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SP23
Problems: 2, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40, 43, 50, 52, 55, 69, 73, 76, 82
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Problem 232
••2
An electric field given by
pierces a Gaussian cube of edge length 2.0
m and positioned as shown in Fig. 235. (The magnitude E is in newtons per coulomb and the
position x is in meters.) What is the electric flux through the (a) top face, (b) bottom face, (c) left
face, and (d) back face? (e) What is the net electric flux through the cube?
((My solution))
a = 2 m
) 0 ), 2 ( 3 , 4 (
2
+ − · y E
(a) Top face
72 18  ) 2 ( 3
2
2
2 2 2 2
− · − · + − · ⋅ · ⋅
·
a y a a a
y y
e E n E
(b) bottom face
24 6  ) 2 ( 3 ) (
2
0
2 2 2 2
· · + · − ⋅ · ⋅
·
a y a a a
y y
e E n E
(c)
left face
16 4 ) 4 ( ) (
2 2 2 2
− · − · − · − ⋅ · ⋅ a a a a
x
e E n E
right face
16 4 ) 4 ( ) (
2 2 2 2
· · · ⋅ · ⋅ a a a a
x
e E n E
(d)
back face
0 ) ( · − ⋅ · ⋅
z
e E n E
front face
0 ) ( · ⋅ · ⋅
z
e E n E
(e)
48 24 72
0
− · + − · · ⋅ · Φ
∫
ε
net
Q
da E
N m
2
/C
((Another solution)) We use the Gauss’ law,
) 0 ), 2 ( 3 , 4 (
2
+ − · y E N/C
48
2
1
24 6 6 ) (
2
0
2
2
0
3
1
2
0
− ·
]
]
]
− · − · − · ⋅ ∇ · ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
y dz dx ydy yd d d τ τ E a E
since
y
z
E
y
E
x
E
z
y
x
6 − ·
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
· ⋅ ∇ E
((WileyPlus))
2. We use Φ · z⋅
E dA and note that the side length of the cube is (3.0 m–1.0 m) = 2.0 m.
(a) On the top face of the cube y = 2.0 m and ( )
ˆ
j dA dA ·
r
. Therefore, we have
( )
( )
2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i 3 2.0 2 j 4i 18j E · − + · −
r
. Thus the flux is
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
top top top
ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i 18j j 18 18 2.0 N m C 72 N m C. E dA dA dA Φ · ⋅ · − ⋅ · − · − ⋅ · − ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫
r r
(b) On the bottom face of the cube y = 0 and
dA dA
· − bg
ej
j
. Therefore, we have
E · − + · − 4 3 0 2 4 6
2
i j i j
c h . Thus, the flux is
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
bottom bottom bottom
ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i 6j j 6 6 2.0 N m C 24 N m C. E dA dA dA Φ · ⋅ · − ⋅ − · · ⋅ · + ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫
r r
(c) On the left face of the cube ( )
( )
ˆ
i dA dA · −
r
. So
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
left left bottom
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
4i j i 4 4 2.0 N m C 16 N m C.
y
E dA E dA dA Φ · ⋅ · + ⋅ − · − · − ⋅ · − ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫
r
(d) On the back face of the cube ( )
( )
ˆ
k dA dA · −
r
. But since
E
r
has no z component
0 E dA ⋅ ·
r r
.
Thus, Φ = 0.
(e) We now have to add the flux through all six faces. One can easily verify that the flux through
the front face is zero, while that through the right face is the opposite of that through the left one,
or +16 N·m
2
/C. Thus the net flux through the cube is
Φ = (–72 + 24 – 16 + 0 + 0 + 16) N·m
2
/C = – 48 N·m
2
/C.
_______________________________________________________________________
Problem 235
•5
In Fig. 2329, a proton is a distance d/2 directly above the center of a square of side d. What is
the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a
cube with edge d.)
((My solution))
q = the charge of proton =
Gauss’ law
∫
· ⋅ · Φ
0
ε
net
q
da E
In cube, there are six surfaces. Therefore, the flux through one surface is
0
6ε
q
· Φ
((WileyPlus))
5. To exploit the symmetry of the situation, we imagine a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of
a cube, of edge length d, with a proton of charge
19
1.6 10 C q
−
· + × situated at the inside center of
the cube. The cube has six faces, and we expect an equal amount of flux through each face. The
total amount of flux is Φ
net
= q/ε
0
, and we conclude that the flux through the square is onesixth
of that. Thus,
19
9 2
12 2 2
0
1.6 10 C
3.01 10 N m C.
6 6(8.85 10 C N m )
q
ε
−
−
−
×
Φ · · · × ⋅
× ⋅
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 239
••9
Fig. 2327 shows a Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube with edge length 1.40 m. What
are (a) the net flux Φ through the surface and (b) the net charge q
enc
enclosed by the surface if
, with y in meters? What are (c) Φ and (d) q
enc
if
?
((My solution))
a = 1.4 m
(a) and (b)
E = 3.0 y e
y
N/C
The electric flux,
( )
0
3 2 2
3 ) 0 0 . 3 ( 0 . 3
ε
net
Q
a a a a d · · ⋅ − ⋅ · ⋅ · Φ
∫
a E
or
C a Q
C m N a
net
11 3
0
2 3
10 29 . 7 ) 3 (
/ 23 . 8 3
−
× · ·
⋅ · · Φ
ε
(c) and (d)
E = [4 e
x
+ (6 + 3 y)e
y
N/C
( )
3 2 2
0
3 ) 0 0 . 3 6 ( 0 . 3 6 a a a a d
Q
net
· ⋅ + − ⋅ + · ⋅ · · Φ
∫
a E
ε
Then we have
C a Q
C m N a
net
11 3
0
2 3
10 29 . 7 ) 3 (
/ 23 . 8 3
−
× · ·
⋅ · · Φ
ε
where ε
0
= 8.854187817 x 10
12
(F/m)
((Another method)) We use the Gauss’ law,
(a) and (b)
E = 3.0 y e
y
N/C
3
3 3 ) ( a d d d · · ⋅ ∇ · ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫
τ τ E a E
since
·
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
· ⋅ ∇
z
E
y
E
x
E
z
y
x
E
3
(c) and (d)
E = [4 e
x
+ (6 + 3 y)e
y
N/C
3
3 3 ) ( a d d d · · ⋅ ∇ · ⋅
∫ ∫ ∫
τ τ E a E
since
·
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
· ⋅ ∇
z
E
y
E
x
E
z
y
x
E
3
((WileyPlus))
9. (a) Let A = (1.40 m)
2
. Then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
=0 1.40
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
3.00 j j 3.00 j A j 3.00 1.40 1.40 8.23 N m C.
y y
y A y
·
Φ · ⋅ − + ⋅ · · ⋅
(b) The charge is given by
( ) ( )
12 2 2 2 11
enc 0
8.85 10 C / N m 8.23 N m C 7.29 10 C q ε
− −
· Φ · × ⋅ ⋅ · ×
.
(c) The electric field can be rewritten as
0
3.00 j E y E · +
r r
, where
0
4.00i 6.00j E · − +
r
is a
constant field which does not contribute to the net flux through the cube. Thus Φ is still 8.23
N⋅ m
2
/C.
(d) The charge is again given by
( ) ( )
12 2 2 2 11
enc 0
8.85 10 C / N m 8.23 N m C 7.29 10 C q ε
− −
· Φ · × ⋅ ⋅ · ×
.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2311
••11
Figure 2331 shows a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube of edge length 2.00 m,
with one corner at x
1
= 5.00 m, y
1
= 4.00 m. The cube lies in a region where the electric field
vector is given by , with y in meters. What is the net
charge contained by the cube?
((My solution))
x
1
= 5.0 m
y
1
= 4.0 m
a = 2.0 m (edge length of the cube)
E = (3, 4y
2
, 3)
Gauss’ law
0
ε
Q
d · ⋅ · Φ
∫
a E
C m N
y y d
y y
/ 192 64 256 ) 4 4 ( 4 ) 16 4 ( 4
 ) 4 ( 2  ) 4 ( 2
2
2
2 2
4
2 2
⋅ − · + − · × − − × − ·
− − − · ⋅ · Φ
· ·
∫
a E
or
C Q
19
0
10 70 . 1
−
× − · Φ ·ε
((Another solution)) We use the Gauss’ law.
E = (3, 4y
2
, 3) N/C
192 ) 2 4 ( 16
2
1
2 2 8 8 8 ) (
2 2
4
2
2
2
0
5
3
4
2
− · − − ·
]
]
]
× × − · − · − · ⋅ ∇ · ⋅ · Φ
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
y dz dx ydy yd d d τ τ E a E
since
y
z
E
y
E
x
E
z
y
x
8 − ·
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
· ⋅ ∇ E
((WileyPlus))
11. None of the constant terms will result in a nonzero contribution to the flux (see Eq. 234 and
Eq. 237), so we focus on the x dependent term only:
E
nonconstant
= (−4.00y
2
)
(in SI units) .
The face of the cube located at y = 4.00 has area A = 4.00 m
2
(and it “faces” the + direction) and
has a “contribution” to the flux equal to
E
nonconstant A = (−4)(4
2
)(4) = –256 N·m/C
2
.
The face of the cube located at y = 2.00 m has the same area A (however, this one “faces” the –
direction) and a contribution to the flux:
−E
nonconstant A = −(−4)(2
2
)(4) = 64 N·m/C
2
.
Thus, the net flux is Φ = (−256 + 64) N·m/C
2
= −192 N·m/C
2
. According to Gauss’s law, we
therefore have
12 2 2 2 9
enc 0
(8.85 10 C /N m )( 192 N m C) 1.70 10 C. q ε
− −
· Φ · × ⋅ − ⋅ · − ×
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2313
••13
The electric field in a certain region of Earth's atmosphere is directed vertically down. At
an altitude of 300 m the field has magnitude 60.0 N/C; at an altitude of 200 m, the magnitude is
100 N/C. Find the net amount of charge contained in a cube 100 m on edge, with horizontal faces
at altitudes of 200 and 300 m.
((My solution))
a = 100 m
E
1
= 60 N/C
E
2
= 100 N/C
C a E E Q
a E a E
Q
d
total
6 2
1 2 0
2
1
2
2
0
10 54 . 3 ) (
−
× · − ·
− · · ⋅ · Φ
∫
ε
ε
a E
((WileyPlus))
13. Let A be the area of one face of the cube, E
u
be the magnitude of the electric field at the upper
face, and
E
l
be the magnitude of the field at the lower face. Since the field is downward, the flux
through the upper face is negative and the flux through the lower face is positive. The flux
through the other faces is zero, so the total flux through the cube surface is
( ).
u
A E E Φ · −
l
The
net charge inside the cube is given by Gauss’ law:
12 2 2 2
0 0
6
( ) (8.85 10 C / N m )(100 m) (100 N/C 60.0 N/C)
3.54 10 C 3.54 C.
u
q A E E ε ε
µ
−
−
· Φ · − · × ⋅ −
· × ·
l
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2315
••15
A particle of charge +q is placed at one corner of a Gaussian cube. What multiple of q/
0
gives
the flux through (a) each cube face forming that corner and (b) each of the other cube faces?
