosen as definition. SiJnple Conneetivity. The necessity of the condition is almost trivial.
A region [) is simply connected if and only if n('Y..
.
Definition I. With this notation every chain can be written in the form (38) where the Gj are positive integers and the rts are all different. and it is for simply connected regions that Osuchy's theorem is universally valid..fJtl~~ . The definition can be applied to regions on the Riemann sphere. and their sum is obtained by adding corresponding coefflcienta. It is clear that all theorems which we have heretofore formulated only for closed curves in a region are in fact valid for arbitrary cycles in a.: ·~~0. One of these sets contains co. let A be the bounded set.'
. ..a) == 0 for all finite points in the complement. Thus it is immediately possible to tell whether a chain is 8 cycle or not. The sum of two chains is defined in the obvious way by juxtaposition . In the course of our work we shall find. Our choice has the advantage of leading very quickly to the essential results in complex integration theory. the main reason being that our definition cannot be used in more than two real dimensions... = .
....h~ boundary I.a) = 0 all cycle8 'Y in II and aU points a tohich do not belong to D.(.~. If the complement of 11 is connected.region without holes is obviously one whose complement consists a single piece. 1. that the property expressed by Definition 1 is equivalent to a number of other properties. it must be contained in one of the regions determined by 7.'. There is little doubt that all readers will know what we mean if we speak about a region without holes.. The suggestive language we have used cannot take the place of 8 mathematical ~finition.
• . Indeed 8. we shall dispense with this formalization.. Consequently n("(.a.. a haIf plane. . more or less equaIly important.:
. When identical chains are added.a} nhIJ4). According to this convention the outside of a circle is not simply connected. The last example shows the importance of taking the complement with respect to the extended plane.~y. It is clear that the additive property (37) of line integrals remains valid for arbitrary chains.&t & closed curve in a simply connected region cannot wind around any point which does not belong to the region..~ .: ~: : ~>~'
... We ~ free to chocse the net ~'·~~. Such regions are said to be simply connected. are opposite. liesat ~ center:.
I'"
'
.131
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX INTEGRATION
131
formulate a logical equivalence relation which defines the identity of chains in a formal manner. ..
'.lle~~ @CI~ Q of side < 8/0..The coefficients will be arbitrary integers.2..=. For opposite arcs we are allowed to write a( . and inasmuch as Q) belongs to the complement this must be the unbounded region.'
. for the complement of the strip in the finite plane is evidently not connected. One of these states that any closed curve can be contracted to B point.a} = nhl. . Inasmuch as the situation does not involve any logical pitfalls. Very simple combinatorial considerations show that a chain is a cycle if and only if in any representation the initial and end points of the individual arcs are identical in pairs.
then 1/(% .I
FIG.
. ~. and our theorem is proved. In fact.. It was Emil Artin who discovered that the characterization of homology by vanishing winding numbers ties in precisely with what is needed for the general version of Cauchy's theorem... 0 need not be mentioned....
.
4.tion of earlier proofs.~.
4. But if the cancellations are carried out..
.•• :.~:
.
. ~
..
'.f~ Before praying.
.
holds for all cycles 'Y in
.. The characterization of simple connectivity by Theorem 14 singles out a property that is common to all cycles in a simply connected region.3. I
o.
Curve with index I.
I
I'
.lies to the left of the directed line segments which make up aQ. .
.J
f""oo.: . then it holds for all analytic functions in 0. .
(40)
The definitive
1/ f(z) is analytic
in 0.:..I
I. we are claiming that if 7 ~ such that (40) holds for 8 certain collection of analytic functions..
". .. .
I·
.:: .. Indeed.. I' ••
J
. z dz a "'" 2nnh.. Homologies can be added and subtracted.&.ll......
•. then (40) . . ...
1
J. . Corollary 1 If I(z) is analytic in a 8imply connected region 0... ..
. We remark now that Cauchy's theorem is certainly not valid for regions which are not simply eonneeted.}~. .. .
"
.
... then
jor every cycle "Y which i8 homologous to zero in
o...a) ~ O.
. Furthermore.. and 7 0 (mod 0) implies 7 0 (mod rt) for all 0' ::> {l Again..{..
r.a) F 0 for some a outside of ll.. The notation 1'1 ")'2 shall be equivalent to"'Yl .:~q...a) is analytic in
. Homology. .
. Consider now the cycle (39) where the sum ranges over all squares Qi in the net which have a point in common with A (Fig.C~ _. and since the directions are opposite the Bide does not appear in the reduced expression of 'Y."~ The General Statement oj Cauchy's Theorem. 1. This idea has led to a remarkable simplifica.
.{ '
.J
...a) = 0 for aU PQ'ints a in the complement of n.:
'. ·. ~::.
..a) = 1. ~ _ ~~:.._ •.
.::._..I:'

.
In a different formulation. Hence 'Y is contained in 0._
I..' . ~ " ... our terminology does not quite agree with standard usage. ..~...
''':.: . it is: evident that n(y. 4~9)4 Because a is contained in one and only one of these squares. it is equally clear that 7 does not meet A...
curve of Q is denoted by 8Qi we assume explicitly that the squares Q are closed and that the interior of Q .As:~ibted· .the
• ".
:
.:. .outlifl·Wt·~~on..:.~ ..
.
.
.t open set we are referring.I: .::"':.:.:r:'p. . Wl ..
theorem.:....'
...
Definition 211 In symbols we write. any side which meets A is a common side of two squares included in the Bum (39).'1'2 o.'I
_)!
:.J~I!i.a) with a not in 0... 0 (mod 0).. .
._:.
"
. A cycle 'Y in an open set 0 is said to be homologous to zero with respect to n if n(1'...
:_ .~'.. namely those of the form 1/(z .·. When it is clear to wha. In combination with Theorem 14 we have the following corollary. . '.. :. but which a cycle in an arbitrary region or open set may or may not have..J
I..'v. we make an observation 'W~Cb. form of Cauchy's theorem is now very easy to stateTheorem 15. ·ti~ up ~th·tha _·~·:in··h f4qU i·i3.~ ... .140
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATiON
141
[] while its integral
f.
. This property plays an important role in topology and therefore has a special name.'::.
~.. if there is a cycle y in n such that n{toy.. 19. .: •... . '
~.1... . it is clear that 7 does not meet B.
. the elosedsquares in the net which are contained in 0. ... then it is p08sible to defi~ Bingle. consists of closed regions whose oriented boundaries make up the
FIC" . j E J.fo) = O. 2n Jr.. ': . The union of the squares Q/.)
. and we denote by Qir j E J..zJalued analytic lwancheB oj log /(1. we cover the plane by B net of squares of side 0.:':.::':~ .'
.:. Choosing a point Zo E n and one of the infinitely many values log f(zo).
If z lies in the interior of
Qjot
cycle
'and hence Clearly..jo
fez) = ~ ( f(r) dt. because n is bounded the set J is finite. It belongs to at least oneQ which is not aQj. then
f is analytic
in D.. Sinee v.)~' (.) and

~inn. ol + tot:
1(·0> ~
f(z) .:.
:11
. A particular application of this fact occurs very frequently: Corollary 2~ If f(z) is analytic and :# 0 in a simply connected region 0.To we merely write it in the form exp «lin) log fez)). We denote by Oa the interior of the union V Qj (Fig. '
:'.r) = n(.
In fact.
..':. By Theorem 1 there is then a singlevalued analytic function F(z) such that F'(z) = f(z) (the pleonastic term "singlevalued' is used for emphasis only).5... .
= F(z) 
+
4.... '
. Consider a point E (} .0.
and consequently we can set log fez)
define ~
F(zo) log 1(20).:'. or that f rk is an exact differential. n('Y.
.. we choose a 80 small that 'Y is contained in U.I) has the derivative zero and is therefore a constant..COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
INTEGRATION
143
the validity of (40) for all closed curves "Y in a region means that the line integral of J rk is independent of the path.'.
'. we know that there exists an analytic function F(z) in n such that F'(z) = f'(z)/f(z)~ The function !(z)rF(. considered as a point set. r ~ z
r
proof follows a suggestion by A ~F ~ Bearden. 410). is contained in 1b it follows that n(~.11
Suppose now that My..'" ...' :~: .. Let ~ be a cycle whieh is homologous to zero in 0.r) = 0 for all points t on rIJ. and if 8 is sufficiently small it is not empty. There is a point to E Q which is not in o. : .

'. . Assume first that' n is bounded.'..
(41)
if}
=
i«
if j #. Given 3 > 0. Proof of Cauchy's Theorem" t We begin with a construction that parallels the one in the proof of Theorem 14.. In a simply connected region every analytic function is thus a derivative. who has kindly permi~ted itB use in this connection
r
t This
. . . we find that
eJ1(.
=... In particular. but otherwise arbitrary.
... I'a is a stun of oriented line segments which are sides of exactly one Qj.
:'~~~"!/~.'
:.
. .. It is possible to join r and r0 by a line segment which lies in Q and therefore does not meet Oa.
. Any ~int a in ~e comple~ent of D' is either in the complement of n or lies outside the disk. The corresponding aubares 'Y i of 'Y have the property that each is contained in a disk of radius p which lies entirely in 11. It is also true that A(cr. The proof is applicable to {t. It will thus be sufficient to prove the theorem for polygons WIth sides parallel to the axes. the coefficients n(a.a) = 0.. and by Theorem 15. similarly. (43) is then true for any cycle y 0 (mod 0).
• I • • •
any
as desired.
is locaJly exact in 0.) 1" if k == i and 0 if k . Since the differential is exact in the disk.a) = n(~. p dx
=
There does not seem to be direct way of modifying the proof of Theorem 15 so that it would cover this more general situation. To continue the proof we extend all segments that make up (t to infinite lines (Fig .. We construct fT 88 an approximation of 'Y.i.
.
(~ f f
T
2T'l
rs
fer)
dr) SZ
dz =
J r (~f 2.lJi) aRi
where the sum ranges over all finite rectangles. then
lUi pax
and if u
= l."#. .

