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The Airspeed Oxford

35p/$1'50 by John D. R. Rawlings

No. 228 Fieseler Fi 156 Storch

Editorially speaking . . .
Tlris is only the second occasion that Editorially Speaking. . . has
appeared in print-the debut being made in Airuaft Proy'les Nos.
225 and 226. So it is still too early to be able to test the reaction of
readers to this new departrnent. Bui it will do no harm to re-
capitulate that this page is intended to provide a closer link
between the authors, the publishers and the public. Your com-
ments are welcomed providing you r,rnderstand and accept the
content of Guidelines on Letters elservhere on this page. Thank Once again Richard P. Bateson tackles a
German subject, this time the ubiquitous
.HARLES w. .AIN Fieseler Srorcir (Stork). This rvas one of the
ABOUT THE AUTHOR first S.T.O.L. (Short Take-Off & Landing)
types designed as such. Many famous
No.227 Airspeed Oxford variants names are among those who flew or rvere
John D. R. Rawlings is an author best known for his l-tistorical and flown in examples of the Storch, possibly
contemporary writings on the British Royal Air Force. That it is the most famous episode was that involving
possible to conrbine professional interests-as it were "a wing and a the rescue of the imprisoned Mussolini.
prayer"-is evident in that the excellent big book Fighter Squadrons oJ Surprisingly, the Fi 1 56 has never been fully
the R.A.F. (Macdonald, London, f6'00) is ascribed to the Rev. J. D. R.
Rawlings. researched for publication. Until now. And
As pron-rised in the prelin-rinary announcement, there is more than a r.vorth waiting for !
hint of pure nostalgia in John Rawlings' tribute to the hard-worked
Airspeed Oxford. Enthusiastic advance reception seems to bear out our How about?
original belief that the "Ox-box" is going to be a very popular new Please consider the follorving suggestions .
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress; MiG-21 "Fishbed"
LTV A-7 Corsair II; Gloster Meteor Mks. I to
Volume 9 now readY III and the Romanian l.A.R. 80/B I .
Eighteen separate titles, over 100,000 words covering Nos. 193 to 210, in Huntington Beach,
a beautiful green and gold binding (matching the eight previous cA 92646, U.S.A.
volumes) . . the latest additior-r to the unique aviation library of EorrontrLly spEAKIr.-c . . . Mr. Odell rvill be
Aircraft in Profile. Volume 9 is now ready, price f6'00. If you rvant amazed to learn that quite a ferv of his sug-
further details, drop a line ro Profiles of Winclsor; there could be a gestions are already being prepared as future
stockist in your area.
'rofiles. To be honest, though, one is not yet
on the drawing board"-the LA.R. 80. Hon-
YOUR COMMENTS ever, it is the subject ol a selection of hitherto
unpublicised photos sent to us from Bucharest
Maryland memories by reader Moisescu as recently as June 1971.
We thought you'd Iike to see a couple of thenr.
Congratulationsl Air craft P rofi Ie s
are beautiful. I would like to see Guidelines on letters
the following . . . (list of aircraft Here are a lew simple guidelines for readers
types too long for inclusion- rvishing to write to Aircraft Pro.files and its
Editor). I
arn most pleased No. authors: (l) letters should be brief and,
232 wlll be Martin Maryland, a preferably, constructive; (2) letters intended
graceful aircraft. for individual authors will be sent on to them:
Concerning the MarYland, I (3) except lor sales queries, correspondents
well recall an incident on JulY 14, should relrain lrom submitting long lists of
1941 in my home town of Corfu. questions, especially those which have no
A Vichy French Martin l67.4.-3 bearing on existing or forthcoming Profiles;
with serious engine trouble crash- (4) the Editor reserves the right to extracr
ed in the town centre close to mY relevant sections from letters for publication
home. It landed in what is now the unless correspondents signify otherwise; and
garden of the Corfu Palace Hotel. (5) because the Editor has only lir-nited tirne to
Five bodies were recovered. I still deal with additional correspondence, similarly
have a souvenir, a piece of the he reserves the right to delay individual replies
metal skinning painted in dis- or, where it appears that no reply is necessary,
tinctive orange as part of Vichy's Tn'o of reader Mihail Moise.stu's simply to accept gratefully readers' appreciation
neutrality markings of orange and I.A.R.'80 photos; note the revised of the time factor.
yellow stripes. ( March 30, 1941 ) national ntarkings
ANDREAS STAMATOPOULOS in the .fl.t'ing Jbrntation.
Address ):our letters to:
Corfu, Greece. Editorially speaking. . .
Aircraft Profiles,
Eorronrrrrv . . . Aircraft Profiles certainly span the world
spEAKING Profile Publications Ltd.,
and, no doubt, this page will reflect the international flavour of the Coburg House, Sheet Street,
readership. Note: Yichy neutrality stripes rvere red and yellorv. Windsor, Berks. SL4 lEB, England.
The prototfpe AirspeedOxforclfying at the time ofthefnal R.A.F. Pogeant in June 1937. It was equippeclwitha dummy turret ancl the blacknumber"J"
referred to its placing in the New Types Park qt the Hendoil Pageont. (Photo: Airspeed ref. G.2734 via the Author)

The Airspeed Oxford

by John D. R. Rawlings

IN MARCH 1936, the Royal Air Force Station at existed for only five years, nevertheless it had more
Manston, Kent, witnessed a significant event with the experience in producing aircraft equipped with retract-
arrival, on charge of No. 48 Squadron, of three Avro able undercarriages than any other British manufacturer
Ansons. It was the first modern monoplane ordered by at that time. Equally important, Airspeed had recently
the R.A.F. in large quantities which introduced such had some success with the ,4..5.6, a small, twin-engined
complications as flaps and a retractable undercarriage; airliner called the Envoy which looked a good starting
complications with which the new generations of air- point. And from this basis the design team, led by
crew would need to become acquainted. A. Hessell Tiltman, did work. However, because of the
The Anson was, relatively-speaking "a dear" to fly. multiplicity of functions required in the Specification
But, following in its train were to come more potent (pilot-training, navigation- night- and instrument-flying,
monoplanes, with habits sufficiently vicious (compared together with radio, gunnery, photographic and bomb-
with the biplanes of the mid-l930s) to cause pilots to pay ing training) the aircraft which emerged bore only a
closer attention to their flying skills. With these new superficial resemblance to the Envoy. Airspeed gave
types coming into service in numbers not dreamed ol the aircraft the designation A.S.10 and the Air Ministry
since World War One it did not take the Air Ministry named it the Oxford.
long to realise that new advanced trainers would be As with so many new types. the cautious Air Ministry
needed to match the aircrew to their new types. Accord- made matters difficult for the manufacturing company
ingly, two Specifications were issued, T.6136 for a by ordering only a relatively small and uneconomic
single-engined trainer and T.23136 for a twin-engined quantity at first-the initial order in October 1936 was
trainer. For the latter Specification, an invitation was lor 136 aircraft. Even so, for the company this was much
sent to Airspeed (1934) Ltd., of Portsmouth. Hampshire. larger than any order they had received hitherto. It
to submit a tender. was to necessitate much rearrangement ol the Ports-
mouth lactory to gear it lor mass production, rearrange-
DEVELOPMENT ment which would involve a delay in getting quantity
The reason behind the Air Ministry's invitation to production under way.
Airspeed was sound enough. Although Airspeed was not There was no undue delay with the original prototype
one of the giants ol the British aircralt industry. having (R.A.F. serial L4534), which flew lor the first time
;*L+ r.i '*.8' a;-. r-4 -#
r 4ts4n$.

r,,i I *r td6J3

The 100th O xford off the line ut Portsnouth, L4633, stund,v outside the Airspeedfigltt shed (Photo: Imperial War Museum rel'. MH334l.)

(Photo: via M. Garbett.)