((My solution))
(a)
0
ε
q
d
total
· ⋅ · Φ
∫
a E
There are 8 cubes around the origin. Then we have
0
8 8
1
ε
q
total
· Φ · Φ
(b) The flux passing through a, b, and cfaces is the same from the symmetry. The flux passing
through the other faces is zero, since E is perpendicular to the normal direction of the faces. Then
we have
0 0
24 8 3
1
ε ε
q q
a
· · Φ
((WileyPlus))
15. The total flux through any surface that completely surrounds the point charge is q/ε
0
.
(a) If we stack identical cubes side by side and directly on top of each other, we will find that
eight cubes meet at any corner. Thus, oneeighth of the field lines emanating from the point
charge pass through a cube with a corner at the charge, and the total flux through the surface of
such a cube is q/8ε
0
. Now the field lines are radial, so at each of the three cube faces that meet
at the charge, the lines are parallel to the face and the flux through the face is zero.
(b) The fluxes through each of the other three faces are the same, so the flux through each of
them is onethird of the total. That is, the flux through each of these faces is (1/3)(q/8ε
0
) =
q/24ε
0
. Thus, the multiple is 1/24 = 0.0417.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2330
••30
In Fig. 2339, short sections of two very long parallel lines of charge are shown, fixed in place,
separated by L = 8.0 cm. The uniform linear charge densities are +6.0 μC/m for line 1 and 2.0
μC/m for line 2. Where along the x axis shown is the net electric field from the two lines zero?
((My solution))
L = 8.0 cm
λ
1
= 6.0 µ C
λ
2
= 2.0 µ C
2 0
2
2
1 0
1
1
2
2
r
E
r
E
πε
λ
πε
λ
·
·
There are two possible cases when the net electric field becomes zero.
(i) x>L/2
2 2
)
2
( 2 )
2
( 2
2 1
0
2
0
1
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
−
·
+
−
·
+
λ λ
π ε
λ
π ε
λ
where r
1
= x + L/2 and r
2
= x – L/2
(ii) x<L/2
2 2
)
2
( 2 )
2
( 2
2 1
0
2
0
1
L
x
L
x
L
x
L
x
−
·
+
+ −
·
− −
λ λ
π ε
λ
π ε
λ
Then the solution of the equation
2 2
2 1
L
x
L
x −
·
+
λ λ
is x = 0.082 m, which is larger than L/2 = 0.04 m [the case (i)].
((WileyPlus))
30. We reason that point P (the point on the x axis where the net electric field is zero) cannot be
between the lines of charge (since their charges have opposite sign). We reason further that P is
not to the left of “line 1” since its magnitude of charge (per unit length) exceeds that of “line 2”;
thus, we look in the region to the right of “line 2” for P. Using Eq. 2312, we have
1 2
net 1 2
0 0
2 2
4 ( / 2) 4 ( / 2)
E E E
x L x L
λ λ
πε πε
· + · +
+ −
.
Setting this equal to zero and solving for x we find
1 2
1 2
6.0 C/m ( 2.0 C/m) 8.0 cm
8.0 cm
2 6.0 C/m ( 2.0 C/m) 2
L
x
λ λ µ µ
λ λ µ µ
 `  ` − − −
· · ·
+ + −
. , . ,
.
________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2332
••32
A long, nonconducting, solid cylinder of radius 4.0 cm has a nonuniform volume charge density
ρ that is a function of radial distance r from the cylinder axis: ρ = Ar
2
. For A = 2.5 μC/m
5
, what is
the magnitude of the electric field at (a) r = 3.0 cm and (b) r = 5.0 cm?
((My solution))
R = 4.0 cm, A = 2.5 mC/m
5
2
) ( Ar r · ρ
For r<R, we apply the Gauss’ law to the Gaussian surface.
∫
∫
·
·
r
r
r
dr r
hA
r rdrh rhE
0
3
0
0 0
2
) ( 2
1
2
ε
π
ρ π
ε
π
or
0
4
0
3
0
4ε
ε
Ar
dr r
r
A
E
r
r
·
·
∫
(0<r<R)
For r>R,
4
0
0
3
0
0 0
4
2
2
) ( 2
1
2
R
hA
dr r
hA
r rdrh rhE
R
R
r
ε
π
ε
π
ρ π
ε
π
·
·
·
∫
∫
or
4
0
4
R
r
A
E
r
ε
·
(r>R)
((Mathematica))
I n [ 2 ] : = P h y s c o n s t g 9 . 8 0 6 6 5 , G 6 . 6 7 4 2 8 6 7 1 0
1 1
, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 4 1 7 9 1 0
2 3
, R 8 . 3 1 4 4 7 2 ,
m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 2 1 5 4 5 1 0
3 1
, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 3 8 7 8 2 1 0
2 7
, e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 6 4 8 7 1 0
1 9
,
q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 6 4 8 7 1 0
1 9
, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 2 4 5 8 1 0
8
, 0 1 2 . 5 6 6 3 7 0 6 1 4 1 0
7
,
0 8 . 8 5 4 1 8 7 8 1 7 1 0
1 2
, R e a 6 . 3 7 2 1 0
6
, C 1 0
6
, n C 1 0
9
, p C 1 0
1 2
,
f C 1 0
1 5
, m m 1 0
3
, c m 0 . 0 1 , m 1 0
6
, n m 1 0
9
O u t [ 2 ] = g 9 . 8 0 6 6 5 , G 6 . 6 7 4 2 9 1 0
1 1
, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 4 1 0
2 3
,
R 8 . 3 1 4 4 7 , m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 1 0
3 1
, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 4 1 0
2 7
, e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 1 0
1 9
,
q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 1 0
1 9
, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 2 1 0
8
, 0 1 . 2 5 6 6 4 1 0
6
, 0 8 . 8 5 4 1 9 1 0
1 2
,
R e a 6 . 3 7 2 1 0
6
, C
1
1 0 0 00 0 0
, n C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0
, p C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0
,
f C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0
, m m
1
1 0 0 0
, c m 0 . 0 1 , m
1
1 0 0 00 0 0
, n m
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0
I n [ 3 ] : = r u l e 1 R 4 . 0c m, A 2 . 5 0 C
O u t [ 3 ] = R 4 . c m, A 2 . 5C
I n [ 4 ] : = E 1
A r
3
4 0
. r u l e 1 . P h y s c o n s t
O u t [ 4 ] = 7 05 8 8 . 1 r
3
I n [ 5 ] : = E 2
A R
4
4 0 r
. r u l e 1 . P h y s c o n s t
O u t [ 5 ] =
0 . 1 8 0 7 0 5
r
I n [ 6 ] : = E t o t I f r 0 . 0 4 , E 1, 0 I f r 0 . 0 4 , E 2, 0
O u t [ 6 ] = I f r 0 . 0 4 , E 2, 0 I f r 0 . 0 4 , E 1, 0
I n [ 1 1 ] : = P l o t E t o t , r , 0 , 0 . 1 0 , P l o t S t y l e R e d , T h i c k , B a c k g r o u n d L i g h t G r a y ,
A x e s L a b e l " r m " , " E r N C "
O u t [ 1 1 ] =
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 0
r m
1
2
3
4
E r N C
I n [ 8 ] : = E t o t . r 0
O u t [ 8 ] = 0
I n [ 9 ] : = E t o t . r 0 . 0 3
O u t [ 9 ] = 1 . 9 0 5 8 8
I n [ 1 0 ] : = E t o t . r 0 . 0 5
O u t [ 1 0 ] = 3 . 6 1 4 1 1
((WileyPlus))
32. To evaluate the field using Gauss’ law, we employ a cylindrical surface of area 2π r L
where L is very large (large enough that contributions from the ends of the cylinder become
irrelevant to the calculation). The volume within this surface is V = π r
2
L, or expressed more
appropriate to our needs: 2 . dV rLdr π · The charge enclosed is, with
6 5
2.5 10 C/m A
−
· × ,
2 4
enc
0
2 .
2
r
q Ar r Ldr ALr
π
· π ·
∫
By Gauss’ law, we find
enc 0
  (2 ) / ; E rL q ε Φ · π ·
r
we thus obtain
3
0
.
4
Ar
E
ε
·
r
(a) With r = 0.030 m, we find   1.9 N/C. E ·
r
(b) Once outside the cylinder, Eq. 2312 is obeyed. To find λ = q/L we must find the total
charge q. Therefore,
0.04
2 11
0
1
2 1.0 10 C/m.
q
Ar r Ldr
L L
π
−
· · ×
∫
And the result, for r = 0.050 m, is
0
  /2 3.6 N/C. E r λ πε · ·
r
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2333
•33
In Fig. 2340, two large, thin metal plates are parallel and close to each other. On their inner
faces, the plates have excess surface charge densities of opposite signs and magnitude 7.00 × 10

22
C/m
2
. In unitvector notation, what is the electric field at points (a) to the left of the plates, (b)
to the right of them, and (c) between them?
((My solution))
Inside the metal, there is no electric field E = 0.
We apply the Gauss’ law to the cylinder.
0
ε
σ a
a E
∆
· ∆
or
C N E / 10 91 . 7
11
0
−
× · ·
ε
σ
((WileyPlus))
33. We use Eq. 2313.
(a) To the left of the plates:
( )
0
ˆ
/ 2 ( i) E σ ε · −
r
(from the right plate)
0
ˆ
( / 2 )i σ ε + (from the left one) = 0.
(b) To the right of the plates:
( )
0
ˆ
/ 2 i E σ ε ·
r
(from the right plate) ( )
0
ˆ
/ 2 ( i) σ ε + − (from the left one) = 0.
(c) Between the plates:
( ) ( )
22 2
11
12 2 2
0 0 0
7.00 10 C/m
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
( i) i ( i) i 7.91 10 N/C i.
2 2 8.85 10 C /N m
E
σ σ σ
ε ε ε
−
−
−
 `  `  `  ` ×
· − + − · − · − · − ×
× ⋅
. , . , . , . ,
r
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2336
•36
Figure 2343 shows cross sections through two large, parallel, nonconducting sheets with
identical distributions of positive charge with surface charge density σ = 1.77 × 10
22
C/m
2
. In
unitvector notation, what is at points (a) above the sheets, (b) between them, and (c) below
them?
