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Please remember that all Japanese verbs end in u, but to be more precise, it's the last syllable of the plain form that ends in u. Let's take the verb aruku, which means "to walk," for example: it ends in ku, not u. Keeping this in mind will make further study much easier. There are 3 types of verbs in Japanese: yodan, ichidan, and irregular.1 First we will look at only some simple yodan verbs, which can end in u, ku, gu, su, tsu, nu, bu, mu, or ru:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
kau (to buy) aruku (to walk) isogu (to hurry) kasu (to lend) matsu (to wait) shinu (to die) asobu (to play) yomu (to read) kaeru (to return) Mama wa mise de banana o kau. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Jim wa manga o yomu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. (Grandpa will return soon.) taberu (to eat) kimeru (to decide) miru (to look, watch) kariru (to borrow) Watashi wa ringo o taberu. (I'll eat an apple.) Naomi wa terebi o miru. (Naomi will watch TV.)
Now let's try some in sentences:
Ichidan verbs all end in either eru or iru. Some frequently used ones are:
Here are a couple of example sentences:
This is very simple Japanese, and also very juvenile or "familiar." Only kids or people speaking with family or friends would use this plain form. Before actually trying out the
language you need to learn the Base 2 forms and the polite endings that go with them. We will start learning about those in Lesson 2.
Verbs: kau: to buy aruku: to walk isogu: to hurry kasu: to lend matsu: to wait shinu: to die asobu: to play yomu: to read kaeru: to return taberu: to eat kimeru: to decide miru: to look, watch kariru: to borrow Others: mise: a store manga: comic book ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon watashi: I ringo: apple terebi: TV 2
1. Yodan verbs are also called godan or "type 1" verbs, depending on the source. Interestingly, the Japanese learn their own language in a completely different way, and do not use the terms yodan or ichidan when teaching or learning verbs. Asking your native-speaking Japanese friends about these will not help: they have never heard of them, unless it was from another foreigner. The yodan/godan/ichidan method of verb instruction only remains today as one method to teach Japanese verb forms to nonnative speakers. 2. Terebi is wasei eigo, or "Japanized English," and comes from television.
Lesson 2 Yodan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
The first ending you'll want to master is the polite form masu. Since masu requires the Base 2 form, yodan verbs are changed so they end in i — their "Base 2" form — before the masu ending is added. Notice how the following yodan verbs, which were introduced in Lesson 1, change in order to add masu, the present polite ending. Especially notice how verbs ending in su and tsu change: Plain Verb kau (to buy) aruku (to walk) isogu (to hurry) kasu (to lend) matsu (to wait) shinu (to die) asobu (to play) yomu (to read) kaeru (to return) Base 2 Form kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Polite Verb Form kaimasu arukimasu isogimasu kashimasu machimasu shinimasu asobimasu yomimasu kaerimasu
Now we are ready to speak polite, "adult" Japanese. Let's convert the plain yodan verb example sentences used in Lesson 1 to polite sentences by converting them to Base 2 and adding masu:
• • •
Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu. (Jim will read a comic book.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. (Grandpa will return soon.)
Lesson 3 Ichidan Verbs with Base 2 + masu
Ichidan verbs are a snap, because you change them to Base 2 by just dropping the ru at the end. Look carefully at these ichidan verbs and how they conjugate, and notice how they differ from the yodan group covered in Lesson 2: Plain Verb taberu (to eat) Base 2 Form tabe Polite Verb Form tabemasu
you are probably thinking: How can I tell ichidan verbs from yodan? True. (I'll decide tomorrow.) Now. there are also yodan verbs that end in eru or iru. Word Check ashita: tomorrow sugu: soon heya: a room kara: from mainichi: every day terebi: TV . watch) Here are some examples: • • • oboe kime de kari mi oboemasu kimemasu demasu karimasu mimasu Watashi wa ashita kimemasu. (Ayako watches the TV every day. and should not be worried about at this stage.) Ayako wa mainichi terebi o mimasu. but with practice and experience they will gradually be mastered. come out) kariru (to borrow) miru (to look.) Jerry wa sugu heya kara demasu.oboeru (to remember) kimeru (to decide) deru (to leave. (Jerry will come out of the room soon. A mistake made from not knowing whether a verb is yodan or ichidan is a very minor one.
Lesson 4 Base 2 + masen Now that you are a little familiar with Base 2. him matsu: to wait iku: to go ima: now taberu: to eat kanojo: she. (The children played at the park. (She isn't going to borrow an umbrella. let's try masen.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimashita.) And here are some ichidan: Easy enough. Look at these yodan examples: • • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. (He won't wait.) Bob wa sono eiga o mimashita. right? Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy kare: he. (I'm not going to buy an umbrella.) Kimiko wa Osaka ni ikimasen.) Shizu wa manga o kaimashita.) Watashi wa ima tabemasen. her kariru: to borrow Lesson 5 Base 2 + mashita Mashita is used to change verbs to their past polite form. (I'm not going to eat now. (John went to Sendai. (Shizu bought a comic book. Let's make some examples: • • • • • John wa Sendai ni ikimashita.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita. (Yoshi ate an apple.) Kare wa machimasen.) Kanojo wa kasa o karimasen. (Kimiko isn't going to Osaka. (Bob saw that movie.) . which is the negative form of masu.
There are yodan and ichidan verbs in the examples above. Can you tell them apart? Word Check iku: to go kodomotachi: children kouen: a park asobu: to play ringo: apple taberu: to eat manga: a comic book kau: to buy sono: that eiga: movie miru: to see .
[The weather forecast for tomorrow is rain.) . (There's a spider on the wall. iru and aru This would be a good place to leave the "action verb" endings and explain the "to be" verbs desu. and aru is a yodan. are. and aru for everything else: • • • • • Tom wa iru? (Is Tom here / there?) Hai. Tanaka.) You can make these polite by converting them to their Base 2 form and adding masu. After nouns and adjectives. (The dictionary is on the desk. Desu or da are added to "finalize" the statement in some cases.) Bob wa byouki desu. so be sure to convert them accordingly: • • Tom wa imasu ka? (Is Tom there?) Kouen ni ookina ki ga arimasu. (He is Mr. is. like something from the masu group. iru and aru. Do not add it to verbs that are already in a polite form. iru is used for people and animals.) Kouen ni ookina ki ga aru.. Tom wa iru yo.) Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni aru.]) Sono gakkou wa furui desu. which is used by kids and adults in familiar settings: I should point out here that the above sentences do not need desu or da to be complete or grammatically correct. Tom's here. (Carol is 25 years old. (Yes.. Iru is an ichidan verb. (Bob's sick.) and states that something (a noun) is something (a noun or adjective): • • • • • • • Kare wa Tanaka-san desu. (There's a big tree in the park. with desu being the one to choose when the setting calls for polite speech.Lesson 7 desu. including ones that end in plain verb forms or their conjugations. Desu is added to the end of statements to make them polite.]) The plain form of desu is da. (Tomorrow it will rain. you will often hear them with neither.) Mite! Hikouki da! (Look! An airplaine!) Iya da. In fact." Generally speaking. (No. (There's a big tree in the park. desu acts like English "be verbs" (am. [I don't want to.) Kabe ni kumo ga iru. (That school is old. Iru and aru mean "to be (in a certain place)" or "to exist.) Ashita wa ame desu.) Carol wa nijuu go sai desu. etc.
) And the polite negative forms would use masen. it is rarely used these days in daily communication. (There was not a tree here. which was introduced in Lesson 4: The plain past of these are itta and atta. ima Tom wa imasen. (Sorry. you're technically saying "John presently exists as a student" (John is a student).) Jisho ga arimasen." as in being in a certain position. (She's not 18. Tom's not here now.) Jisho ga nai.The plain negative forms of these are inai and nai : • • • • Sumimasen. (Yesterday Tom was not here.) Kinou Tom wa imashita. There is another form of desu that I've been asked about: de aru.) Koko ni ookina ki ga atta. (I don't have a dictionary.. one is "as.) The polite past forms are imashita and arimashita : For plain past negative use inakatta and nakatta : And for polite past negative use masen deshita : Now let's get back to desu.) Koko ni ki ga arimasen deshita. If you are really interested in the technical background. dewa nakatta. Its plain negative form is dewa nai or ja nai : And the polite negative is dewa arimasen : The plain past.) Kinou Tom wa inakatta. You really don't need to concern yourself with it at all unless you decide to study Japanese literature. (There was a big tree here. (Yesterday Tom was here.) Kanojo wa juuhassai dewa nai.1 .) Kinou Tom wa imasen deshita..) Sumimasen ga. and polite past negative forms are datta. (There was not a tree here. he's not a dentist. deshita.) Iie. (I don't have a dictionary.) Koko ni ki ga nakatta. which should only be used in very familiar settings: • • • • • • • • • • Kinou Tom wa itta.) Koko ni ookina ki ga arimashita. (There was a big tree here." So. This is one that is rarely used these days. Connected with aru it means "to exist as. and dewa arimasen deshita. if you were to say John wa gakusei de aru. (Yesterday Tom was not here. state or condition. (Yesterday Tom was here. respectively. (No. but Tom's not here now.. plain past negative. here it is: Among the several roles of de. The only time you will hear it is on historical dramas or documentary programs. ima Tom wa inai. Use desu instead. Again. (Sorry. kare wa haisha dewa arimasen. polite past.
which. but Japanese allows much more "vagueness" than English does. Word Check ame: rain gakkou: school furui: old hikouki: airplane iya: disagreeable. occasionally hear a few speakers voice the final su. unpleasant." but it doesn't. to the mind of the student of Japanese. With desu. could mean "Dad is a job." You will. with just a very short su. This is when it is used after the object. This is the "wild card" nature of desu. .) B could even answer o-tousan wa shigoto desu. it is. A good example would be: A: O-tousan wa? (Where's Dad?) B: Shigoto desu. pronounce them "moss" and "dess. 2. Most native speakers do not voice the u on the end of masu or desu. and you will run into lots of strange constructions which cannot be explained in English simply because they do not exist in English. I realize that making sense out of this will take some time. making them sound something like mah-su and deh-su. and has no other value as a grammatical component. desu is simply added behind the minimum required answer as a polite formality. If you want to sound like most natives. Iya da! is used as a simple reply to reject something. there is one way it is often used which will throw the student who is still trying to "think out in English" everything heard in Japanese. You can imitate the version you like. The seasoned listener will recognize this and not expect desu to mean anything more. No! 2 kabe: wall kumo: spider tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ookina: big ki: tree ima: now jisho: dictionary haisha: dentist Notes 1. and is especially used by children. In the example given above. however. (He's at work.Have I mentioned how "grammatically loose" Japanese is? Well.
To illustrate this we will take a few of the examples shown in Lesson 5 and change them from positive past to negative past: • • • John wa Sendai ni ikimasen deshita.) Yoshi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. (The children didn't play at the park. (John didn't go to Sendai.) Kodomotachi wa kouen de asobimasen deshita.) Please note that deshita is the past tense form of desu. . To make that past tense we just add deshita. which will be covered next.Lesson 6 Base 2 + masen deshita In Lesson 4 we learned that masen is used to show polite negative. (Yoshi didn't eat an apple.
we use takunai. you wouldn't say watashi wa inu o tai for "I want a dog. (I want to buy an umbrella. We'll make the first two plain: • • • • Watakushi wa kasa o kaitakunai. Accordingly. (If you want to make the 7:00 train.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai. ashita hayaku okimashou. (I don't want to buy an umbrella. add desu: Watashi wa kasa o kaitai desu. (The children want to play. Let's make the examples above negative. "Watakushi wa inu ga hoshii. (Bob doesn't want to eat tempura.) Bob wa tempura o tabetakunai desu. tai shows that you want to do something. To make them polite. and is never used alone with an object. which is used to show that you want to do something: • • • • Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. (If you want to watch TV. what if you don't want to do something? In that case. tai is only used with verbs. (Bob wants to eat tempura.) Shichiji no densha ni noritakereba.) Miki wa sono eiga o mitakunai desu. yuushoku o hayaku tabenasai. For example.) Kodomotachi wa asobitakunai.Lesson 8 Base 2 + tai A very useful Base 2 ending is tai. Again. which is the conditional form of tai. Again. (Miki doesn't want to see that movie.) Bob wa tempura o tabetai. Use it for "if (you) want to": • • Terebi o mitakereba. (The children don't want to play. let's get up early tomorrow. and is not used when you want something." Now.) Kodomotachi wa asobitai. (Miki wants to see that movie.) And the next two polite: Another handy derivative is takereba.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kodomotachi: children 1 eiga: movie . add desu to make it polite. hurry and eat your dinner." You would use the adjective hoshii and say.) The above examples are plain forms. etc.
) Notes 1." please remember that tachi works with only a few select nouns. which makes Japanese uncomplicated in that respect." Although tachi can be added to make the plural "children. There are no plural forms for other objects. quickly shichiji: 7:00 (shichi [seven] + ji ["o'clock"]) densha: train noru: to ride ashita: tomorrow okiru: to get up (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . fast. Kodomo means "child.yuushoku: dinner hayaku: early. mainly those describing people or animals.
) Word Check iku: to go yasumu: to rest.) 1 (to a pet) Esa o agemashou.Lesson 9 Base 2 + mashou Sometimes it is written masho with a line above the o.) Notes 1. the object (as well as the subect) can be omitted when it is known or obvious. (I'll fix your bicycle. (Let's go. even hakobimashou alone would be both natural and grammatically sufficient. (Let's get you some food. It simply means "let's (do something)." as in: • • • Watashi ga hakobimashou. (Let's eat. but either way this one is easy to remember.) As in English.) Tabemashou." For example: • • • Ikimashou. In this example. Lesson 10 Base 2 + nasai . (I'll carry this / these [for you].) Yasumimashou. / I'll help you fix your bicycle. In Japanese. (Let's take a break. to take a break.) Anata no jitensha o naoshimashou. to take or have a day off hakobu: to carry esa: pet food ageru: to give anata: you 2 jitensha: bicycle naosu: to repair (Verbs are shown in their plain form. this is also used to mean "I'll do (something) for you / Let me do (something) for you.
add nasai to verbs in the Base 2 form: • • • • • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Minasai! (Look!) Yominasai! (Read it!) Iinasai! (Tell me!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look yomu: to read iu: to say suwaru: to sit kuru: to come .Here is a real simple one. but you will want to be careful how you use it. For simple commands.
" These two have their own set of rules when it comes to conjugating.Lesson 11 Irregular Verbs kuru and suru Did something seem amiss with the last example in Lesson 10? I hope so. (Bill wants to study tomorrow. (John came. it conjugated like an ichidan. but the good news is that there are only two: kuru. which means "to come". but since both are used frequently they can be mastered quickly and naturally. but is also used to make countless nouns into verbs: benkyou suru (study).) Yumi wa kitai desu.) Hiromi wa shimpai shimasen deshita. Let's use it to review some of the endings already learned: • • • • • Bob wa kimasu. shimpai suru (worry). Look at these examples: • • • • • Watashi wa shimasu. The Base 2 form of suru is shi. (I'll do it. . Just remember that they are irregular and do not follow the same rules as the other verbs. The Base 2 form of kuru is just ki. chuumon suru (place an order).) Ken wa kimasen deshita. Besides these are the irregulars. (You promised. Now that they have been introduced you will see them pop up from time to time in future lessons.) Sue wa kimasen. because it means you noticed that while kuru looks like a yodan verb.) Kare wa shimasen.) John wa kimashita. (He won't do it. (Yumi wants to come. (Ken didn't come.) Suru is not only a handy "stand alone" verb. We have already practiced using yodan and ichidan verbs. (Hiromi didn't worry.) This should be enough about kuru and suru for the time being. and suru. yakusoku suru (promise). (Bob will come. which means "to do. It is now time to introduce the irregular verbs kuru and suru.) Bill wa ashita benkyou shitai desu.) Anata wa yakusoku shimashita. (Sue won't come/won't be coming.
. (Let's go out and eat Chinese food. (Miki is coming over to see my new PC.) Miki wa watashi no atarashii PC o mi ni kuru. look." You may hear it often. (Come over for a visit. Simply convert your reason for coming or going into Base 2. (Rob didn't come to borrow the bicycle. Asobi ni kuru is a set phrase used to invite someone "to come for a pleasure visit. as explained in Lesson 1. then add the relevant one: • • Watashi wa kasa o kai ni iku. (I'm going to go buy an umbrella. watch chuuka ryouri: Chinese food kouen: park asobu: to play jitensha: bicycle kariru: to borrow (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Notes 1.) Chuuka ryouri o tabe ni ikimashou.) Rob wa jitensha o kari ni kimasen deshita. okay?) 1 And here are some more good ones: • • • • Word Check kasa: umbrella atarashii: new miru: to see.Lesson 13 Base 2 + ni iku / ni kuru Now that we are familiar with the verbs iku (go) and kuru (come). made obvious by having no date or time attached to it. we'll add endings to clean them up or change the tense: • • Watashi wa kasa o kai ni ikimasu.) Miki wa watashi no atarashii PC o mi ni kimashita. but don't take it literally. let's learn two useful Base 2 endings that use them.) Watashi wa kouen ni asobi ni ikitai. (Miki came over to see my new PC. (I'm going to go buy an umbrella.) Asobi ni kite ne.) Because these are left in their plain form. (I want to go play in the park. Most of the time it is just a polite nothing.
phrase. (These grapes are hard to eat.Lesson 12 Forming Questions with ka Making questions in Japanese is easy." (Will Grandpa return soon?) Simple.) 1 Kono PC wa tsukaiyasui. For example.) And use yasui for "easy to do": 2 Word Check .) Kono kanji wa yominikui. Use nikui for "hard to do": • • • • • • Kono budou wa tabenikui. true Japanese doesn't use a question mark. do you remember "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu" from Lesson 2? (Grandpa will return soon. (Her name is easy to remember. You will see lots of question marks used. (This PC is easy to use.) Kono kanji wa kakiyasui. (Shall we take a break?) By the way. (That building is hard to see.) Kanojo no namae wa oboeyasui. (Does Miki want to see that movie?) Yasumimashou ka. In a sense. ka is the question mark. Lesson 14 Base 2 + nikui / yasui These two are very handy. usually in advertisements or trendy one-liners. Use them to show that something is hard or easy to do. just slap ka on the end and you've turned it into a question: "Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu ka. but real Japanese literature does not use it. (These kanji are hard to read. or sentence to turn it into a question. Unlike English. right? Let's make questions out of some of our other previous examples: • • • Yoshi wa ringo o tabemashita ka.) Well. in Japanese all you do is stick ka on the end of a word. (This kanji is easy to write.) Sono tatemono wa minikui. where you have that silliness of subjects and verbs trading places. (Did Yoshi eat an apple?) Miki wa sono eiga o mitai desu ka.
2. those tatemono: a building miru: to see." Accordingly." Be especially careful to make the intended meaning clear when using it to refer to people or their property. look. watch tsukau: to use kanojo: she. Besides the converted verb minikui. Kanojo no is the possessive pronoun "her." ." 4. which means "hard to see. her 4 namae: name oboeru: to remember kaku: to write (Verbs are shown in their plain form. the sentence sono tatemono wa minikui could also mean "that building is ugly. Yasui also exists as an adjective meaning "inexpensive.kono: this. these budou: grapes taberu: to eat kanji: Chinese characters 3 yomu: to read sono: that.) Notes 1." there is also an adjective minikui meaning "ugly.
