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PSG INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES PSG COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY COIMBATORE - 641 004
Submitted by ABHISHEK HARI BALAJI R S
India has made many great improvements over the last decade in achieving economic growth and poverty reduction. The most significant advancement came in 1991 when India removed governmental obstacles and allowed its doors to open to foreign investment. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has emerged as an eminent source of economic development and employment generation for developing countries (including India) as it contributes in creating a more competitive business environment, enhances enterprise development, human capital formation and international trade integration. This paper is an attempt to throw light on the various investment opportunities and challenges in INDIA.
Investment is the commitment of money or capital to purchase financial instruments or other assets in order to gain profitable returns in the form of interest, income or appreciation of the value of the instrument(source: Wikipedia) Various policies related to investments in INDIA as prescribed by Indian government: I. Setting up as an Indian or a Foreign Company A foreign company planning to set up business operations in India has the option of either setting up as an Indian company or as a foreign company 1) As An Indian Company A foreign company can commence operations in India by incorporating a company under the Companies Act, 1956 through Joint Ventures (JV) or Wholly Owned Subsidiaries. A) Joint Ventures Foreign Companies can set up their operations in India by incorporating a JV Company with an Indian partner and/or with the general public and operating either as a listed company or as an unlisted company.
It can promote export/import from/to India and also facilitate technical/financial collaboration between parent company and companies in India.Its role is limited to collect information about possible market opportunities and providing information about the company and its products to prospective Indian customers. which include branches/subsidiaries of its parent office in India. C) Branch Office: Foreign companies engaged in manufacturing and trading activities abroad are allowed to set up Branch Offices in India for the purposes of export/import of goods. Procedures prescribed for FDI FDI in relation to control or ownership of a company in India takes one of two routes: 1) Procedure Under "Automatic Route" FDI in sector/ activities to the extent permitted under automatic route does not require any prior . carrying out research work in which the parent company is engaged. D) Branch Office on Stand Alone Basis: Such Branch Offices would be isolated and restricted to the Special Economic zone (SEZ) alone and no business activity/transaction will be allowed outside the SEZs in India.Approval for establishing a liaison office in India is granted by Reserve Bank of India (RBI).B) Wholly Owned Subsidiaries Foreign companies can also set up wholly owned subsidiary in sectors where 100% foreign direct investment is permitted under the FDI policy. 2) As A Foreign Company Foreign Companies can set up their operations in India through A) Liaison Office/Representative Office: It acts as a channel of communication between the principal place of business or head office and entities in India. RBI has now granted general permission to foreign entities to establish Project Offices subject to specified conditions. II. rendering professional or consultancy services. B) Project Office: Foreign Companies planning to execute specific projects in India can set up temporary project/site offices in India.
Other Modes of Foreign Direct Investments a. This route is available to all sectors or activities that do not have a sector cap i. The investor are only required to notify the Regional office concerned of RBI and file the required documents with that office within 30 days of receipt of inward remittances. Minority stakes in host-country firms 5. equity holding by other units including foreign equity in a small scale undertaking is permissible up to 24 per cent. Global Depository Receipts (GDR)/American Deposit Receipts (ADR)/Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB). 4. FDI in the Small Scale Sector Small Scale Undertakings (SSUs) are defined as units having investments in fixed assets in plant and machinery of not more than INR 10 million. . where 100% foreign ownership is permitted. or for investments that are within a sector cap and where the Automatic route is allowed. 2) Procedure Under "Government Approval" FDI in activities not covered under the automatic route requires prior Government Approval and are considered by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB). b. 3.e.approval either by Government of India or RBI. Investment in a Firm or a Proprietary Concern By NRIs A Non-Resident Indian or a Person of Indian Origin resident outside India may invest by way of contribution to the capital of a firm or a proprietary concern in India on a non-repatriation basis provided. Under the small scale industrial policy. Approvals of composite proposals involving foreign investment/ foreign technical collaboration are also granted on the recommendation of the FIPB.