One oJ the last Oxfords in sertice, MP359--photographetl in 1953 uhile yith No. S A.F.T.S. trtts built b1' Stqndurd Motors in Cctlentrf in 1943 and
thesidesoftheJitselogeandunderthe[ings. (pholo:theAuthor)

at Portsmouth on June 19,l93T.Intensive flying followed the aircraft, comprised the wing panels outboard to the
and exactly a week alter its initial flight, L4534 appeared engine nacelles, the two outboard wing panels and the
in the "New Types Park" at the final R.A.F. Display at luselage with integral empennage. The mainplane
Hendon Aerodrome, London, albeit with a dummy comprised two box spars around which the whole
dorsal turret. After this public debut, Flight Lieutenant construction was built; the spars tapered spanwise to
C. H. A. Colman and G. B. S. Errington got down to the give the dihedral to the undersurface which was a
development testing which was completed by the end ol characteristic feature of the Oxford. The undercarriage
September 1937. was designed to fold rearwards into the engine nacelles
Following test evaluation, the only imrnediate modi- and was hydraulically-operated by a pump on the
fication of any consequence was to move the pressure- starboard engine or hand-pumped by the pilot through
head from the top ol the aerial mast to a position under a separate emergency system. The fuselage was built as
the outboard starboard wing. This caused hardly any various sub-assemblies which were then brought together
delay to the subsequent production aircraft which with the cabin section as a core in the boxing-up jig.
were planned in two versions. The Mk. I was to be the The rear turret was a complete sub-assembly and
general-purpose trainer lor use with all aircrew grades, removable. Access to the cabin was by a door on the
having a dorsal gun-turret, bomb-bay, and much port side.
internal equipment. The Mk. II was to be the dual-con- Normally the aircraft was fitted-out lor pilot opera-
trol pilot trainer. Much conlusion was caused lor many tion with dual, side-by-side controls and with a control
years, however, by the fact that the Oxlord saw little panel which was ahead of its time in the logical grouping
service in other than pilot-training roles and the majority of the flight and engine instruments and the arrangement
of Mk. Is flew for most ol the time without their turrets. olthe ancillary controls on the central console. For other
It had been intended to use either the Armstrong training functions, the starboard seat could be slid
Siddeley Cheetah IX with Fairey-Reed two-blade (fixed- rearwards allowing a collapsible charl table to be fitted
pitch) metal propellers or the Cheetah X with wooden to the starboard fuselage wall. Or, it could be removed
propellers but in practice all the production aircralt had
the latter.
P1070 yas the first Otford I Jron lhe Pertivul protlut:tion line et Luton,
Irere secn in carlr, 1940 trim.
PRODUCING THE OXFORD (Photo: Imperial War Museum MH42g3)
In construction the Oxlord was a logical successor to
the A.S.6 Envoy Series III being olwooden stressed-skin
construction-with glued joints. Although this latter
was looked upon askance at the time, the subsequent
longevity of many of the Oxlords built lasting up-
wards ol 10 to 15 years provides testimony to the
efficacy of the gluing methods used.
The airframe was divided into four sub-assernblies
which were substantially pre-labricated belole assembl-
ing as a whole, the centre-section, which was the core ol
An turl.t Oxford 7.2 71211, in po.\t-to scrtirc yith thc' Stution Fligltt ut lrle .\t trlulling in tha uutunn ttl l949. (Photo: Autlror)

altogether to allow access to the bomb-aimer's panel in followed these companies built 8.751 aircraft, production
the nose-the bomb-bay being under the centre- ending in July, 1945.
section between the two spars. Finally, the rear cabin
allowed accommodation for a radio-operator and a SERVICE TRAINING
gunner; although normally not more than three crew The first deliveries of Oxlords to the R.A.F. took
members were flown at a time. place in November 1937 when L4535, 4536 and 4537
Belore the initial production batch was completed, were delivered to the Central Flying School (C.F.S.), at
vast orders for more Oxfords flowed in to Airspeed. Upavon. Wiltshire, for evaluation by the Service's
To meet the demand, the Company opened a "shadow" senior instructors. Of other early Oxfords: L4538 was
factory at Christchurch, Hampshire, andhad the pleasure retained by Airspeed prior to delivery as a civil Oxford
ol having its product sub-contracted to some of the (special A.S.40) to British Airways Ltd. (see later);
other members of the British aircralt industry, namely de and L4539 was retained lor developments with the
Havilland at Hatfield. Percival Aircraft at Lnton and Maclaren Castoring cross-wind undercarriage. Then
Standard Motors at Coventry. Over the years that lurther deliveries took place; L4540 Io the C.F.S.;

tith txo tinclots. (Photo: I.W.M. CH2l66)

,sr,{:rld*li*'i,.:illl :llii,iil,.r
f i,:1. : .: {,. r. r:.,r?:r,jr...,i,,.tr.'
'.';,i' tint..t.'

" leakcd" the Mosquito, t| hose lai I cun be seen under I he st arboartl vingt i1t antl rrhich, a1 that time , ||ds still secre t.

L4541 44 to No. 11 Flying Training School (F.T.S.), Oxford could be retained for pilot-training. And,
followed by further Oxlords and then to No. 3 F.T.S., partly for this reason, but more because of its excellent
and so on. qualities as a pilot-trainer, the Oxford was destined in
Although these first aircraft were multi-purpose this role for most of its military service career.
Mk. Is, the initial need lor the Oxford was to make In 1939, the first Mk. IIs joined the R.A.F. and were
sure that new pilots coming through the "training used alongside the Mk. Is as Oxford conversion aircraft;
machine" were ready to cope with "twins" such as the the Mk. Is being allocated for the advanced stage of the
Blenheirn, Hampden, Wellington and Whitley* and so pilot-training syllabus. By the outbreak of war, four of
the first Oxfords went to the Flying Training Schools. the R.A.F.'s Flying Training Schools were lully active
By the time Oxlord production was sufficient to spread with Oxfords, No. 2 at Brize Norton, No. 3 at South
around elsewhere the Air Observer Schools had surplus Cerney, No. 1l at Shawbury and No. 14 at Cranfield.
Ansons and, similarly, other categories of training Production and training continued apace in the U.K. to
establishments had suitable types in service so the meet wartime needs but new developments were afoot
which would greatly affect the Oxford.
In order to lree the English skies of increasing
* profilas
See numbers of training aircralt the Empire Air Training
Bristol Blanheint Mk. I (No 93lvol. 1) Bristol Bluthdn IL, (215110)
Hundlar Page Hanpden (5lll3 ) Vitkers ll/cllington Mky.l & II ( 12516) Scheme (E.A.T.S.) was conceived in which it was
Arnstrong Whifvorth Wltitlay LIks. I VIII (15317) intended to train the planned huge build-up of future

Although most of the Mk. V O_xfords serled oterseus, the development fying ras done on A5592 in the U.K. Distinguishing.features of the Wosp Junior
installatioil were the tv'in intakes on top of the corling. - -
(Photo : "The Aeroplane")
l produttion O.x.lutl l', L8190, pull.s into u.\tt,(p turn, rcturlirtg tlrc longt,r (rltut!st pil(\ (Phoro : "Flighr" 18428)

aircrewin the unhindered empty skies ol Canada.

A./ter the Wur, in 1948, Airspeel ra.furbislwl .some er- R.A.F. Or/bnls./br
South Africa. Austlalia and New Zealand' leaving
the Union of Burntu Air Force, intluding revirirlg lha turr('t. Thi.; O.t./oxl British skies ahnost exclusively for operations.
bau.s tfu Clus; " B" regislrutioil G 35 1l rnd is ott lcst ttcur Porlsnnutlt.
Il .shotrlvell tltcxulkvut unclturkdetuils(r1 tlrctopsurfutt,snf theting.
Already the Oxlord had reached two of these
Dominions, Canada and New Zealand, who had
ordered small batches for their own air forces. In 1940
many more Oxlords were crated-up and shipped to ail
four Dominions to lurther the E.A.T.S. Canada had 188
which went out. in the main. as airlrames only to be
fitted with Pratt & Whitney Wasp Junior R-985-AN- 6
radials under the designation Oxford V (see later).
South Alrica had 700. New Zealand had close on 300.
but it is not known lor certain just how many went to
Australia. In addition. many others served with the
R.A.F. Schools in Southern Rhodesia. It was in these
Oxlords, scattered around the Empire, that many
thousands ol rvartirne aircrew did their Service Flying
Training. cuhninating in the presentation ol their
pilot's "rvings". In the British Empire. as in the United
Kingdom, the Oxford was predominantly a pilot
Many sceptics wondered what affect the hot, dry
conditions pertaining in South Africa, Rhodesia and
parts of Australia would have on the glued wooden
airframes. But, in the event, surprisingly little trouble
was experienced on this score and, right up to the end
of World War Two, the Oxlord continued to give
laithlul and widespread service as a pilot trainer.
As an integral part of the Empire Air Training Scheme,
the Oxford fulfilled its most important task, training the
aircrew ol the Dominions, and its niche in history will
The one ancl only Oxford III, P1864, usecl hr Attnstrong Sicldelel.fbr detelopntent vith the Cheetuh XV cngirc (Photo : "Flight" I 8434)

