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LOCATION AND DEFINITION OF THE CARIBBEAN REGION
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETY
Definition of the Caribbean Region
Society is a collection of people occupying a defined geographical area over a long period of time.
This describes the area washed by the Caribbean Sea and is often described as the Caribbean Basin. It would therefore include most of the islands of the Lesser Antilles, Greater Antilles as well as the mainland territories in Central America (Costa Rica, Belize, Panama, Honduras) and Northern South America such as Columbia and Venezuela. The common link here is the Caribbean Sea.
Society in the Caribbean is often considered the boundaries of a nation state.
The sociological understanding of the term society stresses the interaction amongst its members.
Culture Geological Culture is widely regarded as the way of life for a people. There are deep seated structural features of Caribbean geology which also identifies commonalities. It is the area that is defined by the Caribbean Plate and which experiences similar tectonic, seismic and volcanic features and processes. Material culture includes the products of people such as their styles Historical of architecture, types of food preparation, economic organizations and their forms of technology. It describes the area that saw the impact of European colonization, slavery, indentureship and the plantation system. this refers to all the territories so that one way of defining the Caribbean is to identify those countries that experienced the rule of specific European countries. Thus the Caribbean may be defined as being broken up into the English, French, Dutch and Spanish speaking countries and territories. Norms are standards of behavior that are culturally accepted and Political emanate from the realm of cultural values that we share. Cultural values refer to a set of rankings people in a society confer on to a myriad of social behaviors. Non-material culture refers to the cherished values, ideas, beliefs and ideas. It is often defined as the learned behavior of a people. Culture is sub divided into material and non-material culture.
In the Caribbean at least three types of governmental systems are found. They include Independent States, Associated States and Colonial Dependencies. CHARACTERISTICS OF CARIBBEAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Cultural Diversity is the existence of sub-cultures within a main culture or different cultures in a larger area such as the Caribbean and the US.
IMPACT OF HISTORICAL PROCESSES
The ancestors of the pre-Colombian Amerindians may have come out of North Eastern Asia across the frozen Bering Straits to
This is the social arrangement of society based on criteria such as race, wealth and education.
Alaska during the fourth Ice Age some fifteen to twenty thousand years ago. The nomads wandered southwards through North, Central and South America evolving distinct physical and cultural characteristics.
Over hundreds of years the Amerindians moved and some settled. Some of the familiar names are Aztec, Maya and Inca. Social Mobility The Orinoco Basin and the Guianas in South America were the This is the movement, usually of individuals or groups, from one social position to another within the socially stratified system in any society. original homeland of the Caribs and Arawaks who migrated northwards through the Lesser Antilles to the Greater Antilles. By 1492, the main Arawak groups which inhabited the West Indies were the Lucayans in the Bahamas and Tainos in Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti and Puerto Rico. The greatest Amerindian civilization Hybridization flourished on the mainland of Mesoamericas and South America.
This is the admixture of cultural traits and exchange of values from other cultures.
It is perhaps the constant movement of people into and out of the Caribbean that led Richardson to refer to a regional migration tradition. This propensity to migrate, he argued, took off
immediately after emancipation in the 1830¶s when thousands of men and women most notably from smaller islands, migrated to
This is where traits or practices of a culture are no longer practiced over time.
Trinidad and British Guiana in search of higher wages and better conditions. By 1845, more than 10 000 migrants from small West Indian Islands had travelled to Trinidad and over 8000 others had
gone to British Guiana. Many of these emigrants eventually returned home displaying the fruits of their labour. This movement continued from a long time as a feature of Caribbean people, that is, to move from small islands of the Eastern Caribbean to larger ones in a complex inter-island migration.
This may occur as a result of the deliberate desire to keep traditions alive and help some groups to preserve their sense of identity. It is also defined as the process where past cultural practices are practiced presently.
Encomienda System (System of Unfree Labor) Cultural Renewal Hispaniola was the first test ground for Spain¶s Indian Policy. This is where cultural practices that were once done are being revived or the fashioning of new practices based on those of the past.
rich Spanish. there was a virtual genocide He made them dive for pearls. Adult males had to do rotation work. color. stronger. Repartimiento and Yanconaje Chiefs were hunted and killed by Spanish dogs if they did not adhere to the rules.a contract between a company and the Spanish Crown. waste of human life and was The Law of Burgos (1512-1513) sought to alienate the tension between Spanish and Amerindians. Yanaconaje was practiced in Peru and Bolivia. By the second half of the 16th Century. occupation. (1531-1532) Asiento. Repartimiento was primarily practiced in Central Mexico and Andean Highlands. in Hispaniola. characterized by high mortality rate. Bartolome de Las Casas was a former encomendero who had a religious epiphany and freed the Amerindians. the first Dominican friar arrived to help the Amerindians. Father Antonio Montesinos on Advent Sunday in 1511 addressed Spanish telling them they were ³hypocritical and warped. the Repartimiento was called Mita. African slaves were accessible.African slaves were treated as commodities. All forms of colonial labor depended on servitude/ coercion The audienca moderated the amount of tribute the slaves had to pay and they functioned like a High Court. Many Amerindians died of starvation. The New Laws of the Indies (1542) dealt with the prohibition of enslavement of Indians and prevention of doing personal services for encomenderos. Chattel. Page 3 . healthier. a Spanish Governor was appointed by the crown to oversee the encomienda system. There was an encomendero who had to oversee the work usually a Nicholas De Ovando had to protect the Amerindians but he did not do so. of the Amerindians. encomienda system was partially banned as some encomenderos still practiced the system. status. Amerindians drowned because they were not accustomed to diving so deep.Amerindians had to present Columbus with a certain amount of gold each week which were measured in ingots (a calabash full of gold dust) By 1560.´ The journey of slave ships from Africa to the West Indies (Middle Passage) was wrought with horror. Plantation Society Race. The rich Spanish (encomendero) gained jurisdiction over land and they had Amerindians working for them. In New Spain. Nicholas De Ovando. ethnicity affected the social pyramid of the plantation society. less prone to diseases and had knowledge of cultivation. Economics was the start and end of slavery. He went to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to look to Africa for labor since it was cheap and easily accessible. African Slaves In 1510.
