Table of Contents

Introduction...............................................................................2 PLCs..........................................................................................4 Number.Systems.......................................................................8 Terminology............................................................................. 4 Basic.Requirements. ...............................................................22 . S7-200.Micro.PLCs..................................................................26 Connecting.External.Devices. .................................................37 . Programming.a.PLC. ...............................................................39 . Discrete.Inputs/Outputs..........................................................47 Analog.Inputs.and.Outputs......................................................57 Timers. ....................................................................................60 . Counters..................................................................................67 High-Speed.Instructions.......................................................... 7 Specialized.Expansion.Modules.............................................. 74 Review.Answers......................................................................80 Final.Exam...............................................................................8 quickSTEP.Online.Courses......................................................84 

Introduction

Welcome.to.another.course.in.the.STEP.series,.Siemens. Technical.Education.Program,.designed.to.prepare.our. distributors.to.sell.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation.products. more.effectively..This.course.covers.Basics of PLCs.and.related. products.. Upon.completion.of.Basics of PLCs.you.should.be.able.to:

•. •. •. •. •. •. •. •. •.

Identify.the.major.components.of.a.PLC.and.describe. their.functions Convert.numbers.from.decimal.to.binary,.BCD,.and. hexadecimal Identify.typical.discrete.and.analog.inputs.and.outputs Read.a.basic.ladder.logic.diagram.and.statement.list Identify.operational.differences.between.different.S7-200. models Identify.the.proper.manual.to.refer.to.for.programming.or. installation.of.an.S7-200.PLC Connect.a.simple.discrete.input.and.output.to.an.S7-200 Select.the.proper.expansion.module.for.analog.inputs.and. outputs Describe.the.operation.of.timers.and.counters

2

This.knowledge.will.help.you.better.understand.customer. applications..In.addition,.you.will.be.better.able.to.describe. products.to.customers.and.determine.important.differences. between.products..You.should.complete.Basics of Electricity before.attempting.Basics of PLCs..An.understanding.of.many. of.the.concepts.covered.in.Basics of Electricity.is.required. for.Basics of PLCs..In.addition,.you.may.wish.to.complete. Basics of Control Components..Devices.covered.in.Basics of Control Components.are.used.with.programmable.logic. controllers. If.you.are.an.employee.of.a.Siemens.Energy.&.Automation. authorized.distributor,.fill.out.the.final.exam.tear-out.card.and. mail.in.the.card..We.will.mail.you.a.certificate.of.completion.if. you.score.a.passing.grade..Good.luck.with.your.efforts. SIMATIC,.STEP.7 ,.STEP.7-Micro,.STEP.7-Micro/WIN,.PG.702,. and.PG.740.are.registered.trademarks.of.Siemens.Energy.&. Automation,.Inc. Other.trademarks.are.the.property.of.their.respective.owners.

3

PLCs

A.Programmable Logic Controller (PLC),.also.referred.to. as.programmable controller,.is.the.name.given.to.a.type.of. computer.commonly.used.in.commercial.and.industrial.control. applications..PLCs.differ.from.office.computers.in.the.types.of. tasks.that.they.perform.and.the.hardware.and.software.they. require.to.perform.these.tasks..While.the.specific.applications. vary.widely,.all.PLCs.monitor.inputs.and.other.variable.values,. make.decisions.based.on.a.stored.program,.and.control. outputs.to.automate.a.process.or.machine..This.course.is. meant.to.supply.you.with.basic.information.on.the.functions. and.configurations.of.PLCs.with.emphasis.on.the.S7-200.PLC. family..

Drive Motors

Lights

Pumps

Photo Sensors

Pushbutton Switches

Basic PLC Operation.

The.basic.elements.of.a.PLC.include.input modules.or points,. a.Central Processing Unit (CPU),.output modules.or.points,. and.a.programming device..The.type.of.input.modules.or. points.used.by.a.PLC.depend.upon.the.types.of.input.devices. used..Some.input.modules.or.points.respond.to.digital.inputs,. also.called.discrete.inputs,.which.are.either.on.or.off..Other. modules.or.inputs.respond.to.analog.signals..These.analog. signals.represent.machine.or.process.conditions.as.a.range.of. voltage.or.current.values..The.primary.function.of.a.PLC’s.input. circuitry.is.to.convert.the.signals.provided.by.these.various. switches.and.sensors.into.logic.signals.that.can.be.used.by.the. CPU..

4

The.CPU.evaluates.the.status.of.inputs,.outputs,.and.other. variables.as.it.executes.a.stored.program..The.CPU.then.sends. signals.to.update.the.status.of.outputs.. Output.modules.convert.control.signals.from.the.CPU.into. digital.or.analog.values.that.can.be.used.to.control.various. output.devices. The.programming.device.is.used.to.enter.or.change.the.PLC’s. program.or.to.monitor.or.change.stored.values..Once.entered,. the.program.and.associated.variables.are.stored.in.the.CPU. In.addition.to.these.basic.elements,.a.PLC.system.may.also. incorporate.an.operator.interface.device.of.some.sort.to. simplify.monitoring.of.the.machine.or.process.

In.the.simple.example.shown.below,.pushbuttons.(sensors). connected.to.PLC.inputs,.are.used.to.start.and.stop.a.motor. connected.to.a.PLC.output.through.a.motor.starter.(actuator).. No.programming.device.or.operator.interface.are.shown.in.this. simple.example.

Motor Starter (Actuator)

Output

Motor

PLC

Input

Start/Stop Pushbuttons (Sensors)

5

Hard-Wired Control.

Prior.to.PLCs,.many.control.tasks.were.performed.by. contactors,.control.relays.and.other.electromechanical.devices.. This.is.often.referred.to.as.hard-wired control..Circuit. diagrams.had.to.be.designed,.electrical.components.specified. and.installed,.and.wiring.lists.created..Electricians.would.then. wire.the.components.necessary.to.perform.a.specific.task..If. an.error.was.made,.the.wires.had.to.be.reconnected.correctly.. A.change.in.function.or.system.expansion.required.extensive. component.changes.and.rewiring..

L1 460 VAC L2 L3

M M M

OL T1 OL T2 OL T3 Motor

OL 1 CR M

24 VAC Stop 2 CR Start CR

Advantages of PLCs.

PLCs.not.only.are.capable.of.performing.the.same.tasks.as. hard-wired.control,.but.are.also.capable.of.many.more.complex. applications..In.addition,.the.PLC.program.and.electronic. communication.lines.replace.much.of.the.interconnecting.wires. required.by.hard-wired.control..Therefore,.hard-wiring,.though. still.required.to.connect.field.devices,.is.less.intensive..This.also. makes.correcting.errors.and.modifying.the.application.easier.. Some.of.the.additional.advantages.of.PLCs.are.as.follows:

•. •. •. •. •. •.
Siemens PLCs.

Smaller.physical.size.than.hard-wire.solutions. Easier.and.faster.to.make.changes. PLCs.have.integrated.diagnostics.and.override.functions. Diagnostics.are.centrally.available. Applications.can.be.immediately.documented. Applications.can.be.duplicated.faster.and.less.expensively.

Siemens.makes.several.PLC.product.lines.in.the.SIMATIC® S7. family..They.are:.S7-200,.S7-300,.and.S7-400..

6

S7-200.

The.S7-200.is.referred.to.as.a.micro.PLC.because.of.its.small. size..The.S7-200.has.a.“brick”.design,.which.means.that.the. CPU,.power.supply,.and.some.inputs/outputs.(I/O).are.included. in.a.compact.brick-like.structure.. While.the.S7-200.is.cost-effective.for.use.on.smaller,.standalone.applications..It.can.also.be.connected.to.other.PLCs.and. intelligent.devices.for.more.complex.applications..

S7-300 and S7-400.

The.S7-300.and.S7-400.PLCs.are.generally.used.in.applications. that.require.a.greater.number.of.I/O.points.than.an.S7-200.can. provide.or.that.require.the.more.advanced.features..S7-300. and.S7-400.PLCs.use.a.modular.design.with.a.wide.range. of.modules.available..Choosing.either.the.S7-300.or.S7-400. depends.on.the.complexity.of.the.task.and.possible.future. expansion..Your.Siemens.sales.representative.can.provide.you. with.additional.information.on.any.of.the.Siemens.PLCs.

7

Number Systems

Since.a.PLC.is.a.computer,.it.stores.information.in.the.form.of. on.or.off.conditions.(.or.0),.referred.to.as.bits..Sometimes.bits. are.used.individually.and.sometimes.they.are.used.to.represent. numerical.values..Understanding.how.these.bits.can.be.used. to.represent.numerical.values.requires.an.understanding.of.the. binary number system. Decimal System. In.order.to.understand.the.binary.number.system,.it.is. first.useful.to.recall.some.of.the.basics.of.the.decimal number system..All.number.systems.have.the.same.three. characteristics:.digits,.base,.weight..For.example,.the.decimal. system.has.the.following.characteristics: Ten.digits. Base. . Weights. Binary System. 0,.,.2,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7 ,.8,.9 0 ,.0,.00,.000,....

The.binary system.is.used.by.programmable.controllers..The. binary.system.has.the.following.characteristics: Two.digits:. Base. . Weights. 0,. 2 Powers.of.base.2.(,.2,.4,.8,.6,....)

In.the.binary.system.s.and.0s.are.arranged.into.columns..Each. column.is.weighted..The.first.column.on.the.right.has.a.binary. 0 weight.of.2 ..This.is.equivalent.to.a.decimal..and.is.referred.to. as.the.least significant bit..The.binary.weight.is.doubled.with. each.succeeding.column..The.next.column,.for.example,.has.a.  weight.of.2 ,.which.is.equivalent.to.a.decimal.2..The.number.in. the.far.left.hand.column.is.referred.to.as.the.most significant bit..In.this.example,.the.most.significant.bit.has.a.binary.weight. 7 of.2 ..This.is.equivalent.to.a.decimal.28.

8

Converting Binary.. to Decimal.

The.following.steps.can.be.used.to.interpret.a.decimal. number.from.a.binary.value.. ). 2). 3). Search.from.least.to.most.significant.bit.for.s. Write.down.the.decimal.representation.of.each.column. containing.a.. Add.the.column.values.

In.the.following.example,.the.fourth.and.fifth.columns.from.the. right.contain.a...The.decimal.value.of.the.fourth.column.from. the.right.is.8,.and.the.decimal.value.of.the.fifth.column.from. the.right.is.6..The.decimal.equivalent.of.this.binary.number.is. 24..The.sum.of.all.the.weighted.columns.that.contain.a..is.the. decimal.number.that.the.PLC.has.stored.

In.the.following.example.the.fourth.and.sixth.columns.from.the. right.contain.a...The.decimal.value.of.the.fourth.column.from. the.right.is.8,.and.the.decimal.value.of.the.sixth.column.from. the.right.is.32..The.decimal.equivalent.of.this.binary.number.is. 40.

Bits, Bytes, and Words.

Each.binary.piece.of.data.is.a bit..Eight.bits.make.up.one.byte.. Two.bytes,.or.6.bits,.make.up.one.word.

9

Logic 0, Logic 1.

While.PLCs.are.capable.of.sensing.and.generating.analog. values,.internally,.programmable.controllers.use.signals.that.are. on.or.off..These.on.and.off.conditions.correspond.to.the.binary. values..and.0..For.example,.a.binary.0,.also.called.logic.0,.can. be.used.to.indicate.that.a.switch.is.off.and.a.binary..(logic.). can.be.used.to.indicate.that.a.switch.is.on.

BCD.