remain secure for this alone. However, back in the U.K. the standard type in this role. Thereafter nearly one
it was also used in many more training and ancillary hundred Beam Approach Training Flights were lormed
roles as the war years proceeded. With the transfer of and attached to other units; most A.F.U.s and Heavy
the S.F.T.S. (Service Flying Training Schools) courses Conversion Units (H.C.U.) had them and there was a
to the Dominions, the Schools in the U.K. were, apart sprinkling of them around the various R.A.F. Bomber
lor one or two which were kept for training special Command Groups to enable pilots to keep in practice.
groups, turned into other units. Many became Flying These were almost exclusively the province of the Oxford
Instructor Schools as the requirement for more and and lrom 1942 onwards the sight of Oxlords with
more instructors was urgent. yellow triangles on the luselage (the sign of a Beam
Another need arose out of the type of training being Approach training aircraft) was a familiar one through-
given to pilots overseas. These young men had grown out Britain. Also the Oxlord was used widely in instru-
accustomed to flying in clear blue skies with unlimited ment training roles; individual aircraft being attached to
visibility and they were soon found to get into trouble many operational units, O.T.U.s, H.C.U.s and other
when returning to the often murky and invariably quasi-operational units where they quickly became
cioud-filled skies of Britain. So, many ol the Oxlords general-purpose "hacks" as well as being in demand for
were formed into units called Advanced Flying Units the more exacting tasks of keeping units' personnel up-
(A.F.U.) which brought the new piiots into touch with to-date with their instrument-flying, thus avoiding the
the unpleasant realities of flying in the U.K., and also use of the actual operational aircraft for this purpose.
to many of the operational procedures in force which The Oxford came in for another ancillary role in 1943
differed lrom the more rudimentary types of control in when it virtually replaced the Westland Lysander in the
the training areas. There were Pilot A.F.U.s and Anti-Aircraft Co-operation (A.A.C.) squadrons. These
Observer A.F.U.s and the Oxfords predominated in the squadrons had the boring task ol flying as "targets" lor
Pilot A.F.U.s, most of them formed from existing the many anti-aircraft batteries throughout Britain and
F.T.S.s-thus No. 6 S.F.T.S. became No.6 (P) A.F.U. lor calibrating the many radar stations as well. The
One of the leatures of operational flying in the U.K. Lysander* hadtakenupthistaskwhen ousted lrom Army
was the widespread use of the Standard Beam Approach Co-operation Command in 1941 and now the Oxford
system for bad weather recovery of aircraft. To ensure came in to replace it and continued to serve in this role
that pilots were able to use the system effectively required alter the war until the early 1950s.
many hours oftraining "under the hood" and periodical
practice. This was at first carried out by No. 1 Beam
Approach School at Watchfield and the Oxlord became * IVastlincl Ly.sander Mks. I III ( 15917)

Key to colour illustrations
L4537, the fourth Airspeed Oxford l,
delivered to the Central Flying School,
Upavon, Wiltshire, in October, 1937. The
C.F.S. badge is on the fin.
DF447, a 1942 Standard Motors-built Oxford
l, shown in service with No.10 Advanced
Flying Training School, R.A.F., in July 1953.
P1927, an Airspeed-built Oxford l, in service
Most oJ the Oxlbrd Vs v'ere shipperl ot'erseus us ttit'fi'umes und Jitted u'ith
with No.14 Service Flying Training School,
Wasp Juniors in Canadu. Here is one of them in Cunqdu at the end oJ the Cranfield, Bedfordshire, circa August 1940.
Wur. (Photo: Howard Levy) 3583, an Oxford I of No.24 Air School,
South African Air Force, Nigel, Transvaal,
in 1944-5. The green stripes and nacelles
denoted that the aircraft was used for Beam
Approach Training and therefore to be
N2252, the third production A.5.42 Oxford
Although basically flying single-engined aircraft the for the Royal New Zealand Air Force in
Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm (F.A.A.) acquired a service with No.1 Flying Training School,
sizable number of Oxlords lor various duties. First ol Wigram in 1938.
these went to No. 782 Sqdn. at Donibristle, Scotland, to
provide twin-engined conversion facilities for the Com-
munications Squadron there which flew, among other
things, a de Havilland D.H.95 Flamingo. A conversion
unit lor "twins" was formed at Yeovilton, Somerset, in MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENTS
1941 to continue this task, more especially as the F.A.A. Because the Oxlord proved to be a "natural" right
was using the occasional "twins" lor various tasks from the start, very little modification of the basic
(such as Martin Marylands for reconnaissance). Once airframe was needed. It went into service and remained
again, the ubiquitous Oxlord performed the task and in service almost in the same form as the prototype.
continued with this unit (No. 762 Sqdn.) until November Mention has already been made ol removing the pres-
1949. Likewise, the Oxlord served the F.A.A. well with sure head lrom the aerial rnast; this latter was also
its Instrument Training unit at Hinstock (No. 758 Sqdn.) modilied by being brought forward and shortened so
and its Beam Approach Development Unit (No. 739 that it projected from the luselage in a position just
Sqdn.); as well as being used as a "hack" by various other about behind the pilot's left ear. The exhaust pipes were
units such as the Admiralty Flight at Heston, the Air later lengthened to enable heater muffs to be put round
Fighting Development Unit and the Fighter Direction them to introduce heating air into the cockpit; a welcome
School. feature on a winter's night. To deal with conditions in

Airspeerl Is beiry ussanfilt,tl irt Rhodesiu during tlrc lltor .lbr tlte Entpit c Air Tnrininq Sthente (Photo:l.W.M. CRH9I)



hongur at Furxborough in 1952.

some ol the dustier parts of the world a Vokes Air Filter naturally the Oxlord was expected to be able to do this.
was fitted to the carburettor air intake and this was However, the standard Oxlord did not exhibit the kind
later laired smoothly into the whole ol the underside ol spinning characteristics which could be let loose on
of the cowling, this modification being retrospectively trainee pilots and so some effort was made to remedy
fitted to many aircraft in Britain. The other semi- this shortcoming. One of the standard aircralt coming
standard modification which was fitted in a seemingly off the Portsmouth production line in 1939, N6327, was
random way was a revised lorm ol undercarriage door, rebuilt with twin fins and rudders, resembling those ol
the two side doors being replaced by a frontal shield- the Lockheed Model 10 Electra. At the Royal Aircralt
type door. Establishment, Farnborough, it was put through a
A lew Oxfords were used lor development testing. protracted spinning programme. No significant im-
One of the first was L4539, the sixth production air- provement was apparent and this modification was not
craft. Belore going into R.A.F. service, it was delivered fitted to any other Oxfords; as a result the pilot training
to Heston Aircralt Ltd. where it was fitted with the programme had to limit its spinning exercises to in-
Maclaren Castoring main undercarliage. The idea olthis cipient spins.
undercarriage was to enable dlift to be offset on a cross- An ambulance version ol the Oxford was produced in
wind landing by swivelling the undercarriage to line up 1942 and trvo such aircraft. P8832 and P8833. were
with the actual line of flight. The aircralt spent 18 modified on the Portsmouth line at that time, being
months to two years on these tests before being returned dclivered to No. 24 Squadron at Hendon lor shorG
to standard configuration and delivered to No. 2 F.T.S. range emergency ambulance flights.
The R.A.F. has always required its pilot training In order to get the Oxlord into service quickly, the
aircralt to be able to spin and recover satislactorily and original requirement for variable-pitch propellers had

ED268, a Luton-huilt Mk. I, sert'ed with rlv A.T.A. Flring Stltool tl 7 he.ftl th produttktrt O xlorcl I, L45-19, y t.t.y used ht IIastttt AirtrtJ I to ttst
11'ltite Ll'ulthunt. Noti(L,th( non-slttntlunl rtpttittting of,riul nunltcr tlrc trfucIur"tr.stritt'IIittq unLlt'rturriuqc Ior Iunding{rilrl{Ut]#lrMn,ar,,
on tltt ltt.saluqe to ullov tht Stluxtl rntmht,r " 12" to ha /iil(,d iil.