Here are some examples: • • • Kare wa itsumo nomisugiru. hear 1 benkyou suru: to study . (The kids watch too much TV.) Kimiko wa benkyou shinagara terebi o mimasen.) Kodomotachi wa terebi o misugiru.) Sugiru is sometimes shortened in familiar conversation to sugi.Lesson 15 Base 2 + sugiru Sugiru is a verb which means "to pass by.) Kimiko wa tabesugimashita.) This should do it for the Base 2 combinations. (Bob listens to music while he works. Add it to verbs in Base 2 to mean "while (doing something). (He always drinks too much.) Hanashinagara sanpo shimashou. Word Check hataraku: to work ongaku: music kiku: to listen.." Note how the action connected with nagara comes before it: • • • Bob wa hatarakinagara ongaku o kiku.." It teams up nicely with other verbs in the Base 2 form to mean to "overdo" something. makes it polite. you could say kodomotachi wa terebi o misugi. (Let's take a walk while we talk. (Kimiko ate too much. For example. (Kimiko doesn't watch TV while studying. As with any other verb. Word Check itsumo: always nomu: to drink Lesson 16 Base 2 + nagara When you need to say that someone is doing something while doing something else.. nagara comes in handy. sugimasu. changing it to its Base 2 form with masu. We will move on to Base 1 in the next lesson. to go too far.
There is also a kiku which means "to ask" that is used often.hanasu: to talk." as a means of getting somewhere. 2. When walking is the object. speak sanpo suru: to take a walk 2 (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Notes 1. . Use aruku for "to walk. use sanpo suru (to go for a walk).
In other words. with Base 2 thrown in for review and comparison. Please note the changes carefully. so kau becomes kawa. Verbs in the yodan group are changed so that they end in a: iku changes to ika. which is mainly used for creating negative verb endings. Ichidan are easy to convert into Base 1 because you just knock off the ru. The irregular kuru changes to ko. yomu to yoma. and suru to shi. like kau. The following tables should help clarify the way the three types of verbs are converted into Base 1 from their plain Base 3 forms.Lesson 17 Base 1 + nai — The Plain Negative Form We will now look at Base 1. matsu to mata. and etc. just like its Base 2 form. Yodan verbs: Base 3 (root form) kau (to buy) aruku (to walk) isogu (to hurry) kasu (to lend) matsu (to wait) shinu (to die) asobu (to play) yomu (to read) kaeru (to return) Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (root form) taberu (to eat) oboeru (to remember) kimeru (to decide) deru (to leave) kariru (to borrow) miru (to look) Irregular verbs: Base 3 (root form) kuru (to come) ki Base 2 ko Base 1 tabe oboe kime de kari mi Base 2 tabe oboe kime de kari mi Base 1 kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Base 2 kawa aruka isoga kasa mata shina asoba yoma kaera Base 1 . just change the u to wa. If the verb ends in u with another vowel before it. Bases 1 and 2 are the same.
(Grandpa isn't going to return soon. or by simply adding desu on the end after nai : • • John wa kasa o kaimasen. cartoons yomu: to read ojii-san: grandfather sugu: soon kaeru: to return kuru: to come . Please remember that the ending nai by itself is plain. Jim wa manga o yomimasen.suru (to do) shi shi Now what we want to do is use Base 1 + nai to change some verbs into their plain negative form: kau (to buy) becomes kawanai (will not buy). shinai (will not do). konai (will not come). For example. and suru (to do).) Jim wa manga o yomanai. (John isn't going to buy an umbrella.) Sachiko wa konai. kuru (to come). / Jim wa manga o yomanai desu.) Notice how this ending can be used to mean "not going to do (something) for the time being" as well as "don't do at all" as a matter of personal policy.) Watashi wa terebi o minai.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranai. which we already covered in Lesson 4. Depending on the situation. / John wa kasa o kawanai desu. or that he just isn't going to read a comic book now or in the near future. As in English. Look at these example sentences: • • • • • John wa kasa o kawanai. (Sachiko won't be coming. like Base 2 + masen. and should only be used in informal settings. (Jim doesn't read comic books. Jim wa manga o yomanai could mean that Jim never reads comic books. Japanese used in actual conversation would be modified as needed in order to make meanings clear. (I'm not going to watch TV. kariru (to borrow) becomes karinai (will not borrow). comics. Can you get a good feel for the changeover between Base 2 + masen and Base 1 + nai here? Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy manga: a comic book. you may want to upgrade it to a polite form.
For falling objects. use ochiru.) Jim wa manga o yomanai deshou.) Notes 1. or hail. (It probably won't snow. or that something is not likely to happen: • • • John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. (Sachiko will probably come. as in: • • • Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru deshou. (Jim probably doesn't read comic books.) Word Check kau: to buy yuki: snow furu: to fall from the sky 1 ika: squid (Verbs are shown in their plain form. snow.Lesson 18 Base 1 + nai deshou Here's an easy one. (Grandpa will probably return soon. (Bill will probably eat the squid.) Bill wa ika o taberu deshou. (John probably isn't going to buy an umbrella. Furu means "to fall down from the sky.) Sachiko wa kuru deshou. Adding deshou after nai means that somebody is probably not going to do something. deshou is a handy add-on that also works with plain positive (Base 3) verbs. .) Yuki wa furanai deshou." like rain.) Actually.
(Nai with its i dropped and katta added. (I didn't watch TV.) Ojii-san wa shinbun o yomitakunakatta.Lesson 19 Base 1 + nakatta The past tense of nai is a bit odd. (Sachiko didn't come.) This is how you make plain past tense.) Word Check shinbun: newspaper yomu: to read . Let's make a few examples: • • • Watashi wa terebi o minakatta. but I think that this is a good place to introduce it: nakatta. Remembering that na is the negative element and katta is for past tense will be a big help later on.) Sachiko wa konakatta. (Grandpa didn't want to read the newspaper.
it's a bit of a tongue twister. Look at these examples: • • • Ojii-san ga sugu kaeranakereba watashi wa makudonarudo ni ikimasu. please remember that the na in nakereba comes from nai and is the negative element. It is used quite a lot because it means "must do.) As mentioned in the last lesson. (If Grandpa doesn't return soon I'm going to McDonald's.) ." Let's take iku (to go).Lesson 20 Base 1 + nakereba Base 1 + nakereba is used to make negative conditional sentences — what will happen if something doesn't happen. A very convenient thing about Japanese is the fact that you can omit subjects that are understood or obvious — you don't have to retain them for the sake of good grammar.) Notes 1. and add nakereba narimasen to make this simple example sentence: Watashi wa ikanakereba narimasen. (I have to go. 1 (If Naoko doesn't borrow an umbrella she'll probably regret it. as in English. (If Miki isn't going to use the room Junko wants to use it. change it to Base 1 ika. Lesson 21 Base 1 + nakereba narimasen This verb ending is not only a long one. so it is omitted. Word Check heya: room tsukau: to use kariru: to borrow koukai suru: to regret (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Miki ga heya o tsukawanakereba Junko wa tsukaitai desu. The kereba is the conditional ("if") element which was introduced back in Lesson 8 with tai (takereba).) Naoko wa kasa o karinakereba (kanojo wa) koukai suru deshou. In this example there is no question that kanojo wa (she) is Naoko.
) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba naranai deshou..) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba narimasen. This can be handy when adding other endings. Yes.) Laura wa kasa o kawanakereba naranai deshou. the ending becomes nakereba naranai. (Jim has to return now. (Laura has to buy an umbrella. If we were to use the plain negative form of naru (naranai) instead. Let's use this ending with the three examples above and see how the meanings are "softened": • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba naranai deshou. (Jim probably has to return now. Good luck with nakereba narimasen. Word Check ima: now kasa: umbrella .) As you grow accustomed to Japanese verb usage and ending patterns. which changes the whole sentence to its plain form. mastering a clean. you will see how the entire meaning or "feeling" of a sentence can be adjusted or "fine tuned" at will by combining the right ending components as you finish the sentence up. I already mentioned that it's a tongue twister.) You have probably noticed that the polite negative ending masen is stuck on the end here. (The children probably need to eat. the nakereba means "if one does not. and narimasen means "will not become".Looking at it literally. which is in its Base 2 form with masen added on (narimasen). clear pronunciation of it is usually the most difficult part. (The children must eat. this is a verb within a verb ending: naru (to become) is the root word here." Here are some more examples: • • • Jim wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen... so in the example above you are saying "If I don't go it won't do. More than memorizing its meaning.) Kodomotachi wa tabenakereba narimasen. (Laura probably needs to buy an umbrella. like deshou from Lesson 18." as you will remember from Lesson 20.
in these constructions the person being let or made to do something becomes the indirect object. and do not follow the above rules. or feelings. Accordingly.) Roku ji ni kodomotachi ni yuushoku o tabesaseru. (Grandma lets the children play outside. (The teacher makes the students read the newspaper every day. however.) And ichidan verbs and the irregular kuru use saseru: • • • • • With suru verbs. for yodan verbs. One tricky thing is that there are some verbs which already have a "set form" to convey this meaning. (I'll have John decide by next week.) Okaa-chan wa Kimiko ni kasa o kawaseru. you will know which verbs are conjugated as outlined above and which have their own set forms which are used instead." and "I'll make him go to the store" all have different nuances. although miru is an ichidan verb. as in "let him" vs.) Kare ni ashita kosaseru. which means "to show" or "to let see. and saseru." as in: • Kare wa karera ni mainichi terebi o miseru.) Kanojo ni saseru. for the others. which is signified by adding ni after it.) Otou-san wa Bob ni benkyou saseru." "I'll have him go to the store. (He lets them watch TV every day. like this: • • • Obaa-san wa kodomotachi ni soto de asobaseru. (I'll have him come tomorrow." As you get used to more and more natural Japanese expressions. In English we fortunately have three different words which allow us to easily adjust the meaning to the one we want to convey. "make him. (I'll have her do it. (Dad will make Bob study. A good example is miseru. By the overall context and by using other "helper" words the different meanings. you won't hear or see "misaseru. . (I'll have the kids eat dinner at 6:00.) So. "I'll let him go to the store. seru.) John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru." can be conveyed.Lesson 22 Base 1 + seru / saseru These are used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. suru is simply replaced with saseru: As you can see. In Japanese. are used for all of these. (Mom will have Kimiko buy an umbrella.) Sensei wa gakusei ni mainichi shimbun o yomaseru. The important thing to remember is that yodan verbs use seru.
polite. sweets 1 eigo: the English language mise: a store. The word ame for sweets is usually written in hiragana. (I want to have Kenji study English.) kimeru: to decide kare: he. her karera: they. making it easy to apply what has been learned in the previous lessons in order to make them negative. Word Check sensei: teacher gakusei: student(s) mainichi: every day shinbun: newspaper yuushoku: dinner taberu: to eat raishuu: next week made ni: by (a time or date. Please review any you may have forgotten. past tense.) Kodomotachi ni terebi o misemashou ka. For example: • • • • • Ritsuko wa Kumi ni pen o kawasemashita. a shop iku: to go (Verbs are shown in their plain form. "rain" is also ame.) Notes 1. and etc. (Ritsuko had Kumi buy a pen.Now for the easy part: Since seru and saseru end in eru. him ashita: tomorrow kuru: to come benkyou suru: to study kanojo: she. (Let's have John go to the store.) John ni mise ni ikasemashou. (Grandpa won't let the children eat candy. etc. them ame: candy. . by tomorrow. (Shall we let the kids watch TV?) These examples all use Base 2 final endings. they can be conjugated further like any other ichidan verb. Yes. to set a deadline: by 5:00. but it uses a different kanji.) Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni ame o tabesasemasen.) Watashi wa Kenji ni eigo o benkyou sasetai desu.
(He went to bed without eating dinner. Word Check neru: to sleep kyoukasho: textbook motsu: to hold. that's a tad confusing. but these examples should make it clear: • • • Kare wa yuushoku o tabezu ni nemashita. (Bob went to John's house without calling first. Yes. to have gakkou: school maemotte: beforehand. in advance denwa suru: to telephone (someone) ie: house. home . (Today Shizuka came to school without her textbook.Lesson 23 Base 1 + zu ni Use zu ni with Base 1 to say that someone did something without doing something else which was expected.) Bob wa maemotte denwa sezu ni John no ie ni ikimashita. especially when no particular emphasis needs to be applied.) Kyou Shizuka wa kyoukasho o motazu ni gakkou ni kimashita.) Please note that in some cases the ni after the zu may be omitted.
(To my mind it would make more sense to call this form Base 1. as explained in Lesson 1. Please review Lesson 1 if necessary.) Remember these examples? • • • • • Jim wa manga o yomu. but I suppose we must allow each language its quirks. (Kenji will probably buy a new car. Let's do a few more: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Okayama ni iku deshou. That is why you will hear it used at the end of practically every sentence of a weather forecast in Japan. you should know which are ichidan and which are yodan. Mama wa mise de banana o kau. add it to kau (to buy) in Mama wa mise de banana o kau and you have Mama wa mise de banana o kau deshou (Mom will probably buy some bananas at the store). as we would use tag questions in English.) Base 3 + deshou is very handy when you are not sure of something. I thought it would be a nice and easy way to begin the Base 3 verb endings. unsophisticated form used by kids or in very familiar situations.) Ashita wa ame (ga furu) deshou.Lesson 24 Base 3 + deshou Even though deshou was already introduced in Lesson 18. Let's get back to deshou. Watashi wa ringo o taberu. Not only should you be able to translate these." For example. please remember that Base 3 is actually the root or "dictionary" form of the verb. Use it when you don't want to take full responsibility for an outcome. Please note that ka is not added at the end. right?) . Another use for this form is questioning or confirming something already assumed. the plain. a rising intonation is used instead: • • • Osaka ni iku deshou? (You're going to Osaka. isn't she?) Tomoka wa eigo no shukudai o suru deshou? (Tomoka will do her English homework. Naomi wa terebi o miru. aren't you?) Sue wa kuru deshou? (Sue's coming. But before we begin. Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru. 1 (It will probably rain tomorrow.) Kenji wa atarashii kuruma o kau deshou. This is an easy add-on which means "perhaps" or "probably. (I'll probably go to Okayama next week.
" or "planned to be.) Bob mo ikitai hazu. The verb furu used in this example means "to fall.) shukudai: homework Notes 1. (A falling object uses the verb ochiru)." we use the Base 3 form of the verb with hazu (plain) or hazu desu (polite) added on: • • • Raishuu watashi wa Osaka ni iku hazu desu.Word Check raishuu: next week atarashii: new kuruma: car ashita: tomorrow ame: rain furu: to fall (rain. the fact that the rain will fall is understood." but only if it's rain or snow that's doing the falling." "ought to be. (Bob will probably also want to go. snow. etc.) John wa sugu kuru hazu. so it is often omitted. (I'm supposed to go to Osaka next week. Lesson 25 Base 3 + hazu When something is "supposed to be. making the verb unnecessary. (John should be coming soon.) Hazu can also be added to some conjugated forms: Word Check sugu: soon kuru: to come iku: to go . As in English.
(It would be better to go by train today. Word Check kanojo: she.way is good/better.) Hawaii no hou ga ii.) Ato de taberu hou ga ii.) Raishuu suru hou ga ii. (We had better rest a little. (I'd rather get a dog.) Anata wa motto nihongo o benkyou suru hou ga ii.) Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii. (You should study Japanese more." "would rather do.) Hou ga ii is especially fitting when expressing a preferred choice or method: • • • When showing personal preference. and according to the grammar books. the hou means "way" or "method. desu can be added to hou ga ii to make it more polite. you can skip the verb and use hou ga ii right after a noun with no: • • • Yakiniku no hou ga ii. (I/we should call her. her denwa suru: to call (someone) on a telephone sukoshi: a little yasumu: to rest motto: more nihongo: the Japanese language benkyou suru: to study .) As with most verb endings. (I'd rather go to Hawaii. the sentence will usually end with hou ga ii.) Watashitachi wa sukoshi yasumu hou ga ii. (It would be better to eat later." Actually.. I have yet to actually hear hou ga ii desu in daily conversation.Lesson 26 Base 3 + hou ga ii This one is used for "should do. When you hear it." and ii means "good" or "better. (I'd rather have a barbeque. which was covered in the last lesson.) Inu no hou ga ii. while hazu is more passive: should be." Examples: • • • Kanojo ni denwa suru hou ga ii. (It would be better to do it next week. If there is any confusion between hou ga ii and hazu. prefer. just remember that hou ga ii is generally active: should do. which makes it easier to catch than many other endings." "had better do." so when you use hou ga ii you are literally saying ". should happen. frankly. but..
to be able to kiku: to ask mada: not yet (used with negative forms) wakaru: to know." It's straightforward enough and easy to use: • • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. to take time off from work . (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. to understand ashita: tomorrow yasumu: to rest. but connects two phrases which contain verbs. (I don't know if we are going yet. Word Check dekiru: can. ka dou ka does not end a sentence. It's like using "whether or not" in English.) Hideki wa ashita yasumu ka dou ka wakarimasu ka. only the component order is opposite in Japanese. (Do you know if Hideki has tomorrow off?) As you can see in the examples above.) Watashitachi wa iku ka dou ka mada wakarimasen.kyou: today densha: train suru: to do ato de: later taberu: to eat yakiniku: Japanese-style grilled meat and vegetables inu: dog Lesson 27 Base 3 + ka dou ka Ka dou ka is the Japanese equivalent of the English "whether or not. to take a break.
Word Check .) Because nai follows shiru (to know) after it has been changed to its Base 1 form for plain negative shiranai. it is handled the same as an ichidan verb (please review Lesson 1 if necessary). where it is converted to shireru (can know). (Jack may also come. (It might snow tomorrow." These are incorrect. (It might rain tomorrow. and because masen follows shiru after it has been changed to its Base 2 form for polite negative shirimasen. As such. you can change it to the plain form nai if you don't need to be polite: • • Ashita ame ga furu kamo shirenai. yes. this conjugation ends with the polite negative ending masen. meaning that. It is its "conditional" Base 4 form.) As you have probably noticed. Kamo shiremasen means "maybe. so please be careful when pronouncing. (Perhaps we'll get an e-mail from Bob tomorrow. however. that you do not abbreviate it in this way until you are familiar enough with the language to make it sound natural.) Ashita yuki ga furu kamo shiremasen. Simply put. Therefore. It will take some practice. and is conjugated accordingly.Lesson 28 Base 3 + kamo shiremasen This one is used frequently." Since this verb ending is rather long." Let's look at these examples: • • • Watashi wa raishuu Osaka ni iku kamo shiremasen. it is common for foreigners to slip when using kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen and say "kamo shiranai" or "kamo shirimasen.) Konban watashitachi wa soto de taberu kamo shirenai. (Maybe I'll go to Osaka next week. so you'll want to master it right away. Actually (and since you'll need to know this sooner or later).) I suggest. when you say kamo shirenai or kamo shiremasen you are saying "cannot be known. people sometimes shorten it to just kamo.) Jack mo kuru kamo shiremasen. perhaps. as in: • • Ashita Bob kara meeru ga kuru kamo. shirenai and shiremasen are the Base 1 and 2 forms of shireru with the plain negative nai or the polite negative masen added on. the shire in this conjugation does come from shiru.) 1 Sanji goro watashi wa dekakeru kamo. (We may eat out tonight. and familiar enough with the culture to know when it is appropriate. (I might go out around three o'clock.