While.it.is.necessary.for.PLCs.to.use.binary.values,.humans. often.need.to.see.values.represented.in.decimal..As.a.result,. some.input.and.output.devices.provide.a.decimal.display.where. each.decimal.digit.corresponds.to.four.PLC.binary.inputs.or. outputs..The.most.common.system.used.by.input.and.output. devices.of.this.type.is.referred.to.as.Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD). One.example.of.a.BCD.device.is.a.type.of.four-digit. thumbwheel.switch..Each.thumbwheel.digit.controls.four. PLC.inputs..This.means.that.for.a.four-digit.thumbwheel,.6. inputs.are.required..Because.each.thumbwheel.digit.only. needs.to.represent.decimal.values.from.0.through.9,.only.ten. corresponding.binary.values.are.required.for.each.digit.. 

0

Hexadecimal.

Hexadecimal.is.another.system.used.in.PLCs..The.hexadecimal. system.has.the.following.characteristics: 6.digits. Base. . Weights. 0,.,.2,.3,.4,.5,.6,.7 ,.8,.9,.A,.B,.C,.D,.E,.F 6 Powers.of.base.6.(,.6,.256,.4096....)

The.ten.digits.of.the.decimal.system.are.used.for.the.first.ten. digits.of.the.hexadecimal.system..The.first.six.letters.of.the. alphabet.are.used.for.the.remaining.six.digits. A.=.0. . B.=.. . C.=.2. . D.=.3 E.=.4 F.=.5

The.hexadecimal.system.is.used.in.PLCs.because.it.allows.the. status.of.a.large.number.of.binary.bits.to.be.represented.in.a. small.space.such.as.on.a.computer.screen.or.programming. device.display..Each.hexadecimal.digit.represents.the.exact. status.of.four.binary.bits..To.convert.a.decimal.number.to.a. hexadecimal.number.the.decimal.number.is.divided.by.the.base. of.6..To.convert.decimal.28,.for.example,.to.hexadecimal:

Decimal.28.divided.by.6.is..with.a.remainder.of.2..Twelve.is. equivalent.to.C.in.hexadecimal..The.hexadecimal.equivalent.of. decimal.28.is.C. The.decimal.value.of.a.hexadecimal.number.is.obtained.by. multiplying.the.individual.hexadecimal.digits.by.the.base.6. weight.and.then.adding.the.results..In.the.following.example. the.hexadecimal.number.2B.is.converted.to.its.decimal. equivalent.of.43. 6 . =.   6 . =. 6 B. =. .
0 

Conversion of Numbers

The.following.chart.shows.a.few.numeric.values.in.decimal,. binary,.BCD,.and.hexadecimal.representation. 

2

Review 1. .. Identify.each.of.the.following.blocks.which.are.part.of.a. basic.PLC.system:

2.. The.base.of.the.binary.number.system.is.___.. 3.. The.base.of.the.hexadecimal.number.system.is.___. 4.. Convert.a.decimal.0.to.the.following: . . . Binary. . BCD. . ____________ ____________ ____________

Hexadecimal. 

3

Terminology

Developing.an.understanding.of.PLCs.requires.learning.some. basic.terminology.commonly.used.to.describe.these.devices. and.related.components. Sensors Sensors.are.devices.that.convert.a.physical.condition.into.an. electrical.signal.for.use.by.the.PLC..Sensors.are.connected.to. the.input.of.a.PLC..A.pushbutton.is.one.example.of.a.sensor. that.is.connected.to.the.PLC.input..An.electrical.signal.is.sent. from.the.pushbutton.to.the.PLC.indicating.the.condition.(open/ closed).of.the.pushbutton.contacts.

Actuators.

Actuators.are.devices.that.convert.an.electrical.signal.from.the. PLC.into.a.physical.condition..Actuators.are.connected.to.the. PLC.output..A.motor.starter.is.one.example.of.an.actuator.that. is.connected.to.the.PLC.output..Depending.on.the.output.PLC. signal.the.motor.starter.will.either.start.or.stop.the.motor.

PLC Output 1

Motor

Motor Starter (Actuator) 

4

Discrete Input.

A.discrete input,.also.referred.to.as.a.digital input,.is.an. input.that.is.either.on.or.off..Pushbuttons,.toggle.switches,. limit.switches,.proximity.switches,.and.contact.closures.are. examples.of.discrete.sensors.which.are.connected.to.the. PLCs.discrete.or.digital.inputs..In.the.ON.condition.a.discrete. input.may.be.referred.to.as.a.logic..or.a.logic.high..In.the.OFF. condition.a.discrete.input.may.be.referred.to.as.a.logic.0.or.a. logic.low..

A.normally.open.(NO).pushbutton.is.used.in.the.following. example..Many.PLCs.require.a.separate.power.supply.to.power. its.inputs;.however,.this.example.is.for.a.PLC.that.powers.its. own.inputs..One.side.of.the.pushbutton.is.connected.to.the. first.PLC.input..The.other.side.of.the.pushbutton.is.connected. to.an.internal.24.VDC.power.supply..With.the.pushbutton.in.the. open.state,.no.voltage.is.present.at.the.PLC.input..This.is.the. OFF.condition..When.the.pushbutton.is.depressed,.24.VDC.is. applied.to.the.PLC.input..This.is.the.ON.condition.. 

5

Analog Inputs.

An.analog input.is.a.continuous,.variable.signal..Typical.analog. inputs.may.vary.from.0.to.20.milliamps,.4.to.20.milliamps,. or.0.to.0.volts..In.the.following.example,.a.level.transmitter. monitors.the.level.of.liquid.in.a.tank..Depending.on.the.level. transmitter,.the.signal.to.the.PLC.can.either.increase.or. decrease.as.the.level.in.the.tank.increases..

Discrete Outputs.

A.discrete output.is.an.output.that.is.either.on.or.off.. Solenoids,.contactor.coils,.and.lamps.are.examples.of.actuator. devices.connected.to.discrete.outputs..Discrete.outputs.may. also.be.referred.to.as.digital.outputs..In.the.following.example,.a. lamp.can.be.turned.on.or.off.by.the.PLC.output.it.is.connected. to.

Analog Outputs.

An.analog output.is.a.continuous,.variable.signal..The.output. may.be.as.simple.as.a.0-0.VDC.level.that.drives.an.analog. meter..Examples.of.analog.meter.outputs.are.speed,.weight,. and.temperature..The.output.signal.may.also.be.used.on.more. complex.applications.such.as.a.current-to-pneumatic.transducer. that.controls.an.air-operated.flow-control.valve.. 

6

CPU.

The.central processor unit (CPU).is.a.microprocessor.system. that.contains.the.system.memory.and.is.the.PLC.decisionmaking.unit..The.CPU.monitors.the.inputs,.outputs,.and.other. variables.and.makes.decisions.based.on.instructions.held.in. the.program.memory..Typical.CPU.operations.include.relay,. counting,.timing.functions,.data.comparison,.sequencing,.and. arithmetic.operations.

Programming

A.program.consists.of.instructions.that.accomplish.one.or. more.tasks..The.degree.of.complexity.of.the.PLCs.program. depends.upon.the.complexity.of.the.task.to.be.performed,.the. number.and.type.of.input.and.output.devices,.and.the.types.of. instructions.used..Some.PLC.programs.are.made.up.primarily. of.ladder.logic.instructions,.but.other.approaches.such.as. statement.lists.or.function.block.diagrams.are.also.common. Ladder logic.(LAD).is.one.programming.language.used.with. PLCs..Ladder.logic.uses.components.that.resemble.elements. used.in.a.line.diagram.format.to.describe.hard-wired.control... Refer.to.the.STEP.course.Basics of Control Components.for. more.information.on.line.diagrams..

Ladder Logic. 

7

Ladder Logic Diagram.

The.left.vertical.line.of.a.ladder logic diagram.represents.the. power.or.energized.conductor..The.output.element.or.instruction. represents.the.neutral.or.return.path.of.the.circuit..The.right. vertical.line,.which.represents.the.return.path.on.a.hard-wired. control.line.diagram,.is.omitted..Ladder.logic.diagrams.are.read. from.left-to-right,.top-to-bottom..Rungs.are.sometimes.referred. to.as.networks..A.network.may.have.several.control.elements,. but.only.one.output.coil.

In.the.example.program.shown.example.I0.0,.I0..and.Q0.0. represent.the.first.instruction.combination..If.inputs.I0.0.and. I0..are.energized,.output.relay.Q0.0.energizes..The.inputs.could. be.switches,.pushbuttons,.or.contact.closures..I0.4,.I0.5,.and. Q..represent.the.second.instruction.combination..If.either. input.I0.4.or.I0.5.are.energized,.output.relay.Q0..energizes. Statement list. A.statement list (STL).provides.another.view.of.a.set.of. instructions..The.operation,.what.is.to.be.done,.is.shown.on.the. left..The.operand,.the.item.to.be.operated.on.by.the.operation,. is.shown.on.the.right..A.comparison.between.the.statement. list.shown.below,.and.the.ladder.logic.shown.on.the.previous. page,.reveals.a.similar.structure..The.set.of.instructions.in.this. statement.list.perform.the.same.task.as.the.ladder.diagram. 

8

Function Block Diagrams.

Function Block Diagrams (FBD).provide.another.view.of.a. set.of.instructions..Each.function.has.a.name.to.designate.its. specific.task..Functions.are.indicated.by.a.rectangle..Inputs. are.shown.on.the.left-hand.side.of.the.rectangle.and.outputs. are.shown.on.the.right-hand.side..The.function.block.diagram. shown.below.performs.the.same.function.as.shown.by.the. ladder.diagram.and.statement.list.

PLC Scan.

The.PLC.program.is.executed.as.part.of.a.repetitive.process. referred.to.as.a.scan..A.PLC.scan.starts.with.the.CPU.reading. the.status.of.inputs..The.application.program.is.executed.using. the.status.of.the.inputs..Once.the.program.is.completed,.the. CPU.performs.internal.diagnostics.and.communication.tasks.. The.scan.cycle.ends.by.updating.the.outputs,.then.starts.over.. The.cycle.time.depends.on.the.size.of.the.program,.the.number. of.I/Os,.and.the.amount.of.communication.required.

Software.

Software.is.the.name.given.to.computer.instructions. regardless.of.the.programming.language..Essentially,.software. includes.the.instructions.or.programs.that.direct.hardware.. Hardware.is.the.name.given.to.all.the.physical.components. of.a.system..The.PLC,.the.programming.device,.and.the. connecting.cable.are.examples.of.hardware.

Hardware. 

9

Memory Size.

Kilo,.abbreviated.K,.normally.refers.to.000.units...When.talking. about.computer.or.PLC.memory,.however,.K.means.024..This. 0 is.because.of.the.binary.number.system.(2 =024)..This.can.be. 024.bits,.024.bytes,.or.024.words,.depending.on.memory. type.

RAM.

Random Access Memory (RAM).is.memory.where.data.can. be.directly.accessed.at.any.address..Data.can.be.written.to. and.read.from.RAM..RAM.is.used.as.a.temporary.storage.area.. RAM.is.volatile,.meaning.that.the.data.stored.in.RAM.will.be. lost.if.power.is.lost..A.battery.backup.is.required.to.avoid.losing. data.in.the.event.of.a.power.loss.. Read Only Memory (ROM).is.a.type.of.memory.that.data.can. be.read.from.but.not.written.to..This.type.of.memory.is.used. to.protect.data.or.programs.from.accidental.erasure..ROM. memory.is.nonvolatile..This.means.a.user.program.will.not.lose. data.during.a.loss.of.electrical.power..ROM.is.normally.used.to. store.the.programs.that.define.the.capabilities.of.the.PLC. Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM). provides.some.level.of.security.against.unauthorized.or. unwanted.changes.in.a.program..EPROMs.are.designed.so. that.data.stored.in.them.can.be.read,.but.not.easily.altered.. Changing.EPROM.data.requires.a.special.effort..UVEPROMs. (ultraviolet.erasable.programmable.read.only.memory).can.only. be.erased.with.an.ultraviolet.light..EEPROM.(electronically. erasable.programmable.read.only.memory),.can.only.be.erased. electronically... Firmware.is.user.or.application.specific.software.burned.into. EPROM.and.delivered.as.part.of.the.hardware..Firmware.gives. the.PLC.its.basic.functionality..