noye tttd no turrel,

gone by the board; although all Oxlords had a lever experimental installation lor the Gipsy Queen IV only
on the central console lor this purpose. In practice, the gave 250 h.p. against the Cheetah X's 375 h.p. but the
serving Oxlord Mk. Is and IIs never had such a luxury aircralt was used on Gipsy Queen development flying
but one aircraft was so fitted. This was P1864, a Mk. II befoie becoming a "hack" at various Ministry of Aircraft
rvhich went to Armstrong Siddeley Motors lor Cheetah Production units including A. & A.E.E. (Aeroplane &
development and flew with the Cheetah XV in March Armament Experimental Establishment) Boscombe
19401 this aircralt was fitted with Rotol constant-speed Down and R.A.E. Farnborough, eventually reverting to
propellers and was used lor a couple ol years by both Mk. I standard. This aircraft was known unofficially as
Armstrong Siddeley and Rotols for engine and propeller the Oxford IV although this designation had been
development, before it was eventually converted to Mk. V earmarked for a pilot-training version olthe Mk. III and
standard. This particular aircraft was known as the never materialised.
Mk. III of which it was the sole example. The other re-engining was a much more important
During the war two further re-engined Oxlords affair and led to the development of another major
appeared. The first, eventually abandoned, related to a version of the Oxford. Two lactors together led to
Mk. I. AS 50 4 which was delivered to the De Havilland thoughts about re-engining the Oxford. One was the
Engine Co. Ltd. where, in 1942, it was fitted with two great demand on Armstrong Siddeley Motors for
D.H. Gipsy Queen IV engines. This was purely an Cheetah engines, principally lor the Oxlord and Anson,

Although the xus generulll. used.for pilot tuining :ont dil.fiul
uses.for gunnerl' truining, especiullt'oter.\(q.\. Herc a lruinec gunnLr itl PG95l ttus onc d the Oxfords used in rhe llliddle East at the end of the
Rltodesiu .fires Ji om his ttu ret ut u drogut, toted hy u Fuircy Buttle. lVur und then transf<'rred to the Egvptian Air l-orte.
(Photo:l.W.M. CRII33) (Photo: A. J. Jackson)


..rt3:qriiier;i:.ii;:t:iil rtj;?,:tr,r:iddri
Airspeed A.S.10 Oxford l- period May 1943 - of No. 15
Service Flying Training School, R.A.F. Station, Kidlington,
near Oxford. This was the 403rd ol 422 built at Portsmouth
by Airspeed (1934) Ltd. in the 8G100-668 serial range as or lls.
M. Trim @ Profile Publications Ltd.

Muny o/ the Operutional Cutt'crsion Units u.sed Orforcl.s t/ter thc lYur. N6250, built btfbte the Ilur, vus one of muny Ox./brds thich hud u long
EB8 I 3 served v'ith No. 237 O .C:.U., t hc photo. eeniluissunca cont t tsion ttutl usc.lill liJb. It i.s .thoxv here during it.s sL'rvice hitlt No. 2.9..F.LS. ln
unit, in the earl)' 1950s. 1941.

the second factor was the rather wasteful process ol Oxlord although this was not until 1946. Miles Aircralt
exporting engines to the New World (the Oxlords to ol Woodley, Berkshire, converted Oxford, LXl19, to
Canada) when there was a suitable engine sitting waiting take two Alvis Leonides radials and the aircraft, first
on that continent. This engine was the Pratt & Whitney flying with these engines on June 3, 1946. was used lor
Wasp Junior of 450 h.p. A trial installation was made on Leonides development. Designated the A.S.41. this air-
AS592 in 1941 and this became the prototype lor this craft subsequently appeared on the British Civil Register
variant, the Mk. V, which was also fitted with Hamilton as G AJWJ and also carried the Class B registration U7
Standard constant-speed propellers. This became the before being broken-up in 1948.
third major version olthe Oxford, 196 being produced as
Mk. Vs and many more converted, the airframes EXPORTING THE OXFORD
being sent overseas and the engines fitted on arrival. The When the Oxford was first ordered for the R.A.F.
extra power, together with the refinement ol variable- in 1937 it made an immediate appeal to two other British
pitch propellers, put 20 m.p.h. on the top speed and Dominion air lorces which were looking for a similar
halved the rate-of-climb time taken to 10,000. This was an aircraft, namely Canada and New Zealand. Both
added bonus of help in the hot and high conditions of countries ordered, and received, small quantities before
Southern Africa where they served in Southern Rhodesia the outbreak of World War Two. The Canadian order,
(but not with the South African Air Force). for standard Oxlord Mk. Is, was for 25 aircralt (R.C.A.F.
One final engine development took place on an serials 1501-1525) and these were shipped in 1939 and

A neat e(helon port fortnation fou'n by fte O xfords of No. 3 F.T.S., South Cetnet' itr I 93 8 The bluck hand around the lhselage fortrard of the empennugc
was to denote No. 3 F.T.S. (Photo: "The AeroPlane")


lhe turret housittg. The unit is No. 14 S.F.T.S. (Photo:LW.M. CHl094)

assembled by Canadian Vickers (in December 1944 and in due course they found their way both to the
renamed Canadair Ltd.) at Montreal before being Royal Egyptian Air Force and the Turkish Air Force.
issued to the Central Flying School at Trenton and The latter took delivery of a small quantity of refurbished
No. 1 S.F.T.S. at Camp Borden. The New Zealand Oxfords after the war. At least three found their way
order was originally for five Oxfords. They incorporated into the Imperial Iranian Air Force and six were sold
modifications and so were re-classified as A.S.42s by the R.A.F. to the Congo in 1944. Others served in
except for one aircraft which was modified lor survey India with the R.A.F. towards the end of the war and
work and given the designation A.S.43. The five Oxlords there they became the initial equipment ol No. 12
(N2250 to N2254) served initially with No. I F.T.S.. Squadron, Royal Indian Air Force as transport aircraft
R.N.Z.A.F. at Wigram. Further orders of six, 70 and 35 ln 1946, although they were soon superseded by Douglas
were lulfilled at the beginning of the war by diverting Dakotas.* Other Oxfords served with the United
aircraft lrom R.A.F. production batches and both States Air Force in the U.K., mainly on "hack" and
countries received far greater quantities ol Oxlords instrument training duties.
under the Empire Air Training Scheme, those going to After the War the newly-freed countries in Europe
Canada retained their R.A.F. serial numbers while
those to New Zealand were re-issued with R.N.Z.A.F. * Douglus DC 3 (9611) Dukotu Mk I IV (20a110)
With the advent ol the E.A.T.S.. Oxlords were sent
across the world in their hundreds with 188 going to
Canada as Mk. Vs in addition to other Mk. Is and IIs. A Trappcr's Tool. This Oxfbrd, E8863, trtr.s usetl ufter the Wur bt,the
Entpire Fl.ting Scltool ut Hulltttinglon b) the \tanluftls.flight vhith xent
total ol 297 wenl to New Zealand and 389 to the lrom FI.tiilg Sthool to Flring School to (he(k in.\trL!(tor's cutcgtnrtt
R.A.A.F. in Australia (they retained their original (hencc tltt' nonrc "truppers" ). This uirtruli shovs rudio motli.ficutiun.s
villt thc delclion tLf tlte,stunlurd ut'riul ntust, un S.B.A. (Stodurd Bum
R.A.F. serials). Approximately 700 went to the South Approuth) n1u\t just ult oJ thc totkpit, DIF loop in streumlhetl utittg
African Air Force where they were renumbered 1900 ubov tha /irsclugc und odditionul non-stunduttl aeriuls ubove ancl helott
(Photo: Author)
rht'nose. The datc is .Iuh. 1948.
to 1999 and 3300 to 3899. Also several hundreds more
served as part ol the R.A.F. in Southern Rhodesia.
World War Two prevented any lurther lormal con-
tracts but during the course of the conflict some Oxfords
were allocated to various Allied and neutral conntries.
Portugal was one of these, receiving an unknown
quantity of Oxfords lor use by both the Army and the
Naly, the latter using six Mk. IIs for navigation training.
The R.A.F. used about 40 Oxfords in the Middle East