(We don't have any milk. but it's usually just called meeru.) In spoken Japanese. so I'll call her. they each become separate sentences. the reason or cause of the action which follows: • • Ame ga furu kara kasa o motte ikimashou. signified by kara at the end.) . (Let's take umbrellas since it's going to rain. Ame ga furu kara. (Beth is always late. tonight soto: outside kara: from sanji: three o'clock goro: about.) Watashi wa Beth ni denwa suru. you'll often hear the action stated first. Itsumo okureru kara. (I'm going to the bookstore because I want to buy a dictionary. Lesson 29 Base 3 + kara Kara is often used as the equivalent to our "because" or "since. let's take umbrellas. with its reason." It comes at the end of the phrase it modifies. given after. The technically accurate term for e-mail in Japanese is denshi meeru. (I'll call Beth because she's always late.yuki: snow ame: rain konban: this evening. In this case.) Jisho o kaitai kara honya ni ikimasu. Kara is very handy and can be used with many other verb forms and endings. so I'm going to the store. grammatically speaking.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara denwa suru. (Since it is going to rain. Let's do this to the above examples: • • Kasa o motte ikimashou. around (used with times and dates) dekakeru: to go out Notes 1. Let's look at a few examples: • • Gyuunyuu ga nai kara mise ni ikimasu.
helping to make the study of languages the wonderfully complicated pain that it is! But. context and experience with sentence structure will eventually make it all very easy. means "because. Japanese has many words that are written and pronounced the same as others while having a different meaning. disgusting mono: thing. Again. just like English. Terebi o mitakunai kara. Suzuki's place because he always makes me eat nasty stuff. stuff ongaku: music kiku: to listen kanada: Canada gakkou: school eigo: the English language jouzu: be good at (something). it's no big problem. (I'm going to listen to music because I don't want to watch TV. etc. Kara after names and places will usually mean "from"." Just like English. skilled .) Kenji wa kanada no gakkou ni ikimashita kara eigo ga jouzu desu.• Suzuki-san no ie ni ikitakunai! Kare wa itsumo iya na mono o tabesaseru kara. (Kenji's English is good because he went to a Canadian school. home iya na: bad. nasty.) motte iku: to take (something with you) itsumo: always okureru: to be late denwa suru: to call someone on the telephone gyuunyuu: milk mise: store jisho: dictionary honya: bookstore ie: house.) Ongaku o kikimasu. kara after verbs and adjectives. (I don't want to go to Mr. as in this lesson. snow." Word Check furu: to fall (rain.) • • You may remember a different kara from Lesson 28 which means "from someone/somewhere.
. jouzu ni narimasen. Like "but" in English. keredo and kedo. it comes between the contrasting phrases. Let's try some examples: • • • Kare wa nihongo o hanasu keredomo. Word Check nihongo: the Japanese language hanasu: to speak heta: be poor at (something).) Keiko wa piano o yoku renshuu suru keredomo. . spirit. but he's not good at it. ki o tsukeru is an often used phrase meaning "take care" when saying good-bye to someone or warning them. be sick (Verbs are shown in their plain form." and tsukeru means "to attach. a lot.ni naru: to become (something) kenkou: health ki o tsukeru: to take care 1 byouki suru: to get sick. frequently. he gets sick a lot. (Keiko practices the piano a lot. but she doesn't get any better. well renshuu suru: to practice .) Keredomo is easy to master because you'll hear it used often.) Jack wa kenkou ni ki o tsukeru keredomo. attention. or Attention! when calling a group to order.Lesson 30 Base 3 + keredomo Keredomo is used for "although" or "but. unskilled (direct opposite of jouzu introduced in the last lesson) yoku: (adverb used before a verb) often. as well as its shorter forms." When combined. (He speaks Japanese. yoku byouki shimasu.) Notes 1. it is used a lot." so. Ki means "energy. as you can imagine. heta desu.. (Although Jack is careful about his health.
" Next. "the thing of" is probably the closest you can get. this is not the well-known instrument of Japanese classical music.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni iku koto ga dekimasu.) Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita." In this lesson it is shown in its polite form dekimasu. This is the mundane koto that gets lots of daily wear and tear changing Japanese verbs into nouns. like reading in the sentence I like reading. (I can't read French. koto has no practical use by itself. and see what happens: • • • Watashi wa furansugo o yomu koto ga dekimasen. (Bob was able to call Junko. In English. First is koto. the verb dekiru means "can" or "be able to (do something). but dekiru is also fine when you don't need to be polite. Watch carefully: yomu (to read) + koto (the thing of) = yomu koto (the thing of reading.) And let's throw in one with a plain ending: . for kicks — no. it really doesn't change the verb. we add ing to make a noun out of a verb. the particle ga is what you use to join koto and dekimasu. actually for review — let's try some other endings with dekiru. (Richard couldn't eat the squid. (If you need to review ichidan verbs with masu go back to Lesson 3. Better than all this talk would be an example. in order to make this lesson as uncomplicated as possible. let's take a look at each part.) Finally. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. (I like reading. reading as a noun [gerund]). and is added to the plain (Base 3) form of a verb to simply show ability to do that verb. as in: • Watashi wa yomu koto ga suki. (Remember studying "gerunds" in school?) Anyway.) Keiko wa piano o hiku koto ga dekimasu. (Keiko can play the piano. in Japanese we do the same thing by adding koto after a plain verb form. Well. If you have to have a translation.) Now. Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomu koto ga dekimasu. Like our ing. but is added after the verb so that it can be used like a noun.) The literal translation of the above example would be "I like the thing of reading. I like reading as a thing to do.Lesson 31 Base 3 + koto ga dekimasu Koto ga dekimasu is a long one. No.) Richard wa ika o taberu koto ga dekimasen deshita. (I can read Japanese. Just think of koto ga dekimasu as a set phrase. But first.
• (one boy to another) Boku wa jitensha ni noru koto ga dekiru! (I can ride a bicycle!) Yes. dekiru or one of its forms can directly follow a noun only if it is one that uses suru to change it to a verb." but there are a few shortcuts and alternatives." Denwa is a noun. It does not mean "thing" in money is a good thing to have. (I can translate French into Japanese. After other verbs you add koto ga before dekiru. so instead of adding koto to turn it back into a noun again. long or short." like denwa suru used in one of the above examples. Again. actions. It means "thing" as used in the sentence saving money is a good thing. essences. With "suru verbs. and that is mono. but the shorter version is more common in daily conversation. For example." It generally means intangible "things" like ideas. you can just omit suru. Here are a couple more: • • Furansugo o nihongo ni honyaku dekimasu. (John wasn't able to study yesterday. There is another word in Japanese which is used for physical things. "Bob wa Junko ni denwa suru koto ga dekimashita" can be shortened to "Bob wa Junko ni denwa dekimashita. meanings. it's a long ending for just "can. Word Check koto: the "thing" or idea of something done suki: to like something dekiru: can. which was introduced in Lesson 29. etc. expressions. John wa benkyou dekimasen deshita.) Either way. and adding the suru makes it a verb.) Kinou. There is a short alternative for other verbs. but that will have to wait until we get into the Base 4 endings. One last thing: I described the meaning of koto as "the thing of. you can drop the suru and just add dekiru. both versions are used. It is generally not used for physical things or objects." but please don't think that koto can mean any "thing. In that case the suru is omitted. to be able to do something nihongo: the Japanese language hiku: to play (a stringed instrument) ashita: tomorrow furansugo: the French language denwa: a telephone denwa suru: to call someone on a telephone ika: squid taberu: to eat boku: I (masculine familiar) jitensha: bicycle noru: to ride .
(I'll probably decide to go shopping tomorrow. koto ni suru is the plain. Jones decided to prepare for tomorrow's math class.honyaku suru: to translate kinou: yesterday benkyou suru: to study Lesson 32 Base 3 + koto ni shimasu The ending koto ni shimasu has essentially the same meaning as the verb kimeru. As I am sure you know by now. and it shows that the decision was yours. (I've decided to study Japanese every day.) Word Check kimeru: to decide kaimono ni iku: to go shopping sensei: teacher (used as a title/name suffix to replace san.) Jones sensei wa ashita no suugaku no jugyou no junbi o suru koto ni shimashita. which was introduced way back in Lesson 1. Here are some polite present and past tense examples: • • • Watashi wa tabun ashita kaimono ni iku koto ni shimasu.) Watashi wa mainichi nihongo o benkyou suru koto ni shimashita.) suugaku: mathematics jugyou: a class or lesson in a particular subject junbi suru: to prepare mainichi: every day benkyou suru: to study . (Mr. koto ni shimasu is the polite form. etc. It shows that you have made a decision.
(We can't eat until Yukiko comes. (I won't let you watch TV until your homework is finished. or seasons: • • • Word Check matsu: to wait shukudai: homework owaru: to end." and is added after the plain form of a verb: • • • Yukiko ga kuru made taberu koto wa dekimasen. where we created short positive commands using Base 2 + nasai. a week-long period haru: spring Lesson 34 Base 3 + na This. periods. made may be used with nouns which refer to times. in (as in "It'll be spring in 2 months. (Wait until dinner. Made means "until. ato ni shuu kan desu.Lesson 33 Base 3 + made This one is very easy.) Shukudai ga owaru made terebi o misemasen. (It'll probably be best to wait until spring. (We have to wait until Bob calls. like: • • Tabenasai! (Eat!) Suwarinasai! (Sit down!) .) Haru made matsu hou ga ii deshou. you could say.) Bob ga denwa suru made matanakereba narimasen. be finished miseru: to show. is the counterpart to Lesson 10.) As in English. (It's two weeks until summer vacation. watch (something) yuushoku: dinner natsu yasumi: summer vacation ato: after.") ni: two shuu kan: a week. to let (someone) see.) Yuushoku made machinasai.) Natsu yasumi made.
He thought he had said. This is one that will probably not be used very often. "Mind if I sit down?" when he actually asked. Be careful with suwaru and sawaru! They are very similar and can be easily mistaken. as with English.• Koko ni kinasai! (Come here!) In this lesson we will make short negative commands — "don't do's" — by adding na to plain (Base 3) verbs. We have all heard (here in Japan) of the gaijin who got on the train and asked the girl if he could sit next to her. It is generally used as a "last resort" after more polite requests are tried and ignored. put off kuru: to come shaberu: to talk neru: to sleep (Verbs are shown in their plain form. it can be "softened" or used jokingly with the right intonation and facial expression. be careful how. Word Check taberu: to eat miru: to look. but if you do. and to whom. However. you use it. "Mind if I touch?" . First.) Notes 1. It usually conveys displeasure or even anger. let's make the above examples negative: • • • • • • • • Taberu na! (Don't eat!) Suwaru na! (Don't sit down!) Koko ni kuru na! (Don't come here! / Stay away from here! / Stay away from me!) Terebi o miru na! (Don't watch TV!) Sawaru na! (Don't touch!) Enki suru na! (Don't put it off!) Shaberu na! (Don't talk!) Neru na! (Don't sleep!) Now let's do a few more: And here are two which are very useful to teachers in Japan: This is a command form with no politeness whatsoever connected to it. watch suwaru: to sit sawaru: to touch 1 enki suru: to postpone.
.) yuushoku: dinner Notes 1. Japanese English. (If it rains we'll have to put off the game. (If you're going to smoke. yuushoku o tabenai deshou." but in Japanese it means "cigarette. which is just a slight variation. shiai o enki shinakereba naranai. they probably won't eat dinner. tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekiru yo. inhale) 1 soto: outside ima: now sunakku: snack (This is wasei eigo." We have already covered negative conditionals in Lesson 20. (If the kids eat a snack now. do it outside.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o taberu nara. The Japanese tabako naturally comes from "tobacco. (If you go out. match enki suru: to postpone. soto de suinasai.) Sooner or later you will run into naraba.) Dekakeru nara. kasa o motte ikinasai.Lesson 35 Base 3 + nara This is one of several ways to make conditional sentences — sentences with "if. but nara is more common.) Tabako o suu nara.) Ame ga furu nara. take an umbrella. put off tabako o suu: to smoke (tabako: cigarette. Word Check isogu: to hurry tsugi: next densha: train noru: to ride dekakeru: to go out kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (te form of motsu [to hold] + iku [to go]) shiai: (a sports) game." This is also wasei eigo. Now let's use nara to make some positive ones: • • • • • Isogu nara. They are used the same way and mean the same thing. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train. with suu: to suck.
Continuing with the above example. or a noun which needs emphasis. like our ['s]. watashi ga noru just gives us more information about the train — watashi ga noru densha simply pinning it down as the "train I will take" or "my train. a time. a "sub-subject. Let's look at these simple phrases: • • • • watashi ga noru densha (the train I'll take) kare ga iku tokoro (the place he'll go) kanojo no deru jikan (the time she'll leave) watashitachi ga au kyaku (the customer we'll meet) Now. which is why I decided to leave it as it is in the example above. respectively. (My train leaves at eight o'clock. the way English grammar books used in the schools here are written gives the impression that mastering all aspects and usages of relative pronouns is the most important thing one needs to learn about English. we'll go off on just a tiny tangent here: Wa indicates the main subject or topic of the whole sentence." Ga indicates a subject within a phrase. the entire phrase watashi ga noru densha above could be the subject in Watashi ga noru densha wa hachi ji ni demasu.. For example. And. a place. so I feel that the learner may as well get used to both. Ga or no could be used here. a new learner may well ask: why ga after the subjects above. but hopefully sufficient for the present. and a person. which are examples involving a thing. Please remember that no also has another job as the indicator for possessives. to make matters worse. ga tells us who will take the train. (That is Kimiko's umbrella. they are like which in "This is the dictionary which I'll buy for my brother's birthday present. densha (train) is the main subject. as I sit here and look at these four phrases. to offer very general.Lesson 36 Base 3 + (any noun) In English we have what are officially called relative pronouns: words that connect a noun to an action. and deru (to leave) tells us what it will do." In Japanese. that's another story. but can't without going off on a tangent which would require a completely new and lengthy page. For example. instead of the usual wa? Why no after kanojo instead of ga? Well. But. No is often used in place of ga." and who in "There's the man who I saw in the station yesterday. For a quick review..) All you do is simply add the noun in question to the plain form of the verb in question. there are no "relative pronouns. as in Sore wa Kimiko no kasa desu. and is handled by the final verb. explanations.) 1 ." (This is why teaching about these pesky words and the grammar related to them is so difficult in Japan. I can see several things which need to be explained — things I'd like to explain.) In this sentence. especially in informal spoken Japanese. since he or she will surely be hearing both." where in "Kobe is where she will take the exam." you might say.
but since Japanese has no equivalent. and therefore omitted.) In this one. Please come back regularly to review as necessary. Kobe is a place. As you may have noticed. "Kobe is the place where she'll take the exam. As you can see. and are in the realm of mid." as a relative pronoun. a truer English translation would be. guest otouto: younger brother tanjoubi: birthday . (Kobe is where she'll take the exam. what applies to one doesn't necessarily apply to the other. These "relative pronoun substitution" sentences can be difficult. they do not mean the same thing. The watashi in the sentence is actually a part of the possessive pronoun watashi no (my). here is one last example: • Haru wa atarashii inochi o motarasu kisetsu desu. English and Japanese are on opposite ends from each other on the "language spectrum". the watashi (I) telling who will buy the dictionary is obviously understood as the speaker. let's translate one of the examples used at the beginning of the lesson: • Kore wa watashi no otouto no tanjoubi purezento ni kau jisho desu.to high-intermediate Japanese. automatically designates a place. If you can keep these things straight now it will really be a big help later. and when trying to make sense of one. Finally.) Since this is natural Japanese. you must forget all the rules of the other." but "the place" is redundant and unnecessary in English. As a general. semi-accurate rule. a substitute noun must be used. Tokoro and where are roughly equivalent here in only a grammatical sense. to get back to the lesson. the English "where.) This one is pretty straightforward. and vice versa. depart jikan: time au: to meet kyaku: customer. (Spring is the season that brings new life.Now. (This is the dictionary I'll buy for my little brother's birthday present. The problem is that the rules are totally different for each language. Now let's do another example: • Kobe wa kanojo ga shiken o ukeru tokoro desu. I hope this lesson was clear enough. so tokoro is used after the verb. and so it would most likely be omitted. Practice makes perfect! Word Check tokoro: a place deru: to leave. and should not be too difficult. both English and Japanese have their own set of rules concerning what and when something unnecessary can be omitted.
Purezento is yet another example of wasei eigo: words borrowed from English. . to cause to happen kisetsu: season Notes 2. to take a test haru: (the season of) spring atarashii: new inochi: life motarasu: to bring about.purezento: a present 2 shiken: examination ukeru: to receive. produce.
and etc. you put stress on the verb before no desu. However. Word Check anta: very familiar form of "you" 1 sashimi: specially prepared raw fish bokutachi: masculine familiar form meaning "we" or "us" (boku + tachi) . (I tell you. Now we will end these same sentences by using Base 3 with no desu: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kau no desu. please review them.) As in any other language. especially something you're sure of (or think you're sure of).) Jim wa manga o yomu no desu. and may be fine-tuned by using certain voice inflections and facial expressions. and the other is a way to make emphatic ones. it IS going to rain tomorrow. (Grandpa will return soon. the level of emphasis can vary greatly depending on the situation. like this: • • Watashi wa IKUN desu! (I AM going!) Ashita wa ame ga FURUN desu. Here are the examples used in Lesson 2: • • • Mama wa mise de banana o kaimasu. If not. (Jim will read a comic book.) Remember these? I hope so. writhing. stomping around.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaeru no desu. or habits of the speaker. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store. (Jim will read a comic book. bland tone.) Ojii-san wa sugu kaerimasu. We have already learned how to use Base 2 + masu to make polite sentences back in Lessons 2 and 3.Lesson 37 Base 3 + no desu There are two ways to look at this ending: one is simply another way to create polite sentences. if you want to emphasize something. as in: • • • Ashita watashi wa Kyoto ni IKU no desu! (I AM going to Kyoto tomorrow!) Anta wa kono sashimi o TABERU no desu! (You WILL eat this raw fish!) Bokutachi no chiimu wa KATSU no desu! (Our team WILL win!) A variant of this is to leave out the no and instead attach an "n" sound onto the stressed verb. as well as supporting body language like hand waving. need. (Grandpa will return soon.) Jim wa manga o yomimasu.) The meanings are the same as Base 2 + masu as long as they're said in a regular. fist pounding. (Mom buys/will buy bananas at the store.
essential . a look at some examples would probably be the best way to see how it works: • • • Kono tegami o okuru no ni ikura desu ka? (How much will it cost to send this letter?) Tokyo yuki no densha ni noru no ni asu hayaku okinakereba narimasen.) Please keep in mind that there is also a noni. etc.) densha: train noru: to ride.chiimu: team (wasei eigo) katsu: to win (Verbs are shown in their plain form.) Hitsuyou na kanji o subete oboeru no ni daibun jikan ga kakaru. (It takes quite a long time to learn all of the necessary kanji. There is nothing really tricky about it. These are easy to keep straight when used in context. to board (a mode of transportation) asu: tomorrow hayaku: early (quickly) okiru: to get up hitsuyou (na): necessary. Takamatsu-yuki. meaning "in spite of. except that instead of being found at the end of a sentence." which we will cover later on.) Notes 1. Care must be taken with anta because it is used when talking down to someone and will be considered rude in most non-familiar situations. As usual. (We'll have to get up early tomorrow in order to make the train for Tokyo. it's usually found somewhere near the middle. Lesson 38 Base 3 + no ni No ni is added to plain verb forms to mean "in order to" (do whatever). where it helps to establish certain conditions concerning the verb in question. Word Check kono: this tegami: letter okuru: to send ikura: how much? -yuki: bound for (This is added after the destination: Osaka-yuki.
the characters which were adopted from the Chinese then modified to be used in modern Japanese subete: all oboeru: to learn.) Notes 1. considerably jikan: time kakaru: to take (time).kanji: Chinese characters. Please consult a dictionary for more. remember daibun (or daibu): quite. to cost (money) 1 (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . Kakaru actually has many meanings and uses. rather. specifically.