ROM.

EPROM.

Firmware.

20

Putting it Together.

The.memory.of.the.S7-200.is.divided.into.three.areas: program space,.data space,.and.configurable parameter space..

•. Program.space.stores.the.ladder.logic.(LAD).or.statement.
list.(STL).program.instructions..This.area.of.memory.controls. the.way.data.space.and.I/O.points.are.used..LAD.or.STL. instructions.are.written.using.a.programming.device.such.as. a.PC,.then.loaded.into.program.memory.of.the.PLC.

•. Data.space.is.used.as.a.working.area,.and.includes.memory.
locations.for.calculations,.temporary.storage.of.intermediate. results.and.constants..Data.space.includes.memory. locations.for.devices.such.as.timers,.counters,.high-speed. counters,.and.analog.inputs.and.outputs..Data.space.can.be. accessed.under.program.control.

•. Configurable.parameter.space,.or.memory,.stores.either.the.
default.or.modified.configuration.parameters.

2

Basic Requirements

The.following.items.are.needed.to.create.or.change.a.PLC. program:.PLC,.programming.device,.programming.software,. and.connector.cable

PLC.

Throughout.this.course.we.will.be.using.the.S7-200.for.specific. examples.of.PLC.concepts..The.S7-200.is.used.for.this.purpose. because.of.its.ease.of.use.and.wide-spread.application..

Programming Devices.

The.program.is.created.in.a.programming device (PG).and. then.transferred.to.the.PLC..The.program.for.the.S7-200. can.be.created.using.a.dedicated.Siemens.SIMATIC.S7. programming.device,.such.as.a.PG.720.(not.shown).or.PG.740,. if.STEP 7 Micro/WIN.software.is.installed..

22

A.personal.computer.(PC),.with.STEP.7.Micro/WIN.installed,. can.also.be.used.as.a.programming.device.with.the.S7-200..

Software.

A.software.program.is.required.in.order.to.tell.the.PLC.what. instructions.it.must.follow..Programming.software.is.typically. PLC.specific..A.software.package.for.one.PLC,.or.one.family. of.PLCs,.such.as.the.S7.family,.would.not.be.useful.on.other. PLCs..The.S7-200.uses.a.Windows.based.software.program. called.STEP.7-Micro/WIN32..The.PG.720.and.PG.740.have.STEP. 7.software.pre-installed..Micro/WIN32.is.installed.on.a.personal. computer.in.a.similar.manner.to.any.other.computer.software.

23

Connector Cables PPI. (Point-to-Point Interface).

Connector cables.are.required.to.transfer.data.from.the. programming.device.to.the.PLC..Communication.can.only. take.place.when.the.two.devices.speak.the.same.language.or. protocol..Communication.between.a.Siemens.programming. device.and.the.S7-200.is.referred.to.as.PPI.protocol.(pointto.point.interface)..An.appropriate.cable.is.required.for.a. programming.device.such.as.a.PG.720.or.PG.740..The.S7-200. uses.a.9-pin,.D-connector..This.is.a.straight-through.serial.device. that.is.compatible.with.Siemens.programming.devices.(MPI. port).and.is.a.standard.connector.for.other.serial.interfaces..

SF/DIAG

Programming Device Cable

A.special.cable.is.needed.when.a.personal.computer.is.used.as. a.programming.device..Two.versions.of.this.cable.are.available.. One.version,.called.an.RS-232/PPI Multi-Master Cable,. connects.a.personal.computer’s.RS-232.interface.to.the.PLC’s. RS-485.connector..The.other.version,.called.a.USB/PPI MultiMaster Cable,.connects.a.personal.computer’s.USB.interface. to.the.PLC’s.RS-485.connector.

24

Review 2. .. A.switch.or.a.pushbutton.is.a.____________.input. 2.. A.lamp.or.a.solenoid.is.an.example.of.a.___________. output. 3.. The._____.makes.decisions.and.executes.control. instructions.based.on.the.input.signals. 4.. ____________.____________.is.a.PLC.programming. language.that.uses.components.resembling.elements. used.in.a.control.line.diagram.. 5.. A.____________.consists.of.one.or.more.instructions. that.accomplish.a.task. 6.. S7-200.PLC.memory.is.divided.into.the.following.three. spaces:._________,.______,.and.__________.________. 7 .. When.talking.about.computer.or.PLC.memory,.K. refers.to.______.bits,.bytes,.or.words.

8.. Software.that.is.burned.into.EPROM.is.called. ____________.. 9.. Which.of.the.following.is.not.required.when.creating.or. changing.a.PLC.program? . . . . . a... b... c... d... e... PLC Programming.Device Programming.Software Connector.Cable Printer 

0.. An.RS-232/PPI.Multi-Master.cable.or.a.USB/PPI-MultiMaster.cable.may.be.used.to.connect.a.personal. computer.to.the.PLC’s.__________.connector.

25

S7-200 Micro PLCs

The.S7-200.Micro.PLC.is.the.smallest.member.of.the.SIMATIC. S7.family.of.programmable.controllers..The.central.processing. unit.(CPU).is.internal.to.the.PLC..Inputs.and.outputs.(I/O).are. the.system.control.points..Inputs.monitor.field.devices,.such.as. switches.and.sensors..Outputs.control.other.devices,.such.as. motors.and.pumps..The.programming.port.is.the.connection.to. the.programming.device..

S7-200 Models.

There.are.five.S7-200.CPU.types:.CPU 221,.CPU 222,.CPU 224,. CPU 224XP,.and.CPU 226.and.two.power.supply.configurations. for.each.type.
Model Description 221 DC/DC/DC 221 AC/DC/Relay 222 DC/DC/DC 222 AC/DC/Relay 224 DC/DC/DC 224 AC/DC/Relay 224XP DC/DC/DC 224XP AC/DC/Relay 226 DC/DC/DC 226 AC/DC/Relay Power Supply 20.4-28.8 VDC 85-264 VAC, 47-63 Hz 20.4-28.8 VDC 85-264 VAC, 47-63 Hz 20.4-28.8 VDC 85-264 VAC, 47-63 Hz 20.4-28.8 VDC 85-264 VAC, 47-63 Hz 20.4-28.8 VDC 85-264 VAC, 47-63 Hz Input Types 6 DC 6 DC 8 DC 8 DC 14 DC 14 DC 14 DC, 2 Analog 24 DC 24 DC Output Types 4 DC 4 Relay 6 DC 6 Relay 10 DC 10 Relay 10 DC, 1 Analog 16 DC 16 Relay

14 DC, 2 Analog 10 Relay, 1 Analog

The.model.description.indicates.the.type.of.CPU,.the.power. supply,.the.type.of.input,.and.the.type.of.output.

26

S7-200 Features..

The.S7-200.family.includes.a.range.of.CPUs.which.provide. a.variety.of.features.to.aid.in.designing.a.cost-effective. automation.solution..The.following.table.provides.a.summary.of. the.major.features,.many.of.which.are.covered.in.this.course.

Feature Memory Program (with run mode edit) Program (w/o run mode edit) User Data Memory Type Memory Cartridge Data Backup (super cap) Data Backup (opt. battery) I/O Local Digital I/O Local Analog I/O Max Expansion Modules Instructions Boolean Execution Speed Internal Relays Counters TImers Sequential Control Relays For/Next Loops Integer Math (+-*/) Floating-Point Math (+-*/) Enhanced Features High-Speed Counters Analog Adjustments Pulse Outputs (DC) Timed Interrupts Edge Interrupts Real-Time Clock Password Protection Communications Number of Ports

CPU 221 4096 Bytes 4096 Bytes 2048 Bytes EEPROM EEPROM 50 Hours 200 Days 6 In/4 Out None None 0.22 µs/Inst. 256 256 256 256 Yes Yes Yes 4 (30 KHz) 1 2 (20 KHz) 2 (1 - 255ms) 4 Optional Yes

CPU 222 4096 Bytes 4096 Bytes 2048 Bytes EEPROM EEPROM 50 Hours 200 Days 8 In/6 Out None 2 0.22 µs/Inst. 256 256 256 256 Yes Yes Yes 4 (30 KHz) 1 2 (20 KHz) 2 (1 - 255ms) 4 Optional Yes 1 (RS-485) PPI, MPI, Freeport (NETR/NETW)

CPU 224 8192 Bytes 12288 Bytes 8192 Bytes EEPROM EEPROM 100 Hours 200 Days 14 In/10 Out None 7 0.22 µs/Inst. 256 256 256 256 Yes Yes Yes 6 (30 KHz) 2 2 (20 KHz) 2 (1 - 255ms) 4 Built-In Yes 1 (RS-485) PPI, MPI, Freeport (NETR/NETW)

CPU 224XP 12288 Bytes 16384 Bytes 10240 Bytes EEPROM EEPROM 100 Hours 200 Days 14 In/10 Out 2 In/1 Out 7 0.22 µs/Inst. 256 256 256 256 Yes Yes Yes 4 (30 KHz), 2 (200 KHz) 2 2 (100 KHz) 2 (1 - 255ms) 4 Built-In Yes 2 (RS-485) PPI, MPI, Freeport (NETR/NETW)

CPU 226 16384 Bytes 24576 Bytes 10240 Bytes EEPROM EEPROM 100 Hours 200 Days 24 In/16 Out None 7 0.22 µs/Inst. 256 256 256 256 Yes Yes Yes 6 (30 KHz) 2 2 (20 KHz) 2 (1 - 255ms) 4 Built-In Yes 2 (RS-485) PPI, MPI, Freeport (NETR/NETW)

1 (RS-485) PPI, MPI, Protocols Supported Freeport Peer-to-Peer PPI Master Mode (NETR/NETW)

27

Mode Switch and . Analog Adjustment.

When.the.mode switch.is.in.the.RUN.position.the.CPU.is.in the.run.mode.and.executing.the.program..When.the.mode. switch.is.in.the.STOP.position.the.CPU.is.stopped..When.the. mode.switch.is.in.the.TERM.position.the.programming.device. can.select.the.operating.mode. The.analog adjustment.is.used.to.increase.or.decrease.values. stored.in.special.memory..These.values.can.be.used.to.update. the.value.of.a.timer.or.counter,.or.can.be.used.to.set.limits.

Optional Cartridge

The.S7-200.supports.an.optional memory cartridge.that. provides.a.portable.EEPROM.storage.for.your.program..The. cartridge.can.be.used.to.copy.a.program.from.one.S7-200.PLC. to.a.like.S7-200.PLC.. In.addition,.two.other.cartridges.are.available..A.real-time.clock. with.battery.is.available.for.use.on.the.CPU.22.and.CPU.222... The.battery.provides.up.to.200.days.of.data.retention.time. in.the.event.of.a.power.loss..The.CPU.224,.CPU.224XP.and. CPU.226.have.a.real-time.clock.built.in..Another.cartridge.is. available.with.a.battery.only.

SF/DIAG

28

Expansion Modules.

The.S7-200.PLCs.are.expandable..Expansion modules.contain. additional.inputs.and.outputs..These.are.connected.to.the.base. unit.using.a.ribbon.connector..