((My solution))
σ = 1.77 x 10
22
C/m
2
(a)
C N E
z
/ 10 00 . 2
11
0
−
× · ·
ε
σ
(b) E
z
= 0.
(c)
C N E
z
/ 10 00 . 2
11
0
−
× − · − ·
ε
σ
((WileyPlus))
36. According to Eq. 2313 the electric field due to either sheet of charge with surface charge
density σ · 1.77× 10
−
22
C/m
2
is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet (pointing away from
the sheet if the charge is positive) and has magnitude E = σ /2ε
0
. Using the superposition
principle, we conclude:
(a) E = σ /ε
0
= (1.77 × 10
−
22
C/m
2
)/(8.85 × 10
−
12 2 2
C /N m ⋅ ) = 2.00× 10
−
11
N/C, pointing in the
upward direction, or
11
ˆ
(2.00 10 N/C)j E
−
· ×
r
;
(b) E = 0;
(c) and, E = σ /ε
0
, pointing down, or
11
ˆ
(2.00 10 N/C)j E
−
· − ×
r
.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2338
••38
In Fig. 2344a, an electron is shot directly away from a uniformly charged plastic sheet, at
speed v
s
= 2.0 × 10
5
m/s. The sheet is nonconducting, flat, and very large. Figure 2344b gives
the electron's vertical velocity component v versus time t until the return to the launch point.
What is the sheet's surface charge density?
((My solution))
v
s
= 2.0 x 10
5
m/s
The electric field at the charge (e) is given by
0
2ε
σ
· E
The Newton’s second law
t
m
e
v v
m
e
E
m
e
a
ma E e F
s
0
0
2
2
) (
ε
σ
ε
σ
− ·
− · − ·
· − ·
At t = t
0
, v = 0.
0
0
2
t
m
e
v
s
ε
σ
·
or
0
0
2
et
m
v
s
ε
σ ·
= 2.99 x 10
6
C/m
2
((WileyPlus))
38. The field due to the sheet is E = . The force (in magnitude) on the electron (due to that field)
is F = eE, and assuming it’s the only force then the acceleration is
a = = slope of the graph ( = 2.0 × 10
5
m/s divided by 7.0 × 10
−
12
s) .
Thus we obtain σ = 2.9 × 10
−
6
C/m
2
.
________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2340
••40
Figure 2346 shows a very large nonconducting sheet that has a uniform surface charge density
of σ = 2.00 μC/m
2
; it also shows a particle of charge Q = 6.00 μC, at distance d from the sheet.
Both are fixed in place. If d 0.200 m, at what (a) positive and (b) negative coordinate on the x
axis (other than infinity) is the net electric field of the sheet and particle zero? (c) If d =
0.800 m, at what coordinate on the x axis is ?
((My solution))
σ = 2.00 µ C/m
2
Q = 6.00 µ C
d = 0.2 m or d = 0.8 m
The electric field due to the charge Q
2
0
4
1
x
Q
E
Q
πε
·
The electric field due to the surface charge σ
0
2ε
σ
σ
· E
There are two cases where the net electric field becomes zero.
For x>0
0 · − ·
σ
E E E
Q net
For x<d,
0 · + − ·
σ
E E E
Q net
We now solve the equation given by
0
2
0
2 4
1
ε
σ
πε
·
x
Q
,
or σ
π
·
2
2
1
x
Q
The solution of this equation:
690988 . 0
2
1
t · t ·
σ π
Q
x m
(a), (b)
For d = 0.2 m
Enet = 0 for x = ±0.690988 m.
(c) d = 0.8 m
Enet = 0 for x = 0.690988 m.
((WileyPlus))
40. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the sheet and
the particle (−d < x < 0) since the sheet and the particle have oppositesigned charges. The
point(s) could be in the region to the right of the particle (x > 0) and in the region to the left of
the sheet (x < d); this is where the condition
2
0 0
 
2 4
Q
r
σ
ε πε
·
must hold. Solving this with the given values, we find r = x = ± ≈ ± 0.691 m.
If d = 0.20 m (which is less than the magnitude of r found above), then neither of the points (x ≈
± 0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet. Thus, both values are
allowed. Thus, we have
(a) x = 0.691 m on the positive axis, and
(b) x = − 0.691 m on the negative axis.
(c) If, however, d = 0.80 m (greater than the magnitude of r found above), then one of the points
(x ≈ −0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet and is disallowed.
In this part, the fields cancel only at the point x ≈ +0.691
m.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2343
••43
Figure 2347 shows a cross section through a very large nonconducting slab of thickness d =
9.40 mm and uniform volume charge density ρ = 5.80 fC/m
3
. The origin of an x axis is at the
slab's center. What is the magnitude of the slab's electric field at an x coordinate of (a) 0, (b) 2.00
mm, (c) 4.70 mm, and (d) 26.0 mm?
((My solution))
ρ = 5.80 fC/m
3
d = 9.40 mm
For 0<x<d/2 For x>d/2
0
0
) 2 (
1
2
ε
ρ
ρ
ε
x
E
a x a E
·
∆ · ∆
0
0
2
1
2
ε
ρ
ρ
ε
d
E
a d a E
·
∆ · ∆
x = 0 E = 0
x = 2.0 mm E = 1.31 x 10
6
N/C
x = 4.7 mm E = 3.08 x 10
6
N/C
x = 26.0 mm E = 3.08 x 10
6
N/C
1 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 5 1 . 0
x d
1 . 0
0 . 5
0 . 5
1 . 0
E d 2 0
((WileyPlus))
43. We use a Gaussian surface in the form of a box with rectangular sides. The cross section is
shown with dashed lines in the diagram below. It is centered at the central plane of the slab, so
the left and right faces are each a distance x from the central plane. We take the thickness of the
rectangular solid to be a, the same as its length, so the left and right faces are squares.
The electric field is normal to the left and right faces and is uniform over
them. Since ρ = 5.80 fC/m
3
is positive, it points outward at both
faces: toward the left at the left face and toward the right at the right face.
Furthermore, the magnitude is the same at both faces. The electric flux
through each of these faces is Ea
2
. The field is parallel to the other faces
of the Gaussian surface and the flux through them is zero. The total flux
through the Gaussian surface is
2
2 . Ea Φ · The volume enclosed by the
Gaussian surface is 2a
2
x and the charge contained within it is
2
2 q a xρ · . Gauss’ law yields
2ε
0
Ea
2
= 2a
2
xρ .
We solve for the magnitude of the electric field:
0
/ . E x ρ ε ·
(a) For x = 0, E = 0.
(b) For x = 2.00 mm = 2.00 × 10
−
3
m,
15 3 3
6
12 2 2
0
(5.80 10 C/m )(2.00 10 m)
1.31 10 N/C.
8.85 10 C /N m
x
E
ρ
ε
− −
−
−
× ×
· · · ×
× ⋅
(c) For x = d/2 = 4.70 mm = 4.70 × 10
−
3
m,
15 3 3
6
12 2 2
0
(5.80 10 C/m )(4.70 10 m)
3.08 10 N/C.
8.85 10 C /N m
x
E
ρ
ε
− −
−
−
× ×
· · · ×
× ⋅
(d) For x = 26.0 mm = 2.60 × 10
−
2
m, we take a Gaussian surface of the same shape and
orientation, but with x > d/2, so the left and right faces are outside the slab. The total flux through
the surface is again
2
2Ea Φ · but the charge enclosed is now q = a
2
dρ . Gauss’ law yields
2ε
0
Ea
2
= a
2
dρ , so
15 3 3
6
12 2 2
0
(5.80 10 C/m )(9.40 10 m)
3.08 10 N/C.
2 2(8.85 10 C /N m )
d
E
ρ
ε
− −
−
−
× ×
· · · ×
× ⋅
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2350
••50
Figure 2351 shows two nonconducting spherical shells fixed in place on an x axis. Shell 1
has uniform surface charge density +4.0 μC/m
2
on its outer surface and radius 0.50 cm, and shell
2 has uniform surface charge density 2.0 μC/m
2
on its outer surface and radius 2.0 cm; the
centers are separated by L = 6.0 cm. Other than at x = ∞, where on the x axis is the net electric
field equal to zero?
((My solution))
σ
1
= 4.0 µ C/m
2
r
1
= 0.5 cm
Q
1
= 4π r
1
2
σ
1
The charge Q
1
is on the shell1
σ
2
= 2.0 µ C/m
2
r
2
= 2.0 cm
Q
2
= 4π r
2
2
σ
2
The charge –Q
2
is on the shell2
There are two cases when the net electric field is equal to zero.
(i) For x>L
0 ]
) (
[
4
1
2
2
2
1
0
·
−
− ·
L x
Q
x
Q
E
net
π ε
or
2
2
2
1
) ( L x
Q
x
Q
−
·
or
2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
) ( L x
r
x
r
−
·
σ σ
for x>L
(ii) For x<0
0 ]
) (
[
4
1
2
2
2
1
0
·
−
+ − ·
L x
Q
x
Q
E
net
π ε
or
2
2
2
1
) ( L x
Q
x
Q
−
·
Then we have
2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
) ( L x
r
x
r
−
·
σ σ
for x<0
From the above equation, we get
1
2
1
2
1
σ
σ
r
r
L
x
t
·
x = 3.28151 cm (x < 0)
or
x = 1.56772 cm (<L). So that this is not a solution.
((WileyPlus))
50. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the shells since
the shells have oppositesigned charges. It cannot be inside the radius R of one of the shells
since there is only one field contribution there (which would not be canceled by another field
contribution and thus would not lead to zero net field). We note shell 2 has greater magnitude of
charge (σ
2
A
2
) than shell 1, which implies the point is not to the right of shell 2 (any such point
would always be closer to the larger charge and thus no possibility for cancellation of equal
magnitude fields could occur). Consequently, the point should be in the region to the left of shell
1 (at a distance r > R1 from its center); this is where the condition
1 2
1 2 2 2
0 0
   
4 4 ( )
q q
E E
r r L πε πε
· ⇒ ·
+
or
1 1 2 2
2 2
0 0
 
4 4 ( )
A A
r r L
σ σ
πε πε
·
+
.
Using the fact that the area of a sphere is A = 4π R
2
, this condition simplifies to
r = = 3.3 cm .
We note that this value satisfies the requirement r > R1. The answer, then, is that the net field
vanishes at x = −r = −3.3 cm.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2352
••52
Figure 2353 shows a spherical shell with uniform volume charge density ρ = 1.84 nC/m
3
, inner
radius a = 10.0 cm, and outer radius b = 2.00a. What is the magnitude of the electric field at
radial distances (a) r = 0; (b) r = a/2.00, (c) r = a, (d) r = 1.50a, (e) r = b, and (f) r = 3.00b?