(Jim's dictionary is blue. the greatest.) Word Check tanoshii: fun. and is the easiest way to make a noun out of a verb: yomu (to read) + no (wa) (the thing of) = yomu no wa ([the thing of] reading [is]).) Kasei ni sumu no wa mada fukanou desu. Wa is the subject indicator. Look at these examples: • • • • • Yomu no wa tanoshii desu. (It really was a problem-free trip.Lesson 39 Base 3 + no wa Do you remember koto.) and the one used with aru or nai to show the existence or non-existence of something. impossible saikou: great. still not fukanou: not possible. the best jisho: dictionary ao: the color blue aka: red hontou (ni): real(ly) mondai: problem. as in: • Jim no jisho wa ao de. difficult kasei: Mars sumu: to live mada: not yet. mainly the one used for possessives. which was introduced back in Lesson 31? The no in no wa plays the same role. (Living on Mars is not yet possible. like our ['s]. boku no wa aka desu. talk kantan: easy tokidoki: sometimes muzukashii: hard. enjoyable hanasu: to speak. (Reading is enjoyable.) Nihongo o hanasu no wa kantan desu.) Hayaku okiru no wa tokidoki muzukashii desu. as in: • Hontou ni mondai no nai tabi deshita. mine is red. question . (Speaking Japanese is easy.) Hawaii ni iku no wa saikou desu! (Going to Hawaii is great!) Please remember that there are other no's. (Getting up early is sometimes difficult.
(A guest is coming so I can't go out now. it could imply that the speaker would like to go out but can't because of an expected guest. node simply states a fact while kara emphasizes the reason. please remember that there's nothing grammatically wrong with using node here instead. From native speakers I have heard that node sounds "softer" and more polite. (I have to get up early tomorrow so I'm going to bed early. (Since Eiko can speak English. Generally speaking.) Ashita ame ga furu kara ikimasen. For example. and is therefore preferred when people are involved. Word Check kyaku: guest. as in: • • Jisho ga nai kara kaimasu. kara is usually used. and using node tells the listener(s) that there is respect and no displeasure regarding the visit. she'll probably find a good job.nai: to not be. When talking about simple reasons for doing things. what's the difference between node and kara? Good question. (I'm going to buy a dictionary because I don't have one. in the first example sentence above a person (the guest) is concerned. customer ima: now deru: go out. which is used for pretty much the same thing in pretty much the same way: • • • Kyaku ga kuru node watashi wa ima deru koto ga dekimasen. which is used to show reasons or causes.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru node ii shigoto o mitsukeru deshou. come out ashita: tomorrow .) Ashita hayaku okiru node hayaku neru. If kara was used instead.) So. In this lesson we will take a look at node. It just depends on what you want to emphasize and the "feeling" you want to convey.) However. to not exist tabi: trip Lesson 40 Base 3 + node Back in Lesson 29 we met kara. (It's going to rain tomorrow so I'm not going.
to sleep eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak ii: good shigoto: job mitsukeru: to find ame: rain .neru: to go to bed.
to make efforts (Shita is the "ta form" of suru.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. tell (Itta used in the last example above is its Base 7 form.) okureru: to be late (The example sentence for this also uses the "ta form. Word Check yameru: to stop something.) asoko: there. here is a short lesson about noni. she won't listen. which is used to mean "in spite of": • • "Yamenasai" to iu noni. over there (usually for emphasizing distance) . so much doryoku suru: to work hard at something. (Despite my telling her to stop. to quit a habit iu: to say.") annani: that much. to follow rules or orders. Keep an ear out for it and you'll catch it. kanojo wa kikimasen.Lesson 41 Base 3 + noni As promised in Lesson 38.) kiku: to listen. to heed advice okiru: to get up (Okita used in the example is its "ta form. or "ta form." which is used for the plain past.) Noni is also put at the end of sentences to express aggravation at an unexpected or undesirable outcome: • • Annani doryoku shita noni! (After all my efforts!) Asoko ni "iku na" to itta noni! (And after I told him not to go there!) Noni is used a lot." for the plain past. (I was late even though I got up early.
the Japanese will rarely use the equivalent Japanese verb hataraita. etc.) 1 hajimeru: to begin yameru: to quit a job (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I hear it's going to rain in the afternoon. understand to be. and a housewife will use paato (Japanized part from part-time). but is usually shortened to baito. as in "Hai. The actual word is arubaito." Lesson 43 Base 3 + tame ni . They use a noun geared to their type of job." (Yes. that's right.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. or Japanese German. For example: • • • Hiru kara ame ga furu sou desu. in the (early) afternoon resutoran: restaurant (wasei eigo) baito: a part-time job (This is wasei doitsugo. It means "that's right" and often follows hai.) Word Check hiru kara: from noon. a student will say baito. meaning "my part-time job I'm doing while going to school". An interesting "culture" exists in the use of work-related words in Japan.) Please remember that sou desu by itself has nothing to do with hearsay. sou desu.Lesson 42 Base 3 + sou desu Use sou desu after Base 3 for things you've heard. which means "the job I do as a part-timer along with being a housewife. While most English speakers who are asked what they did the day before will answer "I worked" if they worked. A full-time employee will use shigoto.) Notes 1. (I heard that Kayo's going to start working part-time at a restaurant next week. (I heard that Mr. rumors. meaning "my regular job as a bona fide company employee".) Kayo wa raishuu kara resutoran de baito o hajimeru sou desu. Takada's quitting.
(I bought a new dictionary to study Japanese. Ni is always omitted when the polite ending desu is used after tame. it usually means "for the purpose of. it points to the tickets which will be used to go to Hawaii.) Hai. Here are some popular ones: • • • • • • Kimi no tame ni shimashita yo! (I did it for you! [very familiar]) Kore wa kimi no tame ni. here are your air tickets to Hawaii.) Notes 1. Hawaii ni iku tame no koukuuken desu. receive. have (an interview). in order to. Mom. take (an exam) nyuujouken: an addmission ticket daibun: quite (a lot.) Nihongo o benkyou suru tame ni atarashii jisho o kaimashita. 2. (This is for you. [plain. and can also be used in various expressions with nouns.) Kore wa nan no tame no kaigi? (What is the purpose of this meeting?) Nan no tame no dougu? (What's this tool for? [very plain]) Tame is used a lot.) Tame is a very handy word. 2 (Okay.) Nyuujouken o kau tame ni daibun machimashita." and is often followed by the optional ni. That indicates the thing which has the purpose of something intended. . In this example. a while) koukuuken: an air ticket nan/nani: what kaigi: a meeting dougu: a tool (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (Hiroko's going to Osaka for an interview.When you hear tame. Good luck with it! Word Check mensetsu: an interview ukeru: to get. Use no when putting a noun/object after tame. very familiar]) Kore wa okaa-san no tame desu. (I had to wait quite a while to buy tickets. 1 (This is for you. Take a look at these: • • • Hiroko wa mensetsu o ukeru tame ni Osaka ni ikimasu.
umi is "the sea.) Kimiko to Bob wa tanjou paateii ni kimashita. Although not specifically covered. Literally. to go) + taku (tai. 3. Ikitakunaru belongs to the branch of Base 2 + tai/taku (to want) endings which were covered in Lesson 8. When referring to "the beach" in Japanese." There is a Japanese word for beach (sunahama). when." It's as simple as that. begin to want. takunaru puts tai and naru together.) For the curious. to turn into (something) kodomotachi: children umi: the sea. the beach 1 ikitakunaru: to begin to feel like going (somewhere) 2 tanjou paateii: birthday party 3 (Verbs are shown in their plain form. (I get sick whenever I eat buckwheat noodles.") It can mean and.) Notes 1.) Kimiko wa Bob to kimashita. (Kimiko came with Bob. or even both: • • • Massugu iku to Ritsurin Kouen ga miemasu.) Natsu ni naru to kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitakunarimasu. with. (If you go straight you'll see Ritsurin Park. or "to become to want to go. with the ku connector) + naru (to become) = ikitakunaru. After a plain (Base 3) verb it is roughly the same as when or if. but it is not generally used. that's pronounced "toh. (Remember." Iki (Base 2 of iku. meaning "become to want. use umi." .) Watashi wa soba o taberu to byouki ni naru. 2. (When summer comes the kids want to go to the beach. Paateii is wasei eigo for "party. to want to do. here are sample sentences with to as and and with: • • Word Check massugu: straight mieru: to be able to see (something) natsu: summer naru: to become (something).Lesson 44 Base 3 + to There are four basic uses for to. or if. (Kimiko and Bob came to the birthday party.
(I think it'll rain tomorrow. omou can be used for plain speech. like: • • Kyou wa. Now that it has been explained. things you can do. (I think Eiko can speak English. or don't really have any control over something.) Kyou ame ga furu to omoimashita.Lesson 45 Base 3 + to omoimasu For better or worse. but speaking as if you're dead sure about something is looked down on. this ending is a lot like deshou. (I think Koji will be late. It means simply "I think. (I think Ms.) Sasaki-san wa mou sugu kochira ni denwa suru to omou. When promoting your own ideas or opinions. while to omoimasu shows that you do know (to a certain degree). In the workplace you would always want to use to omoimasu concerning things you are responsible for because deshou would sound irresponsible. especially in the workplace. (I thought it would rain today [and it did. Sasaki will call us soon. Japan is a country where being reserved is a good thing. To omoimasu can be used after some conjugated verbs. the other Base 2 endings also apply: • • • Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasen. which was covered in Lesson 18. using to omoimasu after plain verbs is one of the most socially acceptable. (I didn't think that Koji would be late. omoimasu being simply its Base 2 form with polite masu added. It's okay to have an opinion. The major difference is that deshou is usually used to show that you don't really know. (I don't think Eiko can speak English.) Kodomotachi wa umi ni ikitai to omou. (I think the kids want to go to the beach. (I think it would be better to go by train today. don't really care." and shows that you admit that what you are talking about isn't a fact (even though it might be). (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. Accordingly. and expected. care.) As you can see from the last examples.) Eiko wa eigo o hanasu koto ga dekiru to omoimasu.) . or have some control.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasen deshita. I think it can be applied very easily: • • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu.) Koji wa okureru to omoimasu. densha de iku hou ga ii to omou.]) In a way.) Ashita wa ame ga furu to omou.
Word Check omou: to think goji: five o'clock (go [five] + ji [hour]) kaeru: to return (intransitive verb). People will use to omoimasu even when they know. towards me. in Japan being reserved is a respected characteristic.Again. to go back. us . to return home eigo: the English language hanasu: to speak okureru: to be late mou sugu: soon kochira: here.
especially in the winter when people talk about snow piling up: yuki ga tsumoru.). to enter or enroll in (a school). yes.) daigaku: university 1 hairu: to go inside (a room. which means "to accumulate. (I think Steve plans to go to Canada.) In case you're wondering. hear the other verb tsumoru. but you will never hear tsumoru (to intend) used. You will. etc.) Steve wa Canada ni iku tsumori da to omou.) Notes 1. as in "to do (something) by (a certain time. however. (I plan to be back by three o'clock.) Keiko wa Kyoto Daigaku ni hairu tsumori desu. While sounding alike. to join (a club.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. day. their meanings are completely different. etc. tsumori is the Base 2 form of its plain form tsumoru." used a lot. church. and other countries where the word college is used loosely. when used to set a deadline. Unlike in the U. College (karejji in romanized Japanese) is only used for junior colleges and vocational schools.Lesson 46 Base 3 + tsumori Base 3 plus tsumori is used to express an intention: • • • Watashi wa sanji made ni kaeru tsumori. etc. Always use daigaku for university. technically speaking. Word Check sanji: three o'clock (san [three] + ji [hour]) made ni: by. Lesson 47 Base 3 + you desu . in Japan it is never used when referring to a traditional four-year university. (Keiko intends to go to Kyoto University. S. build up. so please be careful not to confuse them.
(It's going to rain [because it suddenly got dark outside and you can smell it coming].) Ano hako ga ochisou.. directly or indirectly.) Ame ga furu you desu. (That box looks like it's about to fall. Ame ga furu mitai would be heard often instead of either of the above examples. as in: • • Ame ga furu sou desu. "you look like an idiot. you desu is not really used that much in informal conversation. fool hako: box ochiru: to fall (objects.) Actually.) You desu and sou desu (Lesson 42) are similar and sometimes easy to confuse. which is a kind of "catch all" for you desu / sou desu statements. In its place you will hear mitai a lot.) Ken wa piano o hiku koto ga dekiru you desu. I might as well mention here that mitai can also be put after nouns to mean "looks like. meaning "it's going to rain" (either because someone said so or because there are signs that it's going to).) This one is especially easy to confuse with Base 3 + sou desu. there is a Base 2 + sou ending which is also very similar to Base 3 + you desu. This is usually used when something looks like it is just about to happen: • • Ame ga furisou.You desu after Base 3 verbs works like "seems to" in English: • • • Mari wa ashita kuru you desu. (It looks like it's going to rain.) Sachiko wa Canada ni iku you desu. (It's going to rain [because the weatherman or someone said so]. while you desu means you sensed something is or will be. sou desu means you heard. (It looks like Sachiko is going to Canada. not precipitation) . that something is or will be. (It looks like Ken can play the piano.. so please take care. (It seems that Mary will be coming tomorrow. Word Check hiku: to play (the piano or other stringed instrument) dekiru: to be able to (do something) mitai: (something) looks like. baka: idiot." Although not introduced in the Base 2 group. Simply put." If you watch TV or listen to young people talking you will often hear baka mitai.
I think it's about time to start on Base 4.Lesson 48 Base 4 + ba After a long hike through many Base 3 verb forms. or vowel sound. except those pesky troublemakers in Bases 1 and 2 of the ichidans and Base 1 of the irregulars. of each verb corresponds in order with the vowels outlined above. let's borrow the tables from Lesson 17 and add a Base 4 column." or "dictionary form. however. AH. Also notice that this time the "bases" are in numerical order. and that the last letter. OH. You change it into the other "bases" and add the endings or other add-ons as necessary. Remember that Bases 1 through 5 basically follow the Japanese vowels in their alphabetical order : 1. e as in see 3. Now. Yodan verbs: Base 1 kawa aruka isoga kasa mata shina asoba yoma kaera Ichidan verbs: kai aruki isogi kashi machi shini asobi yomi kaeri Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru kae aruke isoge kase mate shine asobe yome kaere Base 4 . (There are some exceptions among the ichidan and irregular verbs. it's where you start.) Think of Base 3 as the "root. EE. o as in mode and that the verb changes to end with the vowel sound of the "base" it's in before anything is added to it. Notice how the verbs change from their plain (Base 3) form. u as in mule 4. OO." since that's the form you'll see when looking words up. a as in father 2. e as in red 5. Base 3 is the plain form of the verb. EH.
Here are example sentences from Lesson 35. (If the kids eat a snack now. let's do a simple and useful conjugation. Do you remember Base 3 + nara. yuushoku o tabenai deshou. covered in Lesson 35? Well. Here. shiai o enki shinakereba naranai. however. (I want to call Grandma. Base 4 + ba gives you similar results while being shorter and simpler. (If it rains we'll have to put off the game. it's the equivalent of "Why don't you. If you wanted to say "Why don't we go to Kyoto?" you would use mashou or something similar: Kyoto ni ikimashou ka? . tsugi no densha ni noru koto ga dekiru yo. converted to Base 4 + ba: • • • Isogeba.) B: Sureba? (Why don't you [go ahead and call her]?) This form of suggestion does not include the speaker..) Very handy. Another use for this is to suggest doing something.) Kodomotachi wa ima sunakku o tabereba. they probably won't eat dinner.Base 1 tabe oboe kime de kari mi Irregular verbs: Base 1 ko shi ki Base 2 tabe oboe kime de kari mi Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Base 4 tabere oboere kimere dere karire mire Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru kure sure Base 4 shi Now that we know how to make Base 4.?": • • • Kyoto ni ikeba? (Why don't you go to Kyoto?) Shichiji han ni dereba? (Why don't you leave at 7:30?) A: Obaa-chan ni denwa shitai. (If we hurry we'll be able to make the next train.) Ame ga fureba..
especially when there's little chance of the decision being changed..) Ima benkyou sureba ii. slightly disappointed: Motto hayaku kureba ii noni. soto de asobeba ii. ba ii is for making suggestions or giving advice.Lesson 49 Base 4 + ba ii In this lesson we are going to cover three Base 4 endings: ba ii and its handy cousins ba ii noni and ba yokatta." as shown in these examples: • • • Soto de asobeba ii. no.) Mom. and is usually used to show that you're bugged by someone or something not doing what you ask or wish. Base 4 + ba gives you a conditional "if" meaning.) Kouen ni ikeba yokatta.. in a slightly discouraged or angry voice: Soto de asobeba ii noni. (I wish we had gone to the park. (The weather's nice. (I think it would be good if we ate a light meal.) Watashitachi wa karui shokuji o tabereba ii to omou.) Naoko.) Adding noni (covered briefly in Lesson 41) adds "in spite of the fact that" to ba ii. (We should have come at 8:00. Yoi can be used with ba instead of ii: Ima benkyou sureba yoi is fine and sometimes used. (Around five. they both mean "good".) Suteeki o chuumon sureba yokatta. they are not completely interchangeable. so it would be good to play outside. As we learned in the last lesson. (It'd be nice if you could come earlier. as in these example conversations: • Mom: Tenki ga ii kara. (It would be good if you played outside. However. (Now would be a good time to study. [I still wish you would play outside.) • As you can see. It's like Base 3 + hou ga ii covered in Lesson 26. yoi is not used with .) Kids: Terebi mitai. Ii is Japanese for "good. Adding yokatta to Base 4 + ba shows regret for a decision made after it's too late to change it: • • • Hachiji ni kureba yokatta.) For those who may be wondering about the adjectives ii and yoi: yes. Adding noni shows your feelings regarding someone else's decision. (Even though it would be nice to play outside.]) Naoko: Nanji ni kuru? (What time are you coming?) John: Goji goro. (We want to watch TV. but not quite as strong. (I wish I had ordered the steak." and adding it to the Base 4 ba is a very easy way to convey the meaning "it would be good if.
While most adjectives in Japanese have a past tense. yokatta. and therefore unnecessary in the sentence.noni. Word Check soto: outside ima: now benkyou suru: to study karui: (adjective) light shokuji: food. In the actual situation the subject(s) would be implied and known to all concerned. By this stage of Japanese study. a meal tenki: the weather (This is sometimes used with the honorific o-: o-tenki. In those situations different constructions would be used. When showing regret for mistakes. quirky ii does not. is used after ba — there is no such Japanese as ikatta.) terebi: TV nanji: what time (nan [what] + ji [hour]) goro: around (used with times and periods) motto: more hayaku: early (adverbial form of hayai) suteeki: beef steak (wasei eigo) chuumon suru: to place an order . This is very handy when you get used to it. I have done this with most of the examples on this page. I trust that you are familiar with the wonderful convenience of being able to delete the subject when it is known. the past tense of yoi. Please bear in mind that the above explanation applies to familiar settings. and would not go over well when talking to superiors at work or anywhere where special respect is due. It's one of those things that feels okay in a grammatical sense but just isn't done.
if you look and act like you know what you're saying. Actually. this is a form you really don't want to use. you'll probably be thought of as someone who has only limited and unconventional language ability. you will definitely become unpopular quickly. just the Base 4 form of the verb yelled out: • • • Damare! (Shut up!) Ike! (Go!) Yare! (Do it!) One situation where this can be used without offense is when you are cheering for someone at a sports event. There you will hear many yelling hashire! (Run!) or gambare! (Hang in there! / Go for it!) Finally." Word Check damaru: to be quiet yaru: to do (plain) hashiru: to run gambaru: to try hard.Lesson 50 Base 4 by itself: the Plain Imperative If you want to give orders without a hint of kindness. If you do. and maybe even get into a fight. Or. to not give up Lesson 51 Base 4 + ru . just use Base 4." It's simple: no subject or object needed. You could call it "ruffian talk. please remember that this one only applies to yodan verbs. You'll hear this form mostly when watching Japanese TV or movies. or maybe when hearing a group of guys talking. You wouldn't say sure for "do it" or mire for "look.