"ft- lo r
"qref.*qrri:, 1

Key to colour illustrations
6 G-ALTP, an A.S.40 Oxford (civil con-
version of PH32'l of the R.A.F.) in service
as a twin-trainer with Air Service Training
Ltd., at Hamble, Hampshire, in 1950.
7 P8833, the second of two ambulance
conversions of the Oxford built at Ports-
mouth in 1 940 and presented by the Girl
Guides Association in 'l 941 . This aircraft
served with No.24 Squadron, R.A.F., at
Hendon, and was later named "Nurse
Cavell". Oslunl n Rholttitr. Ottc ol the hunclretls used in the Rlptiesiun bntnch of
VP-KOX, an A.S.40 Oxford. modified for th,: Enpirc Atr Truining Sclune, HN342 ttus serting wilh No.33 Flriilf4
survey work and used by Hunting Aero- Instrutttor.r' Sthool ut tltc time tltis photogruph ttt: tuktn.
(Photo:D. A. S. McKay)
surveys Ltd., in Kenya in 1958-9.
9 1511, eleventh production Oxford I for
the Royal Canadian Air Force, in service
with the Canadian Central Flying School at
Trenton, Ontario, in 1939. both for radio-navigation development and for training
'10 1 10, an Airspeed Oxford, delivered to the
purposes. It was re-designated A.S.40. and this became
Turkish Air Force after World War Two.
the standard designation for all civil Oxfords although no
more were to appear for seven years or so. This particular
aircralt barely survived the outbreak of war, flying into
leaned heavily upon Britain and the U.S.A. to restock the balloon barrage in the Portsmouth area on November
their air lorces and the Oxford became involved in 20, 1939 and crashing at Gosport. The next step toward
this, too. Both the Royal Belgian and Royal Netherlands civil Oxlords (apart from the allocation of the marks
Air Forces used ex-R.A.F. Oxlords as advanced twin G-AFVS to an airlrame due to go to Canada in August
trainers in the immediate post-war years, as did the 1939) was the acquisition by the British Overseas
Netherlands Narry which flew flve of them. The Royal Airways Corporation (B.O.A.C.) ol a small fleet of
Norwegian Air Force took 20 Oxfords for its flying Oxfords during the war which it used in its training fleet
school at Gardemoen and the Royal Danish Air-Forcc for a number of years. Seven of these were re-registered
had 48, some olwhich initially equipped Nos.721 and with civil marks in 1946 (G AIAT to G AIAY &
722 Squadrons. Another air lorce re-starting after' G AIRZ) being re-designated A.S.40 as were all subse-
the War was the Royal Hellenic Air Force and this quent civilianised Oxflords. Another training fleet of
acquired an unknown quantity ol Oxflords. Oxlords which appeared af'ter the World War Two was
As the British Empire was dismantled in the immedi- tl.rat flown by Air Service Training Ltd. at Hamble,
ate post-war years. so the R.A.F. had the constructive Hampsl.rire, which put four of its own into the fleet and
task ol helping new air forces to emerge ; and with two ol then took over two olthe B.O.A.C. ones and used them
these the Oxlord was involved. The Royal Ceylon Air on "twin" training for over a decade. Several were used
Force received two Oxfords lrorn the R.A.F.. and the as executive aircralt and general runabouts by various
Union of Burma Air Force ordeled some relurbished companies in the aviation industry. These included:
Oxfords lronl Airspeed who produced them at Ports- G AHDZ used by Scottisl.r Aviation: G AHGU by
mouth in 1948. These aircrall revived the mid-r"rpper Bristol Aeroplane Co. Ltd.; G AHTW by Boulton
turret. a leature that had disappeared liom most Oxfords Paul: G-AIUH by Reid & Sigrist and G AJNC by
several years belbre. Fairey Aviation. One actually became civilianised
Thus the Oxlold piayed a part in the renaissaince ol complete with its mid-upper gun turret. This was
post-war air lorces. V3870 which became G- AHXA and belonged to the
Brevet Fiying Club belore finding its way to Egypt as
THE OXFORD IN CIVIL GUISE SU AER in 1947-but minus its turret. Various different
In October 1938. one ofthe early production Oxfords. small companies acquired Oxlords lor civilianising, many
L4538, was taken frorn the production iine and specially of which never got as far as being converted lor civil
fitted-out rvith blind approach and other radio equip- use. One flew with Hunting Aerosurveys on camera
ment. It was given British civil marks as G AFFM and work. and Lancashire Aircralt Corporation bought four
delivered to British Airways Ltd. at Heston who used it intending to convert them at Squires Gate in 1950 but

Another ol tlrc Ox/brtl.s lnscrvice tith No.8 lute ts 19JJ rrrrr NM537 t'us one oJ the Orlbnls rhi<h tontiilued lo serve vith the Fleel
x67El u Mk l rltith hutl heen huilt eutlr in tht' Air Arnt t(ter the tvur. being bu,,, t,i:i!;:.:i:i
(photo:Author) "t l?l_k rr^r"Archives)

sold and this virtually halted the use ol pure Oxfords in
the civil field.


Although many Oxfords were thrown up as surplus
when the R.A.F. was cut down at the end of the war
there were still fresh tasks for the type. In fact many
were dralted into Fighter Command at the end of the war
because,with the advent of the Gloster Meteor and
de Havilland Hornet* as day fighters, many flghter
pilots who had spent all their lives flying single-engined
aircraft were suddenly in need of converting to "twins".
Accordingly, most fighter stations had several Oxlords
either attached to the station or to the individual squad-
This eurly line-up outside thefutlorl'ut Portsnouth wus luktn in ll[arch,
1938. The aircruJt are puintetl yellon'overull v'ith nuturul ntclul torlings
rons on it. Also the new style ol operation in R.A.F.
untl only the /arthest ui crdt, L4544, ltcts a dorsul turret ullhough lhey ure Fighter Command would be requiring much higher
all Mk. Is (Photo: "Flight" I5455S)
standards of instrument flying so two squadrons were
allocated especially to this task of working up the
instrument flying (No. 1 at Tangmere in 11 Group and
only one came to fruition. Britavia bought lour and No. 41 at Church Fenton in 12 Group) and equipped
promptly sold them to Israel's air lorce during 1951-2. with North American Harvards and Oxlords to do this.
Also, one or two other conversions were made and sold The revival of the Auxiliary Squadlons also drew
overseas. upon the stocks of Oxfords to provide conversion and
In lact overseas Oxlords appeared in France with the instrument training for those squadrons receiving
airline UAT, in Egypt, Hong Kong, Sweden, Finland, de Havilland Mosquitosi and those with Meteors
Southern Rhodesia, Mexico, Spain and Norrvay. Two whilst Oxfords remained in service with the Anti-
RNZAF aircralt were operated by G. M. Gould in Aircralt Co-operation Squadrons and the newly-formed
Wellington, New Zealand for a short while alter the war Civilian Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Units. Quite a
before being returned to the RNZAF. lew Oxlords were also in use for communications
Further use of the Oxford as a civil aircralt did not duties both with Station Flights and with Group
take place because ol an astute move by Airspeed. Communications FIights.
With the war over, the company bought back upwards The Oxford's linal fling with the R.A.F. came in
of 100 Oxfords from the Royal Air Force at a very low 1952 when the rush expansion resulting from the
cost and set about turning them into small charter Korean War took place. New Advanced Flying Training
airliners. With a minimum of alterations the aircralt Schools were lormed and four of these were equipped
appeared as the 4,.5.65. Consul (which is outside the with sizable fleets of Oxfords. Flying Relresher Schools
scope of this Profile) and, accordingly. favourably were also opened to bring up-to-date those pilots who
priced, offered an attractive buy lor all the small firms had been demobilised and recalled and one of these
mushrooming immediately post-war. Within 18 months Schools ffew Oxfords. But this was the swan song
ol the Consul's appearance. approximately 150 had been of the Oxlord and when the immediate urgency petered
out in 1954, so, too, these temporary schools were
closed down. Once again the Oxford began to disappear
lrom view, this time, rapidly. Within a short while,
Air(raft from three di/ferent produ(tion butches (N4610, P6823 "24",
the only examples left in the Service were communica-
N6258) fr'/ron I4 S.F.T.S., Crunfttld in 1940. Note the di/lert'nt litcs oJ
the nosc cuntouflrtge, the anti-gus diunontls tLn top ol lht'.[ust'luge.forvttrd tions aircralt. These, also, soon departed to be replaced
of the fin uncl the black ntit no."21" on P6823.noro: by the later versions of the Anson.
I.W.M. CHl09S)
Unsung, quite inconspicuously. the Oxlord died as it
had lived unpretentiously providin-u uselul and un-
glamorous service in many different ways to the Allied
cause, but supremely, by providing a sound vehicle
lor the training to a high standard of many thousands
ol Commonwealth and Allied pilots. Truly the Oxlord
owed the British Commonwealth nothing when its days
were ended.


