Instructor's Solutions Manual

to accompany

Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
Third Edition

John D. Anderson, Jr.
Curator of Aerodynamics National Air and Space Museum

and
Professor Emeritus University of Maryland

Boston Burr Ridge, UDubuque, lA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St Louis Bangkok Bogota Caracas Kuala Lumpur Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Santiago Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

CHAPTERl

1.1

(a )

p

=-

P

RT

=

1.9 x 10 (287)(203)

4
i

= 0.326 k 1m,
1

31
t

g

(b) T = _l'_ pR

=

1058 = (1.23 x 10-3 )(1716)

ismoRl

1.2

N' = -

I

TE

LE

(pu cos

e + 1:" sin e) ds,
e)
ds f (1.7)

+

S:

(P i cos

e-

r r sin

ds cos

e = dx

ds sin e = -dy Hence, N'

=-

f

LE

TE

(Pu - P e) dx +

J

LE-

TE

(Ttl

+ "C .) dy

Divide by q", S = qoo e(l)

~

q",c

=

_.!.
c

f

TE

LE

[(Pu - Poo) _ (p P"')]dX .:
q",
t-

q",

C

J

TE

LE

(~+2)
q",_ qoo

dy

,Cn

=

'!'Jc
coP'

(c -c

p,

) dx+.!.

C

IIT

LE

(cr._ r,_) dy +c
"

Tills is Eq. (LI5).

A' =

J (-Pu sinH + u cosu) ds,
TE

LE

1:

+

f

TE LE

(P;, sine

+ t 1 cosfl)

ds

f.

(1.8)

_£=2_
q",C

C LE

JT~ [(Pn-P",)_(Pt-P"')]dY+! qoo q",
fITLE
(c
P.

C
(c

Je
0

(~+~Jdx
q", qoo

Ca

=

2_
C

- c ) dy + _!_
Pc C

-f

C O

f.

- c fe ) dx '

This is Eq. (1.16).
M'LE =

J
+

LE

IT

[CPu cosf + 'tu sin8)x - (Pu sine - 'Cu cos8)y] ds,
TE

J

LE

[-p t coss + 1: t sine)x + (p e sine + r ecos8)y] ds e

+

J

LE

IT

[Pu -

P

r] y dy +

f

IT

LE

("u + 1: e) Y dx

-p",)] [(Pu-p"')_(Pt q"" qo>
2

x dx - -;c.

s: (~+2)XdY
qoo q",

3 M..c>/ .+2 r3 em 1 f fe TE LE [(PU .Po»] qoo s. c [ 0 (C. ..CpJ x dx - JTE LE (C. U +Cr.. (1.POO) _ (Pe . u. 1.17).) x dy This is Eq. y dy + ~ _1 c2 f TE LE (__:_._ qo> +~) qoo y dx =-2 tc.> 3 .

12 x 105 sin 10° + 1274 coso.-p·)fJ (p.11).78 x 104 + 1)05 X 105 (0.A' sino = 1. (i. M'd4 = M'LE + L' (cf4) = -5. 7) .25) =1-3. + A' cosc = 1.~ For a flat plate. Hence.[-(p. -Pu) c 1.105 x lOSij D' =N' sino.(1. e = 0 in Eqs. L' = N' coset .02 x 104NfIDJ 4 .12 x 105 cos 100 -1274 sin 10° = 11.

2) cos 12° -::.0498 0.0 8.336 0.3) cosc = !0. (1.279[ 1.41 0.6 c.0 14.0 4.243 1.22).271 0.284 0.846 L07 1.293 2.266 152 5 .25 1.402 0. COSet =(1_2) sin 12° + (0.09 0.639 0.277 0.0. Also.3) sinn = ( Cd = Cn 11.0 0.0 12.0 o 0. - Ca sino.181 sino + c. we have -2.44 0. = cl COSet + Cd sino.0 6. using the more accurate NT rather than L' in Eq. = (1.5 C = en coso.306 0.1.0 10.