A collision zone occurs where two continental plates collide forming Marronage ± Maroons were the runaway slaves who established communities in the hilly terrain of many areas of the Americas. Marronage was not always an option in island communities but existed in large territories where the hilly terrain was ideal for settlements. The most famous Maroons in the Caribbean are found in Suriname. A subduction zone occurs when an oceanic plate collide with a continental plate and the denser oceanic plate is forced under. fold mountains. however. E. After the contracts expired they were given the option to return to their homelands or to receive a plot of land. Divergent Plate Margin Page 4 . Movement towards Independence Foster Commission (1935) in Trinidad and Moyne Commission Indentureship (1938) looked at the economic situation in each country. They were successful at defending their liberty and in 1739 the British were forced to sign a treaty of peace. They destroyed valuable machinery either a collision zone or a subduction zone may be formed.shop-keeping and saving society (sousou) Indentureship was supposed to differ from slavery. E. Plate tectonics is the study of the movement of plates and their resultant landforms. Caribbean Reponse to Oppression IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHIC PHENOMENA Encomienda Plate Tectonics Amerindians used bows and arrows with poisoned tips. At a convergent plate margin volcanoes and earthquakes occur. the eastern end of the Caribbean Plate along the line of the Lesser Antilles and the North American plate and the Caribbean plate. At a convergent plate margin.The plantation society is a capitalist type of enterprise in which land is treated like a commodity. they were burnt to the stake Types of Plates Margins Slavery Convergent Plate Margin They were intentionally idle on the plantation (Go Slow) At these margins two plates move towards each other and it is called a destructive plate margin. in the Blue Mountains and Cockpit Country of Jamaica and in Las Villas in Cuba. The crust is made up of two plates.g. Indentured laborers were assigned contracts in which they were paid wages to work for a specified period of time.g. the servants were treated as harshly as the slaves. Universal Adult Suffrage ±the right to vote In the 1930s political parties were formed. the Infanticide and Group or Individual Suicide Continental or Oceanic and they move or float on molten rock. Many chose to stay. If caught. Entrepreneurial activities. Eurasian and Indian plates collide to form the Himalayan Mountains.
Erupted in 1902. Floods Volcanoes Fires A volcano is an opening in the earth¶s crust through which molten rock. Magma is forced upwards and new crust is created. Volcanic activity does not occur here. Pelee-Martinque Over 3000 people died as a result.At this plate margin. ash. The focus is the point at which the earthquake originated. instead only seismic activity is experienced. E. the Caribbean and North American plates move away from each other to form the Cayman Island Ridge.g. Registered a 6-6. Kingston Jamaica (1907) A nueeardente (glowing cloud filled with super heated ash and gases) descended on the village and thus suffocated the residents. Transform Plate Margin Liquefaction At this plate margin. Utility poles fall and buildings collapse.5 on the Richter scale Earthquakes Liquefaction is the process whereby reclaimed land or loose sediments behave like a liquid during an earthquake. E.4 on the Richter scale Tremors 2 deaths Page 5 . Waves travel outwards from side to side. It is also called a fault. The ground vibrates during an earthquake. Mt.Jamaica (1692) In the Caribbean: The entire city of Port Royal slumped into the sea as a result of liquefaction. 800 deaths 85% buildings destroyed Ground fissures over 15cm apart Jamaica (1993) Risks involved with Earthquakes 5. the Cayman Island Trench. They are caused by the development of faults in the crust which result from collision of plates or from the movement of molten rocks below or within the crust or the sudden release of stress that has slowly built up along the fault plane at a transform plate margin. This results in gentle volcanis and earthquake activity. The epicenter is the point on the surface of the earth directly above the focus. the plates move away from each other and is called a constructive plate margin as new crust is formed. steam etc are ejected. Port Royal. Walls may crack and windows may break. the plates slide past each other with converging or diverging. and killed 30 000 people.g. Caused fires Earthquakes are sudden earth movements or vibrations in the earth¶s crust. Ground Fissures The ground splits and cracks.
All hurricanes develop over the sea.3 earthquake Heavy rain may continue 3 historic churches destroyed Hospital damaged 40% increase in wind speed doubles the destructive power Wall collapsed Waves may reach 8m high Indonesian Earthquake and Tsunami (2004) May be severe beach erosion Occurred off the island of Sumatra Marine life damaged or killed Upward displacement of 10m Corals damaged Tsunami travelled at speed of 800km/h Coastal structures damaged Hurricanes Ships and boats at risk A hurricane is a low pressure system formed in warm waters. They do not develop close to the equator as they require a surface temperature of 27 degrees. Storm surge Near eye of major hurricane sea levels are several metres above normal Before a hurricane Strengthened as approaches shore Calm weather.Triggered landslides Wind drops suddenly after eye passes and starts again More than 500 homes destroyed After a hurricane Dominica (2004) Wind speeds gradually drop 6. high humidity and strong swells Flooding As hurricane approaches. down draught of warm air Page 6 ¡ Landslides ind damage ave damage . Barrackpore) During a hurricane Landslide Wind strongest near the eye of the storm Triggered where steep hills are sodden with rain Eye: calm. cloud cover builds up and winds intensify Flooding by slowly rising waters (Caroni.