1.t 'If [1 is unbounded.
divide [o"bJ into subintervals of length < &.. 1.144
COIIPLEX
ANA. . we replace it by its intersection g' with a disk IzI < R w hieh is large enough to contain 1'. and we conclude that the theorem is valid for arbitrary o. If P dx
+ q dy
o. As in the earlier editions of this book.u" we
+ q dy
+ q dy
=
!. .411).4l1
J. nt~R"a~) ~ '··0· ot :iill j. It is clear.at
from (~).. . and ~ce (1 ~ O. f~ction z(t) is _ lmiformly continuous on the closed interval [arb]. .) and ft{•• a~} =.i P d:t + q dy.
loy p d» + q dYJ
/. If 'Y is given by z = z(t).z(t')
I < plor it ~ til < o and
Theorem 16. For the proof of Theorem 16 we show first that l' can be replaced by Or polygon t1 with horizontal and vertical sides such that .. n(u. Hence the integral (42) is zero and we have proved the theorem for bounded f.Choose a point a.6. p dx + q dy = 0
+
. Locally Esact Differentia"'.~. in particular."G..LYSIS
COMPLEX INTEGRA.ai) are well determined.. In either ease n("Y.oJ
that
for all 'Y = aR where R is a rectangle contained in o. With: ·this·. ..
.
:
~.(I~).::101
a. .ln. This condition is certainly fulfilled if pax q dy = f{z) dz with j analytic in fi. n<. ThIS property implies. the . . mind it follows f ~t n(""a..
J
.
j
In other words. so that·~ ~ 0 (mod 0'). .o~. from the interior of each Rit and form the cycle {44}
aD
=
L
n{a.) .r) = O.. We shall therefore end up by presenting two different proofs of Cauchy's general theorem. 0. They divide the plane into BOrne finite rectangles Hi and some unbounded regions R~ which may be regarded as infinite rectangles. The end points of 'Y' can be joined within that disk by a polygon at consisting of a horizontal and a vertical segment.every loc~y ~t differential has the same integral over a as over 7." .1. Let the distance from "Y to the complement of l1 be p.
'Y
r
dz
2
)f(f)
dr~
On the right the inside integral is n(7. We detemune 8 >·0 so
. 148) that this is so if and only if (43)
FIG. ~t n(iJRi 4.a) for a in the complement of 0.In the discussion that follows we shall also make use of points chosen from the interior of each R~.. p. we sha.ll follow Artin's proof of Theorem 16.TION
145
order of integration can be reversed... The 'separate proof of Cauchy's theorem has been included because of its special appeal. for no ailies on a. A differential p d:t + q dy is said to be locally exact in 0 if it is exact in some neighborhood of each point in rt It is not difficuit to see (Ex. p dx
+ q dy
=0
obtain
for every cycle 'Y ~ 0 in
/ ..
fz(t) .
let Ail At....1
fda.. We conclude by the local exactness that the integral of p dx q dy over any aRi which occurs effectively in (45) is zero.. "rIn order to illustrate. .1f
t
1'".. ·i:.l'Yal. or.rl and Jzl· 1= 'I. let us consider the extJ emely simple case of an ann~ defined by "I < 121 < rl~ The complement has the components . Multiply Conneeted Regioru.. . Consequently..a) is constant when a varies over anyone of the components Ai and that n(y. We find that every region with a finite homology baeis bas finite connectivity. .· + c.... On the other hand. .
:
. and not on "(.
The numbers
i.
.
JIk
+ C!J
")1'.
+ qdy = 0. we choose the orientation so that R..uo.":::
: . Moreover.. A region which is not simply connected is called multiply connected. The annulus is doubly eonneeted. r. I We have thus shown that n(tt . Then n(a.
. 'Yt. and a = ai· From this property of a ~ 0'0 we wish to conclude that a(l is identical with (T up to segments that cancel against each other. In the case of finite connectivity.tla .
"f ~
el'Yt
+ Ct1'1 + .t:. i == 1~..0'0. for if two linear combinations were homologous to the same cycle their difference would be a linear oombination which is homologous to zero . we may conclude that every homology basis has the same number of elements.
~~. On the other band. and the integral along an arc from Zo to z is determined up to additive multiplee of the periods.
. just as in Theorem 14. be the com ..
We prove now that all the R. J A.
.... belongs to the unbounded region determined by (1..Every cycle is thus homologous to a linear combination of the cycles ~1...I said to ~orm a h.
are
+
j
...
..Ct'l'1 .. and it follows that ai and ak must have the same index with respect to this cycle.
. any cycle m the annulus satisfies .R. :'.l winds e.
+
r
i
n(a. whose corresponding coefficient n(rt.. for any analytic function J(z) in 0. we can prove.zero unless all the Ci vanish. . a region of_ connectivity n arises by punching n holes in the Riemann sphere .. does not contain flil:.
In view of these circumstances the cycles '1. we conclude that c = o..~.:) iJR •.
jdz
=
elf
. ._::
:.·· ...t (45)
a=
f
For a given cycle T in D. proving tha. pdx
and Theorem 16 is proved. Then the cycle f1 .• • • . ..~:
. 11 :i. were not in o. • .C. we include the degenerate cases'l . We have found that the integral of f(z) over any .
4.7.
~
JI.. Suppose that a point a in the closed rectangle R.4) for a E A..
."Y. such that n(riJa) == 1 for a cf Ai and n('Y~Ja) = 0 for all other points outside of D..~. If thiS circle.Bi) = n(a"a) = 0.::. By Theorem 18 we obtain.. is denoted by 0. and hence n(ct. and the number of basis elements is one less than the connectivity. • • . ponents of the complement of fl.a) == 0 in A. is an arbitrary cycle in 0. More precisely. It is not the only homology basis.. In a less precise but more suggestive language.a) = 0 for all a = a.omology bari8 for the region n. This linear combination is uniquely determined... times around the ·points in Ai.c (JR. They are ca.141
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
INTEGRATION
147
the interior of u.a. Let ail: be the common side of two adjacent rectangles Ri.Iled modulu oj periodicity of the differential f dz. the line segment between a and ~ does not intersect a..be the constant value of n(.: .... (} is said to have the finite connectivity n if the complement _of{}has exactly n components and infinite connectivity if the complement has infinitely many eomponents.0 and rl = 00.
I
depend only on the function. but by an elementary theorem in linear algebra.
t>
. and a homololY 'basis is formed by ~y circle Izl .l" ·
.'1.
. I I. duplicating the construction used in the proof of the same theorem we can find cycles ~i. The same reasoning applies if t1 ij is the common side of a finite rectangle Hi and an infinite rectangle R~~ Thus every side of a finite rectangle occurs with coefficient zero in a ..a) = 0 because 11 ~ 0 (mod n)..aDcontains the multiple CUii.Ct'Yt ..O)~ The integral of an ~aJytie ~~tion over a cycl~ is a multiple of the single period '_
.n 1. with less accuracy. _. let Ci.y ~ nO wMre n == n(y. lies to the left of «o.
jdz
+ · ~ + c..1"
....t". TtJ . But it is clear that the cycle CI~l CITt + . . and assume that co belongs to A If . The vanishing of the periods is a ~ and sufficient condition for the existence of a sin21evalued indefinite integral . these indices are c and 0. .
. In other words.. · + e. .1. hence it cannot be homologous to .. We find that any point outside of (I has the index zero with respect to the cycle"..Suppose that the reduced expression of a . .cycle is a linear combination of the periods with integers as coefficients. respectively. the periods of the indefinite Integral. ~1 < r < rt.tli) is different from zero are actually contained in 0.. that n('Y.
. separate proof of Theorem 15 in the presence of removable singularities.~~.."a)!(a)
== ~
f7za dz /(%) 2ri
J'll
2. and find 9.

. Cl~ly.. and thjs application is typical.aj)Cj .: ..
n. This is of great value for practical purposes as well as for the further development of the theory. The constant Ri which produces this result is called the reBidue of fez) at the point OJ. . _. vanishing period. For a first orientation.'.... tt. . za and z. Show that singlevalued analytic branches of log z.RJ{z .... .task is to review earlier results in the light of the more general theorems of Sec. In order to make this method more systematic a simple formalism.al < at
It is helpful to use such selfexplanatory notations as R == ~f(z). 4.a) the derivativ6 of·a singlevalued analytic Junction in an annultt8 0 < Iz . ..: From the point of view adopted in this
R.
. ..d use of residues amounts essentially to an application of the results proved in Bee. 4 under particularly simple circumstances . The Residue Theorem. . that the region obtained from a simply connected region by removing m points has the connectivity m + 1.n·.:1 .
i
w8". .141
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
141
whose value is of course independent of the radius r.weIt
. homology basis. = Pj/Zri... ". :'.OJ) has the period 2. To each a. Indeed. B2.j is contained in 0'.t..:. denoted by a1.' Under certain circumstances it turns out that the periods can be found without or with very·little computation.o.. .. the founder of complex integration theory...""1: n{')'.
q dy is locally exact
to sero. The particular function l/(z .\?. In this connection we point out that there is of course no longer any need to give 8. ~_ . known 88 the calculus of residues. . S. ~ .
. Lwi7f. We repeat the definition in the following form: Definition 3..
.~ .. Prove
(
pd:t+qay=o
for every rectangle Reg with sides parallel to the axes. We are thus in possession o~ a method which in many cases permits us to evaluate integrals without resorting to explicit calculation. .
"
. .: ::.i..
EXERCISES
L Prove without use of Theorem 16 that p dx
in Q if and only if
+
For instance. The r~1. Show that a singlevalued analytic branch of. Our first.W of fez) at an isolated singularity a is the unique complex nuff1rb6r R whU!h makes J(z} . .~. .~
... Let 7 bea cycle in 0' which is homologous to zero with respect to Then 'Y satisfies thM homology
book.
. The proof is a repetition of the proof of Theorem 6.~ can be defined in any region such that the points + 1are in the same component of the complement.: I¥.·~·li"'.
:. . there exists a ij > 0 such that the doubly connected region o < Iz . Therefore.. Draw a circle OJ about tlj of radius <&iJ and let
for every cycle
'Y
(46)
be the corresponding period of fez). :'. The region obtained by excluding the points tIj will be denoted by a'. let us assume that there. if we set R. all results which were derived as consequences of Cauchy's· theorem for a disk remain valid in arbitrary regions for all cycles which are ho~us
. Cauchy's integral formula can now be expressed in the following form: If fez) i8 analytic in a region n~ then..1. • J (1. are only 8 finite number of singular points..~..
'"
... was introduced.
aj
has a. by Cauchy.Djl < {..
...tla8il7.
..
.yerify~ that 1M pointadj· __ '. THE CALCULUS OF RESIDUES
which i8 hotnologous to zero in o.. ~'. 3.. What are the possible values of
f~
over a closed curve in the region?
5.:: .
5.~~ ~.::. while the unbounded region is doubly connected.can be defined in any simply connected region which does not contain the origin..~(:..
n(. : ....
":. We tum now to the discussion of a function f(z) which is analytic in lit region n except for isolated singularities. 4. .. Show that the bounded regions determined by a closed curve are simply connected. our diseussion of the local behavior has already shown that all removable singularities can simply be ignored. :"
'... the combination fez) _
z
The results of the preceding section ha... ..ve shown that the determination of line integrals of analytic functions over closed curves can be reduced to the determination of periods.
lri. ..
The following atatements are therefore trivial consequences of Theorems 15 and 17: If 'Y ~b~ n and fez) is analytic on the set 0 + "i. We need..
'
:.
I
. H b == a. the remain~r· is e\1i~t1y 8:. then it i~ clear that r is homologous to zero with respect to 0'.': .
In the applications it is frequently the case that each n(""a. ~ . then .
/.) is either o or 1.'
.OJ)P"
and since P..
= 2ri.
.'
. 1. .a)l
+ $'(z)
• ••_.~e~
"
•• ' •••
. The main objection to this procedure is the necessity to allot time and attention to rather delicate questions which are peripheral in comparison with the main iBBUes.a)1 we find that the residue of e/(z .
. Therefore n( 'Y.. If."
...
.'
. For the residues of the function
~ J.(z . a R8'lnaTk. is even more immediate..
to recognize that the residue equals the coefficient Be: Indeed.. The assertion follows by routine reasoning..
.o.. :""'!" . All that is needed is to accept the following definition: ..+ e(z .. only look at the expansion f(z}
=
. Let J(z) be analytic except Jor isolated singularitia region Q Then (47)
oJ in
at the poles a and b ¢ 4..0 for all points a not in
n. •
. I(:!)
i . for then the same proof can be applied. With respect to poles the situation is · entirely different.
.a)f(z) for z ~ B._.
1
(z .a precise meaning. For essential singularities there is no such procedure of any practical value.a
J
J)
Ress_.. The residue at a is obviously ea/(a ... Dividing by (z ..a)./ dz
==
r
J
n(y. there is no mention of homology) nor is the notion of index used explicitly. and the residue at b is tJ/(b .b)
This is the T~ue ~OTem~ except for the restrictive assumption that there are only a finite number of singularities.4
+·
t
•
+ B (z
1
. We must then expand e' by Taylor's theorem in the form e' == e.a) iB defined and equal to 1fur all points a E 0 and either undefined or equal to
Definition 4..a)~ is omitted.a. subregion of Dt and the orientation is chosen 80 that the subregion lies to the left of o. for then the function (z . With the general point of view that we have adopted it is still possible..0 isolate the classical case.. the situation is slightly more complicated. prising that the residue theorem is comparatively seldom used in the presence of essential singularities . and we have proved:
Theorem 17.b).
:'"
. In rigorous texts considerable effort is spent on proving that these intuitive notions have .. bounds 0.
A cycle r ia 8aid to bound the region n if and only if n(r.rf: 0 only for a finite number of the singularities. with the notation (46). ·~h~. In the general case we need only prove that n('Yraj) = 0 except for & finite number of points Q. Rj finally
Since the principal part at 8 pole found.
.
_ •••••
.a) + !.a) = 0 is open and contains all points outside of s large circle.. J1'f(r) . the term Bl(. we have thus a very simple For simple poles the method residue equals the value of the instance let it be required to find
I
is always either given or can be easily method for finding the residues.. and if n + 'Y is contained in a larger region 0'..
.. The complement is consequently a compact set....) ..
..~.. In presentations of Cauchy's theorem..a).)R. )' at z = a is e.
where the sum is extended over all singularities enclosed by "y.a)(z . and thus it is not sur .dr ·r •
I.. The residue theorem is of little value unless we ha.~. the curve 'Y to which the theorems are applied is supposed to form the complete boundary of 8.:
"
• I