((My solution))
ρ = 1.84 nC/m
3
a = 10.0 cm
b = 2a = 20.0 cm
For a<r<b
) (
3
) (
3
1 4
' ' 4
1
4
2
3
0
3 3
0
2
0
2
r
a
r E
a r dr r E r
r
a
− ·
− · ·
∫
ε
ρ
ε
πρ
ρ π
ε
π
For r>b
) (
3
) (
3
1 4
' ' 4
1
4
2
3 3
0
3 3
0
2
0
2
r
a b
E
a b dr r E r
b
a
−
·
− · ·
∫
ε
ρ
ε
πρ
ρ π
ε
π
At r = 0 E = 0 N/C
At r = a/2 = 0.05 m, E = 0 N/C
At r = a = 0.10 m E = 0 N/C
At r = 1.5a = 0.15 m E = 7.3188 N/C
At r = b = 0.20 m E = 12.1223 N/C
At r = 3b = 0.60 m E = 1.34692 N/C
((Mathematica))
P h y s c o n s t g 9 . 8 0 6 6 5 , G 6 . 6 7 4 2 8 6 7 1 0
1 1
, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 4 1 7 9 1 0
2 3
,
R 8 . 3 1 4 4 7 2 , m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 2 1 5 4 5 1 0
3 1
, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 3 8 7 8 2 1 0
2 7
,
e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 6 4 8 7 1 0
1 9
, q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 6 4 8 7 1 0
1 9
, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 2 4 5 8 1 0
8
,
0 1 2 . 5 6 6 3 7 0 6 1 4 1 0
7
, 0 8 . 8 5 4 1 8 7 8 1 7 1 0
1 2
, R e a 6 . 3 7 2 1 0
6
,
C 1 0
6
, n C 1 0
9
, p C 1 0
1 2
, f C 1 0
1 5
, m m 1 0
3
, c m 0 . 0 1 ,
m 1 0
6
, n m 1 0
9
g 9 . 8 0 6 6 5 , G 6 . 6 7 4 2 9 1 0
1 1
, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 4 1 0
2 3
, R 8 . 3 1 4 4 7 ,
m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 1 0
3 1
, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 4 1 0
2 7
, e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 1 0
1 9
,
q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 1 0
1 9
, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 2 1 0
8
, 0 1 . 2 5 6 6 4 1 0
6
,
0 8 . 8 5 4 1 9 1 0
1 2
, R e a 6 . 3 7 2 1 0
6
, C
1
1 0 0 00 0 0
,
n C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0
, p C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0
, f C
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0
,
m m
1
1 0 0 0
, c m 0 . 0 1 , m
1
1 0 0 00 0 0
, n m
1
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0
r u l e 1 a 1 0c m, b 2 0 . 0 c m, 1 . 8 4 n C
a 1 0 c m, b 2 0 .c m, 1 . 8 4 n C
E 1
3 0
r
a
3
r
2
. r u l e 1 . P h y s c o n s t
6 9 . 2 7 0 4
0 . 0 0 1
r
2
r
E 2
3 0
b
3
a
3
r
2
. r u l e 1 . P h y s c o n s t
0 . 4 8 4 8 9 3
r
2
E t o t I f 0 . 1 r 0 . 2 , E 1, 0 I f r 0 . 2 , E 2, 0
I f r 0 . 2 , E 2, 0 I f 0 . 1 r 0 . 2 , E 1, 0
P l o t E t o t , r , 0 . 1 , 0 . 5 , P l o t S t y l e R e d , T h i c k ,
B a c k g r o u n d L i g h t G r a y , A x e s L a b e l " r m " , " E N C "
0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5
r m
2
4
6
8
1 0
1 2
E N C
E t o t . r 0
0
E t o t . r 0 . 0 5
0
E t o t . r 0 . 1 0
0
E t o t . r 0 . 1 5
7 . 3 1 1 8 8
E t o t . r 0 . 2
1 2 . 1 2 2 3
E t o t . r 0 . 6
1 . 3 4 6 9 2
E t o t . r 0 . 6
1 . 3 4 6 9 2
((WileyPlus))
52. The field is zero for 0 ≤ r ≤ a as a result of Eq. 2316. Thus,
(a) E = 0 at r = 0,
(b) E = 0 at r = a/2.00, and
(c) E = 0 at r = a.
For a ≤ r ≤ b the enclosed charge q
enc
(for a ≤ r ≤ b) is related to the volume by
q
r a
enc
· −
F
H
G
I
K
J
ρ
π π 4
3
4
3
3 3
.
Therefore, the electric field is
E
q
r r
r a r a
r
· · −
F
H
G
I
K
J
·
− 1
4 4
4
3
4
3 3
0
2
0
2
3 3
0
3 3
2
πε
ρ
πε
π π ρ
ε
enc
for a ≤ r ≤ b.
(d) For r = 1.50a, we have
3 3 9 3
2 12 2 2
0 0
(1.50 ) 2.375 (1.84 10 C/m )(0.100 m) 2.375
7.32 N/C.
3 (1.50 ) 3 2.25 3(8.85 10 C /N m ) 2.25
a a a
E
a
ρ ρ
ε ε
−
−
− ×  `  `
· · · ·
× ⋅
. , . ,
(e) For r = b = 2.00a, the electric field is
3 3 9 3
2 12 2 2
0 0
(2.00 ) 7 (1.84 10 C/m )(0.100 m) 7
12.1 N/C.
3 (2.00 ) 3 4 3(8.85 10 C /N m ) 4
a a a
E
a
ρ ρ
ε ε
−
−
− ×  `  `
· · · ·
× ⋅
. , . ,
(f) For r ≥ b we have
2
total
/ 4 E q r πε
0
·
or
3
2
0
.
3
b a
E
r
ρ
ε
3
−
·
Thus, for r = 3.00b = 6.00a, the electric field is
3 3 9 3
2 12 2 2
0 0
(2.00 ) 7 (1.84 10 C/m )(0.100 m) 7
1.35 N/C.
3 (6.00 ) 3 36 3(8.85 10 C /N m ) 36
a a a
E
a
ρ ρ
ε ε
−
−
− ×  `  `
· · · ·
× ⋅
. , . ,
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2355
•••55
A charge distribution that is spherically symmetric but not uniform radially produces an electric
field of magnitude E = Kr
4
, directed radially outward from the center of the sphere. Here r is the
radial distance from that center, and K is a constant. What is the volume density ρ of the charge
distribution?
((My solution))
6
0
0
2
4
0
2
2
0
4 ' ) ' 4 )( ' (
' ) ' 4 )( ' (
4
1
Kr dr r r
Kr dr r r
r
E
r
r
πε π ρ
π ρ
πε
·
· ·
∫
∫
Taking the derivative of both side with respect to r,
3
0 2
5
0
5
0
2
6
4
24
) (
24 4 ) (
Kr
r
Kr
r
Kr r r
ε
π
π ε
ρ
π ε π ρ
· ·
·
((WileyPlus))
55. We use
2 enc
2 2
0
0 0
1
( ) ( )4
4 4
r
q
E r r r dr
r r
ρ
πε πε
· · π
∫
to solve for ρ (r) and obtain
ρ
ε ε
ε ( ) ( ) . r
r
d
dr
r E r
r
d
dr
Kr K r · · ·
0
2
2 0
2
6
0
3
6
c h
________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2369
69
Figure 2355 shows, in cross section, three infinitely large nonconducting sheets on which
charge is uniformly spread. The surface charge densities are σ
1
= +2.00 μC/m
2
, σ
2
= +4.00 μC/m
2
,
and σ
3
= 5.00 μC/m
2
, and distance L = 1.50 cm. In unitvector notation, what is the net electric
field at point P?
((WileyPlus))
69. Since the fields involved are uniform, the precise location of P is not relevant; what is
important is it is above the three sheets, with the positively charged sheets contributing upward
fields and the negatively charged sheet contributing a downward field, which conveniently
conforms to usual conventions (of upward as positive and downward as negative). The net field
is directed upward
ˆ
( j) + , and (from Eq. 2313) its magnitude is
6 2
4 3 1 2
12 2 2
0 0 0
1.0 10 C/m
  5.65 10 N C.
2 2 2 2(8.85 10 C /N m )
E
σ σ σ
ε ε ε
−
−
×
· + + · · ×
× ⋅
r
In unitvector notation, we have
4
ˆ
(5.65 10 N/C) j E · ×
r
.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2373
73
A nonconducting solid sphere has a uniform volume charge density ρ. Let be the vector from
the center of the sphere to a general point P within the sphere. (a) Show that the electric field at
P is given by . (Note that the result is independent of the radius of the sphere.) (b)
A spherical cavity is hollowed out of the sphere, as shown in Fig. 2356. Using superposition
concepts, show that the electric field at all points within the cavity is uniform and equal to
, where is the position vector from the center of the sphere to the center of the
cavity.
((My solution))
(a)
r E
0
1
3
0
1
2
3
3
4 1
4
ε
ρ
ρ
π
ε
π
·
· r E r
(b)
1
0
2
3
1
0
2
2
1
3
) (
3
4 1
4
r E
ε
ρ
ρ
π
ε
π
− ·
− · r E r
(c)
a r r E E E
0
1
0
2 1
3
) (
3 ε
ρ
ε
ρ
· − · + ·
((WileyPlus))
73. (a) From Gauss’ law, we get
( )
( )
3
enc
3 3
0 0 0
4 3
1 1
.
4 4 3
r r
q r
E r r
r r
πρ
ρ
πε πε ε
· · ·
r
r
r
r r
(b) The charge distribution in this case is equivalent to that of a whole sphere of charge density
ρ plus a smaller sphere of charge density –ρ that fills the void. By superposition
E r
r r a a
bg
b g
· +
− −
·
ρ
ε
ρ
ε
ρ
ε 3 3 3
0 0 0
( )
.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2376
76
Charge is distributed uniformly throughout the volume of an infinitely long solid cylinder of
radius R. (a) Show that, at a distance r < R from the cylinder axis, where ρ is the
volume charge density. (b) Write an expression for E when r > R.
((My solution))
For r<R,
0
2
0
2
) (
1
) 2 (
ε
ρ
ρ π
ε
π
r
E
h r rh E
r
r
·
·
For r>R,
r
R
E
h R rh E
r
r
0
2
2
0
2
) (
1
) 2 (
ε
ρ
ρ π
ε
π
·
·
1 2 3 4 5
r R
0 . 2
0 . 4
0 . 6
0 . 8
1 . 0
E R 2 0
((WileyPlus))
76. (a) The diagram shows a cross section (or, perhaps more
appropriately, “end view”) of the charged cylinder (solid circle).
Consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a cylinder with radius r
and length , coaxial with the charged cylinder. An “end view” of
the Gaussian surface is shown as a dashed circle. The charge
enclosed by it is
2
, q V r ρ π ρ · · l where
2
V r · π l is the volume of
the cylinder.
If
ρ
is positive, the electric field lines are radially outward, normal to the Gaussian surface and
distributed uniformly along it. Thus, the total flux through the Gaussian cylinder is
cylinder
(2 ). EA E r π Φ · · l
Now, Gauss’ law leads to
2
0
0
2 .
2
r
r E r E
ρ
πε π ρ
ε
· ⇒ · l l
(b) Next, we consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of radius r > R. If the external field E
ext
then
the flux is
ext
2 . r E π Φ · l
The charge enclosed is the total charge in a section of the charged
cylinder with length l . That is,
2
q R π ρ · l . In this case, Gauss’ law yields
2
2
0 ext ext
0
2 .
2
R
r E R E
r
ρ
πε π ρ
ε
· ⇒ · l l
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 2382
82
A free electron is placed between two large, parallel, nonconducting plates that are
horizontal and 2.3 cm apart. One plate has a uniform positive charge; the other has an equal
amount of uniform negative charge. The force on the electron due to the electric field between
the plates balances the gravitational force on the electron. What are (a) the magnitude of the
surface charge density on the plates and (b) the direction (up or down) of ?
((My solution))
The electric field between two parallel, nonconducting plates is given by
0
ε
σ
· E
Newton’s second law:
0 ·
∑ y
F
0 · −mg eE
Then e have
2 22 0
/ 10 937 . 4 m C
e
mg
−
× · ·
ε
σ
((WileyPlus))
82. (a) We use m
e
g = eE = eσ /ε
0
to obtain the surface charge density.
( ) ( ) ( )
31 12 2 2
22 2 0
19
9.11 10 kg 9.8m s 8.85 10 C /N m
4.9 10 C m .
1.60 10 C
e
m g
e
ε
σ
− −
−
−
× × ⋅
· · · ×
×
(b) To cancel the gravitational force that points downward, the electric force must point upward.
Since ,
e
F qE ·
r r
and
0 q e · − <
for electron, we see that the field
E
r
must point downward.
a=2m
E = ( 4,− ( y 2 + 2), 0) 3
(a)
Top face
a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ e y = −a 2 3( y 2 + 2)  y =2 = −18 a 2 = −72
(b)
bottom face
a 2 E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (−e y ) = a 2 3( y 2 + 2)  y =0 = 6a 2 = 24
(c) left face
a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (−e x ) = a 2 (−4) = −4a 2 = −16
right face
a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (e x ) = a 2 (4) = 4a 2 = 16
(d) back face
E ⋅ n = E ⋅ ( −e z ) = 0
front face
E ⋅ n = E ⋅ (e z ) = 0
(e)
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = Qnet = −72 + 24 = −48 N m2/C ε0
((Another solution)) We use the Gauss’ law,
E = ( 4,− ( y 2 + 2), 0) N/C 3
1 2 ∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇⋅ E)dτ = −6∫ yd τ = −6∫ ydy ∫ dx ∫ dz = −24 2 y 0 = −48 0 1 0
2
3
2
2
since
∇⋅ E =
∂E x ∂E y ∂E z + + = −6 y ∂x ∂y ∂z
((WileyPlus)) 2. We use Φ = E ⋅ dA and note that the side length of the cube is (3.0 m–1.0 m) = 2.0 m.
z
r j (a) On the top face of the cube y = 2.0 m and dA = ( dA ) ˆ . Therefore, we have r 2 ˆ ˆ E = 4i − 3 ( 2.0 ) + 2 ˆ = 4i − 18j . Thus the flux is j ˆ
(
)
Φ=∫
top
r r E ⋅ dA = ∫
top
ˆ ( 4iˆ − 18j) ⋅ ( dA) ˆj = −18∫
top
dA = ( −18 ) ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = −72 N ⋅ m2 C.
2
j (b) On the bottom face of the cube y = 0 and dA = dA − . Therefore, we have E = 4 − 3 02 + 2 = 4 − 6 . Thus, the flux is i j i j Φ=∫ r r E ⋅ dA = ∫
c h
bg ej
bottom
bottom
( 4iˆ − 6ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆj) = 6∫
bottom
dA = 6 ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = +24 N ⋅ m2 C.
2
r i (c) On the left face of the cube dA = ( dA ) −ˆ . So
( )
( 4iˆ + E ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆi ) = −4∫ dA = −4 ( 2.0) N ⋅ m C = −16 N ⋅ m C. r r r r ˆ (d) On the back face of the cube dA = ( dA ) ( −k ) . But since E has no z component E ⋅ dA = 0 .
2 2 2 left left y bottom
r ˆ Φ = ∫ E ⋅ dA = ∫
Thus, Φ = 0. (e) We now have to add the flux through all six faces. One can easily verify that the flux through the front face is zero, while that through the right face is the opposite of that through the left one, or +16 N·m2/C. Thus the net flux through the cube is Φ = (–72 + 24 – 16 + 0 + 0 + 16) N·m2/C = – 48 N·m2/C.
_______________________________________________________________________ Problem 235
•5 In Fig. 2329, a proton is a distance d/2 directly above the center of a square of side d. What is the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a cube with edge d.)
01× 10−9 N ⋅ m 2 C.6 × 10−19 C = = 3. −12 2 2 6ε 0 6(8. Thus. with a proton of charge q = +1.((My solution)) q = the charge of proton = Gauss’ law Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = qnet ε0 In cube. Therefore. of edge length d. the flux through one surface is Φ= q 6ε0 ((WileyPlus)) 5.85 × 10 C N ⋅ m ) . and we conclude that the flux through the square is onesixth of that. and we expect an equal amount of flux through each face.6 ×10−19 C situated at the inside center of the cube. To exploit the symmetry of the situation. The cube has six faces. there are six surfaces. The total amount of flux is Φ net = q/ε 0. we imagine a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube. Φ= q 1.
40 m. What are (a) the net flux Φ through the surface and (b) the net charge qenc enclosed by the surface if . with y in meters? What are (c) Φ and (d) qenc if ? ((My solution)) a = 1. 2327 shows a Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube with edge length 1._____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 239 ••9 Fig.4 m (a) and (b) .
0 ⋅ 0)a 2 = 3a 3 ε0 Then we have Φ = 3a 3 = 8. (a) and (b) E = 3. Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 3.0 y ey N/C The electric flux.0 y ey N/C ∫E ⋅ da = ∫(∇⋅ E)dτ = 3∫dτ = 3a since ∇⋅ E = ∂E x ∂E y ∂E z + + =3 ∂x ∂y ∂z 3 (c) and (d) E = [4 ex + (6 + 3 y)ey N/C ∫E ⋅ da = ∫(∇⋅ E)dτ = 3∫dτ = 3a 3 .23 N ⋅ m 2 / C Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.29 ×10 −11 C (c) and (d) E = [4 ex + (6 + 3 y)ey N/C Φ= Qnet = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 6 + 3.23 N ⋅ m 2 / C Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.E = 3.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (3.854187817 x 1012 (F/m) ((Another method)) We use the Gauss’ law.29 ×10 −11 C where ε 0 = 8.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (6 + 3.0 ⋅ 0) a 2 = 3a 3 = Qnet ε0 or Φ = 3a 3 = 8.
85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 ) ( 8.00 m.23 N ⋅ m 2 C ) = 7. What is the net ((My solution)) x1 = 5. y1 = 4. The cube lies in a region where the electric field vector is given by charge contained by the cube? .00 is a constant field which does not contribute to the net flux through the cube.23 N ⋅ m 2 C. r r r j+ j (c) The electric field can be rewritten as E = 3.00 y ˆ ⋅ − A ˆ j j ( )( ) y =0 + 3.23 N⋅ m2/C.29 × 10−11 C . Thus Φ is still 8.since ∇⋅ E = ∂E x ∂E y ∂E z + + =3 ∂x ∂y ∂z ((WileyPlus)) 9.40 ) = 8.0 m a = 2. 2 (b) The charge is given by qenc = ε 0 Φ = ( 8. with one corner at x1 = 5. with y in meters.85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 ) ( 8.0 m (edge length of the cube) .00 m.00 ) ( 1. Then Φ = 3. (a) Let A = (1. _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2311 ••11 Figure 2331 shows a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube of edge length 2.00i + 6.40 m)2.00 y ˆ ⋅ A ˆ j j ( )( ) y =1.23 N ⋅ m 2 C ) = 7.00 m.29 × 10−11 C .40 ) ( 1. where E0 = −4.0 m y1 = 4. (d) The charge is again given by qenc = ε 0 Φ = ( 8.40 = ( 3.00 y E0 .
The face of the cube located at y = 4. 237). According to Gauss’s law. 4)(4 The face of the cube located at y = 2. the net flux is Φ = (− 256 + 64) N·m/C2 = − 192 N·m/C2.70 ×10 −19 C ((Another solution)) We use the Gauss’ law. 3) Gauss’ law Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = Q ε0 Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = 2 2 ( −4 y 2 )  y =4 −2 2 ( −4 y 2 )  y =2 = 4( −4 ×16 ) − 4( −4 × 4) = −256 + 64 = −192 N ⋅ m 2 / C or Q = ε0 Φ = −1.00 m2 (and it “faces” the + direction) and has a “contribution” to the flux equal to Enonconstant A = (− 2)(4) = –256 N·m/C2. None of the constant terms will result in a nonzero contribution to the flux (see Eq. 234 and Eq. we therefore have . 4y2. so we focus on the x dependent term only: Enonconstant = (− 4.00 m has the same area A (however. E = (3. 3) N/C 1 Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇ ⋅ E) dτ = −8∫ yd τ = −8∫ ydy ∫ dx ∫ dz = −8 × 2 × 2 y 2 = −16 ( 4 2 − 2 2 ) = −192 2 2 2 3 0 4 5 2 4 since ∇⋅ E = ∂E x ∂E y ∂E z + + = −8 y ∂x ∂y ∂z ((WileyPlus)) 11.00 has area A = 4.00y2 ) (in SI units) . this one “faces” the – direction) and a contribution to the flux: − nonconstant A = − (− 2)(4) = 64 N·m/C2. 4y2. E 4)(2 Thus.E = (3.