" but you won't hear miremasen for "I can't see it. Let's look at some possibilities using endings already learned: • • • • • Keiko wa piano o hikemasu.) Now." using Base 3 + koto ga dekiru). I remember when I first learned this one — it was like opening a new door.) Kare wa Osaka ni ikemasen deshita. And most of the other Base 3 endings or combinations which work with ichidans can be applied in the same way. very useful. (Keiko can play the piano. (Keiko can play the piano. instead of the long Watashi wa iku koto ga dekiru ("I can go. you know that these sentences would be more polite with the masu ending. (I can read Japanese. For example. It shows the ability to do something. you can use Base 4 + ru and say the same thing with a much shorter expression: Watashi wa ikeru. (Jack was able to go to Tokushima. Take a good look: Base 4 + ru makes verbs end in eru." (There is a "set verb" for "able to see": mieru.We are now going to learn one of the handiest verb forms in the book: Base 4 + ru. Please keep in mind that while grammar books state that this is only to be used with yodan verbs.) Keiko wa piano o hikeru. they can be treated like plain ichidans.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikeru. We can easily add masu to these and make them polite.) Have you got it? Great! You should be able to see how this form will make life in Japanese easier. which was covered back in Lesson 31. No problem. It's very.) raigetsu: next month . Please see Notes on Japanese Verbs for more. Base 4 + ru is like a super shortcut to Base 3 + koto ga dekiru. there are many exceptions among the ichidans.) Kare wa raigetsu ikeru kamo shiremasen. (Jack can go to Tokushima tomorrow. For example. just like most ichidans. Now. which was used in Lesson 44. this is wasei eigo.) These you'll just have to pick up as you go along. Word Check hiku: to play a stringed instrument baiorin: violin (Yes. Here we learn an important point — so important that I'm going to underline it: Verbs in the Base 4 + ru form can be treated the same as Base 3 (plain) ichidan verbs. (He wasn't able to go to Osaka. (He might be able to go next month. Simply put. As such. (Keiko can't play the violin. [polite]) Keiko wa baiorin o hikemasen.) Jack wa Tokushima ni ikemashita. you will hear taberemasen for "I can't eat it. let's take three examples from Lesson 31 and shorten them using Base 4 + ru: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomeru.
the "cannot do" plain form. In this lesson we will use Base 4 + nai. I only mention this because they act just like ichidans in many ways. which makes the logic behind converting them easier to most people. (I can't read Japanese. you can pretend that we are converting ichidan verbs to Base 1 and adding nai for the plain negative ending. this form is only meant for yodans. (If you can't ride a bicycle let's walk.) Jitensha ni norenakereba arukimashou. Bases 1 and 2 are the same for ichidans. which was covered in Lesson 17. If it helps. and I hope it will make sense to you.) Please keep in mind that these are yodan verbs in Base 4 + nai. As you may have guessed.) Ashita Jack wa Tokushima ni ikenai.) noru: to ride aruku: to walk Lesson 53 Base 4 + reba . (Keiko can't play the piano. (As you remember. Here are two we've already covered: • • Jack wa korenai deshou. Let's take the same examples from the last lesson and change them to plain negative: • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomenai.) Word Check neru: to sleep koreru: to be able to come (This is a specialized verb. (Jack can't go to Tokushima tomorrow. It made sense to me. (Jack probably won't be able to come.) See how that works? As mentioned in the last lesson. but there are exceptions like taberenai (I can't eat it) and nerenai (I can't sleep).) Keiko wa piano o hikenai. there are other nai-related endings that will work here.Lesson 52 Base 4 + nai In the last lesson we saw how verbs in the Base 4 with ru "can do" plain form can be treated the same as Base 3 ichidan verbs ending in eru. We looked at some examples which use polite endings just as if they were ichidan verbs in the Base 2 form.
. to see (someone) jikan: hour(s). You would never use it to "get" an object.. but to "get well" (genki ni naru).) Notes 1. you may wonder. The negative companion to this is Base 4 + nakereba (if someone can't). etc.To be frank. to "get good at (something [like the piano])" (jouzu ni naru).) Hachi jikan nerereba genki ni naru deshou. Word Check shichiji: seven o'clock au: to meet. (If I can sleep eight hours I'll probably feel better. as in: Iketara iku yo.. (physically) well . (It would be nice if I could read Japanese..) I have yet to find grammatical verification for this. (If you can go at seven o'clock you'll be able to meet Mark. But then I decided to do it because there just might be parts of Japan where it's used more than in my neck of the woods. So. but everyone uses it. an example of which was included in the last lesson. at first I thought I wouldn't do this one because it's really not used that often. .) Shichiji ni ikereba Mark ni aeru.) This form is mainly for yodans.ni naru means to become or change itself. time neru: to sleep genki: healthy. like a present. but there are exceptions like the last example above. what do people use around here to express this? I usually hear Base 4 + tara. energetic.ni naru: to get or become (something [adjective or noun]) 1 (Verbs are shown in their plain form. . so I do too. Base 4 +reba is used to express "if someone can": • • • Watashi wa nihongo o yomereba ii. (I'll go if I can.
I think we'll cover them all in this lesson. I saw four that I feel are somewhat useful. Looking over my list of Base 5 possibilities. let's get out the tables from Lesson 48 and add Base 5: Yodan verbs: Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Base 4 Base 5 kawa aruka isoga kasa mata shina asoba yoma kaera kai aruki isogi kashi shini asobi yomi kaeri kau aruku isogu kasu shinu yomu kaeru kae aruke isoge kase shine yome kaere kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou yomou kaerou machi matsu mate asobu asobe asobou Ichidan verbs: Base Base Base 3 Base 4 1 2 tabe oboe kime de kari mi tabe kime de kari mi taberu kimeru deru kariru miru tabere Base 5 tabeyou oboe oboeru oboere oboeyou kimere kimeyou dere karire mire deyou kariyou miyou Irregular verbs: . First.Lesson 54 Base 5 I'm afraid there isn't much you can do with Base 5.
Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 Base 4 Base 5 ko shi ki shi kuru suru kure sure koyou shiyou As you can see." Ka na usually means the mind is pretty much made up." The polite form is Base 2 + mashou.. (Do you want to take a break?) Please note that question-forming no cannot be used here..) Kaimono ni ikou ka naa. Use Base 5 when you don't need to be polite: • • • Ikou.) Base 5 + ka Adding question-forming ka (Lesson 12) quickly changes these to suggestions: • • • Ikou ka. the fifth vowel in the Japanese "alphabetical order": ah. (Shall we eat?) Yasumou ka. (Shall we go?) Tabeyou ka.. ee. so stretch it out a bit when you use it. (see Lesson 48) Also. which we already mastered back in Lesson 9. eh. (Let's take a break.) Yasumou. oh. Base 5 obediently follows the "vowel order rule" (Don't quote me. Base 5 Alone The first handy thing you can do needs no attachments. oo. (I think I'll go shopping. (Let's eat. in Base 5 the "oh" is elongated. (Let's go. It'll give you the plain form for "let's do (something). the drawn out ka naa means someone is still not sure: • • Kaimono ni ikou ka na. (I wonder if I should go .) by changing to end in an "oh" sound.) Tabeyou... Base 5 + ka na / ka naa This gives you the equivalent of "I wonder if I should. I just made that up.
" Suru is shown plain.) Base 5 + to suru This one is to express "try to do (something).) Kyou wa tenki ga ii kara.) . (Maybe I'll watch TV. but he couldn't. Word Check denwa suru: to call (on the telephone) tenki: the weather hikouki: airplane mieru: to be able to see (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. but can be converted as necessary: • • John wa koyou to suru to omou. (I think John will try to come. (I think I'll walk today since the weather's nice.) • • • Terebi o miyou ka na. miemasen deshita. arukou ka na. I'm sure you'll be able to get them memorized quickly. You probably won't hear any others unless you watch samurai dramas or talk with people who don't get out very often.) Bob ni denwa shiyou ka naa.) These are the more useful Base 5 forms. (Naoto tried to see the airplane.) Naoto wa hikouki o miyou to shimashita ga. (I wonder if I should call Bob.shopping.
I have decided to begin the Te Form with it. Let's take a look at the following tables and see how verbs change into the Te Form: Yodan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru kite shite Te Form tabete oboete kimete dete karite mite Te Form katte aruite isoide kashite matte shinde asonde yonde kaette Te Form . the Te Form changes verbs so they end in te. but the yodans can be tricky and may take some time to memorize. As you have most likely guessed. one that is indispensable for polite and proper speech. Ichidan verbs are a snap because you just change the final ru to te. but there are also some that are "softened" to de instead.Lesson 55 Te Form + kudasai Since kudasai is one of the most useful Te Form endings. But first we need to get a better look at this Te Form and see what it does to verbs.
It means "under. like kaeru (to return). nugu (to take off [clothing or accessories]): replace the final gu with ide — isoide. tabete kudasai. tsutsumu (to wrap): replace the final mu with nde — yonde. katte. And there are only the two irregulars to memorize. toru (to take): replace the final ru with tte — kaette.) Chotto matte kudasai. hairu (to enter). (Please come at six o'clock. like yomu (to read). momu (to massage).) Kudasai not only adds a "please"-like effect. It's important because it's used a lot. like au (to meet). like isogu (to hurry). It combines the elements of its plain form kudasaru and the ordergiving nasai. which was introduced back in Lesson 10. Please remember that while most verbs that end in eru or iru are ichidans. We'll cover pronunciation a little later. humble me. haitte. katsu (to win): replace the final tsu with tte — matte. shinu (to die): replace the final u with de — shinde." There are several handy variations of kudasai. kiite. like aruku (to walk). motte. hataraku (to work): replace the final ku with ite — aruite. Kudasai itself is actually a mild command form used to ask or even tell someone to do something. you'll soon run into the very simple one from which kudasai was hatched. When you start learning kanji. kau (to buy). (Please wait a bit. So when you say chotto matte kudasai. tasu (to add): replace the final su with shite — kashite. tobu (to fly): replace the final bu with nde — asonde. Let's take a closer look: Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + u. nutte. tsunagu (to connect). (Go ahead. yonde. The Te Form of iku (to go) is itte. tsunaide." etc. Yodan verbs that end in bu. Please note this one important exception: iku. Yodan verbs that end in a vowel + su (not tsu). Yodan verbs that end in ru. nuide. tashite. please eat. yobu (to call out). like matsu (to wait). The only yodan verb that ends in nu. katte. to ask). Adding masu or masen further . keshite. As already mentioned and shown. tsutsunde. technically you're saying something like: "Please bring yourself down to wait a bit for lowly. there are some yodan exceptions like the two used here. hataraite. Yodan verbs that end in mu. like kasu (to lend). motsu (to hold). the ichidans are easy. to put out [a fire]). not iite. monde. right? I still remember the headache I got trying to sort them out. depending on the tone of voice used.) Rokuji ni kite kudasai. Now we'll add kudasai for a polite request: • • • Douzo. Yodan verbs that end in tsu.Those yodans look pretty scary. like asobu (to play). tonde. it also puts the person you're talking to above yourself. Yodan verbs that end in gu." "to lower (something). kesu (to turn off." "to go down. Yodan verbs that end in ku. kiku (to listen. totte. nuu (to sew): replace the final u with tte — atte.
) Kore o kiite. just like counting 1-2-3. and kitte: • • • Koko ni kite.) As with positive requests. so that's what I've decided to call it throughout these lessons. then add kudasai: • • Terebi o minaide kudasai. (Don't watch the TV. but in Japanese we do. (Wait.) Ikanaide. The basic rule is simple: give each sound equal time. while holding the tongue silently for a half second in the "T position" between syllables. (Go ahead and eat. For negative requests with kudasai. mild commands in familiar settings: • • • Rokuji ni kite.softens it and gives the listener room to reply.) In English we thankfully don't have to give any attention to double vowels or consonants.) Douzo.) Ikanaide kudasai. while making each syllable as short as possible (some Japanese make them so short they're barely discernible). add de to verbs in their plain negative form (Base 1 + nai). giving each equal time while making them short. For practice let's use kuru (to come). kiite. Word Check . Put these three verbs into the Te Form and they become kite. and kiru (to cut). (Please don't watch the TV. (Don't go.) Rokuji ni kite kudasaru? (Will you please come at six o'clock? [plain]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasu ka.) Please note that the Te Form is also sometimes called Base 6. (Come here. (Will you please come at six o'clock? [polite]) Rokuji ni kite kudasaimasen ka.) The pronunciation goes like this: kite (KEE-TEH). I believe that I have heard it referred to as the Te Form more often. (Cut this. These examples should clearly illustrate the possibilities: • • • • Rokuji ni kite kudasai. kudasai can also be omitted here to make simple mild commands: • • Terebi o minaide. (Listen to this. (Won't you please come at six o'clock?) I must add here that verbs in the Te Form can also be used without kudasai or anything else for plain.) Kore o kitte. kiite (KEEEE-TEH). tabete. (Please don't go. (Please come at six o'clock. kiku (to listen). and kitte (KEET-TEH). (Come at six o'clock.) Matte.
usually in short. use goran by itself to ask someone to try something or look at something when you're not certain about the outcome.douzo: go ahead (used as a polite gesture) chotto: a little. a moment rokuji: six o'clock (roku [six] + ji [hour]) Lesson 57 Te Form + goran / goran nasai Goran literally means "to honorably take a look. You never use it on yourself. and goran nasai when you need to make it stronger or when proving you're right about something (or think you are): • Bob ni kiite goran.) . which is used to prove a point." You use it to ask someone to try something. Adding nasai gives it a stronger command element. As a general rule. mild command-like sentences. (Ask Bob and see what he says.
Word Check kiku: to ask denwa suru: to call (on the phone) sanjuu hachi: thirty-eight kaite aru: is written (Te Form of kaku [to write] + aru [to be. This is probably the most used verb form of them all. pretty Lesson 58 Te Form + iru A verb's te form with iru is used to show present progressive tense. but thankfully unlike English doesn't change according to the subject. Yonde goran nasai. (It says he's 38. Look at these examples: • Watashi wa koko ni iru.) .) Mite goran. (Try calling Sanae. (Taste it and see if you like it. in a way. See for yourself. Read it for yourself.) Kouen no kouyou wa ima kirei yo. fall colors ima: now kirei: beautiful.) Kare wa sanjuu hachi to kaite aru. to exist]) yomu: to read tana: shelf ue ni: on/above (the top of) something shio: salt yo: (This is added to the end of sentences for emphasis. Iru by itself is an ichidan verb meaning "to be. (There is some salt on the shelf.• • • • • • Tabete goran. (Take a look. and provides an important grammatical base from which many other relevant forms can be made. Mite goran nasai." So.) kouen: a park kouyou: autumn leaves." and when connected to another verb using the Te Form means "to be doing (something). (The autumn leaves in the park are beautiful now. (I am here. Itte goran nasai.) That's how we use goran nasai. Go and see for yourself.) Tana no ue ni shio ga aru yo. to exist. it works like English.) Sanae ni denwa shite goran.
• • • • • •
Watashi wa aruite iru. (I am walking.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde iru. (They are reading a magazine.) Watashitachi wa Takamatsu ni sunde iru. (We live in Takamatsu. [We are living in Takamatsu.]) Shizuko wa tabete iru. (Shizuko is eating.) Kanojo wa sushi o tabete iru. (She is eating sushi.) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite iru. (Bill is studying Japanese.)
These examples should help you get a good idea as to how this form works. Note how Japanese is more "grammatically true" than English in some cases, like when using the verb sumu (to live [somewhere]), as in the fourth example above. Even though living in a place is present and progressive, we can get away with using just "live" in English. Because of this, it is natural for foreigners to slip and directly translate that to sumu in Japanese, when they really should use sunde iru. Another easy slip for foreigners is the simple phrase "I know." When someone tries in English to dazzle us with some bit of information we've already heard, we say "I know," but in Japanese we say shitte iru (literally, "I'm knowing [it]."), and not shiru. When you stop making this mistake you'll know that you're starting to think in Japanese. Since iru is a plain ichidan verb, it can be conjugated as such and some of the other endings applied. Especially important are masu, mashita, masen, and masen deshita, which were covered in the Base 2 endings. As you already know, these are polite endings and should be used in all but familiar settings. Let's review these through some Te Form examples:
• • • •
Watashi wa shimbun o yonde imasu. (I'm reading the newspaper.) Kinou nete imashita. (Yesterday I slept all day. [Yesterday I was sleeping all day.]) Kare wa furansugo o benkyou shite imasen. (He's not studying French.) Kyou terebi o mite imasen deshita. (I didn't watch TV today. [I wasn't watching TV today.])
It should be mentioned here that the Japanese use the past progressive tense much more than we use it in English. For example, in English we would normally ask a person, "What did you do last night?" and not "What were you doing last night?" In Japanese it's the opposite. It's common to use the past progressive tense: Sakuban nani o shite imashita ka. (What were you doing last night?) Accordingly, the answer will be in the same tense: Terebi o mite imashita. (I was watching TV.) Another thing that needs to be mentioned about the Te Form + iru is that it is often "slurred" together. For example, yonde iru (reading) will sound like yonderu. In fact, it is
even written this way — with the i in iru omitted — in comics and novels where the writer wants to show characters using everyday conversational Japanese. Finally, this form also plays a vital role in sentences where a relative pronoun would be used in English:
Tennis o shite iru ko wa Bob no imouto desu. (The kid [who is] playing tennis is Bob's [younger] sister.) Sunahama de asonde iru inu wa boku no desu. (The dog [that's] playing on the beach is mine.)
I know you're wondering, so I'll tell you: "to play; to do" (shite iru) should sound like SHTEH-EERU or SHTERU; "to know" (shitte iru) should sound like SHEET-TEH-EERU or SHEET-TERU. Listening carefully becomes the best teacher here. We'll take a look at some useful negative forms of this in the next lesson.
aruku: to walk karera: they, them zasshi: magazine sumu: to live (somewhere) nihongo: the Japanese language shiru: to know neru: to sleep sakuban: last night nani: what suru: to play a sport or game; to do (something) ko: kid, child 1 imouto: little (younger) sister 2 sunahama: beach asobu: to play (without any particular purpose or object, as a small child or animal does) inu: dog boku: I (familiar form used by males)
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
1. Strangely, there is no single, simple word in Japanese for "girl" or "boy." The correct way to say "girl" is onna no ko and "boy" is otoko no ko (literally, "woman-child" / "manchild"). These can be shortened to ko in many situations, but, like "kid" in English, there may be times when this will not be appreciated if used in front of the parents. 2. In Japanese, different words are used for older siblings than younger ones: ani for older brother, ane for older sister, otouto for younger brother, and imouto for younger sister.
Lesson 59 Te Form + inai
As mentioned in the last lesson, iru is an ichidan verb meaning "to be; to exist." As such, it can be changed into a negative and take the various negative Base 1 endings just like other verbs. While there are some negative endings that cannot be used when it's combined with the Te Form, which makes them present or past progressive, there are many that can. First let's do some plain negative examples, which are based on those used in the last lesson:
Sam wa koko ni inai. (Sam's not here.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde inai. (They aren't reading a magazine.)