f(z) . and indeed quite easy.ve at our disposal " simple procedure to determine the residues. Instead. f dz = !n('Y. Then we have simply
~ J't J(z) dz = l Res.8 ..150
COM'LEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
151
By virtue of the homology we obtain.a)2. The set of all points a with n('Y.'
I.'
'.a.j!(z) _
Jor any cycle 'Y which i8 homologous to zero in 0 and doe« not pas8 throUgh any of the points tlj. the integral formula and the residue theorem which follow more classical lines.~ ... 2wi
!.
/.'
. and as such it cannot contain more than a finite.(z)(z .
•
B.1(z) tU "'" 0
"'.
a
~
fTf(z)
dz
=
l n("f. number of the isolated points BJ..
and does not any of the zeros or ptjle8..".:. and this number can be determined by approximate solution of the poly ."fDir' <' 1" hu" lUdt4I .. then
~ I.. then
If I(z) is meromorphic
in
n with the sero«
a. we have thus n(r. This contradicts the definition..
.
.
g(z)
~(~i !
dz J
nh.a)'1A(z). Theorem 18 is usually referred to as the argument principu.. but for Cauchy's theorem and related considerations this assumption is not needed. and the assertion follows.'
. and we see that f'lf has a simple pole with the residue h. '''. If f has a pole of order h.. Then !(z) and g(z) have the 8ame number of zeros enclosed by 'Y.:~""r.':. Another application ofthe residue theorem occurred in the proof of Theorem 10 which served to determine the number of zeros of ananelytic function."_<""~::""If)~~p1Y ~ h. . Consequently (z)/J(z) = h. For a zero of order J:l we can write j(z) = (z.:~ ~~"A~. since "y is closed. .I(Z).. n('Y.(z).a) + f~(z)/f.' In the formula (32) this residue is accounted for by a corresponding repetition of terms. The values of F(z) = g(z)/J(z) on " are thus contained in the open disk of center 1 and radius 1.:
I.b. Normally. with f. Theorem 18 can be generalized in the following manner.)g(bt}. the sums in (48) are finite.. with It..(z)l < IPttI(z)i on _ .
:. :~.
(49) ~
(48)
."
:
. the function J(z)/(z .)g(Cj)
l
. t. If a(z) iI analytic in
n._':. ~
i.i R 88 P ..
Let
I
The assumption implies that J(z) and g(z) are zerofree on over..rem 11 we know ·that . ThiS result
is iniportant for the study of the inverse function.. replacing h.(a) ~ 0 and obtain j'(z) = h(z .'
... .. A typical application of Rouche's theorem would be the following. Suppose that we wish to find the number of zeros of a function J(z) in the disk 12'1 !S: R. E [1._:' "i . nomiaI equation PRl(Z) == 0" .. We observe that a cycle ~ which bounds n must contain the set theoretic boundary of o. When Theorem 18 is applied to F(z).the equatien fez) to~ "~' ".1'
' . This observation is the basis for the following corollary. Suppose that J(z) and g(z) are analytic in n and satisfy the inequality 'f{z) .. '.
.~ .... that f'// has the residue h~ The following theorem results:
It is understood that multiple zeros and poles have to be repeated as many times as their order indicates..
has the residue hg(a) at a zero c of order iii We obtain thus the formula

Theorem 18...a)Alfl(Z) + (z .O) where r is the image cycle of v.
.. then every neighborhood of ZG contains points from D and points not in ll..2. Indeed. If such a neighborhood were free from points of "V. . I
•
nC"I..
=~
1
tl'here the sum ranges over the singularities a. we find by the same calculation as above. n(~..152
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
tNTEGRATION
153
If fez) is analytic on
n + 'Y except
J(z) dz
for isolated singularitie8
R~s_.
o
Corollary.. and when we apply (47)J the integral formula. if Zo lies on the boundary of n.
lor every cycle
whith i8 homologous to UTO in (].:
:.~.l
"'. and hence every neighborhood of Zo must meet . special case of the residue theorem. Indeed.(z)
where P tj~l is & polynomial of degree n ..
.If r lies in 8 disk which does not contain ·the origin} then n(r. We can now generalize Theorem 10 to the case of a meromorphic function.
.a... for a point on ~ may well have a neighborhood which does not.
on "(..1. and the pow
and the residue ·hg(a) at a pole.1"
:.
. 1%' = R.r :.. Using Taylor'S theorem we can write J(z) = Pal(Z)
_
i
+ Z"/.
.i("'?. For a suitably chosen n it may happen that we can prove the inequality R"lf. Cauchy's integral formula can be considered as a. Then f(a:} has the ssme number of zeros in Izl . .)
~4'
More
11 < 1
5. then
gee)
~(~1
_. results. known as Rouche' 8 theorem:
l' be homologous to zero in 0 and such Uta/.
'~:.a)'i~(z)..":.
. Sa must lie on 1".1
:f".. .g{z)' < If(z) on '1.
bl. The name refers to the interpretation of the lefthand member of (48) as n(r.:
"
.z) i8 either (W' 1for an'll point a not on . meet D.1(z .. The converse of the preceding statement is not true. they satisfy the inequality g(z) 1 1(1.O) = 0.J..
.... one would try to choose 'Y so that it is identical with the boundary of 0.I(z)
in 0.
WitlJ
j
*
:=e
~~. .a) has a simple pole at z = a with the residue !(a).z) would be defined and constant in the neighborhood.
:
r.O) == O.
'Y
paB8
through
the notations: of Thib. The Argu~nt Principle.
.
.
".
.
..
. .
. we obtain
(50)
i ~1
L Zj(w)
1l
=
2.
'. some serious limitations.
.dz..Zw) is is clear that the integral from o to .
~>~~Y~~.
• :.2Z&
+6z
l