_____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2313 ••13 The electric field in a certain region of Earth's atmosphere is directed vertically down. At an altitude of 300 m the field has magnitude 60.85 ×10−12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 )(−192 N ⋅ m 2 C) = −1. Let A be the area of one face of the cube. The flux . the magnitude is 100 N/C. the flux through the upper face is negative and the flux through the lower face is positive. ((My solution)) a = 100 m E1 = 60 N/C E2 = 100 N/C Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da = Q ε0 = E2 a 2 − E1a 2 Q = ε0 ( E2 − E1 )a 2 = 3. at an altitude of 200 m. Eu be the magnitude of the electric field at the upper face.54 ×10 −6 C ((WileyPlus)) 13.0 N/C.70 ×10−9 C.qenc = ε 0 Φ = (8. and El be the magnitude of the field at the lower face. with horizontal faces at altitudes of 200 and 300 m. Since the field is downward. Find the net amount of charge contained in a cube 100 m on edge.
What multiple of q/ 0 gives the flux through (a) each cube face forming that corner and (b) each of the other cube faces? ((My solution)) (a) Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da = q ε0 There are 8 cubes around the origin.54 µ C.85 ×10−12 C2 / N ⋅ m 2 )(100 m) 2 (100 N/C − 60.0 N/C) = 3.54 ×10−6 C = 3. _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2315 ••15 A particle of charge +q is placed at one corner of a Gaussian cube. The net charge inside the cube is given by Gauss’ law: q = ε 0 Φ = ε 0 A( El − Eu ) = (8. so the total flux through the cube surface is Φ = A( El − Eu ). Then we have 1 q Φ = Φtotal = 8 8ε 0 .through the other faces is zero.
Thus. 2339. Then we have Φa = 1 q q = 3 8ε 0 24ε 0 ((WileyPlus)) 15. the lines are parallel to the face and the flux through the face is zero. so the flux through each of them is onethird of the total. the flux through each of these faces is (1/3)(q/8ε 0) = q/24ε 0. b. since E is perpendicular to the normal direction of the faces. _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2330 ••30 In Fig. (a) If we stack identical cubes side by side and directly on top of each other. Now the field lines are radial.0 cm. and the total flux through the surface of such a cube is q/8ε 0. fixed in place.0417. and cfaces is the same from the symmetry. The total flux through any surface that completely surrounds the point charge is q/ε 0. so at each of the three cube faces that meet at the charge. separated by L = 8. That is. (b) The fluxes through each of the other three faces are the same. we will find that eight cubes meet at any corner. short sections of two very long parallel lines of charge are shown. The flux passing through the other faces is zero.0 µ C λ 2 = 2.0 μC/m for line 2. oneeighth of the field lines emanating from the point charge pass through a cube with a corner at the charge. Where along the x axis shown is the net electric field from the two lines zero? ((My solution)) L = 8.0 μC/m for line 1 and 2.0 cm λ 1 = 6. The uniform linear charge densities are +6. the multiple is 1/24 = 0.0 µ C .(b) The flux passing through a. Thus.
λ1 2π ε r1 0 λ2 E2 = 2π ε r2 0 E1 = There are two possible cases when the net electric field becomes zero. (i) x>L/2 λ2 = L L 2π ε ( x + ) 2π ε ( x − ) 0 0 2 2 λ1 λ2 = L L x+ x− 2 2 where r1 = x + L/2 and r2 = x – L/2 (ii) x<L/2 λ1 .
L 2π ε (− x − ) 0 2 λ1 λ2 = L L x+ x− 2 2 λ1 = λ2 2π ε (− x + 0 L ) 2 Then the solution of the equation λ1 x+ L 2 = λ2 x− L 2 is x = 0.0 cm x= 1 2 = = 8. Using Eq. which is larger than L/2 = 0. We reason that point P (the point on the x axis where the net electric field is zero) cannot be between the lines of charge (since their charges have opposite sign).0 µ C/m − (−2. thus. ((WileyPlus)) 30. we look in the region to the right of “line 2” for P.04 m [the case (i)].0 cm and (b) r = 5. what is the magnitude of the electric field at (a) r = 3. nonconducting.082 m.0µ C/m) 8. We reason further that P is not to the left of “line 1” since its magnitude of charge (per unit length) exceeds that of “line 2”.0µ C/m) 2 ________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2332 ••32 A long. we have Enet = E1 + E2 = 2λ1 2λ2 + . 4πε 0 ( x + L / 2) 4πε 0 ( x − L / 2) Setting this equal to zero and solving for x we find λ − λ L 6.0 cm . λ1 + λ2 2 6.5 μC/m5. solid cylinder of radius 4.0 µ C/m + (−2. 2312. For A = 2.0 cm? .0 cm has a nonuniform volume charge density ρ that is a function of radial distance r from the cylinder axis: ρ = Ar2.
((My solution)) R = 4. 2πrhE r = = or 1 ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r ) 0 r 2πhA ε0 ∫r 0 r 3 dr Er = A ε0 r ∫r 0 r 3 dr (0<r<R) Ar 4 = 4ε0 For r>R. 2πrhE r = = 1 ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r ) 0 R R ε0 ∫ 0 2πhA 4 = R 4ε0 2πhA r 3dr . A = 2. we apply the Gauss’ law to the Gaussian surface.5 mC/m5 2 ρ( r ) = Ar For r<R.0 cm.
or Er = A R4 4ε0 r (r>R) ((Mathematica)) .
n C . 1 . ]6 = 1 4 1 1 . 1 0 u t [ 13 0. c m 0 . 9 9 7 9 2 48 . m m 8 21 10 35 1. C 1 0 6 .4 E 1.4 E 2. 6 7 4 2 19 0 m e q e 0 f C y s c o n g t 9 . k B a c k g r o u n d h t G. 9 9 1 1 R e a 6 . R 9 1 8 1 . 6 0 2 1 8 0 1 9.] =9 0 5 8 8 I n [ 1 0 E ] t: = o O 0 . p C 1 0 1 2. 3 1 4 . 1 0 9 3 . c 2 . 1 0 9 18 0 3 1 u 1 . 0. 3 7 12 0 . 8 5 4 19 0 1 2. m m 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I n [ 3 r : u= ] O u t [ 3 R ] 4 . 1 m 1 0 6 . 4 E 1. 0 3 u t [ 19 . p C 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 . 4 E 2 0 . q e 1 . n C 1 0 9 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78 2 V 1 .1 m .4 7 2 s . 0 . 6 0 2 1 . 5 0C c A r3 3 u t [ 74 05 = 8 8 . R 8 . 7 a 3 1 0 . 0 8 9 6 1 . A 2 . 7 16 0 41 98 7 c 2 . 0 5 0 . 0 I n [ 1 1 P ] l: = o E t o. 4 m 7 e 9 . A 2 . 1 4 . 0 . N A 6 . r a y t 0 R L i g A x e s L a b e rl m " . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 1. c m 0 . n m 1 0 9 1 1 . 0 8 r m 0 . 1 .1 P h y s c o n s t 3 O u t [ 1 1 ] = 2 1 I n [ 8 E : t= ] O u t [ 08 ] = I n [ 9 E : t= ] O o t . 0 I f r 0 . " E r N C " " rN C E 4 o t I f r 0 . t r . 5 . 0 4 0 . 0 m. 1 1 . 6 G 5 6 . r 0 . 1 0 6 8 17 0 81 21 R e 6 . P l o t S t y l e . 0 . 0 2 t . 6 6 0 14 0 2 7 e V 1 . r 0 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98 7 . 0 . 0 . . r 0 o t . 6 5 7 1 0 . 3 7 21 06 .4 u 5 1 . e . 1 8 0 7 0 5 r I n [ 6 E : t= ] O r u t [ I6 f] = 0 . 0 1 . 0. r 1 ] I n [ 5 E : 2= ] O A R4 4 0 r u t [ 5 ] = 0 . 8 5 4 1 0 1 5. c m.d T h i c . 0 6 0 . 0. 5 6 6 3 71 00 76.5 80 1 2 . 8 0 6 G 6 . 0 2 2 1 4 12 37 9 8 . 3 1 4 . 6 0 2 1 8 0 1 9 3 . I f r 0 . 0 2 2 14 02 3 1 . 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 .1 P h y s c o n s t 7 12 08 . C 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 f C . 8 0 6 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 n m 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 2 5 6 1 4 0 6 . 5 C = I n [ 4 E : 1= ] O 4 0 l e 1 R 4 .I n [ 2 P : h= ] O u t [ 2 g ] = 9 . r u l e . r u l e . N A 6 . 0 .
The volume within this surface is V = π r2 L. (b) to the right of them. On their inner faces.050 m.0 ×10−11 C/m. thin metal plates are parallel and close to each other. what is the electric field at points (a) to the left of the plates. 0 2 r A r3 r . The charge enclosed is. r π qenc = ∫ A r 2 2π r L dr = ALr 4 . for r = 0.((WileyPlus)) 32. 2312 is obeyed.00 × 1022 C/m2.9 N/C. two large.5 ×10−6 C/m5 . and (c) between them? ((My solution)) . q 1 0. Eq. Therefore. we find Φ = E  (2πrL) = qenc / ε 0 . we thus obtain E = 4ε0 r (a) With r = 0.04 2 = A r 2π r L dr = 1. By Gauss’ law.6 N/C. To evaluate the field using Gauss’ law. To find λ = q/L we must find the total charge q. (b) Once outside the cylinder. is  E  = λ /2πε 0 r = 3. In unitvector notation. we employ a cylindrical surface of area 2 π r L where L is very large (large enough that contributions from the ends of the cylinder become irrelevant to the calculation). the plates have excess surface charge densities of opposite signs and magnitude 7. with A = 2. we find  E  = 1. 2340. L L ∫0 r And the result.030 m. or expressed more appropriate to our needs: dV = 2π rLdr . _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2333 •33 In Fig.
91 ×10 −11 N / C ε0 ((WileyPlus)) 33.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m 2 _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2336 •36 Figure 2343 shows cross sections through two large.91×10 N/C ) i. We use Eq. there is no electric field E = 0.Inside the metal. E∆a = σ∆a ε0 or E= σ = 7. parallel. We apply the Gauss’ law to the cylinder. 2313. In ( ) . (a) To the left of the plates: r ˆ E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆ (from the right plate) + (σ / 2ε 0 )i (from the left one) = 0. i i) (c) Between the plates: r σ σ ˆ σ ˆ 7.77 × 1022 C/m2. i) (b) To the right of the plates: r E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ˆ (from the right plate) + ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆ (from the left one) = 0. nonconducting sheets with identical distributions of positive charge with surface charge density σ = 1. 2ε 0 2ε 0 ε0 8.00 ×10−22 C/m 2 ˆ −11 ˆ E = (−ˆ + i) −i = ( − i) = − i = ( −7.