Canopy cover Soils 7. Page 7 . 1. Over grazing 2. Over use of artificial fertilizer 80-90% houses damaged or destroyed 5. Intercropping 9. Forest fires Water supply contaminated 8. Deforestation themselves. It consists of tiny oarticles derived from the broken down fragment of rock together with humus. Bad agricultural practices Recently built national stadium destroyed Soil conservation Most schools damaged Soil may be conserved by: 90% nutmeg trees destroyed 1. 300 available 5. Monoculture 5000-6000 slept in shelters 6. Mulching Roads blocked and airport closed 3. These tiny polyps live in colonies or large groups. Terracing 90% trees fell 2. Soil compaction by grazing animals and machinery The main frame of the reef is built up by coral polyps whish are small soft bodied creatures which use calcium carbonate dissolved in water to build up a hard casing of limestone to protect 2. Reforestation Coral Reefs Soil erosion How are coral reefs formed? Soil may be eroded by: 1. Slash and burn cultivation Power lines brought down 7. 8. Crop rotation Prison roof blown off 6. Wind breaks Landline phone and radio transmitters down 4. Contour ploughing/drainage 1700 hotel rooms. Cover cropping Soil is the uppermost layer of loose material on top of the orck which makes up the surface of the earth. 3.Hurricane Ivan in Grenada ( September 2004) 4.
Droughts 5. 2. water lagoon. A shallow lagoon usually occurs between the coast and the outer edge of the reef. They protect the coastline from wave erosion and they dissipate wave energy.A barrier reef is similar to a fringing reef except that it is situated several kilometers off the coast and is separated from 6. Source of sand for beach when reefs break down. Thus is why there are few coral reefs outside the tropics or in places where there are cold sea currents. The reef surrounds a deep lagoon. 2. Atolls.Atolls tend to form horseshoe shapes or rings. Atolls occur off the coast of Belize. 3. If rain does occur.This type of reef consists of a platform of coral which is connected to and which is built out from the coast. Organic pollution damage coral. At the base of this slope there will also be an accumulation of sand and rubble. Barrier Reef. The surface of the platform is usually flat or slightly concave and its 4. Few reefs are near the mouth of rivers. outer edge drops away steeply to the surrounding seafloor. it often becomes diseased and may die. Buccoo Reef is an example of a fringing reef. Organic growth of other organisms are promoted. On the seaward side. Muddy water damages coral because it shuts out sunlight and because silt particles choke the coral polyps. The coral of a barrier reef is often joined to the coast although the lagoon may be too deep for coral to grow on its bed. In some cases. Corals may be starved from lack of oxygen or smothered in algae. it by a deep. 4. 5. it usually isn¶t enough for the ground to absorb therefore it is evaporated again. Droughts are caused by a lack of rain over a long period of time. The floor of this is made up of sand. Corals need to grow in clean water. Sunlight must be able to penetrate where the coral is growing. Other organisms also live on the reef and these creatures produce hard skeletons which help to build up the structure of the reef around the framework of the coral. 2. Importance of coral reefs to the Caribbean 1. dead coral and rubble. scuba diving and snorkeling therefore provides income and earns foreign revenue A rich source of marine flora and fauna-a marine ecosystem 4. there is usually a shallow lagoon. The temperature of the water should be between 21 and 30 degrees Celsius. The exact depth depends on the clarity of the water. IMPACT OF SCIETAL INSTITUTIONS ON CARIBBEAN PEOPLE Types of Coral Reefs Page 8 . Corals mat be killed where the water is too hot. 3. Coral grow where the water has the right amount of salt. fringing reefs develop on the inner side of lagoons which lie between a barrier reef and the coast 7.3. 1. Between the reef and the shore. When the growth of the coral is held back. Corals grow only in fairly shallow water. Promotes tourism. the reef slopes down more steeply. Layer after layer of limestone is added to the colony as new polyps build on top of the structure. Fringing Reefs. Conditions in which coral reefs grow of the island. E. Only the surface layer of the reef is made up of live coral.g. 3. 1.
They deal with the ultimate human concerns of life and death. experts. 2. tourists The Westminster System y y y y y y The government is chosen by the democratically elected Lower House. They also help to keep people out of the labor market and it promotes technological change in society by providing the basis of knowledge and skills that enable technological innovation to occur. software Clothes Consultants. It provides a set of beliefs that explains and interprets occurrences in the social and physical environment that cannot be explained by other means. y y y y y y Religion y Religious institutions meet any basic human needs that are not met by the other institutions. Surveillance Page 9 . songs. performers Migrants.Family The family is the most fundamental universal social institution and has several functions. beliefs. It also recruits young people for specific occupational and social roles in society. alienation and disappointment. packaged and agricultural produce Fish Clothes Music. defeat. artists.V. advisors Exports from Caribbean Education y y The primary function of the education system is to promote socialization of young people. cable T. Oil Natural gas Foods-fresh. The family ought to be the first to instill in a child attitudes. socialization. norms. entertainment Books. students. attitudes. anxiety. videos. Religious institutions provide people with an identity as members of a specific group and a sense of connectedness with the past and future/ it provides emotional support and consolation in the face of uncertainty. magazines. The head of government is the Prime Minister who leads the The Justice System Cabinet which is responsible for the Lower House. 1. 3. norms and values so that his or her own behavior can be developed. present and future conducts. They also provide a set of beliefs for interpreting the causes and consequences of a person¶s past. The use of prisons and policing The informal system which involves diversion and rehabilitation There is a career public service which impartially serves the government of the day. economic unit to supply basic needs and emotional and psychological support. morality and a set of guidelines for appropriate behavior.fresh and packaged Electronic items Motor vehicles Computers Appliances Films. specific skills and system of knowledge to young people. led by the leader of the party with the second largest number of votes in the Lower House. US and Europe y y Foods. CARIBBEAN GLOBAL INTERACTIONS Imports from Canada. They also serve as a basic human need for providing people with ethical principles. Music. The justice system has three main features: An opposition exists. These include reproduction. Schools transmit a society¶s values. Carnival costumes.