To thousands of trainee pilots, lresh from their
Elementary Flying Training Schools-where most of
them had clocked up about 80 hours on de Havilland
Tiger Moths the Oxlord appeared as a large, compli-

* Glostcr Meteor Mk IV (7418) Gloster Meteor ll[k. 8 (t2ll) de

Ilut illund Hornet ( 1 71 18 )
i de Httt'illantl Mosquittt Mks I IV (5213) de Hurillund Mosquito
Mk IV (20919) de Huvillqild Tiger tf oth ( 132i6)
Tl,picul o.f so muny Ox.fbrcls in ntid-u'ur guise is V3792 coming in to lilkl ul the Empire Central Flring School at Hullatington in 1912.
(Photo: I.W.M

Tlte secortd o.f ths tv o O x./brd ambulances, P8833 , naned " Ntu se Cuve ll" , in sertice vith No. 24 Squuclt on lute in 1912. (Photo : I.W. M. CH I 1526)

.for S.B.A. training. (Photo:LW.M. CH8202)

i, : " :.;:;
.rs, -;.;i'';d$S$''i*1
..{: :ljs:*

Orfords vere used quite ertensively b1' the Fleet Air Arm.fbr both t|iil .rnd inslrutllenl t.titlitry, One such us R6lE0 shovn ht're
(Photo: I.W.M. A19273)

unit ihoyn here tlisplul' the tto post-t\'o'tolour schenrcs of yellov overull or silver rith .tellov butds. (Photo: R. C. Jones)

One of the nanl' O xlbrds t ltich serrcLl ott ttuiiling dut ic.\ tt it h the Royal Nev Zeulund Air Fot ct' tt us N Z2l16.

\n *\

cated, frightening monster. Certainly this writer remem-
bers it thus, surveying its 53 feet 4 inch span and two
large engines providing 750 horses compared with the
Tiger Moth's 130 and thinking "I'll never manage
THIS !" Nor was the first flight to allay his fears immedi-
ately for the Oxlord was deliberately intended to be
difficult to fly well, hallmark ol any good training
aeroplane. One feature the Oxlord had which was both
reassuring and helpful was that ol the cockpit layout.
This had been specially designed at a time when most
aircralt just had the instruments placed, apparently,
willy-nilly. Thus. the Oxford's cockpit was a delight to
behold. The left-hand seat faced a standard Flight
Instrument panel carrying the six basic flight instruments
with other ancillary flight instruments grouped around
it. The engine instruments were grouped on the right A line-up, possibl.v ut No. I F.T.S., R.N.Z.A.I;., of stnnt, oJ tlrc aurl).
panel with sorle additional flight instruments lor the O:fbrds sent to Ncx,Zeulurul for thc Enpire Air Training Sthenrc. Noic
one t'urttoufugecl uircruft in the line.
instructor whilst the engine controls and flap and (Photo: R. Montgomery via R. C. Jones)
undercarriage controls were carried down the central
pillar and on the central console in the order in which
they would be used from start-up so that it was reason-
ably foolproof to work down panel. Trim wheels fro_m "porpoising" on-and-off and a firm, steady
were carried on the central console and worked in the pull back would bring the "Oxbox" cleanly into the air.
natural manner. As the speed mounted a jab of brake and clean the
Starting was much more complicated than the old undercarriage up and the good qualities ol the Oxford
"Contact" days ofthe "Tiger" and involved an accom- became apparent. A climb away at 110 m.p.h. produced
plice on the wing winding the engine up. But the system the best climb (approximately 960 ft/min at ground level).
was effective enough and normally lew problems werc And, once airborne the aircralt provided a good mount
encountered. The Oxlord (or "Oxbox" as it was usually both lor cross-country work (with a 900-mile range) for
known in the R.A.F.) taxied easily and could be turned which it could be trimmed accurately to fly "hands-off',
very sharply by judicious use of brake and engine. and lor the more energetic type ol exercises such as
With a lairly high ground angle it was still advisable, formation-flying. tail-chasing and so on. For these
however, to swing the nose from side-to-side betimes in pursuits the light, well-harmonized ailerons and the
order to see directly in lront during taxying. powerlul but easily trimmed elevators were ideal and,
It was the take-off which began to show that the had it been stressed for the job, the aircralt would no
Oxford could have a mind ol its own. The clue to a doubt have made a good aerobatic mount but as it was
good take-off was to get the tail-wheel straight before not so stressed such manoeuvres were officially and
opening the throttles and then to lead all the way to fl-rll properly frowned upon. The only control which was
throttle with the starboard engine for. although the lacking was the rudder which was somewhat sluggish
Pilot's Notes mumbled something about "exhibiting a and for which the trim was far from ideal; with the result
slight srving to starboard". in practice most aircralt l.rad that single-engined flying could be a tiring business (a
a pronounced swing to starboard. In the initial stages. ltature, incidentally. which rnade the Oxlord an ideal
it could not be held by rudder and brake alone and conversion trainer for the Meteor) il carried on lor over
early attempts at take-offcould be seen by the scrpentine long.
paths lollowed by the aircraft. Once speed mounted. a Stalling was always an interesting business on the
steady push on the stick raised the tail, improved the Oxtbrd because occasionally one came across an
lorward vision and brought about more rudder effective- aircralt that would stall straight but normally there
ness. The tail was held lairly high until flying spced was rvould be a reasonably pronounced wing drop. However
reached (approximately 70 m.p.h.) to keep the aircralt one never knew which wing rvas going to drop and the

Tlrc Royul Duni.ylr Air Fortc uctluietl .fbrtt-eiKht (.\-R.A.F. Or/ord\ Sarcrul O.r/brds (otltinrcd to serte tith the ResertL' Flying Scltools into
t(tcr tht lf ur./ttr trqining erl (onnuili(utiotls (luti(s. the eurl.t l950s, HN309 b(ing on tha sttctlgth ol No. l5 R.F.S., Retlhill.
(Photo : LP.M.S. Denrnark) (Photo: A. J. Jackson)
Another Fleet Air Arm Orford, PHl85 belongecl to the Service Trials O rforJ 43 26, one of rvnty bought by the Royul Noru'egiun Air Force for
Unit, No.778 Squadron ona,r' ,urtrd "0,9il#, truining duric, al Gukl(mo(n,scLn h(( ill S!'lu
ff f.r(;""0"r""*nl

same aircralt would not always drop the same wing. Certainly the Oxford had its moments and no one
This made it a very good training aircralt because the could truthlully say that flying it was "a piece of cake".
pupil soon acquired a habit of detecting and picking-up But for this very reason it made an excellent pilot
any wing that dropped belore the aircralt reached the trainer and like many a good horse it behaved beautifully
incipient spinning stage unless the exercise took one when handled well but tended to bite fools. Even so, its
purposely to the incipient spin. Full spinning was not over-riding advantage was that any pilot who had trained
allowed; although, if tbe aircralt inadvertently got into on the Oxford could go on to more advanced "twins"
such a position, it could usually be recovered using with confidence knowing that they were, in reality,
normal recovery action plus the assistance of inside nothing more than overgrown Oxfords.
engine. Stalling took place, "clean", at 67 m.p.h. and
lully "dirty" at
60 m.p.h. Series Editor: CHARLES W. CAIN
The Oxlord was a pleasant aircralt in the circuit lor the
view was good. It ambled around the circuit at a pleasant SPECIFICATION OF THE AIRSPEED OXFORD
120 m.p.h. allowing plenty ol time downwind lor the iMii. t'A ll) Two Atmstrong Siddeley Cheetah X seven-cyltnder air-
vitai actions to be sorted out. With lull flap. a lairly iooreA raaiais. Maximum power output, take'ofl 375 h p. at 2,300
r.p.m.; maxrmum power in flight (at 7,000 ft.), 355 h.p. at 2425 t.p.m
pronounced nose-down attitude developed, giving an rMl. Vt T*o Pratt & WhitnetWasD Junror R-985 AN-6 nine-cylinder
irr-cooied radials. Maxrmum power output (take off and ln flight)
excellent view of the intended landing path, the approach 450 h.p. at 2,300 r.P m
being made pt 80 m.p.h. with power, or 85 m.p.h. lor a Propellers
glide approach. At the flare out it was necessary to give {Mks. l& ll) frxed-pitch, wooden.
iwt< V) tla.'tron-Slandard rwo-blade. variable pitch metal
a firm heave on the "stick" to rotate the aircralt lor
touch-down and in most cases one ended up with a Fuel System
Two main fuel tanks belween spars oJ wing centre-sectioni two auxiliary
tail-down wheeler. Three-point landings required much tanks in outer wing sections interconnected with main tanks. Total
capacity 1 50 lmperial gallons.
practice and were certainly not to be recommended il
ih.." *as the slightest cross-wind component' This Construction
Winos-Built rn three sections, centre-section and outer port and
was .because the high ground-angle ol the Oxlord starSoard wing sections Outer sections oI tapering chord and thickness
ittached to ce"ntre'section at four spar-;oints Structure consists of two
blanketed the none-too-effective rudder and, once the box-soars of spruce and brrch three ply. Formet ribs consist of three-
aircralt was on its wheels again, that fiendish delight oart qrrder typ6. lnter spar bracing comprises built-up diagonal struts
Fiyw"ood covbred w,ngi. Hanotey Page slotted ailerons Split. ltailing-
of the Oxlords to charge in any direction other than edqe flaos full-soan between ailelons.
Fuletaob-Burlt in two sections, of wooden semi-monococque con-
straight ahead would again manilest itself. With the structi6n. Forward section built as a unit complete with cabin Rear
funway-consciousness of today, ground-loops are a section includes integral fin
iait tJnit Wooden Iramework with fabric covering Balanced rudder
serious business but in the days ol the Empire Air hinged to fin with hinge-line inclined forward. Trim-tabs fitted to
Training Scheme most ol the flying was done lrom plain IJidercarriaoe .Rearwatd-ret,dct ng type. foldrng into engine nacelles
fields and very olten it was deemed more discreet to wrth lower-portion of main wheels exposed Low-pressure Dunlop
tyres; pneumatic wheel brakes. Non-retrdctable tarl-wheel with Dunlop
amble off in a controlled swerve rather than risk remov- tyre.
ing the undercarriage in a fight to persuade the aircralt Accommodation
Uo to three crew could be carried and stations are provided lor lirsl pilot,
that one really was its master. Besides it kept the blokes second pilot or navigator, bomb-aimer, wireless-operator, camera-
landing behind you awake! operator and (Mk. I only) amidships turrel-gunner.