__ _ bj _~..2~. _~.~--. 1.------------~--------------~--~ /rl'7 CB __2 4J2..-..-t..r-: -~-. ----r~--~·~-·-:~.~.--... . -Zo .._ 'C /.---..---------_ .3 = 2 dimensionless where 6 . Compare the above variation with the center-of-pressure measurements of the Wright Brothers on one of their airfoils... . __ . - _ ._ 1 _ ~ __-:_____:_ ~.-·--{ ...--:.:.~-_j _ ~. ...~ . ·~-7·~~. ..0 r. .._------------_.'--:-. I • _- __ ~. _--.28. ~. shown in Fig.-.£0~-' L 1.:._....- ..~ - ._ . '.~o : ~l /4l-0' .:__•. .f..- -2.. .----._!. __....I"" - i~ =.7 K = 3 (mass.(j _i Note that xcp moves forward as ex is increased.... _:_~ . . _I' . . x co -___..---. length.._ .~~4_.K = 5 . ·-~--'j:--T ' i--. 1. ______ .'. -.~ _-.. and time) fJ (D. - _.:-r i . ! • --1 ::-... -_-... and that it closely approaches the quarterchord point in the range of IT of 10° to 140• At higher angles-of-attack. xcp will reverse its movement and move rearward as a continues to increase... beyond the stall (ex > 16).. g) = 0 Hence Nr= 5 Pi products: We can write this expression in terms ofN . - . p"" V"" c. ~ :i :-_:~r _ - .--_-. .

2 = 0 D. time. length.2 or Il1 = ---- D 2 C 2 1 -p V 2 eo '" Let Il2 =p.2d = 0 Thus: or: K =4 (mass. degrees) 7 .mass: a +1= 0 + c + 1= 0 a =-1 b=-2 c=-2 length: -Ja + b time: Hence: -b .} V'" 1 = (m cD gd t-1) fb r3)a U a= 0 ce t-2)d = 0 mass: a=O d = -1/2 b = -1/2 length: -3 a time: Hence: + 1+b +d = 0 -1 .= D P eo Vco -c ~..

e) massl'") masst") m(O) p""lV cr:J j ck Cp nD-I1 I - mass: length: time: i+ 1 = 0 i =-1 n=O j =-2 -3i + j + k + 2n + 1 = 0 -j . This can be written as a function ofN . N = 7.2 =0 degrees: -n Hence: =0 k=-2 ForTh 8 . are [c p ] = energy = (force)( dis tan ce) = (mft ~2 )( .K = 7 .2n -.4 = 3 pi products: where: The dimensions of cp and c.Hence.

We can take the reciprocal. Thus. 9 . cp .2n ~ 2 = i=O n= -1 0 j=O k=O degrees: -n~ 1 =0 Hence: C _v IT3 = Hence.mass: i= 0 i=O k=O n=v-l ]=0 length: -3i + 1 + j + 2k + n = 0 time: -1 -2k-n = 0 degrees: -k Hence: =0 113 ~ p""j V j 00 C k Cp n Cv mass: length: time: i= 0 -3i + j + k + 2n + 2 = 0 -j . or. and still have a dimensionless product.

The Reynold's numbers are different. Hence 10 . that f. as before.1.L a -If. the flows must be dynamically similar. and the wind tunnel by subscript 2.9 Hence. Hence and For Mach number: Since a a Jf. Hence. the two flows are not dynamically similar. 1. For the lift and drag coefficients to be the same in both cases.10 Denote free flight by subscript 1. the Mach numbers of the two flows are the same. we have (1) For Reynolds number: pVc 1 11 PI = --P"2 P2V2C Assume.

65 T2 Hence. J1 . SUbSL K J = 34. from the equation of state: 7T p_ 2 = ~- L01 X 10 R287 5 =351.9 (16_7) = 34.or. P2 V2 =34. (1) .65 jf. (3): (4) Subst. summarized below: Vz P2. jf.67 (1) K Z = 34. or.65 (2) (3) From Eq. P2 V = 1. . (2) Finally. and T2.(3) represent three equations for the three unknowns. (4) into (2): 3519 ( V2 T2 . They are Eqs.9 (3) V1.65 (5) (1) into (5): 351.