calypso technologies change their character? However in order to promote economic development we have to use modern technology namely an international reggae festival launched on the internet. Derek Walcott (St. Often times. Bajan writer George Lamming wrote a book the Pleasures of Exile (1960) where he writes about the struggle to reclaim our voice with The rule of law prevails with an independent judiciary subject to the constitution. The cult perfected in 1930¶s and leaders such as Marcus Garvey stimulated this movement with their belief in racial dignity. All met with resistance in the beginning but then tourism became enticing y Chutney. This has evolved in modern times where the women are treated equally.g.g.The armed services are outside politics and act on the instructions of the government. Notting Hill Carnival-United Kingdom Caribana Festival. 2. Within the Rastafarian religion women are regarded as inferior to men and exist only for their pleasure. 4.) -What sorts of policies might Caribbean governments need to put in place to ensure that while the arts and popular culture are properly developed we also protect what they reflect of our actual Impact of Rastafarianism heritage? Rastafarianism evolved as a cult in Jamaica. the women folk are seen walking behind their men and never in front or even to the side. Lucia) intertwines the physical aspect of the Caribbean in his poems Page 10 . Rastafarians form tribes and live in communes with each tribe having a leader who possesses power over all other tribe members. -How can we ensure that our artists and cultural entrepreneurs develop skills that will provide them with employment and help them to survive and prosper economically? How Caribbean Art and Culture contribute to the Development of our Caribbean Reflect our everyday experiences of physical and social environments e. reggae. Represent important aspects of our history e. 3. Tassa -Will we lose important that make them our own? y Steelpan (Pan European Association responsible for creating a network to promote the development of pan in Europe.g.New York -What are some of the dangers we face when we begin to adapt our arts and culture to make them attractive to persons outside of the Caribbean? Music -How might packaging them appropriately to suit these new y Soca. Carnival. Crop Over festival 1. reference to European colonizers and Sculpture ³Negro Aroused´ by Jamaican sculptor Edna Manley (1935) showed workers from Jamaica rising from oppression Impact of Caribbean Cultural Practices Abroad Economic development e.Toronto Brooklyn Labor Day Point Fortin Day.
resolving differences Distribution of income 2.social institution.awareness of the fragility of the environment. It can be measured in GNP which reflects the general increases in total Page 11 . Economy.foreign trade. Trans-National Corporations. Urbanization Birth rate 4. availability of resources Improved institutions and attitudes 3. The impact of globalisation on development. Society. Death rate Economic Development Growth and Development This is the development of the production of goods and services in a country. particularly the conservation and protection of the environment. World Bank. secondary and tertiary This is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Employment levels Economic structures such as primary. democratic system of government.MODULE TWO CONCEPTS AND INDICATORS OF DEVELOPMENT Indicators of Development GNP/ capita Sustainable Development Industrialization This is a concept of advancing people¶s quality of life. Growth is the all round expansion of the economy. Environment. The level of local and foreign debt sectors Sustainable Development addresses: Levels of foreign aid receipts Poverty Non-economic indicators of Development Human Rights Violations Life expectancy Sexual Prejudice Levels of education Environmental Destruction Ratio of doctors to the population Elements of Sustainable Development Labor productivity 1.sensitivity to the limits and potential of economic growth and the impact on society and environment. assessing such advance in terms of economic criteria as well as human dynamics. WTO. IMF.
Examples of growth include advances in technology. health care etc. quality of life.Favorable Economic Growth CARICOM. Low standard of living Relatively short life expectancy Development is the qualitative concept concerned with the pattern of economic change.Less Economic Growth Structural adjustment Zero.problems of regional trade Negative. there must be growth. education. standard of living education. race. color. High rates of population growth Most Caribbean countries have the legacy of slavery and this has stratified the society under factors of economic status. wealth and Page 12 .division of the economy into two distinct and Technological development radically different sectors Balance of payments Unemployment Role of government and government expenditure Size of population Balance of Payment Migration Balance of Payment = (Money made+ Money Brought In) (Money Sent Out) Industrialization The role of education If Balance of payment. High crime rates High unemployment Poor educational opportunities Economic Growth Considerable dependence on agriculture Economic growth is affected by: High infant mortality rate Rate of investment Problems of Development Rate of increase in the working population Economic dualism. In order to have development.No Economic Growth Features of underdevelopment FACTORS THAT PROMOTE OR HINDER DEVELOPMENT Poor economic performance 1. The role of information technology Positive.output.
low levels of production will occur. 3. Globalization impacts: Example of Multinational Corporations in the Caribbean Communication Cable and Wireless Money Impact of Golabilsation Page 13 . Both the IMF and the World Bank were designed to help countries Globalisation recover form the effects of World War II. 4. For the lending and disbursement of funds. 2. lowering barriers to trade.marriage. Six global factors are: Switzerland 1. status or creed. The World Bank focused on specific projects lending. Unfair discrimination other than by merit hinders development. 5. 5. This is the growth and intensification of political. GLOBALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT Organization IMF (International Monetary Fund) The IMF was established in December 1945 in the aftermath of World War II as there was the need to have an agency to stabilize the international monetary system. all of which fall within the economic philosophy of free market capitalism. social and cultural relations across national borders. Multi-national corporations Deepening of social inequality Also called Trans-National Corporations and these are businesses that carry out at least 25% of production internationally. 6. As a result. 4. Where such discrimination exists. certain stipulations apply. and focusing on tariffs. Health care should be a priority of the government as unhealthy workers will spend less time at work and therefore they will be less efficient than expected. World Bank/International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) This was established around the same time as the IMF. GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) now WTO GATT was founded in 1947 with headquarters in Geneva. Technology allows for increased knowledge. productivity is diminished and distorted and the development is hindered. 6. economic. 3. Knowledge can help to promote development as new and modern techniques can be implemented. A country with high levels of crime and violence can generate a fear throughout the population. Because of this there is a sense of inferiority and superiority among the classes which in turn hinder development. color. Access to education and training is critical in assessing the development of a country. religion. sex. 2. Submission to an economic model Constriction of capital flow Access to more markets Removal of preferential trade Erasure and/or hybridization of culture The main purpose was the promotion of free trade Its principal function has been to encourage compliance of trade agreements. A person should not be discriminated against because of race.