Defence industry sector. Sectors which attract Ceiling on Foreign Ownership Sector Telecom. India has been emerging as the next market for foreign direct investments. Satellites. India. Private sector banking. Broadcasting. Atomic minerals. Coal and lignite. 7.Yet. the United Kingdom. among the European investors. List of Sectors where FDI is restricted. Direct-to-Home. etc. Terrestrial Broadcasting FM. The reason behind the success is the rules and regulations framed by the various ministries of government of India as well as the regulators from SEBI. No company. HUB. aspiring to be a global player can. (These indicators are based on purchasing power parity. Setting up hardware.6. and Russia) and has the third largest GDP in the entire continent of Asia. shortages of power and infrastructural deficiencies. India presents a vast potential for overseas investment and is actively encouraging the entrance of foreign players into the market. Mining. Foreign direct investment Foreign direct investment (FDI) refers to long term participation by country A into country B. for long ignore this country which is expected to become one of the top three emerging economies. facilities such as uplinking. Petroleum. Print Media. is believed to be a good investment despite political uncertainty. Cable network. India is the fifth largest economy in the world (ranking above France. bureaucratic hassles. It is also the second largest among emerging nations. of any size. RBI. despite the practically unlimited possibilities in India for overseas businesses. It usually involves participation in management. Domestic airlines. Italy. joint-venture. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Gambling and Betting.) India is also one of the few markets in the world which offers high prospects for growth and earning potential in practically all areas of business. Sectors where FDI is not permitted are restricted to Railways. transfer of technology andexpertise. the world's most populous . Tea sector. Refining. Postal Service.. Investing companies/ Services sector. Insurance. Lottery and basic Agriculture or plantations activities or Agriculture and Plantations. Atomic Energy and Atomic Minerals. Small scale industries (SSI) sector.
according to latest data released by DIPP.democracy has. 'World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2011' released in July 2009. according to the Asian Investment Intentions survey released by the Asia Pacific Foundation in Canada. These include: • Asianet's proposal worth US$ 91. after China. India has been ranked at the third place in global foreign direct investments in 2009 and will continue to remain among the top five attractive destinations for international investors during 2010-11. the government cleared 24 foreign investment proposals. according to the data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). the percentage of Canadian companies showing interest in India has gone up to 13. AIP Power will set up power plants either directly or indirectly by promotion of joint ventures at an investment of US$ 24. The 2009 survey of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation released in November 2009. conducted among Japanese investors continues to rank India as the second most promising country for overseas business operations.7 million.4 million. failed to get the kind of enthusiastic attention generated by other emerging economies such as China. The cumulative amount of FDI equity inflows from August 1991 to April 2010 stood at US$ 134. India attracted FDI equity inflows of US$ 2. Global media magnate Rupert Murdoch-controlled Star India holdings' investment of US$ 70 million to acquire shares of direct-to-home (DTH) provider Tata Sky. worth US$ 304. From 8 per cent in 2005.7 million to undertake the business of broadcasting nonnews and current affairs television channels.642 million. Mauritius invested US$ 568 million in India. according to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in a report on world investment prospects titled. • • .4 per cent in 2010. followed by Singapore which invested US$ 434 million and Japan that invested US$ 327 million. During April 2010.214 million in April 2010. In May 2010. until fairly recently. more and more Canadian firms are now focussing on India as an investment destination.
low R&D and sourcing costs. the industry witnessed a cumulative foreign direct investment (FDI) flow worth US$ 4. has placed the Indian automobile market on the global automotive map. Total value of vehicle exports is estimated to reach US$ 8 billion to US$ 10 billion by 2015. Overall production of automobiles increased from 8. rising disposable income and entry of several new players has expanded the domestic market for passenger vehicles. are increasing affordability and driving domestic demand. Changing demographics. It is also the world’s fourth-largest commercial vehicle market. It is Asia’s third-largest passenger vehicle market and the world’s second-largest two-wheeler market.7 million units in 2004–05 to 11. Tata Nano. only behind China and the US. The industry turnover is estimated to reach a level of US$ 155 billion by 2016. The Indian automotive industry is expected to be the world’s seventh-largest automobile market by 2016 and the third largest by 2030. Low manufacturing costs due to economies of scale.4 million units in 2008–09. . Automobile sector India is an emerging global manufacturing hub for low-cost compact cars.Sector wise challenges and opportunities 1. Between 2000 and 2009.3 billion accounting for 4 per cent of the total FDI into the country. Recent acquisition of Jaguar and Land Rover brands by Tata Motors and launch of world’s cheapest car.
