D5-13183

Final Report - Studies of Improved Saturn V Vehicles and Intermediate Payload Vehicles (P-115)

SUMMARY

Prepared for
NASA - George C. Marshall Space Flight Center under Contract NAS&-20266

INDEXING DATA DATE OPR

October 7, 1966
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THE

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SPACE DIVISION

S T U D I E S O F I M P R O V E D SATURN V V E H I C L E S AND I N T E R M E D I A T E P A Y L O A D SATURN V E H I C L E S (P-115)

SUMMARY D O C U M E N T D5-13183

FINAL R E P O R T P R E P A R E D UNDER C O N T R A C T N U M B E R N A S 8 - 2 0 2 6 6

SUBMITTED T O G E O R G E C. M A R S H A L L S P A C E F L I G H T C E N T E R N A T I O N A L AERONAUTICS AND S P A C E ADMINISTRATION O C T O B E R 7, 1966

S U B M I T T E D BY S Y S T E M S ANALYSIS C O N T R A C T O R T H E BOEING C O M P A N Y S P A C E DIVISION L A U N C H SYSTEMS B R A N C H H U N T S V I L L E , ALABAMA

D5-13183

FOREWORD

T h i s v o l u m e s u m m a r i z e s five t e c h n i c a l V e h i c l e D e s c r i p t i o n D o c u m e n t s r e p o r t i n g a t e n - m o n t h s t u d y to p r e p a r e t e c h n i c a l and r e s o u r c e d a t a on uprated payload Saturn V and i n t e r m e d i a t e payload Saturn v e h i c l e s . T h i s study i s p a r t of a c o n t i n u i n g effort by t h e N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NASA) t o i n v e s t i g a t e the c a p a b i l i t y a n d f l e x i b i l i t y of the S a t u r n V l a u n c h v e h i c l e and t o identify p r a c t i c a l m e t h o d s for d i v e r s i f i e d u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y . NASA C o n t r a c t NAS8 -20266 a u t h o r i z e s the w o r k r e p o r t e d h e r e i n and w a s s u p e r v i s e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e M a r s h a l l S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r ( M S F C ) . S-II d a t a w a s s u p p l i e d by the S p a c e and I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n of N o r t h A m e r i c a n A v i a t i o n . S-IVB d a t a w a s s u p p l i e d by the M i s s i l e a n d S p a c e S y s t e m s D i v i s i o n of D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t C o m p a n y . L a u n c h s y s t e m d a t a w a s s u p p l i e d by t h e D e n v e r D i v i s i o n of T h e M a r t i n C o m p a n y - Solid m o t o r d a t a w e r e s u p p l i e d by U n i t e d T e c h n o l o g y C o r p o r a t i o n . T h e L a u n c h S y s t e m s B r a n c h , A e r o s p a c e G r o u p , S p a c e D i v i s i o n of T h e B o e i n g C o m p a n y w a s t h e S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s c o n t r a c t o r for t h i s s t u d y . P r o g r a m d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a s u m m a r y v o l u m e (this d o c u m e n t ) , five v o l u m e s c o v e r i n g v e h i c l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y implications r e p o r t , and a cost document. Individual designations a r e a s follows: D5-13183 ' D5-13183-1 D5-13183-2 D5-13183-3 D5-13183-4 D5-13183.-5 D5-13183-6 D5-13183-7 Summary Document V e h i c l e D e s c r i p t i o n M L V - S A T - I N T - 2 0 , -21 Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-3B V e h i c l e D e s c r i p t i o n M L V - S A T -V-25(S) Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B Vehicle Description MLV-SAT -V-23(L) R e s e a r c h and Technology Implications R e p o r t F i r s t Stage C o s t P l a n

ii

D5-13183

ABSTRACT This document s u m m a r i z e s a study conducted under NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-20266, "Studies of Improved Saturn V Vehicles and Intermediate Payload Saturn Vehicles (P-115)", from December 6, 1965 to October 7, 1966. The details of this study a r e contained in five "Vehicle Description Documents" (D5-13183-1, -2, - 3 , -4, and -5). P h a s e I of the study was a p a r a m e t r i c p e r f o r m a n c e and r e s o u r c e s analysis to select one baseline configuration for each of the six vehicles, P h a s e II of the study included a fluid and flight mechanics study, design impact on systems', and a r e s o u r c e s analysis for each baseline vehicle. The uprated vehicles a r e feasible configurations and logical candidates for payloads in excess of the c u r r e n t Saturn V capability. No major problem a r e a s w e r e identified for either development or production. The intermediate payload vehicle derivatives of Saturn V a r e a logical " m e a n s of providing orbital payload capability between that of the Saturn I and the two-stage Saturn V.

KEY WORDS Contract NAS8-20266 D5-13183 Vehicle Description Document Saturn V NASA /MSFC. Up rating T r a d e Studies Payload to 72 Hour Lunar Injection

Fluid and Flight Mechanics Impact Resources Cost Payload to 100 NM orbit MLV-INT Baseline Configuration MLV-SAT-V

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D5-13183

T A B L E OF CONTENTS SECTION FOREWARD ABSTRACT 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 SUMMARY 3. 0 GUIDE L I N E S AND ASSUMPTIONS 4.0 M L V - S A T - I N T - 2 0 / - 2 0 LAUNCH VEHICLES 5. 0 M L V - S A T - V - 3 B L A U N C H V E H I C L E S 6.0. M L V - S A T - V - 2 5 ( S ) L A U N C H V E H I C L E S 7.0 MLV-5AT-V-4(S)B 8..0 M L V - S A T - V - 2 3 ( L ) L A U N C H VEHICLE 9. 0 CONCLUSIONS AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S

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D5-13I83

FIGURES F I G U R E NO. P H A S E I L A U N C H V E H I C L E CANDIDATES S E L E C T E D B A S E L I N E LAUNCH V E H I C L E S F O R P H A S E II STUDY E F F O R T 2-1 VEHICLE COMPARISON 2-2 U P R A T E D V E H I C L E I N V E S T M E N T COST C O M P A R I S O N 2-3 T W O - S T A G E V E H I C L E COST E F F I C I E N C Y 2-4 T H R E E - S T A G E V E H I C L E COST E F F I C I E N C Y 4-1 INT V E H I C L E S 4-2 INT - 2 0 / - 2 1 V E H I C L E COMPARISON 4-3 F O U R E N G I N E S - I C - 2 0 STAGE 4-4 I N T - 2 0 ORBIT A L T I T U D E - A Z I M U T H P A Y L O A D CAPABILITY 4-5 I N T - 2 1 ORBIT A L T I T U D E - A Z I M U T H P A Y L O A D CAPABILITY 4-6 I N T - 2 0 P O L A R & SUN SYNCHRONOUS P A Y L O A D (DIRECT A S C E N T ) 4-7 SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT PAYLOAD C A P A B I L I T Y 4-8 I N T - 2 0 / - 2 1 V E H I C L E D E V E L O P M E N T AND D E L I V E R Y PLAN 4-9 INT V E H I C L E COST E F F I C I E N C Y COMPARISON 5-1 M L V - S A T - V - 3 B B A S E L I N E LAUNCH V E H I C L E 5-2 T R A D E STUDY U P P E R STAGE E N G I N E S 5-3 T R A D E STUDY P E R F O R M A N C E DATA 5-4 T R A D E STUDY V E H I C L E P A Y L O A D COMPARISON 5-5 S A T - V - 3 B & I N T - 1 7 COST E F F I C I E N C Y T R A D E 5-6 ORBIT A L T I T U D E - A Z I M U T H P A Y L O A D C A P A B I L I T Y 5-7 HIGH E N E R G Y P A Y L O A D C A P A B I L I T Y 5-8 T W O - S T A G E P O L A R & SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT PAYLOAD CAPABILITY 5-9 T H R E E - S T A G E P O L A R & SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT PAYLOAD CAPABILITY 5-10 ACOUSTIC E N V I R O N M E N T AND S T R U C T U R A L LOADS 5-11 SAT-V-4(S)B VEHICLE IMPACT 5-12 S A T - V - 3 B V E H I C L E D E V E L O P M E N T AND D E L I V E R Y PLAN 6-1 MLV-SAT-V-25(S) BASELINE VEHICLE 6-2 P E R F O R M A N C E T R A D E DATA 6-3 COST E F F I C I E N C Y T R A D E DATA 6-4 ACOUSTIC E N V I R O N M E N T AND S T R U C T U R A L LOADS 6-5 SAT-V-25(S) VEHICLE IMPACT 1-1 1-2 PAGE 2 4 7 8 8 9 14 17 19 20 21 21 21 22 24 26 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 38 40 41 42 46 47

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AZIMUTH PAYLOAD CAPABILITY POLAR & SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT PAYLOAD CAPABILITY THREE-STAGE HIGH ENERGY MISSION CAPABILITY TWO-STAGE WIND/PAYLOAD SENSITIVITY THREE-STAGE WIND/PAYLOAD SENSITIVITY ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT AND STRUCTURAL LOADS SAT-V-4(S)B VEHICLE IMPACT MOBILE ASSEMBLY AND HANDLING STRUCTURE SAT-V-4(S)B VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY PLAN COST EFFICIENCY COMPARISON SAT-V-23(L) BASELINE VEHICLE SAT-V-23(L) TRADE STUDY PERFORMANCE DATA SAT-V-24(L) TRADE STUDY PERFORMANCE DATA LIQUID PROPELLANT POD DESIGN ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT AND STRUCTURAL LOADS SAT-V-23(L) VEHICLE IMPACT SAT-V-23(L) VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY PLAN PAGE 51 53 54 55 57 58 60 60 62 62 64 65 68 69 70 72 74 75 76 78 80 84 vi .D5-13183 FIGURES (Continued) FIGURE NO. 6-6 6-7 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 '7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 MOBILE ERECTION AND PROCESSING STRUCTURE SAT-V-25(S) LAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY PLAN MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B BASELINE VEHICLE TRADE STUDY PERFORMANCE DATA TRADE STUDY COST DATA ORBIT ALTITUDE .

V .V .V . 4-1 4-II 4-III 4-IV 5-1 5-II 6-1 6-II 6-in 7-1 7-II 7-III 7-IV 8-1 8-II 8-UI TITLE PAGE 16 20 23 23 30 38 44 45 53 56 59 61 70 77 77 84 I N T E R M E D I A T E V E H I C L E P E R F O R M A N C E SUMMARY SIGNIFICANT LOAD CRITERIA I N T .S T A G E 72-HOUR LUNAR I N J E C T I O N P A Y L O A D CAPABILITY SIGNIFICANT L O A D C R I T E R I A S A T .2 1 COST SUMMARY SIGNIFICANT LOAD CRITERIA S A T .2 5 ( S ) COST SUMMARY SOLID MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS PAYLOAD CAPABILITY SIGNIFICANT LOAD C R I T E R I A S A T .2 3 ( L ) COST SUMMARY VI1 .V .4 ( S ) B COST SUMMARY T H R E E .2 0 COST SUMMARY I N T .3 B COST SUMMARY PAYLOAD CAPABILITY SIGNIFICANT LOAD CRITERIA S A T .D5-I3183 TABLES TABLE NO.

d.0 INTRODUCTION This study is p a r t of a continuing effort by NASA to identify a spectrum of p r a c t i c a l launch vehicles to m e e t future payload and m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a s they become defined. In general. c. The launch vehicles studied under Contract NAS8-20266 cover a payload range between the existing Saturn IB and the Saturn V (intermediate payload vehicles) and a payload range beyond the existing Saturn V capabilities (uprated Saturn V vehicles) The vehicles studied w e r e combinations of existing or modified Saturn V s t a g e s . the NAS8-20266 study p r o g r a m objectives were to: a. e. The launch vehicles in 1 . A p r i m a r y study r e q u i r e m e n t was to make maximum use of existing Saturn technology and support equipment. An additional b a s e l i n e vehicle was later added from Category 4. Select feasible and cost effective baseline vehicles from each of s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . P r e p a r e sufficient technical data to define vehicle environments. and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .D5-13183 1.a s s i s t components. capabilities. P h a s e II directed the effort to defining ground and flight environments. and determining vehicle m i s s i o n capabilities and characteristics. defining system design and r e s o u r c e impact for each stage and the total vehicle. design. T h e r e w e r e two phases of study work. F o r each of the six baseline vehicles selected (see Figure 1-2). b. some vehicles also included b o o s t . D e t e r m i n e the date that the first flight a r t i c l e could be available within study ground r u l e s . P h a s e I was a twelve-week effort in which candidate vehicle performance and p r e l i m i n a r y cost t r a d e studies w e r e conducted to select a feasible and cost effective baseline vehicle f r o m each of five c a t e g o r i e s (shown in F i g u r e 1-1). The launch v e h i c l e s in C a t e g o r i e s 1 and 2 a r e Saturn V stage combinations for m i s s i o n s in the payload range between the current Saturn IB and Saturn V payload capability. E s t i m a t e cost r e q u i r e d for implementation of the system plus production of t h i r t y flight a r t i c l e s in five y e a r s . Define support system r e q u i r e m e n t s .

V .4 1 0 FT MAX M S .o A L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE t L VAHIABLE A L 4 X 1 2 0 IN 4 X 120 IN DIA SOLID MOTORS 4 X DIA M STRAP-ON COMPONENTS DIA SOLID MOTORS F I G U R E 1-1 PHASE I LAUNCH V E H I C L E CANDIDATES •L—\ L } I I 1 I i I I i i • I • l / .l S 5 X I .I V B SIZE S30K PROPELLANT AT MR 5 !l MAX PAYLOAC 5 LB/FT3 (2 STS) II L B / F T 3 (3 S T O ) STO:STANDARC £>L= CHANGE IN STAGE LENGTt- MS-IVB MS-IVB MS-IVB MS-II 3-11 MS—IC S-IC ! A MS-II MS-IC + SRM MS-ll MS-IC + SRM 0A frfa LAUNCH VEHICLE CATEGORY THIRD STAGE m I N T .l ENGINES a L.H S I Z E 1160 I N MAX M S .2 s A L .2 ADVANCED ENGINE STD H L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE AL V ro SECOND STAGE STD J .20 INT-21 ADVANCED ENGINE h L VARIABLE 1 mm S A T .0 ADVANCED ENGINES A L VARIABLE STD J .S i Z E . .T s AL.i ' s ST F .3 B SAT-V-4(S)B SAT-V-22(S> S A T - STO J .2 S A L .O STD J . 0 STD F .2 S ADVANCED ENGINES ST 6 L V & L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE FIRST STAGE STD F .l S STO F .BM STD F .

and t h r e e s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s w i t h m o d i f i e d S a t u r n V s t a g e s . and t h r u s t l e v e l s of a d v a n c e d e n g i n e s in t h e u p p e r s t a g e s and u p r a t e d F .I C a n d S-IVB s t a g e s u s i n g s t a n d a r d F .s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e c a n d i d a t e s with m o d i f i e d u p r a t e d S a t u r n V s t a g e s u s i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s . s i x . C a t e g o r y 4 i n c l u d e d m o d i f i e d S a t u r n V l a u n c h v e h i c l e s with s t r a p . 3 I .S A T .2 2 ( S ) d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o . and five). M L V . a m o d i f i e d S-IC s t a g e w i t h s t a n d a r d F . A single b a s e l i n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e ( F i g u r e 1-2) w a s s e l e c t e d for t h e P h a s e II study e f f o r t .a s s i s t c o m p o n e n t s . a n d five) a n d J . 4. and t h r u s t l e v e l s of a d v a n c e d e n g i n e s in the u p p e r s t a g e s .l e n g i n e s in the f i r s t s t a g e .S A T . n u m b e r s .2 e n g i n e . A s i n g l e b a s e l i n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e ( F i g u r e 1-2) w a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e P h a s e II s t u d y e f f o r t . s i x .o n 1 2 0 .s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e c a n d i d a t e s w i t h s t a n d a r d s i z e S . C a t e g o r y 2 ( M L V .V-SAT-V-4(S)B d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o . and s t r a p .l e n g i n e s ( t h r e e .2 1 ) d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o . a n d 5 a r e a d v a n c e d S a t u r n V c o n f i g u r a t i o n s with p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t i e s beyond t h a t of t h e e x i s t i n g S a t u r n VT h e five c a t e g o r i e s of v e h i c l e s a r e : C a t e g o r y 1 ( M L V . b.and t h r e e s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s with m o d i f i e d S a t u r n V s t a g e s u s i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s .o n 1 5 6 . No l a u n c h v e h i c l e in t h i s f a m i l y w a s s t u d i e d beyond P h a s e I. s t a n d a r d F . M L V . a n d s t r a p .i n c h d i a m e t e r (two a n d t h r e e s e g m e n t ) s o l i d m o t o r s . s t a n d a r d F .1 N T . and s e v e n s e g m e n t ) s o l i d m o t o r s .s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e c a n d i d a t e s w i t h s t a n d a r d s i z e S-IC a n d S-II s t a g e s u s i n g s t a n d a r d F . and five) and a s t a n d a r d J . f o u r . A s i n g l e b a s e l i n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e ( F i g u r e 1-2) w a s s e l e c t e d for t h e P h a s e II s t u d y e f f o r t . A s i n g l e b a s e l i n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e ( F i g u r e 1-2) w a s s e l e c t e d for the P h a s e II s t u d y e f f o r t . four.S A T .2 e n g i n e s (three.2 e n g i n e s .l and J .3 B ) d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o and t h r e e .V . a n d s e v e n segment) solid m o t o r s .I N T -20) d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o . n u m b e r s .2 e n g i n e s with s t r a p .S A T .O n 120-inch d i a m e t e r (five. f o u r . MJ_.S A T .and t h r e e s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s with m o d i f i e d S a t u r n V s t a g e s . A single b a s e l i n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e ( F i g u r e 1-2) w a s s e l e c t e d for t h e P h a s e II study effort.D5-13183 C a t e g o r i e s 3 .o n s o l i d b o o s t . c.2 5 ( S ) d u r i n g P h a s e I w a s a f a m i l y of t w o .l a n d J .V .i n c h d i a m e t e r (five.V . C a t e g o r y 3 (MLV .l e n g i n e s ( t h r e e . T h r e e f a m i l i e s o£ v e h i c l e s w e r e s t u d i e d a s follow:s: a.l e n g i n e s in t h e m o d i f i e d S-IC s t a g e .

KT.am pii»..l . w i n tOR im.1 Si J-!.S'.S00US HUM -Pl-M. /* •4.¥MiMsitoHto. -fcUtUBS Hff'JIA wpf • •SAT V-4(S)B- y v -SAT V-25{S)- FIGURE 1-2 SELECTED BASELINE LAUNCH VEHICLES FOR PHASE I 1 .— .2 0 - J 410 FT INT-21- <WFT.F1Pl.-JN.PH. 1W' » M l 0 '4.5RF* T -1J.i IUW.m .WLOT I * ( • LW -M5-fVt-*5ll IL-ft H R W S ' I pl**n.IBS A Al-«.wnu»wn«tm K1.(W[»S w p s .m M-W A 4 vU *L» l&S'Ul-J.«a S-IVI • » <H-&Ma>iigoMM{Mim S-IC-M 5-11 11 -H-Sij-I.-i. J i J . M S-1 R H . MRH & • s-ic U-tt )iF-| -INT .H -MWI-lSSt 41-0. 5.F-1 •M5-IC-25ISI A 1 SfO. M W B m I S C 1 » .*iF-l Wp.WLIS -"S-ICIISII 1L-W.MR.

l engines. b.000 pound F .800. MLV-S. a modified S-IC stage with 1.a s s i s t liquid propellant pods.and t h r e e stage launch vehicles with modified Saturn V stages using various types.o n b o o s t .o n liquid propellant pods each using two standard F .l engines. and four liquid propellant pods each containing two 1. vehicles with modified Saturn V s t a g e s .) during P h a s e I was a family of two.AT-V-23(L. n u m b e r s .l engines. MLV-SAT -V-24(1. A single baseline launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the P h a s e II study effort.D5 -13183 Category 5 included modified Saturn V launch vehicles with s t r a p . and t h r u s t levels of advanced engines in the upper stages. 000 pound F . No launch vehicles in this family w e r e studied beyond P h a s e I. Two families of vehicles were studied a s follows: a. standard F . 5 .l and J -2 engines and four s t r a p .and t h r e e stage launch.) during P h a s e I was a family of two. 800.

a D5-13183 .

The P h a s e II study effort included detailed technical and r e s o u r c e analysis on these six baseline launch vehicles.r71 AS-SSWAV'73 FIGURE 2-1 VEHICLE COMPARISON The Phase I study effort resulted in selection of six baseline launch vehicles.TANEOUS IMPLEMENTATION OFM1S-2Q/-21 ENGINE/STAGE COMBINATIONS SUMMARY UPRATED SATURN V'S mPAYLOAD KLB BOTH . PRODUCTION U « Sfffi.4 139.6 131.lU.4 279.9 • lit ec.0 INTERMEDIATES • M747M 12/YR. costs. OPERATIONAL UNIT COST . PRODUCTION SINGLE COST FOR SYMW.1 m W 403.5 1418 124 a 109.7 million for the SAT -INT -20 and SAT-INT-21 is proposed a s a single R&D expenditure to implement all eight stage/engine combinations listed. Payload capabilities. 7 .D5-13183 2. Operational costs shown a r e the a v e r a g e s for thirty launch vehicles.7 JS.1 4a o 142.m R&O RIGHTVffllCUS-JM AVG. PRODUCTION CM BfYR. It should be noted that the total of $176.1 324 Z 579 Z20 941.5 r 0 74 4 1U.I M OPERATIONAL COST EFFICIENCY-Mil : INT-20 (2STGI F-l 3 4 78 132 INT-21 (2ST6I F-IJJ-2 *~l M " 52 W *S IV Wt IH n? !«• TV- SATV-3B 2 STG 3 STG SATV-4ISIB 2 STG 3 STG SAT V-2SSI 2 STG 3STG SAT V-Z3HI 2 STG 1 STG 3*7 141 1(87. T h i s would allow NASA the flexibility of selecting the vehicle matching each of many different payloads expected in the range between p r e s e n t Saturn IB and Saturn V capabilities. and availability data a r e compared on Figure 2-1.4 380 139 431. The data required is very sensitive to launch r a t e a s indicated by the reductions noted for eight per year and six per year launches.0 105.i 40.0 «8 AS-516FU70 292 ASS16FEB70 m su 276 844 ZZ2 494 H6 7« IRSTDaiWBYIATP-JAN6S AS-537SCPT'73 AS-5Z4 JUNE -71 AS-5M.

.l a r g e r n tank uprating method (SAT -V-3B) -«SH t u is due to the new toroidal a e r o \ apike engine development for at upper stage applications.D5-13183 Figure 2-2 i l l u s t r a t e s the delta payload i n c r e a s e (from Saturn V) and c o m p a r e s the investment costs for developing the uprated Saturn V launch vehicles. i . The m o r e favorable vehicles from an investment standpoint fall to the 140 1 left. limiting the m a x i m u m n o M0 200 100 400 40 HO PAYLOAD mLtSOOONMOHITt FIGURE 2-3 TWO-STAGE VEHICLE COST EFFICIENCY 3 .o n (SAT-V-23(L)) method except a two-year delay has been included in the SAT-V-23(L. least cost 1 ' r for a given payload 120improvement. COST COMPARISON 1 I Availability of the SAT-INT-20 and SAT-INT-21 intermediate vehicles exceeds the normal Saturn V procurement time by only one month. usually by a FIGURE 2-2 UPRATED VEHICLE INVESTMENT relatively small margin. n i n e m \ month lead time for the i n c r e a s e d thrust liquid engine .—t h r e e . Each was configured within r e s t r i c t i v e existing facility limitation ground r u l e s . e .o n method r e q u i r e s the least lead t i m e (3-1/2 years) which is comparable to the liquid pod s t r a p . the solid s t r a p .s t a g e uprated I a? Saturn V launch vehicles •a " • " " ^ M ENGINES ON SAT Y iff M C INCREASE TOTAL THRUST) All of these c o m p a r i sons favor the solid i 1 1 1 1 0 u no 1000 WO m OT 300 400 SOD too no strap-on method of INVESTMENT COST IDOTK) DOLLARS I N MILLIONS uprating. The five-year.) » lead time to build an a s s e m b l y facility. V AH the baseline launch vehicles w e r e feasible and logical configurations for their r e s p e c t i v e payload capabilities. F i g u r e / \ 2-3 s u m m a r i z e s the / 1 total p r o g r a m cost too \ /»S1 / 1 efficiency for the six 1 BU' two-stage baseline 1 ^ ^ -it launch vehicles and / */ Ov Figure 2-4 s u m m a r i z e s •^ 1 /-«s cost efficiency for the 40 — . F o r uprating.

UIJMTIWNSFBITltA.o n c o n c e p t .l s a n d a d v a n c e d e n g i n e s in the «osecond stage ( S A T .D5-13183 m p a y l o a d a c h i e v e d t o 579.JI m FIGURE 2-4 THREE-STAGE VEHICLE COST E F F I C I E N C Y 9 .V . a c h i e v e d p a y l o a d s to 960. 000 p o u n d s lfay t o 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e E a r t h o r b i t ( S A T . MTV. with u p r a t e d 1Ua F . 000 p o u n d s «o to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e E a r t h o r b i t when stage and total vehicle length a» restrictions were relaxed. T h e liquid pod m s t r a p . rV ^ -au -asiv no PAYIOAC HP U S m IRHRI.2 3 ( L ) ) .V .2 4 ( D ) .

D5-13183 4 » i 10 .

d i r e c t a s c e n t to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e c i r c u l a r o r b i t altitude. C. 11 . p r o p e l l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l l p r o p u l s i o n d a t a u s e d by the s t a g e c o n t r a c t o r s w e r e a p p r o v e d by M S F C . Apollo d e s i g n c r i t e r i a w a s u s e d e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d o r a p p r o v e d by M S F C .s t a g e .D I R . and a s s u m p t i o n s w e r e u s e d in the s t u d y .D5-13183 3. 2. e. " S a t u r n V I m p r o v e m e n t S t u d i e s " . g r o u n d r u l e s .6 5 . E x c h a n g e of i n f o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e l a u n c h f a c i l i t y and l a u n c h v e h i c l e s t u d y c o n t r a c t o r s w a s c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h M S F C and KSC. d. 3. d a t e d N o v e m b e r 5. Both l a u n c h v e h i c l e a n d l a u n c h f a c i l i t y m o d i f i c a t i o n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d .1 4 3 . 1965.1 4 3 c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t e d l a u n c h v e h i c l e AS-516 to be u s e d a s the b a s e l i n e r e f e r e n c e for t h e S a t u r n V I m p r o v e m e n t S t u d i e s . T r a j e c t o r y .o r b i t a l i g n i t i o n of the t h i r d s t a g e to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g o r b i t followed by a s e c o n d b u r n out of o r b i t to 7 2 . with p r e . T w o .6 5 . T h e n o m i n a l m i s s i o n p r o f i l e s u s e d t o s i z e and e s t a b l i s h the b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e d e s i g n . M e m o R . and s t a g e s i z e o p t i m i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s u s e d w e r e c o m p a r a ' b l e to M S F C m e t h o d s . w a s i a s u e d by M S F C t o s e r v e a s the r e f e r e n c e d o c u m e n t for M S F C and c o n t r a c t o r p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t l y involved in the S a t u r n V I m p r o v e m e n t S t u d i e s . T h e r e d e s i g n of t h e c e n t e r e n g i n e c r o s s b e a m s u p p o r t w a s e l i m i n a t e d a s a b a s i c c h a n g e b e c a u s e of a l a c k of definitive d e s i g n d a t a .s t a g e . 0 GUIDE L I N E S AND A S S U M P T I O N S T h e f o l l o w i n g guide l i n e s . b.P & V E . Applicable data from previous studies w e r e utilized to the g r e a t e s t extent possible.P & V E . One m i n o r d e v i a t i o n to t h e AS-516 S-IC s t a g e d e f i n i t i o n w a s m a d e with M S F C c o n c u r r e n c e . M e m o r a n d u m R .h o u r l u n a r i n j e c t i o n . T h e b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e s w e r e the AS-516 and the AS-213 aa defined by M S F C .1 GENERAL a. f. to e s t a b l i s h t r a j e c t o r i e s for h e a t i n g and c o n t r o l a n a l y s i s i and a s a b a s i s for p e r f o r m a n c e c o m p a r i s o n w e r e : 1. T h i s i s t h e p l a n n e d S a t u r n V m e t h o d .D I R . T h r e e .

s t a g e configuration was analyzed. d i r e c t a s c e n t to a 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g o r b i t followed by i g n i t i o n of a t h i r d s t a g e and b o o s t to a 72-hour lunar transfer trajectory. U p r a t e d S a t u r n V s t a g e s w e r e to be f a b r i c a t e d by t h e p r e s e n t c o n t r a c t o r s a n d c o s t d a t a for t h e s t a g e s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c o n t r a c t o r s .t h r e e foot d i a m e t e r and 2 . M a x i m u m s t a g e l e n g t h e q u i v a l e n t to 3 5 0 . 12 . g. 3. M a x i m u m s t a g e l e n g t h for b a s e l i n e s e l e c t i o n w a s l i m i t e d to 1. P r o p e l l a n t m i x t u r e r a t i o of 5:1 and 2 6 0 . b.a n d t h r e e .4 THIRD S T A G E a.s t a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of the s a m e b a s i c vehicle w e r e e x e r c i s e d . 2 9 p r o p e l l a n t m i x t u r e r a t i o of t h e e x i s t i n g S-IC s t a g e w e r e to be m a i n t a i n e d . L a u n c h a z i m u t h f r o m AMR w a s 70 d e g r e e s m e a s u r e d f r o m n o r t h to south o v e r e a s t and flight p r o f i l e s w e r e o p t i m i z e d in the p i t c h p l a n e .3 SECOND S T A G E a. i. the t h r e e .2 FIRST STAGE T h i r t y . V e h i c l e h e i g h t .D5-13183-3 S o m e v e h i c l e s u s e d t w o . 0 0 0 p o u n d s p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y at a m i x t u r e r a t i o of 5:1 (about 16. 3. h. b. 3.and t h r e e .s t a g e v e h i c l e s . for b o t h t w o .160 i n c h e s . b. W h e r e t w o . 5 foot i n c r e a s e ) w a s to b e maintained. 3. w a s l i m i t e d t o 410 f e e t .5 RESOURCES a. P r o p e l l a n t m i x t u r e r a t i o of 5:1 a n d 33-foot d i a m e t e r w e r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d .i n c h d i a m e t e r w e r e t o be maintained.s t a g e . P a y l o a d d e n a i t y w a s h e l d a t five p o u n d s p e r c u b i c foot m a x i m u m for two s t a g e o p e r a t i o n a n d 11 p o u n d s p e r c u b i c foot m a x i m u m for t h e three-stage vehicle.

e. E a r l i e s t allowed authority to proceed for hardware design and development was J a n a u r y 1968. 3. h. d. The impact of study vehicles on test facilities at MSFCi teat facilities at M T F . Vehicle development time to be a minimum. Two flight t e s t s were specified to qualify uprated vehicles. and launch facilities at KSC w e r e considered with the a s s i s t a n c e of those agencies or their designated c o n t r a c t o r s . A production p r o g r a m of thirty operational uprated vehicles to be produced in five y e a r s was specified. r e q u i r e d . five-day week for engineering. A p r o g r a m definition phase (PDP) was required prior to beginning uprating vehicle design and development. The uprated vehicle development p r o g r a m was to be p a r a l l e l with the existing Saturn V p r o g r a m and not i n t e r f e r e with the existing Saturn V delivery schedule. All costs w e r e based on two-shift. All c o s t s w e r e quoted in 1966 d o l l a r s with no inflationary factor or mid-point e s t i m a t e . f. E a r l i e s t allowed PDP s t a r t was J a n u a r y 1967. consistent with completion of a thorough test p r o g r a m . N e c e s s a r y funds a r e available as.D5-13183 c. Intermediate payload vehicles will be considered to be produced at six p e r year with Saturn V a companion p r o g r a m at six p e r y e a r . b. SCHEDULE A p r o g r a m schedule was required subject to the following r e s t r i c t i o n s : a. Uprated vehicles will be considered to be produced at six p e r year with Saturn IB a companion p r o g r a m at six p e r y e a r . d.6 A dynamic test vehicle was required. b . c. five-day week for manufacturing and one-shift. g.7 PRICING It was also r e q u i r e d in performing these r e s o u r c e s analyses that the following pricing c r i t e r i a be met: a. 3. c. 13 .