They buy few or none of their raw materials. Technologies and skill brought by MNCs may be severely guarded. Shell Princess Margaret declared the Federal Parliament open in 1958. MNCs may use their power in the markets to drive domestic producers out of business 2. Holiday Inn Pepsi Important Objectives Alcan Strengthen the movement for self government. 3. Price Waterhouse Advantages Achievements 1. 2. CARIFTA Heads of Government meeting in December 1965 confirmed the agreement to achieve a Free Trade Area Page 14 .Scotiabank Decided that Trinidad would be the site for the West Indian Parliament which upset Jamaican delegates who said Port of Spain Texaco was too far away. Esso Most urgent problem facing the Federal Government was to identify a source of funding for the smaller islands who had little to fall back on. Jamaica in 1947. Communication among islands (postal. instead they are imported 3. THE INTEGRATION MOVEMENT Petty rivalry among member states Federation Distrust by smaller states for the larger bodies. Disadvantages Coming together of smaller states and strengthen their 1. Courts Safeguard the democratic system of government. shipping) were inefficient Masses were not educated about the Federation Reasons for Failure effectiveness in dealing with larger bodies. British West Indian Federation idea came up again in Montego. Employment can be created Increase of foreign exchange Facilitated the movement form colonialism to independence Transfer of technology through a united voice.
Address ecological and environmental questions Institute measures to control the spread of diseases Objectives Provide mechanisms for prevention and control of toxic waste Co-operation among member states at regional and international levels. Jamaica.13 state on July 4 1983 Co-operative functions Suriname. Gather information for the control of drug trafficking activities Promotion of unity and solidarity among member states and defending their sovereignty and independence CSME(Caribbean Single Market and Economy) Promotion of economic integration through the Eastern Caribbean Common Market Includes the negotiations of protocol which will efficiently amend the treaty of Chaguaramas Arranging for overseas representatives to work together for common foreign policy objectives Came into force on July 4th 1997 within the area emissions ACS(Association of Caribbean States) Main objectives Page 15 .14 state on July 4 1995 External economic relations Concentrated on the promotion of Integration of the economics of member states ACS was envisioned to th th th th OECS(Organization of Eastern Caribbean States) Provide a unique opportunity for pursuing a range of objectives that relate to a shared patrimony of the Caribbean sea and seaboard July 4 1981 th making provisions for their use on a sustainable basis The states close proximity to each other would facilitate integration and co operation.Agreed name: Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) To strengthen co-operation and integration among members through increased economic activity by trading raw materials and CARICOM finished products among members Caribbean Community and Common Market came into effect in August 1 1973. ACS Initiative Eight other countries joined CARICOM Intra-ACS trade seeks to increase the flow of goods between members Bahamas. Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago and was known as the Treat of Chaguaramas. st To preserve the Caribbean environment To conduct joint negotiations on external economic relations Signed by Barbados.
investment and trade First suggested at an official level in July 1966 at the Canada West Indies Prime Ministers¶ meeting in Ottawa Formal agreement establishing the CBD was signed in Kingston Improved services provided by enterprises and individuals including transportation and communications Jamaica on 18th October 1969 at a Conference of Plenipotentiaries from 18 countries and territories Greater opportunity for travel Agreement was to come into force on the 26th January 1970 and Secretary General of the UN acted as the Depository for the Expanded scope for artistes to showcase their goods and services agreement where the government of Barbados was appointed as Trustee Opportunities for nationals to study in CARICOM countries and to work in the country of their choice First meeting of the Board of Governors of the CDB was held in Nassau on 31st January 1970 and Professor Sir Arthur Lewis was CARIBBEAN EXAMINATION COUNCIL elected as the first President of the Bank Established in 1972 to develop a system of regional examinations at the Ordinary and Advanced Levels to replace the London General Certificate of Education CARIBBEAN NEWS AGENCY Based in Barbados In 1981 the first examinations were held in 5 subjects Has seen the introduction of regional news that emanates from a source that has regional overage as its primary mandate without In 1998 the council had 7 examinations at the Advanced Level having to compete with the international sources for coverage UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES WEST INDIES CRICKET BOARD Created a regional institution in 1948 Responsible for the administration and organization of cricket in the region University College at Mona Jamaica was the first campus of University Comprises representatives from Barbados.Benefits of the CSME CARIBBEAN DEVELOPMENT BANK Increasing trade and exchange of goods in an assured market of over 5 million persons creating opportunities for employment. Jamaica. Augustine in Trinidad in 1960 Headquarters held in Antigua and Barbados Cave Hill Campus Barbados in 1962 Eleven University Centers situated in non-campus countries throughout the region as well as a Center for Hotel Tourism and Management in the Bahamas CONTRIBUTIONS OF SPORT UWI plays a critical role in the education advancement of the region Served as an integrating force in the Caribbean: different races and classes come together Page 16 . the Leeward Islands and Trinidad and Tobago and the Windward Islands Campus was established in St. Guyana.