8 percent to 3. thereby increasing its share from 0. Revenues are estimated to increase from US$ 40 billion in 2002 to US$ 300 billion in 2015.5 per cent. Challenges • • • Accelerated modification and diversification of the product portfolio Pervasion of automobiles with digital technology Increased pressure for innovation and flexibility in development and manufacturing . • • Availability of low cost skilled and educated manpower. shorter product life cycle and increasing trends of geographical expansion to deresk dependence on one market are key factors that influence companies to outsource. proven product development capabilities and location advantage due to India’s proximity to emerging markets. Increasing production cost.Opportunities • • Govt policies including weighted tax deduction has deduced upto 200% for inhouse R&D activities in the country.
36 billion. 19 formally approved and 12 notified SEZs in India. it accounts for 4 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP)—US$ 51. Opportunities material for industrial. the potential size of the Indian textiles industry is expected to reach US$ 110 billion by 2012. • According to the Confederation of Indian Textile Industry (CITI). agricultural and consumer goods. The textiles industry accounts for 14 per cent of the total industrial production in India. valued at US$ 20. contributed about 11. . Textile and apparels The textile industry in India provides direct employment to more than 35 million people and is the second-largest employment generator after agriculture. there are 13 inprinciple approved.5 per cent to the country’s total exports in 2008–09. At current prices.02 billion (INR 963.05 billion). Textiles and apparel industry exports. In addition to the four functional SEZs.2.
the mid or higher ranges are over priced. 3. There is an acute shortage of trained operators and supervisors in India. Healthcare sector India’s growing population and increasing preference for private health services over public services is augmenting the growth of the healthcare delivery market. These factors have transformed it into a leading medical tourism destination. Skills : 1.1 per cent of the country’s GDP and employ around nine million people in 2012.• With consumerism and disposable income on the incline. Several international retailers are also focusing on India due to its emergence as a potential sourcing destination. 1.5 times higher spinning capacity. Among countries outside the US. There is a paucity of technical manpower 2. Domestic Market The Indian domestic market for all textile and apparel products is estimated at $26 bn and growing. Some of the Chinese large firms have 1.9 million nurses and about 1 million beds. The share of tertiary care in the total healthcare market is currently about 11 per cent.25 times denim (and 2 times gray fabric) capacity and about 6 times more revenue in garment than their counterparts in India thereby affecting the cost structure as well as ability to attract customers with large orders. the retail sector has witnessed rapid growth in the past decade. 3. Healthcare expenditure in India is expected to increase by 15 per cent per annum. This segment is expected to constitute 6. India has one of the largest numbers of Joint Commission International (JCI) approved hospitals. . Indian firms invest very little in training its existing workforce and the skills are limited to existing proceses. • The packtech segment constitutes 38 per cent of the total technical textiles production in India (2007–08). This industry includes the production of flexible packaging Challenges Scale: Indian firms are typically smaller than their Chinese or Thai counterparts and there are fewer large firms in India. While the market is very competitive at the low end of the value chain. The country has 0. 0.5 million doctors.
cutting edge technology 2.2. Challenges: 1. new innovate treatment . an additional 1. Research and development 3.75 million beds are needed for India to achieve the target of two beds per 1. • The potential increase in the penetration rate of medical insurance and employer plans could result in a higher demand for premium healthcare services in India.600. To maintain the current doctor-to-nurse ratio of 2.000 nurses will have to be trained by 2025.Opportunities • • • An additional 1. India’s changing demographics and the increasing incidence of non-communicable and lifestyle-related diseases is expected to trigger the need for more tertiary care hospitals to cater to this demand. and consequently.000 population by 2025. increase the demand for hospital beds and medical equipment.