The.ribbon.connector.is.protected.by.a.cover.on.the.base.unit.. Side-by-side.mounting.completely.encloses.and.protects.the. ribbon.connector.

29

Available Expansion.

The.CPU.22.comes.with.6.digital.inputs.and.4.digital.outputs.. These.are.not.expandable..The.CPU.222.comes.with.8.digital. inputs.and.6.digital.outputs.and.will.accept.up.to.2.expansion. modules..The.CPU.224.and.CPU.224XP.come.with.4.digital. inputs.and.0.digital.outputs.and.will.accept.up.to.7.expansion. modules..The.CPU.226..comes.with.24.digital.inputs.and.6. digital.outputs.and.will.accept.up.to.7.expansion.modules.
CPU221 6 Inputs, 4 Outputs No Expansion Modules (EM) 8 Inputs, 6 Outputs Up to 2 Expansion Modules 14 Inputs, 10 Outputs Up to 7 Expansion Modules 14 Inputs, 10 Outputs 2 Analog In, 1 Analog Out Up to 7 Expansion Modules 24 Inputs, 16 Outputs Up to 7 Expansion Modules

CPU222

EM

EM

CPU224

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

CPU224XP

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

CPU226

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

EM

Status Indicators.

The.CPU status indicators.reflect.the.current.mode.of.CPU. operation..When.the.CPU.is.in.the.RUN.mode,.the.green.RUN. indicator.is.lit..When.the.CPU.is.in.the.STOP.mode,.the.yellow. STOP.indicator.is.lit..The.System.Fault/Diagnostic.(SF/DIAG). indicator.turns.red.for.a.system.fault.and.yellow.to.indicate. certain.diagnostic.conditions.

The.I/O.status.indicators.represent.the.on.or.off.status.of. corresponding.inputs.and.outputs..For.example,.when.the.CPU. senses.an.input.is.on,.the.corresponding.green.indicator.is.lit..

30

Mounting.

The.S7-200.can.be.mounted.in.one.of.two.ways..A.DIN.clip. allows.installation.on.a.standard.DIN.rail..The.DIN.clip.snaps. open.to.allow.installation.and.snaps.closed.to.secure.the. unit.on.the.rail..The.S7-200.can.also.be.panel.mounted.using. installation.holes.located.behind.the.access.covers..

External Power Supply. Sources.

An.S7-200.can.be.connected.to.either.a.24.VDC.or.a 20/230.VAC.power.supply.depending.on.the.CPU..An.S7-200. DC/DC/DC.would.be.connected.to.a.24.VDC.power.supply..

24 VDC Power Supply

An.S7-200.AC/DC/Relay.would.be.connected.to.a. 20.or.230.VAC.power.supply.
Neutral Ground Line

3

I/O Numbering

S7-200.inputs.and.outputs.are.labeled.at.the.wiring.terminations. and.next.to.the.status.indicators..These.alphanumeric.symbols. identify.the.I/O.address.to.which.a.device.is.connected..This. address.is.used.by.the.CPU.to.determine.which.input.is.present. and.which.output.needs.to.be.turned.on.or.off..I.designates. a.discrete.input.and.Q.designates.a.discrete.output..The.first. number.identifies.the.byte,.the.second.number.identifies.the. bit..Input.I0.0,.for.example,.is.byte.0,.bit.0. I0.0.=.Byte.0,.Bit.0 I0..=.Byte.0,.Bit. I.0.=.Byte.,.Bit.0 I..=.Byte.,.Bit. The.following.table.identifies.the.input.and.output.designations.

Inputs.

Input.devices,.such.as.switches,.pushbuttons,.and.other.sensor. devices.are.connected.to.the.terminal.strip.under.the.bottom. cover.of.the.PLC.

Input Devices Connected Here

Pushbutton

Switch

32

Input Simulator

A.convenient.method.of.testing.a.program.is.to.wire.toggle. switches.to.the.inputs..Input simulators.with.pre-wired.toggle. switches.are.available.for.the.S7-200s..Switches.are.wired. between.the.24.VDC.power.supply.(L+).and.the.inputs..For. example,.the.switch.on.the.far.left.is.wired.between.the.first. input.(0.0).and.L+..When.the.switch.is.closed,.24.VDC.is.applied. to.the.input..This.is.referred.to.as.a.logic...When.the.switch. is.open,.0.VDC.is.applied.to.the.input..This.is.referred.to.as.a. logic.0.

Outputs.

Output.devices,.such.as.relays,.are.connected.to.the.terminal. strip.under.the.top.cover.of.the.PLC..When.testing.a.program,. it.is.not.necessary.to.connect.output.devices..The.LED.status. indicators.signal.if.an.output.is.active.

Light

Relay

Output Devices Wired Here

From Input Power Supply

33

Optional Connector.

An.optional fan-out connector.allows.for.field.wiring. connections.to.remain.fixed.when.removing.or.replacing.a. CPU.22.or.CPU.222..The.appropriate.connector.slides.into. either.the.input,.output,.or.expansion.module.terminals.

Removable Terminal Strip.

The.CPU.224,.CPU.224XP ,.and.CPU.226.do.not.have.an.optional. fan-out.connector..Instead,.the.terminal strips.are.removable.. This.allows.the.field.wiring.connections.to.remain.fixed.when. removing.or.replacing.the.PLC.

Super Capacitor

A.super capacitor,.so.named.because.of.its.ability.to.maintain. a.charge.for.a.long.period.of.time,.protects.data.stored.in.RAM. in.the.event.of.a.power.loss..The.RAM.memory.is.typically. backed.up.on.the.CPU.22.and.CPU.222.for.50.hours,.and.on. the.CPU.224,.CPU.224.XP ,.and.CPU.226.for.00.hours..

34

Reference Manual.

The.SIMATIC S7-200 Programmable Controller System Manual.provides.complete.information.on.installing.and. programming.the.S7-200.PLCs..This.manual.can.be.downloaded. as.a.PDF.file.from.the.Technical Info.link.on.the.Siemens. S7-S00.web.site: http://www.automation.siemens.com/_en/s7-200/index.htm

.

Preface, Contents Product Overview Getting Started

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

SIMATIC S7-200 Programmable Controller System Manual

Installing the S7-200 PLC Concepts Programming Concepts, Conventions and Features S7-200 Instruction Set Communicating over a Network Hardware Troubleshooting Guide and Software Debugging Tools Open Loop Motion Control with the S7-200 Creating a Program for the Modem Module Using the USS Protocol Library to Control a MicroMaster Drive Using the Modbus Protocol Library Using Recipes Using Data Logs PID Auto-Tune and the PID Tuning Control Panel Appendices Index

This manual has the order number: 6ES7298-8FA24-8BH0

35

Review 3 .. The.five.models.of.S7-200.are._____.,._____.,._____.,. _____,.and._____..

2.. Which.of.the.following.is.not.available.on.an.CPU.22? . . . . a... b... c... d... Mode.Switch Expansion.Module Programming.Port Status.Indicators

3.. A.CPU.222.can.have.a.maximum.of___.expansion. modules.and.a.CPU.224.can.have.a.maximum.of.___. expansion.modules. 4.. A.CPU.222.DC/DC/DC.has.___.DC.inputs.and.___.DC. outputs.without.expansion.modules. 5.. A.CPU.224.DC/DC/DC.has.___.DC.inputs.and.___.DC. outputs.without.expansion.modules. 6.. The.fourth.output.of.an.S7-200.would.be.labeled. ______.. 7 .. S7-200.can.be.panel.mounted.or.installed.on.a.______. rail.

36

Connecting External Devices

TD 200.

The.S7-200.programming.port.can.be.used.to.communicate. with.a.variety.of.external.devices..One.such.device.is.the. TD 200.text.display.unit..The.TD.200.displays.messages.read. from.the.S7-200,.allows.adjustment.of.designated.program. variables,.provides.the.ability.to.force,.and.permits.setting.of. the.time.and.date..The.TD.200.can.be.connected.to.an.external. power.supply.or.receive.its.power.from.the.S7-200..

SF/DIAG

Programming Device Cable

PPI Protocol

Freeport Mode.

The.programming.port.has.a.mode.called.freeport mode.. Freeport.mode.allows.connectivity.to.various.intelligent.sensing. devices.such.as.a.bar.code.reader.
Bar-Code Decoder

Bar-Code Reader

Programming Port

RS-485 to RS-232 Interface

Freeport Mode

37

Printer.

Freeport.mode.can.also.be.used.to.connect.to.a.non-SIMATIC. printer.
Freeport Mode

Programming Port

Serial to Parallel Converter

Connecting Cable

Interconnection.

It.is.possible.to.use.one.programming.device.to.address. multiple.S7-200.devices.on.the.same.communication.cable..A. total.of.3.units.can.be.interconnected.without.a.repeater.
IBM or IBM Compatible PC

S7-200

S7-200

S7-200

PPI Interconnection

38

Programming a PLC

STEP.7-Micro/WIN32.is.the.program.software.used.with.the. S7-200.PLC.to.create.the.PLC.operating.program..STEP.7. consists.of.a.number.of.instructions.that.must.be.arranged. in.a.logical.order.to.obtain.the.desired.PLC.operation..These. instructions.are.divided.into.three.groups:.standard.instructions,. special.instructions,.and.high-speed.instructions.

Standard Instructions.

Standard instructions.consists.of.instructions.that.are.found. in.most.programs..Standard.instructions.include:.timer,.counter,. math,.logical,.increment/decrement/invert,.move,.and.block. instructions.. Special instructions.are.used.to.manipulate.data..Special. instructions.include:.shift,.table,.find,.conversion,.for/next,.and. real-time.instructions.. High-speed instructions.allow.for.events.and.interrupts.to. occur.independent.of.the.PLC.scan.time..These.include.highspeed.counters,.interrupts,.output,.and.transmit.instructions... It.is.not.the.purpose.of.this.text.to.explain.all.of.the.instructions. and.capabilities..A.few.of.the.more.common.instructions. necessary.for.a.basic.understanding.of.PLC.operation.will. be.discussed..PLC.operation.is.limited.only.by.the.hardware. capabilities.and.the.ingenuity.of.the.person.programming.it.. Refer.to.the.SIMATIC S7-200 Programmable Controller System Manual.for.detailed.information.concerning.these. instructions.

Special Instructions.

High-Speed Instructions.

39

Micro/WIN32.

The.programming.software.can.be.run.off-line.or.on-line..Offline.programming.allows.the.user.to.edit.the.ladder.diagram. and.perform.a.number.of.maintenance.tasks..The.PLC.does. not.need.to.be.connected.to.the.programming.device.in.this. mode..On-line.programming.requires.the.PLC.to.be.connected. to.the.programming.device..In.this.mode,.program.changes.are. downloaded.to.the.PLC..In.addition,.status.of.the.input/output. elements.can.be.monitored..The.CPU.can.be.started,.stopped,. or.reset...

Symbols.

The.language.of.PLC.ladder.logic.consists.of.a.commonly.used. set.of.symbols.that.represent.instructions..Understanding.the. basic.symbols.is.essential.to.understanding.PLC.operation. One.of.the.most.confusing.aspects.of.PLC.programming.for. first-time.users.is.the.relationship.between.the.device.that. controls.a.status.bit.and.the.programming.function.that.uses. a.status.bit..Two.of.the.most.common.programming.functions. are.the.normally open (NO) contact.and.the.normally closed (NC) contact..Symbolically,.power.flows.through.these. contacts.when.they.are.closed..The.normally.open.contact.(NO). is.closed.when.the.input.or.output.status.bit.controlling.the. contact.is...The.normally.closed.contact.(NC).is.closed.when. the.input.or.output.status.bit.controlling.the.contact.is.0.

Contacts.

40

Coils.