To let individuals know what is going on in their immediate environment and in their wider community 3. 6. Coaches. It is part of a global African community. optic. Marcus Garvey founded The Universal Negro Improvement 1. largely ignored. TV. asserting the principality after sharing experiences to foster solidarity and resistance to exploitation. To lessen countries feelings of remoteness providing an adequate supply of news from and to these areas Association in 1914.Socialization 4. Dominance of foreign media e. The emergence of a Marxist state in 1917 threw into the political and ideological ring the challenge of social analysis perceived principally as class struggle. Factors affecting the media performance Performance in athletics far outstrips the level of support and infrastructure 1. Page 17 . We need programmes and infrastructure from the school and community levels up to the national level 2. physical education instructors. physical therapists INTELLECTUAL TRADITIONS Sports equipment and goods has become a lucrative business Pan-Africanism It is a socio political world view as well as a movement which seeks to unify and uplift both native Africans and those of the ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MASS MEDIA African diaspora. E. It is usually seen as a product of the African slave trade. To support the school curriculum To provide entertainment e. Major Role The calling of the first Pan African Congress occurred in 1900. radio stations To make ourselves visible to others which in turn promote economic development While cricket has a special place in the West Indian consciousness there are other areas that need to be capitalized on. The availability of communication technologies: satellite. was connected to Pan Africanism.g. 76% of Jamaica and 95% of Montserrat¶s programming is imported. to entertain. Africanism sets aside cultural differences. by some. laser and digitalizing technology Media rights and privileges Professional training: CARIMAC. They have their major functions: to inform.g. PanMass media are those channels that can be used to communicate messages to a large number of people simultaneously. Making a living from sport 3. to make us visible to others 2. computing. sport psychologists. To ensure that programs of public education are effectively implemented Served as a boost of morale and identity of West Indian people 5. we should perform better at swimming and water sports given the fact that we are islands 7.g.Caribbean Institute of Mass Communication Aside from cricket few other sporting disciplines afford Caribbean people to make a living 4. The issue of class and race remained unresolved theoretically for Caribbean Marxists. Color became a problematic element. To enhance communication among members of a society and of the global village.
Marx the social philosopher and Lenin the field officer gave the world inherent tensions of Marxism. Industrialization Marxist Theory arose in a capitalist world and as an analysis of that world as well as antidote prescription for diagnosed ills. Dr. 1. The Negritude writers found solidarity in a common black identity as a rejection of French colonial racism. Offered Jobs Industrialize country providing a revenue generating sector Louis¶ reason for this was that industrialization was expensive and export promotions required breaking into foreign markets and building new distribution outlets. discussing the status of blacks with fellow international French students.´ Some of Louis¶ strategy can be seen in the economic reform of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. Key figures include Paulette Nardal. Martiniquan poet Aime Cesaire. Rapid structural changes Economic reform in the case of Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago. The incentives included exemption from Puerto Rican taxes from ten to thirty years and the provision of infrastructure. Leo Sajoo. Arthur Louis believed that manufacturing could emerge whether or not there was a regional manufacturing class throughout the Caribbean. Leon Damas. the government launched ³Operation Bootstrap´ in 1948. Industrialization by invitation was a term coined by Sir William Arthur Louis. Impact The term Negritude was first used by Aime Cesaire in the 1930s while in Paris. In Puerto Rico. In the 90¶s Jamaica privatized it¶s industries in the period 1972-1995. Langston Hughes and Richard Wright. Jane Nardal. Leopold Senghor of Senegal and Leon Gontran-Damas of Cayenne. It is a literary and political movement that developed in the 1930¶s. Page 18 . The basis of this policy indicated that the Puerto Rico government provided incentive for industries in the US to locate in Puerto Rico. Louis¶ economic strategy of industrialization by invitation.Negritude by invitation was interpreted by competing political leaders in the search for the key to development of Jamaica¶s economy. From 1962. 2. This led to the development of a booming manufacturing and petrochemical sector in Trinidad and Tobago. Some of these programs were encouraged by the Norman Manley Government. Dr. 5. Marxism Repatriation of profits to home countries of the industry Pollution Exploitation of the labor force by keeping them at minimum wage Positive impact 1. Their concern at the time was how to recover black pride and dignity from white intellectual assault. They believed that the shared black heritage of members of the African Diaspora was the best tool in fighting against French political and intellectual hegemony and domination. factory building and trained workers. The movement was influenced by the Harlem Renaissance particularly the work of African American writers Langston Hughes and Richard Wright whose work addressed themes of blackness and racism.industry overtook agriculture by generating most of the GDP. Once an increase in foreign direct investment is attracted. He referred to this strategy as ³Industrialization by Invitation. 2. Further inspiration came from the black culture and history of Haiti. Eric Williams of Trinidad and Tobago proposed and eventually implemented Dr. Industrialization by Invitation 4. the private sector¶s income will increase. 3. Louis re-iterated the idea that industrialization was only possible if there was foreign investment. This could only be done if islands concentrated on inviting manufacturers who are well established in foreign markets. After World War II. the People¶s National Party in Jamaica called for industrial development programs.
