Principles and Designs

G. Robello Samuel, Ph.D. Xiushan Liu, Ph.D.

Houston, Texas

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Concepts. and Definitions Tangent-Normal-Binormal (TNB) Frame Frenet-Serret Formulas Curvature and Torsion Curvature Torsion Classification Rotational Vector Rotation Index Path versus Trajectory Transition Curves Covariance and Covariance Matrix Splines Supplementary Problems References 1 1 4 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 18 Chapter 2 Geodesy Ellipsoid and Geoid Types of Coordinates Easting and Northing vii 19 19 24 27 .Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Authors xv xvii xix Chapter 1 General Introduction Summary and Organization Overview.

viii Contents Families of Map Projections Principal Types of Projections Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection Transverse Mercator Projection Universal Transverse Mercator Projection Conic Projection Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) Projection Azimuthal (Planar) Projection Datum Geodetic Transformation Grid North and True North Magnetic Reference and Interference Projection Calculations Transverse Mercator Projection Universal Transverse Mercator Projection Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Polar Azimuthal Equidistant Projection Supplementary Problems References 27 27 29 29 30 31 31 31 31 33 35 36 36 40 40 41 42 44 45 48 Chapter 3 Well Path Trajectory Basic Definitions Inclination Angle Azimuth Angle Measured Depth True Vertical Depth Kick-Off Point Turn-Off Point Build-Rate Angle Drop-Rate Angle Turn-Rate Angle Lead Angle (LA) Survey Station Departure Closure 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 .

Contents ix Closure Azimuth Course Length Tie-In Points Toolface Angle Plots and Coordinate Systems Graphical Representation of a Well Path Well Trajectory Coordinate Systems Borehole Curvature and Torsion Moving Frame Borehole Bending Average Curvature Borehole Turning Torsion Angle Models for Well Path Trajectories 2D Mechanical Models 2D Mathematical Models 3D Well Path Models Supplementary Problems References 52 52 52 54 54 54 62 65 66 71 76 78 78 82 82 90 97 114 119 Chapter 4 Well Path Planning—2D Directional Wells Horizontal Wells Horizontal Arch Design Horizontal Ladder (Staircase) Design Planning the Well Path Just Before Targets Slight-Build Transition Well Path Case of Uncertainty in the Position of the Reservoir Top Extended-Reach Wells Catenary Profile Parabolic Profile Clothoid Profile Supplementary Problems References 123 124 132 133 135 141 146 151 151 155 158 161 164 170 .

x Contents Chapter 5 Well Path Planning—3D Multilateral Wells Conventional Model Azimuth or Azimuth/Inclination Correction Toolface Angle Calculation Complex Models Cubic-Type Wells Spline-in-Tension–Type Wells Sidetracking Wells Wells Bypassing Obstructions Bit-Walk Wells Clothoid-Inserted 3D Wells Supplementary Problems References 173 174 174 174 184 187 187 200 210 219 238 243 243 247 Chapter 6 Well Trajectory Monitoring Azimuth Conversion Geomagnetic Field and Declination Azimuth Conversion Methods Well Survey Calculations Data Processing Typical Calculation Methods Summary of Methods The Real Shape of a Well Trajectory Curve Structure Method Accurate Calculation Method Trajectory Deviation Projection Plot Method Normal Plane Scanning Off-Target Distance Target Distinction Supplementary Problems References 249 249 250 256 258 258 260 272 273 279 282 288 289 292 295 302 303 304 Chapter 7 Anti-Collision and Error Analysis Anti-Collision Collision Avoidance 307 308 314 .

Contents xi Rule-Based Collision Avoidance Separation Factor Collision Avoidance Risk-Based Collision Avoidance Pedal Curve Normal Probability Distribution for Risk Level Anti-Collision Plots Tortuosity Methods for Applying Continuous Tortuosity to a Well Path Calibration of Tortuosity Factors Absolute and Relative Tortuosity Discussion of Multiple Hits Bias-Type Errors Modeling Uncertainty Determining the Size and Shape Covariance Matrix Collision Risk Supplementary Problems References 314 315 318 326 326 329 331 331 336 337 338 340 340 341 344 347 348 349 Chapter 8 Well Path Optimization Derivative Analysis Optimization of Total Strain Energy of the Well Path Length Optimization for Horizontal Wells Horizontal Well Length Placement and Length of Horizontal Section Completion Design Number of Wells Length and Direction of Horizontal Section General Utility Planning Methods Universal Arc Profile Characteristic Parameters and Constraint Equations Universal Method for Planning Various Well Paths 351 351 353 354 354 358 359 360 361 365 365 367 368 .

xii Contents Numerical Design Method Analytical Design Method Smoothening the Path Clothoid Curve Curvature Bridging Well Path Optimization with Cubic Function Well Path Optimization with SiT Method Bit-Walk Unit Partition Based on Rock Strata Supplementary Problems References 369 370 374 376 379 380 384 384 387 388 Chapter 9 Measurement Tools Survey Tools Classification of Survey Tools Magnetic Survey Tools Gyro Survey Tools MWD Tools Telemetry System Through-Bit Logging Rotary Steerable Tools Hollow Whipstock Downhole Deflection Tools Supplementary Problem References 391 391 392 392 395 404 406 411 412 414 415 416 417 Chapter 10 Solid Expansion Technology in Complex Well Construction Expansion Technology The Expansion Process Expansion Force and Pressures Expansion Effects on Material Properties Expandable Connectors Expansion Techniques Hydroforming Expansion Cone Expansion Compliant Rotary Expansion Expansion Direction 419 420 420 423 424 426 427 427 427 429 429 .

Contents xiii Expansion Systems Solid Expandable Systems for the Cased Hole Solid Expandable Systems for the Open Hole Using Expansion Technology Conditions Mitigated with Expansion Technology Increasing Production Drilling Longer Wells Traversing Depleted Formations to Reach New Horizons Downsizing Wells or Preserving Hole Size While Addressing Drilling Hazards Casing Exit from an Existing Completion Advantages of Solid Expansion Technology Solid Expandable System Limitations Application of Solid Expandables to Complex Wells Complex Wells in Tight Economic Environments Subsalt Rubble Zones Extended-Reach Drilling Wells Multiple and Added Contingencies Tight Drilling Margins Supplementary Problems Bibliography 431 431 433 437 437 439 440 440 441 442 442 443 444 445 451 456 457 463 466 467 Chapter 11 Directional. and Multilateral Well Developments Capital Expenditure Reductions Reserves Additions Real-Options Valuation Other Methods of Cost Estimation 469 469 470 471 475 476 476 479 481 481 483 . Horizontal. and Multilateral Well Economics Well Planning Considerations Time Value of Money Economic Parameters Price Elasticity Ranges of Elasticity Risk Analysis in Directional. Horizontal.

xiv Contents Neural Network–Based Cost Estimation Support-Vector Machine–Based Cost Estimation Econometrics References 484 487 491 491 Appendix Index Useful Conversion Factors 493 497 .