Coils.represent.relays.that.are.energized.when.power.flows. to.them..When.a.coil.is.energized,.it.causes.a.corresponding. output.to.turn.on.by.changing.the.state.of.the.status.bit. controlling.that.output.to...That.same.output.status.bit.may.be. used.to.control.normally.open.and.normally.closed.contacts. elsewhere.in.the.program.

Boxes.

Boxes.represent.various.instructions.or.functions.that.are. executed.when.power.flows.to.the.box..Typical.box.functions. are.timers,.counters,.and.math.operations.

Entering Elements.

Control elements.are.entered.in.the.ladder.diagram.by. positioning.the.cursor.and.selecting.the.element.from.a.list.. In.the.following.example.the.cursor.has.been.placed.in.the. position.to.the.right.of.I0.2..A.coil.was.selected.from.a.pulldown.list.and.inserted.in.this.position.
Network 1 I0.0 I0.1 Q0.0

Network 2 I0.2 Cursor

4

AND Operation.

Each.rung.or.network.on.a.ladder.represents.a.logic.operation.. The.following.programming.example.demonstrates.an.AND operation..Two.contact.closures.and.one.output.coil.are.placed. on.network...They.are.assigned.addresses.I0.0,.I0.,.and.Q0.0.. Note.that.in.the.statement.list.a.new.logic.operation.always. begins.with.a.load.instruction.(LD)..In.this.example.I0.0.(input.). and.(A.in.the.statement.list).I0..(input.2).must.be.true.in.order. for.output.Q0.0.(output.).to.be.true..It.can.also.be.seen.that. I0.0.and.I0..must.be.true.for.Q0.0.to.be.true.by.looking.at.the. function.block.diagram.representation..

Another.way.to.see.how.an.AND.function.works.is.with. a.Boolean.logic.diagram..In.Boolean.logic,.an.AND.gate.is. represented.by.a.number.of.inputs.on.the.left.side..In.this.case. there.are.two.inputs..The.output.is.represented.on.the.right. side..It.can.be.seen.from.the.table.that.both.inputs.must.be.a. logic..in.order.for.the.output.to.be.a.logic..
And (A) Function Input 1 Input 2 Input 1 0 0 1 1 Input 2 0 1 0 1 Output 1 I0.0 I0.1 I0.0 0 0 1 1 I0.1 0 1 0 1 And (A) Function

Q0.0 Q0.0 0 0 0 1

Output 1 0 0 0 1

42

OR Operation.

In.this.example.an.OR operation.is.used.in.network...It.can.be. seen.that.if.either..input.I0.2.(input.3).or.(O.in.the.statement.list). input.I0.3.(input.4),.or.both.are.true,.then.output.Q0..(output.2). will.be.true..

Another.way.to.see.how.an.OR.function.works.is.with.a. Boolean.logic.diagram..The.symbol.differs.slightly.from.an.AND. function..The.OR.function.is.represented.by.a.number.of.inputs. on.the.left.side..In.this.case.there.are.two.inputs..The.output.is. represented.on.the.right.side..It.can.be.seen.from.the.table.that. any.input.can.be.a.logic..in.order.for.the.output.to.be.a.logic..
Or (O) Function Input 3 Input 4 Input 3 0 0 1 1 Input 4 0 1 0 1 Output 2 I0.4 I0.5 I0.4 0 0 1 1 I0.5 0 1 0 1 Or (O) Function Q0.1

Output 2 0 1 1 1

Q0.1 0 1 1 1

43

Testing a Program.

Once.a.program.has.been.written.it.needs.to.be.tested.and. debugged..One.way.this.can.be.done.is.to.simulate.the.field. inputs.with.an.input.simulator,.such.as.the.one.made.for.the. S7-200..The.program.is.first.downloaded.from.the.programming. device.to.the.CPU..The.selector.switch.is.placed.in.the.RUN. position..The.simulator.switches.are.operated.and.the.resulting. indication.is.observed.on.the.output.status.indicator.lamps.

Status Functions

After.a.program.has.been.loaded.and.is.running.in.the.PLC,.the. actual.status.of.ladder.elements.can.be.monitored.using.STEP.7. Micro/WIN32.software..The.standard.method.of.showing.a. ladder.element.is.by.indicating.the.circuit.condition.it.produces. when.the.device.is.in.the.de-energized.or.non.operated.state.. In.the.following.illustration,.input..(I0.0).is.programmed.as.a. normally.open.(NO).contact..In.this.condition,.power.will.not. flow.through.the.contacts.to.the.output.(Q0.0).

44

When.viewing.the.ladder.diagram.in.the.status.mode,.control. elements.that.are.active.are.highlighted..In.the.following,. example.the.toggle.switch.connected.to.input..has.been. closed..Power.flows.through.the.control.element.associated. with.input..(I0.0),.output..(Q0.0).is.active,.and.the.lamp.is.on.

Forcing.

Forcing.is.another.useful.tool.in.the.commissioning.or. maintenance.of.a.PLC.system..It.can.be.used.to.temporarily. override.the.input.or.output.status.of.the.application.in.order. to.test.and.debug.the.program..The.force.function.can.also.be. used.to.override.discrete.output.points.or.to.skip.portions.of.a. program.by.enabling.a.jump.instruction.with.a.forced.memory. bit.. In.the.example.shown.below,.the.toggle.switch.is.open..Under. normal.circumstances,.the.toggle.switch.would.have.to.be. closed.to.enable.input..(I0.0).and.turn.on.the.output.light.. However,.input..can.be.forced.on.even.though.the.input.toggle. switch.is.open..With.input..forced.high,.the.lamp.will.be.on.. When.a.function.is.forced.the.control.bit.identifier.is.highlighted.. The.element.is.also.highlighted.because.it.is.on.

.

45

The.following.table.shows.the.appearance.of.ladder.elements.in. the.off,.forced,.and.on.conditions.

46

Discrete Inputs/Outputs

The.same.simple.lamp.circuit.previously.discussed,.is.useful.to. review.to.understand.discrete.I/O.control..In.this.example,.the. lamp.is.off.when.the.switch.is.open.and.on.when.the.switch.is. closed..

Wiring.

To.accomplish.this.task,.a.switch.is.wired.to.an.input.terminal.of. the.PLC.and.an.indicator.light.is.wired.to.an.output.terminal.
Light

Switch

47

The.following.drawing.illustrates.the.operation.of.a.simple. program.that.allows.a.toggle.switch.to.control.a.lamp..Once. programmed,.the.CPU.repetitively.scans.the.status.of.I/O. points.and.the.stored.program..As.long.as.the.toggle.switch.is. open,.the.lamp.remains.off..However,.when.the.toggle.switch. closes,.the.internal.status.of.I0.0.changes.to.a...This.causes.the. I0.0.normally.open.contact.in.the.program.to.close,.activating. the.Q0.0.coil.and.changing.the.associated.output.status.bit.to... On.the.next.scan.of.the.PLCs.I/O,.the.lamp.turns.on.

Motor Starter Example.

While.the.lamp.application.is.useful.to.explain.basic.PLC. operation,.a.more.practical,.and.only.slightly.more.complex,. application.is.start-stop.control.of.an.AC.motor..Before. examining.the.PLC.application,.first.consider.a.hard-wired. approach.. The.line.diagram.shown.below.illustrates.how.a.normally.open. and.a.normally.closed.pushbutton.might.be.connected.to. control.a.three-phase.AC.motor..In.this.example,.a.motor.starter. coil.(M).is.wired.in.series.with.a.normally.open.momentary.Start. pushbutton,.a.normally.closed.momentary.Stop.pushbutton,. and.normally.closed.overload.relay.(OL).contacts.

.

48

Momentarily.depressing.the.Start.pushbutton.completes.the. path.of.current.flow.and.energizes.the.motor.starter.(M).

This.closes.the.associated.M.and.Ma.(auxiliary.contact.located. in.the.motor.starter).contacts..When.the.Start.button.is. released,.current.continues.to.flow.through.the.Stop.button.and. the.Ma.contact,.and.the.M.coil.remains.energized..The.motor. will.run.until.the.normally.closed.Stop.button.is.pressed.unless. the.overload.relay.(OL).contacts.open..When.the.Stop.button. is.pressed,.the.path.of.current.flow.is.interrupted.opening.the. associated.M.and.Ma.contacts,.and.the.motor.stops.

49

This.motor.control.application.can.also.be.accomplished.with.a. PLC..

Motor Starter (Actuator)

Output

Motor

PLC

Input

Start/Stop Pushbuttons (Sensors)

Program Instruction.

In.the.following.example,.a.normally.open.Start.pushbutton.is. wired.to.the.first.input.(I0.0),.a.normally.closed.Stop.pushbutton. is.wired.to.the.second.input.(I0.),.and.normally.closed.overload. relay.contacts.(part.of.the.motor.starter).are.connected.to.the. third.input.(I0.2)..These.inputs.are.used.to.control.normally.open. contacts.in.a.line.of.ladder.logic.programmed.into.the.PLC.. Initially,.I0..status.bit.is.a.logic..because.the.normally.closed. (NC).Stop.Pushbutton.is.closed..I0.2.status.bit.is.a.logic.. because.the.normally.closed.(NC).overload.relay.(OL).contacts. are.closed..I0.0.status.bit.is.a.logic.0,.however,.because.the. normally.open.Start.pushbutton.has.not.been.pressed.. Normally.open.output.Q0.0.is.also.programmed.on.Network. .as.a.sealing.contact..With.this.simple.network,.energizing. output.coil.Q0.0.is.required.to.turn.on.the.motor..

50

When.the.Start.pushbutton.is.pressed,.the.CPU.receives.a.logic. .from.input.I0.0..This.causes.the.I0.0.contact.to.close..All.three. inputs.are.now.a.logic...The.CPU.sends.a.logic..to.output. Q0.0..The.motor.starter.is.energized.and.the.motor.starts.

The.output.status.bit.for.Q0.0.is.now.a...On.the.next.scan,. when.normally.open.contact.Q0.0.is.solved,.the.contact.will. close.and.output.Q0.0.will.stay.on.even.if.the.Start.pushbutton. is.released.

When.the.Stop.pushbutton.is.pressed,.input.I0..turns.off,. the.I0..contact.opens,.output.coil.Q0.0.de-energizes,.and.the. motor.turns.off.

5

Expanding the Application.

The.application.can.be.easily.expanded.to.include.indicator. lights.for.run.and.stop.conditions..In.this.example,.a.RUN. indicator.light.is.connected.to.output.Q0..and.a.STOP.indicator. light.is.connected.to.output.Q0.2.

Motor Starter (Actuator)

Output

Motor Indicator Lights

PLC

Input

Start/Stop Pushbuttons (Sensors)

.

The.ladder.logic.for.this.application.includes.a.normally.open. output.contact.Q0.0.connected.on.Network.2.to.output.Q0.. and.a.normally.closed.Q0.0.contact.connected.on.Network.3.to. output.Q0.2..When.Q0.0.is.off,.the.normally.open.Q0.0.contact. on.Network.2.is.open.and.the.RUN.indicator.off..At.the.same. time,.the.normally.closed.Q0,0.contact.is.closed.and.the.STOP. indicator.is.on.

52

When.the.Start.button.is.pressed,.the.PLC.starts.the.motor.. Output.Q0.0.is.now.on..The.normally.open.Q0.0.contact.on. Network.2.is.now.closed.and.the.RUN.indicator.on..At.the.same. time,.the.normally.closed.Q0.0.contact.on.Network.3.is.open. and.the.STOP.indicator.light.connected.to.output.Q0.2.is.off.

Adding a Limit Switch.

The.application.can.be.further.expanded.by.adding.a.limit. switch.with.normally.open.contacts.to.input.I0.3..