5. 3. According to Walter Rodney. they discarded them. slavery.Seven basic characteristics of Marxism: Eric Williams was one of the first persons to link slavery and Capitalism. Revolutionary character Anti-imperialist rhetoric Scientific principles Historical rootedness Enforcement leadership Sublime end British capitalism only involved the Caribbean to the extent that the position of the Caribbean performed only to the needs of the British government. All basic communal or national necessities must be in the controlling hands of leaders of the state. When both were no more useful to the British. This principle is socioeconomic and political theory developed by German philosopher Karl Marx in the nineteenth century. It was nonnegotiable for two fundamental reasons. The issue of race complicated the adoption of Marxism in the Caribbean. The only form of Capitalism which the British taught in the Caribbean was slavery and colonialism. this type of capitalism was one-sided. British Caribbean Marxists linked the problems of class and race. The first is that Africans had little or no say in the system and the second is that the system was forced upon the Africans. 6. women were abused sexually and their resistance was largely individual such as infanticide. A simple definition of a feminist is one who advocates the recognition of rights for women rather than the mere granting of the privilege. The black West Indian was constantly reminded of his/her blackness and this blackness was closely linked to backwardness.Marxism is a power focused system and the initial effort of it emergence is about the obtaining of or seizing political power. even supremely. Private owned capital and investment Profit making the same basic rights and freedom as everybody else. embodied the Capitalist ideal of the British. nothing more. Their priority is for treatment deserving as Capitalism in its simplest terms means free market enterprise. This system is a means of organizing the economy whereby the exchange of goods and services is done according to the forces of the market. males are in charge and have been in charge for centuries. arson or even murder. CLR James pointed out that the system of slavery and colonialism had to be brutal to ensure that the system of Capitalism worked and worked well. 4. The European thinkers were fixed on Marxism as having essentially. Both slavery and colonialism were maintained through a system of torture and coercion. Page 19 . human entitlement. He argued that slavery was purely economic and it 1. The struggle of women to be treated justly is a necessity for the proper morality of any society. a class character. Women have fared badly under males. abortion. Caribbean Marxism Marxism is important to this region. 2. 7. During Capitalism was introduced into the Caribbean with the first transshipment of Black African Slaves across the Atlantic. SOCIAL JUSTICE Capitalism boasts of two major ideals: Social justice is based on a premise that all people are entitled to 1. The brutality was not only mental but psychological. and so the issue of race was at best secondary and often subsumed. Centralized authority. that is. 2. Trends in Caribbean feminist thought Caribbean perspective on British Capitalism Throughout the world. demand and supply. The forced arrangement was that the Caribbean produced and the British consumed. Women are not asking for special rights and privileges.
As a result the Caribbean was established as a zone of war in which even the basic assumption of a civil society did not apply. declared and protected the fundamental human rights Equity attempts to ascertain whether the treatment is fair or just. various checks and balances that have been placed in the constitution to protect it from political abuse or amendment. and freedom of the individual in all societies Evolution of Social Justice in the Caribbean Fundamental Human Rights and Freedom The traditional notions of civil society did not apply to the Caribbean region in early colonial times The inclusion of a Bill of Rights in the constitutions of independent countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean affords the citizen the power to redress any infringement of his/her The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) that purported to divide the world between Spain and Portugal laid the foundation for colonial exploration and expansion in the Caribbean region by other imperial powers constitutional rights through the use of the court system. All of the independent territories of the Commonwealth Caribbean have Bill of Rights which are enshrined and protected in their constitutions. It also places constraints on executive action. Page 20 . protected from easy amendment by the entrenchment of their positions. This manifested itself in the introduction of exploitative labor systems and led to the recognition of slaves as both people and property The Bill of Rights diminished the effect of the Westminster After the emancipation of slave in 1834 and the failure of the apprenticeship in 1838 the concept of people as property was removed. The Entrenchment of the Constitutions Indentureship ended in 1917 The constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean are all The Universal Adult Franchise was first implemented in Jamaica in 1944 and in Trinidad and Tobago in 1946 and later in the other territories. However the indentureship systems limited the freedom of movement as indentured workers needed to have passes to leave their estate. It gave all persons older than 21 years the right to vote regardless of ownership or rental of property or levels of income. Rights 1960 for the inclusion in its constitution in 1962 and retained this model when it became a republic in 1976 The Council of Europe drew up this Convention in 1950 their constitution. The Treaty of Ryswick 1697 established the principle of no peace beyond the line which reinforced that whatever applied in Europe between the European powers did not apply to the Caribbean All the independent territories except Trinidad and Tobago have followed the format of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom for the inclusion in The area beyond the line to which the treaty referred was the west of the prime meridian and south of the Tropic of Cancer. The doctrine of the supremacy of the constitution applies to all of the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean.Equality refers to efforts to treat everyone in a similar way The Bill of Rights were chapters in their constitutions that recognized. Trinidad and Tobago copied the formula of the Canadian Bill of Equality was not a principle that applied in the colonial state. doctrine of the Supremacy of Parliament. The Parliaments of the region cannot amend all of the sections of their constitutions by a simple majority because this is one of the Movements toward real social justice came with the introduction of the Bill of Rights in constitutions of the newly independent countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean starting with Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago in 1962.
a Spanish labor system where a DEFINTION OF KEY TERMS percentage of the male population of any village between the ages of 18-60 could be recruited to work 1. for a Spanish settler for a week or fortnight 19. Cultural expressions. 5. Cultural retention.all of the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean have this procedure which specifies that certain sections of the constitution require special majorities in the Parliament. Communism. the status of a circuit court or maintaining a fixed location and the confidence of the Caribbean public. Cultural hybridization. Cultural erasure.the existence of sub-cultures within a main or different culture Time delay procedures between readings of a Bill of Amendment. Repartimiento. 4. 8. Cultural relativism. Chattel slavery.form of slavery where people are owned as property and can be bought or sold 3. The effect of such a delay is that the Parliament cannot consider any bill to amend the constitution hurriedly and more time is given for a deeper consideration of the proposed amendment by the wider society.the admixture cultural traits and exchange of values from other cultures 12.ways of thinking common to a group people from a specified geographical area Cultural diversity. Atlantic Slave Trade. Diaspora.the social arrangement of society based on criteria such as race.where a culture of one country is pervasively influencing a local culture 9. to be sold to plantation owners in the western hemisphere. the location of the headquarters.where minority cultures exist alongside a main culture The Caribbean Court of Appeal is intended to be a replacement for the Privy Council as the final court of appeal for the countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean 14.acceptance of aspects of or traits or traits of foreign cultures Cultural assimilation.where past cultural practices are practiced presently 16.a theory of a society where all property should be owned by the community or state and labor organized for the common good. 15. Cultural pluralism. Cultural norms.ways in which one¶s culture is demonstrated 11. 7.the commercial buying of Africans from West Africa crossing the Atlantic Ocean. bills that seek to amend the constitution be subjected to the approval of a referendum after they have been passed in Parliament.integration of aspects of or traits of foreign cultures into local culture Cultural beliefs. Cultural renewal.the standards of behavior that are accepted and shared by members of a society The Caribbean Court of Appeal 13.some of the constitutions of the commonwealth Caribbean specify that there should be a period of 90 days between the first and second readings of a bill that seeks to amend the constitution before the head of state gives his/her assent to the bill. Cultural domination.the comparison between cultures based on the notion that no culture is superior 17.some of the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean require that certain 6. wealth and education Page 21 . the method of selecting judges.where traits of a culture are no longer practiced over time 10. Special majorities in the Parliament.the dispersion and distribution of members of a race or society 18.where cultural practices that were once done are being revived or the fashioning of new practices based on those of the past The Caribbean Court of Appeal faces critical issues such as budget. Cultural accommodation. Social stratification.There are three main types of entrenchment in the constitutions of the Commonwealth Caribbean: 2. Approval of bills for amendment by referenda.