U.4 J-2/F-L 3/1 4/1 100 N M i O r b i t Ph . 323.3 281.103 L B S 78 132 F-1/J-2 4/3 4/4 4/5 5/3 5/4 5/5 100 N M i *L " 10 3 L B S 167 186 L96 222 246 255 F I G U R E 4-1 INT V E H I C L E S 14 .D5-13183 INT-20 INT-21 I.

It t h e r e f o r e r e a c h e s a s t r u c t u r a l load limit at about 88 seconds after launch and three engines m u s t b e shut down. and payload weights is shown in Table 4-1. propellant. each having an S-IVB with a t h r e e . or five-engine S-IC.l engine INT-20 was not considered further. 100 nautical mile E a r t h orbit.25. (5) design loads..w e i g h t ratio of 1. — • — i — / P a r a m e t r i c data were generated for the candidate INT vehicles covering the following: (1) weight and m a s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The fiveengine INT-20 vehicle. The resulting payload is not significantly b e t t e r than the four-engine case (see Table 4-1) and therefore the five F . four-. (3) aerodynamics and heating.2 T r a d e Studies — — _ — * ..1 Candidate Configurations T h r e e configurations were studied for INT-20.1. (2) t r a j e c t o r i e s and p e r f o r m a n c e . Each of eight stage/engine configurations could be used efficiently to launch a payload in i n c r e m e n t s between 78. four-. This would allow NASA p l a n n e r s to select the vehicle matching a specific payload r e q u i r e m e n t .or five-engine S-IC. All a r r a n g e m e n t s (see F i g u r e 4-1) w e r e found to be feasible. even though launched at a t h r u s t . 000 pounds to a. A s u m m a r y of INT-20 and INT -21 launch.1 CONFIGURATION SELECTION (PHASE I) Combinations of the t h r e e Saturn V s t a g e s and n u m b e r s of engines w e r e studied during P h a s e I to establish the m o s t promising configurations for detailed investigation.D5-13183 4. Since future r e q u i r e m e n t s will likely vary over a wide range of payloads and configurations. 15 . ox five-engine S-II combined with a f o u r .1. t h e r e a r e similar logical intermediate derivatives to be considered. This r e s u l t e d in six INT-21 vehicles.0 MLV-SAT-1NT-20/-21 LAUNCH VEHICLES The MLV-SAT-INT-20 is a combination of the Saturn V S-IC and S-IVB stages. and (6) separation.s t a g e propellant rapidly. 4.t o . INT-21 a r r a n g e m e n t s included a t h r e e . If an uprated vehicle is chosen for development. 000 pounds and 255. 4. 4. depletes f i r s t . (4) vehicle control. all INT-2Q/-21 vehicles should be i m p l e mented simultaneously. The MLV-SAT-INT-21 combines the Saturn V S-IC and S-II s t a g e s .

07 W W P1 IG6 L B 3.30 4 .09 6.65 4.0 4.70 d e g r e e s . 42 Wp.TABLE 4-1 VEHICLE INTERMEDIATE VEHICLE PERFORMANCE NUMBER OF ENGINES 3/1 4/1 5/1 STAGE ARRANGEMENT S-IC/S-IVB LAUNCH WEIGHT LO6 LB 3. 87 6. 87 4.09 4.87 3. 40 3.1 4-3 SAT -INT -20 SAT-INT-21 S-IC/S-II 4/3 4/4 4/5 5/3 5/4 5/5 4. = F i r s t stage m a i n s t a g e propellant Wp2 = Second stage m a i n s t a g e propellant Initial launch azimuth .87 5. 09 6.47 4 . 56 3. 56 4.

T h e n o n .s t a g e b u r n t i m e on F i g u r e 4 .3 4/1 42. 9 431 402 395 337 il5 314 154 148 143 161 155 150 (2 -146T2 -146J4-14!)(I-146)| t -146)(1-146) SINGLE RID NOPROO INC U3M FIGURE 4-2 I N T . 68 g l o n g i t u d i n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n l i m i t . 2 165.2 .'8 37. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 124. 9 163.5 $/l-B 80-6 496 S-IC BURNTIME 146 212 168.m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a r e r e q u i r e d at KSG to build and equip f o r t h e new r a t e . 9 165.i at an8 INT20 150S-1VS/S-M MIEftSTME air ts < a IOD-I a: AVAIL ? VBS M- 1 •#•1 Ft/J-i 3/1 MSRfcD S/YR 42.5 (3-146) (2-146) AFTER ATP SINGLE BW AUVEH 1177*1 0-* U$R&D 1Z/YR17O.c o s t s i n g l e a r r a n g e m e n t a t 12 p e r y e a r .r e c u r r i n g c o s t ( s e e F i g u r e 4-2) is d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s e in p r o d u c t i o n and l a u n c h r a t e s . t o o l s .5 15.2 ) .l e n g i n e s d u r i n g f i r s t s t a g e flight to a v o i d t h e p r e s e n t 4. N o t e t h e m a r k e d r e d u c t i o n i n R&D c o s t f o r eight p e r y e a r and six p e r y e a r INT p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s .D5-13183 750 . T h e r e m a i n d e r c o v e r s m o s t l y f a c i l i t i e s . 2 168. B u l k of the n o n . 17 . and e q u i p m e n t .5 33.2 0 a n d INT -21 v e h i c l e c o s t s w e r e d e r i v e d for six l a u n c h e s p e r y e a r for five y e a r s .2 1 V E H I C L E COMPARISON F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g b a s e l i n e c a n d i d a t e s (shown on F i g u r e 4 . T h e t i m e of shutdown a n d n u m b e r of e n g i n e s shut down a r e shown w i t h the f i r s t .8 35-8 35. I N T . it w a s n e c e s s a r y t o shut down one o r m o r e F .r e c u r r i n g c o s t for i m p l e m e n t i n g all c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i s e s t i m a t e d t o be 13 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s (eight p e r c e n t ) m o r e t h a n the l o w e s t .5170. 2 166.2 Q / .3 4/1 4/4 4/5 573 5/4 5/5 37. It w a s a s s u m e d that S a t u r n V w a s a l s o l a u n c h e d at the s a m e r a t e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .

3 .2. T h e I N T . d e s i g n a n a l y s e s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d to the f o u r . H e a t s h i e l d p a n e l s and s u p p o r t s f r o m o t h e r l o c a t i o n s r e p l a c e t h o s e u s e d w h e r e the e n g i n e i s m o u n t e d .I V B / S . T h e s e c o n d s t a g e i s a s t a n d a r d S-IVB w i t h i t s aft i n t e r f a c e a d a p t e d t o S-IC r e q u i r e m e n t s . it w a s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t a l l INT c o n f i g u r a t i o n s be s t u d i e d f a r t h e r . 13 .2 0 h a s a s t a n d a r d S a t u r n V S-IC f i r s t s t a g e with the c e n t e r F . s e e F i g u r e 4-2) v a r y u n i f o r m l y .e f f i c i e n c i e s ( d o l l a r s p e r pound of p a y l o a d .e n g i n e S-II INT . But.e n g i n e S-IC i s a c h i e v e d i s i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e 4 .e n g i n e S .D5-13183 P a y l o a d .I C / S .I V B I N T . and t h e i r r e s o u r c e requirements established. it i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t t h e c e n t e r duct s p o o l t o r e t a i n c r o s s .1 .I I i n t e r s t a g e i s u s e d to a d a p t t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t unit a n d p a y l o a d . 2 DESIGN STUDY V E H I C L E (PHASE II) T h e b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e s c h o s e n d u r i n g the P h a s e I a c t i v i t y w e r e defined in d e t a i l .2 0 could r e a d i l y b e r e t u r n e d t o the Saturn V configuration. C o v e r p l a t e s and s e a l s c l o s e the LOX a n d fuel b u l k h e a d s w h e r e l i n e s a r e r e m o v e d . r a t h e r t h a n o n e .i n . following t h e n a t u r a l t r e n d w h i c h i s : s m a l l e s t p a y l o a d l a r g e s t c o s t p e r pound for d e l i v e r y . and l a r g e s t p a y l o a d . T h e b a s e l i n e S-IC s t a g e p r o v i d e d b y NASA i n c o r p o r a t e s an i n s u l a t e d L O X d u c t r a t h e r tKan a d u c t . With t h e duct r e m o v e d . S i n c e a l l v e h i c l e s a r e s h o w n t o b e c o s t efficient and NASA f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y to be a n u m b e r of d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t p a y l o a d s .l e n g i n e a n d a s s o c i a t e d s y s t e m s r e m o v e d .2 1 u s e s s t a n d a r d S-IC and S-II s t a g e s . 4. An S . C o n v e r s e l y . a n S-IC I N T . t i m e .I C / f i v e . H o w e v e r .1 Vehicle Description INT c o n f i g u r a t i o n s c h o s e n for f u r t h e r d e s i g n s t u d y a r e s h o w n on F i g u r e 4 .t u n n e l a r r a n g e m e n t .l e a s t c o s t p e r pound for d e l i v e r y .e n g i n e S .c o s t . T h e m a n n e r in w h i c h a f o u r .f e e d c a p a b i l i t y . T h i s i n s t a l l a t i o n c a n be m a d e on a n y S-IC s t a g e w i t h i n s u l a t e d LOX d u c t s . b e c a u s e f u n d s . r e s o u r c e s w e r e p r e p a r e d for a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . 4.2 1 .2 0 and the f i v e . T h e I N T . t h e i r c o m p l e t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e t e r m i n e d . a n d m a n p o w e r w e r e l i m i t e d .

a r e below that of the existing Saturn V.2 Design Study Results? Significant load c r i t e r i a and other data pertinent to vehicle design a r e shown on Table 4-II with comparative Saturn V values. no s t r u c t u r a l modifications a r e required to the existing Saturn V s t a g e s . Therefore.2. Aerodynamic heating has i n c r e a s e d slightly for both the INT-20 and INT-21 but is still within existing design c r i t e r i a requiring no additional protection. 19 .3 FOUR ENGINE S-IC-20 STAGE 4. as shown in Table 4-11. Base heating on INT-20 is reduced compared with Saturn V and is identical to Saturn V on INT -21. Control r e q u i r e m e n t s .D5-13183 COVEK PLATE COVE* PLATE HIPLACES CIOSS fEiD M*N*OU> V O O t COVES PLATE CENTER ENGME -20 »p SAT V HEAT SKIEID FIGURE 4 . As shown. load c r i t e r i a is l e s s than that for the existing Saturn V for both intermediate baseline configurations.

000 pounds for INT-21. 25 and a launch azimuth of at i l o i I U . HEATING P e r f o r m a n c e data w e r e developed for the INT a for TYP AERODYNAMIC S-|C 1«°F 16I°F lift W 0 SOI MAX. Alternate m i s s i o n s considered a range of orbit TABLE 4-II SIGNIFICANT LOAD CRITERIA altitudes and launch a z i m u t h s . TO m 3W 4W ORBIT ALTITUDF IN N. WFtfCTION ANGLE INFLIGHT Z. 999 and the INT-21 is the same a s the baseline AS-516 reliability of 0. IHU numerous m i s s i o n s . No control or separation problems exist. ty £ WIGHT i m ua L« ?8I HO L« m t«H 343 m ctwrot.D5-13183 iHT-a IW-2I SMV 1 Detailed studies indicate that s t r u c t u r a l loads a r e l e s s severe than for AS-516. Payloads for polar and sun synchronous orbits a r e shown on F i g u r e s 4-6 and 4-7. 1SMG. 000 pounds for INT-20 and 255. Net payloads for the nominal m i s s i o n a r e 132. TEMP. £3 KG. 990. S i m i l a r data a r e shown on Figure 4-5 for INT-21. iraft waft mft c i r c u l a r E a r t h orbit with a liftoff thrust-to-weight of 1. Figure 4-4 s u m m a r i z e s the orbit/altitude capability for INT-20. The nominal m i s s i o n was direct ascent to a 100 nautical m i l e BASE MAX. This manuever r e q u i r e s energy expenditure which is reflected in l e s s payload capability. A boost t u r n is required to obtain these orbits from Cape Kennedy.3BFG. cliUfiruT > 70 d e g r e e s . The reliability of the INT-20 is 0. MllfS FIGURE 4-4 INT-20 ORBIT ALTITUDE AZIMUTH PAYLOAD CAPABILITY J 20 . LOAD CRITFRIA MAXqflJS^T 2 1 9'SATMW. MOM GIMBAliD f-l'S GIMBALEB F-1'S GIMBAliD F-l'S MAX.

T«„-I.6 I N T .25.2 1 ORBIT ALTITUDE AZIMUTH PAYLOAD CAPABILITY m 3 D i3o i« iM m LAUNCH AZIMUTH DFG F I G U R E 4 . 25 S-l I BOO ST TURNING DIRECT ASCENT ca —> Z O O .f.80 NM 100 NM POLAR ORBIT < o 150 SUN SYN ORBIT irx 130 140 150 160 INITIAL LAUNCH AZIMUTH -DEC FIGURE 4-7 SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT P A Y L O A D CAPABILITY 21 .B S-IVB BOOST TURNING to POLAR ORBITy 7 0 (ORBIT IHCLIWTKW-*!/ ttN V»NM » s o 100 200 300 ORBITALTIIUOEIHN.80 NM 100 NM . MILES *» JO MM 100 N* X SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT $ FIGURE 4-5 I N T .2 0 P O L A R Sr SUN SYNCHRONOUS P A Y L O A D (DIRECT ASCENT) T/W 0 .D5-13183 -a LAUNCH AZIMUTH W T*„-|.

2 0 . 4 . it w i l l not r e q u i r e m a n .3 Resources Study g r o u n d r u l e s r e q u i r i n g s i x i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d s i x S a t u r n V v e h i c l e s p e r y e a r h a v e t h e s t r o n g e s t influence on r e s o u r c e s . With t h e s e c o n t r o l s . T a b l e s 4-III a n d 4 .8 .r u l e d t o J a n u a r y 1968.2 1 d e v e l o p m e n t and d e l i v e r y i s shown on F i g u r e . f i r s t i n t e r m e d i a t e v e h i c l e d e l i v e r y is F e b r u a r y 1970.r a t e d s t a g e s . e v e n with p r e v i o u s l y m a n . 6 INT PER YEAR) SAT V DELIVERIES WR Y • -itwvR irffl SEAOY ffLAUNOf SIYHRIMIXS WWBAMI 7 I I 517 iW 5 ? W3 AS-515 A ON INTERMEDIATE DELIVERIES -INT-516 HltlimillliMUlTiiimimnTi HMlO IRM -OTOtoi M H O 0 0 0 *ONMYR -518 iiiiimiiiBniMiimilnliiillllllUTrnre -520 ft ON mnmap 4 9 0 & ON WYK NOTE: MATERIAL PROCUREMfNTTORH(Y« PROD. T h e I N T . Study g r o u n d r u l e s r e q u i r e a p r o g r a m definition p h a s e ( P D P ) w h i c h m a y s t a r t a s e a r l y a s J a n u a r y 1967. AN0LC-D-*) AMD LC-» MDBS PACE PROGRAM 8JYS PftOGRAM PAGED BY PROCUREMENT AND M5S KWp •AS RtOUESTED BY KSC.2 0 a n d I N T . 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a r e r e q u i r e d for an additional mobile launcher.r a t i n g f l i g h t s .D5-13183 4. H e r e . 2 I 3 PDP CQMPUTt DFSIGN& FACILITIES i-U-U M? 7 1968 I9W 1970 2 3 1971 1772 1 Z 3 4 J_U 3 I TFSTAIMSfC A 2 3 AS?{MiU DYNAMIC TEST (AS-500-DTV) I I H E WW CONST LC-39 16 SAT V.2 1 .2. 22 . p r o c e e d (ATP) w a s g r o u n d . PRODUCTION CAN «ACH1?IYR IN W0 FIGURE 4-8 I-NT-20/-21 VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT AND D E L I V E R Y P L A N A s c h e d u l e for I N T .2 0 o r I N T . O t h e r l a u n c h s y s t e m m o d i f i c a t i o n s and e q u i p m e n t a r e about 23 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . Since t h e INT -21 i s a t w o s t a g e S a t u r n V v e h i c l e .I V s u m m a r i z e t h e c o s t s t h a t would be i n c u r r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g I N T . and f i r i n g r o o m e q u i p m e n t . T h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on f a c i l i t i e s o c c u r s a t M I L A . r e s p e c t i v e l y . p l u s t h e c o s t for 30 v e h i c l e s including l a u n c h . a mobile s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e . E a r l i e s t a u t h o r i t y to. r e q u i r e s a n R&D flight by M S F C ground r u l e s .

2 234.1 27.4 RID RIGHTS III T A B L E 4-III I N T .1 407.l l STAGE GSETOTAL FACILITIES S-IC STAGE 5-11 STAGE LAUNCH WHICLE-KSC FACILITIES TOTAL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING t INTEGRATION 13.l l TO IU U04.1 634-1 43.7 a.7 40.1 9.7 4.* 508.3 mi 1164.5 TOTAL 1 LAUNCH W H I C H S-IC STAGE S-IVB STAGE INSTMJMENT UNIT LAUNCH W H I C H TOTAL GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT S-IC STAGE S .0 2L1 48.4 INSTRUMENT UNIT LAUNCH WHJCLETOTAL GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT S-IC STAGE S . 5 a: 4.4 tisT-i *U14.2 IT.0 13.2 0 COST SUMMARY COST DOLLARS IN MILLIONS oevacIPMENT STAGE ENGINE OPEN TIONAL STAGE ENGINE TOTAL LAUNCH W H I C H S-IC STAGE S-ll STAGE S .5 10 9 ZOL2 KB.4 9.2 393.2 2549 174 8 7*9.3 1 • 207.4 wo Z34.7 32B.I T A B L E 4-IV I N T .0 rar.3 444.S 112 12LT 134.2 .3 L&2 1540. 5 433.2 .1 13.0 «&3 iim.4 4.1 341 2L1 57.D5-13183 COST DOLLARS IN MILLIONS PEWLOHMENT 5TAGC ENGINE OPERATIONAL STAGE ENGINE 1 494.3 393.4 3(42 3W-1 234.2 1129.I V I STAGE CS£ TOTAL FACILITIES S-IC STAGE S .2 1 COST SUMMARY 23 .I V I STAGE (INTERSTAGE]* 14 13.2 M.I W STAGE LAUNCH WHICLE-KSC FACILITIES TOTAL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND 1NTFG«ATION LAUNCH SYSTEMS TOTAL * 42 7.) 743.5 115 J.4 S14 7 5345 Z3A0 4317 1&9 LAUNCH SYSTEMS TOTAL •ADAPT S .4 43.3 Hi 3J.5 tO.0 IB7.« 1215 137.2 9.3 128.1 .

in addition to first and third or first and second stage combinations. two. can also be assembled with z e r o . The s t r a p . (UttK 20B -MUM "" M UF-l (D40K -SMOO +& —-^ 01UF-U7! «DK| •titmo 100 zo o PAYlQMI-K?LISraiNMOIttiT 300 FIGURE 4-9 INT VEHICLE COST EFFICIENCY COMPARISON [ Figure 4-9 s u m m a r i z e s the payload cost efficiency of the eight INT vehicles (solid lines) not including R&tD flights. or four b o o s t .o n s y s t e m s . T h e s e data demonstrate that INT vehicles could be derived from any of the uprated configurations studied.a s s i s t units. c: c: r L L" 24 .V-SAT-V-3B stages (see Section 5.0 of t h i s document).D5-13183 ion AlASaiKVEHIOfS v -» m -1 I I -Z1ISF-I i « I»UF-I . The dotted lines a r e vehicles similar to INT-20 and INT -21 but using the ML.

-J J D5-13183 25 .

600 lbs.5 ft. 110' Toroidal Eng.M. {100 N. 7 x 400 K lbs.5 FIGURE 5-1 LAUNCH VEHICLE "I . = 4. Stags) MS-IVB A L 3 = 16.5 r 396 DIA PAYLOAD3 6 7 . TMR = 5 = 1 W p 3 = 350 K lbs. II0"D.5 ft. TMR = 5 * r Wp = 1. 4439 4248 (3rd I. i J 260 DIA PAYLOAD 160.| Engines A L| W ' ' =20 f t 1641 • SEPARATION 1005 695 365 100 (Engine Gimbal) i i MLV-SAT-V-3B BASELINE 26 STA -115.80 M lbs. 3879 • ' 3843 : 3721 (2 StogeM 410 f t II I x 4 0 0 K lbs.99 M lbs.293 M lbs. Tori da I Eng' 2072 2024 1938 • 1835 (Engine Gimbal) 1804 • 1781 MS-IC = 4.U. 4 0 0 lbs. (LOR) = 5.6 M lbs.D5-13183 STA 4604. CAPACITY 5 * 1800 K lbs. F .). C' \ 7 \ 3277 3l6a5 3075 (Engine Gimbal) • 2 o 7 7 2941 • 2810 MS-1 fiL2= 15.

s t a g e v e h i c l e s h a v e an M S .S A T .1 Candidate Configurations M S . T h i s d e s i g n r e s u l t s in a 6 4 . T h e t h r e e .V .i n c h r e d u c t i o n in e n g i n e l e n g t h .p o u n d F . and (5) s e p a r a t i o n .I N T . U p p e r s t a g e p r o p u l s i o n c o n s i d e r e d t w o a d v a n c e d engine c o n c e p t s .3 B ( s e e F i g u r e 5-1) i s a S a t u r n V with a l l s t a g e s l e n g t h e n e d a n d t h e t h r u s t of e a c h s t a g e i n c r e a s e d . 2 Trade Studies P a r a m e t r i c d a t a d e v e l o p e d for the S A T .V .3 B u p p e r s t a g e s ( M S . a n d w a s s t u d i e d c o n c u r r e n t l y by N o r t h A m e r i c a n A v i a t i o n u n d e r s e p a r a t e contract.1.3 E LAUNCH V E H I C L E S The S A T . T r a d e s w e r e a l s o m a d e for the two t y p e s of a d v a n c e d e n g i n e s o p e r a t i n g o v e r a r a n g e of t h r u s t l e v e l s . The L O X / L H g a e r o s p i k e engine has a t o r o i d a l c o m b u s t o r and t r u n c a t e d a e r o d y n a m i c s p i k e a n n u l a r n o z z l e .l e n g i n e s f o r a l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .I C . T h e I N T .V .and t h r e e .I V B . 000 to 700.3 B s t a g e t h r u s t l e v e l which s a t i s f i e d r e q u i r e m e n t s for b o t h the S A T . T h e v e h i c l e . M a x i m u m v e h i c l e l e n g t h w a s 410 f e e t . f r o m g i m b a l p o i n t to noz&le e x i t p l a n e .s t a g e v e h i c l e and the M L V .3 B t h r u s t w a s fixed a t five 1. (3) a e r o d y n a m i c s and h e a t i n g .S A T . T h e s e c o n d s t a g e i s an M S .3 B u s i n g f r o m four t o s e v e n a d v a n c e d e n g i n e s with 300. i s a f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n and a Logical c a n d i d a t e to p r o v i d e p a y l o a d s in e x c e s s of t h o s e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e with the Saturn V vehicle. 1.3 B t w o . B e l l n o z z l e e n g i n e l e n g t h . 5. 0 M L V . (4) d e s i g n l o a d s .1 7 t w o . 5.V .D5-13183 5 . 1 C O N F I G U R A T I O N S E L E C T I O N ( P H A S E I) T r a d e s t u d i e s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s d e r i v i n g s u f f i c i e n t d a t a to a l l o w M S F C to d e t e r m i n e the b e s t c o m p r o m i s e M S . 000 p o u n d s of t h r u s t . T h e o t h e r e n g i n e c o n s i d e r e d w a s a h i g h . was m a i n t a i n e d a t 116 i n c h e s b e c a u s e of u p p e r s t a g e i n t e r s t a g e c l e a r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . o s p i k e e n g i n e a n d an a d v a n c e d b e l l e n g i n e ( s e e F i g u r e 5 .2 ) . 27 .I I .p r e s s u r e L O X / L H 2 c o n c e p t with a b e l l n o z z l e .3 B t h r e e . 5.3 B a s t h e t h i r d s t a g e u s i n g a s i n g l e engine of t h e s a m e t y p e a n d t h r u s t l e v e l a s for the s e c o n d s t a g e .8 m i l l i o n .I I .1 7 u s e s the S A T .V . (2) t r a j e c t o r i e s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e .I I / M S .I V B ) a s a g r o u n d l a u n c h v e h i c l e .s t a g e v e h i c l e .s t a g e v e h i c l e s i n c l u d e d : (1) w e i g h t and m a s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . a t o r i o d a l a e r . a s d e f i n e d i n t h e t r a d e study a c t i v i t y and s t u d i e d in d e t a i l in t h e P h a s e II a c t i v i t y .

3 .3 r e f e r t o t h e n u m b e r of e n g i n e s on the M S . Net p a y l o a d s for t h e t h r e e .U L L L [ [ [ [ L [ r L [ [ l.I I .D5-13183 r J .25"© EXIT P L A N E U 30"* J 74-INCH DIAMETER A L S O CONSIDERED F I G U R E 5-2 138-INCH D I A M E T E R WITH 58-INCH LENGTH ALSO CONSIDERED T R A D E STUDY U P P E R S T A G E ENGINES Data w a s p r e p a r e d for v e h i c l e s w h o s e s t a g e l e n g t h s w e r e o p t i m i z e d to yield m a x i m u m p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y .o p t i m i z e d v e r s i o n s within the 410-fpot. 5 feet for t h e s e c o n d s t a g e a n d 16.V . L 1 28 .I I . P e r f o r m a n c e r e s u l t s for the S A T . l i m i t . T h e u p p e r s e t of c u r v e s c o v e r s t h e p r o p e l l a n t . m a x i m u m p a y l o a d i s a c h i e v e d with M S . T h e l o w e r g r o u p of c u r v e s shows p a y l o a d with t h e u p p e r s t a g e s i z e s fixed.s t a g e v e h i c l e with b e l l n o z z l e s a r e shown on F i g u r e 5 . T h e s a m e t y p e of d a t a for the t w o . the p a y l o a d i n c r e a s e s with i n c r e a s i n g t h r u s t in the u p p e r s t a g e s .s t a g e v e h i c l e s . The d a t a a r e t y p i c a l of t h o s e p r e p a r e d for the t r a d e s t u d y .3 B t h r u s t of a r o u n d two m i l l i o n p o u n d s for both the t w o .s t a g e v e h i c l e s with b e l l and t o r o i d a l u p p e r s t a g e e n g i n e s .3 B f a v o r a t o t a l M S . U s e of t o r o i d a l e n g i n e s g i v e s a two to five p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in p a y l o a d . 5 feet for the t h i r d s t a g e . With fixed u p p e r s t a g e s .and t h r e e . t h e v e h i c l e h e i g h t l i m i t of 410 feet i s quickly e x c e e d e d .o p t i m i z e d s t a g e s .s t a g e b e l l . With o p t i m i z e d s t a g e s . F i g u r e 5-4 S u m m a r i z e s p e r f o r m a n c e for fixed u p p e r s t a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and p r o p e l l a n t .n o z z l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n e x h i b i t the s a m e t r e n d s . P a y l o a d p e r f o r m a n c e was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d for v e h i c l e s w h o s e u p p e r s t a g e length i n c r e a s e s w e r e fixed a t 15. T h e s e d a t a c o v e r t w o . D a s h e d l i n e s on F i g u r e 5 .3 B s t a g e w h i l e t h e s o l i d l i n e s give t h r u s t p e r e n g i n e .and t h r e e .2 (REF) ADVANCED B E L L ENGINE L 51. H o w e v e r .