2313 the electric field due to either sheet of charge with surface charge − density σ = 1.00 ×10 −11 N / C ε0 Ez = 0. (b) between them. Ez = − σ = −2.77 × 10 22 C/m2)/(8. Using the superposition principle.77 x 1022 C/m2 (a) (b) (c) Ez = σ = 2. or E = (2. pointing in the r ˆ upward direction.77 × 10 22 C/m2 is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet (pointing away from the sheet if the charge is positive) and has magnitude E = σ /2ε 0. what is them? at points (a) above the sheets. and (c) below ((My solution)) σ = 1. we conclude: (a) E = σ /ε 0 = (1.85 × 10 12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 ) = 2.00 ×10 −11 N / C ε0 ((WileyPlus)) 36.00× 10 11 N/C. − − − .00 ×10−11 N/C)j . According to Eq.unitvector notation.
Figure 2344b gives the electron's vertical velocity component v versus time t until the return to the launch point.00 ×10−11 N/C)j .0 x 105 m/s The electric field at the charge (e) is given by E= σ 2ε0 The Newton’s second law F = (−e) E = ma a =− e eσ E =− m 2mε0 eσ t 2mε0 v = vs − At t = t0. 2344a. vs = eσ t0 2mε0 or . and very large. r ˆ (c) and. The sheet is nonconducting.0 × 105 m/s. or E = −(2. E = σ /ε 0. pointing down.(b) E = 0. _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2338 ••38 In Fig. an electron is shot directly away from a uniformly charged plastic sheet. What is the sheet's surface charge density? ((My solution)) vs = 2. v = 0. at speed vs = 2. flat.
00 μC/m2. at what coordinate on the x axis is of the sheet and particle zero? (c) If d = ? ((My solution)) .200 m.σ = vs 2mε 0 = 2. Thus we obtain σ = 2. and assuming it’s the only force then the acceleration is a = = slope of the graph ( = 2. If d 0. at distance d from the sheet. The force (in magnitude) on the electron (due to that field) is F = eE. Both are fixed in place. ________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2340 − − ••40 Figure 2346 shows a very large nonconducting sheet that has a uniform surface charge density of σ = 2.800 m. The field due to the sheet is E = .0 × 105 m/s divided by 7. at what (a) positive and (b) negative coordinate on the x axis (other than infinity) is the net electric field 0. it also shows a particle of charge Q = 6.0 × 10 12 s) .99 x 106 C/m2 et0 ((WileyPlus)) 38.9 × 10 6 C/m2.00 μC.
8 m Enet = 0 for x = 0.690988 m. (b) For d = 0.8 m The electric field due to the charge Q EQ = Q 4πε x 2 0 1 The electric field due to the surface charge σ Eσ = σ 2ε0 There are two cases where the net electric field becomes zero.00 µ C d = 0.2 m or d = 0.σ = 2.2 m Enet = 0 for x = ±0.690988 m.00 µ C/m2 Q = 6. ((WileyPlus)) . (c) d = 0.690988 m 2π σ (a). Enet = −EQ + Eσ = 0 We now solve the equation given by 1 Q σ = . For x>0 Enet = EQ − Eσ = 0 For x<d. 2 4π ε x 2ε0 0 or 1 Q =σ 2π x 2 The solution of this equation: x =± 1 Q = ±0.
we find r = x = ± ≈ ± 0. What is the magnitude of the slab's electric field at an x coordinate of (a) 0. (b) 2. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the sheet and the particle (− < x < 0) since the sheet and the particle have oppositesigned charges. In this part.0 mm? ((My solution)) ρ = 5.691 m. both values are allowed. and (b) x = − 0.80 m (greater than the magnitude of r found above). (c) If.00 mm. The origin of an x axis is at the slab's center. we have (a) x = 0. Thus.80 fC/m3.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet. Thus.40. (c) 4.70 mm. then neither of the points (x ≈ ± 0.691 m on the negative axis. then one of the points (x ≈ − 0.20 m (which is less than the magnitude of r found above). and (d) 26.80 fC/m3 d = 9. d = 0.40 mm . _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2343 ••43 Figure 2347 shows a cross section through a very large nonconducting slab of thickness d = 9. this is where the condition σ  Q = 2ε 0 4πε 0 r 2 must hold. The d point(s) could be in the region to the right of the particle (x > 0) and in the region to the left of the sheet (x < d). however.691 m. Solving this with the given values.691 m on the positive axis.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet and is disallowed.40 mm and uniform volume charge density ρ = 5. the fields cancel only at the point x ≈ +0. If d = 0.
For 0<x<d/2 2 E∆a = E= 1 For x>d/2 ε0 (2 x )∆aρ 2 E∆a = E= 1 ε0 d∆aρ ρx ε0 ρd 2ε 0 x=0 x = 2. It is centered at the central plane of the slab.0 mm E=0 E = 1. 5 0 .0 mm x = 4.7 mm x = 26. 5 1 . The cross section is shown with dashed lines in the diagram below. 0 0 .31 x 106 N/C E = 3. We use a Gaussian surface in the form of a box with rectangular sides.08 x 106 N/C E = 3.08 x 106 N/C E 1 . so the left and right faces are each a distance x from the central plane. so the left and right faces are squares. We take the thickness of the rectangular solid to be a. . 0 ((WileyPlus)) 43. 5 1 . 0 x d 0 . 5 1 . 0 d 2 0 0 . the same as its length.
0 mm = 2.00 ×10−3 m) = = 1.40 × 10−3 m) = = 3.70 ×10−3 m) = = 3.0 cm. it points outward at both faces: toward the left at the left face and toward the right at the right Furthermore.00 × 10 3 m. where on the x axis is the net electric field equal to zero? . and shell 2 has uniform surface charge density 2.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 2. the centers are separated by L = 6.80 fC/m3 is positive. −12 2 2 ε0 8.70 × 10 3 m. but with x > d/2. so the left and right faces are outside the slab. E= − over face.0 cm.85 × 10 C /N ⋅ m ) _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2350 ••50 Figure 2351 shows two nonconducting spherical shells fixed in place on an x axis. (b) For x = 2. Other than at x = ∞.60 × 10 2 m.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 0. The electric through each of these faces is Ea2. The field is parallel to the other of the Gaussian surface and the flux through them is zero. The total flux through the surface is again Φ = 2Ea 2 but the charge enclosed is now q = a2dρ .85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m − (d) For x = 26. so E= ρ d (5. E= ρ x (5.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(4.70 mm = 4.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m − (c) For x = d/2 = 4.50 cm.08 ×10−6 N/C. −12 2 2 2ε 0 2(8. The total through the Gaussian surface is Φ = 2 Ea 2 . We solve for the magnitude of the electric field: E = ρ x / ε 0 . Gauss’ law yields 2ε 0Ea2 = a2dρ . Gauss’ law yields 2ε 0Ea2 = 2a2xρ . (a) For x = 0.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(2.00 mm = 2. Since ρ = 5. Shell 1 has uniform surface charge density +4. we take a Gaussian surface of the same shape and orientation. E = 0.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(9. flux faces flux the ρ x (5. The volume enclosed by Gaussian surface is 2a2x and the charge contained within it is q = 2a 2 x ρ .The electric field is normal to the left and right faces and is uniform them. −12 2 2 ε0 8.08 ×10−6 N/C. the magnitude is the same at both faces.31×10−6 N/C.
0 cm Q2 = 4π r22σ 2 The charge –Q2 is on the shell2 There are two cases when the net electric field is equal to zero.5 cm Q1 = 4π r12σ 1 The charge Q1 is on the shell1 σ 2 = 2.0 µ C/m2 r1 = 0.((My solution)) σ 1 = 4.0 µ C/m2 r2 = 2. (i) For x>L Enet = 1 Q1 Q2 [ 2− ]=0 4π ε x ( x − L) 2 0 .
56772 cm (<L). The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the shells since the shells have oppositesigned charges. ((WileyPlus)) 50.or Q1 Q2 = 2 x ( x − L) 2 or σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2 = for x>L 2 x ( x − L) 2 2 2 (ii) For x<0 Enet = 1 Q1 Q2 [− 2 + ]=0 4π ε x ( x − L) 2 0 or Q1 Q2 = 2 x ( x − L) 2 Then we have σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2 = 2 x ( x − L) 2 2 2 for x<0 From the above equation. We note shell 2 has greater magnitude of . It cannot be inside the radius R of one of the shells since there is only one field contribution there (which would not be canceled by another field contribution and thus would not lead to zero net field). we get x= 1± L r2 r1 σ2 σ1 x = 3.28151 cm (x<0) or x = 1. So that this is not a solution.
We note that this value satisfies the requirement r > R1. inner radius a = 10.0 cm. (d) r = 1.00b? ((My solution)) . and (f) r = 3. and outer radius b = 2. (e) r = b.00.84 nC/m3. this condition simplifies to r = = 3. Consequently. r 3.50a.3 cm . then.3 _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2352 ••52 Figure 2353 shows a spherical shell with uniform volume charge density ρ = 1.00a. (b) r = a/2. which implies the point is not to the right of shell 2 (any such point would always be closer to the larger charge and thus no possibility for cancellation of equalmagnitude fields could occur). is that the net field vanishes at x = − = − cm. (c) r = a. this is where the condition  q1   q2  E1 = E2 ⇒ = 2 4πε 0 r 4πε 0 (r + L)2 or σ 1 A1  σ 2  A2 = . What is the magnitude of the electric field at radial distances (a) r = 0. The answer.charge (σ 2A2) than shell 1. the point should be in the region to the left of shell 1 (at a distance r > R1 from its center). 2 4πε 0 r 4πε 0 (r + L )2 Using the fact that the area of a sphere is A = 4π R2.
84 nC/m3 a = 10.0 cm b = 2a = 20.1223 N/C E = 1.ρ = 1.05 m.0 cm For a<r<b 4πr 2 E = E= 1 ε0 ∫ 4πr ' a r 2 ρdr ' = 4π ρ1 3 (r − a 3 ) ε0 3 ρ a3 (r − 2 ) 3ε0 r For r>b 4πr 2 E = E= 1 ε0 3 ∫ 4πr ' a b 2 ρdr ' = 4π ρ1 3 (b − a 3 ) ε0 3 ρ b − a3 ( ) 3ε0 r2 At r = 0 At r = a/2 = 0.60 m E = 0 N/C E = 0 N/C E = 0 N/C E = 7.34692 N/C .15 m At r = b = 0. At r = a = 0.3188 N/C E = 12.10 m At r = 1.20 m At r = 3b = 0.5a = 0.