DeveloperlJbr spinning trials urul also to stud)'tlE efie(ts of trinfns and

rurttteri, OxJbrtl N63i7 was u one-of contusioll tnJ llcnt nutl oJ it.s G AJGR wus one oJ the Orfords v'hich came on the civil tegister ufter the
rime, a; shivn here, at the Rorut Aiictaft ti,ff|,'jl'i,;; War antl wus used Jbr photo-surte1, vork hy Hunting Aerosurveys.
#,i[]l\\:l;; (Photo: A. J. Jackson)
Used as a general hack and freight ai'cruft b)' Scotti.\h Avitttion, A.5.10. One of the biggest citil users of Oxfords w,as Air Service Training at
Orfortl G-AHDZ is sean here outside thc control totrer ut Croldon soon Hamble where this photo oJ G- ALTP vus taken in 1948.
a/ter the end of If orld War Two. (Photo: A. J. Jackson)

Entry effected by door at the rear of cabin on the port side. Walkways Built at Christchurch by Airspeed (1934) Ltd.
on both wings between engine nacelles and fuselage. Oxford I
x6520 6564, 6589 6623. 6643-6692, 6726-6750. 6764
Armament 681 3. 6835-6879 250
Bomb-bay accommodating up to 'l 2 practice bombs located between the 18469-492. 513 538 50
cenlre-section spars amidships; no bomb doors used. The Mk. I only had a
removable, revolving dorsal gun-turret made by Armstrong Whitworth 3oo
containing one 0 303-in. Vickers "K" gas-operated machine-gun.
Oxfotd ll
Dimensions x6880 6884. 6932-6981, 7031 7075, 7107 7156, 7176-
Span,53 ft.4 in.; length (overall) 34 ft.6 in.; height 1'1 ft.1 in.; wing 7200,7231-7265,7278-7311 250
area 348 sq. lt.
Weights Built at Hatfield by De Havilland Aircraft Co. Ltd.
(Mks. l& ll) Empty but with fixed |oad,5,380 lb.; loaded,7,600 lb. Oxlord I
(Mk. V) Empty but wirh fixed load, 5,670 lb.; loaded,8,000 lb. N4560-4609. 4630 4659, 4681-4700, 4720-4739, 4754-
4403.4424-4453 200
Performance P6795-681 9. 6831-6880 75
(Mks. I & ll) l/aximum speed at 8,300 ft. 182 m.p.h. (with turret), 188 v3145 3194, 3204-3247, 3261-3296, 3310-3359, 3375
m.p h. (without turet); climb to 10,000 Jt. in '1 2 min.; service ceiling 3404,3418-3442,
'I 9500 tt.; endurance 5 hr.; still air range, 925 miles approx. v3456 3480. 3502 3540, 3555-3589, 3590-3604, 3623-
3647, 3665 3694,3719 3748,3768-3792, 3813 3862 500
OXFORD PRODUCTION DETAILS AR756,790, 804,853, 870-889, 909-953, 968 982 165
Built at Portsmouth by Airspeed (1934) Ltd. AS144-1 88, 201-230, 254 279. 297 331. 347 396 185
Oxfotd I 4T439-488, 502-536, 576-625. 641-685, 723,7 42. 760 799 240
14534 Prototype 1

14535-4669 (L4556, 4557,4592, 4593, 461 0 not delivered) '135 1 365

19651-9660,9680-9691 22
N1190-1194 5 Oxford ll
N6250. 6299. 6320-6345 (625A-627O built without turrets) 76 R6211,6244. 6263-6299, 6317-6358, 6371 6403 150
p1 860-1 899. 1 920-1 969. 1 980 2009. 2030-2044 'I 35
p8822-8434, 8855-8868, 8891-89'16, 8995-8998. 9020- Built at Luton by Percival Aircraft Ltd.
9046 (8832 & 8833 finished as Ambulances) 84 Oxlotd I
R4062-4066 6 P1 070-1 094 25
R9974-9988 ED197-204. 215 236, 251-300 80
T1001-1028, 1041-1061. 1't12,1141, 1167,1180.'t264- HM603-650, 666 700. 721-767. 783-813, 826-875, 889
1 288. 1 308-1 332 143 91 8. 945-990 ?87
x1 038-1 040 3 88
AS41 4-523, 537 -57 1, 59'l
-640, 665-704 175 LW727-759, 772,799, 813,835, 848-879. 891,927. 948,
8F782-831. 845-889. 904 953. 967 999 I t6 973. 985-999 1 95
8G100-101, 113-132, 149-183, 196,245, 260-274. 546- LXl 1 3-1 53 40
575, 588-637, 649-668 222 NJ280-322. 345 382.397-400 85
E8414,423. 689-703. 717-761, 777-A26, 838-870, 884-
930.946-975 230 800
HN2'17 239, 254-284, 298-346, 363-386, 405,441. 467-
495, 513 554, 576 614, 631-671,689 738, 754-790. 808, Oxford ll
855 450 w6546-6595, 6608-6657 100
LX1 56-1 99, 21 3-245. 258 289, 30 1 -333. 347-369, 382-401, A8639-668, 685 7 29. 7 49,773 100
415 448,462 489, AP387-436, 451 500 100
LX502-541, 555-582, 595-6 1 7. 629 648, 66 1 -699, 7 1 4 -7 46, B M67 1 -7 20. 7 37,7 85, 801 -844. 87 1 A7 7 150
759-777 450 E 8978-999 22
NM217,254, 270-314, 329-370.385-429, 444 488, 509 E D 1 08-1 57, 1 69-1 96 7A
550, 571 -61 5, 629-676, 681,720, 736 760, 776 810 450
PG925-956. 968-999 64 550
PH112-157, 169,215, 227-268, 281-327. 339 378. 391-
425, 447-489.502-527 328 Oxlotd V
PK248 269,282-309 50 1W928-930. 945 947
RR321-367,380-382 50

1501-1 525 (R.C.A.F. pre-war order)

R.A.F. Aircrafi ?rn
Oxford ll
19635-9650. 9692 9703 2a One oJ hro Oxfords on the Swedish ciril tegister, SE-CAI,I v'as only
N6347-6349, 636s-6384. 6400-6438 62 cttrrenl Jbr a 1'eur,front Ottober 1951.
P1 800-1 849 50
P89'l 7-893'1, 8964-8994, 8835-8854 bb
R5938-5979. 5991-6038. 6050 6059. 6070 6114 6129
61 63, 61 77-61 96 200
T1062-1082, 1097-1111, 11a1,1215. 1243 1263, 1333-
1348.'t371-1404 '142
AS705-709, 726-7 45. 7 64-813. 828-877 . 893-942 175
8G275-304,31 8-337, 349-398, 415-459, 473-522, 541-545 200

N2250-255 AS.42lAS.43 R.N.Z.A.F. OxJord Contracl 5

Oxford V
E8424-461 . 483-5 1 8. 535-584. 599-640. 654 677 190
Seen at Redhill with its military marks oudely painted out but code Little is known about the subsequent.fales of the Egyptian civil Oxforcls
letters " 3L:F' still therc is G AMFL, on its way to the Israeli Air Force such as SU AES. (Photo: via F. G. Swanborough)
via Britaviu.