The lower t h r u s t engines ffflfl OPTIMIZED WITH «0ffETVFHFCL£ UNOHLIMIT rlH exhibit better p e r f o r m a n c e r ~ f FIXED UPPER STAOS because engine length was m in i * aw 1 held constant. the nozzle •i* m //JaLi-o »L. 000 pound thrust engines. 000 pounds of thrust per engine.D5-13I83 . Higher mixture ratio (6:1) in upper stages (WT-LTOrT) <5XM •IB M showed a s m a l l payioad HW-flPTl B O improvement a s indicated.H. ' / < " " OPTIMIZED mers S-UTHRUST (VACUO™ LBS FIGURE 5-3 TRADE STUDY PERFORMANCE DATA thrust of around two million pounds using 400. 000 to 500. 000 pound t h r u s t second stage engines show a 2. £3K> ie: MR-41 7 ALj-lS' thereby i n c r e a s i n g engine 4(HK SHOOK «7i«0K a r e a ratio and thus specific JW-fcl »S impulse. 6 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e over five 400.-0 I * SDK t h r o a t a r e a was d e c r e a s e d J. To d e c r e a s e 7««K on m rv\mm engine thrust. TOROIDAl KLL TOROIDAL BfU those p r e p a r e d on MLV-SATINT-17 and t h e i r respective t r a d e study r e s o u r c e analysis were c o m p a r e d by NASA/MSFC FIGURE 5-4 TRADE STUDY VEHICLE PAYLOAD COMPARISON 29 •m . Seven 300. SO Wft "* I* 3» These t r a d e study data.

3 B v e h i c l e s u s i n g the p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m s c h o s e n by M S F C . — LOAD OHTERIA MAX. The M S . -38 SATV . It w a s found t h a t t h e I N T . 8 m i l l i o n pound t h r u s t u p r a t e d F .l ' S 4..s t a g e S A T .9M —V\ wa t ' U f C I LOU* ' ! • V .3 B n e e d s a s e c o n d s t a g e t h r u s t c l o s e r to 2 ..3 B b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e i s s h o w n in F i g u r e 5 . ! * -' * A * U l . AERODYNAMIC iffl „.V .V . 99 m i l l i o n p o u n d s and 4.i n c h r e d u c t i o n in i n t e r s t a g e length t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g a c o m m e n s u r a t e 30 . (IW _ MOW GIMBALEDF-l'S GIMBALED f .I C . It h a s a l e n g t h i n c r e a s e of 15...1 7 v e h i c l e would o p e r a t e m o s t efficiently a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 .3 B which would h a v e r e s u l t e d had NASA c h o s e n a s t i l l h i g h e r t h r u s t Level {3. _ ^V. 0 m i l l i o n p o u n d s ) . r e s p e c t i v e l y .S A T .V .2 DESIGN STUDY V E H I C L E {PHASE II) D e s i g n and a n a l y s e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d for t w o . t h r u s t . S A T . 8 m i l l i o n p o u n d s f o r the two and t h r e e s t a g e v e h i c l e s .fl (IBSFI 2 ) g'i AT MAX ^ (c HEIGHT m i CONTROL V 735 LW 410 ?» 1.. _ • • • - — .(B ft.-*T*t. 363 .3 B t h i r d s t a g e r e q u i r e s n o t m o r e t h a n 180. .. 1 Vehicle Description The M L V . F I G U R E 5-5 S A T .D5-13183 i n o r d e r to r e a c h a c o m p r o m i s e on engine quantity.a n d t h r e e . 8 m i l l i o n p o u n d s ..V . - " • IS-IC nw am 167°F lift BASE MAX. F i r s t s t a g e l e n g t h i n c r e a s e i s 20 feet for a p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y of 5. ""<^ .. 1-iT-bT _ V-IB ' -" " " —— MAX.3 B s t a g e u s e s five 1. M S F C s e l e c t e d t h e t o r o i d a l a e r o s p i k e engine r a t h e r t h a n the b e l l nozzle e n g i n e s i n c e t h e b e l l w a s e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l in l a s t y e a r ' s s t u d i e s . 5. N A S A / M S F C s e l e c t e d a c o m p r o m i s e s e c o n d s t a g e t h r u s t of 2 . T h e s h o r t e r t o r o i d a l e n g i n e s a l l o w s a 6 2 .V .V . 2 . i i « . 6 m i l l i o n p o u n d s with a p r o p e l l a n t loading ( T / W o = 1.25) of 4. 000 pound t h r u s t t o r o i d a l a e r o s p i k e e n g i n e s .l t THHUir IVACl • 10* L f l l --. F a r t h e r . s e v e n 400 t h o u s a n d pound e n g i n e s . for f u r t h e r s t u d y .29 m i l l i o n p o u n d s . T h e c o m p r o m i s e d p e r f o r m a n c e by t h i s c h o i c e is i n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e 5 . TEMP.l e n g i n e s .-.1 . _ _. 0 m i l l i o n p o u n d s of t h r u s t . KRECTION A N O f IN R I C H ! HTATINC TYP. .. T h e s e c o n d s t a g e h a s s e v e n 400. 000 p o u n d s of t h r u s t f o r m o s t efficient o p e r a t i o n . 0 m i l l i o n p o u n d s for m o s t efficient o p e r a t i o n . C o m p l e t e r e s o u r c e s w e r e p r e p a r e d for t h e t h r e e s t a g e v e h i c l e . t h e S A T . 5 feet f o r a p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y of 1.5 .3 DEC UOEG.3 B & INT-17 COST EFFICIENCY TRADE * BASELINE JW WITH TJW • L Z 5 o o T A B L E 5-1 SIGNIFICANT LOAD CRITERIA 5. On t h e o t h e r h a n d . >:ou*i*rr» FOR***! J -sfflCE IT.. A l s o i n d i c a t e d i s the d e g r a d a t i o n to S A T . a n d t y p e .

5 foot l e n g t h i n c r e a s e f o r a p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y of 350. Alternate m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r i n g a.7 . T h e n o m i n a l m i s s i o n f o r the two s t a g e v e r s i o n i s d i r e c t a s c e n t to a 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e c i r c u l a r E a r t h o r b i t . m o r e p a y l o a d is o b t a i n e d a t a 300 n a u t i c a l m i l e o r b i t with e x i s t i n g two s t a g e S a t u r n V ( I N T .V . H o w e v e r .s t a g e v e h i c l e is d i r e c t a s c e n t to a 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g o r b i t .D5-13183 t a n k a g e i n c r e a s e .6 High e n e r g y m i s s i o n (C-a) p e r f o r m a n c e of the t h r e e s t a g e v e h i c l e is i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e 5 .3 B s t a g e .2 D e s i g n Study R e s u l t s P a y l o a d p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a for the S A T . r a n g e of a l t i t u d e s and l a u n c h a z i m u t h s w e r e a l s o considered.2 1 ) t h a n i s o b t a i n e d with a S A T . a r e s h o w n on T a b l e 5 . MILfS maneuver requires F I G U R E 5-6 ORBIT A L T I T U D E . If e n g i n e t h r o t t l i n g i s u s e d in t h e M S . A boost turn is r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n t h e s e o r b i t s from Cape Kennedy. 8 m i l l i o n pounds) and s h o r t b u r n t i m e of t h e M S . w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e S a t u r n V v a l u e s . Although m a x i m u m d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e (q) a n d a c c e l e r a t i o n a r e s l i g h t l y l e s s for the 31 . 000 p o u n d s of p r o p e l l a n t .3 B s e c o n d s t a g e .3 B .9 . N o m i n a l m i s s i o n for the t h r e e . P a y l o a d s for p o l a r a n d s u n s y n c h r o n o u s o r b i t s a r e shown on F i g u r e s 5 . This ORBIT AlTITWf .I I . 000 p o u n d s .I I . F o r e x a m p l e .N. with t h e high t h r u s t ( 2 .V . Net p a y l o a d for t h e n o m i n a l 72 h o u r l u n a r injection mission is 160. 000 p o u n d t h r u s t t o r o i d a l a e r o s p i k e e n g i n e . a 1 6 .A Z I M U T H energy expenditure which PAYLOAD CAPABILITY i s r e f l e c t e d in l e s s p a y l o a d capability. F i g u r e 5-6 s u m m a r i z e s the o r b i t / a l t i t u d e c a p a b i l i t y for the two s t a g e S A T . a n d o t h e r d a t a p e r t i n e n t to v e h i c l e d e s i g n . 400 p o u n d s . a s i z a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e l o s s o c c u r s a t the h i g h e r o r b i t a l t i t u d e s . 5.3 B .1 . followed by r e i g n i t i o n of the t h i r d s t a g e a n d b o o s t i n t o a 72 h o u r l u n a r t r a n s f e r t r a j e c t o r y .3 B f o r both n o m i n a l and a l t e r n a t e m i s s i o n s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d . t h e p a y l o a d l o s s e s to t h e h i g h e r o r b i t s a r e r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a s shown in F i g u r e 5 . Net p a y l o a d f o r the n o m i n a l m i s s i o n is 367.8 a n d 5 .2. S i g n i f i c a n t l o a d c r i t e r i a . The t h i r d s t a g e (for t h r e e s t a g e a p p l i c a t i o n ) u s e s a s i n g l e 400.V .

to 0.V .V .s t a g e payload. S t r u c t u r a l l o a d s a n d a c o u s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e 5 .D5-13183 S A T . t h e c o m b i n e d l o a d i n g c o n d i t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o m p a r e d to S a t u r n V. The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e two and t h r e e stage c o n f i g u r a t i o n of S A T . S o m e s e l e c t i v e r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of c o m p o n e n t s m a y be r e q u i r e d . 990 a n d 0. T h e a c o u s t i c l o a d s h a v e i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y in the f i r s t s t a g e but a r e w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n l i m i t . C3(TWICI SPECIFIC WRCY) - KmhKp F I G U R E 5-7 HIGH E N E R G Y P A Y L O A D CAPABILITY S a t u r n V flight and c r e w p r o v i s i o n s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r u s e with t h i s v e h i c l e . and i n c r e a s e d engines t h r u s t s have significantly i n c r e a s e d s t r u c t u r a l l o a d s o v e r t h e e x i s t i n g S a t u r n V. 000 pound t h r u s t t o r o i d a l e n g i n e s and i n f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s to r e q u i r e a n e w s p e c l i m i t for t h i s s t a g e .l e n g i n e s . No p r o b l e m s w e r e found w i t h s t r u c t u r a l d y n a m i c s .3 B the i n c r e a s e i n v e h i c l e h e i g h t . 980 for t h e baseline AS-516.1 0 . C o n t r o l m a x i m u m d e f l e c t i o n a n g l e i n flight h a s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 3 . a t t i t u d e r a t e c o n t r o l s y s t e m . respectively. 000. r e q u i r i n g a m a j o r s t r u c t u r a l beefup a s 32 . As shown in F i g u r e 5 . T h e s e c o n d s t a g e a c o u s t i c l e v e l h a s i n c r e a s e d sufficiently f r o m the s t a t i c f i r i n g of s e v e n 4. attitude r a t e control mode.3 B v e h i c l e a r e c o m p a r a b l e to S a t u r n V.3 B v e h i c l e i s 0. R F a t t e n u a t i o n o r a n t e n n a look a n g l e . A l t e r n a t e c o n t r o l m o d e s t u d i e s s h o w e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n m a x i m u m b e n d i n g r e s p o n s e c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d if an a n g l e of a t t a c k f e e d b a c k loop w e r e a d d e d to t h e attitude. No p r o b l e m s e x i s t in t h e t h i r d s t a g e . 3 d e g r e e s u s i n g the c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e . 15 d e g r e e g i m b a l i n g c a p a b i l i t y of F . 5 d e g r e e s (on S a t u r n V) to 4 .V . 9 6 5 . 975 a n d 0. as compared.1 0 . The a d d i t i o n a l p r o p e l l a n t in a l l s t a g e s i n c r e a s e s the 0. T h i s i s w e l l within the c u r r e n t 5. Both a e r o d y n a m i c a n d b a s e h e a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s on the S A T . t h e 33-foot d i a m e t e r t w o . 4 p s i on-pad explosive o v e r p r e s s u r e range 600/feet c o m p a r e d to S a t u r n V but not enough to i m p a c t t h e adjacent pad at MILA.

T h e f i r s t s t a g e of the d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e will be r e f u r b i s h e d a f t e r t e s t a n d u s e d a s a flight s t a g e . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s .3 B . and two m a n r a t i n g R&D flights a r e r e q u i r e d .3 B .3 B s t a g e a r e a l s o t a b u l a t e d in F i g u r e 5 .i n t e r f e r e n c e b a s i s with n o r m a l S a t u r n V p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s .D5-13183 130 !« LAUNCKAZIMI/m DECS 150 i« m LAUNCH AZIMUTH .V . s t r u c t u r a l t e s t c o m p o n e n t s .S A T .V .1 e n g i n e and new t o r o i d a l u p p e r s t a g e engine d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e the m o s t c o s t l y i t e m s r e q u i r e d . U. 5. 33 . E x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be e m p l o y e d to m a n u f a c t u r e a n d t e s t t h e M L V . 3 RESOURCES I n c r e a s e s in t h e length a n d t h r u s t of t h e S A T .1 1 .V . R e l o c a t i o n of w o r k p l a t f o r m s and i n c r e a s e in h e i g h t is r e q u i r e d a t the M S F C D y n a m i c T e s t S t a n d to h a n d l e the new c o n f i g u r a t i o n . T h e p r e s e n t s t a g e a n d I.OtGS FIGURE 5-8 TWO-STAGE POLAR & SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT PAYLOAD CAPABILITY FIGURE 5-9 THREE-STAGE P O L A R St SUN SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT P A Y L O A D C A P A B I L I T Y a s shown in F i g u r e 5 . T h e s e f a c i l i t i e s a r e to be u s e d on a n o n . A d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e .. v e n d o r s w e r e a s s u m e d to be c o n t r a c t o r s for the modified vehicle components.t e s t . The s e c o n d s t a g e of the d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e will h a v e u n d e r g o n e s t r u c t u r a l s t a t i c t e s t p r i o r to -D t e s t i n g . U p r a t e d F . P e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s in d r y w e i g h t s of e a c h S A T .1 1 .s t a g e s c o m p a r e d to S a t u r n V i m p a c t production.

An a d d i t i o n a l t a n k a s s e m b l y p o s i t i o n a n d n e w t a n k c l e a n p o s i t i o n a r e a d d e d to avoid long d o w n t i m e while t o o l i n g up for t h e n e w c o n f i g u r a t i o n .D5-13183 STATIC .I V B . Both s t a n d s .I C s t a g e . h o w e v e r . w a s t h e S a t u r n IB. INFLIGHT .0 m i l l i o n pounds n e c e s s i t a t e s i n c r e a s e s in s k i n s t i f f e n e r a n d r i n g f r a m e g a g e t h r o u g h o u t the M S . 34 . LAUNCH IN rStATfCFIRING LAUNCH FIRWCAICHP IB FLIGHT STATIC FIRING. R e v i s i o n s a r e m a d e t o S-IC t o o l i n g to a c c o u n t for the new m a t e r i a l t h i c k n e s s and s t i f f e n e r l o c a t i o n s o r for l e n g t h i n c r e a s e s .3 B . a r e c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g t h e g r e a t e r t h r u s t b u t m o r e h o l e s a r e n e e d e d in the f l a m e d e f l e c t o r s . T h e M T F and M S F C t e s t s t a n d s r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n to a c c e p t the l o n g e r s t a g e . A c o m p a n i o n i n t e r m e d i a t e p a y l o a d v e h i c l e . a l s o p r o d u c e d a t s i x p e r y e a r for five y e a r s . T h e s e c h a n g e s p l u s t h e i n c r e a s e in s t a g e length r e q u i r e r e q u a l ification of t h e e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e . m a k i n g u s e of t h e M S . 5 to 9. N E MLV-SAT-V-3B -MAX4. h 175 15 4 H—-h •[• -ir H -h NfWSPFC LIMIT O nt«M w VUDMU m •MUW. MS-IC-3B The t h r u s t i n c r e a s e f r o m 7 .K 3ATVSWC SATVSWC J- u: 155 l« GROUW r WBOUND F I G U R E 5-10 ACOUSTIC E N V I R O N M E N T AND S T R U C T U R A L LOADS A p r o d u c t i o n r a t e of s i x v e h i c l e s p e r y e a r for a p e r i o d of five y e a r s w a s u s e d to a s s e s s p r o d u c t i o n i m p a c t .

14.5% INTERTANK 41% > STRENGTH FIGURE 5-L1 SAT-V-4(S)B VEHICLE IMPACT THRUST S 35% > ST .FORWARD SKIRT 77% > STRENGTH AFT SKIRT 86% > STRENGTH NEW TOROIDAL ENGINE FORWARD SKIRT 142% > STRENGTH LH2 TANK 44% > STRENGTH NEW FEED LINES NEW THRUST STR 7 LOX TANK ADDITIONAL FRAMES NEW FEED LINES NEW TO COMMON BLKD INCREASED RADIUS THRUST STRUCTURE NEW DESIGN 66' INTERSTAGE 69% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE 60% > STRENGTH ONE ADDITIONAL HELIUM BOTTLE DRY WEIGHT INCREASE MS-1C-3B.6% MS-IVB-3B-22.2% MS-ll-3B-35.

New f a c i l i t i e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r y .1 8 . A d y n a m i c t e s t s t a g e will be f u r n i s h e d for t e s t a t N A S A / M S F C to v e r i f y p r e d i c t e d v i b r a t i o n m o d e s and f r e q u e n c i e s . S t a n d a r d t r a n s p o r t e q u i p m e n t i s g e n e r a l l y c o m p a t i b l e with t h e &1S-II-3B. i n t e r s t a g e .H .3 B . a n d t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i o n a l flight s t a g e c o m p l e t e d in S e p t e m b e r 1973. i n c l u d i n g m i n o r building e x t e n s i o n s and r e v i s e d a s s e m b l y s e q u e n c e s . 36 . p r o d u c t i o n of t h e s t a n d a r d S-II would be a c c e l e r a t e d . but s t a g e a s s e m b l y and buildup t o o l s will be m o d i f i e d . a s well a s m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s s u c h a s r e l o c a t i o n of tie downs oh t h e P o i n t B a r r o w . t h e f i r s t flight a r t i c l e will be d e l i v e r e d t o MI3-. s t a r t i n g with S . D e l i v e r y of t h e d y n a m i c t e s t s t a g e . -the d y n a m i c t e s t s t a g e s h i p p e d to M S F C in D e c e m b e r 1971. 5 y e a r s a f t e r f i r s t s t a g e A T P . B o t h T y p e I and T y p e II t r a n s p o r t e r s c a n h a n d l e the a d d e d weight. LOX tank e x t e n s i o n and new t h r u s t s t r u c t u r e . d e t e r m i n e s t h e point a t w h i c h p r o d u c t i o n of the s t a n d a r d S-II would be p h a s e d out to a l l o w p h a s e . M o d i f i c a t i o n a n d c h e c k o u t of the S t a t i c "Test T o w e r would b e c o m p l e t e d in D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 1 . n i n e m o n t h s p r i o r to the f i r s t flight s t a g e . T h e s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m r e v i s i o n s r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d tools o r d e s i g n of n e w t o o l s . D e v e l o p m e n t a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n e f f o r t i n v o l v e s a m o d e r a t e a m o u n t of w o r k a s s o c i a t e d with the s a m e v e h i c l e c h a n g e s . e x c e p t t h a t t i r e l o a d s m a y be e x c e s s i v e on t h e T y p e I I . The S e a l B e a c h f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e s s o m e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Handling e q u i p m e n t a t a l t f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be m o d i f i e d for the i n c r e a s e d s t a g e weight. T o o l i n g m a i n l y affected i s t h a t for m a n u f a c t u r e of t h e LH-. MS-lVBj-_3B E n g i n e e r i n g d e s i g n o r r e d e s i g n effort i s n e e d e d m a i n l y in the s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m a r e a s b e c a u s e of t h e i n c r e a s e d t a n k v o l u m e .3 B p r o d u c t i o n i s p a c e d by u p p e r s t a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s .I I .I C .D5-13183 T i m i n g Of the M S . t h e r e f o r e . h i g h e r flight l o a d s a n d t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of a new t y p e h i g h e r t h r u s t e n g i n e .i n of n e w tooling for t h e M S . A u t h o r i t y to P r o c e e d i s not r e q u i r e d u n t i l 26 m o n t h s a f t e r s t a r t of the u p p e r s t a g e p r o g r a m s .A 3 . Two flight t e s t s t a g e s a r e i n c l u d e d in the d e v e l o p m e n t p h a s e . T o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e d d e l i v e r y d a t e of t h e d y n a m i c t e s t s t a g e . f o r w a r d a n d aft s k i r t s . a l t h o u g h l e n g t h e n i n g of s t a g e t r a n s p o r t e r s would b e n e c e s s a r y . t a n k . MS-H-3B The s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o p u l s i o n s y s t e m c h a n g e s t o t h i s s t a g e w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e s t a t i c and d y n a m i c s t r u c t u r a l t e s t s a n d a " b a t t l e s h i p " t e s t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m . With t h i s t i m i n g .

Facility and Operation Impact Changes a t MILA for the SAT-V-3B vehicle a r e p r i m a r i l y due to i n c r e a s e d vehicle length. No new fabrication technology is proposed nor any new o r unique testing p r o c e d u r e s . No changes a r e r e q u i r e d in the Saturn V operational plan for SAT-V-3B. Mobile launcher swing a r m s as well as VAB higb and low bays a c c e s s platforms a r e relocated. A new (taller) mobile s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e is needed since insufficient time is available between last S a t u r n V and first MLV-SAT-V-3B to r e w o r k the existing MSS. Upper stage design is paced so that battleship stages axe available when P F R T engines a r e r e a d y . and l e s s e r modifications to other items of handling equipment. and at the S a c r a m e n t o T e s t Center. Completion of all c r i t i c a l stage ground development testing is completed before the f i r s t flight a r t i c l e r e a c h e s MILA in September of 1973. Major modification of the stage t r a n s p o r t e r is needed because of the added length. a t e m p o r a r y speed-up of the standard stage a s s e m b l y is planned. The i n c r e a s e d stage size precludes t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by the Super Guppy and will mean dependence on ocean shipment to the Sacramento test site and to Kennedy Space C e n t e r .D5-13183 To allow for modification to tooling and facilities without interfering with standard stage d e l i v e r i e s . Some expansion a n d / o r modification of facilities is r e q u i r e d . The vehicle timing is based on almost four y e a r s required for upper stage engine development. Schedule An MLV-SAT-V3B vehicle development and delivery schedule is shown in F i g u r e 5-12. Launch. Cost A cost s u m m a r y for the SAT-V-3B is shown in Table 5-II* 37 . at the Santa Monica and Huntington Beach plants.

9 82.1 T A B L E 5-II SAT-V-3B COST SUMMARY 33 . 3 21.D5-I3183 I M-KtnuHCflMenmin t ucaUHmicnn c o n s t t mt-tsruaiaMun > im»-t ro« cowvn — cmioLi-imiiuBMnMUM M M « H .0 5266.3 21.7 3761.6 895. e 727.8' £1.2 5.5 135.1 1241.6 3Z5.iBir.7 4.7 686.2 13.2 207.7 2.a 128.0 1774.1 425.K5C Launch Vehicle .7 71.7 1640.8 123.3 39.2 31.9 596.7 12.8 39.4 130.9 64.8 48.0 39.0 336.3 536.DOLLARS IN MILLIONS LAUNCH VEHICLE S-IC 3 t » g e S-II S t a g e S-IVB Stage I n s t r u m e n t Unit LAUNCH VEHICLE TOTAL GROUND S U P P O R T E Q U I P M E N T S-IC Stage S-II S t a g e S-IVB S t a g e OSE T O T A L FACILITIES Toroidal Engine a S-IC Stage S-II S t a g s S-IVB Stage L a u n c h Vehicle . w i u n a umcswr nsrm«FitfTH.6 BG3.6 561.2 425. 5 439.4 721.7 97.9 92.4 1214.9 114. Q 2B.7 7. 642.2 13.5 522.B 41 >9.0 R&D F L I G H T S U l 1241.3 1097.1 33.2 81.0 165. Z 62.4 130..Other FACILITIES TOTAL S Y S T E M S E N G I N E E R I N G AND I N T E G R A T I O N LAUNCH SYSTEMS T O T A L 70.5 4. 3 333.1 2928.0 10. F I G U R E 5-12 COST SAT-V-3B V E H I C L E D E V E L O P M E N T AND D E L I V E R Y P L A N DEVELOPMENT STAGE ENGINE OPERATIONAL STAGE ENGINE TOTAL .3 551.1 362.

0 5 -13183 39 .

4 5 M lbs.U. W P = 3 5 0 K lbs.5 \f \ 3144 (Engine Gimbal) 3017 2885. 5 x 1522 K F-[ 2258 2062 2039 1899 SEPARATION • • 2162 (Engine Gimbal) •v /\ /\ /\ A" Wp s = 4 .D 5-13183 T 396 DIA PAYLOAi 493. 6 4 M lbs.900 LBS STA 4804.5 ft.5 (Fwd Attach) Four 3 Segment 1 5 6 " Solid Racket Motors 788.5 ft. Web Burning Time 1 0 0 .5 365 116 ( A f t Attach) Li F I G U R E 6-1 100 (Engine Gimbal) i MLV-SAT-V-25(S) 40 STA .115. (3rd Stage) i J A L = IG.1 2 6 0 " DIA PAYLOAD 188.5 MS-II «p5=930 5 x J-2 MR = 5 : I 2346 r MS-IC w AL = 41. 3330. W P j = 6 .5 3244.800 LBS 3955 • 3919 3797 MS-IVB LU--1- Stage)1 410 f t (2ndT i_L AL [ = 0 ft. 6 Seconds 1360 1098. K lbs.5 998.5 4439 4248 I.5 BASELINE VEHICLE . I x J-2 MR = 5 .

6. F i g u r e 6-2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n e t p a y l o a d for the v a r i o u s n u m b e r of s e g m e n t s in t h e 1 5 6 . 6. i.i n c h solid p r o p e l l a n t r o c k e t m o t o r s w e r e a t t a c h e d to t h e v e h i c l e for t h r u s t a u g m e n t a t i o n . within t h e r e s t r a i n t s . F o u r 1 5 6 . both t w o . P r o p u l s i o n a n d engine type for a l l s t a g e s wag fixed to c o r r e s p o n d to the b a s e l i n e A S . e II a c t i v i t y i s a f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n and a l o g i c a l c a n d i d a t e to p r o v i d e p a y l o a d s in e x c e s s of t h o s e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e with t h e Saturn V vehicle.1. T h e v e h i c l e a s defined in the P h a s e I t r a d e study a c t i v i t y a n d s t u d i e d in d e t a i l in the P h a s . (1) o p t i m i z e d f i r s t s t a g e p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t with s t a n d a r d s e c o n d s t a g e p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t . to o p t i m i z e v e h i c l e liftoff thrust-to -weight.D5-13183 6.and t h r e e .2 Trade Studies F i g u r e 6-2 i s t y p i c a l of the p a r a m e t r i c p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a p r e p a r e d for t h e t r a d e study.s t a g e o p e r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d V e h i c l e h e i g h t w a s fixed a t 410 feet for both t w o . 6. 1. .s t a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . a d a p t e d for a t t a c h m e n t of four 1 5 6 .1 Candidate Configurations F o r the t r a d e study. 0 MLV-SAT-V-25(S) LAUNCH VEHICLE T h e S a t u r n V-25(S) v e h i c l e ( s e e F i g u r e 6-1) i s a S a t u r n V w i t h l e n g t h ened f i r s t a n d t h i r d s t a g e s . P a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y and v e h i c l e c o s t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e s e v e h i c l e s in o r d e r to c h o o s e one a r r a n g e m e n t for m o r e detailed analysis. a n u m b e r of r e l a t e d SAT-V-25(S) v e h i c l e s w e r e e v o l v e d .t o .5 1 6 v e h i c l e .and t h r e e .w e i g h t f o r the t h r e e . V a r y i n g w e i g h t s of p r o p e l l a n t a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a g e l e n g t h s w e r e studied for a l l s t a g e s . e.i n c h s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r s and the w e i g h t of p r o p e l l a n t in t h e c o r e s t a g e s . 1 C O N F I G U R A T I O N S E L E C T I O N (PHASE I) By v a r y i n g t h e weight and t h r u s t of t h e 1 5 6 . T h i s c h a r t s h o w s two c o n d i t i o n s . Solid m o t o r t h r u s t / t i m e r e s t r a i n t s w e r e s p e c i f i e d by M S F C .i n c h m o t o r s a s a function of liftoff t h r u s t .i n c h d i a m e t e r solid p r o p e l l a n t m o t o r s . T h e n u m b e r of s e g m e n t s (and t h u s solid p r o p e l l a n t weight) in t h e solid m o t o r s w a s v a r i e d b e t w e e n two and four.s t a g e v e h i c l e . B u r n t i m e s a n d t h r u s t l e v e l s of t h e v a r i o u s s i z e d solid m o t o r s w e r e v a r i e d a l s o . F I G U R E 6-2 P E R F O R M A N C E T R A D E DATA 41 .