Motor Starter (Actuator)

Output

Motor Indicator Lights

PLC

Input Limit Switch

Start/Stop Pushbuttons (Sensors)

53

A.limit.switch.could.be.used.to.stop.the.motor.or.prevent.the. motor.from.being.started..This.limit.switch.might.be.associated. with.an.access.door.to.the.motor,.or.its.associated.equipment.. If.the.access.door.is.open,.the.normally.open.contacts.of.LS. connected.to.input.I0.3.are.open.and.the.motor.will.not.start..

When.the.access.door.closes,.the.normally.open.contacts.on. the.limit.switch.(LS).close..Input.I0.3.is.now.on,.and.the.motor. will.start.when.the.Start.pushbutton.is.pressed.

54

Further Expansion.

The.PLC.program.can.be.further.expanded.to.accommodate. many.commercial.and.industrial.applications..Additional.Start/ Stop.pushbuttons.and.indicator.lights.can.be.added.for.remote. operation,.or.control.of.a.second.motor.starter.and.motor.. Over-travel.limit.switches.can.be.added.along.with.proximity. switches.for.sensing.object.position..In.addition,.expansion. modules.can.be.added.to.further.increase.the.I/O.capability..The. applications.are.only.limited.by.the.number.of.I/Os.and.amount. of.memory.available.on.the.PLC.

Motor Starters (Digital Outputs)

Indicator Lights (Digital Outputs)

I/O Expansion Module

Pushbuttons (Digital Inputs)

Sensors (Digital Inputs)

55

Review 4 .. Identify.the.following.symbols:

a. ____________

b. ____________ c. ____________

.

2.. Complete.the.following.tables: .

. 3.. In.the.following.network,.coil.Q0.0.will.be.on.when. contact.____.is.closed.and.either.contact____.or.contact. ____.or.both.are.closed. .

. .

56

Analog Inputs and Outputs

Many.PLCs.also.work.with.analog.I/O.devices..Analog.devices. use.signals.that.are.continuously.variable.within.a.specified. range.such.as.0.to.0.VDC.or.4.to.20.mA..Analog.signals.are. used.to.represent.changing.values.such.as.speed,.temperature,. weight,.and.level..In.order.to.process.an.input.of.this.type,.a. PLC.must.convert.the.analog.signal.into.a.digital.representation.. For.an.S7-200.PLC,.this.means.that.an.expansion.module. capable.of.converting.the.analog.signal.must.be.used..The. S7-200.analog.modules.convert.standard.voltage.and.current. analog.values.into.a.2-bit.digital.representation..The.digital. values.are.transferred.to.the.PLC.for.use.in.register.or.word. locations.. In.addition,.analog.modules.are.available.for.use.with. thermocouple.and.RTD.type.sensors.which.sense.the. temperature.at.a.specific.point.in.a.machine.or.process..

SF/DIAG

Analog Expansion Module

57

Application Example.

In.the.following.example,.a.scale.is.connected.to.a.load.cell.. A.load.cell.is.a.device.that.generates.an.electrical.output. proportional.to.the.force.applied..In.this.example,.the.load.cell. is.converting.a.value.of.weight.from.0.to.500.pounds.into.a.0. -.0.VDC.output..The.0.-.0.VDC.load.cell.output.is.connected. to.the.input.of.an.S7-200.PLC.analog.expansion.module..The. analog.value.applied.to.the.PLC.can.be.used.in.various.ways.. For.instance,.the.actual.weight.can.be.compared.to.a.desired. weight.for.a.package.or.group.of.packages.

This.example.can.be.expanded.to.include.a.conveyor.system. with.a.gate.to.direct.packages.of.varying.weight..As.packages. move.along.the.conveyor.they.are.weighed..A.package.that. weighs.at.or.greater.than.a.specified.value.is.routed.along.one. conveyor.path..A.package.that.weighs.less.than.a.specified. value.is.routed.along.another.conveyor.path,.where.it.will.later. be.inspected.for.missing.contents..All.of.this.functionality.can. be.controlled.by.an.S7-200.PLC.

58

Analog Outputs.

Analog.outputs.are.used.in.applications.requiring.control. capability.of.field.devices.which.respond.to.continuously.varying. voltage.or.current.levels..For.example,.analog.outputs.may.be. used.as.a.variable.reference.for.control.valves,.chart.recorders,. electric.motor.drives,.analog.meters,.and.pressure.transducers.. Like.analog.inputs,.analog.outputs.are.generally.connected. to.a.controlling.device.through.a.transducer..The.transducer. takes.the.voltage.signal.and,.depending.on.the.requirement,. amplifies,.reduces,.or.changes.it.into.another.signal.which. controls.the.device..In.the.following.example,.a.0.-.0.VDC. signal.controls.a.0.-.500.Lbs..scale.analog.meter.

59

Timers

Timers.are.devices.that.count.increments.of.time..Traffic.lights. are.one.example.where.timers.are.used..In.this.example.timers. are.used.to.control.the.length.of.time.between.signal.changes.

Timers.are.represented.by.boxes.in.ladder.logic..When.a.timer. receives.an.enable,.the.timer.starts.to.time..The.timer.compares. its.current.time.with.the.preset.time..The.output.of.the.timer. is.a.logic.0.as.long.as.the.current.time.is.less.than.the.preset. time..When.the.current.time.is.greater.than.the.preset.time,.the. timer.output.is.a.logic...S7-200.uses.three.types.of.timers:.OnDelay.(TON),.Retentive.On-Delay.(TONR),.and.Off-Delay.(TOF)..

S7-200 Timers.

S7-200 timers.are.provided.with.resolutions.of..millisecond,. 0.milliseconds,.and.00.milliseconds..The.maximum.value.of. these.timers.is.32.767.seconds,.327 .67.seconds,.and.3276.7. seconds,.respectively..By.adding.program.elements,.logic.can. be.programmed.for.much.greater.time.intervals.

60

Hard-Wired Timing Circuit.

Timers.used.with.PLCs.can.be.compared.to.timing.circuits.used. in.hard-wired.control.line.diagrams..In.the.following.example,. a.normally.open.(NO).switch.(S).is.used.with.a.timer.(TR).. For.this.example,.the.timer.has.been.set.for.5.seconds..When. S.closes,.TR.begins.timing..When.5.seconds.have.elapsed,. TR.will.close.its.associated.normally.open.TR.contacts,. illuminating.pilot.light.PL..When.S.opens,.de-energizing.TR,. the.TR.contacts.open,.immediately.extinguishing.PL.. This.type.of.timer.is.referred.to.as.an.on-delay.timer..The.term. “on-delay”.indicates.that.once.a.timer.receives.an.enable.signal,. a.preset.amount.of.time.must.pass.before.the.timer’s.output. coil.(TR).turns.on.

On-Delay Timer (TON).

The.previous.example.illustrated.how.a.hardware.on-delay.timer. works..The.corresponding.software.function.in.an.S7-200.PLC.is. the.On-Delay Timer (TON).shown.below. When.the.On-Delay.Timer.(TON).receives.an.enable.(logic.).at. its.input.(IN),.a.predetermined.amount.of.time.(preset.time.-.PT). passes.before.the.timer.bit.(T-bit).turns.on..The.T-bit.is.a.logic. function.internal.to.the.timer.and.is.not.shown.on.the.symbol.. The.timer.resets.to.the.accumulated.time.to.zero.when.the. enabling.input.goes.to.a.logic.0..

6

In.the.following.simple.timer.example,.a.switch.is.connected.to. input.I0.3,.and.a.light.is.connected.to.output.Q0....

When.the.switch.closes,.the.PLCs.input.4.becomes.a.logic. ,.the.I0.3.contact.closes,.and.timer.T37.begins.timing..T37. has.a.time.base.of.00.ms.(0..seconds)..The.preset.time.(PT). value.has.been.set.to.50..This.is.equivalent.to.5.seconds. (0..x.50.)..5.seconds.after.the.input.switch.closes,.the.timer. output.becomes.a.logic.,.the.T37.contact.closes,.output.Q0.. becomes.a.logic.,.and.the.light.turns.on..If.the.switch.were. opened.before.5.seconds.has.passed,.then.re-closed,.the. timer.would.again.begin.timing.at.0..Because.this.type.of.timer. does.not.retain.its.accumulated.time.when.its.input.(IN).goes.to. logic.0,.it.is.said.to.be.non-retentive.
I0.3 IN T37 TON

150

PT

T37

Q0.1

62

A.small.sample.of.the.flexibility.of.PLCs.is.shown.in.the. following.program.logic..By.reprogramming.the.T37.contact.as. a.normally.closed.contact,.the.function.of.the.circuit.is.changed. to.cause.the.indicator.light.to.turn.off.only.when.the.timer.times. out..This.function.change.was.accomplished.without.changing. or.rewiring.I/O.devices.
I0.3 IN T37 TON

150

PT

T37

Q0.1

Retentive On-Delay Timer (TONR)

The.Retentive On-Delay Timer (TONR).functions.in.a.similar manner.to.the.On-Delay.Timer.(TON)..Just.like.the.On-Delay. timer.(TON),.the.Retentive.On-Delay.Timer.(TONR).times.as.long. as.the.enabling.input.is.on,.but.does.not.reset.when.the.input. goes.off..The.timer.must.be.reset.with.a.RESET (R).instruction..

63

The.same.example.used.with.the.On-Delay.Timer.(TON).is. shown.below.with.the.Retentive.On-Delay.timer.(TONR).. When.the.switch.connected.to.input.I0.3.closes,.I0.3.contact. closes,.and.timer.T5.begins.timing..If,.for.example,.after.0. seconds.input.I0.3.turns.off,.the.timer.stops..When.input.I0.3. turns.on.again,.the.timer.begins.timing.at.0.seconds..The.light. connected.to.O0..turns.on.5.seconds.after.input.I0.3.has.been. closed.for.the.second.time. A.RESET (R).instruction.has.been.added.to.the.logic..The. RESET.(R).function.allows.the.accumulated.time.of.the. Retentive.On-delay.Timer.(TONR).to.be.reset.to.zero..In.this. example,.the.RESET.(R).function.turns.on.and.resets.the.timer. every.time.contact.I0.2.closes..
I0.2 T5 R

I0.3 IN

T5 TONR

150

PT

T5

Q0.1

Off-Delay Timer (TOF).

The.Off-Delay Timer (TOF).is.used.to.delay.turning.an.output. off.for.a.fixed.period.of.time.after.the.input.turns.off..When.the. enabling.bit.turns.on,.the.timer.bit.turns.on.immediately,.and. the.time.value.is.set.to.0..When.the.input.turns.off,.the.timer. times.until.the.preset.time.has.elapsed..At.that.time,.the.timer. bit.turns.off.
TXXX IN TOF

PT

64

S7-200 Timer Numbers.

S7-200.PLCs.have.256.available.timer.numbers..The.specific. T.number.chosen.for.the.timer.determines.its.time.base.and. which.type.of.timer.it.is.(TON,.TONR,.or.TOF)..

Timer Example.

In.the.following.example,.a.tank.is.filled.with.two.chemicals,.the. solution.is.mixed,.and.the.tank.is.drained.. When.the.Start.button.is.pressed,.input.I0.0.turns.on,.and.the. program.starts.pump.,.controlled.by.output.Q0.0..Pump..runs. for.5.seconds,.adding.the.first.chemical.to.the.tank,.then.shuts. off..The.program.then.starts.pump.2,.controlled.by.output.Q0... Pump.2.runs.for.3.seconds.adding.the.second.chemical.to.the. tank..After.3.seconds.pump.2.shuts.off..The.program.then.starts. the.mixer.motor,.connected.to.output.Q0.2.and.mixes.the.two. chemicals.for.60.seconds..Next,.the.program.opens.the.drain. valve,.controlled.by.output.Q0.3,.and.starts.pump.3.controlled. by.output.Q0.4..Pump.3.shuts.off.after.8.seconds.and.the. process.stops..A.manual.Stop.switch.is.also.provided.at.input. I0..