) Bob wa benkyou shite inakattara yakyuu o yaru koto ga dekita deshou. Dekita. carefully noting and confirming the differences between plain and polite. Another handy use for the Te Form + inai is to express "not yet. which were covered in the Base 1 endings: • • Kodomotachi wa benkyou shite inai deshou. (I didn't eat an apple. we would have to add watashitachi wa or kare wa before yakyuu. infinitive and progressive: • • • • • • • • Watashi wa ringo o tabenakatta. We'll get into the Ta Form after covering the Te Form endings." as in: • • Watashi wa mada tabete inai. (The kids probably aren't studying.) Sam wa koko ni imasen. present and past.) Benkyou shite inakereba.• • • • • • Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde inai. [polite]) Bob wa benkyou shite inakereba yakyuu o yaru koto ga dekiru deshou. [plain]) Sono toki tabete imasen deshita.) Tabete inai ko wa Shizuko desu. which can be convenient at times. what are they doing?) Now please look at the following examples. (We don't live in Okayama. (They aren't reading a magazine. "we could" could be "he could. which appears in the last example. [polite]) Sono toki tabete inakatta." depending on the actual situation. (I wasn't eating then. (We don't live in Okayama. (Bill isn't studying Japanese. To make the meaning perfectly clear. [plain]) Watashi wa ringo o tabemasen deshita. though vague and troublesome at others.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde imasen. (The child who isn't eating is Shizuko. In either. [polite]) Watashi wa tabete inai. (If Bob wasn't studying we could play baseball. The last two above are good examples of this. [plain]) Watashi wa tabete imasen.) Remember to use masen for polite speech: We can easily apply nai deshou and nakereba. (I haven't eaten yet. is the Ta Form of dekiru (can.) Watashitachi wa Okayama ni sunde imasen. (I didn't eat an apple. (If they're not studying.) Seiko wa mada kaimono ni itte inai. (If Bob hadn't been studying we could have played baseball. (I wasn't eating then. (Sam's not here.) Please remember that Japanese lets you leave out the subject when it's understood (or thought to be). (I'm not eating [now]. nani o shite iru deshou ka.) . (Seiko hasn't gone shopping yet. (I'm not eating [now]. to be able).) Bill wa nihongo o benkyou shite inai.
there are cases where it would sound odd if translated directly into English in the same . and expresses the past progressive tense when added to verbs in the Te Form: • • • John wa terebi o mite ita.) Notes 1. but also an often used element of conversational Japanese. In fact. (Bill was studying. Lesson 60 Te Form + ita Since ita is the Ta Form of iru.) There were two points mentioned in Lesson 58 that we'll review here. (John was watching TV.) Bill wa benkyou shite ita. It's for asking questions.) Karera wa zasshi o yonde ita. I decided to go ahead and cover it here. They are important because they are used constantly in daily conversation. (They were reading a magazine. I first thought I'd wait until we got into the Ta Form before introducing it." Word Check toki: time (usually a specific time) yakyuu: baseball mada: yet (used with negatives for "not yet") kaimono: shopping denwa suru: to telephone (someone) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. ita is the plain past form of iru.• Yumi ni mada denwa shite inai no? 1 (Haven't you called Yumi yet?) You'll notice mada used in these examples. which is normally used in negative constructions to convey "not yet. since it is not only a Te Form ending. The first is that in Japanese the past progressive tense is used much more than it is in English. Put simply. No at the end of sentences plays the same role as ka. and goes especially well with plain ones. However.
upgrade ita to imashita. (I went shopping.]) Yes. [Really? I was washing my car. Soshite terebi miteta.) Now that's real Japanese. [I was doing shopping. And watched TV. To illustrate this I have made up a short yet very natural conversation. which is underlined: A: Kinou wa nani o shite ita? (What did you do yesterday? [What were you doing yesterday?]) B: Kaimono o shite ita. as well as ore and washi for "I. here is the same conversation as it would actually sound: A: Kinou nani shiteta? (Whadja do yesterday?) B: Kaimono shiteta. and hontou: really kuruma: car arau: to wash . (Really? I washed my car. I include the usual English translation. Just for the fun of it. but also add what the direct translation from Japanese would be. Also. that is how Japanese speak of past everyday events with friends and family: the past progressive Te Form + ita is often used. this would be two males speaking. Soshite terebi o mite ita.tense and used that way. The second point is that in actual conversation the verb and ita are often jammed together. (I went shopping.]) A: Hontou? Boku wa kuruma o aratte ita. Males usually use boku in familiar settings. (Really? I washed my car. And I watched TV. As I'm sure you know by now. The above example conversation looks all proper when written. besides. Word Check soshite: also." Females usually use watashi or sometimes atashi. in settings where polite speech is called for. but no real friends or family members — at least those who are at a familiar enough level to use plain endings in the first place — are going to speak so grammatically correct. And I was watching TV.) A: Hontou? Boku kuruma aratteta.
" it will almost always be used with one of the masu endings.Lesson 61 Te Form + itadaku / morau Please forget that itadaku is shown in its plain form in the title of this lesson. Johnson?) O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. Here are some examples.) This creates a very nice "may I humbly partake of your doing (something) for me" request. and can be used when receiving or taking something from someone. itadaku is often converted to Base 4 and masu ka added. The Te Form + itadaku ending can be used like Te Form + kudasai to ask favors. The literal "humbly partake" nonsense will be replaced with a more natural English translation: • • • Johnson-san ni denwa shite itadakemasu ka. as covered in Lesson 55. (Please review Lesson 51 if necessary. and it can also be used to show appreciation for favors received. meaning something like "I humbly partake. Itadakimasu! by itself is the standard salutation used in Japan before eating a meal. (May I please have your name?) Niji ni kite itadakemasu ka. (Would you please call Mr. Because itadaku is a very polite word. (Would you please come at two o'clock?) And here are a few more variations that are often used: . When asking for something in the workplace or other "non-familiar" settings.
one that conveys certain traditional cultural points. Morau is okay when referring to other things.) As in English. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. While "I humbly partake" serves as a general translation and starting point. I have always considered itadaku to be a "true Japanese" word. even when the giver is not present. Oboete imasen ka.) As you can see. this is a family situation." When there's no need to be very polite. but since we can't do that here. morau is the one to use when talking about a third party." With itadakimasu. No particular reservations are needed here. use morau instead of itadaku. With kudasai. adding a masu ending makes it polite.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Don't you remember?) (Concerning name use and suffixes. (I'm doing homework now. (I'm doing homework now. I realize that all of this sounds complicated. Also. and it can be at times. it's just plain. (Won't you please call me tomorrow?) Kono shorui o kinyuu shite itadakemasen deshou ka. we'll look at some more examples: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. be gradually understood by osmosis as one gets accustomed to the culture of Japan. Ken ni itte moratte. it's not easy to define the full "essence" of itadaku in English. you automatically becomes the understood subject and you're asking "please give down to me. Make no mistake: morau is not impolite. the important difference has to do with subject emphasis.• • • Ashita watashi ni denwa shite itadakemasen ka. (Could I possibly get you to fill out these forms?) Murai-san ni senshuu ginkou ni itte itadakimashita. I automatically becomes the understood subject and you're saying "I humbly receive from you. Actually being present in a situation where this stuff is being used helps a lot. particularly giving and receiving and the levels occupied by giver and receiver. It can.) Ima shukudai o shite iru. Let's look at a slightly different conversation: Mom: Kimiko: Kimiko ni mise ni itte moraitai. but not quite as polite — not as "respectful" — as itadakimasu. please see About You and Name Suffixes. Shall I . Ojii-chan ni itte moraimashou ka. (I had you [Murai-san] go to the bank for me last week. (I want you [Kimiko] to go to the store for me. the rule of thumb is to make the request more polite as its level of difficulty or ridiculousness increases. While kudasai and itadakimasu and their various forms are often interchangeable. itadakimasu is always used with food. However. so all the plain forms are perfectly normal. however. Get Ken to go. As usual.
The salesclerks would say agemasu as they give the pens out (and up) to their customers. she would say itadakimashita (I already received one). Ojii-chan ni itte moraimasu. and . being in the same situation as her grandfather as a receiver. (I had Ms. would naturally use the same verb and say hai. To say moratta could sound rude or juvenile. I'll get Grandpa to go. if a different salesclerk offers another pen to Kimiko and she wanted to say that she already got one. Suzuki-san: Ginkou ni ikimashou ka. he'd probably use moratta ka (Did you get one?) or maybe moraimashita ka. Traditionally. (Ken's not here now.Mom: Kimiko: get Grandpa to go?) (not wanting to bother Grandpa) Ken ni itte moraou ka naa. Mom: Everyone: Gohan yo! Tabemashou! (Dinner's ready! Let's eat!) Itadakimasu! (Let's eat! [Literally. Kimiko. I/we humbly receive this. I got one). which would be more polite. They probably don't see each other every day. which would be the most polite and adult thing to say since the salesclerk represents the giver (the store) here. but note how verbs connected with Grandpa are made polite with masu. even if all you're taking is a potato chip. if Grandpa deserves respect and is in earshot. Here's another good example situation: Kimiko and her grandfather are at a shopping center where they are handing out free pens.]) Itadakimasu is always used with food. and these two are being courteous. (I wonder if I should get Ken to go. Murai go. If they belonged to a close-knit group that worked together every day by themselves they would probably use plain forms. As the customers take the pens they might say arigatou (thank you) or itadakimasu (I humbly receive). The words and wording will change according to your position as giver or receiver. or they may be in an area where customers or clients are and want to make a good impression with their polite speech. (Sure.) Customers are always treated like royalty and get the most polite forms. If Grandpa wants to ask Kimiko if she got one.) This is the same family. moratta or moraimashita (Yes. It would be impossible to cover all the subtle language possibilities and nuances here regarding giving and receiving in Japan. your age and relationship with the other(s).) This is at the office. this would be the best way to go. Suzuki-san: Customer: O-namae o oshiete itadakemasu ka. (May I please have your name?) Hai. (Shall I go to the bank?) Tanaka-san: Murai-san ni itte moraimashita. Now.) (thinking that Grandpa needs to get out more) Ken wa ima inai.
tell shorui: forms. company.) oshieru: to teach. each home. and region will have its own "atmosphere" and certain unwritten rules pertaining to language use. office.prefix is used with strangers. just like anywhere else. this should cover the main questions and suffice as a guide. customers. documents. Keep in mind that. etc. However.other variables. paperwork kinyuu suru: to fill out (forms) senshuu: last week ginkou: bank oboeru: remember mise: store shukudai: homework ima: now . Word Check o-namae: name (The honorific o.
) John wa shukudai o shite kara kuru.Lesson 62 Te Form + kara This one's a snap. You can't use it directly after nouns such as summer to mean "after summer. Simple and useful. then add the Te Form of owaru.) Shigoto ga owatte kara eiga o mi ni ikimashou.. a job eiga: movie .. Word Check kaeru: to return. With nouns that require the active participation of the subject. (After I eat I'm going shopping. (Let's eat after Naomi comes back.. such as those two common ones work and school. to come home owaru: to end. (Let's go see a movie after work." There are other ways to do that. you just make them the subject/object with ga. to play games or sports shigoto: work (noun).) Please remember that there's another kara that means "because" which is used with Base 3 (Lesson 29) and the Ta Form (Lesson 73). the Te Form + kara means "after (doing something).) Naomi ga kaette kara tabemashou.) Please keep in mind that this one only works after verbs in the Te Form. to be finished gakkou: school yakyuu: baseball yaru: to do (plain form of suru). which means "to finish": • • Gakkou ga owatte kara yakyuu o yarou. (Let's play baseball after school." as in: • • • Tabete kara kaimono ni iku. (John's coming over after he does his homework.
there is the "kure command": . repeated request. It's good for family members and close friends.) Lesson 63 Te Form + kureru In Lesson 55 we did kudasai. especially one that's already been turned down: • • Kyuukei sasete kurenai ka. See Lesson 13.) And finally. This is also often used as a way to confirm something which appears to be obvious but wasn't expected. This is the simplest way to ask a favor. the polite "please" used for favors requested. (Ritsuko kindly cleaned the room. you might say Ah. A masu ending always makes verbs sound nicer. are you going to (kindly) pay for mine?" When using kureru without no for a sincere request. Kureru is used in generally the same way.) Use plain negative nai for an urgent. ogotte kureru no?. (Won't you please let me take a break?) Watashitachi to issho ni kite kurenai no. which literally means "Oh. (Won't you please come with us?) (Kurenai no is softer than kurenai ka. but I wouldn't use it on my boss or the emperor when he's in town. (Will you please tell me your phone number?) Ritsuko wa heya o souji shite kuremashita. Let's plug kureru into some example sentences: • • Rokuji ni kite kureru? (Will you please come at six?) Jitensha o kashite kureru? (Would you please loan me your bicycle?) You'll hear plain kureru after the Te Form a lot. and works great when talking to colleagues or about others: • • Denwa bangou o oshiete kuremasu ka. if someone appears to be getting ready to pay for your lunch (and you don't mind). For example. it's customary to say kureru with a rising "pretty please" kind of intonation. Some people add the question-forming no on the end. and it's used constantly in familiar daily conversation when rank or "greatness" doesn't need to be worried about.mi ni iku: to go (and) see (This is the Base 2 form of miru [to see] with the directional indicator ni and iku [to go].
Again. you'll see what I mean. a verb in Te Form with nothing after it can sound nicer than with kure. Word Check kasu: to lend ogoru: to treat (someone) to a meal denwa bangou: telephone number oshieru: to tell. with .• • Kite kure. to teach heya: a room souji suru: to clean kyuukei suru: to take a break issho ni: together.) Matte kure. depending on intonation. (Please wait. In fact. (You might say that it takes all the "please" out of kureru. (Please come here. but there is a huge difference between kudasai and kure. this is the "command" form of kureru.) There may not be a big difference between kudasaimashita and kuremashita. and it could be offensive in some cases. After watching enough Japanese TV or movies.) I recommend avoiding this one until you get a feel for its various nuances according to intonation used.
) Doitsu no rekishi o benkyou shite kimashita.) As can be seen. (I'll go check it [then come back]. the literal equivalent of "I'm going. after the Te Form they can also mean to come up to or start from a given time. the Te Form of "to go" followed by "to come. Notice how kuru comes up to a point and iku takes off or continues from one: • • • • Ron wa sukoshi zutsu nihongo ga wakatte kimashita. people will sometimes use this to ask others where they went: Doko e itte kita? (Where did you go [and come back from]?) Other simple examples of this are: • • Tabete kita. (Little by little Ron came to understand Japanese. Just as kuru and iku mean to come to or leave a given place. (I ate before coming over." Usually upgraded with masu.) Accordingly. (Because of that." but when used after the Te Form they take on a whole new dimension which may have nothing to do with physical movement. and means exactly what it's supposed to: "I'm going out and coming back.Lesson 64 Te Form + kuru / iku As you already know. I think that the number of PC users will increase." it's considered unlucky because it will be interpreted as "going away and not coming back. while iku takes off from the present or another point in time.) Sono tame. (PCs will most likely get less and less expensive. kuru and iku mean "to come" and "to go.) .) Shirabete kuru." so avoid saying that unless you really mean it. expresses future plans. (I have been studying German history. Itte kimasu! is the traditional expression one uses when going out. assumptions. etc." (If you say just ikimasu. PC no shiyousha ga fuete iku to omou. the Te Form + kuru points to results or events leading up to the present or another point in time.) PC wa yasuku natte iku deshou. dreams. One very good example of this form being used to express a physical going and coming is itte kuru.
.. combined with sha: person) fueru: to increase omou: to think (used after to to mean "[I] think that. combined with naru: to become.]: cheap. inexpensive.Please be careful not to confuse these with Base 2 + ni kuru / ni iku. Please review if necessary. to grow) sono tame: due to that shiyousha: user (shiyou suru: to use.) shiraberu: to check (something).. Word Check sukoshi zutsu: little by little nihongo: the Japanese language wakaru: to understand doitsu: Germany rekishi: history benkyou suru: to study yasuku naru: to become less expensive (yasui [adj. to look up (as in a dictionary or telephone book) . which were covered in Lesson 13." See Lesson 45. to examine.
miru means "to see. For example.) Kare ni denwa shite mimashita ga. (I tried calling him. but he wasn't in. It's one of those words that sit on the pile of irregulars. (I'll try to talk to John. rusu deshita. as in Bob wa ima rusu ni shite imasu.. you can use it as a verb if you add ni suru after it.) Kono atarashii PC o tsukatte miyou. (I'll try to read these kanji. Well. to speak to (someone) denwa suru: to telephone (someone) rusu: to be out 1 Notes 1. In Japanese grammar." which makes this one easy to remember. it acts like a "quasi adjective.Lesson 65 Te Form + miru As you know. Either way.. (Let's give this new PC a try." meaning that we'll give something a try.) Sushi o tabete minai no? (Won't you try some sushi?) John ni hanashite mimasu." but technically it's not one of those either. the meaning is the same: "Bob's not in now. but it's not.) Word Check kanji: Chinese characters adapted for use in writing Japanese yomu: to read atarashii: new tsukau: to use taberu: to eat hanasu: to talk.." . Or you can use it like an adjective by adding something from the desu group after it: Bob wa ima rusu desu. you can do the same thing in Japanese by putting the verb you want to try in the Te Form and adding miru. In English we sometimes say "I'll see if I can. which can also be converted to suit the needs of the occasion: • • • • • Kono kanji o yonde miru. with its own set phrases. Rusu looks like a verb.
however.) Jisho o karite mo ii? (Can I borrow your dictionary?) There are a couple of things the grammar books won't tell you. (You may go home early today. a word you'll hear a lot if you watch the samurai dramas: • • Raishuu no getsuyoubi o yasunde mo yoroshii desu ka. Another handy thing to know is that it's perfectly okay to omit the mo in familiar conversation: • • Watashi no jisho o tsukatte ii yo.) Hai." "fine.). you can watch TV. In the workplace. Yes. like yo: ii desu yo (Sure you can.. you can use my dictionary. As with most Japanese. The mo after a verb in its Te Form means something like "if (someone) were to. like the object indicator o." etc. There is usually something else added on." "it's okay if (someone does something). or ka: ii desu ka (May I. adding the ii makes it "if (someone) were to (do something) it would be okay. It's an adjective which means "good. Let's do a few examples: • • • Boku no PC o tsukatte mo ii yo. you can also get away with omitting particles. a fact that makes it easy to work with at times.) (Yes. that is the way it works grammatically.. as with all adjectives.Lesson 66 Te Form + mo ii This one is used to ask or give permission..?). hayaku kaette mo yoroshii. As I've already mentioned. (You can watch TV after you've eaten your dinner.) You may sound like you're talking down to people if you use this to give permission. so I'd advise avoiding it unless you're a big boss or want to pretend you're one. The ones I have checked give you the impression that desu is used after ii to make it polite. We have already looked at ii in other verb forms and combinations (Lessons 26 and 49).." etc. so you should be a little familiar with it.. terebi mite ii yo. but I have never heard desu by itself used after ii for a polite. (Sure. (You can use my PC.) . the right intonation with desu yo after it can soften it for more informal use.. (May I take off next Monday?) Kyou.. Japanese is much more forgiving and "grammatically unfussy" than English. positive response.) Gohan o tabete kara terebi o mite mo ii. (Yeah." "okay." Accordingly. in familiar situations as in the last example above. ii is often upgraded to the more formal yoroshii.