2
t=
+
dO cos
e
J
a> 1.~·
h '''. :.:..1»0\ < 6.. :.'/ •••• '. .)P. polynomial equation· z"
(51)
/02. Look for the bIggest term.2... "
. '~.. The calc~ua ?f residues p": vides 8. Evoluation of Definite IntegraLt. ~ ::: ~. All.
'
~:' The denominator . .. {j == a~~ .. J . complete mastery does not guarantee success.._:
. di ealculus of residues yields. · + a...
. equation
(50) is replaced by f'(:) 1(2) .:><·'~·.. let us compute Jo a
..
..Hz + 3 = 0 have their modu
Z7
. and the method is far from infallible.< 1._t Ii ·tly hut even if the ordinary methods of calculus can be app I grM exp 01 .COMPLEX 114 COMPLEX ANALYSIS
INTEGRATION
155
(49) with g(z) ~ e.1 and apply Rouch~'s theorem. Taking this into account ·we find that the integral equals
•• "1:
. ::~t·~""\'·~:~~~.. and t~ ~due .:.
..
.a) (z . and we find that the 2.1"
.:
. but this technique is usually very laborious.01
J... but eveo .ttly a laborsaving device.3.
For
fi
= 1 the in verse function rl(1») can thus be represented explicitly by
f1(W)
=<
1 2. •• .: :.: ·":'·~~:.
/'(z) !(Il) =. .:...5~. ::"."
~<~. It is very natural to make the substitution z == eitl which immediately transforms (51) into the line integral
+ al(w)zl + .e
W
z liz. :~:. ..).
i1
2: zlw)ft. ·····' ~ ... .~·:~·::·~~~~/!. • Th f t that the the use of residues is frequet.
~. R( cos OJ sin
0)
dtJ
where the integrand is a rational function of cos B and sin 8 can be easily evaluated by means of residues. particularly important when it IS impossible to find the mdefinlte nlied .
!\:
o·
. integrals of the form
t
The right.~ :. How many roots of the eqUAtion Zl +.' ~ .!
!.:.
:: :.': a~
.:"~.
can be factored into (z . ~ .'·.. As an example..:..(3) with
....:'. while a real integral is always extended over an interval.> > .
....:<.. This is not very serious.'.i
I&zol'_'~
Iv) 
f'{z)
'W Z
dz.
rea:I
Q. .hand member represents an analytic function of w for 11.~. '.. however.~ ·:'·:~~~~~~~·~:··. Of course these integrals can also be computed by explicit integration.J. _~.r·:~:
.I(W)Z + a~(w) = 0
functions of
tD
whose coefficients are analytic
ill. Ill! > 1. for usually we are only required to integrate elementary functions.w z.0 ."...~. It is much more serious that the technique of complex integration applies only to closed curves.
//:..
•
'. .
If (49) is applied with g(z)
=
=
Z"". ":·:'I7. ...:. How many roots of the squataon r .
_.~"]~...·.. when Izi .·~ently 'al.fl RD(z+~}~(z .
..:?\:.!)]~.~. A special device must be used in order to reduce the problem to one which concerns integration over a closed.'.{~ .: :.
..::}":.. complex rather than integr~s IS?O at ~ advantaget for clearly the ~ua~on of a complex mtegrallS equrv en to the evsJuation of two definite Integrals.. Hence they are also analytic....~.
...
'.'
.. :' . e B.. ': .~.i
1
J 1.. .
.:. curve. but since cos 6 takes the same ·~ues in the intervals (0.
+1_
It remains only to determine the residues which correspond to the poles of the integrand inside the unit circle.0i:.!.::!
."':~ ..
Ius between 1 and 2? ' 3 0 Ii 3. &1 3..~.. in the right half_plane? Bint: Sketch the un~ of the unagmary and apply the argument principle to a large half disk.
"
.: . How many roots does the equation
0 have in the disk Izi < 11 Hifit:..e' + ~ = ~. . 1.:~... :.
.'~t·.. and they can all be extended to the complex domain.::. There are a number of ways in which this can be accomplished.(W) are the roots of a. But it is well known that the elementary symmetric functions can be expressed as polynomials in the power sums.wol ~ 6 Thus the power sums of the roots 2j(W) are singlevalued analyt~c f~etioDB of w.. ..is onehalf of the integral from 0 to 2r.:.'...
5.:~.~ integral is not extended over (0. In the first place.. _ 2..~~··.
iJ.t a is l/(a .'
'. the integrand must be closely connected with some analytic function.~'1'i~ . but they all apply under rather special circumstances The technique can be learned at the hand of typical examples..~:·f···... .
.
2ri
1
J
1S::lIl·
There are.'..
~:
.
EXERCISES 1.: ~..: :·:·.. very efficient tool for t~ ~valuat:ion of definite ~tegr~..:().. I •
~ ~
.) and (w.'·:.!:: .' .'...:.~)!O The value f ~.i ..::.
1w . ' .. :.
+
+.C.
.. in the lower half ~ane (~412) . It is easy_to see t~t this closed curve.. .>0
L
Res R(z)e"
r<A
(}
1
+ _!_)
Jr.r . and secondly. .:::.: .:. ~ ::. If p is large enough this curve encloses all poles in the upper half plane.under the sole condition that B( ao) .:... ev is bounded in the upper half planet we can again con· elude th&t the integral over the semicircle tends to zero. :
• •I • • •
<. even if we were successful we would only have proved that the integral
In
case
f
~II
R(z)e"" dz
p + 00..80·that·~:·ean ·lftite l..1.·. and a corresponding result is found for the left vertical side.l(8)tfit·_. but we use a path which avoids ~~. How~J one. this rectangle contains all the poles in the upper half plane. .f~. tacitly.:. XI it tends to 0 as Y + ee .
Since leUl ..L. + &(. this it is not convenient to use semicircles.~ ... .~. .
..:lI'. The integral over the upper horizontal side is evidently less than IrY(X1 + Xz)/Y multiplied with a constant.. and if no pole lies on the real axis.. and we obtain
has a limit when Xl and XI tend independently to CD In the earlier examples this question did not arise because the convergence of the integral was assured beforehand.rDI?cf•• · ~':. I
R(x)e<s dz .
.ed.'" th = 2ri
..2ri
.~lt_"'''. X"2 and Y are sufficiently large.
L Res R(z)eb. We obtain
where .irlBt&ncej·'that R(z) has 8 simple pole at z = 0. thepole at the origin.meirC1e ia~..
R(x) rk
converges if and only if in the rational function R(x) the degree of the
denominator is at least two units higher than the degree of the numerator..OJ~18B.
R(z). : ~:.~:~iio__ ~~Of _jiiit·:·1&.R(x)e~ fix
whose real and imaginary parts determine the important (53)
J:..~ . As p ) ao obvious estimates show that the integral over the semicircle tends to 0. 'and noothers aIJ BOOn as "'l)~~y 'are8l1fti~~t1i J&rge~and'is rndBcien~lJID8ll. For one thing......
f _"IQ
R(x) dx == 2ri
:1'>0
L Res RCz)·
3.~~ (53) has a meaning and calls for evaluation.
. .. .~ .. We use the same method as before.. encloses the poles ~P8t~b&lf plane..p) and the semicircle from p to p in the upper half plane..
+
+
less thaD
f
y
o
e» dy < 1 rzl XI
JY
G
ell dy. The standard procedure is to integrate the complex function R(z) over a closed curve consisting of a line segment (p... provided that the rational function R(z) has a zero of at least order two at infinity.. .
1'>0
L Res R(z)e'"
. . and we conclude that
f :. for .'~ .: :. Hence the integral over the right vertical side is. For fixed Xl.) whue·
~.:..: :: :_. In the discussion we have 8BSUJD...
over a symmetric interval hss the desired limit for we are of course required to prove that :
In reality
.:\t$~.)i8~~_lftlc'.
R(x) cos x dxt
f_ R(x) sin x th. :~.
11>0
It is less obvious that the same result holds when R(z) b8s only a simple zero at infinity. if R(z) has simple ~~ w~ch eoineide with zeros of Bin x or C08 x._. O. As soon as XI."._::. ~.u. R(x). ~..
f~".p
This inequality proves that dz = 2ri
r:. namely.COMPLEX INTEGRATION
151
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
t
157
of the integral is found to be v/v' at . &ppoae that .!tJttriliil~~ ~...•··c~
...c. o~ tb~ j~tegr~8 (53) may well exist. tH . oricin by following & small semicircle of radius . For the proof we integrate over the perimeter of a rectangle with the vertices X2~ Xt iY... except for a constant factor..
f
Xt
Xl
R(x)eiz dx
. it is not so easy to estimate the integral over the semicirCle. Then the second inte.. XI iY.. Hence the integral over the right vertical side is less than a constant times lIX!.R. ~ . ~.it~. and the corresponding integral is equal to 2ri times the sum of the residues in the upper half plane. 2... that R(z) has no poles on ~he real axis since otherwise the integral (52) has no meaning. An integral of the form. : ":'<. Let us suppose..... ..iDWJ~a1_~~. The same method can be applied to an integral of the form
(52)
The las~ integral can be evaluated explicitly and is found to be < 1.
integrals
f ~. .
. Xl where Y > 0.
J~.A denotes s constant.~ .. Under the hypothesis IzR(z)\ is bounded.
have
L Res R(z)e" . .
:. . This·method. For practical purposes it may be preferable not to use any preliminary 8Ubstituti~ and integrate the function ziR(z) over the closed curve shown in F~ 414~ We have then to use the branch of ..::. :: '...
•.'
fY~./0'" X"'R(x)
dx
~~.:....j... f
WheR
R(x)e'fN# dx
.. one very large and one very small (Fig.. Indeed. 1'63. For convergence R(z) must have & zero of at least order two at co and at most a simple pole at the origin .. ..
+
r " sin x dz
X
== !.
':.1) in the· upper half plane.' •• r I ~ .....
pr
.0
~
. In the the equatlon IS fIYl .lent'·Iiee· brtrween' 0 'and 21r«.
.. f'~. ier··it~?daea..a. it is well defined and analytic in the region obtained by omitting the negative imaginary axis.. :"
integrals can be reduced to the form (52) by a oba.'~.
:
:
'
.
0
in front itI ¢ OJ we are finally able to determine the value :ijf..+lR(zi)
dz. as linear
ill
c~:
m._..
'rrr J.
For the function
f_ .::..:.residues of zk+1R(..... The new feature is the fact that R(z)z« is not singlevalued...>.g
n
. 4(13)4' Under our assumptions it is easy to show that the integrals over the semicircles tend to zero. '.
. ..CAy priflCi~ val~ ~hth~ it exists although the integral itseH has no meanmg. h·· at alue and since imaginBJ'y part it is not necessary to take t e prmClp v..tIR(zt) dz
= fo"
(ZI ... '..
dx
=
2ri
[L
Res R(z)e
u
00
+ IB1
the exponent a is real and may be supposed to lie in the interval .
10" z.:.i. . COMPLEX ANALYSIS
INTEGRATION
158
.0 < a < 1..~' . "..
Se arating the real and imaginary part we o~rve that~he real part Qf p ... : .nge o. This...
theoIem.2ri ~ Res R(z)e'
..:.. .d. side we observe that onehalf of the residue 0 ~ been mcluded j is as if onehalf of the pole were counted as lymg In the uppe: half PI.
pr.
we may choose the branch whose argument lies between Ta and awa. needs some justifie&tion. As long as we avoid the negative imaginary axis.. and the integral equals
(1 .~ :....~!
.
I
:""
'I
". We use a closed curve consisting of two line segments along the positive and negative axis and two semicircles in the upper half plane....: :~::..
"~.' ..
1 = m
j
m
R
(z) m

ei~dx~
4 .":"..COMPLEX 1... whose of:tbe residue
:.
&
+ f· R(x)e""
. Slmple. It is an essen YPO:: that all the poles on the real axia be.~~::
:.L~~··· ..::~ ~_:t .:~' .~~.' . and es before we m assume that H( «l) = o.' ~..
~'f'..alJIOns
of terms
C08
mx and sin fRX.
. *I.. ~. 1
+
(:Il)Ja+l)R(zl) liz.
.'.1
'!
.1:0
+ Ti
tial h' th" where the notations are se1fexpl~atory. .~ the desired integral.'!is .
..' ~ {~.
f"
~
R(x)eio: dx ."
" • '.~ ~
LI. As the Simplest example we... ~enee the residue theorem yields the value of the integral
Zk
.~! ~.
". •• '..
.. or ain~2: evaluated by the same technique..... " ~ . ' .n: · In the general case where several poles lie on the real aXIS we obtain
a. : ~>"~'l' : ~. '...
:' .tri. '.~~
o
Fie.. 412
It is clear that we are led to the result
lim
~o
J
. ..:
'..i:¥.
. we can apply the residue theorem to the function ZIe+1R(Z2).: . however t is just the circumstance which makes it possible to find the integrai from 0 to CC. (z)"" == e1riazl«.'. r ... .'.. j'_
~ ."
'!.~'iJ..dx x
H.. ·.v.. :
~~
'~......1tOt:~··to:tbe·:hy.:d~' .'.)
:::c
n •.. .
... ~. The evaluation c8.
. ei. • • ..
... . e ng ..lIsfor determination of the ..' . These are the same as the residues of z!fR(z) in the whole plane.owever. these factors ean. . The simplest procedure is to start with the substitution % = it which transforma the integral into
2
The limit on the left is called the Ca1J..
2
We remark that integrals containing a factor ooS"'.'
~u::'~ '+':._
... n..e2ri.._":: ~ .!2.\ . and the eorrespo
f ana bie" ·
.~j
. . _The
.. ~.v
com
ID.pothes. the integrand is even we find
f~ee' the factor
JJJ
b· ..
":. :. The next category of integrals have the form
..
.
.
~'
..' t· ·al by the fact that the Integrand IS odd..t
i:~:r:J
tbi:
!O" t%«HR(t
l)
tit.v4'
f. .
.
Complex integration
t:
mtegrals.e!ul.(l. In the region obtained by omitting these half lines the principal branch of log (1 . 1_1<1
/f
f(z) d:e_ ~. Finally..e2w(cos 2x i sin 2x)..' .etu) is hence singlevalued and analytic.sin e. The integral over the upper horizontal side tends to 8.. We apply Cauchy's theorem to the rectangle whose vertices are OJ 1f'. (Suggested by a student) L ~/:aluate the following integrals by the method of resid~e8:
JOT log
sin 8 dB. and.: . the integrals over the quadrants can also be seen to approach sero 88 & + o.
:
"
'.and '1'"..
dx. Compute
I. ·
+
Hint: Use zZ 