1 r 0 . u 1 . 0 I f 0 . 6 5 7 1 0 . 0 2 2 1 4 12 37 9 s . 0 . c 0 m.4 m 7 e 2 9 .1 P h y s c o n s t b3 a3 r2 3 0 . E 1. 9 9 7 12 08 . R 6 9 1 2 1 5 3 C 1 0 . 8 5 4 1 8 17 08 1 7 e a 6 . ((Mathematica)) R 8 . p C . r u l e . 1 9 1 9 e V 1 . 0 2 . e V 1 . 0 . 0 2 2 14 02 3 R 8 . 6 0 2 18 0 1 9. r u l e .4 u 5 1 . . 8 n C 4 0 .1 P h y s c o n s t I f r 0 . 3 5 1 q e 1 . p C 1 0 . n m 1 0 9 g 9 . c m 0 . . n m 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E 1 r u l e 1 a 1 0c m. 1 m 1 0 6 .1 m . 0 I f r 0 . 3 7 12 0 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 04 8 7 c 2 .P h y s c o n g t 9 . 3 1 4 . m m 1 0 . . 3 7 21 06 . 6 0 2 1 8 0 1 9. 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 n C . 6 0 2 1 7 16 04 8 7 e 1 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78 2 . q . 6 6 0 14 0 2 7. 8 0 6 .2 E 2. f C 1 0 . c m 0 . 1 r 0 .5 8 . 1 . C 1 . 4 7 . 1 0 9 3 8 21 10 35 1. 8 5 4 1 9 0 1 2. 1 0 9 1 8 0 3 1. 0 2 3 0 r a3 r2 . 2 5 6 14 0 6 . R e a 6 . 5 6 6 3 71 00 6. 8 n 4 C a 1 0 c m. E 2. 6 G 5 6 . c 2 . . 0 0 1 6 9 . 1 9 6 1 0 8 . 0 1 . 8 0 6 G 6 . N A 6 . 4 8 4 8 9 3 r2 E t o t I f 0 . m e 9 . 1 0 7 1 2 6 0 1 2 . 9 9 7 9 2 48 . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 1. 1 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 m m . 1 .c m. n C 1 0 . 0. 2 7 0 4 r r2 E 2 0 . 1 . b 2 0 . f C .2 E 1. b 2 0 . 6 7 4 2 19 0 1 1 N A 6 . 3 1 4 . 1 4 8 .
5 . 2 0 . r 0 . 5. . P l o t S t y l e . r 0 0 E t o t. 2 1 2 . 1 5 7 . t r . " E N C " L i g " E N C 1 2 1 0 8 6 4 2 r m E t o t. 6 1 . r A a x y e s L a b e rl m " . 4 0 . r 0 .d T h i c . 3 4 6 9 2 0 . r 0 . r 0 . 1 2 2 3 E t o t . r 0 . k t R B a c k g r o u n d h t G. 3 1 1 8 8 E t o t . 0 . 3 0 . 1 0 0 E t o t .1 0 .P l o E t o. 0 5 0 E t o t.
00a ) 2 3ε 0 4 3(8.00a ) 2 3ε 0 36 3(8. we have E= 1 qenc ρ 4 πr 3 4 πa 3 ρ r3 − a3 = − = 4 πε 0 r 2 4 πε 0r 2 3 3 3ε 0 r 2 − 4 πa 3 .32 N/C. (b) E = 0 at r = a/2. 2316. 3 4 6 9 2 Fπr 4 G3 H 3 ((WileyPlus)) 52.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 2.00a)3 − a3 ρ a 7 (1.84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0.00a.375 (1. for r = 3.00.50a )3 − a 3 ρ a 2.100 m) 7 E= = = = 1.100 m) 7 E= = = = 12.00a)3 − a3 ρ a 7 (1.100 m) 2. the electric field is ρ (2. For a ≤ r ≤ b the enclosed charge qenc (for a ≤ r ≤ b) is related to the volume by qenc = ρ Therefore. 3ε 0 (2. r 0 .50a.00b = 6.35 N/C.E t o t .84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0. The field is zero for 0 ≤ r ≤ a as a result of Eq.84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 4 2 (f) For r ≥ b we have E = qtotal / 4πε 0 r or E= ρ b3 − a 3 .00a.1 N/C. (d) For r = 1.50a ) 2 3ε 0 2. the electric field is ρ (2. 3ε 0 (1.25 3(8. the electric field is E= for a ≤ r ≤ b. Thus. 3ε 0 (6.25 (e) For r = b = 2. 6 1 . and (c) E = 0 at r = a. 3ε 0 r 2 Thus.375 = = = 7.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 36 . 3 I J K I J K F G H ρ (1. (a) E = 0 at r = 0.
σ2 = +4. In unitvector notation. in cross section.00 μC/m2.00 μC/m2._____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2355 •••55 A charge distribution that is spherically symmetric but not uniform radially produces an electric field of magnitude E = Kr4.00 μC/m2. What is the volume density ρ of the charge distribution? ((My solution)) E= r 1 4π ε r 0 2 ∫ ρ(r ' )( 4πr ' 0 2 r 2 )dr ' = Kr 4 ∫ ρ(r ' )( 4πr ' 0 )dr ' = 4π ε Kr 6 0 Taking the derivative of both side with respect to r.50 cm. and K is a constant. Here r is the radial distance from that center. directed radially outward from the center of the sphere. 2 r dr r dr c h ________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2369 69 Figure 2355 shows. ρ (r )4πr 2 = 24π ε Kr 5 0 ρ (r ) = ((WileyPlus)) 55. and σ3 = 5. and distance L = 1. three infinitely large nonconducting sheets on which charge is uniformly spread. what is the net electric field at point P? . We use E (r ) = to solve for ρ (r) and obtain qenc 1 = 2 4πε 0 r 4πε 0 r 2 24π ε Kr 5 0 = 6ε 0 Kr 3 2 4πr ∫ r 0 ρ (r )4πr 2 dr ρ (r ) = ε0 d 2 ε0 d r E (r ) = 2 Kr 6 = 6 Kε 0r 3 . The surface charge densities are σ1 = +2.
((WileyPlus)) 69. we have E = (5. as shown in Fig. Let be the vector from the center of the sphere to a general point P within the sphere. The net field is directed upward (+ ˆ . Using superposition concepts. what is important is it is above the three sheets. 2313) its magnitude is j) r σ σ σ 1. show that the electric field at all points within the cavity is uniform and equal to . Since the fields involved are uniform. j _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2373 73 A nonconducting solid sphere has a uniform volume charge density ρ. (Note that the result is independent of the radius of the sphere.65 ×104 N/C)ˆ . the precise location of P is not relevant. −12 2 2 2ε 0 2ε 0 2ε 0 2(8. which conveniently conforms to usual conventions (of upward as positive and downward as negative).) (b) A spherical cavity is hollowed out of the sphere. (a) Show that the electric field at P is given by . is the position vector from the center of the sphere to the center of the ((My solution)) . where cavity.65 ×104 N C.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m ) r In unitvector notation.0 ×10−6 C/m2 E= 1 + 2 + 3 = = 5. 2356. and (from Eq. with the positively charged sheets contributing upward fields and the negatively charged sheet contributing a downward field.
we get r r E( r) = r 3 r 1 qenc r 1 ( 4πρ r 3) r ρ r r= = .(a) 4πr 2 E1 = E1 = 1 4π 3 r ρ ε0 3 ρ r 3ε0 (b) 4πr1 E2 = 2 1 4π 3 r ( −ρ) ε0 3 1 E2 = − ρ r1 3ε0 (c) E = E1 + E 2 = ρ ρ (r − r1 ) = a 3ε 0 3ε 0 ((WileyPlus)) 73. 4πε 0 r 3 4πε 0 r3 3ε0 . (a) From Gauss’ law.
((My solution)) where ρ is the For r<R. (a) Show that. volume charge density. By superposition ρr ( − ρ ) r − a ρa E r = + = . at a distance r < R from the cylinder axis. (b) Write an expression for E when r > R. Er ( 2πrh ) = Er = 1 ε0 (πr 2 h) ρ ρr 2ε0 For r>R.(b) The charge distribution in this case is equivalent to that of a whole sphere of charge density ρ plus a smaller sphere of charge density –ρ that fills the void. . 3ε 0 3ε 0 3ε 0 bg b g _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2376 76 Charge is distributed uniformly throughout the volume of an infinitely long solid cylinder of radius R.
Consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a cylinder with radius and length . 0 0 . “end view”) of the charged cylinder (solid circle). 8 0 . Thus. the total flux through the Gaussian cylinder is Φ = EAcylinder = E (2π rl ). The charge enclosed is the total charge in a section of the charged cylinder with length l . coaxial with the charged cylinder. In this case. we consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of radius r > R. 2ε 0 (b) Next. where V = πr 2 l is the volume the cylinder. The charge enclosed by it is q = ρV = π r 2 l ρ . 4 R 2 0 0 . 2ε 0 r . An “end view” the Gaussian surface is shown as a dashed circle. q = π R 2 l ρ . Gauss’ law yields 2πε 0 rl Eext = π R 2 l ρ ⇒ Eext = R2 ρ . perhaps more appropriately. 6 0 . (a) The diagram shows a cross section (or. normal to the Gaussian surface and distributed uniformly along it. Now. the electric field lines are radially outward. r of of If ρ is positive. Gauss’ law leads to 2πε 0 rl E = π r 2 l ρ ⇒ E = ρr . 2 1 2 3 4 5 r R ((WileyPlus)) 76. That is. If the external field Eext then the flux is Φ = 2π r l Eext .Er ( 2πrh ) = Er = 1 ε0 (πR 2 h) ρ ρR 2 2ε0 r E 1 .
What are (a) the magnitude of the surface charge density on the plates and (b) the direction (up or down) of ? ((My solution)) The electric field between two parallel. nonconducting plates is given by E= σ ε0 Newton’s second law: ∑F y =0 eE −mg = 0 Then e have σ= mgε 0 = 4. .937 × 10 − 22 C / m 2 e to obtain the surface charge density. One plate has a uniform positive charge.9 ×10−22 C m2 .3 cm apart. r r r Since Fe = qE .8 m s ) ( 8. the electric force must point upward. ((WileyPlus)) 82. The force on the electron due to the electric field between the plates balances the gravitational force on the electron. (a) We use meg = eE = eσ /ε 0 ( 9. the other has an equal amount of uniform negative charge. nonconducting plates that are horizontal and 2.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 1. we see that the field E must point downward._____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2382 82 A free electron is placed between two large. parallel.11×10 m gε σ= e 0= e −31 kg ) ( 9. = 4. and q = −e < 0 for electron.60 × 10−19 C (b) To cancel the gravitational force that points downward.
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