7 .43 x 104 Nfmj 1.6~12175 m sec I = 1. V2~ 16.)169.01 X 105 - (1.6 ill 8!Jg .9 351.T2 = (351. (1). from Eq.000) ~ volume (nr') y (9.36 x 104)(9. ~16. 16).1117) ~ air density at 1000in (kg/m3) +L B = (15. (1.65) From Eq.8) 1.9)(16. and 12 . (3): P2= --=--=2..7 .8)(0.16) :in the text.JT.634 x 10~ acceleration of gravity (m/sec) L = q"" S CL = (500)(153_9)(0_05) Hence: = 3487 N w = 1.9 Frorn Eq. In this case. 351.67 x 1O=Nj'~' Cd L 13 Let us use the formalism surrounding Eq _(1. neglecting skin friction = ca.60Kj (34.2) Pb = 17.7) = 1169.07-3 T2 169.634 x 105 + 3847 = 11.12 Weight = Buoyancy force + lift w = B (1.

From Eq. note that 8 is drawn counterclockwise in this sketch. hence it is a negative angle.(1) From Eq. Voe From the geometry: 8=n:-$ Helice. (2). Hence. noting also that ds = rd~ and the chord c is twice the radius. The first integral is evaluated from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the upper surface. cos ~ d <j> (3) Consider the limits of integration for the above integrals. sin (-8) =- sin 8 = sin (n:-8) = cos ~ C= 2r. . -8. 13 . ~ = 0 at LE and rr at TE. Eq.13) in the text. (1) above can be written as (2) Draw a picture: -9 Following our sign convention. ca = 1 2 f TE LE Cpo cos <j> d~ __ 1 2 f TE LE Cp. Substitute this into Eq. (1. (2).

.)(1)(2).: ~ S - = J tr!2 o cos 3 . (4).(. 5.h)(cos 2. ~ = 2n at LE and n at the TE.h 't' - f 3.h 't' Since cos'' ~ d ~ = (~ sin~)(COS2<I> + 2). Eq..)7[ C Pc =0 Thus. itr 't' 3trl2 ca = (. =0 3. 5. + 2J .The second integral is evaluated from the leading edge to the trailing edge along the bottom surface.h 't' d .)(-1)(2) 3 3 1. [("3 S1l1~)(cos2 <I> + 2) ] 1 1 0 :r(1 - - [( 1.- C 1'. Eq. Thus. (5) becomes :) Cd= 1..2 2tr cos' . cos ~ d ~ (4) In Eq. (3) becomes -. "3 sine. for 0 :::. (4) becomes cd for 1t s..14 14 .1 2 J tr 2. 2n $ " -2 . Eq. nl2 $ C p.h 't' d .r 2 for - :::.1.. Hence.

~ I I II f :t x J h:z ~II I I . Thus.. and dA2 near the bottom of the body. and makes angles 8] and 82 respectively with respect to the vertical line through the middle of dA. (4) integrated over the volume of the body J5 . Consider also the vertical cylinder element inside the body which intercepts the surface area dA] near the top of the body. the total force in the y direction. The pressures on dA] and dA2 are PJ and P2 respectively. hI . Q)1. P g dy (3) Combining Eqs.lEi PI I FLuID dAr hI II I1 scar S-UBIfE£6E. I Thus. Fyo is given by Eq. (2) and (3). (1) becomes (2) From the hydrostatic equation P2 . and dA2• The net pressure force in the y-direction on this cylinder is: (1) Let dAy be the projection of dAl and dA2 on a plane perpendicular to the y axis. dFy = J h.PI = f b-. dy dAy = dV = element of volume of the body. h I P g dy dAy (4) However.f) I df}.1 I I I I I Consider the arbitrary body sketched above. Eq.