p
2
to conve rt the mtegr al to a Iine integral of a rational i · e
can sometimes be used to evaluate showthat if fez) is analytic and boun:
*5.
xl/3
+ Xl dx.. and we do this by following small circular quadrants of radius It Because of the periodicity the integrals over the vertical sides cancel against each other. From the fact that 11 .
e)
sin t: z'
2. As a final example we compute the special integral
that in Sec 5 3 Exam 13th .. :: . From the representa.
1
FIC .
dx
J0 1
r:
+
a'
2
dx a real
1
J
(~....
(Try.1.. Y ~ 0... e mtegral may be.
Consider the function 1 . 00..iY. n positive integers). in order to obtain the principal branch with an imaginary part between .11
FIG •• 14
0....:
.integration by parts.
function.)s' a real..
.. however. p e s.
'
.. 1 and if JrJ < 1.tt)
.
+x
2 )
(h) xH·.. (f)
•• +
(b\
'J
(Z2 _ 1)2'
1
(c)
1 sin e'
(d)
cot z. Show
z.5x1
+ 6'
lOx:!
+ 9'
J
(~
(J
+ a:..
(b) (d) (f)
X2
X
ce
(e) (g) (i)
~ ~ o x'
cos x
+
+2
J0
(~x'
X2 (Xl
+
Zl dx
.:.
. : ..elia = .S y _.') i = 0. then
f(t)
_
log (.. and we obtain
+
() f
C
(a)
/0
eo
a
x'
+~in2 z ' lal
+
>
d:c
1.. the imaginary part lies between 0 and 71'4' Therefore.(
EX·EReISES
L Fin~ the poles and residues of the following functions:
(a)
(1
Z2
+ 5z + 6'
. Indeed.
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
1'1
11"
log 2 
(~2) + lor i
log sin x dz
+ (.
.2ie"" sin :e) th "'"0
=1
If we choose log eU == ix.
and we find
.. since the imaginary part of the logaritlun ~ bounded we need only consider the real part..)
J0
t"
log (1
< a < 2).. we must choose log ($) == ri/2..x
(j
x!
sin x
+ at
a real.. extended over a rightangled isosceles triangle..
o
. The same proof applies near the vertex 1r.
(}_
I
.
"
'.... 11'" + iY.tion 1 .e2U ~ 1 . (0 dx
J0
(~
(1
+ ZZ)l log x dx. .becomes infinite like log 8. and since a log a )0 0 the integral over the quadrant near the origin. (1 . z)" (m..e!ul/ Iz 1~ 2 for $ + 0 we see that log 11.al
la'
# p. the points 0 and T have to be avoided. will tend to zero..Ip
J
Irk I l' fz ... The equation can now be written in the form
• • ••
. . we find that this function is real and negative only for z == nT...2itf.
for Iz I
<
As an illustration...
lIZ
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
INTEGRATION
113
I. HARMONIC
FUNCTIONS
The real and imaginary parts of an analytic function are conjugate harmonic functions, Therefore, all theorems on analytic functions are also theorems on pairs of conj ugate harmonic functions. However) harmonic functions are important in their own right, and their treatment is not always simplified by the use of complex methods, This is particularly true when the conjugate harmonic function is not singlevalued.
This, it. should be ~emembered, is the most natural way of passing from harmoruc to analytic functions. From (55) we pasa to the differential (56)
f dz = (:: d:t
+ ~ dy ) + i ( du
=
:; th
+ ::
dy )
We assemble in this section some facts about harmonic functions that are intimately connected with Cauchy's theorem. The more delicate properties of harmonic functions are postponed to a later chapter ..
6.1. Dejinition and Basic PropertielJ. A realvalued function u(z) or u(z,Y)t defined and singlevalued in a region 0, is said to 'be harmonic in Ilt or a potential Junction, if it is continuous together with its partial derivatives of the first two orders and satisfies Laplacf/B equation. (54) We shall see later that the regularity conditions can be weakened~ but this is a point of relatively minor importance. The sum of two harmonic functions and a constant multiple of a harmonic function are again harmonic j this is due to the linear character of Laplace's equation, The simplest harmonic functions are the linear functions ax by.. In polar coordinates (r,6) equation (54) takestbe form
In this expression the real part is the differential of u , dx +......____".d'iJ
au
ax
au·
By
II·
If ~ has a conjugate harmonic function v, then the imaginary written &8 dv_rJv av au au  a:z: dx + ay ay = d:t + iJx ay.
pari can be
au
In general, however, there is no singlevalued conjugate function and in ~: CIrcumstances it is better not to use the notation av, Instead we
•
and call
(57)
au =
J dz

au au ay" + axil1l
au.
We have by (56) du
*au the
conjugate differmtiol of
=
+
+ i .du.
r
!(r:)
+ :~ = O.t
+
. B~ Cauchy's theorem th~ integral of f dz vanishes along any cycle which IS h?molo~lliI to zero In f.l. On the other hand, the integral oE the exact diflerential au vanishes along all cycles. It follows by (57)tbat
(58)
This shows that log r is a harmonic function and that any harmonic function which depends only on T must be of the form a log r b.. The argument 9 is harmonic whenever it can be uniquely defined. If u is harmonic in 0, then
(55)
IS
.. _1· anwytic, for
f J7
·du = J,. 
~ tk + iJu ay
iJy ax
=
0
f(z)
·t+
= au _ ax
i au
ay
1.._.
Wl'1
mg U == au V ax'
=  au we ay
IUt.V8
for all Cf?les 'Y which are homologous to zero in n. lei The_m~gra1 in (58) has an important interpretation which cannot be . t ~e?tioned. If., is a regular curve with the equation z = z(t) the direction o~ the tangent is determined by the angle a = srg Zl (t) J .~. we can ~te dx = Idzl cos a, dy = Ilk I sin a. The normal which pointe to the right of the tangent has the direction (:J... /2 d thus cos a ==  sin fJ sin a  C08 R. The .. a...,. an
.' v
expresBlon
au· au an_ 8i
C08
fJ
au + ay sin fJ
..
t This form cannot
be used for
T
C.
..
•• ' .',
is a directional deriva.tive of u, ,the: righthand· normal tkrivGtive with l'e8peCt,~ t~ euryre 'Y. .l!~~~I~, ·d.;~;(~/4n) 1.11 and (58) can be . .~ .. .
.,. ,
:
..
"
...
.
'1:' :. I
.
..
. . .: :.: :;./~~.:~/:: ..:..:
'i~'::':\):<:···.:::~·::··/:;::~.
.....
'M
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
115
written in the form
(59)
for every cycle
r which is homologous
to zero in
D.
This is the classical notation. Its main advantage is that au/an actually represents a rate of change in the direction perpendicular to y. For Instance, if 'Y is the circle lzl == r, described in the positive sense, au/an can be replaced by the partial derivative lJu/ar. It has the disadvantage that (59) is not expressed as an ordinary line integral, but as an integral with respect to arc length. For this reason the classical notation is less natural in connection with homology theory" and we prefer to use the notation ·du. In 9. simply connected region the integral of * du vanishes over all cycles, and u has a singlevalued conjugate function v which is determined up to an additive constant. ' In the multiply connected ease the conjugate function has periods
For Ul == 1, u, :; U the formula reduces to (58). notation (60) would be written as
In the classical
6.Z. The Meanmlue Property. Let us .apply Theorem 19 with Ul == log rand 1£1 equal to & function U, harmonic in Izl < p.. For 0 we choose the punctured disk 0 < Iz1 < p, and for 'Y we take the cycle C 1  C 2 where C; is a circle Izi = r, < p described in the positive sense. On a circle JzJ = r we have *du = r(au!iJr) de and hence (60) yields
log rl f
JC
Jll
1
aau dB
r

rc, u dB = log Jr J
Tt
Ct
"1 au dB 
ar
J CI
(
u dfJ
•
an f,..l *du = f,.... ~ Idzl
corresponding to the cycles in a homology basis. There is an important generalization of (58) which deals with a pair of harmonic functions. If VI and Ut are harmonic in 0, we elaim that
(60)
In other words, the expression
is constant, and this is true even if u is only known to be harmonic in an annulus. By (58) we find in the same way that
for every cycle 'Y which is homoJogous to zero in R. According to Theorem 16, Sec. 4.6, it is sufficient to prove (60) for 7 = iJR, where R is 8. rectangle contained in 11. In R, Ul and 'Ut have singlevalued conjugate functions Vl, V2 and we can write
U,1 *dul
1;11.,
f
T~d8
is constant in the case of an annulus and zero if u is harmonic in the whole disk. Combining these results we obtain:
Theorem 20a The arithmetie m.ean of 'a'harmonic function over concentric circles lzl = r i8 a linear'function of log T,


U2:
*dul :;:::; dv2 ttl

UI tWl ;:::: 1l.1 dvs
+ Vl du,
 d(UlfJl) ..
Here d(utVl) is an exact diJJerentiw, and u1dvt + vldut is the imaginary part of (UI + wl)(dul + "dv,). The laSt J2:(z) are theorem, conclude
Theorem
(60)
(61)
;..
]·1 ....
J "dB""
a=
a: Jog r
+ p,
and changing to
&
differential can be written in the form FJ2 dz where FI(a) and analytic on R.. The integral of FJ2 dz vanishes by Cauchy'S and so does therefore the integral of its imaginary part, We that (60) holds for 'Y = aR,. and we have proved:
19. If ut and
Ut
,
and if u is
lUrmonic
in a disk
l1li
0 and tIu! arilhmetic mean is constant
.. .. n the latter case fJ 'I onlPn we find
(62)
u{O), by continuity,
new
are harmonic in a region OJ then
*dU2 'UI
. u(zo} "'" ~ fo"'Uj{Zo
+ rei') dB.
....
.~
f
~
Ul
*dUt ;::::0
,
" It is 'clear ihat~'l(62)'aotik{;&Iio',haw"beeD derived' fitjin the eorre.....
•• ' • :• _ ••••• : .... "
't' .; ...!.J. :,:: .
". :·'I.:~I.
"
'
t.'L/'~:. ·.,0;J~,~~~t~f.'',o'".!!:.'.:"I'~ ,~;.:
' .. ,..J" • ~::_..: ':~ ~ ":,':. • .. :....
.
.....
..
.
'
.
. ';' ..... :.: ./'~ .: : :.::
 : ..
'
.
"
..,'
.,'...
s,»
' ••
:.:.
1 ...
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
117
sponding formula for analytic functions, Sec. 3.4,. (34).. It leads directly to the maximum principle for harmonic functions: A nonconatant harmonic junclion has neither a ~maximum nor a minimum in its region of definition. ConsequenilYJ the maximum and the minimum on a closed bounded Bet E ate taken on the boundary of E .. Theorem 21.
anypoint to the center. the closed disk IzJ ~ R, z
maps
To be explicit, suppose that u(z) is harmonic in The linear transformation
=
Set)
=
ReEf + a) R+af
to
The proof is the same as for the maximum principle of analytic functions and will not be repeated. It applies also to the minimum for the reason that u is harmonic together with u.. In the case of analytic functions the corresponding procedure would have been to apply the maximum principle to l//(z) which is illegitimate unless J(z) iJI!:. o. Observe that the maximum principle for analytic functions follows from the maximum principle for harmonic functions by applying the latter to log '/(z)l which is harmonic when I(z) F 0..
EXERCISES
function u(S(t» is harmonic in
'r1·~ 1 onto
Izl :S:
R with r
= 0 corresponding Irl ~ 1, and by (62) we
z
= a4'
The
obtain
u{a) "'" 2~
From
ItJ ... l
J
u(B{r»
d arg
r.
r = R(z
we compute
R'
 a)  i12
d arg
r ==
i ~ = i (
r
Z
1
+ R! 4 a
a _
az
_) liz = (
Z
a
+ RI liz az _) a 
d8~
is harmonic and bounded in 0 is B removable singularity in the sense that when 1£(0) is properly defined.
1. If
1J
< Izi < p, show
that the origin 'U becomes harmonic in 1z1 < p
On ~bstituting rewritten as
R2
= zj
the coefficient of dB in the last expression can be
that f(z) is analytic in the annulus Tl < [s] < T2 and continuous on the closed annulus. If M(T) denotes the maximum of If(z) I for [z I = TJ show that
2. Suppose
z za
·or, equivalently;
88
+ za  
Ri  lalt Iza 12
M(r)
s M(rl)aM(r,)la
where a = log (T2/r): log (rtJrJ (Hadamard's threecircle theorem) Discuss cases ·of equality. Hint: 4pply the maximum principle to & linear combination of log If(z) l and log I: I··
4
(zza a + za ~) + ~+ 2
!
=
Re z
ZQ
+ a.
We obtain the two forms (6) 3 of (1 11 a)  2;
J R" 
6.3. Poisson's Formula. The maximum principle has the following important consequence: If u(z) is continuous on a closed bounded set E and harmonic on the interior of E,. then it is uniquely determined by its values on the boundary of E~ Indeed, if Ul and Ut are two such functions with the same boundary values, then UI  U2 is harmonic with the boundary values 04 By the maximum and minimum principle the difference Ul  U2 must then be identically zero on E .. There arises the problem of finding u when its boundary values are given. At this point we shall solve the problem only in the simplest case, namely for a closed disk .. Formula (62) determines the value orvat the center of the disk. But this is all we need, for there exists a linear transformation which carries
Iz _
larl u(z) al:!l
'el B
1 d9 "'" 2.
J
tsJ 'I!IIIR
Re z
+ a u(z)
a
dB
Z
Poi88lJ'11,'8
formula.
In polar coordinates,
1 (h R'rt u t't" = 2;: )0 R2 _ 2,R cos (8 _ rp) (.)
+ r2 v(Re") d9.
ohlwn
In the derivation we have assumed that u(z) is harmonic in the closed ~~sk.. However, the result remains true under the weaker condition that 'U(z:~ is 'harmonic in the open disk and continuous in the closed disk. Ind~, if 0 < r < 1, then .(rz) is harmonic in the closed disk, and we
.. ';'.. '.
,': :'.(ro)
"*" ~~r!~'T;;~ w(n) "jt
.1
..
iV·~·J
.
~I
_.
.
di.:'
.~,
..
. ::. ,'. • • ", '.;. :: •• : .:). I • ( .: I
.
•
.
.
. ..
'
: _.•.•. , .•:....... .• '~"'~.'.'.~.~.: ....·,I~.·:. . • , . ): •.~.;'.~:.:
. .. ',
;r
.::»:
.
"
.: •••••••• ::.~ •• ::~
. .. .
;~
' ••
.:
.
Because u(z) is uniformly continuous on \z\ ~ R it is true that u(rz) + u(z) uniformly for It I = R.. Indeed..U
=
cPu
for all
lal <
R. ::. Schwarz's . . for if this is not the case we need only replace U by U . as such it is called 8 functional. . note that u = 1 yields (67)
for
all
1al < R...":
1/.
contintwu8 Jor
and c.. :.:.:_ ~
.. and we conclude that (63) remains valid."+:':'.~\
. I'.z le'f 
6. Since PU1 can be regarded as a line integral over Cl it is. It follows that PU1 is zero on the open arc Cit and since it is continuous PU1(z) + 0 as z + eill E C2• In proving (68) we may suppose that U(Bo) = 0.
Pt. Suppose that u(z) is harmonic for Iz\ ~ R. We shall formulate the result as a..
'... 10
1
t.... From this property.
'.
.. by U1 the corresponding function for C.4... Clearly..TheoreHl_ Theorem 22 serves to express 8.s at Bo.1
:. Choosing R = 1we define. let C« and C" be complementary arcs of the unit circle.
1
/ R2 1.. and consequently it is Or harmonic function. it follows that any inequality m ~ U S M implies m :::: Pu ~ M.. Moreover... given harmonic function through its values on a circle. To study the boundary behavior.1"
COMPLEX
ANA. :.Re~. Then
(64)
Pu(z)
= 2. harmonic everywhere except on the closed arc Cl~ The expression Re e~' + z == 1 ~. formula (63) gives
(65) . theorem: Theorem 22.~~ .
(68)
The bracketed expression is RIl analytic function of z for follows that u(z} is the real part of
(66) where C is an arbitrary real constant.... ~ ..
:
... A
. '.
".. and hence IPlI.'.U(9o).