Built at Coventry by Standard Motor Car Co. Ltd. Anti-Aircraft Co-operation Duties
Oxfotd I Nos. 5, 17, 34, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 567, 517, 595, 691 & 695 Sqns.
v3865 39'14, 3933-3957. 3972-3996, 4016 4065, 4079" Nos. 1 & 3 Civilian Anti-Aircratt Co-operation Units
4103,4',t24,4173,4192 4241,4259 4283 300
DF220-264, 276-314. 327-367,390 433, 445489,501-536 250 Experimental and Development Establishments and Units
L8401429.442,462 50 Aeroplane & Armament Experimental Establishment
MP275 314, 338-376, 391 -430, 444-468, 470-474, 496 1 50 Royal Aircraft Establishment
Air Fighting Development Unit
?50 Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment
Cenlral Fighrer Establishment
N.B. This compilation is based on information supplied by the then Central Signals Establishment
Ministry of Supply and differs from previously published lists largely Bomb Ballrstics Development Unit
in the delineation between Mks. I & ll in the early batches. The possibility
of now establishing which is correct appeals remote-JDRR. Fighter Command Units
Nos. 500, 502, 504 & 608 Sqns., R. Auxiliary A.F.
SERVICE USE Ex-RAF Conversions
This information does not claim to be a complete listing of all the R A.F G-AFF|\il British Airways '1938
units which flew the Oxford. Small units (e.9. Sration Flights, elc.) are G-AFVS Airspeed Ltd, doubtful if taken up
omrtted and manv other unrts which tust had one Oxford as a "hack" but G-AHDZ Scortish Aviation 3/46, sold France 7 /54
it does give a gobd survey ol the dtverse lypes of units wrth which the G-AHGU Bristol Aeroplane Co. 5/46
type served. G-AHGW Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd. 6/46
G. AHXA Brevet Flying Club 12/46 sold Egypt 8/47
Training Units G-AIAT-G-AIAY B.O.A.C. 8/46j 'T and 'X to A.S.T. 4/51, 'V sold Hons
Central Flying School; Empire Central Flying School; Empire flying Kong 9/51 'W soid Sweden 1 1 /54
School; Empite Radio School; Empire Air Navigation School; Empire G-AIRZ B.O.A.C. 8/46; Hunting Aerosurveys 3/51
Test Pilots'School. G-AITB Air Service Training (A.S.T.) 11146
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 1 1, 1 5, 1 6, 17,19 &23. Flying Training Schools (also G-AITF Air Service Training (A.S.T.) 11146
designated Service Flying Training Schools during the Iirst part of the G AIUH Reid & Sigrist 10/47; Hunting Aerosurveys
World War Two) G-AIVY B.S.A.A. 3/48; B.O.A.C. 149
Nos.8,9.10 &.14 Advanced Flying Training Schools (period 1952 4) G-AJGR Hunting Aerosurveys 2/47
Nos. 1, 2, 3. 6, 11. 14. 1a. 20 &21 (Pilot) Advanced Flying Units G AJNC Fairey Aviation 5/47; sold Rhodesia '1 'll51
Nos. 2, 6, 11, 16. 21.43, 51 . 61, 70. 81, 1O7 & 1 1 1 Operational Trainins G_ALTP A,S,T. 1i 50
U nits G ALTR A.S,T. 1/50
Nos. 1, 2, 5 & 8 Air Navigation Schools/Air Observer Schools G-ALXV-G-ALXY Lancashire Aircraft Corp 1/50-only G ALXV
Nos. 2, 3 & 7 Flying lnstructor Schools co nve rted
Nos.1,4 & 10 Radio Schools G-AMCX Adie Aviation /51; sold Spain 8/51
Nos. 226, 228, 225, 23'l & 237 Operational Conversion U nils ( post- war) G-AMFJ-G AMFM Britavia /51 l52sold lsrael (Air Force)
R.A.F. College. Cranwell G-AMHE Btitavia /52
Air Transport Auxiliary Flyinq School G-AOUT Eagle Aircraft Services /54
No. I Beam Approach School EC-WGE 8/51
Nos. 150'1, 1507, 1510, 1511, 1513,'1514. 1515, 1516, 15'17, 1519, F-B HVY 1 /57
1520. 1521, 1523. 1524, 1526,',1527. 152a. 1529, 1532, 1534, 1536, F-BBIU 6/54 Union Aeromaritime de Transports
1537, 1540, 1542, 1545, 1546, 1547, 1 552, 1 555, ',] 556 & ',l 557 Beam LN-LAD-LN-LAE Det Norske Lultfartselskab; to R. Norwegian A.F.
Approach Training Flights OY-ABS Dansk Lufttaxa; sold Sweden /50
No. 104 Flying Re{resher School (period 1952 4) SE-BRX Aeropropaganda /50
Nos. 201, 205 & 206 Advanced Flying Schools (posl-war) SE-BTP Sold Finland
No. 1 Parachute Training School SE-CAM 10/54; resold to UK 10/55
No. 3 Glider Training School SU-AER-SU AET, SU-AEY-SU-AEZ Egvpt I I 47
Nos.10,'15,22 & 25 Reserve Flying Schools (post-war) VP-KMU L J. l\4aclachlan; Hunting Aerosurveys; Spartan Air Services
No.3 School of General Reconnarssance vP-KOX 1 0/58
VP-YIY Air Survey Co. 1 2/51
Communications (Comm.) Duties vR-HFC 8/51
Nos. 24, 51 1, 525 Squadrons; Metropolrtan Communications QQuadron; XA-FAO-XA-FAT /45 possible ex-Canada
Fighter Command Comm. Sqn.; No. 1684 Flight. Coastal Command Ex-R.N.Z.A.F.
Comm. Sqn.; many Group Comm. Flts.; and innumerable Station Flights. ZK-APK-ZK-APY G. M. Gouldi returned to RNZAF /49

C. M. Gould in New Zealand used a couple of ex-R.N.Z.A.F. Oxfortls for a while under civilian marks but returned them to the R.N.Z.A.F. in 1949.
Aircrull Proliles
This nerv series of Aircraft Profiles commenced with No. 205 and continues the pattern ol the cornplete history of
the Aircraft of the World established by the early Aircralt Profiles numbered 1 to 204.
The series is edited by Charles W. Cain, for many years Editor of The Aeroplane Spotter of World War Two
and beyond, and many well-known names have appeared among the authors and artists contributing to the series.
The continuing interest in and support of the Aircralt Profiles series has encouraged the Publishers to enlarge the
contents of the Profiles. From No. 216 onwards there are 28 pages in all aircraft Profiles. There are 4 pages in
colour-which allows the presentation of additional side views, badges, symbols, etc.

New series
205 Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress 221 Supermarine Seafires (Merlins)
206 Supermarine Spiffire Mark IX variants 222 Biicker Bii 131 Jungmann yariants
207 Messerschmitt Bf 110 Night Fighters 223 Lockheed C-130 Hercules variants
208 McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom variants 224 Supermarine Walrus & Seagull variants
209 de Havilland Mosquito Mark IV variants 225 Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet
210 Mitsubishi G4M'Betty'and Ohka Bomb 226 Republic F-105 Thunderchief variants
?tl Junkers Ju 87D variants 227 Airspeed Oxford variants
212 Fairey Swordflsh 228 Fieseler Fi 156 Storch variants
213 Karvanishi NIK Shiden 'George' 229 Vickers-Armstrong Warwick variants
211 Grumman TBF/Eastern TBM Avenger variants 230 Dassault Mirage variants
215 Arado Ar 234 Blitz 231 Lublin R.XII
216 Petlyakov Pe-2 variants 232 Martin Maryland & Baltimore variants
217 Brewster Buffalo yariants 233 Kawanishi 4-Motor Flying Boats
218 Bristol Blenheim Mark IV (H6K'Emily' & H8K'Mavis')

219 Heinkel He 219 Uhu 234 Heinkel He 177 Der Greif

220 Douglas C-47 variants (R.A.F. Dakotas) 235 Awo Lancaster Mark II

Vl/hilst every effort will be nnde to nnintain this programme, the publishers reserve the right to change the sequence.

Price structure Retail prices in U.S.A.

Parts 1-204 (old series) 2op Parts 1 -204 (oldseries) 85c
P arts 205-215 (new series) 3op Parts2OS-215 $t.ZS
Parts 21 6 onwards 35p Parts 216 onwards $1 .50

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