65

Review 5 .. PLCs.convert.analog.signals.into.a.____________.format. for.processing.

2.. Three.types.of.timers.available.in.the.S7-200.are.OnDelay,.__________.On-Delay,.and.____-Delay. 3.. The.maximum.time.available.with.a.00.millisecond. time.base.timer.is.____________.seconds. 4.. A.count.of.25.on.a.0.millisecond.time.base.timer. represents.a.time.of._______.milliseconds. 5.. There.are._______.timer.numbers.available.in.the.S7200.PLC.

66

Counters

Counters.used.in.PLCs.serve.the.same.function.as.mechanical. counters..Counters.compare.an.accumulated.value.to.a.preset. value.to.control.circuit.functions..Counters.can.be.used.to.initial. an.operation.when.a.count.is.reached.or.to.prevent.an.operation. from.occuring.until.a.count.has.been.reached. A.bottling.machine,.for.example,.may.use.a.counter.to.count. bottles.into.groups.of.six.for.packaging..

Counters.are.represented.in.an.S7-200.program.by.boxes. in.ladder.logic..Counters.increment.or.decrement.one.count. each.time.the.input.transitions.from.off.(logic.0).to.on.(logic.).. Counters.are.reset.when.a.RESET.instruction.is.executed..S7200.uses.three.types.of.counters:.Count Up Counter (CTU),. Count Down Counter (CTD),.and.Count Up/Down Counter (CTUD).
XXX CTU CU CD XXX CTD CD CU R PV Count Up LD PV Count Down R PV XXX CTUD

Count Up/Down

67

S7-200 Counters.

There.are.256.counters.available.in.the.S7-200,.numbered.C0. through.C255..The.same.number.cannot.be.assigned.to.more. than.one.counter..For.example,.if.an.up.counter.is.assigned. number.45,.a.down.counter.cannot.also.be.assigned.number. 45..The.maximum.count.value.of.a.counter.is.±32,767 . The.Count.Up.Counter.(CTU).counts.up.from.the.current.value. each.time.the.count.up.(CU).input.goes.from.off.to.on..When. the.current.value.is.greater.than.or.equal.to.the.preset.value. (PV),.the.counter.bit.for.designated.counter.is.a.logic...The. course.resets.when.the.reset.(R).input.turns.on..The.counter. stops.counting.when.it.reaches.its.maximum.value.of.32,767 .
Cxx CU CTU

Count Up Counter (CTU).

R

PV

Count Down Counter (CTD).

The.Count.Down.Counter.(CTD).counts.down.from.the.current. value.each.time.the.count.down.(CD).input.goes.from.off.to. on..When.the.current.value.is.equal.to.zero,.the.counter.bit.for. designated.counter.is.a.logic...The.counter.stops.counting.at. zero..The.counter.resets.and.loads.the.current.value.with.the. preset.value.(PV).when.the.load.input.(LD).turns.on..
Cxx CD CTD

LD

PV

68

Count Up/Down Counter. (CTUD)

The.Count.Up/Down.Counter.(CTUD).counts.up.each.time.the count.up.(CU).input.turns.on.and.counts.down.each.time.the. count.down.input.(CD).turns.on..When.the.current.value.is. equal.to.or.greater.than.the.preset.value.(PV),.the.counter.bit.for. the.designated.counter.is.a.logic...Otherwise,.the.counter.bit. is.a.logic.0..If.the.count.reaches.32,767 ,.the.next.count.changes. the.current.value.to.-32,768..The.counter.current.value.is.reset. to.zero.when.the.reset.(R).input.turns.or.when.the.Reset. instruction.is.executed.
Cxx CU CD R PV CTUD

.

Counter Example.

A.counter.might.be.used.to.keep.track.of.the.number.of. vehicles.in.a.parking.lot..As.vehicles.enter.the.lot.through.an. entrance.gate,.the.counter.counts.up..As.vehicles.exit.the.lot. through.an.exit.gate,.the.counter.counts.down..When.the.lot.is. full.a.sign.at.the.entrance.gate.turns.on.indicating.the.lot.is.full..

69

Count.Up/down.Counter.C48.is.used.in.this.example..A.switch,. connected.to.the.entrance.gate.is.wired.to.input.I0.0..A.switch,. connected.to.the.exit.gate,.is.wired.to.input.I0...A.reset.switch,. located.at.the.collection.booth,.is.wired.to.input.I0.2.. The.parking.lot.has.50.parking.spaces..This.value.has.been. stored.in.the.preset.value.(PV)..The.counter.output.controls. output.Q0...This.output.is.connected.to.a.“Parking.Lot.Full”. sign.. When.a.car.enters.the.lot,.the.entrance.gate.opens..Input.I0.0. transitions.from.a.logic.0.to.a.logic.,.increasing.the.count.by. one..When.a.car.leaves.the.lot,.the.exit.gate.opens..Input.I0.. transitions.from.a.logic.0.to.a.logic.,.decreasing.the.count.by... When.the.count.reaches.50,.output.Q0..turns.on.and.the. “Parking.Lot.Full”.sign.illuminates..When.a.car.exits,.decreasing. the.count.to.49,.the.sign.turns.off.

I0.0 CU I0.1 CD I0.2 R

C48 CTUD

150 C48

PV Q0.1

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High-Speed Instructions

As.discussed.earlier,.PLCs.have.a.scan.time..The.scan.time. depends.on.the.size.of.the.program,.the.number.of.I/Os,.and. the.amount.of.communication.required..Events.may.occur.in. an.application.that.require.a.response.from.the.PLC.before. the.scan.cycle.is.complete..For.these.applications.high-speed. instructions.can.be.used...

High-Speed Counters.

A.high-speed counter.is.represented.by.two.boxes.in.ladder. logic..One.box.is.the.High-Speed Counter Definition (HDEF). instruction.and.the.other.box.is.the.High-Speed Counter (HSC).instruction. CPU.22.and.CPU.222.support.four.high-speed.counters. (HSC0,.HSC3,.HSC4,.HSC5)..CPU.224,.CPU.224XP ,.and. CPU.226.support.six.high-speed.counters.(HSC0,.HSC,.HSC2,. HSC3,.HSC4,.HSC5).

7

Definition Boxes and. High-Speed Counters.

The.High-Speed.Counter.Definition.(HDEF).instruction assigns the.operating.mode.to.a.specific.high-speed.counter.(HSCx).. The.mode.selection.defines.the.clock,.direction,.start,.and. reset.functions.of.the.high-speed.counter..High-speed.counters. can.be.defined.by.the.definition.box.to.operate.in.any.of.the. 2.available.modes..Not.all.counters.can.operate.in.all.of.the. available.modes,.however..Refer.to.the.S7-200 System Manual. for.definitions.available.for.each.counter. The.High-Speed.Counter.(HSC).instruction.configures.and. controls.a.specific.high-speed.counter.based.upon.the.state.of. the.special.HSC.bits..The.N.parameter.specifies.the.high-speed. counter.number..Each.counter.has.dedicated.inputs.for.clocks,. direction.control,.reset,.and.start.where.these.functions.are. supported..

Positioning Example.

Positioning.is.one.example.of.an.application.that.can.use. high-speed.counters..In.the.following.illustration,.a.motor.is. connected.through.a.starter.to.a.PLC.output..The.motor.shaft. is.connected.to.an.encoder.and.a.positioning.actuator..The. encoder.emits.a.series.of.pulses.as.the.motor.turns.. In.this.example,.the.program.will.move.an.object.from.position. .to.position.6..This.example.uses.an.encoder.that.generates. 600.pulses.per.revolution,.and.it.takes.000.motor.revolutions. to.move.the.object.from.one.position.to.another..To.move.the. object.from.position..to.position.6.(5.positions).would.take. 5000.motor.revolutions..For.that.move,.the.counter.would.count. up.30,000.counts.(5000.revolutions.x.600.pulses.per.revolution). and.stop.the.motor.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Encoder

Motor Starter

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Interrupts.

The.S7-200.PLC.also.incorporates.instructions.for.use.with. interrupts..Interrupts.are.used.to.initiate.a.specific,.short.PLC. program.segment,.called.an.interrupt.routine,.when.an.internal. or.external.event.occurs..Once.the.last.instruction.of.the. interrupt.routine.has.been.executed,.control.is.returned.to.the. main.program..Interrupt.processing.allows.the.PLC.to.respond. quickly.to.special.events. Pulse Train Output (PTO).is.used.to.provide.a.series.of.pulses. to.an.output.device,.such.as.a.stepper.motor.driver..The.PTO. provides.a.square.wave.output.for.a.specified.number.of.pulses. and.a.specified.cycle.time..The.number.of.pulses.can.be.from. .to.4,294,967 ,295.pulses..PTOs.have.a.50%.duty.cycle..This. means.the.pulse.is.off.for.the.same.amount.of.time.that.it.is. on..The.number.of.pulses.and.the.cycle.time.can.be.changed. with.an.interrupt..In.the.following.example,.each.pulse.is.on. for.500.ms.and.off.for.500.ms..After.four.pulses,.an.interrupt. occurs.which.changes.the.cycle.time.to.000.ms.
Q0.0 4 Pulses 500 milliseconds Each Interrupt Occurs 4 Pulses 1000 milliseconds Each

PTO.

.

PWM.

The.Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) function.provides.a. fixed.cycle.time.with.a.variable.duty.cycle.time..When.the.pulse. width.is.equal.to.the.cycle.time,.the.duty.cycle.is.00%.and. the.output.is.turned.on.continuously..In.the.following.example. the.output.has.a.0%.duty.cycle.(on.0%.off.90%)..After.an. interrupt,.the.cycle.switches.to.a.50%.duty.cycle.(on.50%,.off. 50%).
On Q0.0 10% Duty Cycle 50% Duty Cycle Off On Off

The.PWM.function.can.be.used.to.provide.a.programmable. or.adjustable.control.of.machine.timing..This.allows.machine. operation.to.be.varied.to.compensate.for.product.variations.or. mechanical.wear. And Much More. The.instructions.listed.in.this.section.are.only.examples.of. the.types.of.instructions.available.for.S7-200.PLCs..The.full. instruction.set.includes.a.much.broader.range.of.capabilities.. Refer.to.the.S7-200.System.Manual.for.additional.information.

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Specialized Expansion Modules

In.addition.to.I/O.modules,.expansion.modules.are.available. for.the.S7-200.that.measure.temperature,.control.positioning. applications,.and.provide.various.communication.functions. EM 241 In.any.complex.system,.communication.is.essential..Modems. are.electronic.devices.used.for.sending.and.receiving.data. over.long.distances..The.EM 241.is.an.expansion.module.that. supports.communication.between.an.S7-200.PLC.and.STEP.7. Micro/WIN.via.a.modem..

The.EM.24.provides.an.international.telephone.line.interface,. supports.sending.numeric.and.text.paging.messages,.as.well. as.SMS.(Short.Message.Service).messages.to.cellular.phones.. This.is.useful.for.remote.diagnostics.and.maintenance,.machine. control,.alarm.systems,.and.general.communication.functions. In.addition.to.CPU-to-CPU.communication.via.a.telephone.line,. the.EM.24.also.supports.the.ModBus.RTU.protocol..Protocols. are.rules.that.identify.how.devices.should.communicate.with. each.other..ModBus.RTU.is.a.protocol.originally.developed. by.MODICON,.which.is.now.part.of.Schneider.Automation.. ModBus.RTU.has.been.widely.used.by.other.companies.. CP 243-1, CP 243-1 IT Industrial.Ethernet.provides.a.proven.means.of.networking. computers.and.a.variety.of.intelligent.devices..CP 243-1.and. CP 243-1 IT.are.communication.processors.used.to.connect.the. S7-200.system.to.Industrial.Ethernet.