3 billion in 2008–09. growing at more than 12 per cent.5 billion in 2008–09 as compared to US$ 64 billion in 2007–08. The Indian IT industry has been growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 27 per cent from 2003 to 2008. growing at more than 12 per cent.3 per cent. Chennai.8 per cent in 2008–09. India’s software and services exports. Mumbai and Kolkata. as compared to US$ 40. .3 billion by 2010.4. IT and ITES sector Total revenues in India’s IT industry touched US$ 70. including its ITeS-BPO exports. Hyderabad. NCR-Delhi. Total revenues in India’s IT industry touched US$ 70.5 billion in 2008–09 as compared to US$ 64 billion in 2007–08. an increase of 14.2 per cent in 1997–2008 to an estimated 5. customer service quality 4.4 billion in 2007–08. Opportunities • It is estimated that the overall size of the domestic market grew by 20 per cent in 2008– 09 to reach US$ 24. Pune. The Indian IT & ITeS industry is primarily concentrated in seven clusters—Bengaluru. The contribution of IT industry to India’s gross domestic product (GDP) has grown from 1. touched US$ 47.
Diversification in verticals 5. 2009). . according to the Eleventh Plan. which constitutes 9 per cent of the country’s total installed capacity. Challenges 1.391.shored 3. • • The labour cost arbitrage in this sector is about 60 per cent of that in the US. India’s total installed capacity.63 MW and 29. Indian IT firms are outsourced and off. followed by hydro-electric power.547 billion). The outlay for the sector is US$ 115.2 per cent of the power produced in India. respectively. The government is taking up e-governance initiatives and increasing its IT spend/outlay with an allocation of more than US$ 400 million for the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) in 2010–11.242 MW (as on July 31. Rupee appreciation and FII 4. as on March 31.85 MW to the total installed capacity.01 MW.014. while the Central and private sectors contributed 50. The installed capacity of the renewable energy industry has been estimated at 13. each with a capacity of about 4000 MW.• • Domestic IT BPO spending grew by 40 per cent in 2008–09. 2010. The states contributed 79. The growth drivers include the high productivity of India’s human resources and outsourcing of knowledge processes by SMEs. has been estimated at 159. Power sector Thermal power accounts for 64.49 MW. Dependency on US 2. The government has launched an initiative for the development of coal-based ultra mega power projects (UMPPs).992.398. as of March 2010.56 billion (INR 5.
Challenges • • • • Avoiding misconception of the new market arrangements Keeping anticipation capabilities to adapt and correct policies and processes (avoiding myopia and sheep behaviour) Saving minimum core business competency at decision-making level The environment laws will increase the restrictions to electric engineering . operation and maintenance of transmission lines by private players. Private transmission facilities to be either set up and operated by independent power transmission companies or joint ventures with state-owned transmission utilities. Competitive bidding for multiple transmission projects.Opportunities • • • Construction.
000 non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) are registered with the RBI. . administered by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and supported by regulatory body such as Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Financial services sector The Indian financial market is growing rapidly. among other financial institutions. with the NSE contributing over 70 per cent of the turnover.944 billion) as of December 2009.000 sub-brokers registered with SEBI. Mutual funds in India had assets under management to the tune of US$165 billion (INR 7. with significant potential for further growth (National Stock Exchange is ranked 18th in terms of value of shares traded in the world). India’s high savings rate offers significant opportunity for channelising resources into the financial markets.000 brokers in addition to about 44. There are more than 8. Market capitalisation of Indian companies on the stock exchange has more than tripled between 2004–05 and 2009–2010. More than 11.• • • • • The automation and smart instrumentation presence will be increased New materials and processes will force a permanent knowledge update The demand of technical and financial management will increase The professional competition will increase The legal aspects will increase in professional activities 6. The microfinance segment in India too is witnessing rapid growth. which govern capital markets and mutual funds. The NSE and the BSE are the main exchanges. India has a strong financial regulatory system.