M S F C a p p r o v e d this selection. it i s found t h a t beyond 1. A p a y l o a d i n c r e a s e of m o r e than two p e r c e n t a c c r u e s by o p t i m i z i n g second s t a g e l e n g t h . 6 t o 1.3 COST E F F I C I E N C Y T R A D E DATA 42 . i t w a s r e c o m m e n d e d to M S F C t h a t the v e h i c l e Z. T h e c h a r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t S-II s t a g e o p t i m i z a t i o n i s not w o r t h w h i l e but t h a t l a r g e r solid m o t o r w e i g h t s c a n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r o v e v e h i c l e c o s t efficiency.2 .3 be c h o s e n for t h e n e x t p h a s e of study. P a y l o a d i n c r e a s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y eight p e r c e n t with e a c h a d d i t i o n a l solid motor segment.M i n d i c a t e d a s " b a s e l i n e " on F i g u r e s 6-2 and 6 .D5-13183 and (2) optimized propellant weights for the f i r s t and second stages. c. and b e c a u s e m i n i m u m s o l i d m o t o r b u r n t i m e w a s g r o u n d r u l e d a t 100.3 c o m p a r e s the p a y l o a d c o s t e f f i c i e n c y of d i f f e r e n t s o l i d m o t o r w e i g h t s for the o p t i m i z e d S . no s t r u c t u r a l p e n a l t i e s w e r e a s s e s s e d to t h e c a n d i d a t e v e h i c l e s for t h e liftoff t h r u s t . F r o m t h e s e d a t a .t o . In d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e d a t a . a r e c o n s i d e r e d . When s t r u c t u r a l w e i g h t p e n a l t i e s .t o . b. OPTIMIZED S-l I F i g u r e 6 . T y p i c a l o p t i m i z e d S-H s t a g e length i n c r e a s e s a r e on the o r d e r of an a d d i t i o n a l t e n f e e t . ira wo no 200 PAYUM0-IB5*I03 F I G U R E 6 . 6 s e c o n d s . p a y l o a d i n c r e a s e s a r e not a s l a r g e a s i n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e 6 . a s they w e r e in o t h e r s i m i l a r s t u d i e s . The data d e m o n s t r a t e that: a.w e i g h t v a r i a t i o n .I I s t a g e and s t a n d a r d l e n g t h S-II s t a g e . f r o m c o n s i d e r i n g different c o n s t a n t solid m o t o r web a c t i o n t i m e s c o m b i n e d with v a r i o u s c o r e v e h i c l e l a u n c h w e i g h t s .w e i g h t .t o weight r a t i o .8 t h r u s t . N o t e t h a t t h e c u r v e s a r e t h e l o c i of m a x i m u m p a y l o a d r e s u l t i n g . The MS-IVB in all c a s e s was sized to maximize payload out of 100 nautical m i l e E a r t h o r b i t to l u n a r i n j e c t i o n . Significant p a y l o a d i n c r e a s e s a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h e s h o r t e r b u r n t i m e solid r o c k e t m o t o r s and the r e s u l t i n g h i g h e r v a l u e s for liftoff t h r u s t .

D5-131S3

6. 2

DESIGN STUDY VEHICLE (PHASE II)

The single SAT-V-25(S) vehicle chosen during the P h a s e I activity was defined in detail, its capabilities and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e determined, and its r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s w e r e established. 6.2. 1 Vehicle Description

The MLV-SAT-V-25(S) baseline vehicle is shown in F i g u r e 6 - 1 . It utilizes four t h r e e - s e g m e n t 156-inch strap-on solid rocket motors each with 1. 1 million pounds of propellant for t h r u s t augmentation. Each solid motor has a launch t h r u s t of 4. 0 million pounds. They burn r e g r e s s i v e l y so that at burnout t h r u s t is reduced to about 65 percent of the liftoff value. Each of the solid m o t o r s has a liquid injection (N2O4) t h r u s t vector control system to augment the capability of the gimbaled F - l engines during flight through the m a x q r e g i m e . The liquid core stages of SAT V-25(S) a r e equipped with standard F - l and J - 2 engines. F i r s t stage propellant capacity has been i n c r e a s e d to 6. 64 million pounds by lengthening the stage 41. 5 feet. The second stage is standard S-II length with a propellant capacity of 930,000 pounds. The third stage (for t h r e e - s t a g e applications) is i n c r e a s e d in length by 16-1/2 feet and has a propellant capacity of 350,000 pounds. 6. 2. 2 Design Study R e s u l t s

As noted on F i g u r e 6 - 1 , the SAT-V-25(S) two stage payload capability to 100 nautical mile orbit i s almost 494, 000 pounds and its 72-hour lunar injection t h r e e - s t a g e capability i s almost 189, 000 pounds. Use of this vehicle was also considered for applications where the baseline core vehicle (liquid stages without solids) could be flown by itself o r with only two s t r a p - o n solid m o t o r s . The payloads identified for these a l t e r n a t e s a r e shown on Table 6-1. To further i m p r o v e payload, a special study was conducted to determine the effect of tailoring the solid motor thrust time t r a c e . For this study, the t h r u s t was made r e g r e s s i v e until the vehicle h a s passed through the maximum dynamic p r e s s u r e r e g i m e . The t h r u s t level was then made p r o g r e s s i v e until solid motor burnout. The payload improvement for the optimum r e g r e s s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e t h r u s t t i m e t r a c e over that available witn the baseline vehicle was approximately one p e r c e n t . This improvement was not considered significant enough tp w a r r a n t complicating solid motor design for r e g r e s s i v e - p r o g r e s s i v e burning. Significant load c r i t e r i a , and oths r data pertinent to vehicle design, a r e

43.

D5-13183

TABLE 6~I PAYLOAD CAPABILITY

NET PAYLOAD (LB) TWO-STAGE THREE-STAGE 100 NM Orbit 72-hour Lunar T r a j . Core Vehicle Without Solid Motors T 0 / W o = 1.25
231,466 38,475

W p l = 4,343,423 lb T 0 / W 0 = 1.18 239,558 W P 1 = 4,696,492 lb 91, 568

Core Vehicle With Two Solid Motors T Q /W Q = 1.40
387,073 147,954

W p i = 6,000,000

Core Vehicle With Four Solid Motors T 0 / W Q = 1.734
493,900 188,800

W p i = 6,640,000 lb

44

D5-13183

shown on T a b l e 6-II with c o m p a r a t i v e S a t u r n V v a l u e s . Although m a x d y n a m i c p r e s s u r e (q) and a c c e l e r a t i o n a r e i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y , the 410 foot v e h i c l e h e i g h t c o u p l e d with the 33-foot d i a m e t e r t w o - s t a g e p a y l o a d c a u s e t h e l a r g e s t i m p a c t on s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s .
-»S)
SATV

Control requirements necessitate a d d i t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y beyond t h e p r e s e n t fin a n d F - l e n g i n e g i m b a l i n g of t h e f i r s t s t a g e . T h e u s e of t h e liquid i n j e c t i o n t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l on the solid m o t o r i s r e q u i r e d f o r 26 s e c o n d s n e a r m a x q t i m e of flight. A l s o , b e c a u s e the f i r s t s t a g e i s r o t a t e d 4 5 d e g r e e s c o m p a r e d to S a t u r n V, t h e flight c o n t r o l s i g n a l m u s t be m o d i f i e d to c o m p e n s a t e for the r o t a tion.

LOAD CRITERIA MAX f HBSIFT2) ,"S AT MAX WIGHT tfT) CONTROL MODE
4 C

s» L»

m
LW

no

m

5IM6AUD F-1'S GIMBALED F-l'5
LnvCOM SOLIDS

SOLID MAX. DEFLECTION ANGLf

L8 0 fTRM(JK)lt

N/A N/A

SOLID TVC OPERATING 46-71 SEC
I

A e r o d y n a m i c heating i s significantly (MAX TEMP 8ASFI ZorfF wnrV l o w e r thari t h e S a t u r n V- T h e shock wave from the solid motor nose cap may MS-IC-B IS) flft€B ROTATED 45* i m p i n g e on t h e f i r s t s t a g e LOX t a n k a n d M 5 E . I K Sit WITH T * l o c a l i n s u l a t i o n m a y be r e q u i r e d . No L25 0 Q problems a r e anticipated as a result T A B L E 6-II SIGNIFICANT of a e r o d y n a m i c h e a t i n g . LOAD CRITERIA The base heating environment is m o r e s e v e r e for t h e M L V - S A T - V - 2 5(S) t h a n f o r the S a t u r n V d u e to t h e solid m o t o r e x h a u s t p l u m e s . Heat shield m a t e r i a l s can withstand the anticipated 2080°F t e m p e r a t u r e s successfully. T h e aft s o l i d m o t o r a t t a c h m e n t s k i r t w i l l r e a c h 195Q°F. I n s u l a t i o n p r o t e c t i o n h e r e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the t w o - and t h r e e - s t a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of S a t u r n V-25(S) a r e 0. 986 and 0. 964, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a s c o m p a r e d to 0. 990 and 0. 980 for t h e b a s e l i n e A S - 5 1 6 . T h e l o w e r v a l u e s for r e l i a b i l i t y c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d to t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e s t r a p - o n solid m o t o r s and to l o n g e r f i r s t and t h i r d s t a g e b u r n t i m e s . S e p a r a t i o n of the 1 5 6 - i n c h S R M ' s f r o m the v e h i c l e c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y u s i n g e x p l o s i v e s e p a r a t i o n d e v i c e s and s m a l l solid r o c k e t s for separation force. T h e a d d i t i o n of m o r e fuel in the f i r s t s t a g e and the four s o l i d m o t o r s i n c r e a s e s t h e 0. 4 p s i o v e r - p r e s s u r e d i s t a n c e to a v a l u e g r e a t e r than t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n P a d A and P a d B on L a u n c h C o m p l e x 39- W a i v e r s for

BATING TYPABRMWUIIIC I S - K F W SOI MAX TEMP

45

w i l l h a v e c l e a r a n t e n n a a c c e s s d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s and c o n t i n u o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d S t r u c t u r a l l o a d s a n d a c o u s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 6 .4 ACOUSTIC E N V I R O N M E N T AND S T R U C T U R A L LOADS 46 . S a t u r n V flight and c r e w s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y for u s e with t h i s v e h i c l e . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s for s o m e s t a t i o n s w i l l be " b l a c k e d out" due to t h e e x h a u s t p l u m e i n t e r f e r e n c e . FIGURE 6 . R e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of a c o u s t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s on t h i s s t a g e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . h o w e v e r . O t h e r s t a t i o n s .5 .4 . The d e s i g n l o a d s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e for the s t a n d a r d S a t u r n V r e q u i r i n g an i n c r e a s e in v e h i c l e s t r u c t u r a l w e i g h t . M a j o r c o r e v e h i c l e c h a n g e s i n c l u d i n g the i m p a c t of s t r u c t u r a l load i n c r e a s e s i s s u m m a r i z e d in F i g u r e 6 .D5-13183 t h i s d i s t a n c e w i l l b e r e q u i r e d for j o i n t u s a g e o£ t h e s e p a d s when e i t h e r pad c o n t a i n s a fueled c o r e v e h i c l e with t h e solid m o t o r s a t t a c h e d . T h e p r e s e n t a c o u s t i c s p e c i f i c a t i o n l i m i t s a r e e x c e e d e d a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s on t h e f i r s t s t a g e . D r y w e i g h t i n c r e a s e s a r e a l s o tabulated.

6% MS-IVB-25(S) 27.5% MS-1I-25(S) 8.4% TWO ADDITIONAL — ^ HELIUM BOTTLES INTERTANK 115% > STRENGTH THRUST STRUCTURE 33% > STRENGTH FIGURE 6 .5 SAT-V-25(S) VEHICLE IMPACT .MM MM taatf titf M mJ Unl L-J L-J L-J U-J 58% > STRENGTH INCREASE FORWARD SKIRT 177% > STRENGTH PROPELLANT TANKS COMMON BLKD INCREASED RADIUS AFT SKIRT 116% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE87% > STRENGTH FORWARD SKIRT 195%) STRENGTH LH2 TANK 574% > STRENGTH LOX TANK ADDITIONAL FRAMES 502% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE 86% > STRENGTH -FORWA 89% > DRY WEIGHT INCREASE MS-IC-25(S) 31.

s t r u c t u r a l t e s t c o m p o n e n t s . C a b l e s will b e i n s t a l l e d to t h e p r e s e n t t e s t c o n t r o l s t a t i o n s a n d c o m p u t e r s . T h e a d d i t i o n of solid m o t o r f u n c t i o n s (ignition. T h e final a s s e m b l y and tank a s s e m b l y s t a t i o n s a l s o m u s t be modified for i n c r e a s ed s t a g e length To i n t r o d u c e the new c o n f i g u r a t i o n . U. MS-IC-25(S. A m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n to the s t a g e t r a n s p o r t e r c a b l e s and s t e e r i n g p o t e n t i o m e t e r w i l l a d a p t i t f o r t h e new s t a g e l e n g t h . A new d y n a m i c t e s t stand will be r e q u i r e d for t e s t of t h i s v e h i c l e s i n c e i t s launch w e i g h t e x c e e d s p r e s e n t S a t u r n V stand c a p a b i l i t y .I C t e s t f i r i n g s t a n d s a t M T F and M S F C a r e r e q u i r e d only b e c a u s e of t h e i n c r e a s e d s t a g e length and a s s o c i a t e d p r o p e l l a n t capacity. New t o o l s a r e r e q u i r e d for s o l i d m o t o r a t t a c h m e n t s t r u c t u r e m a n u f a c t u r e . S o m e new t e s t e q u i p m e n t (solid m o t o r s i m u l a t o r s ) and m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g e q u i p m e n t i s r e q u i r e d . Modification of the S . without f a c t o r y m o d i f i c a t i o n d o w n t i m e . a n d I . h e a v i e r t a n k s of t h e M S . s e p a r a t i o n . i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ) n e c e s s i t a t e s c h a n g e s and a d d i t i o n s to f i r s t s t a g e e l e c t r i c a l c a b l e m a n u facturing boards.) F i r s t s t a g e length i n c r e a s e c o u p l e d with the m o r e s e v e r e s t r u c t u r a l l o a d s r e q u i r e c h a n g e s in s k i n g a g e . an a d d i t i o n a l t a n k a s s e m b l y s t a t i o n and m o r e s t o r a g e s p a c e m u s t be added in the Michoud f a c t o r y . A d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e . H o w e v e r .r a t i n g a r e r e q u i r e d . and two R&D flights for m a n . and f r a m e c h o r d a r e a . stiffener s p a c i n g .D5-13183 6. T h e s e c h a n g e s n e c e s s i t a t e r e v i s i o n s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g t o o l s . A new stand w i l l be n e e d e d and c a n be l o c a t e d in a p r e s e n t l y u n u s e d p o s i t i o n in that building. e n g i n e . 3 RESOURCES T h e p r e s e n t s t a g e . T h e l o n g e r .I C . m a n u f a c t u r e r s w e r e a s s u m e d to be c o n t r a c t o r s for the m o d i f i e d v e h i c l e . the 48 . T h e S-IC s t a g e of the d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e w i l l b e r e f u r b i s h e d a f t e r t e s t and u s e d a s a flight a r t i c l e .i n c h s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r s with t h e i r t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l s y s t e m m u s t be d e v e l o p e d and qualified for t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n A p r o d u c t i o n r a t e of s i x v e h i c l e s p e r y e a r for a p e r i o d of five y e a r s w a s u t i l i z e d to a s s e s s the p r o d u c t i o n i m p a c t .2 5 ( S ) c a n n o t be h y d r o s t a t i c t e s t e d in the p r e s e n t M i c h o u d VAB p o s i t i o n . T h e two p r e s e n t l y u n u s e d s t a g e t e s t p o s i t i o n s m u s t be m o d i f i e d to a c c e p t t h e l o n g e r S-IC s t a g e s . T h e 1 5 6 .

Additional machine tools and space a r e required for the detail p a r t manufacturing. test and checkout will need modification to accommodate this l a r g e r . The standard S-IVB facilities for manufacturing. LH2 tank walls. a development p r o g r a m of ten firings is assumed. Delivery of this static/dynamic (S/D) stage r e q u i r e s that the standard S-II production be a c c e l e r a t e d to accumulate sufficient stages to maintain a constant delivery r a t e at one stage every two months. Welding torches. Two new wheel dollies must be added to the forward c a r r i a g e .D5-13183 additional stage weight exceeds the forward (thrust structure) c a r r i a g e capability. For the solid rocket m o t o r s . t h e major work required is modification to the structural test tower for the i n c r e a s e d test loads. no modifications would be required to handle the additional stage weight. platforms. heavier stage. A separate stage will be manufactured to be utilized for both static s t r u c t u r e s test and for stage dynamic test. A complicated scheduling problem exists to provide time to modify 49 . The 24 to 36 month delivery time for these machines make early delivery of modified stages difficult. i n t e r s t a g e and a e r o . assembly. Some handling equipment at Tulsa and Seal Beach will r e q u i r e modification a s a r e s u l t of the increased stage weight. and stage interfaces must be relocated and adapted to the new vehicle. Minor facilities a r e required but new tools. The c u r r e n t S-H p r o g r a m t r a n s p o r t equipment and vehicles a r e c o m patible with the MS-II-25{S) stage design. MS-II-2 5 (S) Manufacturing r e q u i r e m e n t s for the MS-II-25(S) stage a r e defined by the schedule d e l i v e r y dates and the stage s t r u c t u r a l modifications. New t e s t and checkout and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i s also included.f a i r i n g s .R a i l transportation from manufacturer to KSC is assumed. The revised s t r u c t u r a l design will r e q u i r e modification of the f a b r i cation and a s s e m b l y tools for the forward and aft s k i r t s . Both shuttle and sea going barges must have their decks strengthened and supports and tie downs relocated for the longer heavier stage. The Seal Beach facilities r e q u i r e a minimum of modifications. The m o s t significant a r e a i s the skin m i l l s for machining the tanks. MS-IVB-25(5) The elongated tank of the MS-IVB required by this vehicle has a significant impact on r e s o u r c e s . jigs and fixtures a r e a major i t e m . The a s s e m b l y and checkout towers must be reworked to i n c r e a s e their v e r t i c a l capacity.

T h e t h r e e c e n t e r s e g m e n t s and the f o r w a r d c l o s u r e w i l l then be s t a c k e d on top of e a c h of t h e aft c l o s u r e s . Two c r a n e s m o u n t e d on t h e M E P S w i l l be u s e d to lift and a t t a c h the.6 ) . T h i s study a c t i v i t y d e s c r i b e d the m i n i m u m i m p a c t l a u n c h s e q u e n c e s for t h i s v e h i c l e a s shown below.Launch O p e r a t i o n s I m p a c t T h e i m p a c t of t h i s v e h i c l e on t h e l a u n c h f a c i l i t y and O p e r a t i o n s w a s studied by T h e M a r t i n C o m p a n y u n d e r s e p a r a t e c o n t r a c t to K e n n e d y S p a c e C e n t e r . the l a u n c h o p e r a t i o n s p r o c e e d in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r to t h o s e for t h e S a t u r n V v e h i c l e wit. t h e M E P S w i t h i n s p e c t e d s e g m e n t s and p r e . A s s e m b l y of two S R M s w i l l b e a c c o m p l i s h e d c o n c u r r e n t l y . After a s s e m b l y i s m a d e and a l i g n m e n t of all four S R M s i s c o m p l e t e d . A s t r e a m l i n i n g of the t e s t p r o c e d u r e i s r e c o m m e n d ed a s a m e a n s of s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c i n g t h e c o s t of t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s . t h e solid r o c k e t m o t o r s (SRM) s e g m e n t s and c l o s u r e a s s e m b l i e s w i l l u n d e r g o r e c e i v i n g i n s p e c t i o n .D5-13183 the f a c i l i t i e s with m i n i m u m i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h d e l i v e r y of s t a n d a r d s t a g e s . T h e m o d i f i e d c o r e v e h i c l e w i l l be a s s e m b l e d a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s in t h e VAB on a m o d i f i e d m o b i l e l a u n c h e r (ML) a n d w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y b e t r a n s p o r t e d to t h e p a d for a t t a c h m e n t of the solid r-ocket m o t o r s . After the liquid c o r e v e h i c l e on the m o b i l e l a u n c h e r h a s been s e c u r e d to the l a u n c h p a d . c o m p o n e n t i n s t a l l a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l c h e c k o u t in a new m o b i l e e r e c t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g s t r u c t u r e (MEPS) at a r e m o t e s i t e . T h i s could o v e r l o a d s o m e of t h e c h e c k o u t t o w e r s a n d r e q u i r e e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e o v e r t i m e o r a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and GSE. C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e c o r e v e h i c l e a s s e m b l y and c h e c k o u t . t h e M E P S w i l l then be t r a n s p o r t e d b a c k to i t s p a r k i n g p o s i t i o n . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w i l l be d u p l i c a t e d for a s s e m b l y and m a t i n g of t h e r e m a i n i n g two solid r o c k e t m o t o r s .a s s e m b l e d aft a t t a c h m e n t s k i r t ) to the liquid c o r e . The s t r e a m l i n i n g w o u l d p e r m i t m a k i n g t h e p o s t .h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e a d d e d o p e r a t i o n s for i n t e g r a t e d s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r c h e c k o u t and f o r s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r a r m i n g . T h e s t a t i c f i r i n g a t S a c r a m e n t o r e q u i r e s modifying t h e t e s t s t a n d . L a u n c h F a c i l i t y and . 50 . T h i s r e q u i r e s a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e of the s t a n d a r d s t a g e s and s t o r i n g t h e m for d e l i v e r y On t h e i r n o r m a l shipping d a t e .T h e t r a n s p o r t i n g e q u i p m e n t will r e q u i r e s o m e r e d e s i g n a n d a l l s h i p m e n t s w i l l be by w a t e r s i n c e t h e p r e s e n t S u p e r Guppy a i r c r a f t c a n n o t c a r r y the e l o n g a t e d s t a g e .a s s e m b l y c l o s u r e s for a l l four of t h e solid r o c k e t m o t o r s w i l l m o v e to t h e l a u n c h pad and w i l l be m a t e d w i t h t h e m o b i l e l a u n c h e r and g r o u n d s t r u c t u r e f o r t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n s of the s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r s e g m e n t s ( s e e F i g u r e 6 .f i r i n g c h e c k o u t in t h e t e s t stand and e l i m i n a t e modifying t h e v e r t i c a l c h e c k o u t l a b o r a t o r y cells. F r o m t h i s point on. aft solid r o c k e t m o t o r c l o s u r e (with the p r e .

d o w n c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d in 39 h o u r s . a u x i l i a r y e x h a u s t d e f l e c t o r s h i e l d s and i n c r e a s e d high p r e s s u r e g a s a n d p r o p e l l a n t s t o r a g e c a p a b i l i t i e s . new f l a m e d e f l e c t o r s and i m p r o v e d f l a m e d e f l e c t o r a n c h o r a g e . T h e e x i s t i n g v e r t i c a l a s s e m b l y building with the w o r k p l a t f o r m l o cations altered can be utilized. w e l l w i t h i n t h e 7 2 . e m e r g e n c y t a k e . A m o b i l e e r e c t i o n a n d p r o c e s s i n g s t r u c t u r e (MEPS) m u s t be p r o v i d e d with p a r k i n g p o s i t i o n a n d a d d i t i o n a l c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r r o a d w a y for a c c e s s . E x i s t i n g e l e c t r i c a l power and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y .i n c h solid r o c k e t m o t o r s i n c r e a s e s p a d o c c u p a n c y t i m e f r o m 58 to 70 d a y s . T h e w a t e r m a i n s s e r v i n g the pad a r e a a r e a d e q u a t e without m o d i f i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r . A d d i t i o n a l q u a n t i t y and flow r a t e s of i n d u s t r i a l w a t e r w i l l be r e q u i r e d with i n c r e a s e d p u m p i n g c a p a c i t y and u p g r a d i n g of t h e h y d r o m a t i c s y s t e m s . A solid rocket motor i n e r t components building m u s t be provided.h o u r h u r r i c a n e warning time.D5-13183 i / .sim AOT t BU -«*-s I ELEWIQH I F I G U R E 6-6 M O B I L E E R E C T I O N AND PROCESSING STRUCTURE I n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e 1 5 6 . f l a m e p r o t e c t i o n for f l a m e t r e n c h w a l l s . T h e "mobile s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e (MSS) w i l l r e q u i r e a h e i g h t e x t e n s i o n to a 51 . M o d i f i c a t i o n s a t the l a u n c h p a d i n c l u d e r e i n f o r c e m e n t of t h e m o b i l e l a u n c h e r s u p p o r t p i e r s and pad s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n of h e a t s h i e l d s for pad m o u n t e d e q u i p m e n t a n d ' s t r u c t u r e .

D5-13183 l e v e l of 396 feet to p e r m i t w o r k p l a t f o r m s to be r a i s e d to the r e q u i r e d service levels. m o r e p o w e r f u l s t e e r i n g system. O n e new and one m o d i f i e d m o b i l e l a u n c h e r (ML) a r e r e q u i r e d to s a t i s f y t h e l a u n c h r a t e and.S A T .V .7 . a s c h e d u l e for d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s v e h i c l e w a s p r e p a r e d . a new MSS i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e a b o v e c h a n g e s m u s t be built. T h i s s c h e d u l e s h o w s t h a t t h e M L V . This will r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d structural reinforcement and i n c r e a s e d elevator r u n s .S A T . s h i e l d i n g of t h e front u m b i l i c a l f a c e . T h e p r i n c i p a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e r e l o c a t i o n to h i g h e r l e v e l s of a l l u m b i l i c a l a r m s . an e n l a r g e m e n t of t h e a s p i r a t o r h o l e . S e e F i g u r e 6 .2 5 ( S ) f i r s t flight v e h i c l e c a n be a v a i l a b l e 42 m o n t h s a f t e r h a r d w a r e a u t h o r i t y t o p r o c e e d ( A T P ) .It i s not p o s s i b l e to a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e r e q u i r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s in t h e f i v e . T h e c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r w h i c h w i l l be u s e d to t r a n s p o r t t h e m o b i l e l a u n c h e r and M E P S w i l l r e q u i r e u p r a t i n g by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11 p e r c e n t to h a n d l e the i n c r e a s e d l o a d s c a u s e d by t h e h e a v i e r MSS.m o n t h t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n t h e l a s t S a t u r n V l a u n c h and the f i r s t M L V . r e p l a c e m e n t of the e x i s t i n g v e h i c l e s u p p o r t a r m s and r e l o c a t i o n of e q u i p m e n t in t h e u m b i l i c a l t o w e r and m o b i l e l a u n c h e r p l a t f o r m . p r o g r a m p h a s e . Schedules Within t h e Study g r o u n d r u l e s and a f t e r an a n a l y s i s of the r e q u i r e d d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g i m p a c t . T h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i l l i n c l u d e s t r u c t u r a l beefup and a n e w . s t r e n g t h e n i n g of t h e M L p l a t f o r m s t r u c t u r e .i n r e q u i r e m e n t s for t h i s v e h i c l e .Z 5 ( S ) R&D l a u n c h . The cantilever framing which supports the p l a t f o r m s in t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e s o l i d s m u s t be r e w o r k e d to i n c r e a s e the l a t e r a l c l e a r a n c e .V . P r o t e c t i o n f r o m e x h a u s t i m p i n g e m e n t on t h e b o t t o m of the M L will be r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e of t h e e x h a u s t plume spillover from the flame trench. Costs A v e h i c l e c o s t s u m m a r y i s shown in T a b l e 6-III- 52 . f r o m 4 5 f e e t to 55 feet. t h e r e f o r e . i n c r e a s e d e l e v a t o r r u n s .