When the time of day can be guessed." but is often used to loosely mean "food.. positive reply. it's equivalent to our "Enough already! Just forget it!" Word Check boku: I (used only by males in familiar settings) tsukau: to use yo: You bet I mean that. to return (Verbs are shown in their plain form. gohan o tabeta. however.. Gohan actually means "cooked rice." "lunch. with the ii strongly emphasized.) gohan: food 1 kariru: to borrow raishuu: next week getsuyoubi: Monday yasumu: to rest. to have time off from work (of a short or long duration) hayaku: quickly kaeru: to go home. then had a meal [=dinner]). you may hear an ii desu! yelled out by one of the arguers. Sometimes you may hear a long mou before the ii: mou ii desu. (It sounds like mou-EEEEE-dess!) Either way.Now." or "dinner": Bokutachi wa shichiji ni kaette.. It is used a lot. I just mentioned that I've never heard desu used by itself after ii for a polite. (.) Notes 1. said much louder than the desu." especially "a meal" in general.or something like that. It's added to the end of sentences for overall emphasis. to take a break.. If you hear people arguing. . (We got back at seven. gohan will usually be used instead of the words for "breakfast. for conveying a different and negative meaning.
to tell shukudai: homework hon: book(s) tsukue: desk ue: the top (of something) ." There isn't a whole lot of difference between shite oku and plain old suru to express "will do. With all that explaining out of the way. (I [went ahead and] did my homework. or any verb in the Te Form with oku.) Shukudai o shite okimashita. we don't use it to say that we won't or didn't do something. The te + oku is usually compressed into something that sounds like "toku. oku means "to put. so please be careful not to confuse them. most native speakers would say the last example above so that it sounds like: Shukudai shtokimashita. expresses the fact that someone will definitely do that something right away or in the very near future. That's what you would actually hear. All right." but shite oku. It isn't used in the negative. remember to convert oku to Base 2 with a masu ending to make it polite." or "will go ahead and do (that verb). oku means "to put.) Mado o akete oku.) Kasa o katte okimasu. I should mention here that verbs in the Te Form with oku can sometimes be very difficult to catch." For example. (I'm going to buy an umbrella. (I'll tell her to be careful." as in: Hon wa tsukue no ue ni oite kudasai (Please put the books on the desk). it's time to make some sentences: • • • • • Ron ni denwa shite oku. This Te Form with oku is also normally used for things which can be done in a relatively short amount of time. It can even be used in the past tense to state that you went ahead and did something.) Kanojo ni ki o tsukeru you ni itte okimasu." but after a verb in the Te Form it means "will certainly do (that verb). It has a "will go ahead and do" kind of feeling to it. As usual.Lesson 67 Te Form + oku By itself. when not following a verb in the Te Form. Word Check oku: to put mado: window akeru: to open ki o tsukeru: to be careful. (I'll call Ron. (I'll open the window. That's because very few native speakers speak as neatly as the examples written above.) Again. to take care 1 iu: to say.
" In this idiom it means "attention." so the overall meaning becomes clear: to pay attention. to be careful. like "heart. for (a certain purpose or result)." and "energy." Tsukeru means "to attach" or "apply.) Notes 1. It's used often Lesson 68 Te Form + shimau . in order that." "mind. so (something will take effect or happen) (Verbs are shown in their plain form.you ni: in order to. Ki is a noun with many meanings.
I guess I'll mention that in everyday. no! I lost my ticket!) Yes. which made me think it over again. which is why I advise not even thinking about it until you've been learning Japanese for a while and feel comfortable with the old standard shimau and its uses. I realize that this complicates things.) 1 Kanojo wa Osaka ni itte shimaimashita. borrowing two examples from above. I've decided to go ahead with it. It's "chau. so having this basic knowledge of them may be useful." and it retains the same general meaning when combined with a verb in the Te Form. but then one of my readers mentioned it. I should mention that the last example above is a bit unnatural — grammatically fine (in a slangy kind of way).) Bob wa ude no hone o orete shimaimashita. (Bob broke his arm. no! My clothes got dirty. no! I lost my ticket!) Finally. (You should finish cleaning up your room. or the happening of something unexpected: • • • Kuruma o katte shimaimashita. it sounds like this: • • Densha ni noriokurechau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu o nakuschaimashita! (Oh. since it is used a lot. A few examples are: • • • Shukudai o shite shimaimashou. At first I decided to leave this point out because I felt that it would just complicate things. And. (I bought a car.) Choushoku o tabete shimaimashita. doing something unexpected. familiar settings a "slang" form of shimau is often used. (She [up and] went to Osaka.Shimau alone means "to finish" or "put away (something). (Let's finish up our homework. Since shimau is a standard verb. (Oh. you can also conjugate it in a dozen different ways.) One other role that this Te Form + shimau plays is to express the doing of something which was hard to decide to do. pointing towards the completion of a task. however. (I've finished eating breakfast. just unnatural — because you've got the slang with a . Also.) Heya o souji shite shimau hou ga ii yo.) Densha ni noriokurete shimau yo! (We'll miss the train!) Ah! Kippu o nakushite shimaimashita! (Oh." and. this slang form takes the hite out of shite and really compresses things: shite + chau = schau. The others are: -te + chau = -tchau and -nde + chau = -njau. Again. Shimau is also used for expressing concern about the possibility of something negative happening and/or the dismay at finding out that something negative happened: • • • • Watashi no fuku ga yogorete shimau! (My clothes'll get dirty!) Ah! Fuku ga yogorete shimaimashita. You will hear these contracted forms quite often in daily conversation.) And that's not all.
You can't just say "I broke my arm". Word Check shimau: to put away.polite masu ending.) Notes 1. Here we must give English the nod for being smart. This is a compound from the verbs noru [to ride] and okureru [to be late]. or ferry) nakusu: to lose (something) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The way to make this natural would be to put it in the plain past Ta Form: nakuschatta! We'll be getting into the Ta Form soon. "How about (doing something)?": . you have to include the word hone (bone) in the expression. bus." Lesson 69 Te Form + wa ikaga / dou desu ka These are a couple of simple ways to suggest things. to finish choushoku: breakfast heya: a room souji suru: to clean kuruma: car ude: arm hone: bone 1 oreru: to break 1 fuku: clothes yogoreru: to get dirty densha: train noriokureru: to miss (a mode of scheduled transportation. to ask. you have to say "I broke my arm's bone. If you break a bone in Japanese.) kippu: ticket (usually a small ticket for a train.
if you're going to use it in this way. you can say it. (What do you say we buy a new TV?) These are. polite. You can omit the desu ka for plain. Word Check ima: now chuushoku: lunch taberu: to eat ashita: tomorrow iku: to go atarashii: new terebi: TV (wasei eigo created from "television") kau: to buy Lesson 70 Te Form + wa ikemasen Polite ikemasen or plain ikenai are used alone to mean "Don't do that!". but I doubt that you'll ever hear it. You can say dou ka. meaning "What do you think?" or "How is it going?" However. (What do you think about going to Ritsurin Park tomorrow?) Atarashii terebi o katte wa dou desu ka. put in the desu: Ikaga desu ka or Dou desu ka sound so much better.) Actually.• • • Ima chuushoku o tabete wa ikaga desu ka. (Well. question-forming no — these don't use it. "You mustn't do that!". at the very end make the intonation fall a little then return. "Naughty!". familiar talk. If you do. of course. dou ka is not really used that often after -te wa. Instead. Just go to a shopping center where mothers and kids are . but not ikaga ka. do not add the plain. but usually alone. etc. (How about having lunch now?) Ashita Ritsurin Kouen ni itte wa ikaga desu ka.
ikenai will often be put into a dialectal form.. to take a picture with a camera.) Okurete wa ikemasen yo. However. if you move to a new area or make a new friend from one. Ikenai! by itself is also handy for expressing your aggravation at realizing that something has been forgotten: • • Ikenai! Joushaken o wasurete shimaimashita! (Oh. no! Kimiko forgot to take her umbrella!) Getting back to -te wa ikenai / ikemasen. plain ikenai will be heard more often than ikemasen. no! I forgot my ticket!) Ikenai! Kimiko wa kasa o motte iku no o wasuremashita! (Oh. many of which parallel its English counterpart: to take something from a place or person. iken (Okayama). Also.) Notes 1. to make it even more colorful. (You can't take pictures.. chances are good that you'll have the opportunity to learn a new way to say this.together and you're bound to hear either of these. So.) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. The verb toru has many different usages. the -te wa element is often "crushed" into a colloquial form that sounds like "-tcha": Boku no PC o sawatcha ikenai! Also. especially ikenai. to take (steal) something from someone. to carry away (This is a combination of motsu [to hold] and iku [to go]." Word Check shashin: a photograph toru: to take 1 okureru: to be late boku no: my (male familiar) sawaru: to touch joushaken: a train ticket wasureru: to forget kasa: umbrella motte iku: to take (something away with you or for someone else to do so). When placed after the Te Form with wa.. like ikan (Takamatsu). there are other ways to say the same thing that you may hear. the kanji used for each meaning are .) Boku no PC o sawatte wa ikenai! (Don't touch my PC!) Since statements like these are mainly used in familiar situations. and a more formal one is -te wa naranai / narimasen. etc. In fact. akan (Osaka)." in the Japanese version of the Ten Commandments in the Old Testament is translated ".(verb) -te wa naranai. "Thou shalt not. A very popular substitute for -te wa ikenai in familiar settings is -te wa dame (-tcha dame). ikemasen or ikenai point to what's forbidden: • • • Shashin o totte wa ikemasen.. (Don't be late.
straighten up the room. (I've got to call Shizu. because tooru is a totally different verb." for example. (Because of this it is often just written in hiragana these days." Lesson 71 Te Form for Continuing Statements Let's wrap up the Te Form with one of its basic and very convenient uses: talking about multiple or further actions. some simple ones. Let's combine three actions into one statement: • Shizu ni denwa shite.) Another important point is that there are also many actions that use take in English that do not use toru in Japanese. First.) . meaning "to pass (by/over something). so keep that in mind when you start studying kanji. So please don't assume that toru can be used universally for take. and go shopping.) Be careful not to elongate the o in toru when pronouncing it. kaimono ni ikanakereba naranai. which is easy to do.different. like "take a bath. (In Japanese you get into the bath: ofuro ni hairu. heya o katazukete.
• Kesa watashi wa shichiji ni okite.) Please keep in mind that not all conjugations have or use the Te Form. and then made my own dinner. to put in order kaimono: shopping kesa: this morning okiru: to get up gohan: a meal ie: home. and left home at eight. To end a particular conjugation (intended meaning) and continue with a different one. When you're not sure. only the final verb is conjugated to give the intended meaning. gohan o tabete. esa o ataete.) As you can see. You don't want to get into the habit of making run-on sentences. Incidentally. to straighten up. the ones preceding it in the Te Form will automatically assume the same conjugation. Word Check heya: a room katazukeru: to clean up. when a certain conjugation applies to all verbs in a construction. hachiji ni ie o demashita. jibun no yuushoku o tsukurimashita. (This morning I got up at seven o'clock. just start a new sentence. which can happen in Japanese as easily as it can in English. as outlined here. fed him. a house deru: to leave. just put that conjugation in the Te Form and continue: • Kinou watashi wa inu ni soto de asobasete. bait ataeru: to give jibun: self yuushoku: dinner tsukuru: to make . to go/come out kinou: yesterday inu: dog soto: outside esa: pet food. ate breakfast. (Yesterday I let the dog play outside. Base 2 can also be used to end a phrase and continue.
Lesson 72 Ta Form: The Plain Past We finally arrive at the Ta Form. It will be easy if you have mastered converting into the Te Form. Just for a quick check. and simple. Let's first make sure we can convert all the verb types into the Ta Form. past. let's drag out the tables used to introduce the Te Form and convert them to show the Ta Form: Yodan verbs: . whose major purpose is to make things plain. because the Ta Form is the same except that the final e is instead an a.
(I got a haircut.) Kami kitta.) Hon yonda. there are a few weird ones among the yodans that will take some getting used to. Also.) Boku no kingyo shinda. (I did it. the Ta Form's major role is to make things plain and to put them in the past tense. (I watched TV.Base 3 (plain form) kau aruku isogu kasu matsu shinu asobu yomu kaeru Ichidan verbs: Base 3 (plain form) taberu oboeru kimeru deru kariru miru Irregular verbs: Base 3 (plain form) kuru suru kita shita tabeta oboeta kimeta deta karita mita katta aruita isoida kashita matta shinda asonda yonda kaetta Ta Form Ta Form Ta Form As with the Te Form. iku (to go) remains an oddball: it becomes itta. (I read a book.) O-hiru tabeta. (I ate lunch. This is what you use when you don't need the politeness of Base 2 with mashita. Let's do some real basic everyday phrases — ones so familiar that the particles are left out: • • • • • • Watashi shita. Once again.) Terebi mita. (My goldfish died.) .
Let me say here that even though certain particles have been omitted in the above examples, there are limits. There are cases where particles would never be cut, even by the fastest-talking Japanese. Please be sure to learn the particles and get comfortable using them, and only omit them when everyone else does. In the long run, you will impress far more Japanese friends and associates by speaking proper Japanese than by using shortcuts and slang. The Ta Form is also used as a noun modifier. For example, hon yonda means "I (or someone else) read a book." If we switch these around to yonda hon, yonda modifies hon like an adjective, hon becomes the subject, and the meaning becomes "the book I (or someone) read." Very handy, right? Let's make some more of these:
• • • • •
Watashi ga karita kasa wa Kimiko no. (The umbrella I borrowed is Kimiko's.) Shinda kingyo wa, roku nen kan katta. (The goldfish that died I had six years.) Joy ga yaita keeki wa oishikatta. (The cake Joy made was delicious.) Boku ga katta PC wa, juu hachi man en deshita. (The PC I bought was one hundred eighty thousand yen.) Bob ga benkyou shita koto wa totemo yakudatta. (The things Bob studied were very helpful.)
Just as the Te Form is sometimes called Base 6, the Ta Form is sometimes called Base 7. But since I hear it called the Ta Form more often, that's what I'll be calling it throughout these lessons.
kami: the hair on one's head 1 kiru: to cut 2 o-hiru: lunch (This is "midday" with the honorific o prefix, and is less formal than chuushoku.) 3 kingyo: goldfish nen: year(s) yaku: to cook; to bake; to burn 4 keeki: cake (wasei eigo) oishikatta: was delicious (This is the adjective oishii [delicious] combined with its past tense forming conjugation -katta.) juu hachi: eighteen (juu [ten] + hachi [eight]) man: (a unit of) ten thousand en: Japanese yen 5 benkyou suru: to study koto: thing(s), usually intangible ones totemo: very yakudatsu: to be helpful or useful
(Verbs are shown in their plain form.)
1. Kami no ke is the literally correct and complete way to refer to the hair on your head. Ke alone is hair — any hair, anywhere, even on a caterpillar. (Caterpillar in Japanese is kemushi, literally "hairbug.") To refer to your hairstyle or the hair on your head as a whole, use kami. 2. Kami kitta is always a puzzler to students of Japanese. Although it literally means "I cut my hair," it actually means the passive "I got a haircut; I had someone cut my hair." There are a few of these which are commonly used, where it is acceptable to say you did something that you actually had someone else do. You could call it an understood and accepted inaccuracy. Another one you will often hear is ie o tatete iru for "I'm having a house built." Incidentally, there is another kiru which means "to wear." 3. Interestingly, the words asa, hiru, and yoru (morning, noon, night) are also used to mean the meals associated with those times, especially in casual speech. The strange thing is that only hiru gets the "honorific o" prefix: asa: breakfast; o-hiru: lunch; yoru: dinner. 4. Yaku is a multi-purpose verb, and has to do with fire, whether it's cooking or burning something. Even "sunburn" uses it: hiyake. If something has been baked in an oven, yaku is the verb usually used with that object. 5. Although Japanese currency is known to everyone in the west as "yen," in Japanese there is no "y" sound at the beginning. It is just en.
Lesson 73 Ta Form + Combinations Shared With Base 3
Now that we've seen how the Ta Form works, the rest really isn't too difficult. There are a few "ta form only" combinations, but there are many more that we have already become familiar with back in the Base 3 section. I trust you remember that Base 3 is the plain, root form of Japanese verbs. (If necessary, please see Lesson 1 for a quick review.) You could think of the Ta Form as a very close relative, the major difference being that while it expresses the plain past, Base 3 is used for the plain present or future. Due to this, these two share many addons and endings. Since we have already covered these, I feel that separate lessons just to show them in the past tense are unnecessary. Instead, I've decided to cover some of them here along with corresponding Base 3 plain future constructions, which will serve as a nice review. Again, these are not all of the verb add-ons and endings shared by Base 3 and the Ta Form. They are some of the more useful ones which have already been introduced in the Base 3 lessons. Each one will have an example of a Base 3 form for the plain future tense, and the same form converted to the Ta Form for plain past. Carefully note the similarities and differences. For a more detailed review, please click the lesson links. » deshou (Lesson 24):
» hou ga ii (Lesson 26): • • Kyou densha de iku hou ga ii.) Yumiko wa Kyoto ni itta deshou. (I'll ask him whether or not he can do it. (He was supposed to come at six. (The teacher gets angry because Beth is always late. as in the last example above. The bottom example above might be mistaken for expressing regret: "It would have been better if..) Kyou densha de itta hou ga ii. use Base 4 + ba yokatta: Kyou densha de ikeba yokatta. (It would be better to go by train today. and one of the examples in Lesson 25 included it. whether you use present or past with hou ga ii. it is easy to make the mistake of adding it to past tense sentences although it is unnecessary. (Yumiko will probably go to Kyoto. Where the action verb is changed to the Ta Form to make the structure past tense.) Kare wa rokuji ni kita hazu. (The teacher was angry because Beth was late. (Yumiko probably went to Kyoto.) Konban.) Please also note that the past (Ta Form) with hou ga ii is used more often in daily conversation than the present (Base 3). (Jun might see The Lord of the Rings tonight. Please take careful note of this.) Beth wa itsumo okureru kara sensei ga okoru. use desu to make it polite. (Maybe Jun saw The Lord of the Rings last night. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o mita kamo shirenai.) Kare wa rokuji ni kuru hazu. To express regret.." Please don't make this mistake. (It would be better to go by train today. » ka dou ka (Lesson 27): • • Kare wa dekiru ka dou ka kikimashou. And. One past tense element is enough. because deshita is the past form of desu. (I'll ask him whether or not he was able to do it. (I should have taken the train today.) Kinou no ban. Jun wa The Lord of the Rings o miru kamo shirenai. (He's supposed to come at six.) Beth wa okureta kara sensei ga okotta. not deshita.) Kare wa dekita ka dou ka kikimashou.) That's right.• • • • Yumiko wa Kyoto ni iku deshou. the meaning — the tense of the meaning — is the same.) » hazu (Lesson 25): We already know that desu can be added to various structures to make them polite.) » kamo shirenai / shiremasen (Lesson 28): • • » kara (Lesson 29): • • .
(I heard that Mr.) Ame ga furu mitai. (It looks like it rained. not with people or objects.) Ame ga futta mitai.) » mitai (you desu) (Lesson 47): Word Check kyou: today dekiru: can. mai is used with units of time. etc.» noni (Lesson 41): • • • • Hayaku okiru noni mainichi okureru.) Takada-san wa yameru sou desu.) Takada-san wa yameta sou desu. the present] + ban [evening]) itsumo: always sensei: teacher okureru: to be late okoru: to get angry hayaku: (adverb) quickly. (Even though I get up early. (It looks like it's going to rain. I was late.) Bob wa goji ni kaetta to omoimasu. to be able to (do something) konban: this evening (kon [now. early okiru: to get up mainichi: every day (mai [every] + nichi [day]. I'm late every day. Takada's quitting.) Hayaku okita noni okureta. (Even though I got up early. (I think Bob will come back at five o'clock. Takada quit. » to omoimasu (Lesson 45): • • • • Bob wa goji ni kaeru to omoimasu. to quit or end a task furu: to fall as precipitation (rain.) yameru: to quit a job.) » sou desu (Lesson 42): Please remember that this sense of sou is not used without desu. (I think Bob came back at five o'clock. (I heard that Mr.) . snow.