. but also a function of the function U.
.
. .LYSIS
COMPLEX
INTEGRATION
111
Now all we need to do is to let r tend to 1. . by the same reasoning as before. Observe that Pu(z) is not only a funct~on of z. :
...
~.' .band..
:
. Given .. :.. u(~)
== Re
[~i / ~~ : 1]"
1. We ~eduee from (67) that P. ..!
.. _..' and denote by UI the function which coincides with U on C1 and vanishes on C!.:. ..::::. U ~ 0 implies Pu(z) ~ o· because of this property Pn is said to be a positive linear functional. JU1(B)! < 1/2...: 
.. . .
It
The junction Pu(z) is harmonic lor
.....aJ < J ~ _
lim PuC')
== U(6a)
This formula is known as Schwarz's
As a special case of 1(64). and IU(IJ) I < e/2 for ei'E C . But the righthand side of formula (64) has a meaning as soon as u is defined on =: R."
!'. .'.
formula.ei'... .. together ~t~ th? linear and positive character of the functional. for all I.
I •
~~..
Jzl'
'z'
zit
vanishes on 1%1 == 1 for z :#. : ."
"
''::
. ·:8inee 'U 1 is ·~ntinUOU8 and vanishes ·
'. Pu = PU1 + Pu".
lz1 < R..
The theorem leads at once to an explicit expression for the conjugate function of u. is an interior point of C. .

. for instance piecewise continuous. A..... provided it is sufficiently regular.all this the Poisson integral of U.
' . As in (65) the integral can again be written as the real part of an analytic function.... We have already remarked that Pu is harmonic..
provided that U is continuou. :. .lIR
la\' It: _ al2
u(z) d8
and
Pu+v = Pu
+ r... does it have the boundary values u(z) on Iz1 = R? There is reason to clarify the notations.
:..::~ :.. = c..(z)I < for all < 1. The question of boundary values is settled by the following fundamental theorem that was first proved by H.. Under this condition.. for any piecewise continuous function U(IJ) in 0 ~ 6 ~ 2r...... (. The functional is linear inasmuch as
u(a)
=
2.. 'on· the o$hEq'. • '.."+_
: U(O) dO
lzl < R. Schwarz: Theorem 23.. ~ ':"
. ' . > 0 we can find 01 and C" sueh that ei. The question is.tl =R
u(t)
for constant c.'
.:.
CI) for y _... and use this fact to compute
.. .~~. so we must have

Remark... .z . 3.. Show that Pu(z) .I).
. The point at co presents an added difficulty.S
at ei'o there exists a 8 such that . for instance U( +0) 0. . . replace each value of U(6) by the value at the point opposite to z.. the isolated
. .e'''1
follows that IPu(z)l < 'Pull + IPu1t < g as soon as Izl < 1 and Iz .
. !by·. Show that the reasoning can be carried out successfully by application to u .P..the length of the arc. (In other worda.. show that . == 0...t~ll~.
•• <:»
." '.
.. also due to Schwarz..J" (x .
.zll".
Zl
e...Izt2 =
z)(c1'· ...)
..
obtain
ei~d8 ei'. : _'r:.
.. d8· Te'" . 1...Q~...PUI(z) I < a/2 for Iz::. Ii 1(2) is analytic in a neighborhood of co and if zI Re f(z) _. .i'..~c~.....
~.. for we cannot immediately apply the maximum and minimum principle to 11 . r 1.
\z\'