5 10.y 500.1 1649. 5 COST .5 940.5 39 31.T OMCUttS COW mrrnr L C . 5 5. 5 37.1 S2.7 U.2 200.1 2894.7 77-1 58.2 z. Z 5.1 478.1 513.5 4534. 5 132.0 469.7 940.Other FACILITIES TOTAL S Y S T E M S E N O I N E E R I N O fc I N T E G R A T I O N 5.0 9*1.D O L L A R S I N MILLIONS LAUNCH VEHICLE fiooit A s s i s t 5-lC Stage 5-11 S t a g e S-IVB S t a g e I n s t r u m e n t Unit LAUNCH V E H I C L E T O T A L GROUND S U P P O R T E Q U I P M E N T Boovt A s s i s t S-IC S t a g e S-II S t a g e S-IVB S t a g e GSE T O T A L FACILITIES S-IC Stage S-II S t a g e S-IVB S t a g e L a u n c h V e h i c l e .7 72.0 761.2 I ! 19.1 324. «K»mi SOtlSTttMCS IHMTRJOfl a TOTAL 537.5 17. 1 136.0 19-6 .2 5 ( S ) COST SUMMARY 53 . 3 tnocnvuiE I I 1 1 ! FIGURE 6-7 SAT-V-25(S) LAUNCH VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT AND D E L I V E R Y P L A N DEVELOPMENT STAGE ENGINE 96.5 33.KSC Launch Vehicle .7 640.7 62.7 5.4 57.0 11.4 192.0 136.4 69.» MOO STAGE DCVELOPMEHT MMC'BIS) MS-ll-aS) MS-IVB-ast JW'DIA SOLID S VEHICLE DaiVERIES MIV-SAT V-SISI I II iimcr nwtiuit j IBMI-D t UNITS tn t is wiuir ifouo siniBi 4 0 »tON IW L •MkUUemMcoMun t MFHSHMCOBUTI i sur-unflDititttMe * mac s-ic STITIC r u n o Wccotim * n-goc< »IL* cime*«TH OCJK*. 5 26.7 727. 3 OPERATIONAL STAGE ENGINE 440.l 919-7 10.l 5.V .0 ZZi.2 60 3 2990.8 102. 5 43.0 Z07.9 475.8 96.2 732.6 48.J J ] 1W * P D5-13183 | ^ iw I w !!••••• IT WHMHIFME SPttCOM- 1W | *' ma 1971 1T7Z 1 I 1 | 1 I < I I J I [ 3^41 1 j _?j 3 I t I 1 J 11 3 I « 1 1 M l I i )T 4 Ijijlll I 1 1 1 I ] DESIGN a FACILITIES nw>i -niwn DYNAMIC TEST l •IGMMH .6 .8 359.2 991.5 273.8 IBS.9 LAUNCH SYSTEMS T O T A L 1 I I R i D F L I G H T S (2) 1 T A B L E 6-III S A T .

U.5 • 2 9 8 2 (Engine Qimbal) 2855 2723 2891 • • MS-M flL Wp = 0 2184 2096 1900 1877 1737 = 9 3 0 K lbs. 5 x J-2 MR = 5 = 1 N • • 2 0 0 0 (Engine Gitnba!) fiU MS-IC Wp = 28 ft.7 Seconds 365 116 (Aft Attach) Qimbsl] i i 100 (Engine STA . T i 1052 8 7 4 (Fwd A t t a c h ) 732 Web Burning Time 110. F-l 1196 • SEPARATION 5 1 1522 K Four 7 Segment (20 Solid Rochet Motors WD '. = S M lbs. 2 8 M lbs.5 3 9 6 " D1A PAYLOAD 379.[15.2 .D5 -13183 STA 4804.5 FIGURE 7-1 MLV-SAT>V-4{S)B BASELINE VEHICLE 54 .5 4473.300 LBS I. ( 3 r d Stage] 3595 3559 3437 3165 3082.5 139.300 LBS 260 DIA PAYLOAD 4282.

7. T h e n u m b e r of s e g m e n t s in the IN s o l i d m o t o r s was v a r i e d b e t w e e n five and s e v e n . T h e v e h i c l e liftoff w e i g h t w a s v a r i e d to m a i n t a i n a -5* liftoff t h r u s t .V .4 ( S ) B v e h i c l e s w e r e evolved. o p t i m i z e d f i r s t .25. T h e v e h i c l e h e i g h t w a s fixed a t 410 feet for both the two and t h r e e s t a g e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . T h e v e h i c l e a s defined in the t r a d e study a c t i v i t y and s t u d i e d in d e t a i l in t h e P h a s e II a c t i v i t y i s a f e a s i b l e and c o s t e f f e c t i v e c o n f i g u r a t i o n and i s . V a r y i n g w e i g h t s of p r o p e l l a n t and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a g e l e n g t h s w e r e s t u d i e d for all s t a g e s . 7. a d a p t e d to a c c e p t a t t a c h m e n t of four 120-inch d i a m e t e r solid motors.1 . F o u r 120-inch s o l i d p r o p e l l a n t r o c k e t m o t o r s w e r e a t t a c h e d to t h e v e h i c l e for t h r u s t a u g m e n t a t i o n .1. 1 Candidate Configurations F o r t h e t r a d e study both two and t h r e e s t a g e o p e r a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d . Mo m a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d for. 7.4 ( S ) B (See F i g u r e 7-1) i s a S a t u r n V v e h i c l e with l e n g t h e n e d f i r s t s t a g e . a l o g i c a l c a n d i d a t e to p r o v i d e p a y l o a d s in e x c e s s of t h o s e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e with the S a t u r n V v e h i c l e . T h i s c u r v e shows NO.0 MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B The S A T . 1 C O N F I G U R A T I O N S E L E C T I O N ( P H A S E I) By v a r y i n g t h e n u m b e r of s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r s e g m e n t s (and thus solid p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t ) .s t a g e p r o F I G U R E 7 .w e i g h t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.t o . t h e r e f o r e . ZERO MOTORS * . e i t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o r p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s v e h i c l e . P r o p u l s i o n and e n g i n e type for a l l s t a g e s w a s fixed to c o r r e s p o n d to t h e b a s e l i n e A S .s t a g e v e h i c l e . OF SEGMWTS two c o n d i t i o n s . 1. a n u m b e r of r e l a t e d S A T .2 T R A D E STUDY pellant weight with the upper s t a g e p r o p e l l a n t P E R F O R M A N C E DATA 55 .V . and c o n s i d e r i n g both o p t i m i z e d l e n g t h and fixed length c o r e s t a g e s .D5-13183 7.2 Trade Studies | ltd SJWQ F i g u r e 7-2 i s t y p i c a l of the p a r a m e t r i c p e r f o r m a n c e d a t a p r e p a r e d for the t r a d e s t u d y . S i g n i f i c a n t s o l i d m o t o r 14 p a r a m e t e r s a r e s h o w n in T a b l e 7 . P a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y and c o s t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e s e v e h i c l e s in o r d e r to choose one a r r a n g e m e n t for m o r e detailed a n a l y s i s .5 l 6 v e h i c l e .li F i g u r e 7-2 i l l u s t r a t e s the net p a y l o a d v e r s u s the n u m b e r of s e g m e n t s in the 120-inch m o t o r s S O 5 < f o r t h e t h r e e . HMD SOLID MOTORS BO T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e a c h s o l i d m o t o r w e r e OPTIMIZEDs p e c i f i e d by M S F C .

120 in 230 s e c 9 7 . 8 in 690 p s i a 1. 132. 6 i 7. 301 s 8. 015. 480 lb 4 8 9 . 7 0 5 1b 112. 3 sq in 8. 69 5. 000 l b .T A B L E 7-1 SOLID MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS UA -1205 15-Segment) UA -120 (6-Segm 120 in 234 s e c 116. I .170 f 1. 0 114. 0 s e c •Mr-Ma p i • .705 107. 495.~---9« pfwt |~"-(-H P~ i >* . 0 8 0 .s e c 421. 8 Motor diameter Average sea level I S p (approximately) Sea level action time total impulse Total propellent weight Total motor weight Characteristic velocity Overall m o t o r length Maximum chamber pressure Initial nozale throat a r e a I n i t i a l n o z z l e exit a r e a Initial expansion ratio Nozzle length Nozzle weight Burn action time . 930 sq in. 116. I. 8. 0 in 7 .01 570. 86 111. 127 i 680 ps 1. 519 lb 5.170 f t / s e c 1. 922 6.

D5-13183 w e i g h t s fixed. a fixed length u p p e r s t a g e v e h i c l e was c h o s e n for the n e x t p h a s e of s t u d y .4 ( S ) B s e l e c t e d d u r i n g the P h a s e I a c t i v i t y w a s defined in d e t a i l . 000 p o u n d s of p r o p e l l a n t f r o m t h e S .I V B s t a g e . P a y l o a d i n c r e a s e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 .I V B c o s t only a l l o w s a 1.V . A s i m i l a r study of t w o . T h e r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e in S . 57 . a n d p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t s f o r a l l s t a g e s o p t i m i z e d . P a y l o a d gains of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 p e r c e n t a c c r u e by o p t i m i z i n g p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t s in a l l s t a g e s .I C t o t h e S .3 a s " B a s e l i n e . 5 p e r c e n t i m p r o v e m e n t in c o s t efficiency even though p a y l o a d i s improved 3 percent. F o r t h e o p t i m i z e d v e h i c l e s . HD O &MD I no I'HSaiH F i g u r e 7-3 c o m p a r e s the payload cost efficiency of u s i n g v a r i o u s s o l i d m o t o r w e i g h t s ( n u m b e r s of s e g m e n t s ) with e i t h e r fixed o r o p t i m i z e d c o r e s t a g e s . S i n c e study g r o u n d r u l e s s p e c i f i e d that u p p e r s t a g e m o d i f i c a t i o n s be m i n i m i z e d . It s h o u l d be noted t h a t the m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o p t i m i z e d v e h i c l e s and fixed u p p e r s t a g e v e h i c l e s i s the t r a n s f e r of 100. T h e s e l e c t e d v e h i c l e i s i n d i c a t e d on F i g u r e s 7-2 and 7 .2 DESIGN S T U D Y V E H I C L E ( P H A S E H) The s i n g l e S A T . 5 p e r c e n t with e a c h a d d i t i o n a l solid motor s e g m e n t (increased solid propellant weight).s t a g e v e h i c l e s s h o w s the o p t i m u m c o r e v e h i c l e to b e b a s i c a l l y a s t a n d a r d S-II s t a g e and a 2 8 .f o o t l o n g e r M S . t h e S-IYB s t a g e would h a v e to be l e n g t h e n e d a p r o x i m a t e l y 14 f e e t w h i l e t h e S-II s t a g e r e m a i n s at i t s s t a n d a r d l e n g t h and t h e S-IC s t a g e i s i n c r e a s e d in l e n g t h by a b o u t 28 feet. i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d and i t s r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d . b. The F i g u r e 7-2 d a t a d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t : a.I C s t a g e . " NO0F5FGMENTS FIGURE 7-3 COST DATA T R A D E STUDY 7.

000 p o u n d s .C a p p l i c a t i o n s .2. P a y l o a d s a v a i l a b l e for v a r i o u s o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e s b e t w e e n 30 and 300 n a u t i c a l m i l e s a n d l a u n c h a z i m u t h s b e t w e e n 45 d e g r e e s a n d 180 d e g r e e s a r e s h o w n in F i g u r e 7 . " BIHtCTASCENT i%?*: ^ 1 S^ * fs v N V_ ^ *3$ * V -s . E a c h m o t o r h a s a l i q u i d i n j e c t i o n (NpO'j) t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l s y s t e m to a u g m e n t the c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the g i m b a l e d F .V .D5-13183 7.I V B w a s not s t u d i e d a n d the S-II s t a g e for M L V .2 5 ( S ) w a s u s e d d i r e c t l y on S A T .4 ( S ) B v e h i c l e i s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 7 .V . The t h i r d s t a g e (for t h r e e . T h e f i r s t s t a g e of the v e h i c l e i s r o t a t e d 45 d e g r e e s f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n in the s t a n d a r d S a t u r n V c o n f i g u r a t i o n to m i n i m i z e t h e i m p a c t on l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s and o p e r a t i o n s .4 { S ) B t w o . The payloads identified for t h e s e a l t e r n a t e s a r e as shown in T a b l e 7-H.it p a y l o a d s a r e shown 53 .s t a g e p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e s o r b i t i s 379 t h o u 5 s a n d pounds and i t s 72 h o u r "fa lunar injection t h r e e . ALTITUDf-NM 300 F I G U R E 7 .s t a g e a p p l i c a t i o n s ) is s t a n d a r d S .V . 4 m i l l i o n p o u n d s a n d a p r o p e l l a n t weight of 579.2 e n g i n e s . 180° 300 1 ' *v -?^^. 7.4 ( S ) B .s e g m e n t 120-inch r o c k e t m o t o r s . T h e s e c o n d s t a g e is s t a n d a r d S-II l e n g t h with a p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y of 930. 000 p o u n d s .s t a g e a c a p a b i l i t y is 139 t h o u s a n d pounds. U s e of t h i s v e h i c l e w a s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d for a p p l i c a t i o n w h e r e t h e c o r e v e h i c l e {liquid s t a g e s without s o l i d s ) c o u l d be flown by i t s e l f o r with only two s t r a p .S A T . 4 m CUU 1 V 100 so ORBIT.4 ORBIT A L T I T U D E AZIMUTH PAYLOAD CAPABILITY A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l for m i s s i o n p l a n n i n g .1 and J .2 D e s i g n Study R e s u l t s m LAWH AirMiJ™ 1 iSThe S A T . The solid m o t o r s .4 ( S ) B a r e e q u i p p e d with s t a n d a r d F . 000 p o u n d s p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y . the d e s i r a b l e i n c r e a s e d l e n g t h S . It i n c o r p o r a t e s s t a n d a r d l e n g t h u p p e r s t a g e s and a 28-foot l o n g e r f i r s t . c o n f o r m t o p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n s d e v e l o p e d by U n i t e d T e c h n o l o g y C e n t e r for T i t a n H I . S i n c e study funds a n d t i m i n g w e r e l i m i t e d .I V B l e n g t h with 230.1 .s t a g e a u g m e n t e d by four s e v e n . P o l a r a n d n e a r p o l a r qrb. a s d e s i g n a t e d by M S F C .2. E a c h m o t o r h a s an i n i t i a l s e a l e v e l t h r u s t of 1.V . The liquid c o r e s t a g e s of S A T .V .i e n g i n e s d u r i n g flight t h r o u g h the m a x q r e g i m e .4 .1 Vehicle Description T h e b a s e l i n e S A T .o n s o l i d m o t o r s .

725 Wts.000 lb 139.18 330.300 59 .5.683 92.300 W™ * 6.18 ° W D 1 = 4.740.358.350 lb 251.789 lb 121.368 lb T /W Q = 1.387.444 W„.805 T o / W 0 = 1.D5-13183 TABLE 7-II PAYLOAD CAPABILITY C o r e Vehicle Without Solid Motors T 0 / W 0 =1.842 lb 117.920 W D 1 = 5.855.25 320.512 89.445 Core Vehicle With Two Solid Motors T 0 / W 0 = 1.000.25 NET PAYLOAD (LB) TWO-STAGE THREE-STAGE 100 NM Orbit 72-hour Lunar Injection 243. .549 Core Vehicle with Four Solid Motors T 0 / W 0 = 1.25 379. = 7.

attitude rate control system. s t a g e mission payload capability far a 24-hour sun s y n c h r o n o u s o r b i t . The u s e of e n l a r g e d fins in lieu of s o l i d m o t o r T V C was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d .C . p a y l o a d a s a function of t h e s p e c i f i c e n e r g y p a r a m e t e r a r e s h o w n on F i g u r e 7-6.DFG 2 60 . c o m p a r e d to SAT V.5 P O L A R & SUN c a p a b i l i t y of the F . S i n c e the s o l i d m o t o r TVC r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e l e s s t h a n the T i t a n I I I . and m o r e g e n e r a l l y . a s shown i n T a b l e 7-111. (TWICE SPECIFIC ENERGY) M K M J 5 K ) v e h i c l e would have to be F I G U R E 7-6 THREE-STAGE double t h a t r e q u i r e d for HIGH E N E R G Y MISSION AS-5L6 {150 s q u a r e f e e t CAPABILITY iw l« 150 UUNCHAZIMfTH. Significant load c r i t e r i a a n d o t h e r d a t a p e r t i n e n t to v e h i c l e d e s i g n a r e shown on T a b l e 7-III with c o m p a r a t i v e S a t u r n V v a l u e s . T h e f i r s t s t a g e c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s of the SAT-V-4{S)B n e c e s s i t a t e additional c o n t r o l beyond t h e p r e s e n t fins and g i m b a l F I G U R E 7 . PAYLOAD CAPABILITY A l t e r n a t e c o n t r o l mode s t u d i e s s h o w e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 5 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n in m a x i m u m b e n d i n g r e s p o n s e could be e x p e c t e d if an a n g l e of a t t a c k f e e d b a c k c o n t r o l m o d e w e r e e m p l o y e d . This analysis indicated t h a t the fin s i z e for the 30 baseline SAT-V-4(S)B C .l o a d e d to c a r r y only t h e r e q u i r e d fluid.D5-13183 ?STAavrHICLESIN™lHAl«. t h e 410-foot v e h i c l e h e i g h t c o u p l e d with the 33-foot d i a m e t e r t w o stage payload shape has a l a r g e impact on s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s .l ' s u s i n g the c u r r e n t SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT attitude. Although m a x dynamic p r e s s u r e (q) and a c c e l e r a t i o n a r e r e d u c e d .S5IONPL-3mi i n F i g u r e 7 _ 5 _ T h r e e . the liquid i n j e c t a n t t a n k s w i l l be o f f . T h e u s e of t h e l i q u i d i n j e c t i o n t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l on t h e s o l i d m o t o r is r e q u i r e d for 21 HOUR SYNCHRONOUS ORBIT -HIGHFMESGV 30 s e c o n d s n e a r m a x i m u m q t i m e of flight.

DEFLECTION ANGLE below indicated that for reduced payload l e n g t h s f o r t h e t w o . t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y for l a u n c h d u r i n g t h e s e m o n t h s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t .V .o r t h r e e . T A B L E 7-III SIGNIFICANT a n d (2) the full s t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s a s i n d i c a t e d for t h e M L V . The data shows. 159 feet for the t w o . e . B e c a u s e of the r o t a t i o n of the f i r s t s t a g e 45 d e g r e e s .8 .4 p s i o v e r p r e s s u r e d i s t a n c e to a v a l u e g r e a t e r t h a n the d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n P a d A and P a d B on L a u n c h C o m p l e x 39. with no m o d i f i c a t i b n s to t h e u p p e r s t a g e s .. T h i s d a t a f u r t h e r s h o w s t h a t .V . a 95 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r l a u n c h a v a i l a b i l i t y c a n be o b t a i n e d for e v e r y m o n t h of the y e a r by r e d u c i n g the t w o .4 ( S ) B .S A T . 3° PER MOTOR 70-100 SEC NU NU 653. that t h r e e s t a g e a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l not h a v e 95 p e r c e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y with any l e n g t h p a y l o a d d u r i n g F e b r u a r y and M a r c h u n l e s s the u p p e r s t a g e s a r e modifiedA 50 p e r c e n t o r b e t t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y for a t h r e e . TEMP.s t a g e p a y l o a d ) t h a t t h e r e i s b a s i c a l l y no p o s s i b i l i t y of flying e i t h e r the t w o . t h a t no a d d i t i o n a l BASE MAX.s t a g e v e h i c l e f r o m D e c e m b e r t h r o u g h M a r c h u n l e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e m a d e to the u p p e r s t a g e s . The a d d i t i o n of m o r e fuel in the f i r s t s t a g e and the f o u r s.s t a g e v e h i c l e .000 Won waft coA MS-|C-*S» ROTATED « " S t u d i e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d to d e t e r m i n e the payload envelope and corresponding wind l i m i t a t i o n s for the v e h i c l e with: (1) BA5ELINE516WITHTIW .s t a g e p a y l o a d length to a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 feet (payload density equals 12.D5-13183 p e r fin v e r s u s 7 5 s q u a r e f e e t p e r fin). OTHERS GIMBALEDF-rs GIMBALEDF-1'S PlUSN^LITVC ON SOLIDS Z.5 pounds/foot3). t h e flight c o n t r o l s i g n a l m u s t be modified to c o m p e n s a t e for t h e r o t a t i o n . With m i n i m a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s .s t a g e p a y l o a d and 101 feet for the t h r e e . W a i v e r s for t h i s d i s t a n c e w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r j o i n t u s a g e of t h e s e p a d s when e i t h e r 61 . T y p i c a l r e s u l t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d on F i g u r e s 7-7 a n d 7 .olid m o t o r s i n c r e a s e s t h e 0.L S 0 0 no o r m i n i m u m u p p e r s t a g e m o d i f i c a t i o n s .s t a g e v e h i c l e {payload SOLID TVCOFf RATINC d e n s i t i e s of 5 pounds/feet-* and g r e a t e r ) HFATINO a n d f o r n o m i n a l p a y l o a d l e n g t h s for t h e AERODYNAMIC M H I I FT-UffT t h r e e . . c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y beyond n o m i n a l for AS-516 i s r e q u i r e d for t h e S A T .s t a g e p a y l o a d length of 50 f e e t i s p o s s i b l e f o r e v e r y month of the y e a r with no u p p e r s t a g e m o d i fications. however. T h i s d a t a s h o w s t h a t for t h e n o m i n a l p a y l o a d l e n g t h s (i. Wind t u n n e l t e s t s will be r e q u i r e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s a n a l y s i s .4 ( S ) A v e h i c l e LOAD C R I T E R I A in t h e p r e v i o u s f i s c a l y e a r 1964 c o n t r a c t e d study effort. -*S)B LOAD CHITfHIA M A X ^ tLBSTT2! g ' l A T M A X ^ tc WIGHT (FTI CONTROL MODE MTV t£H L13 'ID m L«* »3 C o n t r o l s t u d i e s of v e h i c l e s defined in t h e s p e c i a l s t u d y on p a y l o a d s e n s i t i v i t i e s SOLID MAX.

SKIRT I TANK SHELL 100 * N D O i r r S .NO UPPER STAGE MODIFICATIONS MONTH OF YEAR F I G U R E 7-7 T W O .l l AFT SKIRT n PER COT LAUNCH AVAILABILITY .D5-13183 l» FACTOR OF SAFETY • U 120 ! STAGES .U \ MODIFY S-l I FWO.) » JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG MONTH OF YEAR OCT NOV DtC FIGURE 7-8 T H R E E . IS-IWS-ll IKIERSTACE M M COMPLETES FULL STRUCTURAL MODS. MODIFICATION STEPS L NO MODIFICATION t MODIFY I.S T A G E W I N D / P A Y L O A D SENSITIVITY FACTORV0F SAFETY-L* STRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS NOMINA! PAYLQAD LENGTH .S T A G E W I N D / F A YLOAD SENSITIVITY 62 .W FT.

The i s 0. will have c l e a r c o m m u n i cations during these periods a n d can provide continuous communications.S A T . r e s p e c t i v e l y . Other s t a t i o n s . A b a s e h e a t s h i e l d will a l s o be r e q u i r e d for e a c h of the s o l i d m o t o r s .S A T ~ V .4 ( S ) B v e h i c l e a n d 0 .p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e foot f o r t h e S A T .s t a g e M L V .V . A e r o d y n a m i c h e a t i n g for t h e M X J V .p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e foot. 19 s e c o n d s for t h e S a t u r n V. T h e a e r o d y n a m i c h e a t i n g i n d i c a t o r (AHI) at 6 5 3 . a n a b o r t l e a d t i m e of 2 .S A T .and t h r e e . A s s u m i n g an Apollo p a y l o a d and l a u n c h e s c a p e s y s t e m . 000 f o o t . The l o w e r r e l i a b i l i t y c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to the m o d i to t h e s t a g e s and the a d d i t i o n of the s t r a p . The b a s e h e a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t is m o r e s e v e r e for the M L . S e p a r a t i o n of t h e s o l i d m o t o r s f r o m the c o r e v e h i c l e c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y u s i n g e x p l o s i v e s e p a r a t i o n d e v i c e s a n d the p r e s e n t T i t a n HIC s e p a r a t i o n r o c k e t m o t o r s . however. h e a t s h i e l d m a t e r i a l s can w i t h s t a n d t h e 2200 d e g r e e F t e m p e r a t u r e s a n t i c i p a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y .V 4{S)B than for t h e S a t u r n V due t o the s o l i d m o t o r e x h a u s t p l u m e s . 000 f o o t . Howe v e r .4 ( 5 ) B i s 18 p e r c e n t l o w e r t h a n t h e n o m i n a l SAT V A H I v a l u e of 7 9 2 . 000 f o o t . 980 for t h e AS-516. 76 s e c o n d s is r e q u i r e d for t h i s v e h i c l e v e r s u s 2. T h e s h o c k wave f r o m the s o l i d m o t o r n o s e c a p m a y i m p i n g e on the f i r s t s t a g e n e a r t h e i n t e r t a n k and local insulation may be r e q u i r e d .p o u n d s p e r s q u a r e foot a n d 30 p e r c e n t b e l o w t h e m a x i m u m AHI v a l u e for the S a t u r n V of 924. The F l i g h t a n d c r e w s a f e t y a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y for t h i s v e h i c l e .o n s o l i d m o t o r s . T h e aft s o l i d m o t o r a t t a c h m e n t s k i r t w i l l r e a c h 2480 d e g r e e s F . V . 984 baseline fications r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e t w o .D5-13183 p a d c o n t a i n s a fueled c o r e v e h i c l e with the s o l i d m o t o r s a t t a c h e d . U s i n g a s o l i d m o t o r T N T e q u i v a l e n c y of 100 p e r c e n t .4 ( S ) E i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n the S a t u r n V. a s c o m p a r e d to . 9 6 7 . a c o u s t i c l e v e l w i l l r e q u i r e p r o t e c t i o n of p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g l a u n c h . 990 a n d . O t h e r s t u d i e s s h o w e d t h a t no p r o b l e m s for a b o r t a r e a n t i c i p a t e d b e c a u s e of s e p a r a t i o n d y n a m i c s . I n s u l a t i o n p r o t e c t i o n on the aft s k i r t w i l l be r e q u i r e d . A b o r t l e a d t i m e i s t h a t t i m e p r i o r to e x p l o s i o n of t h e v e h i c l e t h a t t h e l a u n c h e s c a p e s y s t e m f i r i n g p u l s e m u s t be i n i t i a t e d . t h e a b o r t l e a d t i m e f o r t h i s v e h i c l e Was d e v e l o p e d for c o m p a r i s o n with that of t h e S a t u r n V.V . 63 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n s for s o m e s t a t i o n s m a y p o s s i b l y be " b l a c k e d o u t " due to t h e e x h a u s t plume i n t e r f e r e n c e .

MI v ueumi if (tun . 70 p e r c e n t of the acoustically sensitive components on this stage will be r e q u i r e d . IN RIGHT LAUNCH INaiCHT rLAUNCH 1 STATIC \ \ | HHIHC| LAUNCH 15 7 US . N e c e s s a r y modifications include relocation of platforms for i n c r e a s e d vehicle length and an additional hydrbdynarnic support. 64 . 1» l*V-SAT-B-«SIB « US D MWXi^ff r. Dry weight i n c r e a s e s a r e also tabulated.3 RESOURCES The p r e s e n t stage and I. MAX** J|f-REBOUH0 FIGURE 7-9 ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENT AND STRUCTURAL LOADS Major vehicle changes including the impact of s t r u c t u r a l load i n c r e a s e s a r e s u m m a r i z e d on F i g u r e 7-10. U. 4.D5-13183 Vehicle combined loads and acoustics a r e illustrated in F i g u r e 7-9The design loads a r e approximately 60 p e r c e n t higher than those for the standard Saturn V. vendors were assumed to be c o n t r a c t o r s for the modified vehicle components. The acoustic specification limits a r e exceeded at s e v e r a l locations on the f i r s t stage. The existing Dynamic T e s t facility will be employed to test the MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B-D. s t r u c t u r a l test components and two R&D man-rating flight vehicles a r e required. A dynamic test vehicle. Acoustic requalification of approximately.

M.9% MS-II K. MS-1VS ||.f» ONE ADDITIONAL HELIUM BOTTLE INTERTANK 56% > STRENGTH FIGURE 7-10 SAT-V-4{S)B VEHICLE IMPACT THRUST STRUC 28% > 5TREN .IU 2B5% > STRENGTH FORWARD SKIRT 217% > STRENGTH PROPELLANT TANKS 78%>STRENGTH COMMON BLKD INCREASED RADIUS FORWARD SKIRT 215% > STRENGTH LH2 TANK 502% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE 103% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE' 66% > STRENGTH DRY WEIGHT INCREASE WS-IC 13.