29.20.the fair and equitable treatment of all class of people 33. Social justice. and enjoyed by the majority of people in a society 31.a specialized agency of the United Nations that seeks to maintain monetary stability and to assist member states in funding balance of payment deficits. truce.agreement made in 1983 that brought together Mexico.one country¶s imposition on another directly or indirectly. relating to peace. Sugar revolution.a country or area where there are a large number of factories and the use of technology 28.a form of economic integration where restrictions on the free movement of commodities.an agreement between countries to abolish tariff and minimize restriction of trade between but set restrictions against outside countries 26. Single market. commerce. 21. Development was traditionally defined as the ability of a country to advance economically. of it¶s value system 23. Economic growth. literacy and educational attainment-quality of life indicators.the period where sugarcane production and processing was the main economic activity in the western hemisphere. Inter Monetary Fund. artifacts accessible to.deviant or corrupt behavior by people of very high social standing in society Page 22 .the range of expressions of creativity.the growth of a single. Canada and the United States together as a free trade zone 30.the increase in the production of goods and services in a country over one year 25.a contract between states. 24. or other international relations 35. capital and labor among member states are abolished and a common external tariff is established 22. produced by. Treaty. Development. Today the concept has been broadened to recognize the Human Development Index that includes assessments such as life expectancy.the sustained high level of economic and social well being or standard of living. Free Trade Area. Cultural imperialism. Tariffs. Globalization. as measured by increments in its GNP per capita. Popular culture. Common market.taxes levied on imported goods 34.the joining of economies in a free trade area 32. alliance. White collar crime. North American Free Trade Agreement. unified world financial market where geography plays a diminishing role 27. Industrialization.
12. Is carefully recorded and reported. Emphasizes the development of generalizations. Involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources. principles or themes that will be helpful in predicting 5. Size of island Characteristics of Research 4. Crops grown 4. Type of government and details of government 3. Theory is tested in actual situations. Is rigorous and systematic. Language spoken 1.The findings of this type of research informs the development of broad generalizations or principles.ASSIGNMENT MODULE THREE Definition of research 1.vegetation. Its findings are evaluated in terms of local applicability and not necessarily universal validity.this is focused on immediate application. Tries to be logical and to apply every possible test to validate procedures employed. selects valid data gathering procedures. Relief of the land. Is directed towards the solution of a problem. 3. limiting factors are acknowledged. soil. procedures are described in detail and references are carefully documented. Foods 5. Each important term is defined. Population size Research is an activity that entails formal. It places emphasis on current problems in a local setting. Is based upon observable or empirical evidence. Applied Research. future occurrences. systematic processes for carrying out a scientific method for analysis.The goal of this type of research is to improve products and processes. rock 8. observation. 6. 11. Electronic or psychometric devices to refine 7. Page 23 . Festivals and celebrations 7. 6. Merely recognizing or restating what is already known 9. Name of country 2. and uses mechanical. description and analysis of data. or using existing data for a new purpose. data collected and conclusions reached. Action Research. History of the island 2. Purposes of research Basic Research. Types of industry 10. Weather patterns and has already been written is not considered research since it adds nothing to what is known.
should This type of research focuses on variable relationships and describes what happens when the variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. 4. Ethics in Research Qualitative Studies Invasion of privacy These are studies that use a numerical method of describing observations of materials or characteristics. once the general breakdown of the sample is determined. This type of research describes. Quota Sampling. know what you are doing and that you are involved in a research project. Sampling Procedures Knowledge of the outcome Types of sampling procedures Participants in the research project have a right to know what you 1. You should not put undue pressure on people or who might be afraid to say that they do not wish to participate in the research. Deliberate manipulation is always a part of the experimental method.this approach entails stratified sampling in which the selection within the strata is non random. records. person or situation. send questionnaires to.where the population is stratified according to lists of units divided into groups or strata Historical Research 3. analyzing and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that help us to understand both the past and present and possible implications for the future. venue or situation if the persons are in a position to recognize the venue. Purposive Sampling.Types of research 2. Informed Consent Experimental research The people you speak to. Describes what was. analyses and interprets conditions that presently exist. recording. Stratified Sample. Page 24 . It entails some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to discover relationships between existing variables.where subjects are selected by lottery or by use of random numbers. You cannot tell other people what you learned or observed about a person. Simple Random Sample. You must attempt to disguise your subjects¶ identity. will be doing with the information you collect as well as the reason for the research. Quantitative Studies Confidentiality These are studies in which the description of observations is not ordinarily expressed in quantitative terms.used in qualitative research where subjects are selected especially for their Descriptive Research particular understandings of and involvement in the context where the study is being carried out. according to an appropriate variable. observe. Numerical measure may be used but other means of description are emphasized. Entails investigating. You should seek permission of the person being interviewed to allow you to use a tape recorder for example.
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