=
Ie" . • :.. show that f is a constant. opposite to Ct.~
~t ~ is· renlq~JIhle. value formula (62) remains valid for u./~
. d 9* ei' .'
Re fez) _.au for . but we lack control when 'xi + ao.
I . 0 when z to 00. In Ex. 1)..fo.
1z)/(ei'.
. U = 0 on C..
.... It is clear geometrically. "..i
and..• ~~
.e. and take the average over the circle. CIO.41..!..> 0.
..1 arg
We regard 6* as a function of 6 and differentiate.
Gen
'0
mIlO
10·log sin
I dl. Bw:. on taking absolute values. to find Pu(z)..) exists.
~~~Y
+ /1 ~~t~~. . ~

Y t)~
+y
t
U(O df
FIG. It
represents a hsrmonic function in the upper half plane with bound&rJ" values U(~) at points of continuity (Poisson'S integral for the half plane)..
..~.. H inl: U (66). . If eland Ct are complementary area on the unit circlet set U ::.. There is an interesting geometric interpretation of Poisson's formula.• • .. that (69) But the ratio (ei"

< o.lim /(1.ei"l < Ot which is precisely what we had to prove .
'.
•
.1711
COMPLEX ANALYSIS
COIIPLEX
INTEGRATION
171
In other words. with the idea of letting I tend to o. continuous on the real axis.'Y·.'· .' ~
. Given a fixed z inside the unit circle we determine for each eif the point ei'* which is such tha. Find Pu(z) explicitly and show that 2rPu(z) equals .: . '..
U{ 0)
:0::
1 .. s. . Prove that B function which is harmonic and bounded in the upper half plane. (70) It follows by (69) and (70) that

erslise to arbitrary jumps and to the case of the circle" .~i7:. can be represented 88 l\ Poisson integral (Ex.qn~..~e.t e"t z and e"" are in a straight line (Fig. Show that the mean... or by simple calculation..:1 on Cl. This almost workaJ for the function tends to 0 for y + 0 and to . Since z is constant we
1.·= log tl + e].'..zl! = d8
1and hence
If fez) is analytic in the whole plane and if cc.P S4' A good try would be to apply the maximum principle to u .l
tends to 0 as z + O.P. 0 when
7.
:DO
1..Ga~....e].. cut off by the straight linea through z and the end points of C 1.~t·1
. 2.
EXERCISES
~+
1. Assume that U(~) is piecewise continuous and bounded for all real Show that Pu(z)
1 = . .~\..~(.~~.
. 415). 88SUme that U has a jump at 0.:~ ..
(~' 
z) is negative. Im <ViZ).. Be
::
..
.. .
2~
1:\2 .
and satisfies the symmetry condition /(z) == f(z). More preelsely. .I~ . For the remaining part of the theorem. Because 11 is connected it must intersect the real axis along at least one open interval. The principle of reflection is based on the observation that if u{z) is a harmonic function. The definition can be extended to all of OJ and the theorem follows.'.tinualion to Q.
• •
•• 1:
.. then u(z) is likewise harmonic...
:. ..
.. .fCz) is analytic and vanishes on an interval it must be identically zero.
.'...
For the proof we construct the function V(z) which is equal to v(z) in 0+. by Theorem 23..that the Uo coincide in overlapping disks. and also on the diameter. v(z) = v(z) . and equal to v(z) in the mirror image of n+. analytic in 0+.3). has a conjugate harmonic function Ut) in the same disk which we may normalize so that Uo = Re J(z) in the upper half. 3.
. 2.i).(i)t
On the real diameter it is clear that
aUo/ax
=_
= 0 and also
auo
fly
=
2 auo
iJy
It follows that the analytic function vanishes on the real axis.~~'. .(z) = ue(.. and v . .<. We conclude that V is harmonic in the whole disk.
..~:~. ·lftitrtea··in ··the tanif'll ~. v(z}..i II! (1. Then show that Uo is the real part of an analytic function fo{z} and use the preceding exercise to conclude that the singularity at 0 is removable. 0 on 6. and nothing at all need to be assumed about the real part. Undersuch conditionaj'(e) has an analytic continuation which maps symmetric points with respe ct to C onto symmetric points with respect to C'. Then IJ has a haTmonic extension. and this constant is evidently zero.'~. Assume now that fez) is analytic in 0 and real on at least one interval of the real axis. Hint: Choose a as in (61). The Reflection Principle. if v is the imagtnary part of an analytic function I(z) in n+} then fez) has an analytic extension WAlth 8atisfie8 J(z) == j(z).. There are many more general variants first formulated by H" A....::. <..·<j:...L··:·'.. v(J) =. if u(z) is harmonic and j(z) analytic in 8 region then u(J) is harmonic and l(J) analytic as functions of z in the region n* obtained by reflecting n in the real axis...center Xo cont&ined in n.:.
<•
is analytic in the whole plane and real on the real axis purely imaginary on the imasinary axis. Sec. We have already extended v to the whole disk. and in particular at Xo. the main thing is that the ima.: .. Therefore U« is a constant. Since J(z) . and when z tends to C it may be assumed that /(z) approeehee another circle C'..e:O
In tM same Bituation.
'
'
. . .. that ie.i auo/ay
2
Let 0+ be Ik part in the upper half plane of a 81J1nmetric region 0. Indeed. This is important. Schwarz. The theorem has obvious generalizations.. Consider the case of a symmetric region: 0* = o. It is clear . Under these conditions we want to show that f(z) is the restriction to 0+ of a function which is analytic in all of g.. The maximum and minimum principle implies that V = P» in the upper half disk. .•
'
<.
Theorem 24. . The domain U can be taken to be symmetric with respect to 8 circle C rather than with respect to a straight line. and let fT be the part of the real_axi8 in ll.~' ~.u. We have proved that u. .'.. For a point Xo E a consider & disk with
6.:
.~.lly.'·/i~~1t··analytic in 0 and . because V tends to zero by definition and P» vanishes by obvious symmetry.. The difference V . &how that Jfs) is odd. has been discussed already in connection with linear transformations (Chap. Consider
Uo(z)
==
uo(z) . to 0 which satisfie8 the symmetry relation ... Let us denote the intersection of ~ with the upper half plane by 0+. . S~~ :tha~.ginary part v(z) vanishes on a.:...:::~.
L If f(2)
.>'''. and hence identica.!'( ~~~~~. The construction can be repeated for arbitrary disks. With the notation f = u + iv we have thus u(z) = u(i).
EXERCISEI
av = 0 ax· auo/ax .172
COIIPLEX
A. Suppose that v(x) is continuous in n+ V a... ~~ .::~:::~..~'
: ~..
:

:. Z E 0* if and only if.
If u(z) is harmonic
for 0
<
IzI
<
p
and lim zu(z) = Or prove that u
can be written in the form u(z) = a log 121 uu(z) where a is a constant and Uo is harmonic in [z! < p.for we are assuming that fez) is already known to· be analytic in all of o.:..5.. let us again consider a disk with center on a. An elementary aspect of the gymmetry principle.. and if fez) is an analytic function} then f(Z) is also analytic.NALYSIS COMPLEX INTEGRATION 173
*a.. hamionic in 0+.<.J.. and let Pv denote the Poisson integral with respect to this disk formed with the boundary values V. .
+
. 3.cipk...+
.. In the definitive statement of the reflection principle the emphasis should therefore be on harmonic functions. continuous and. It vanishes on the half circle. In other words. part of our theorem asserts that J(z) has an analytic con. and the intersection of n with the real axis by a.Pv is harmonic in the upper half of the disk. or reflection pri11. and aero on a..·~ f~C#~ J which is &ll&lytic in a SYII1metria region o can . Even in this formulation the assumptions are too strong.::. Suppose that J(z) is defined on n+ U a.. and we conclude that j(z) == ~ in 0.~:::~':<:. hut it is a rather weak result. real on (1'. and the same proof can he repeated for the lower half. The proofs of these statements consist in trivial verifications.>: . We have to show that V is harmonic on fT.
. J. Such expressions take the form of infinite series... [Refteet over the real axis. enu~._"... mainly for the purpose of defining the exponential and trigonometric functions. This question will nOw be resolved in the affirmative. 4 to show thatf(z) is bounded. prove that u = ~ ·th 0 :S k ~ K. partly with quite explicit representations of elementary transcendental functions and other specific functiooa. If J(z) is an. :.. In this chapter we deal partly with the rules that govern such limits.
. complete to an. not able to prove that every ADalytic function has a power series expansion. infinite products.174
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
5
Izl = 1. but it must also be kept in mind that the whole theory originated from 8 desire to be able to manipulate explicit analytic expressions.:.:.: . analytic ~ctionf(Z) = u + iv.. ..2.
.
. .>. show
SERIES AND ·PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
real on the real axis.::. Without use of integration we were. 1. and use Ex.. f • . 2.1•.
.~. ~'. :. u(z) ~ Ky for'll> 0. TI&eiDN.alytic in Izi ~ 1 and satisfies 111= 1 on
that J(z) is rational.. essentially 88 an application of Cauchy'8 theorem ...)
Very general theorema have their natural place in the theory of analytic functions. central theorem
... ·r .
L POWER IIERIEI EXPANSIONS
In a preliminary way we have considered power series in Chap. ·The first subsection deals with more general properties of sequences· of analytic functions .'/. and other limits.. Use (66) to derive & formula for f (z) In terms of u(z)t s.: The..i~":·:. 1£ u(z) is harmonic and 0 ...
I.. H E < 1 we have then 2121+1 < &/2 and 11 + 2:rl > i so that (2) .. It follows that the convergence is uniform in any closed disk lzl :S: r < 1. In fact.
fez)
= !t(z)
+b(z) + · · · + f. in an equivalent formulation. in the most typical case the regions f4s form an increasing sequence..(z) dz = 0
regi.
. In these circumstances no single function Ift(z) is defined in all of n.(z)} where each/.c u...'
.
Theorem 1._f!68 .ente tf. With another formulation. or on any subset of such a closed disk... < I..(z) + · · ·
~pad
J
J.r) dr. r be a closed disk contained in D. ( 2ri}c
(t 
f(f)
dr z)!
= 1'(z)
._.tida' tna:xi~ ita
't
cmwer
.:
"
'"
. the
BUb8et oj (I..
where C is the circle It .tfoo ·~'.(z)} converges to a limit junction fez) in a region 0.f(z)dz
=
!n.Z. C·· · .f.".~I.)
I.
.! l/.. _. and by repeated applications It follows that f.l.. In fact with the AOti.
'1.. Suppose that .. b
>n
o.. form an open covering of ~z . yet the limit f(z) may exist at all points of OJ although the convergence cannot be uniform. e . The limit function J{z) must also be considered in some region D..
'. Any ~ompact subset of n can be covered by a finite number of such closed disks.J(z) 18 UO'JU6ylsc In 0. 6V8rIJ
.. if J(z) is to be defined in UJ each point of 0 must belong to all n.ai < r.set of n.tiaNf Of. The theorem is proved.:'
•.. :
.
!~(z) = ~ ( faCt) df 2ri l c cr . on. In order to study the uniformity of the convergence we form the difference . (
2ri}crz
lz1 < 1 which we choose as our region 0...
and this formula shows that f{z) is analytic in the disk. in the preceding example the sequence (!w(z)} tends to the limit function f(z) uniformly on every compact subset of the region fl. and clearly.
. uniformly on every compact.
.. Ia
Starting from
!..(z) = z/(2z" 1) and let n.at =s.JJ.
and by Morera's t~eorem it follows that fez) is analytic in Iz _ e] < r Consequently f(~) IS analytic in the whole region n. .and n is the union of the n.(z)
+
= ~ ( f.'U~/1il"orml 11 on.(z) is defined and analytic in Dr region~.
•...
t In fact.oQ n. region 0. ..
. 4.. the assumption implies that this disk lies in ~ for all n greater than a certain no.rn1r. This is the typical situation.171
COMPLEX
ANALYSIS
SERIES AND PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENTS
177
We are considering a sequence tf. then the sum. 2. and thal the seqtt. we have
~d simple estimates show that the convergence is uniform for Iz ~ e] . The analyticity of fez) follows most easily by use of Morera's theorem (Chap .(z) dz = 0. Let ~z . Then /(z) is analytic in o. this is the natural condition in the theorem that we are going to prove.(. for n greater th&n a certain no~ In the general ease no will not be the same for all points of 0... We shall find that we can frequently prove uniform convergence on every compact subset of 0.
For any given ·value of z we can make lrl < e.al = r and 11'1 al we obtain by uniform convergence J(z) = ~ ( fer) dr. It is practically evident that lim !tt(z) = z in the disk
on
for n
"y
we 0 tam. Its ~pplication to series whose terms are analytic functions is partieularly nnportant. Moreooer. .)flog (l/lzl). This me&DAthat it is oon~ed in a fixed 0. t If ~ is any closed curve contained in \z .~rem 1 is due to Weierstrass. and for this reason it would not make sense to require that the convergence be uniform in D.al S r.3).
Because of the uniform convergence