is expected to create the need for more intermediaries in the capital market. Challenges • • • • Adept to face increasing transaction volumes. High level of professionalism. Large number of mutual funds and increasing AUM require more distribution intermediaries and schemes for better market penetration. Unorganised money lending is a general practice in micro-credit. regulation and the integration of previously disparate global markets Agile at identifying and managing risk Operationally efficient Customer – centric . is expected to expand the market. more transparency and low interest rates brought in by organised microfinance firms.Opportunities • • • High GDP growth rate. driven by significant corporate earnings.
• Optimized in both business & technology 7. In 2008–09.7 million tonnes and an investment of more than US$ 229 billion (INR 11. the installed capacity for crude steel was estimated at 64. The steel production capacity is estimated to reach 124 million tonnes by 2011–12.000 billion). resulting in an 85 per cent capacity utilisation. Long-products constituted 57 per cent of the total finished steel consumption. Steel sector India is the fifth-largest producer of crude steel in the world (2008).4 million tonnes. while the remaining 43 per cent was constituted by flat-products in 2007–08.5 million tonnes. with a production volume of 54. 222 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) have been signed by various states with an intended capacity of about 275. India and China are the only countries to have registered positive growth in steel production in the period between January and March 2009.5 million tonnes. . while production was estimated at 54.
Opportunities • The rising costs of coal and crude oil have resulted in a shift towards the use of alternate fuels. 2010. and has recorded FDI inflows worth over US$ 8. which are estimated to reach approximately 700 million by 2012. the design institutions in India have not been successful at recruiting the best of engineers and metallurgists in India. At the end of January 2010. effective government regulations. the overall tele-density was recorded at 49. The telecom sector is one of the highest FDI attracting sectors in India. while Internet subscribers are expected to grow to 45 million by 2012.81 million. low handset prices. Multiple factors including low tariffs. To leverage this opportunity. 8.81 million subscribers as on January 31. Challenges • • The condition of the infrastructural facilities of the steel industry in India is not at all conducive to a sustainable growth and development of the steel industry of the India.5 per cent with a total telephone subscriber base of 581. This has affected the technological aspect of the Indian steel industry. companies are investing in building a pipeline network for gas distribution. . Telecommunication sector India is one of the biggest telecom markets in the world with 581.8 billion between 2000 and 2010. Broadband subscribers are expected to grow to 30 million. Even though India is capable of producing steel at a good rate and also increase the volume of production there is not enough land available to support such activities. • The increasing investments by the state governments in water and sewage pipes infrastructure management are also expected to augment the anticipated demand. higher incomes and changes in customer behaviour are the key drivers for growth.
security measures 3. • The expansion of wireless networks and growth in subscriber base. efficient use of bandwith.61 per cent as of June 2009. . Challenges 1.Opportunities • By 2012. • Despite the low penetration of internet services in the Indian market.9 per cent in 2008–09. The mobile handsets sale grew by 7. both in urban and rural areas. has led to a boost in the sale of mobile handsets across India. India is expected to feature among the top 10 broadband markets by 2013. it is expected to grow in the next decade in terms of number of subscribers. advanced technology for authentication and e-purchase 2. total telecom penetration in the largely untapped potential rural markets of India is expected to reach to about 40 per cent as compared to the current tele-density of about 16.
managementfunda.finmin. As India is fast emerging as an developed nation the FDIs are the most important areas from where revenues can be earned.com www.org .com www.economywatch.siam. These sectors are the core sectors apart from these there are many more areas where investments can be made.in) Indian brand equity foundation www. We hope to see move FDIs in India for the betterment of the trade as well as for the country and its economy. Bibliography Ministry of finance (www.Conclusion Through this paper we have seen the various investments in India in different sectors.nic. Therefore India’s opportunity for building up a strong base for investments particularly FIIs is very much higher and the Government of India is supporting this move.
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