I C s t a g e of t h e d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e w i l l b e r e f u r b i s h e d a f t e r t e s t and u s e d a s a flight a r t i c l e . D e l i v e r y of t h i s s t a t i c / d y n a m i c (S/D) s t a g e r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d S . LH? t a n k 66 . c h e c k o u t and h a n d l i n g . M a j o r t o o l i n g a n d a s s e m b l y r e q u i r e m e n t s a t M i c h o u d i n c l u d e an a d d i t i o n a l tank a s s e m b l y s t a t i o n . and some additional and modified tooling. The s t a g e t r a n s p o r t e r a n d the b a r g e s m u s t b e m o d i f i e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e the i n c r e a s e d stage length. A p r o d u c t i o n r a t e of s i x v e h i c l e s p e r y e a r for a p e r i o d of five y e a r s was utilized to a s s e s s production impact. T h e s e a d d i t i o n s p r o v i d e t h e c a p a b i l i t y of i n t r o d u c i n g t h e n e w c o n f i g u ration with m i n i m u m downtime. MS-II-4(S)B M a n u f a c t u r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the MS-II-4{S)B s t a g e a r e defined by the s c h e d u l e d e l i v e r y d a t e s a n d the s t a g e S t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s . a n d a d d i t i o n a l w e l d i n g f a c i l i t y a r e a . M o d i f i c a t i o n of the S . A d d i t i o n a l a s s e m b l y e q u i p m e n t . Additional warehousing. Solid m o t o r s w i l l not b e f i r e d in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a g e s t a t i c t e s t . q u a l i t y a s s u r a n c e .I C t e s t f i r i n g s t a n d s a t M T F and M S F C a r e r e q u i r e d only due to i n c r e a s e d s t a g e l e n g t h a n d p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y . MS-IC-4(5)B The m a j o r i m p a c t of t h e f i r s t s t a g e c h a n g e s on M i c h o u d f a c i l i t i e s w i l l b e due to the a d d e d S R M functions a n d m a n u f a c t u r e of the S R M aft S k i r t s t r u c t u r e . Additional solid motor handling and t r a n s portation equipment will b e r e q u i r e d . A s e p a r a t e s t a g e w i l l b e m a n u f a c t u r e d to b e u t i l i z e d for both s t a t i c s t r u c t u r e s t e s t a n d for s t a g e d y n a m i c t e s t . T h e r e v i s e d s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n w i l l r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e f a b r i c a t i o n a n d a s s e m b l y t o o l s for the f o r w a r d a n d aft s k i r t s . T h e h e a v i e r and l o n g e r f i r s t s t a g e w i l l r e q u i r e r e w o r k of m u c h of t h e e x i s t i n g e q u i p m e n t . welding f i x t u r e s .D5 -13183 T h e S . an a d d i t i o n a l t a n k c l e a n i n g p o s i t i o n . a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t w i l l be r e q u i r e d . and r e c e i v i n g i n s p e c t i o n a r e a s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . T h e aft a t t a c h m e n t s t r u c t u r e is a m a r a g i n g s t e e l s t r u c t u r e r e q u i r i n g boring m a c h i n e s . The 120-inch solid r o c k e t m o t o r s w i t h t h e i r t h r u s t v e c t o r c o n t r o l s y s t e m a r e a s s u m e d to be f l i g h t qualified in t h e T i t a n III-C v e h i c l e systems.n p r o d u c t i o n be a c c e l e r a t e d t o a c c u m u l a t e sufficient s t a g e s to m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t d e l i v e r y r a t e at one Stage e v e r y two m o n t h s .

2 5 ( S ) s t a g e r e s o u r c e d a t a w a s u s e d without m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r S A T . S t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the s t a g e w i l l r e q u i r e a few d e v e l o p m e n t a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . The fabrication.f a i r i n g s .I V B . the m a j o r w o r k r e q u i r e d i s m o d i f i c a t i o n to t h e s t r u c t u r a l t e s t t o w e r for the i n c r e a s e d t e s t l o a d s .4 ( S ) B r e s o u r c e s study w a s not m a d e . and f i r i n g t e s t f a c i l i t i e s u s e d for the s t a n d a r d S .l V B s t a g e . Due to s t u d y funding l i m i t a t i o n s . H o w e v e r .4 ( S ) B .4 ( S ) B w i t h o u t any s c h e d u l e c o m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e d e t a i l t o o l i n g w i l l r e q u i r e n u m e r o u s m i n o r c h a n g e s but t h e s e p r e s e n t no s c h e d u l e p r o b l e m s . t h e 12 p e r y e a r p r o d u c t i o n r a t e ( s i x for M L V S A T .I I .I V B . T h e S a c r a m e n t o T e s t C e n t e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e a d e q u a t e a n d c a n be a d a p t e d to t h e M S .4 ( S ) B a n d s i x for S a t u r n IB) t a x e s the c a p a b i l i t y of T o w e r s 5 and 6. checkout. T h e t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d for t h e s e t e s t s a r e s i m i l a r to m a n y t e s t s c o n d u c t e d on t h e S .4 ( S ) B without i n t e r f e r e n c e with the s t a n d a r d s t a g e d e l i v e r y r a t e s .V . no m o d i f i c a t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d to h a n d l e t h e a d d i t i o n a l s t a g e w e i g h t .I V B . T h e M S .4 ( S ) B p r e s e n t s no s c h e d u l e o r t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s .4 ( S ) B s t a g e s .4 ( S ) B . S o m e h a n d l i n g e q u i p m e n t a t T u l s a and S e a l B e a c h w i l l r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n a s a r e s u l t of t h e i n c r e a s e d s t a g e w e i g h t . T o o l s and facilities for performing the tests a r e r e a d i l y available and will not p r e s e n t any p r o b l e m .I I .I V B . T h e c u r r e n t S-II p r o g r a m t r a n s p o r t e q u i p m e n t a n d v e h i c l e s a r e c o m p a t i b l e with t h e MS-II-4{S)B s t a g e d e s i g n . a n d t r a n s p o r t e d by t h i s MAHS to the l a u n c h p a d f o r s u b s e q u e n t a s s e m b l y of the s o l i d s to the 67 . at a s i t e t o be p r o v i d e d .D5-13183 w a l l s . T h e Solid m o t o r s e g m e n t s w i l l be a s s e m b l e d in a M o b i l e A s s e m b l y and Handling S t r u c t u r e (MAHS). i n t e r s t a g e and a e r o . T h e p r e s e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t i s a d e q u a t e for the m o d i f i e d s t a g e though s o m e s t r e n g t h e n i n g w i l l be r e q u i r e d on s e l e c t e d p i e c e s of equipment* Launch Facility and Operations Impact The m o d i f i e d c o r e v e h i c l e w i l l be a s s e m b l e d a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s in t h e VAB on t h e M o b i l e L a u n c h e r a n d w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y be t r a n s p o r t e d to t h e p a d w h e r e t h e solid r o c k e t m o t o r s will be a t t a c h e d . MS-IVB-4{S)B The e n g i n e e r i n g r e d e s i g n of t h e s t a n d a r d S-IVB to c o n v e r t i t to the M S . T h e S e a l B e a c h f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e a m i n i m u m of m o d i f i c a t i o n .V .I V B c a n be a d a p t e d to the M S . a s s e m b l y . a s e p a r a t e M S . T h e m a c h i n e t o o l c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d to p r o d u c e t h e s t a n d a r d S-IVB i s a d e q u a t e to p r o d u c e the s a m e r a t e of M S . T h e a s s e m b l y a n d c h e c k o u t t o w e r s c a n b e m o d i f i e d to a c c o m m o d a t e t h e M S .I V B .

a n d to e n l a r g e t h e a s p i r a t o r hole to a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l 68 . T h e MAHS w i l l m a t e with the m o b i l e l a u n c h e r f o r t h i s a s s e m b l y o p e r a t i o n a n d h a n d l i n g e q u i p m e n t within the MAHS will be u t i l i z e d f o r p l a c e m e n t of t h e s o l i d m o t o r s a g a i n s t the c o r e v e h i c l e {s«e F i g u r e 7-11). Major i m p a c t a r e a s i n c l u d e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the MAHS and m o d i f i c a t i o n s to t h e m o b i l e l a u n c h e r (ML) to i n c r e a s e i t s d e c k load c a p a c i t y . t o r e l o c a t e the s w i n g a r m s . N o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s for t h e c o r e v e h i c l e will be r e s u m e d a n d a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s a s r e q u i r e d for solid m o t o r final c h e c k o u t a n d a r m i n g will be a c c o m p l i s h e d . f l a m e t r a n c h c a n be u t i l i z e d . The e x i s t i n g VAB w i t h w o r k p l a t f o r m l o c a t i o n s a l t e r e d a n d the e x i s t i n g l a u n c h p a d a n d i t s existing. After a s s e m b l y of t h e s o l i d m o t o r s . T h e c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r r o a d w a y s a r e sufficient f o r t h i s v e h i c l e with the e x c e p t i o n of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t for s o m e a d d i t i o n a l c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t e r roadways a s r e q u i r e d for a c c e s s to the solid m o t o r a s s e m b l y site. to r e l o c a t e the t a i l s e r v i c e m a s t s and hblddown s t r u c t u r e . t h e MAHS will be r e m o v e d a n d r e p l a c e d by t h e s e r v i c e t o w e r .D5-13183 ELEVATION F I G U R E 7-11 M O B I L E A S S E M B L Y AND HANDLING S T R U C T U R E c o r e v e h i c l e .

f i r s t flight v e h i c l e for m i s s i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s c a n b e a v a i l a b l e 41 m o n t h s a f t e r h a r d w a r e A u t h o r i t y to P r o c e e d ( A T P ) .cuqtM MIHMtSIGX MZ «ifST.1.1. F I G U R E 7-12 S A T . 3 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . a s c h e d u l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s v e h i c l e w a s p r e p a r e d ( s e e F i g u r e 7-12).4 ( S ) B V E H I C L E D E V E L O P M E N T AND D E L I V E R Y P L A N 69 .V . Schedule Within the s t u d y g r o u n d r u l e s and a f t e r an a n a l y s i s of the r e q u i r e d d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g i m p a c t . T h i s s c h e d u l e s h o w s t h a t the M L V . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t a m a j o r p o r t i o n of t h i s c o s t i s due to the r e q u i r e m e n t s for a new a s w e l l a s a m o d i f i e d m o b i l e l a u n c h e r (ML) a n d a new a s w e l l a s a modified m o b i l e s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e (MSS).i MNMHHKi sKtt7cmf t4 Ii two 1.H £ IICTWCTJK I DAMNC true covin j. T h e t o t a l c o s t f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d a d d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i s 177. I n s u l a t i o n in s e l e c t e d a r e a s w i l l h e r e q u i r e d tQ p r o t e c t t h e M L d u r i n g l a u n c h . s«MmniHijr<u* SfUOCWIEIt • 1 HCCOIIP 4 wooamM MS-IC MS-JI am nx unr-n < Wilis | I . T h e s e n e w i t e m s a r e f o r c e d b e c a u s e of the g r o u n d r u l e which l i m i t s t h e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e l a s t s t a n d a r d SAT V l a u n c h and the f i r s t M L V ..S A T .4 I W71 2j_J * I 1*7? 1 3 « B A DESIGN t FACILITIES \ ~^ 3~.cn it n FiifinicM) JWS-IV1 VEHICLE DELIVERIES KV-SATV-*SJB imik mini milium v" * « IWW*.it3.4 ( S ) B .V .V . I 0 0 0 urauKTuaia-ttiuM HO I * . t h e a b o v e c o s t could be r e d u c e d by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s .D5-13183 s p a c e f o r t h e s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r n o z z l e s .S A T . If t h i s t i m e could b e e x t e n d e d to p r e c l u d e t h e s e n e w i t e m s .4 ( S ) B l a u n c h to f i r e m o n t h s . 1 . n-tx-rtrL KCMMOt ' *_Li L L L i „ DYNAMIC TEST S rTOMllMinr LC-39MOD n •1KMT STAGE DEVELOPMENT A mil f .l t tHI IW mt l.

3 j . FAYIOAD FOR 72 HOUR LUNAR INJECT JON IN THOUSANDS OF POUNDS FIGURE 7-13 COST EFFICIENCY COMPARISON 70 . i W. n a t r ' i m e a t Unit LAUNCH VEHICLE T O T A L GHOUND S U P P O R T E Q U I P M E N T 3 o o s t A151 st S-IC S t a e e S-H S t » .KSC Launch Vehicle .. = 1178. e 5 .!i 7.6.O !'"•. -22(S) and -25(S). 26-4 =. i LS. • ." 7. - III.9 475.5 II. i* -q". 4 H.M-B : '44 n ••ii. T » SAT-V-4(S)B COST SUMMARY DEVELOPMENT STA^E ENGINE OPERATIONAL STAGE ENGINE TOTAL 1. 3.1 hi).D O L L A R S IN M I L L I O N S L A J N C H VEHICLE 5ot-*t A s s i s t S-iC S t j 4 e S-tl S t a g e 5-iVB SUge ' . i "*.0 =S. i r. TABLE 7-IV COST .4 2T3.7 47.0 74. 81'J.3 l. This comparison is shown in F i g u r e 7-13. •i&.!. T i 507. T iW. 5 4 . 5 Ifc.8 43.J2.Other FACILITIES TOTAL S Y S T E M S E N G I N E E R I N G AND I N T E G R A T I O N l ^ U N C H SYTTEMS T O T A L 18.1) 2-0 177.o *:". i 6-.DS-13183 Costs A vehicle cost s u m m a r y is shown in Table 7-IV. i i6QI.i 1^. S u R I D FLIGHT II) A comparison of the r e l a tive values of cost effectiveness for the MLV-SAT-V-4 (S)B.1 Bl4.S.l [•?<*.1 43 3'.! 2-7 429. 2 136.n 4.t. -1 H*. shows that the most cost effective method for further improvement of performance is through the use of l a r g e r solid m o t o r s r a t h e r than through the use of uprated upper stage engines. i 17.6 43.R ii.li •*.1 319.7.i V ? Stage GSE T O T A L FACILITIES S-IC Slage S-n 5ta»e S-1V2 S t a g e L a u n c h V e h i c l e .

D5-L3183 71 .

200 lbs. 3697 3661 3539 3002. 5 • 2893 (Engine Gimbol) 2795 • £759 • 2627 2088 2000 • 1904 {Engine Gimbol) 1804 • 1781 1699 (Fwd Attach) p 164! 1448 p 1356 p • SEPARATION 1005 821 p 729 p 699 p 695 607 p 365 317 225 116 100 STA p p (Aft Attach) (Engine Gimbgl) -115.STA 4 804.5 FIGURE 8-1 SAT-V-23(L) BASELINE VEHICLE 72 .5 2986.5 2 6 0 " DIA PAYLGAD 220.5 44395 4248.

T h e modified S a t u r n V c o r e and liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s u s e s s t a n d a r d F . T h e S a t u r n V .D5-13. 0.H .2 4 ( L ) s t a g e and two in e a c h of t h e liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s .3 B v e h i c l e .V .V .I V B 24(L) s t a g e u s e d a s i n g l e u p r a t e d e n g i n e of the s a m e t y p e and t h r u s t l e v e l a s defined in the M S . 8.2 3 ( L ) v e h i c l e w a s fixed to c o r r e s p o n d to s t a n d a r d S a t u r n V e n g i n e s a s defined for t h e b a s e l i n e A S . 1 C O N F I G U R A T I O N S E L E C T I O N ( P H A S E I) B y v a r y i n g t h e p r o p e l l a n t w e i g h t b e t w e e n t h e c o r e s t a g e s and p o d s .V . M S .V . On t h e S A T .2 e n g i n e s . Payload c a p a b i l i t y a n d v e h i c l e c o s t s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e s e two f a m i l i e s Of v e h i c l e s in o r d e r to c h o o s e a s i n g l e b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e for m o r e d e t a i l e d analysis.V .V ~ 2 3 ( L ) v e h i c l e a s d e f i n e d i n t h e t r a d e s t u d y a c t i v i t y and s t u d i e d in d e t a i l in P h a s e II a c t i v i t y i s a f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n and a l o g i c a l c a n d i d a t e t o p r o v i d e p a y l o a d s .l and J .i n c h d i a m e t e r liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s .V .2 4 { L ) v e h i c l e w a s only s t u d i e d d u r i n g t h e P h a s e I study a c t i v i t y . a n u m b e r of r e l a t e d S A T . T h e S A T .2 4 ( L ) v e h i c l e .I e n g i n e s . E a c h of t h e four liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s u s e d two s t a n d a r d F . T h e S A T .2 3 ( L ) and S A T .2 3 ( L ) e x c e p t that f i r s t s t a g e a n d liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s u s e d u p r a t e d 1.2 4 ( L ) v e h i c l e ( s e e F i g u r e 1-1) i s s i m i l a r to S A T .3 B s e c t i o n . P o d p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y w a s d e t e r m i n e d by t r a d i n g p r o p e l l a n t b e t w e e n 73 . 8 m i l l i o n pound t h r u s t F . and a d a p t e d for a t t a c h m e n t of four 2 6 0 .l e n g i n e s and t h e u p p e r s t a g e s u s e d v a r i o u s n u m b e r s and t h r u s t l e v e l s of u p r a t e d e n g i n e s a s defined f o r t h e S A T .V .5 1 6 v e h i c l e . T h e M S . 1 Candidate Configurations D u r i n g the t r a d e study both' two a n d t h r e e s t a g e v e h i c l e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d .8 m i l l i o n pound t h r u s t u p r a t e d F—1 e n g i n e s w e r e u s e d in the M S .V . 8. P r o p u l s i o n and e n g i n e t y p e for a l l s t a g e s and t h e l i q u i d p r o p e l l a n t pods for the S A T . 0 MLV-SAT -V-23(L) LAUNCH V E H I C L E T h e S a t u r n V-23(L) v e h i c l e ( s e e F i g u r e 8-1) i s a m o d i f i e d S a t u r n V w i t h l e n g t h e n e d f i r s t and t h i r d s t a g e s .2 4 ( L ) s t a g e .I C .2 4 ( L ) v e h i c l e s r e s u l t e d .183 3. 1.2 4 ( L ) s t a g e u s e d v a r i o u s n u m b e r s and t h r u s t l e v e l s of u p r a t e d e n g i n e s a s defined in t h e M L V . A v e h i c l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o u l d n o t b e defined t h a t fell within t h e 410 foot study g r o u n d r u l e h e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n a s defined in S e c t i o n 3. five 1.I I .S A T . i n e x c e s s of t h o s e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e with t h e S a t u r n V v e h i c l e .

t h e r e f o r e .2 4 ( L ) s t a g e for v e h i c l e s w i t h p r o p e l l a n t o p t i m i z e d s t a g e s and v e h i c l e s w i t h s e c o n d s t a g e l i m i t e d t o 15. with fixed u p p e r s t a g e s a n d a M S .2 4 ( L ) 74 .V . .2 3 ( L ) c o r e s t a g e and t h e liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s for the SAT-V-23(L.I I .ur l u n a r i n j e c t i o n m i s s i o n a n d t h e u p p e r s e t of c u r v e s f o r t h e t w o . to s a t i s f y the 410 foot v e h i c l e h e i g h t l i m i t . 1. t h e v a r i a t i o n of p e r f o r m a n c e a s a function of p o d .t o .S A T . T h e l o w e r s e t of c u r v e s i s f o r t h e t h r e e s t a g e 72-ho. A s shown on F i g u r e 8 .3 s h o w s net p a y l o a d v e r s u s t h e n u m b e r of e n g i n e s ( d a s h e d l i n g s ) and t h r u s t p e r engine ( s o l i d l i n e s ) on t h e M S .2 3 ( L ) f i r s t s t a g e w a s l e n g t h e n e d 20 feet and the t h i r d s t a g e l e n g t h e n e d I D .2 T r a d e Studies F i g u r e 8-2 r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o p e l l a n t t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e M S .V .D5-13183 liquid c o r e s t a g e s and the p o d s .3 B b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e .I C .3 . 8.s t a g e 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e e a r t h o r b i t m i s s i o n . A s shown. T h e b a s e l i n e SAT-V-23(1_) w a s s e l e c t e d .5 feet length i n c r e a s e .I C b u r n t i m e a n d p r o p e l l a n t l o a d i n g i s not e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e fcr e i t h e r two o r t h r e e s t a g e v e h i c l e s .BOOK FIXED T 1 «r 41? •HO" I0PTI 3 3 i 3» Wpj-WKFItfO 30 60 70 8URNTIW/5-IC BURN TIM -PERCENT F I G U R E 8-2 SAT-V-23(L) T R A D E STUDY P E R F O R M A N C E DATA T h e S A T . 5 f e e t w h i c h w a s e q u i v a l e n t to the l e n g t h a n d p r o p e l l a n t c a p a c i t y of t h e M L V . 5 feet l e n g t h i n c r e a s e and t h i r d s t a g e l i m i t e d to 16. W p l 4W p z 0PnMIZfD SO Wp? . F i g u r e 8 .) v e h i c l e .I I .M S . Pod d i a m e t e r s r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 156 and 396 i n c h e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d .

I I . S i n c e no v e h i c l e fell w i t h i n t h e 410 foot height l i m i t . (tart i»n S-l I THRUST (VAC) . S A T .h o u r l u n a r i n j e c t i o n and 860.i n c h d i a m e t e r pod w a s s e l e c t e d for b e s t o v e r a l l v e h i c l e g e o m e t r y .D5-13183 t h r u s t of 1.I I .2 DESIGN STUDY V E H I C L E (PHASE II) The baseline SAT-V-23(L) vehicle chosen during the P h a s e I activity w a s d e f i n e d in d e t a i l .2 4 ( L ) t h r u s t l e v e l of 1.V . 8 a n d 3. 000 p o u n d s to 7 2 . i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d and i t s r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s e s t a b l i s h e d .2 4 ( L ) w a s not c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r .HTLB5 F I G U R E 8-3 SAT-V-24(L) T R A D E STUDY P E R F O R M A N C E DATA T r a d e s t u d i e s of liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d d i a m e t e r s i z e r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 156 to 396 i n c h e s show that v e h i c l e a n d p r o g r a m c o s t a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e to pod d i a m e t e r s b e t w e e n ZOO to 300 i n c h e s .V . 75 . 000 p o u n d s to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e o r b i t w i t h a v e h i c l e h e i g h t of 536 feet. a t M S . A 2 6 0 . 0 m i l l i o n p o u n d s a p a y l o a d of 410. 6 m i l l i o n p o u n d s w o u l d r e s u l t in a p a y l o a d of 369.6 m i l l i o n p o u n d s (lower f a m i l y of c u r v e s ) . A l s o . O p t i m i z i n g t h e p r o p e l l a n t l o a d i n g in t h e u p p e r s t a g e s a t a M S .2 4 ( L ) t h r u s t l e v e l of b e t w e e n 2. t h e m i n i m u m v e h i c l e h e i g h t for t h e S A T . 000 p o u n d s . 8. 000 p o u n d s t o LOR and 9&0 t 000 p o u n d s to 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e o r b i t c a n b e o b t a i n e d w i t h a v e h i c l e h e i g h t of 600 feet.2 4 ( L ) w a s 507 f e e t a t a p a y l o a d of 3 4 8 .

D5-13183 8. Use of this vehicle was also considered for application where the baseline core vehicle (without the liquid pods) could fly alone or with two strap-on liquid pods.200 pound s. FIGURE 8-4 8. Each pod has two standard F . s t r u c t u r a l concepts.1 Vehicle Description The . and 20-foot longer f i r s t stage t h r u s t augmented by four 260-inch d i a m e t e r liquid propellant pods.2. standard length second stage.2. The 131-foot long pods (as shown in F i g u r e 8-4) attach to the MS-ICZ3(L) stage at the outboard engine locations.selected baseline vehicle incorporates a 16. 5-foot longer third stage. and s y s t e m s . The payloads identified for these alternates a r e shown on Table 8 . 300 pounds and its 72-hour lunar injection payload is 220.Z LIQUID PROPELLANT POD DESIGN Design Study Results The SAT-V-23(L) two-stage payload capability to 100 nautical mile orbit is 579.l engines which gimbal to supplement the control capabilities of the core vehicle Each pod i s an independent stage which can be checked out and test fired as a unit. use S-IC technology. 76 .1 .

however. .V 23{L) r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e four o u t b o a r d e n g i n e s on t h e c o r e v e h i c l e a n d a l l eight e n g i n e s on t h e p o d s g i m b a l . B a s e h e a t i n g of t h e M S . 1 d e g r e e s of t h e 5. 77 . SXT.1 0 J L b s . A e r o d y n a m i c fins a r e n o t u s e d .J Z15°f 1«°F Waft *BAStLIWS16WITHT. 80 155 220 No. AERODYNAMIC IS-iCRM). 15 d e g r e e s m a x i m u m a v a i l a b l e .yw o -LZ5 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s for s o m e s t a t i o n s w i l l •0 b e " b l a c k e d o u t " due to t h e e x h a u s t p l u m e T A B L E 8-II SIGNIFICANT interference. T h e s e a b o r t l e a d t i m e s c a n b e r e d u c e d by i n c r e a s i n g t h e e s c a p e s y s t e m rocket motor capability. T h e m a x i m u m gxmbal r e q u i r e m e n t s d u r i n g m a x q flight i s 4.I C . WATINC TYP.5M6.T A B L E 8-1 T H R E E . of P o d s 0 Significant l o a d c r i t e r i a a n d o t h e r d a t a p e r t i n e n t to v e h i c l e d e s i g n a r e shown on T a b l e 8-H w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e S a t u r n V v a l u e s .2 3 ( L ) i n c r e a s e s f r o m 1 9 0 0 ° F (Saturn V) to 2 2 0 0 ° F .S T A G E 72-HOUR LUNAR INJECTION PAYLOAD CAPABILITY p£. T h e c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t of t h e S A T . The heat shield can withstand the increased base temperature. -mi LQADCRITIRIA MAX^ OS/FT2) g'sATMAX HjC WIGHT (FTI £0NTHCH MOW 12GIMBALED F-1'S G1MBALE0 F-l'S 792 L90 410 MTV m MAX. C r e w safety s t u d i e s show t h e a b o r t l e a d t i m e to be 15 to 20 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r than for t h e S a t u r n V. T h e a e r o d y n a m i c h e a t i n g of t h e M S IC-23(L) forward skirt has i n c r e a s e d from 1 6 7 ° F {Saturn V) to 2 1 5 ° F due to t h e shock p a t t e r n s from t h e pod nose cones. QEFUTTIQN ANGU1NFLIGH1 41 KG J. will LOAD C R I T E R I A have c l e a r communications during these p e r i o d s a n d c a n p r o v i d e c o n t i n u o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .I MAX TEMP BASE IMAXTW. This i n c r e a s e d t e m p e r a t u r e i s not a p r o b l e m . Other stations.

W a i v e r s for t h i s d i s t a n c e m i l b e r e q u i r e d for j o i n t u s a g e of t h e s e p a d s when e i t h e r pad c o n t a i n s a fueled c o r e w i t h fueled p o d s . r — FIGURE 8-5 ACOUSTIC E N V I R O N M E N T AND STRUCTURAL. 4 p s i on-p.D5-U1B3 D i g i t a l s i m u l a t i o n of s e p a r a t i o n d y n a m i c s for t h e e x p e n d e d p o d s d e m o n s t r a t e s that a positive c o r e / p o d separation c l e a r a n c e i s obtained a n d t h a t a x i a l c l e a r a n c e o c c u r s a t 1. A c o u s t i c r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 p e r c e n t of t h e a c o u s t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s on t h i s s t a g e w i l l b e r e q u i r e d . 83 s e c o n d s a f t e r s e p a r a t i o n . T h e d e s i g n l o a d s h a v e i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y and r e s u l t in v e h i c l e d r y w e i g h t s w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 p e r c e n t h i g h e r than t h o s e f o r t h e A S . T h e a c o u s t i c l e v e l w i l l r e q u i r e p r o t e c t i o n of p e r s o n n e l during launch o p e r a t i o n s . T h e a c o u s t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s h i g h e r than S a t u r n V s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r s o m e v e h i c l e a r e a s on t h e f i r s t s t a g e .r.p r e s s u r e d i s t a n c e t o a v a l u e 28 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r than t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n P a d A and P a d B on L a u n c h C o m p l e x 39.5 .fl A T I C F""NC mam NEWSPECLIMIT 5ATVSPEC THIS TUMSIEH UMM1HM EliSIl ON P « SKI MVM»WIUftKSU». r LAUNCH JHFLICttT^ UUHCH INFLIGHT A J. T h e a d d i t i o n a l p r o p e l l a n t in the f i r s t a n d t h i r d s t a g e s a n d t h e four liquid p r o p e l l a n t p o d s i n c r e a s e s t h e 0. C o m b i n e d s t r u c t u r a l l o a d s and a c o u s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 8 . LOADS 73 .ad o v e r .5 1 6 .

2 3 ( L ) o p e r a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s at a r a t e of s i x p e r y e a r for five y e a r s f o r m t h e b a s i s for t h e p r o d u c t i o n c o s t A new d y n a m i c t e s t s t a n d i s r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e t h e S A T . T h e bulk pf pod c o r n p o n e n t s fall in t h i s c a t e g o r P o d p o s t . A s t a t i c f i r i n g t e s t s t a g e ( b a t t l e s h i p w e i g h t ) i s p r o v i d e d to qualify t h e two engine c l u s t e r .I C . MS-IC-23(L) T h e i m p a c t of the f i r s t s t a g e c h a n g e s on m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t e s t f a c i l i t i e s i s c r e a t e d p r i m a r i l y by the i n c r e a s e d s t a g e length and m a t e r i a l thickness T h e r e v i s i o n to t o o l i n g for M S . A d y n a m i c t e s t v e h i c l e . 79 . T h e s e f a c i l i t i e s a r e to be b a s i s w i t h the S a t u r n V p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s . A full pod s t r u c t u r e i s c o n s t r u c t e d for t h i s p u r p o s e . mechanical.D5-13I83 T h e i m p a c t of s t r u c t u r a l load i n c r e a s e on t h e c o r e v e h i c l e i s shown in F i g u r e 8 .I C . T h i r t y M L V .M S .S A T .2 3 ( L ) . electrical/electronic) presently u s e d on S-IC a n d in an u n c h a n g e d o r l e s s s e v e r e e m d r o n m e n t on the pod do not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . and two R&D v e h i c l e s a r e r e q u i r e d .S A T . O p e r a t i n g components (propulsion.2 3 ( L ) i s the s a m e a s m a d e for the M S .I C . New s t r u c t u r e w i l l b e q u a l i f i e d a n d i t s u l t i m a t e load c a r r y i n g c a p a b i l i t y d e t e r m i n e d .V . Liquid P r o p e l l a n t P o d s .6 .2 3 ( L ) P o d r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e of a n y new s t a g e . T h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s w e r e a s s u m e d to be c o n t r a c t o r s for components.V .V .m a n u f a c t u r i n g t e s t i n g c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d in the e x i s t i n g S . 3 R e s o u r c e g_ m a n u f a c t u r e and t e s t u s e d on a n o n .2 3 ( L ) l a u n c h w e i g h t e x c e e d s S a t u r n V d y n a m i c t e s t s t a n d foundation c a p a b i l i t y by 30 p e r c e n t . s t r u c t u r a l t e s t c o m p o n e n t s .T h e MS-IC-Z3(L.) s t a g e and the four liquid p o d s of t h e d y n a m i c t e s t vehicle w i l l b e r e f u r b i s h e d a f t e r t e s t and u s e d a s flight articles.I C t e s t c e l l s a t Michoud. 8.3 B s i n c e the s t a g e l e n g t h s a r e i d e n t i c a l a n d m a t e r i a l t h i c k n e s s is s i m i l a r .i n t e r f e r e n c e p r e s e n t s t a g e and I U the MLV-SAT-V-23(L) E x i s t i n g a n d new f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be e m p l o y e d to t h e M L V .