/.t:.p < r../4 by taking n > log (4/e. J~(z) converges uniformly to J/(Z) on every compact 3Ub. analytu terms.. In fact.. ~". 01C O2 c·· .b! Cauchy's theorem. 0 provmg uniform eoDverge~ on a compact point set A can ~ f~ta~ by use of the maximum Prlncipie.. _ . and the IJI!rietJ can be differ61JJ:iated term J~ I_ Th task f·" UN 1JC. As a very simple example takeJ... be the disk lzl < 2~1/ft.. Sec. · An alternative and more explicit proof is based on the integral formula
f..(z) 
Z
= _2z~1/(2zn
+ 1).. the formula.. The theorem ean then be expressed 88· follows: If a Mn6B with..Z)I the same reasoning yields lim f!(z) =
. 2ri l c f ..
.
. and therefore the convergence is uniform on every ~omplLCt subset.. The disk iB compact and hence has a finite suboovering.'
.: I'~ ~ ~ • . ~em.!>(z) converges uniformly to fCi) (e) on every compact subset of O. the other hand.. subset oj n.z
<r
•
Letting n tend to
II. (z) is analytic in the refrion D. on 8 compact set Iz1 has a maximum r < 1 and the set is thus contained in the closed disk 1z' ~ r..
: ·~IJ:..z)'
J{r) dr
prove that
..
(Develop
in a double aeries and reverse the order of
case
1. p can be chosen arbitrarily T close to the shortest distance from Zo to the boundary of a. 2ri l fez)
+ I'
i~o)(.2.... Show
+ z/n)..lim
2. 3. Theorem 8.t)f(z)
== 1' ..NALYSIS SERIES ..
In the Iast formula C is any circle Iz . .zo1 ~ p such that the closed disk Iz . we obtain at once the estimate I/'*l(z) (z . Since Zo was arbitrary.
:
:.1
.. ·
.. For this reason uniform convergence on the boundary of A implies uniform convergence on A.21. If(z) 1 has a. .
I
••
:
(
...o)"H(r . .2z
+ 3·
. uniformly on C. < p.. . and consequently I(zo) ¢ 0 by the same interpretation of the integral..:....
EXERCISES.(z) converge8 to !(z)t uniformly lin every compact subset oj O~ then J(z) i8 either identically zero or neva equal to 260 in 0. Hurwitz:
If the junctions /A(S) are analytic and F 0 in a region 0.?<~i{ft.2rt) c <r
lim ~ ( !!(z) dz ~.I
:::
'
.:":
. L Using Taylors theorem applied to a branch of log (1

. The following theorem is due to A. if J(z) is ana.. = It follows that l/!ft(z) converges uniformly to 1//(z) on C.sol ~ p is contained in o.(z) have at most m zeros in 0.. In particular.H(') .).
•
I. We conclude that the remainder term tends uniformly to zero in every diRk I.
summation. together with the corresponding representation of the remainder term.. Suppose that f(z) is not identically zero....zeros.
..'
•
'.Zo)
+J+l(Z)(Z
.>~:F:~:: .
that the series
r(z)
• =! ..
containing
'fit
tlaM •
(1 ..:. then Weierstrass's theorem applies and we can COD
of Theorem 2J prove that if the /.
"
. ..
'. 4J Sec. for they give the number of roots of the equation f... := 1. For any point Zo E 0 there is therefore a number r > 0 such that !(z) is defined and ¢O for 0 < Iz .
. where lim r.. .. 2ri l o !. we can write fez) = f('e) with _ 1( f.
Theol'elll3~ 1/ f(....'
..·....%01 'tJ which we denote by C. As a generalization
elude that the limit function is analytic .
•
oil
!(A)(Z) + n! •
(s . The Taylor Series.:... On the other hand.:.
'..)
It I < 1. if the functions 18(2) are analytic in the disk lal < It and if it can be shown that the sequence converges uniformly on each circle lzl == r.. . The integral on the right is there0 fore zero.. .Z 1n+1 p"(p _ 201>
Iz ~
=
e
uniformly on all compact sets .. the theorem follows.1. The zeros of J{z) are in any isolated. For inetanoe.
..
(1 + ~)'"
n
~
MI2 . If M denotes the maximum of 1/(2)l on C. thenf(z) is either identically zero or has at moat m...AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
171
mum in A on the boundary of A.. According to this theorem.
•
.lytic in a region Q containing %0. we may conclude that for
.'01 :::. .'a} "HI
".
..) i8 analytsc in the repreaentGtiOn
f'egitm 0.. positive minimum on the circle \z ..ZO)+1
But the integrals on the left are s1I zero... This is an almost immediate consequence of the finite Taylor development given in Chap.%01 < r.171
COIIPLEX
A.:.
. Since it is also true that !~(a) + f'(.(z)
=~
ro !'(z) az.: .
.
and that the latter series represents an analytic function for Re z
> O.
..:.'
.. We have proved:
converges for Re z L Prove that
> IJ
and represent its derivative in series form.
S.:
'.
.:.. We show now that every analytic function can be developed in a convergent Taylor series..~.
. Prove that
4.{z) ::::: inside of C.. and if f". Tbeorem 2. 
'D)
+
.z
.'
.. . .
~_:.. with a reasonable mount of labor....4 67
t
1 Zl
1· 3 z 15
1~ · 5 z 7 3
+
• ••
+ z)1l = 1 + I'Z + (~)z! + · · · + (:) r + . log (1 + z) = z .the Taylor expansio~ . I t may well be larger. From the expansion
~
1
e=l+·z+21+··
cos
•
z'
Z4
+ z!
1
= 1 .110
COMPLEX
A.. The radius of convergence cannot be greater than that of the derived series._·:·poJjnomial P . the radius of convergence must be exactly 1.~ uetermfu&..
where the binomial coefficients are defined by
(n
PO) =
jJ(p. less precisely.t .ban 1. . one of the derivatives will be a negative power of 1 + 2. :. the function (1 + s).NALYSIS
SERIES
AND PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENTS
181
The radius of convergence of the Taylor series is thus at least equal to the shortest distance from Za to the boundary of O. For combinations of elementary functions it is mostly not possible to find a general law for the coefficients.
III
.
:'. This is also a direct consequence of Weierstrass's theorem.4 + "5 . Zl ZB Z4 Z.
where the . For justification we can either rely on uniform convergence or apply Theorem 1.• sulitrieiJ. caleulate the suceessive derivatives. If ~ is the branch with a positive real part.eoeflleients are uniquely determined and equal to the Taylor coeffioients of fez).
•
for Izi < 1. arcsmz
=
z
+ 23 + 2"45 + 2.. Similarly. Since this is not the ease.:it . ~
.'.~. .
ZR
we obtain by integration
Z=
1 . we must first of all choose a welldefined branch. Thus the radius of convergence is precisely 1 except in the trivial case in which the binomial series reduces to a polynomial.. There are simple techniques which allow us to compute..61 +
Z
z"!
Zl
···
arctsnz=za+5"'7+··
where the branch is uniquely determined as arc tan z = }o 1 +
Z1
Z7
·
smz =
31+ 5! ·7!
Zl
Z5
Z7
+ ···
served as definitions of the functions they represent.j "
. We gave earlier a direct proof that power series can be differentiated term by term. It is elementary to compute the coefficients. It amounts to the same thing if we develop the function (1 z)~ or log (1 e) about the origin.:.· · ·
(1
. · · n
n + 1). Of course.. 6Z1
+ . and we obtain
t= dz
.(8) sueh
. Thus. choosing the branch which is respectively equal to 1 or 0 at the origin. but if it is there is no guarantee that the series still representsj'(e) at all points which are simultaneously in II and in the circle of convergence.. Since this branch is singlevalued and analytic in 1z1 < 1J the radius of convergence is at least 1. however. In order to find the first few coefficients we need not.+1].z?i
+ z" zl
ZOi
+ ··
II
~ +1i1+ ..o. we have 1
~ =1
+
+
+ 2 + 2 '4 "
2
1 zt
1·3
1·3·5 + 2. in order to find the first n ooefficienis of .
The series represents the principal branch of arc sin z with a real.ztt + [. Unless po is a positive integer. and hence it is exactly 1. then log (1 + z) would be bounded for lz' < 1. and through integration we obtain
. and hence unbounded.. H we want to represent a fractions! power of z or log z through 8 power series.>:~:.'J With this notation any function which is analytic at the origin can be written in the form
J{z} = ao
+ alz + · · · + a. part.
H the logarithmic series had a radius of convergence greater t.. and secondly we have to choose a center Zo #.. .. and all its derivatives would be bounded in Iz1 < 1.22
for any path inside the unit circle.
. {z] denotes a function which "contains the factor z. all the eoeffioientethat we are likely to need. as we have remarked before. We recall that the developments
The series developments of the cyclometrie functions are tan e and arc sin z are most easily obtained by consideration of the derived series.. 4.2 + 3 . It is convenient to introduce the notation [z"] for any function which is analytic and has a zero of at least order n at the origin. 
1) · · ~ ~ 
1 ·2 ..: I:. . every convergent power series is its own Taylor series. if the binomial series were convergent in a circle of radius > 1..21 + 41 . .. . between r/2 and Tr/2.
~I(Z» + P~l(QKI(Z»aJ' + b.t... ~ ft.+ .. are the Taylor coefficients of f(z)/g(z).~:~ ~~::: .~UI~~ ~
...P Al(Qa(S» + b3aiZ" + [zt*l] == P__ l(QRl(Z) aJ') + b.· .. = c...
". + [Wi])' + [tD1] . (g(z) [. f(z)g(z)
c::
Explicitly we obtain aubo
+ (aobl + B1ba)z + + (Gob. we proceed by induction. . continued until the remainder contains the factor Za+l.".~'!~'{~ .· · + + ··· == btS + btll + · · · + b.:...g(zo)t To Simplify.. it follows by Theorem 3 that the radius of convergence is at least equal to the smaller of the radii of convergence of the given series J(.
to include fifth powers. we write
z
and substitute
=W
+ 3 . Thus we obtain /(g(z)) = P.t any expression of the form [wlt+l] becomes a [%.(z) has a zero of at least order n + 1 at the origin. and from s = P .. suppose that J(z) :: 0:0 g(z) =a bo
+ alZ + B2Z2 + ....· + a..W" and obtain
+
+
+
+
.51D'
1
+ 3 + 3 toY
10'
1
+ ["...~~: t.o'.. let us sssume that 2:0 == 0 and g(O) = o~ We can then set
with at ~ 0. Here we may suppose that g(O) = 0 and we are looking for the branch of the inverse function z = r1(w) ~hich is analytie in a neighborhood of the origin and vanishes for w = O... aro~nd til.t1~\:. if g(z) is developed. [Z~+l].ea + ~..:::I
priate rem..& quotient J(z)/g(z) the same method can be applied.. ... In fact..(10) + [WitH]. and we have only to take b. I~ order to prove the existence of a polynomial P .(Q. and the Taylor coefficients of J(g{z» are the coefficients of P. ~:. In the practical computation of P ilQ./.'1
'
P.(z)
+ [rFl]
uct f(i)f(z).~::ht. hence we assume that
+
It is then clear that f(z)g(z) == P" (z) Qtt(z) + [z+1].Go
41W ~1D.
. .
:
.
. Using the
jew) ..{z» [z~11. it is true in any case that the coefficients of %"'. == PAl + b. The degree of P.. Substituting
::I
+ + .
. ~. ~ . m. we set P.(to) determines the coefficients of g1(1D)~ ..(z})
Z
1( zI +3 10 + 3" + [waJ)' . we can takePl(tD) = 'tIJ/(h If P1 is given...(s) does not matter. Finally... . but since the development is identical with t~e Taylor development of f(z)g(z). to
+~~. By use of ordinary long division. and the coefficients of the terms of degree :S.P . it is of course not necessary to determine the terms of degree higher than n..+ [Ztt+l] ... [zA+11.. we can detemune a polynomial Rtt. In this case..RtIJ =:= [Z"+11.. Our problem is to determine a polynomial p..
In the case of .. to
.z" + . but the expressions are too complicated to be of essential help .+lJ.~. ..arz1' + [zA+l] == P~I(Q.P...... It is also important that we know how to form the development of a composite fun~tion J(g(z». + bIZ + btZ + ...(z» = z + [Z. For instance. we must be able to expand the inverse function of an analytic function tD "'" g(z).
2
With an abbreviated notation we write fez) =.· ==
Q..
:.::. The coe:fficlen~ of R.(Q1I(z» for powers ~ n..: .zlt [Z"H]. under the assumption a1 ¢ 0 the notations [za+1J and (Wtoll] are interchangeable._ltll~J~"~. To illustrate the method we determine the expansion of tan to from the series
p (QII(z»
II
+
+
+
1D=arotanz=z3+5~
If we want the development
Zl
zI
' •• ...1f!t.· .(z)
+ [ZR+l]. such that P Il ~ Q.~!D~..z. : .+ a~ + ... ..n in P nQII are the Taylor coefficients of the prod
g{z) == atZ
+ B2Z1 + .
.4izt. In the last member the first two terms form a known polynomial of the form z c..e) and g(z).. For the existence of the inverse function it is neceSStVy and sufficient that g'{O) # 0.+1].~:. a For practical purposes the development of the inverse function is found by successive substitutions. + a16nt + · .. . Clearly. Then f .(Q.::..f>~.
and tha. Hence P. 1 5 (w
1
same notaPA(w) + [10.· ~
it • I
In deriving this expansion we have not even mentioned the question of convergence. provided that g(O) = bo ¢ o.
+ [ztt+
1
+ [~+ll
"
.~.(Q.sinden we obtain
10
this expression in the terms to the right.{z) [z ...112
COIIPLEX
ANALYSIS
SERIES
AND
PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENTS
113
that /(z) .. and since g(O) ¢ 0 we find that Jla = R.5 + [z7J
With appro
Zl
Z5
and fI(a) tions as before we writel(w) with QIt(O) O. the expansion of I(w) must be in powers of 10 .. ~..(Q.+1] we obtain z = P..
..bo).
.{z) + [zl\+ll 10 = g(z) we have to observe that 1) = Pa(Q. are the Taylor coefficients of /(z) .
. They can be determined explicitly in determinant form.[w..1.R.+1]) + [zro+l] = P .· .. + b.+1] and g(z) == Q.{w) such that P.