) As you can see.) John wa deta bakari." usually as a complaint. since this seems to be the best place to do so." put bakari after a verb in its ta form: • • • • • Okaa-chan wa kaetta bakari.) Watashi wa tabeta bakari. Word Check . you'll find them very useful. This is used after the Te Form." In other words." sono kasa o katta bakari would be the natural way to say it. (All that kid does is play computer games. (Mom just got back. (I just cleaned this room. Once you get these sorted and memorized. (I just bought that umbrella.) Shizuka wa eigo o benkyou shite bakari. (John just left.. (All you ever do is eat.) In fact.) Kono heya o souji shita bakari. the adjective for "new.) Sono kasa o katta bakari. while the direct translation sore wa atarashii kasa desu sounds awkward. the meaning of -ta bakari is quite different than -te bakari. (I just ate.) Ano ko wa terebi geemu o yatte bakari. like this: • • • Tabete bakari... There is another flavor of bakari that I'll introduce here. if you wanted to say "that's a new umbrella. (All Shizuka ever does is study English. it's more common in Japanese to use katta bakari to say that something is new than to use atarashii. now that I think of it.Lesson 74 Ta Form + bakari To express "someone (did something) just now. It's a colloquial expression that means "all (someone) ever does is. like something memorized from a grammar book.
in Japanese you don't say "I've been twice. (No. mother (familiar) deru: to leave. kid (familiar) terebi geemu: computer game(s) (wasei eigo for "TV games") yaru: to play (games or sports). but I'd like to try it. tabeta koto ga nai ga.) A: Tako wa tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten octopus?) B: Iie. (Yes. Nikai ikimashita.." which. [No. (No. The first is that when you ask "have you been to (a place)" in Japanese. mada yonde inai. that (subject we're talking about) ko: child. use koto ga aru after a ta form verb. arimasu. makes more sense than our English use of the past participle been. If you want to mention how many times you've done that something. I've eaten sushi and sukiyaki. not as polite as suru) eigo: the English language Lesson 75 Ta Form + koto ga aru To talk about things you or others have experienced. (Have you ever been to Okinawa?) B: Hai. (Yes. First. I haven't read it yet. I have. sushi to sukiyaki o tabeta koto ga aru.]) . but regular past tense. to me. let's look at a couple of sample conversations where the plain.) There are two things about this conversation that I would especially like to point out.) And here is one using polite arimasu: A: Okinawa ni itta koto ga arimasu ka. you're admitting having experienced something at least once.. The second is that in using this form. to do (familiar." Another point to remember about this conjugation is that the ga is often omitted: A: Kono hon yonda koto aru? (Have you read this book?) B: Iie. I've been twice. you do not use this form. tabete mitai. to go/come out heya: a room souji suru: to clean ano: that (thing over there)." but "I went twice. I haven't. As in B's reply above. most common form is used: A: Nihonshoku o tabeta koto ga aru? (Have you ever eaten Japanese food?) B: Hai.okaa-chan: Mom. not yet.. you use the past tense of the verb iku (to go) and literally ask "have you gone to.
) Word Check nihonshoku: Japanese food (This is a simple compound: nihon [Japan] + shoku [food]) tako: octopus -te mitai: want to try (Base 2 + tai form of the Te Form + miru.(The mada + Te Form + inai conjugation for "not yet" was mentioned at the end of Lesson 59. See Lessons 8 and 65.) nikai: twice (This is a compound of ni [two] + kai [times]) mada: (not) yet .
familiar conversation. kare wa kuru deshou. he'll probably come.) Denwa suru nara. you'll probably need a coat. (If you telephone him. o-hiru o tabenai deshou.) Denwa shitara. (If you telephone him. o-hiru o tabenai deshou. he'll probably come. (If you're going out.) Ima kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabetara. I think you'll notice it being used a lot. (If the kids eat a snack now. I must add here that not all three conditional forms used in the examples above can be used in all conditional senses. they probably won't eat lunch. Because there are so many possible nuances and contexts. but is used more frequently in familiar settings than the other two. you'll probably need a coat. First. kare wa kuru deshou. (If you're going out.) Denwa sureba.Lesson 76 Ta Form + ra Simply said.) Dekaketara.) Ima kodomotachi wa sunakku o taberu nara. Let's make some examples showing each of these three conditional structures. it would be impossible to cover them all in this . the Ta Form + ra does the same thing as Base 3 + nara (Lesson 35) or Base 4 + ba (Lesson 48): it provides the "if" element for conditionals. we'll convert these to Base 4 + ba: • • • And here's what they look like using the Ta Form + ra: • • • Again. (If the kids eat a snack now. he'll probably come. (If you telephone him. they probably won't eat lunch. kouto ga hitsuyou ni naru deshou.) Dekakereba. o-hiru o tabenai deshou.) Next. kare wa kuru deshou. There are always exceptions.) Ima kodomotachi wa sunakku o tabereba. kouto ga hitsuyou ni naru deshou. they probably won't eat lunch. (If the kids eat a snack now. making it easy to master. you'll probably need a coat. (If you're going out. let's review Base 3 + nara: • • • Dekakeru nara. this one seems to be preferred in everyday. kouto ga hitsuyou ni naru deshou.
lesson. There are cases where just one of these will be natural and correct in a given situation. However, the -tara form does appear to be the most preferred in daily conversation. Incidentally, -tara dame is used a lot for "Don't (do something)" instead of -te wa ikenai (Lesson 70). For example, Ima tabetara dame would be used for "Don't eat now."
dekakeru: to go out hitsuyou ni naru: to be/become necessary sunakku: a snack (wasei eigo) o-hiru: lunch
Lesson 77 Ta Form + rashii
Just as mitai is often used colloquially as the informal substitute for you desu (Lesson 47), rashii is often used as the informal substitute for sou desu (Lesson 42), meaning "It seems that...," "I hear that...," etc. Rashii was not introduced in the Base 3 group, but it does essentially the same thing as Base 3 + sou desu:
Takada-san wa yameru sou desu. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting.) Tanaka-san wa yameru rashii. (I heard that Mr. Takada's quitting.)
Desu is usually used after sou, making it more formal than rashii. Yes, you can make it plain by using da instead of desu, but most native speakers will just use rashii if they want to be informal. According to the books, desu can added after rashii to make it polite, but I personally have never heard it. Now that all the explaining is out of the way, let's get back to the Ta Form and make some plain past examples:
• • •
Sachiko wa Canada ni itta rashii. (I hear that Sachiko went to Canada.) Bob wa daibun futotta rashii. (I hear that Bob has gained a lot of weight.) Ken wa atarashii PC o katta rashii. (I hear that Ken bought a new PC.)
That's all there is to it.
daibun: considerably; to a great degree futoru: to gain weight atarashii: new
Lesson 78 Ta Form + ri
Add ri to verbs in the Ta Form to mention various actions where accuracy or detail isn't necessary. Structures which use two or more verbs are most common. Be sure to add a form of suru after the last one:
Kinou no ban watashi wa terebi o mitari, ongaku o kiitari, shukudai o shitari shite imashita. (Last night I watched TV, listened to some music, and did some homework.)
This form is used to give the listener a general idea of actions done without particularly emphasizing the order of things done, and also implies that other things were done that don't need to be mentioned. If you want, you can use just one action verb for a quick answer:
Watashi wa terebi o mitari shite ita. (I watched TV and stuff.) Watashi wa manga o yondari shite, yuushoku o tabeta. (I read comics and stuff, then ate dinner.)
Now, just because the Ta Form is mainly used to convey the past tense, please don't think that this conjugation can only refer to the past. It can also be used for present or future happenings. Above I mentioned to be sure to add a form of suru, right? This is where you control the tense:
Jim wa furui mono o kattari uttari suru. (Jim buys and sells old things.) Ashita watashi wa benkyou shitari, souji shitari, terebi o mitari suru deshou. (Tomorrow I'll probably do some studying, some cleaning, and watch TV.)
If you need to add more detail or emphasize the order of actions, use the Te Form for multiple statements as covered in Lesson 71):
Kinou no ban watashi wa yuushoku o tabete kara terebi o mite, ni jikan gurai ongaku o kiite, ichi ji made shukudai o shimashita. (Last night after dinner I watched TV, listened to music for about two hours, then did homework until one o'clock.) Kyou Sachiko wa heya o souji shitari kaimono ni ittari shite, chuushoku o tabete, hiru kara yuujin no ie ni ittari piano o renshuu shitari shite, sore kara yuushoku o tsukutte kureta. (Today Sachiko cleaned her room and did some shopping, ate lunch, then in the afternoon went to a friend's house, practiced the piano and things, then she made dinner.)
How about a complex combination to wrap this up? I think you're ready:
I realize that this is a run-on sentence, but it just so happens that they happily survive in great numbers in the Japanese language.
approximately yuujin: friend ie: house renshuu suru: to practice tsukuru: to make Lesson 79 Ta Form + to shitara .Word Check ongaku: music shukudai: homework manga: a comic book furui: old mono: thing(s) (usually physical. tangible things) kau: to buy uru: to sell -te kara: after (doing something) (Lesson 62) gurai: about.
use the Ta Form with to shitara: • • • Ashita Bob ga kita to shitara. watashi wa hontou ni komaru. perplexed gogo: afternoon ame: rain furu: to fall naturally from the sky (rain. you'd probably regret it. (If Bob were to come tomorrow. (If you were to go swimming now.For suppositional statements. etc. dou shimashou ka. what shall we do?) Ima oyogi ni itta to shitara. without doubt komaru: to be confused.) Gogo kara ame ga futta to shitara.) To sureba and to suru to are also suppositional and are often used in place of to shitara. Word Check hontou ni: really. I'd really be at a loss. (Supposing it rains this afternoon. snow. tabun koukai suru deshou.) ima: now oyogu: to swim tabun: probably koukai suru: to regret Lesson 80 Ta Form + to shite mo .
In fact. 2.) Notes 1.) • • As you can see. mo can be added to any verb in the Te Form for that "although" meaning: • • Setsumeisho o yonde mo. the Japanese have one convenient word for "the day after tomorrow.This combination is closely related to the Ta Form + to shitara covered in the last lesson. (No matter how much he eats. See Lesson 14. but it adds a light warning or something extra to consider to the supposed idea. (Even if you read the manual. much.." ototoi.) Word Check asatte: the day after tomorrow 1 made: until au: to meet." Let's look at some examples to help make it clear: • Ashita Bob ga kita to shite mo.. (Even if Bob were to come tomorrow. (Even if you were to eat lots of health food. this software is hard to understand. . shigoto de tsukaenai deshou. ippai ni naranai.) Kenkou shokuhin o takusan tabeta to shite mo. you must remember that (something else). it would be meaningless if you didn't exercise.. he never gets full. this combination is created by adding mo to suru in the Te Form. to see (someone for an appointment) supeingo: the Spanish language (supein [Spain] + go [language]) shigoto: a job. a manual (setsumei [explanation] + sho [handbook.) Anata wa supeingo o benkyou shita to shite mo. In English it would probably go something like "even IF (something were to happen). watashi wa asatte made au koto ga dekimasen. I wouldn't be able to see him until the day after tomorrow. one's work tsukau: to use kenkou: health shokuhin: food items.) Kare wa ikura tabete mo. document]) sofuto: software (wasei eigo) wakaru: to understand -nikui: difficult to (do something) 2 ikura: how much/many ippai: full -ni naru: to become (something [noun] or some condition [adjective]) (Verbs are shown in their plain form. groceries takusan: many. Yes. a lot undou suru: to (get) exercise imi: a meaning setsumeisho: an instruction book. undou shinakereba imi ga nai deshou. you probably wouldn't be able to use it in your work. kono sofuto ga wakarinikui." just as they have one for "the day before yesterday. (Even if you studied Spanish.
Lesson 81 Ta Form + toki There are several ways to translate time into Japanese. was already covered in Lesson 74. to be torn Lesson 82 Ta Form + tokoro This is a simple add-on that states that you (or someone else) have done something just now. totemo odorokimashita. I was very surprised.) John wa koketa toki zubon ga yabureta. One similar to this. but toki is used when talking about the time that certain events occurred. The major difference between these two is that bakari has a kind of "relatively speaking" . it is equivalent to "when" in "When you came over last week. (When I read that." Here are some examples: • • • Watashi wa sore o yonda toki.) Word Check totemo: very odoroku: to be surprised warau: to laugh kokeru: to stumble and fall.) Sore o kiita toki waratta. the Ta Form + bakari. After the Ta Form. (I laughed when I heard that.. to trip and fall zubon: pants yabureru: to tear (intransitive). (John's pants tore when he fell...
even though the words you choose are not what native Japanese speakers would use.) Watashi no saifu o wasureru tokoro datta. (I was just about to call Sachiko. to go/come back kodomotachi: children (kodomo [child] + tachi [plural maker for people-related nouns]) heya: a room souji suru: to clean saifu: wallet wasureru: to forget Notes on Japanese Verbs In any language there are always certain little things that are nice to know which are not mentioned in grammar books or dictionaries. things which can only be figured out by living among native speakers and carefully listening to them for years. Japanese is no exception. (I almost forgot my wallet.. sono kasa o katta bakari (I just bought that umbrella) could be used even if the umbrella was bought a week ago because. that the person had just arrived home from buying it. add desu to make a statement polite.sense to it. (I just got back now. You could go "by the book" and choose structures and verb forms which will convert your English into Japanese in order to make yourself understood well enough. Here are some examples where tokoro is used frequently. in the least recent sense. (The kids just finished eating. if tokoro were used in this sentence instead of bakari. relatively speaking.": • • Ima Sachiko ni denwa suru tokoro datta.) Word Check kasa: umbrella kau: to buy ima: now kaeru: to return. (I just cleaned this room. For example.) Kodomotachi wa ima tabeta tokoro. it's still brand-new.. However. and that is with plain (Base 3) verbs with datta (plain) or deshita (polite) added on. it would mean that the person had just bought the umbrella a moment ago.. . It's used to convey "was just about to.) As usual. There is another handy use for tokoro. while tokoro really means just now.) Kono heya o souji shita tokoro desu. or. Ima (now) is often placed before the verb to emphasize the freshness of the event: • • • Watashi wa ima kaetta tokoro.
) . (Please make up your mind quickly. This is not a complete list. Accordingly. which is transitive (acting on a direct object): agaru: to rise. active/passive forms.What makes it worse is the fact that very. the verbs listed in bold type are in their plain (Base 3) form. to give • • Agatte kudasai. and the other is an ichidan ending in -eru. -aru / -eru In these pairs. (That will probably be decided at tomorrow's meeting. So that there is no misunderstanding. (Let's all meet at seven thirty. very rarely will they correct you. to collect • • Shichiji han ni atsumarimashou. but it should help you get a better idea of what the whole iceberg is like.) mitsukaru: to be found mitsukeru: to find • • Boku no jisho ga mitsukatta! (I found my dictionary!) Nikibi mitsuketa. have close ties with Japanese culture. The purpose of this page is to introduce certain patterns and exceptions among the verbs which will hopefully help to streamline the memorization process and shorten the road leading to correct usage. ageru. one is a yodan verb ending in -aru. (Here. Because Japanese houses have a genkan (the space just inside the door which "shares dirt" with the outside) where you take off your shoes before stepping up into the house. agaru is used for "come inside. (Please come in. you always receive downwardly and give upwardly (see Lessons 55 and 56)." When exchanging gifts.) Hai. This only represents the tip of the iceberg. (Wendy collects old stamps. to go/come up ageru: to raise up.) kimaru: to be decided kimeru: to decide • • Sore wa ashita no kaigi de kimaru deshou. they are already divided into transitive/intransitive. which is intransitive (has no direct object).) These two.) Wendy wa furui kitte o atsumete iru. atsumaru: to get/come together atsumeru: to bring together. They are not conjugations. agaru and ageru. (I found a pimple.) Hayaku kimete kudasai. They are "specialized verbs" with "set suffixes" added to the root kanji. I'll give you this. even when you make it clear that you'd appreciate it.
to be rescued tasukeru: to rescue. Use sagashite iru (sagasu: to look for). (Let the dog out.. -eru / -u There are other pairs like the ones above where the intransitive ends in something else: todokeru: to send.) Dareka tasukete! (Someone help me!) Deciding where tasukeru is suitable can sometimes be tricky. to force out deru: to come/go out • • Inu o dashinasai. (Thank you. like helping in the kitchen. to deliver (something to someone) todoku: to be delivered. to continue doing (whatever the Base 2 verb is). You were really a great help. as if it just found itself. -su / -u And there are pairs where the one ending in su is transitive and the other one is intransitive: dasu: to send out. when you find something that was lost. to lessen (something) heru: to decrease (on its own) . Hontou ni tasukarimashita. even though it seems natural to use mitsuketai for "I'd like to find." it's not. not a person) • • Jim no tokoro ni kore o todokete kureru? (Would you take this over to Jim's place?) Boku no imouto kara tegami ga todoita! (I got a letter from my sister!) tsuzukeru: to continue (doing something) tsuzuku: to continue (seemingly on its own) • • Sagashi tsuzukete kudasai.) herasu: to decrease.) Ojii-chan wa soto e deta. etc. tasukaru: to be of help. use tetsudau. Also. to arrive (a package. (Grandpa went outside. in Japanese you use mitsukaru. For routine helping. (Please continue looking for it. to help • • Arigatou.) Kono bangumi wa itsu made tsuzuku no? (How long is this program going to run?) Note: Here's a handy verb form for you to add to your list of extra goodies: Base 2 + tsuzukeru..These two can cause a lot of stumbling.. Use mitsukeru for things that you find unintentionally.. Strangely. It's usually used in life-ordeath matters and when helping people in real trouble or who are really busy.
) Takamatsu eki de orite kudasai. to place + wasureru: to forget): • Ah! Honya ni kasa o okiwasurete shimatta! (Oh.) Kouen no hato ga daibun herimashita. chotto nokotte kudasaimasu ka. (Please cut down on your spending.) Kemushi ga ugoita.• • Shuppi o herashite kudasai. to put down oriru: to go/come down. (Please get off at Takamatsu Station.) Please note that heru is one good example of a yodan verb that ends in eru. (Be back by ten o'clock. .) nokosu: to leave (something) behind nokoru: to stay behind • • Zenbu tabete.) Kaigi ga owattara. (Don't move that machine. use okiwasureru (oku: to put. no! I left my umbrella at the bookstore!) orosu: to lower. to get off or get out of a vehicle • • Koko ni oroshite. (Put it down here.) Of course there are others.) yogosu: to make dirty yogoreru: to get dirty • • Atarashii kutsu o yogosanaide ne. (My hat got dirty. kaesu: to return (something to someone) kaeru: to return (home or where you belong) • • Raishuu kaeshite mo ii? (Is it okay if I return it next week?) Juuji made ni kaette ne. (Don't get your new shoes dirty. (Eat all this. (The copier is broken. but these should give you a good start. (Would you please stay a little after the meeting?) Don't use nokosu for something you accidentally left behind. okay?) Boku no boushi ga yogoreta. Please don't leave anything. (The caterpillar moved. (The number of pigeons in the park has greatly decreased. Nokosanaide kudasai.) ugokasu: to move something or cause something to be moved ugoku: to move (on its own) • • Sono kikai o ugokashite wa ikenai. okay?) kowasu: to break kowareru: to be broken • • Dare ga boku no jitensha o kowashita? (Who broke my bicycle?) Kopiiki ga kowareta.
like a shirt. socks. like a name tag or pin Besides these." The verb used depends on where and how something is worn. you'll probably be laughed at. kaburu: to wear (literally "cover") on one's head. like a belt. conversion can be done by: • • • • • • yodan verbs: Base 1 + reru ichidan verbs: Base 1 + rareru suru verbs: change suru to sareru Sono megane o kaketara. haku: to wear on or around one's lower body or feet. warawareru deshou. My best wishes and gambatte kudasai! . jacket. kimono. shoes. hameru: to wear on a finger. where there is no special intransitive or passive form. suru is often used instead of the bottom four. This completes Japanese Verbs. necktie. etc. Here they are: • • • • • • • kiru: to wear around one's body.) Shuuri sareta PC wa dochira desu ka. (Which PC is the one that was repaired?) and then conjugate accordingly. (If you wear those glasses. like a hat or cap kakeru: to wear (literally "hang") on one's face. like glasses shimeru: to wear (literally "tie around") around one's waist or neck. dress. obi. Thank you for making it a part of your Japanese studies. like pants. (This cake probably won't be eaten. etc. like a ring tsukeru: to wear (literally "attach") on one's clothes. and especially when talking about accessories.) Kono keeki wa taberarenai deshou. a skirt. as in: One area where Japanese is much more complicated than English is in the "wear verbs. etc.For most standard verbs.