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Ethernet Communications

CP 243-1 Ethernet CP 243-1 IT Internet

The.S7-200.can.be.remotely.configured,.programmed,.and. diagnosed.via.Industrial.Ethernet.using.STEP.7.Micro/WIN.. The.S7-200.can.also.communicate.with.other.S7-200,.S7-300,. and.S7-400.PLCs.and.a.variety.of.other.devices.using.Industrial. Ethernet. The.IT.functions.of.the.CP.243-.IT.Internet.module.simplify.the. process.of.setting.up.a.control.system.that.can.email.diagnostic. information.or.transfer.files.using.Internet.protocols. EM 277. Information.flow.between.intelligent.devices.such.as.PLCs,. computers,.variable.speed.drives,.actuators,.and.sensors.is. often.accomplished.through.a.local.area.network.(LAN)..LANs. are.used.in.office,.manufacturing,.and.industrial.areas.. In.the.past,.these.networks.were.often.proprietary.systems. designed.to.a.specific.vendor’s.standards..Siemens.has. been.a.leader.in.pushing.the.trend.to.open.systems.based. upon.international.standards.developed.through.industry. associations..PROFIBUS-DP.and.Actuator.Sensor.Interface. (AS-i).are.examples.of.these.open.networks.. The.PROFIBUS-DP EM 277 module.allows.connection.of. the.S7-200.CPU.to.a.PROFIBUS-DP.network.as.a.slave..The. CP.243-2.Communication.Processor.allows.communication. between.AS-i.devices.and.an.S7-200.

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PROFIBUS DP.

PROFIBUS DP.is.an.open.bus.standard.for.a.wide.range. of.applications.in.various.manufacturing.and.automation. processes..PROFIBUS.DP.works.at.the.field.device.level.to. allow.communication.of.a.broad.range.of.intelligent.devices.. Through.PROFIBUS.DP.the.features.of.S7-200.PLCs.can. be.used.to.their.full.extent.within.a.distributed.system..An. advantage.to.PROFIBUS.DP.is.the.ability.to.communicate. between.PROFIBUS.DP.devices.of.different.vendors..This. provides.uniform.communication.between.all.SIMATIC.devices. on.the.PROFIBUS.DP.network.as.well.as.devices.from.other. manufacturers..

AS-i.

Actuator Sensor Interface (AS-i or AS-Interface).is.a.system. for.networking.field.devices.such.as.sensors.and.actuators.with. control.and.operator.interface.devices..Until.recently,.extensive. parallel.control.wiring.was.needed.to.connect.sensors.to.the. controlling.device..AS-i.replaces.complex.wiring.with.a.simple. 2-core.cable..The.cable.is.designed.so.that.devices.can.only.be. connected.correctly..Multiple.can.be.connected.to.the.cable.

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Use.of.the.AS-i.field.bus.allows.an.S7-200.PLC.to.be.easily. connected.to.a.variety.devices.from.multiple.equipment. suppliers.

EM 253.

Position.control.describes.a.range.of.applications.that.involve. movement.with.varying.degrees.of.precision..Rotary.tables.and. traversing.cars.are.examples.where.objects.are.moved.from. one.position.during.a.product’s.manufacturing.process...

The.EM 253.is.a.positioning.module.designed.for.single.access,. open.loop.position.control.through.use.of.stepper.motor.or. servo.motor..The.EM.253.interfaces.between.an.S7-200.PLC. and.the.stepper/servo.motor’s.power.control.module..
Control Actual Value Stepper Motor Power Module Servo/Stepper Servo Motor S7-200 with EM 253

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EM 253 Features.

Features.of.the.module.include: •. •. •. High-speed.control.with.a.range.of.2.-.200,000.pulse.per. second Jerk.(S.curve).or.linear.acceleration/deceleration Configurable.measuring.system.to.enter.data.as. engineering.units.(such.as.inches.or.centimeters).or. number.of.pulses Configurable.backlash.compensation Supports.absolute,.relative,.and.manual.methods.of. position.control Continuous.operation Provides.up.to.25.motion.profiles.with.up.to.4.speed. changes.per.profile Four.different.reference-point.seek.modes,.with.a.choice. of.the.starting.seek.direction.and.final.approach.direction. for.each.sequence

•. •. •. •. •.

S7-200 Web Site. .

For.more.information.and.sales.support.on.the.S7-200.visit.our. web.site.at:
http://www.automation.siemens.com/_en/s7-200/Products/index.htm.

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Review 6 .. There.are______.counters.available.in.an.S7-200.PLC. 2... Three.types.of.counters.used.in.the.S7-200.are. ____________.,.____________.,.and..____________.. 3.. Counters.can.count.to.a.maximum.of.__________.. 4.. Depending.on.the.counter,.there.are.up.to.____.modes. available.on.high-speed.counters.. 6.. The._________.allows.communication.between.AS-i. devices.and.an.S7-200. 7 .. The._________.is.a.single.axis.position.control.module.

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Review Answers

Review 1 Review 2. 

).a:.input.module,.b:.CPU,.c:.output.module,.d:.programming. device,.e:.operator.interface;.2).2;.3).6;.4).00,.000.0000,.A. ).discrete;.2).discrete;.3).CPU;.4).Ladder.logic;.5).program;. 6).program,.data,.configurable.parameter;.7).024;.8).firmware;.9). e;.0).RS-485. ).22,.222,.224,.224XP ,.226;.2).b;.3).2,.7;.4).8,.6;.5).4,.0;. 6).Q0.3;.7).DIN. ).a:.box,.b:.contact,.c:.coil;.2).AND.Function.-.a:.0,.b:.0,.c:.0,.d:.,. Or.Function.-.e:.0,.f:.,.g:.,.h:.;.3).I0.,.I0.0,.Q0.0. ).digital;.2).Retentive,.Off;.3).3276.7.seconds;.4).250;.5).256. ).256;.2).Count.Up.Counter.(CTU),.Count.Down.Counter.(CTD),. Count.Up/Down.Counter.(CTUD);.3).±32,767;.4).2;.5).CP.243-2. Communication.Processor;.6).EM.253..

Review 3. Review 4. Review 5. Review 6.

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Final Exam

The.final.exam.is.intended.to.be.a.learning.tool..The.book. may.be.used.during.the.exam..A.tear-out.answer.sheet.is. provided..After.completing.the.test,.mail.the.answer.sheet.in.for. grading..A.grade.of.70%.or.better.is.passing..Upon.successful. completion.of.the.test.a.certificate.will.be.issued. .. . . 2.. . . 3.. . . 4.. . . 5.. The.component.of.a.PLC.that.stores.and.executes.the. main.program.is.the.______.. a.. c.. CPU. . . Programming.device. b.. d.. Input/Output.module Operator.interface

One.byte.is.made.up.of._________.. a.. c.. 2.bits. 6.bits. . . . . b.. d.. 8.bits 32.bits

The.binary.equivalent.of.a.decimal.5.is._____.. a.. c.. . . 0.. . . . . b.. d.. 00 

An.input.that.is.either.on.or.off.is.a/an.____________.input. a.. c.. analog. RTD. . . . . b.. d.. discrete thermocouple

A.programming.language.that.uses.symbols.resembling. elements.used.in.hard-wired.control.line.diagrams.is. referred.to.as.____________.. a.. c.. ladder.logic. . function.blocks. . b.. d.. statement.list a.flow.chart

. . 6.. . .

A.type.of.memory.that.can.be.read.from.but.not.written.to. is._________.memory. a.. c.. RAM. R/W. . . . . b.. d.. ROM Read-Write

8

7 ..

A.USB/PPI.Multi-Master.cable.connects.a.personal. computer’s.USB.interface.to.a/an._________.connector.on. an.S7-200.CPU. a.. c.. RS-485. . Ethernet. . . . b.. d.. RS-232 PROFIBUS-DP

. . 8.. . . . . 9.. . .

The.CPU.224.AC/DC/RELAY.has.____________.. a.. b.. c.. d.. 8.DC.inputs.and.0.relay.outputs 8.AC.inputs.and.6.relay.outputs 4.DC.inputs.and.4.relay.outputs 4.DC.inputs.and.0.relay.outputs

CPU.224.will.accept.up.to.____________.expansion. modules. a.. c.. none. 0. . . . . . b.. d.. 7 30 

0.. The.S7-222.has.the.ability.to.store._________.bytes.of. . user.data. . . a.. c.. 024. 2048. . . . . b.. d.. 892 0240 

.. Which.of.the.following.is.not.part.of.a.PLC.scan? . . a.. c.. Read.Inputs. . Reset.All.Timers. . b.. d.. Execute.Program Update.Outputs 

2.. The.address.designation.for.output.four.of.an.S7-200.is. ________.. . . a.. c.. .I0.4. Q0.3. . . . . b.. d.. I0.3 Q0.4 

3.. CPU.22.and.CPU.222.provide.____________.high-speed. counters.. . . a.. c.. two. four. . . . . b.. d.. three five 

4.. The.maximum.value.of.an.S7-200.timer.with.a.resolution. of..millisecond.is.____________.seconds. . . 82 a.. c.. 3.2767. 327 .67. . . . . b.. d.. 32.767 3276.7 

5.. An.S7-200.timer.with.a.time.base.of.00.ms.can.count.to. a.maximum.value.of.____________.seconds. . . a.. c.. 3.2767. 327 .67. . . . . b.. d.. 32.767 3276.7 

6.. The.time.base.of.TON.32.is.____________.ms. . . a.. c.. 0... . . . . . . b.. d.. 0 00 

7 The.maximum.count.of.an.S7-200.Count.Up.Counter.(CTU). .. is._________. . . a.. c.. 32,767. 98,30. . . . . b.. d.. 65,534 ,000,000 

8.. A/An.________.instruction.is.used.to.assign.a.mode.to.a. high-speed.counter. . . a.. c.. CTUD. HSC. . . . . b.. d.. Interrupt HDEF 

9.. The.______.module.allows.connection.of.the.S7-200.CPU. to.a.PROFIBUS-DP.network.as.a.slave. . . a.. c.. EM.277. . CP.243-. . . . b.. d.. EM24 CP.243-.IT

20.. ____________.is.used.to.temporarily.override.input.or. output.status.in.order.to.test.and.debug.the.program.or. system. . . a.. c.. Transmitting. Interrupting. . . b.. d.. Forcing Holding

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quickSTEP Online Courses

quickSTEP.online.courses.are.available.at. http://www.sea.siemens.com/step. The.quickSTEP.training.site.is.divided.into.three.sections:. Courses,.Downloads,.and.a.Glossary...Online.courses. include..reviews,.a.final.exam,.the.ability.to.print.a.certificate. of.completion,.and.the.opportunity.to.register.in.the.Sales. &.Distributor.training.database.to.maintain.a.record.of.your. accomplishments. From.this.site.the.complete.text.of.all.STEP.courses.can.be. downloaded.in.PDF.format..These.files.contain.the.most.recent. changes.and.updates.to.the.STEP.courses.. A.unique.feature.of.the.quickSTEP.site.is.our.pictorial.glossary.. The.pictorial.glossary.can.be.accessed.from.anywhere.within. a.quickSTEP.course..This.enables.the.student.to.look.up.an. unfamiliar.word.without.leaving.the.current.work.area..

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