INTERSTAGE' 87% > STRENGTH FORWARD SKIRT 210% > STRENGTH LH2 TANK 626% > STRENGTH INTERSTAGE 83% > STRENGTH DRY WEIGHT INCRMSE *5-IC-»l) »•» MS-II-2XU 9.2 1 3 * > STRENGTH FORWARD SKIRT 177% > STRENGTH PROPELLANT TANKS 76% UPPER U % LOWER > STRENGTH C O M M O N BLKD INCREASED RADIUS AFT SKIRT 116% > STRENGTH.7* ONEADDITIONAL HELIUM BOTTLE INTERTANK 80% •) STRENGTH FIGURE 8-6 SAT-V-Z3(L) VEHICLE IMPACT THRUST ST 162% > ST I 1 r—i r -i .9* MS-IV1-SIL) 27.

31 . T h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a l s o defined by s c h e d u l e d e l i v e r y d a t e s and s t a g e s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n .I I . aft LOX b u l k h e a d a n d a e r o d y namic fairings. t h e r e f o r e . T h e s t a g e d e s i g n i n c l u d e s a s t r e n g t h e n e d s t r u c t u r e .V . S o m e h a n d l i n g e q u i p m e n t a t T u l s a and S e a l B e a c h w i l l r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n .I I .I I . MS-n-Z3(L) T h e M S . A s c a l e d . M a n u f a c t u r e of the f i r s t flight t e s t s t a g e i s s t a r t e d four m o n t h s a f t e r t h e S / D s t a g e . A new m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t y w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i l l i o n s q u a r e feet of a r e a i s n e e d e d t o p r o d u c e 24 p o d s p e r y e a r . S . t h e s t a g e i s m o d i f i e d for t h e d y n a m i c t e s t a n d s h i p p e d to M S F C in A u g u s t 1972.2 3 ( L ) .d o w n S-IC d u a l p o s i t i o n t e s t s t a n d a n d s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s m u s t be p r o v i d e d at M T F for pod a c c e p t a n c e f i r i n g .2 3 ( L ) s t a g e R D T & E p r o g r a m w a s i n f l u e n c e d by two f a c t o r s s t a g e d e s i g n m o d i f i c a t i o n s and s c h e d u l e d e l i v e r y d a t e s for t e s t h a r d w a r e . T h e Seal B e a c h f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e s o n l y m i n o r c h a n g e s . Two flight t e s t s t a g e s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m The c u r r e n t . for t e s t of t h e M S .n . T h e S t a t i c T e s t T o w e r m o d i f i c a t i o n m u s t be c o m p l e t e d by S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 1 .I I . A f t e r s t a t i c t e s t .I I p r o g r a m t r a n s p o r t equipment and vehicles a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e M S . T h e f a c i l i t y c o u l d b e located at Michoud. S c h e d u l i n g of t h e M S .2 3 { L ) l i q u i d p o d s i s s i m i l a r to t h e S-IC e x c e p t for w e l d i n g s k i n s l o n g i t u d i n a l l y r a t h e r than c y l i n d r i c a l l y and r e d u c i n g b u l k h e a d g o r e s f r o m s i x t e e n to s i x . D e l i v e r y of t h e d y n a m i c t e s t s t a g e n i n e m o n t h s b e f o r e t h e flight t e s t of the new s t a g e r e q u i r e s a c c e l e r a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n to t w e l v e s t a g e s p e r y e a r for the s t a n d a r d S-II s t a g e p r o g r a m . B i .2 3 ( L ) s t a t i c / d y n a m i c (S/D) t e s t s t a g e n e c e s s i t a t e s a c c e l e r a t i o n of the s t a n d a r d S-II p r o d u c t i o n to a c c u m u l a t e sufficient s t a g e s to m a i n t a i n d e l i v e r y to KSC a t t w o .2 3 ( L ) .D5-13183 T h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g plan for t h e S A T . Lrlg t a n k w a l l s . No m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l b e r e q u i r e d to h a n d l e t h e a d d i t i o n a l s t a g e weight. p r i n c i p a l l y m o d i f i c a t i o n to t h e s t r u c t u r a l t e s t t o w e r to t a k e t h e i n c r e a s e d t e s t l o a d s .m o n t h l y d e l i v e r y of t h e 30 flight s t a g e s o c c u r s a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s e c o n d flight t e s t s t a g e M S . T h e r e v i s e d s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n r e q u i r e s m o d i f i c a t i o n of t o o l s for f a b r i c a t i o n and a s s e m b l y of t h e f o r w a r d and aft s k i r t s . S t o r a g e h a s b e e n a s s u m e d a v a i l a b l e for t h e s e s t a g e s a t no a d d i t i o n a l c o s t . i n t e r s t a g e .m o n t h i n t e r v a l s .3 6 {October 1973). a new s t r u c t u r a l s t a t i c t e s t w i l l be r e q u i r e d .

Schedules Within t h e study g r o u n d r u l e s and a f t e r an a n a l y s i s of the r e q u i r e d d e s i g n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g i m p a c t . 82 . t h e to t h e l a u n c h p a d . M o d i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be r e q u i r e d to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d h a n d l i n g e q u i p m e n t . T h e v e h i c l e t i m i n g i s b a s e d on new m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t e s t f a c i l i t i e s for t h e p o d s . a n d m i n o r c h a n g e s to o t h e r i t e m s . L a u n c h F a c i l i t y and O p e r a t i o n a l I m p a c t T h e m o d i f i e d c o r e v e h i c l e w i l l be a s s e m b l e d p r o c e d u r e s in t h e VAB o n t h e M o b i l e L a u n c h e r . One S a t u r n V m o b i l e l a u n c h e r w i l l b e m o d i f i e d to h a n d l e S A T .2 3 ( L ) . No new o r u n i q u e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e i s r e q u i r e d . C o m p l e x a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d to p r o v i d e t i m e for m o d i f i c a t i o n of t o o l i n g and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h o u t affecting d e l i v e r y of s t a n d a r d s t a g e s T h e t i m e for m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d e x p a n s i o n of t h e t o o l i n g and f a b r i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i s p r o v i d e d by a t e m p o r a r y a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e a s s e m b l y of t h e standard stage and then s t o r a g e p r i o r to delivery. T h e e x i s t i n g VAB w i t h worjs p l a t f o r m s r e l o c a t e d and m o d i f i e d c a n b e u s e d .D5-13183 MS-IVB-23(L) T h e g r e a t e r l e n g t h a n d w e i g h t n e c e s s i t a t e m a j o r m o d i f i c a t i o n to the S t a g e T r a n s p o r t e r and c e r t a i n i t e m s of h a n d l i n g e q u i p m e n t . The existing c r a w l e r t r a n s p o r t s will be r e p l a c e d . A new m o b i l e l a u n c h e r and m o b i l e s e r v i c e s t r u c t u r e a r e p r o v i d e d b e c a u s e of p r o g r a m t i m i n g . M i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s of p r o p u l s i o n and e l e c t r i c a l GSE a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d .V . a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d The pods a s s e m b l e d at b e a t t a c h e d to t h e c o r e v e h i c l e w i l l be m o v e d N o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s for t h e v e h i c l e w i l l b e r e s u m e d and a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s a s r e q u i r e d for t h e p o d final c h e c k o u t and a r m i n g w i l l be accomplished. a s c h e d u l e for d e v e l o p m e n t and p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s v e h i c l e w a s p r e p a r e d . T h e d e s i g n i s w i t b i n p r e s e n t f a b r i c a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . M i c h o u d w i l l be s h i p p e d to M I L A w h e r e t h e y w i l l v e h i c l e in t h e VAB. T h e r e a r e no m a j o r p r o b l e m s in t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e a r e a s . T h e i n c r e a s e d s t a g e s i z e p r e c l u d e s u s e of the Super Guppy and necessitates ocean shipment. T h e l a u n c h pad and f l a m e t r e n c h n e e d m o d i f i c a t i o n to a d a p t to t h e MLV-SAT-V-23{L) configuration. S e e F i g u r e 8-7. A f t e r t e s t a n d c h e c k o u t . g r o u n d t e s t p o d m a n u f a c t u r e and t e s t b e f o r e t h e f i r s t flight a r t i c l e r e a c h e s MILA in t h e s e c o n d q u a r t e r of 1 9 7 3 .

D O L L A R S I N M I L L I O N S LAUNCH VEHICLE B o p s t ASSiat . D F L I G H T S (2) SS6Q. T 67.0 413.0 1276.0 T A B L E 8-III SAT-V-23{L) COST SUMMARY 33 .Other FACILITIES TOTAL SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 1 INTEGRATION LAUNCH SYSTEMS T O T A L 2.1 82.7 11. 4 * » ft t n w i l MFntlMMMjiicawuii \ arnmamniwiiii * •Ti-isuvcanwtm *ssa«iiiiTicn CMTICM. 2 11. 8 595.5 3824.9 54.9 398.2 10.3 36.0 9i.1 5.3 757. 5 .Pod 5-IC Stags S-II Staga S-IVB S t a g e GSE T O T A L FACILITIES Boost Assist .Pod 5-lC Stage S-II S t a g e S-IVB S t a g e Instrument Unit LAUNCH V E H I d L E T O T A L GROUND S U P P O R T E Q U I P M E N T Boost A s s i s t .6 770.517. L 33.7 . 7 72.7 944.5 132.1 1554. 5 176.1 R ( .8 131.6 43.6 48.4 977.5 2627.IVESIE5 mv-SATV-a.8 10.6 52. 3 .D5-13183 Costs T h e v e h i c l e c o s t s u m m a r y i s shown on T a b l e 8-II1.7 6. 8 43.MIM mil OPERATIONAL STAGE ENGINE TOTAL UVM "»*UltJf>CT«K SUIUINtCdKST MOUW ira mp tuimrtniKu i n s r jfrturamm nicm F I G U R E 8-7 SAT-V-23{L) V E H I C L E D E V E L O P M E N T AND D E L I V E R Y P L A N DEVELOPMENT STAGE ENGINE COST .3 131.iA 4915.6 467.0 161.0 229.4 249.4 764.4 865. 1 331.2 27.4 16.9 56.2 371.1 1023.6 5 59.0 57.KSC Launch Vehicle .9 912.9 944.3 507.8 4O5Q.2 69.0 213. 1OT DESIGN * FACILITIES DYNAMIC TEST LC3SM0D STACE DEVaoPMENT MS-IC-2UC0RE MS-IC-a P O O Ms-u-a MS-tVS-HL VEHICLE DB.3 76. 5 S3. 7 94.0 475.Pod S-IC Stags 5-II Stage S-IVB Stage I n s t r u m e n t Unit L a u n c h V e h i c l e .9 229.

9. S t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of a l l s t a g e s to e n a b l e the v e h i c l e to w i t h s t a n d the h i g h e r l o a d s i m p o s e d due to the l a r g e r p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y a n d i n c r e a s e d p a y l o a d e n v e l o p e ( i n c r e a s e d p a y l o a d d i a m e t e r and 410 foot vehicle height). it i s r e c o m m e n d e d that in t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p a y l o a d Vehicles t h a t both c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s and f l e x i b i l i t y be c o n s i d e r e d In the u t i l i z a t i o n of e x i s t i n g S a t u r n V s t a g e s for i n t e r m e d i a t e p a y l o a d application. M a j o r v e h i c l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s to adapt t h e S a t u r n V v e h i c l e to t h e s e new u p r a t e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w e r e defined a s f o l l o w s . No s i g n i f i c a n t a d v e r s e flight e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d .1 INTERMEDIATE PAYLOAD LAUNCH VEHICLES F r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s . it was concluded that all the i n t e r m e d i a t e launch v e h i c l e s w e r e f e a s i b l e u s i n g e x i s t i n g S a t u r n V S t a g e s with m i n i m u m m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Specific b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e s studied w i t h i n f a c i l i t y l i m i t a t i o n g r o u n d r u l e s w e r e l i m i t e d to a m a x i m u m p a y l o a d of 579. 0 0 0 p o u n d s to a 100 n a u t i c a l m i l e E a r t h o r b i t . It i s f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l Uprated S a t u r n V v e h i c l e s a l s o have i n t e r m e d i a t e d e r i v a t i v e s . 9-2 U P R A T E D SATURN V LAUNCH V E H I C L E S T h e u p r a t e d v e h i c l e s defined i n t h e t r a d e s t u d y and s t u d i e d in d e t a i l in P h a s e II a r e f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and l o g i c a l c a n d i d a t e s for p a y l o a d s in e x c e s s of the c u r r e n t S a t u r n V c a p a b i l i t y .0 CONCLUSIONS AND R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S A l l t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e s s t u d i e d u n d e r the NAS8 -20266 study c o n t r a c t a r e f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s a n d c a n d i d a t e s for p a y l o a d s r a n g i n g f r o m 7 8 . a. a l l p o s s i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s should be i m p l e m e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to o b t a i n t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y . 000 p o u n d s t o 9 6 0 . T h e r e f o r e . No m a j o r s t r u c t u r a l o r o t h e r s y s t e m c h a n g e s a r e r e q u i r e d to the e x i s t i n g S a t u r n V s t a g e s t o obtain t h i s f a m i l y of flexible l a u n c h v e h i c l e s . 000 p o u n d s to 255.D5-13183 9. 000 p o u n d s to a 100 nautical mile E a r t h orbit. In o t h e r w o r d s . c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n to d e v e l o p i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i t s i n t e r m e d i a t e p a y l o a d capabilities. No m a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d for e i t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t or p r o d u c t i o n . w h e n a n u p r a t e d v e h i c l e i s c h o s e n for d e v e l o p m e n t . 000 p o u n d s in low E a r t h o r b i t . T h e s e eight l a u n c h v e h i c l e s w i l l c o v e r an i n c r e m e n t a l p a y l o a d r a n g e f r o m 78. 35 .

2 3 ( L ) l a u n c h v e h i c l e i s d i r e c t l y c o m p e t i t i v e with the m o d i f i e d S a t u r n Vs with s t r a p .V . It a l s o h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e of u s i n g e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d S a t u r n V e n g i n e s .V . H o w e v e r .V . Of a l l the u p r a t e d l a u n c h v e h i c l e s s t u d i e d u n d e r the NAS8-20266 c o n t r a c t .V . w h e n c o m p a r e d t o the S A T .2 3 ( L ) v e h i c l e i s the 410-foot h e i g h t l i m i t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a s a g r o u n d r u l e for t h e N A S 8 .2 0 2 6 6 s t u d y . modification to VAB.4 .3 B h a s the m i n i m u m l a u n c h i m p a c t of a l l t h e u p r a t e d l a u n c h v e h i c l e s s t u d i e d . t h i s v e h i c l e r e q u i r e s the m o s t r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t p e r pound of p a y l o a d .V .4 ( S ) B and SAT .2 5 ( S ) . h o w e v e r .4 . t t d o e s .3 and 2 .3 and 2 . The SAT-V-23(L) launch vehicle has the g r e a t e s t payload capability of a l l the l a u n c h v e h i c l e s s t u d i e d and i s a l m o s t a s c o s t effective a s the S A T . the c o s t e f f i c i e n c y of the SAT . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a low c o s t liquid s t a g e f o r s t r a p .4 ( S ) B d o e s not b e c o m e the m o s t c o s t effective l a u n c h v e h i c l e . F u r t h e r w o r k should be done t o c o n s i d e r o v e r c o m i n g t h e 410-foot height l i m i t a t i o n s u c h a s i n s t a l l i n g the payload outside VAB. h a v e the g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on the l a u n c h f a c i l i t y .V .4 ( S ) B v e h i c l e .a s s i s t p u r p o s e s would f u r t h e r r e d u c e t h e c o s t e f f i c i e n c y of the S A T . and s y s t e m s . T h e S A T . On t h e o t h e r h a n d .V .2 5 ( S ) ) . d o e s c o s t m o r e to d e v e l o p and has a g r e a t e r impact at the launch facility. the S A T . T h e S A T . when o p e r a t i o n c o s t s a r e i n c l u d e d .o n s o l i d m o t o r s { S A T .V . c.V .2 5 ( S ) v e h i c l e .o n b o o s t . t h e S A T . It r e q u i r e s t h e l e a s t l e a d t i m e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t of a l l the u p r a t e d launch vehicles. S t r u c t u r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of s o m e s t a g e s for i n c r e a s e d t a n k l e n g t h s and i n c r e a s e d e n g i n e t h r u s t . A s shown in F i g u r e s 2 .3 B l a u n c h v e h i c l e h a s t h e b e s t p a y l o a d to l a u n c h w e i g h t of a l l t h e u p r a t e d v e h i c l e s s t u d i e d .2 5 ( S ) l a u n c h v e h i c l e i s t h e m o s t c o s t effective ( s l i g h t l y a h e a d of SAT -V-23(Iv)). S e l e c t i v e r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h e a c o u s t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e c o m p o n e n t s to qualify t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s for t h e i n c r e a s e d a c o u s t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t G e n e r a l c o m p a r a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d at f r o m t h e NAS8-20266 studies a r e a s follows.V . p r o p e l l a n t s . 36 . T h e S A T .D5-13183 b. and r e q u i r e s the m o s t l e a d t i m e of a l l u p r a t e d launch vehicles studiedThe SAT-V-4(S)B launch vehicle has the best payload per r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t d o l l a r w i t h a n o m i n a l l a u n c h i m p a c t . e t c . a s shown on F i g u r e s 2 .V .2 3 ( L ) l a u n c h v e h i c l e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r r e s t r a i n i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y of the S A T .V .

b. e.a s s i s t components s e v e r a l different sizes of solid rocket m o t o r s a n d / o r s e v e r a l different sizes of liquid pods. 87 . and The feasibility of a stepped uprating p r o g r a m utilizing a common c o r e be explored which would minimize facilities impact. manned interplanetary exploration i s an ultimate NASA goal. In other w o r d s . Also develop a complementary flexible launch support equipment concept. it is further recommended that: a. Fox example.o n s a s an " u l t i m a t e " Saturn V uprating step. A study be conducted on a modified u p r a t e d Saturn V c o r e with 260-inch d i a m e t e r solid m o t o r s t r a p . Assuming. could eliminate rendezvous a s a r e q u i r e m e n t for manned fly-by m i s s i o n s and minimize rendezvous f o r m o r e a m bitious m i s s i o n s . which. size a modified Saturn V liquid c o r e that could efficiently accept a s s t r a p . a direct lunar shot for Apollo-type missions could g r e a t l y r e d u c e the cost of the payload package from those r e quired for the c u r r e n t LOR h a r d w a r e . . g. The i n c r e a s e d payload capability and improved cost effectiveness over that of the existing Saturn V could be u s e d to reduce s i g nificantly o v e r a l l m i s s i o n costs by allowing the payloads for these missions to i n c r e a s e in weight to provide payload design simplification.D5-13183 F u r t h e r studies should be directed toward future refinements of the vehicle designs and specifically toward possible future applications.o n b o o s t .f e d s t o r a b l e liquid pod strap-on alternatives. This method of uprating should be c o m p a r e d both with the SAT-V-23(L) and -24(L) vehicles d e s c r i b e d in this study and "low-cost" p r e s s u r e .

Studies of Improved Saturn V Vehicles and Intermediate Payload Vehicles (P-115) RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY IMPLICATIONS REPORT Prepared for NASA . ':.George C.y THE ^ / U 7 A ^ COMPANY - SPACE DIVISION .i. 1966 T PGM SUBJECT z-s-cv-4 •1GNAT0R Sac LOC .. Marshall Space Flight Center under Contract NAS8-20266 INDEXING DATA DATE OPR October 7..D5-13183-6 Final Report .

2 0 2 6 6 SUBMITTED TO G E O R G E C.S T U D I E S O F I M P R O V E D SATURN V E H I C L E S AND I N T E R M E D I A T E P A Y L O A D SATURN V E H I C L E S (P-115) RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY IMPLICATIONS REPORT D5-13183-6 FINAL REPORT P R E P A R E D UNDER CONTRACT N U M B E R N A S 8 . ALABAMA . 1966 S U B M I T T E D BY S Y S T E M S ANALYSIS C O N T R A C T O R T H E BOEING COMPANY S P A C E DIVISION LAUNCH SYSTEMS BRANCH H U N T S V I L L E . M A R S H A L L S P A C E F L I G H T C E N T E R N A T I O N A L A E R O N A U T I C S AND S P A C E ADMINISTRATION O C T O B E R 7.

s t a g e S a t u r n V." f r o m D e c e m b e r 6. 1965. d e s i g n i m p a c t on s y s t e m s . a n d a r e s o u r c e s a n a l y s i s for e a c h b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e . KEY WORDS Contract NAS8-20266 D5-13183-6 Intermediate Saturn Vehicles Saturn V Research Implications Technology Implications Problem Areas Uprated Saturn Vehicles l . The intermediate payload vehicle d e r i v a t i v e s of S a t u r n V a r e a l o g i c a l m e a n s of p r o v i d i n g o r b i t a l p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y b e t w e e n that of t h e S a t u r n IB and t h e t w o . P h a s e II of the s t u d y i n c l u d e d a fluid and flight m e c h a n i c s s t u d y . 1966P h a s e I of t h e study w a s a p a r a m e t r i c p e r f o r m a n c e a n d r e s o u r c e s a n a l y s i s to s e l e c t o n e b a s e l i n e c o n f i g u r a t i o n for e a c h of t h e s i x v e h i c l e s .D5-13183-6 ABSTRACT T h i s d o c u m e n t r e p o r t s t h e r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y i m p l i c a t i o n s involving the S a t u r n vehicles studied u n d e r NASA/MSFC Contract N A S 8 . to O c t o b e r 7. " S t u d i e s of I m p r o v e d S a t u r n V V e h i c l e s a n d I n t e r m e d i a t e P a y l o a d S a t u r n V e h i c l e s fF-115). No m a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d f o r e i t h e r development or production.2 0 2 6 6 . T h e u p r a t e d v e h i c l e s a r e f e a s i b l e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and l o g i c a l c a n d i d a t e s for pay-loads in e x c e s s of t h e c u r r e n t S a t u r n V capability.

m o n t h s t u d y to p r e p a r e t e c h n i c a l a n d r e s o u r c e d a t a on u p r a t e d p a y l o a d S a t u r n V and i n t e r m e d i a t e p a y l o a d S a t u r n vehicles.S A T . T h i s s t u d y w a s p a r t of a c o n t i n u i n g effort by the N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and S p a c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (NASA) to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c a p a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e S a t u r n V l a u n c h v e h i c l e a n d to identify p r a c t i c a l m e t h o d s for d i v e r s i f i e d u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s p a y l o a d c a p a b i l i t y . w a s t h e S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s c o n t r a c t o r for t h i s study.3 B Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-25(S) Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-23(L) R e s e a r c h & Technology Implications Report F i r s t Stage Cost Plan il . S-II d a t a w e r e s u p p l i e d by t h e S p a c e & I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n of N o r t h A m e r i c a n A v i a t i o n .r D5-13183-6 ££^ FOREWORD T h i s v o l u m e c o n t a i n s t h e r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y i m p l i c a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a t e n .I V B d a t a w e r e s u p p l i e d by t h e M i s s i l e & S p a c e S y s t e m s D i v i s i o n of D o u g l a s A i r c r a f t C o m p a n y .S A T . S p a c e D i v i s i o n of T h e B o e i n g C o m p a n y .2 0 . A e r o s p a c e G r o u p . T h e L a u n c h S y s t e m s B r a n c h .I N T . S . P r o g r a m d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a s u m m a r y v o l u m e . r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y i m p l i c a t i o n s r e p o r t (this d o c u m e n t ) . five v o l u m e s c o v e r i n g v e h i c l e d e s c r i p t i o n s . and a c o s t d o c u m e n t .V . -21 Vehicle Description M L V . NASA C o n t r a c t NAS8-20266 a u t h o r i z e s t h e w o r k r e p o r t e d h e r e i n and w a s s u p e r v i s e d a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e M a r s h a l l S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r (MSFC). Launch s y s t e m d a t a w e r e s u p p l i e d by t h e D e n v e r D i v i s i o n of T h e M a r t i n C o m p a n y . Solid m o t o r d a t a w e r e s u p p l i e d by United T e c h n o l o g y C o r p o r a t i o n . Individual designations a r e a s follows: D5-13183 D5-13183-1 D5-13183-2 D5-13183-3 D5-13183-4 D5-13183-5 D5-13I83-6 D5-13183-7 Summary Document V e h i c l e D e s c r i p t i o n M L V .

0 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 14 24 14 15 16 18 5. 0 6. 1 AERODYNAMIC S T A T I C S T A B I L I T Y 3. I R F I n t e r f e r e n c e F r o m A d d e d S t r a p . 0 ill . 3 F L I G H T LOADS P R O B A B I L I T Y 5. 0 INTRODUCTION STUDY R E S U L T S AERONAUTICS TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 3 . 3 Modified A n t e n n a S y s t e m M A T E R I A L S AND S T R U C T U R E S T E C H N O L O G I C A L IMPLICATIONS 5.0 3. 1 L A U N C H TOWER C L E A R A N C E 4 . 2 P A Y L O A D E N V E L O P E WIND S E N S I T I V I T Y 5. 2 WIND S P E E D E N V E L O P E F O R LAUNCH T O W E R C L E A R A N C E STUDIES E L E C T R O N I C S AND C O N T R O L T E C H N O L O G I C A L IMPLICATIONS 4. 3. 3.O n Structure 4. 2 E F F E C T O F C O N T R O L MODES ON V E H I C L E LOADS 4.1 S T A B I L I T Y C R I T I C A L S T I F F E N E D C Y L I N D R I C A L S H E L L DESIGN 5. 3 R A N G E / V E H I C L E COMMUNICATION INTERFERENCE 4 . 4 GROUND WIND LOADS LOW COST LIQUID F R O P E L L A N T P O D i ii iii iv 1 6 7 7 7 4. 2 R F I n t e r f e r e n c e F r o m Modified E x h a u s t Plume 4 .D5-13183-6 TABLE O F CONTENTS PAGE A B S T R A C T AND KEY WORDS FOREWORD TABLE OF CONTENTS ILLUSTRATIONS 1. 3 .0 2.

D5-I3183-6 ILLUSTRATIONS P H A S E I LAUNCH V E H I C L E CANDIDATES S E L E C T E D B A S E L I N E LAUNCH V E H I C L E S FOR P H A S E n STUDY E F F O R T T Y P I C A L AERODYNAMIC DATA T Y P I C A L GROUND WIND S P E E D E N V E L O P E IV .

D e t e r m i n e t h e d a t e that t h e f i r s t flight a r t i c l e could b e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n study g r o u n d r u l e s . c a p a b i l i t i e s . and E s t i m a t e c o s t r e q u i r e d for i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the s y s t e m p l u s p r o d u c t i o n of t h i r t y flight a r t i c l e s in five y e a r s . defining s y s t e m d e s i g n and r e s o u r c e i m p a c t for e a c h s t a g e and the total vehicle. t h e NAS8-20266 study p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s w e r e t o : from. d e s i g n . P h a s e II d i r e c t e d t h e effort to defining g r o u n d and flight e n v i r o n m e n t s . The vehicles Saturn V stages. S e l e c t f e a s i b l e and c o s t effective b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e s e a c h of s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . 0 INTRODUCTION This r e p o r t s u m m a r i z e s the technological p r o b l e m s involved when u p r a t i n g the S a t u r n V payload capability o r when using Saturn V stages f o r m i s s i o n s in t h e p a y l o a d r a n g e b e t w e e n t h e c u r r e n t S a t u r n IB a n d Saturn V capability. e. A p r i m a r y study Saturn technology In g e n e r a l . and determining vehicle mission capabilities and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P r e p a r e sufficient t e c h n i c a l d a t a to define v e h i c l e e n v i r o n m e n t s .1. r e q u i r e m e n t w a s to m a k e m a x i m u m u s e of e x i s t i n g and s u p p o r t e q u i p m e n t . T h e r e w e r e two p h a s e s of study w o r k . Phase I was a twelvew e e k effort in w h i c h v e h i c l e p e r f o r m a n c e a n d p r e l i m i n a r y c o s t t r a d e s t u d i e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d to s e l e c t a f e a s i b l e a n d c o s t effective b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e f r o m e a c h of five c a t e g o r i e s (shown in F i g u r e 1-1). T h e s t u d y i s p a r t of a c o n t i n u i n g effort by NASA to identify a s p e c t r u m of p r a c t i c a l l a u n c h v e h i c l e s to m e e t f u t u r e p a y l o a d and m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a s t h e y b e c o m e defined. b.a s s i s t components. a. Define s u p p o r t s y s t e m requirements. s t u d i e d w e r e c o m b i n a t i o n s of e x i s t i n g o r m o d i f i e d some vehicles also included b o o s t . and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . An additional baseline vehicle was later added from Category 4. d. F o r e a c h of t h e s i x b a s e l i n e v e h i c l e s s e l e c t e d ( s e e F i g u r e 1-2). c. 1 .

2 S i L .2 S ADVANCED ENGINES STD J A L VAR flL VARIABLE A L VARIABLE FIRST STAGE STD F .D STD J .l s AL .4 ( S ) B SAT-V-22(S) S A T .H SIZE 1160 IN MAX M S . L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE A L VAR SECOND STAGE STD J .2 3 i j L .l ' a STD F A L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE A L VARIABLE 6 L VAR A X 120 I N STRAP-ON COMPONENTS DIA SOLID MOTORS 4 X 120 IN DIA SOLID MOTOR S 4 X 15 DIA S MOTO F I G U R E [-1 P H A S E I LAUNCH VEHICLE CANDIDATES .l 5 STD F .GROUND RULES MAX VEHICLE S I Z E .V .0 ADVANCED ENGINES A L VARIABLE STO J .3 B S A T .O 5 F-t XI.I V B SIZE 3SOK PROPELLANT AT MR 5 :i MAX PAYLOAC 5 LB/FT-3 (2 STG) I I LB/FT3 (3 STG) STD:STANDARD flL=CHANGE IN STAGE LENGTH LAUNCH VEHICUE CATEGORY I NT-20 A A MS-IVB ^ MS-II MS-H MS-IC + SRM M5-IVB A MS-IVB MS MS-II MS-IC + SRM MS S-ll tf MS-IC 9-1C MS + •m INT-21 w S A T .V ADVANCED ENGINE ADVANCED ENGINE A L VARIABLE STD J- STD J-2 THIRD STAGE 0.4 1 0 FT MAX M S .6M ENGINES STD F .0 STD F .l S A L .V .

JO *L'l*J'IU-i.lUIUONMOUm Jl-IJ.] & -*i-IC*tSli 1L-W. J.F-1 •ws-ic-wsi W CIA KM *.«PLii -Pi-lH. MRftl i-ica H-Hir-l S-ll -SIC tL'ft 5lF-] * p l . • a IM us •SAT V-4(S)B- J -SAT-V-25(S)- J * f p -l. t l .IMFT ntlKWIIffMIOttro r*0-ta S-IM-M Kin — p*-w..WlW !*»„•L2P -Mi-IVI-«fl>.U » .Mj-tMr$> I iL-0.2 1 .WILBSWflNAA P i .d liJ'l. l « i .NMLIS -INT-20IW mn • «ftfT INT . J i J . Si J-l MIS.* . HRJ-L .l Sk-mjUM U M M Pt-«.W. /ft -Ct-W.fcl • JM-H-JSKI IL-D. m i l s 10ft Pt-SM. UJ-l.»7 FIGURE l-^ SELECTED BASELINE LAUNCH VEHICLES FOR PHASE II S .IHHIRS r D -I.

and thrust levels of advanced engines in the upper stages and uprated F-l engines in the modified S-IC stage.and three-stage launch vehicles with modified Saturn V stages using various types.and three-stage launch vehicles with modified Saturn V stages. numbers. M-LV-SAT-V-4{S)B during Phase I was a family of two. The launch vehicles in Categories 3. four. 4 . four. and five) and a standard J-2 engine. a modified S-IC stage with standard F-l engines in the firststage. four.D5-13183-6 ^WBOKgy. Category 2 (MLV-SAT-INT-21) during Phase I was a family of two-stage launch vehicle candidates with standard size S-IC and S-II stages using standard F-l engines (three. standard F-l and J-2 engines with strap-on 120-inch diameter (five. A single baseline launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the Phase II study effort. A single baseline launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the Phase n study effort. six. Category 4 included modified Saturn V launch vehicles with strap-on solid motor boost-assist components. and strap-on 120-inch diameter (five. The five categories of vehicles are as follows: Category 1 (MLV-SAT-INT-20) during Phase I was a family of two-stage launch vehicle candidates with standard size S-IC and S-IVB stages using standard F-l engines (three. six. and seven segmented) solid motors. A single baseline launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the Phase II study effort. and seven segmented) solid motors. Three families of vehicles were studies as follows: a. The launch vehicles in Categories 1 and 2 are Saturn V stage combinations for missions in the payload range between the current Saturn IB and Saturn V payload capability. and 5 are advanced Saturn V configurations with payload capabilities beyond that of the existing Saturn V. and five). numbers.and three-stage launch vehicle candidates with modified Saturn V stages using various types. and five) and J-2 engines (three. and thrust levels of advanced engines in the upper stages. MLV-SAT-V-22(S) during Phase I was a family of two. Category 3 (MLV-SAT-V-3B) during Phase I was a family of two. No launch vehicle in this family was studied beyond Phase I. 4. A single baseline launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the Phase II study effort. b.

t h r e e . No launch vehicles in this family w e r e studied beyond P h a s e I. and four segmented) solid m o t o r s .) during P h a s e I was a family of two.l engines.D5-13183-6 &CFMW4 3^ c. Category 5 included modified Saturn V launch vehicles with strap-on b o o s t . and four liquid propellant pods each containing two uprated F . MLV-SAT-V-24(L. b. MI/V~-SAT-V-25{S) during P h a s e I was a family of two.s t a g e launch vehicles with modified Saturn V stages. MLV-SAT-V-23(J_) during P h a s e I was a family of two. a modified S-IC stage with uprated F . and t h r u s t levels of advanced engines in the upper stages.2 engines. n u m b e r s . standard F . standard F .s t a g e launch vehicles with modified Saturn V stages using various types.and t h r e e . each using two standard F .a s s i s t liquid propellant pods.and t h r e e .and t h r e e ..l and J . A single b a s e l i n e launch vehicle (Figure 1-2) was selected for the P h a s e II study effort.l engines. and strap-on 156-inch d i a m e t e r (two. 5 .l and J .l engines. and four strap-on liquid propellant pods.s t a g e launch vehicles with modified Saturn V s t a g e s . Two families of vehicles w e r e studied a s follows: a.2 engines. A single baseline launch vehicle {Figure 1-2) was selected for the P h a s e II study effort.

a d i r e c t lunar shot for Apollotype m i s s i o n s could g r e a t l y r e d u c e the c o s t s of the payload package from those c o s t s required for the c u r r e n t LOR h a r d w a r e by the elimination of the lunar rendezvous.000 pounds and provide a family of flexible and c o s t effective launch vehicles which a r e available within the n o r m a l lead time required for the stage elements (2 y e a r s } . These vehicles have payload capabilities ranging from 73. All eight configurations of the i n t e r m e d i a t e launch vehicles studied during the t r a d e study phase a r e feasible using existing Saturn V stages with minimum modification. The four u p r a t e d baseline vehicles a r e feasible configurations and logical candidates for payloads in excess of the c u r r e n t Saturn V c a p a bility. Explanation of the technical and r e s o u r c e data on this contract is s u m m a r i z e d and reported in detail in the following documentation: D5-13183 D5-13183-1 D5-13183-2 D5-13183-3 D5-13183-4 D5-13183-5 D5-13183-6 D5-13183-7 Summary Document Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-INT-20. M.0 STUDY RESULTS The six b a s e l i n e vehicles studied under the contract a r e logical configurations and candidates for payloads ranging from 78. No m a j o r problem a r e a s for development. -21 Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-3B Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-25(S) Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-4(S)B Vehicle Description MLV-SAT-V-23(L) R e s e a r c h & Technology Implications Report F i r s t Stage Cost Flan 6 . F o r example. The i n c r e a s e d payload capability and improved Cost effectiveness over that of the existing Saturn V could be u s e d to reduce o v e r a l l m i s s i o n c o s t s .000 pounds to 579.D5-13183-6 •«OM5»V4gVv 2. i n c r e a s e d payload capability can be used to simplify the mission m o d e and thus r e s u l t in l e s s complex payload designs and fewer components. production.000 pounds to a 100 N. For some m i s s i o n s .000 pounds to 255. E a r t h orbit. o r flight environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e identified.

2 WIND SPEED ENVELOPE FOR LAUNCH TOWER CLEARANCE STUDIES 3. 0 3. The schematic in F i g u r e 3-2 i l l u s t r a t e s the problem.1 P r o b l e m Definition The uprated Saturn V launch vehicles a r e aerodynamically unstable during boost flight. 7 . 3.1 AERONAUTICS TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS AERODYNAMIC STATIC STABILITY 3. Z Solution Approach It i s r e c o m m e n d e d that wind tunnel t e s t s be conducted on a Saturn V uprated configuration that u s e s solid s t r a p .1.o n m o t o r s on the vehicle aerodynamic coefficients. The lack of experimental data and the inability of the various theoretical methods to analyze these complex vehicles add to the difficulties.1 P r o b l e m Definition In the definition of launch tower c l e a r a n c e . Typical wind tunnel data would have a variety of u s e s if it followed the form shown on F i g u r e 3-1. E s t i m a t e s of the total n o r m a l force contribution to the core vehicle a r e difficult to make because of the c a r r y o v e r from the strap-on to the core vehicle and the c a r r y o v e r from the core vehicle to the strap-on s.D5-13183-6 3. The t e s t s should determine the i n c r e m e n t in the aerodynamic coefficients so that the r e s u l t s can be applied to other vehicles with a minimum of effort. 3.o n on fin o r engine shroud effectiveness a r e also difficult to determine.1.2. The effect of the gap between the c o r e vehicle and the s t r a p . The uprated launch vehicles that use boost a s s i s t components a r e difficult to analyze because of the complex flow fields about the core vehicle and the strap-on solid m o t o r s o r liquid propellant pods. This wind speed envelope is the r e s u l t of a statistical analysis of ground windB m e a s u r e d over a number of y e a r s in a clear field at P a t r i c k Air F o r c e B a s e at various altitudes and c o r r e l a t e d with the power law U = Ui (Z/Z^J A wind speed envelope determine in this m a n n e r could be different from what a Saturn V type launch vehicle experiences because of l a r g e p r o t u b e r a n c e s around the launch vehicle. The amount of aerodynamic instability is one of the major factors that d e t e r m i n e s the thrust vector control r e q u i r e ment. the 99 percentile ground wind speed envelope i s used.o n m o t o r s for boost a s s i s t to d e t e r m i n e the effect of the s t r a p .o n and t h e effect of the s t r a p .

F I N S & SHROUDS N O STRAP-ON MOTORS u U RAP-ON MOTORS. MACH NO. F I G U R E 3-1 T Y P I C A L AERODYNAMIC DATA 8 .D5-13183-6 Fjm C O R E ONLY S T R A P . & SHROUDS /V. < en i (0 C O R E ONLY GAP/DS.0. M O H 0 0 P.O N MOTOR S STRAP-ON MOTORS. =0 C O R E WITH STRAP-ON MOTORS U MACH NO. CORE ONLY MACH NO.

(NO PROTUBERANCES) \ h a i-j H MOBILE LAUNCHER HARDSTAND s. L. B. T h e s e theoretical e s t i m a t e s of the induced velocity over the hardstand and the mobile launcher can be u s e d to d e t e r m i n e . 9 . m o r e a c c u r a t e l y . 3 2 2 Solution Approach T h e o r e t i c a l e s t i m a t e s of the induced wind velocity should be made using the Schwarz Chrigtoffei t h e o r m o r other complex transformations to update the wind speed envelope. the wind speed envelope that the launch vehicle will experience and to c o r r e l a t e the experimental wind speed data that is now being obtained on the mobile launcher. WIND SPEED FIGURE 3-2 TYPICAL GROUND WIND SPEED ENVELOPE Differences between a wind speed envelope determined in a clear field and that experienced by a Saturn V launch vehicle will r e s u l t in differences in the aerodynamic disturbing moment on the vehicle which would affect the liftoff trajectory . F .D5-13183-6 -ESTIMATED WIND SPEED ENVELOPE OVER LUT DECK 99 P E R C E N T I L E PATRICK A .

2. These r e s u l t s showed that the effect of varying control modes on gimbal displacement was negligible. 0 ELECTRONICS AND CONTROL.4 . A six degree of freedom digital simulation should be used tb conduct these studies. however. IMPLICATIONS 4. 2 Solution Approach Investigate the effect of distributed aerodynamics on vehicle lift-off t r a j e c t o r y and extend the study of lift-off dynamics to include r e p r e s e n t a tion of r e s t r a i n e d r e l e a s e and malfunction conditions (engine loss).1 E F F E C T OF CONTROL MODES ON VEHICLE LOADS P r o b l e m Definition The effect of a l t e r n a t e control modes on gimbal r e q u i r e m e n t s was examined during the course of these studies.1 4. 10 . 4. and that one control system could not be recommended over another on the basis of r e duced TVC r e q u i r e m e n t s . 1. Limited studies showed differences in m a x i m u m bending responses of 12 p e r c e n t and 5 percent r-espectively for the MLV-Saturn V-3B and the MLV-Saturn V-4(S)B vehicles when comparing an attitude-attitude r a t e control s y s t e m to attitude -attitude r a t e with angle of attack feedback. The amount of load reduction available by control s y s t e m s optimisation is a function of c o n t r o l mode. vehicle configuration. 1. P a r a m e t e r i z e rigid body control s y s t e m feedback loops to minimize drift d i s tance while remaining within attitude (guidance) c o n s t r a i n t s . and the nature of the wind forcing input. T h e s e effects should be a s s e s s e d to provide information upon which selections of optimum control s y s t e m s for the uprated Saturn family of vehicles may be based. This result does not p r e c l u d e . L a r g e drift distances and the resulting probability of tower collision can r e q u i r e extensive modification to existing launch pad facilities. the possible advantage of one control system over another in the a r e a of reducing bending loads. 2 4. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL. These r e s u l t s w e r e obtained without optimizing control gains for load relief and using synthetic wind r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .1 LAUNCH TOWER CLEARANCE P r o b l e m Definition L a r g e launch vehicles of the nature of those considered in this study e x perience high horizontal translations during lift-off when subjected to design winds and biased with off nominal design and construction p a r a m e t e r s .

In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the relative effect of varying vehicle configuration.3. 2 Solution Approach Antenna radiation p a t t e r n tests should be conducted on an antenna range using models of the vehicles with s t r a p . A complete description of an antenna's radiation field a s it exists in space about the vehicle should be plotted. May 16. 3. 4. The feasibility of employing multiple s e n s o r s and weighted control s y s t e m s feedbacks to limit vehicle elastic bending r e s p o n s e should be examined. The booster structure acts as reflectors which will modify the radiation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each antenna. Each antenna on the Saturn V stages should be considered to determine if s t r u c t u r e o b s c u r e s line of sight to any ground station. The s t r u c t u r e of the s t r a p . either liquid or solid. 4. title: "Saturn V Antenna Systems AS-501. Z Solution Approach A comprehensive study is indicated uaing candidate control s y s t e m s with gains optimized for load relief.1 RANGE/VEHICLE COMMUNICATION INTERFERENCE .1. " conducted for contract NAS8-5608.D5-13183-6 ^ 4. 11 . Stability analyses using the elastic p r o p e r t i e s of the vehicles and varying s e n s o r placement to a s s u r e practicability of the control gains selections and optimizations would be required. Wind s h e a r of the synthetic profiles would be adjusted to give the s a m e peak bending r e s p o n s e using nominal attitude-attitude r a t e control before control systems optimizations for load relief a r e begun. 3. it is suggested that the family of u p r a t e d and intermediate Saturn V vehicles in its entirety be examined. may place the s t r u c t u r e of the booster in a position that i n t e r f e r e s with antenna look angles from the vehicle to the ground station. 3 4. 2. Selected vehicles among t h e s e should be examined using both synthetic and r e a l wind r e p r e s e n t a tions which a r e consistent with each other. These t e s t s should be p e r f o r m e d for all of the antenna s y s t e m s on every stage.o n boosters. A number of m e a s u r e d (Jimsphere) profiles of varying severity would be selected and consistent synthetic profiles having the s a m e peak wind magnitude at the s a m e altitude would be constructed.1 4. 1966. The t e s t s and plotting of data should be conducted to the s a m e groundrules as the data p r e s e n t e d in Boeing Document D5-155a6-l.o n booster also may modify the antenna radiation p a t t e r n s .1.R F Interference F r o m Added Strap-On Structure P r o b l e m Definition The addition of s t r a p .o n b o o s t e r s .

3 .o n b o o s t e r s which w o u l d be u s e d p r i o r to s t a g i n g of t h e s t r a p . a n d . This evaluation should consider t h e R F i n t e r f e r e n c e a s a function of a n t e n n a look a n g l e .D5-13183-6 4. 2 4. 3 . 4. The s t r a p . .I C a n t e n n a s on t h e s t r a p . 12 .o n m o t o r s a l s o add d i f f e r e n t e x h a u s t p r o d u c t s . 4 of d o c u m e n t s D5-13183-3. 4. 2 . a n d -5) f o r u s e w i t h the s t r a p . 3 .o n b o o s t e r s s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d a n a l y t i c a l l y . T h i s d a t a s h o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d to d a t a f r o m S a t u r n I flights a n d o t h e r s o u r c e s of R F i n t e r ference data through exhaust p l u m e s . i n c l u d i n g m e t a l p a r t i c l e s .3. but r e q u i r e c o m b i n a t i o n of the f o u r b o o s t e r R F c i r c u i t s on t h e M S .4 .o n b o o s t e r s .o n b o o s t e r s h a v e R F s y s t e m s i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e S a t u r n V. 2 .4 .1 Modified Antenna System Problem Definition The i m p r o v e m e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d a r e q u i r e m e n t to p l a c e a r e d u n d a n t s e t of M 3 .I C a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t o a n t e n n a s on t h e s t r a p . 1 R F I n t e r f e r e n c e F r o m Modified E x h a u s t F l u m e P r o b l e m Definition The u p r a t e d v e h i c l e s h a v e e n l a r g e d e x h a u s t p l u m e s due to i n c r e a s e d m a s s flow.5 . . 4. 2 Solution Approach (Continued) It m a y be n e c e s s a r y t o r e l o c a t e t h e a n t e n n a s by m o v i n g t h e m o u t w a r d f o r w a r d . 3. 2 Solution Approach The c o m m u n i c a t i o n d a t a r e c o r d e d f r o m T i t a n III flights s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e R F i n t e r f e r e n c e t h r o u g h t h e e x h a u s t p l u m e of c o m b i n e d l i q u i d e n g i n e s a n d s o l i d r o c k e t m o t o r s . It m a y a l s o be n e c e s s a r y to c h a n g e t h e d e s i g n of the a n t e n n a s y s t e m s t o i m p r o v e the r a d i a t i o n p a t t e r n . 2. The s o l i d s t f a p . o r t o a d i f f e r e n t a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n to i m p r o v e t h e r a d i a t i o n p a t t e r n a n d / o r l o o k a n g l e . 7 of d o c u m e n t s D5-13183-3. 3. The l o n g e r c i r c u i t p a t h s a n d a d d e d s w i t c h i n g f r o m the t r a n s m i t t e r s t o the a n t e n n a s m a y p r o d u c e i n c r e a s e d R F d e g r a d a t i o n a s w e l l as presenting h a r d w a r e p r o b l e m s for the proposed s y s t e m . 3 4. 2 Solution A p p r o a c h The m o d i f i e d a n t e n n a s y s t e m s p r o p o s e d (in S e c t i o n s 6.3. 4. 3 . w h i c h i n c r e a s e the d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e RF system. 3 . 1.o n s . a n d t h e n t e s t e d with a s y s t e m s b r e a d b o a r d u s i n g S-IC components.1. ' u s i n g t h e look a n g l e c u r v e s in S e c t i o n 5.

and define further testing r e q u i r e d . It is n e c e s s a r y to investigate the R F systems for the upper stages as well as the MS-IC to a s s u r e adequare communication i o r the vehicle. 13 . 2 Solution Approach (Continued) The r e s u l t s of this investigation would be to determine a r e a s of RF systems adequacy. 3. 3.D5-13183-6 ^MKggi 4. r e c o m m e n d changes to the Saturn V s y s t e m s .

c a r r y i n g capability due to p r e s s u r e stabilization. Due to the limited volume of the Apollo envelope.e v a l u a t e the various uprated Saturn V vehicles for possible weight savings and i n c r e a s e d r e liability. PAYLOAD ENVELOPE WIND SENSITIVITY P r o b l e m Definition 2.D5-13183-6 5. D5-13272) c o n s i d e r s all t h r e e possible modes of instability failures and has been partially verified with r e s u l t s from the S-IC c o r r u g a t e d intertank test p r o g r a m and f r o m various t e s t data in the l i t e r a t u r e . Compare r e s u l t s of the various methods. and l a r g e r payload weights afforded by these vehicles for orbital m i s s i o n s . Actually these vehicles have considerably m o r e v e r s a t i l i t y for c a r r y i n g pay loads of higher volume and lower density during extensive periods of the year. 2 5. This v e r s a tility is available from two s o u r c e s : (1) using reduced factors of safety for un-manned m i s s i o n s . 5.c r i t i c a l axially c o m p r e s s e d stiffened cylinders. Solution Approach Verify by test and analyses the validity and r a n g e of application of the available analytical p r o c e d u r e s including the method developed by Boeing. payload densities a r e relatively high.1 STABILITY CRITICAL STIFFENED CYLINDRICAL SHELL DESIGN P r o b l e m Definition Since the original design of the Saturn V vehicle. This method is currently being extended to account for the inc r e a s e in l o a d .1 5. s e v e r a l methods of analyses have been developed to m o r e accurately predict the load-carrying capability of s t a b i l i t y .1. 2. One of these methods. However. Use the b e s t of these methods for each type of sti0ehed cylinder applicable to the Saturn V vehicle and r e . developed by Boeing. 2 1.1 The i n t e r m e d i a t e vehicles INT-20 and INT-21 w e r e studied using the Apollo payload shape and were shown to have adequate strength without modification using c u r r e n t Saturn wind c r i t e r i a . 14 .1. 3. and (2) from reduced wind magnitudes which exist during periods of the year for which launches may be planned. 5. none of these methods have been proved r e l i a b l e for all stiffened cylinder configurations applicable to the Saturn V vehicle. {Ref. 0 MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES TECHNOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS 5.

3. Payload length limits would be e s t a b lished for each month of the year as a function of peak wind speed for manned and un-manned f a c t o r s of safety within the s t r u c t u r a l Capability of these vehicles. F r o m t h e s e data estimates of launch availability v e r s u s month of the year may be obtained for payloads of varying size on a probabilistic b a s i s . Improved wind m e a s u r e m e n t systems a r e producing higher resolution profiles. 5.1 FLIGHT LOADS PROBABILITY P r o b l e m Definition Generally speaking synthetic wind r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s which have been developed from s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of m e a s u r e d wind data do not produce loads responses with the same probability. t h e r e is no d i r e c t c o r r e l ation between the probabilities of peak wind speed. extensive computer times r e q u i r e d to obtain solutions for adequate statistical samples of m e a s u r e d profiles.D5-13183-6 5. Such. no methods have been tailored to this purpose which encompass the complete solution. In o r d e r to obtain loads of known exceedance probability the following is required: 15 . Obviously c o n s e r v a t i s m is a desirable consideration in this case. information i s very desirable for planning p u r p o s e s . it is suggested that comprehensive analyses be p e r f o r m e d using a family of payload shapes and s i z e s and winds of varying magnitude a s defined by MSFC c r i t e r i a for each month of the y e a r . to approach the problem from the d i r e c t load exceedance standpoint. . and absence of c o r r e l a t i o n s between mean wind and random turbulence r e s p o n s e s . wind shear. and direction. i. C u r r e n t l y t h e r e a r e i n sufficient data upon which to base computation of the combined probability of ail wind p a r a m e t e r s so that even synthetic c r i t e r i a m u s t still be selected through e x e r c i s e of sound engineering judgments. 2 Solution Approach Up to this t i m e such solutions have not been practicable due to the limited wind information available.3. altitude. and load exceedance probability. T h e r e a r e sufficient m e a s u r e d winds.2. As a result. 3 5. e.2 Solution Approach In o r d e r to define the versatility which exists in this r e s p e c t . This approach would reduce the need for c o n s e r v a t i s m associated with engineering judgments which have been r e q u i r e d in the past in the development of synthetic profiles. limited accuracy of the profiles t h e m s e l v e s . 5. It should be possible to use these data coupled with other m e a s u r e d wind information to compute load exceedance probability from s t a t i s t i c a l samples of m e a s u r e d profiles. however.

5. Development of high speed digital or analog simulations to obtain probability distributions of loads r e s p o n s e s to s t a t i s t i c a l samples of m e a n winds. Utilization of J i m s p h e r e data to obtain power s p e c t r a l densities of random turbulence and a s s o c i a t e d m e a n wind p r o f i l e s .1 GROUND WIND LOADS P r o b l e m Definition Computation of t h e ground winds loads r e s p o n s e for l a r g e launch vehicles is one of the m o s t problematic a r e a s faced in the c o u r s e of vehicle design. Limited knowledge of wind forcing functions and the coupled elastic r e s p o n s e to random v o r t e x shedding has historically r e q u i r e d wind tunnel verification o r total r e l i a n c e on wind tunnel r e s u l t s . 5.D5-13183-6 ^gEgX/Vg-V. In addition. Statistical o r d e r i n g of vehicle r e s p o n s e s to mean winds and random turbulence and c o r r e l a t i o n of these responses using vehicle responses to t o t a l wind profiles ( J i m s p h e r e ) .2 Solution Approach (Continued) 1. 2. 4. Such information would be very valuable to a s s i s t in the selection of design c r i t e r i a for the advanced Saturn family of vehicles. This would provide consistent synthetic c r i t e r i a for u s e in design studies and the relationships between p r i m a r y wind statistical p a r a m e t e r s and the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of vehicle r e s p o n s e s . 16 . 3. Vehicle s i z e has p r o g r e s s e d to the point where limited knowledge of scaling relationships seriously hinders application of wind tunnel r e s u l t s . c o r r e l a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s could be made with synthetic profiles developed through statistical analysis of the winds t h e m s e l v e s . In addition. 5. 4 5.4. wind tunnel t e s t s of u p r a t e d Saturn configurations will be required.3. An effort should be made to a s s e m b l e all available knowledge from this and other s o u r c e s and to extrapolate the r e s u l t s to the l a r g e r uprated configurations.2 Solution Approach Apply t h e s e r e s u l t s to the l a r g e r uprated Saturn configurations and obtain r e v i s e d ground wind loadings for design p u r p o s e s . The r e s u l t would be bending load probability distributions for d e s i r e d launch periods a s functions of launch azimuth for c r i t i c a l vehicle stations for all times during boost. Considerable time and effort is being spent on the c u r r e n t Saturn V p r o g r a m to l e a r n m o r e about this problem area including full s c a l e ground winds testing using the AS-500F vehicle.

2.D5-13183-6 5. 4 . Revise ground wind loads for design p u r p o s e s based on these results. 3. 17 . Utilize this information and c u r r e n t Saturn V analysis and t e s t r e s u l t s to extend analyses methods to include the l a r g e r uprated vehicles. 2 Solution Approach (Continued) 1„ P l a n and conduct wind tunnel t e s t s to establish ground wind load r e s p o n s e s of u p r a t e d configurations.

I I . The specific impulse of the liquid pod is better than the solid m o t o r s which provides a performance advantage. Simplified propellant tankage (monocoque structure) and thrust s t r u c t u r e . and transportation and handling of the dry stage is e a s i e r . 1 PROBLEM DEFINITION The use of liquid propellant pods for b o o s t . 6. 0 LOW COST LIQUID PROPELLANT POD L a r g e p r e s s u r e fed liquid engine systems for b o o s t . Storable propellants and p r e s s u r i z a t i o n g a s e s . Simplified engine . and sealed.a s s i s t and for booster application a r e feasible. Simplified p r e s s u r i z a t i o n system . with l e s s e r emphasis on performance. made of inexpensive m a t e r i a l s and fabrication techniques. r e q u i r i n g minimum inspection and testing.minimum complexity and components. 18 . c. 2 SOLUTION APPROACH The feasibility of a simplified liquid pod design which will be c o s t competitive with solid m o t o r s should be determined. 6.a s s i s t on the MLV-SAT V-23(L) configuration provided a flexible method for vehicle uprating.P5-13183-6 6. and approach the simple s y s t e m s and s t r u c t u r e s of solid rocket m o t o r s . However. b. packaged.minimum valves and controls. The design should be optimized from a cost and reliability standpoint. J Evaluation of pod components and s y s t e m s to define performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and cost would lend not only to understanding the specific r e a s o n s for cost differences. d. The use of a p r e s s u r e fed engine(s) and monocoque propellant tank s t r u c t u r e can m a k e the pods competitive with solid m o t o r s on a cost b a s i s . T h e s e a n a l y s e s of a low-cost pod should be compared in size and costeffectiveness to the cryogenic pump-fed pod and solid m o t o r s used in the studies under NAS8-20266. The liquid propellants a r e cheaper than solid propellants. but also to identify m e a n s of optimizing cost effectiveness. the pod design was b a s e d on S-IC technology and concepts which result in higher costs than for solid m o t o r s . and simple controls. The potential of incorporating the following into the pod d e sign should r e c e i v e attention: a.eliminate turbopump (pressure-fed) .

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