79 13.323 0.49 13.97 10. 16 .033 0.047 0.192 0.911 1.179 0.063 0.S = 2W "" 2(2950) p"Y".14 These results are plotted on the next page. (1.634 0.395 0.028 6.494 0.03 9.483 0.100 0.42 9.228 0.~ Force on body ill pgdV Weight of fluid displaced by body.025 + 0.2S (0. (1) and (2) versus velocity.40 13.031 0.17 11.844 0. v~(ftlsec) 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 2.45) C L = _L_ q".029 0.761 1. L15 From Eq.270 0.038 0. CD = 0. 2 (174) (1) Also.054 CL 2 (2) Tabulate Eqs.002377)V".0 11.31 8.

. 17 . (Note that on the graph the scale for CD is one-tenth that for Cd 3. .0:'./0 O. goes through a maximum. However. the drag coefficient decreases even faster than the lift coefficient with velocity.a. ---~". k:. which is much lower than the maximum velocity. increases. the maximum value of LID occurs around V ce = 140 ft/sec.O(j.. 2. we note. for steady. cFT/S.'· 0. Mcfiraw-Hill. As a result. and then gradually decreases as velocity increases. The range of the aircraft is proportional to LID (see for example. even though the value of LID is less than its maximum.I-JT_ l/EL. As seen in the graph.S 8 0. level flight: 1.08" O. the lift-to-drag ratio first increases. The lift coefficient decreases as V". L /~~ J4 o -0. Anderson. It can be shown that the maximum velocity for this airplane is about 265 ftlsec at sea level.Ec..) Examining this graph. 1999. This has the practical implication that at higher speeds.~ ".12 0.2 :2 0 o 70 W 110 /30 /50 /70 /Yo 2/0 230 2SQ FL/t. at higher velocity the value of LID decreases only gradually as V co increases. or Anderson.. -' 0. Introduction to Flight. At lower velocity range. Aircraft Performance and Desim. 4th ed.-OC/TY. it is still a reasonably high value.

2000). To obtain maximum range. 18 . the flight time may be unacceptably long. By cruising at a higher speed. say 200 ft/sec. one reason to fly in an airplane is to get from one place to another in a reasonably short time.McGraw-Hill. By flying at the low velocity of V cc = 140 ft/sec. However. the flight time will be cut by 30%. the airplane should fly at the velocity for maximum LID. with only an 18% decrease in LID. which for this case is 140 ftJsec.

. we have 22 V??i!r Wrtl/ /r:L L L L fa. However...t.. i. combining Eqs. / / ! I I I e C.. (1) and (2).c' ------1 «: __ '_c~ 7 I I [ / I l X 7 7/ LOUI~~ Wall 77 7 7€ f.. the integral of the surface vector over a closed surface is zero.e.CHAPTER 2 2-1 If p = constant = p". Hence..~ ---. 777/ ()c) hJ I 19 . ...

. are not necessarily equal to P<>:rof the model such that Assume that faces ai and bh are far enough upstream and downstream p= Poo Take the y-component and v =0 and ai and bh.4 dy dx == v u == x y dx Y dy=-x 20 .) (This is the velocity field and 2.. h Hence L' = f b P t dx - f pu dx 2. dS) v . (p dS)y =- [J a b pu dx - l: . the integrals over ia and bh cancel because p = p"" on both faces. lS In Minus SIgn because y-component Direction. The walls are close enough to the model such that P» and p f...H (p dS)y S .. to be discussed in Chapter 3.66) L= - # (p V . downward Note: In the above. Hence L' = - Sf abhi . streamline pattern for a source. l h JP dx] ... either because V' ds = 0 or because v = O. ofEq.3 dy dx dy = u == cY/(X2 +y2) cx/(x_2+l) =- Y x dx y x The streamlines are straight lines emanating from the origin. (2.Denote the pressure distributions on the upper and lower walls by pu(x) and P e (x) respectively.. -+ The first integral = 0 overall surfaces.bhi .

cy r r x v = VEl cos 8 = er . solid body rotation.l = ---2 + const x2 + l = const. with centers at the origin. to be discussed in Chapter 3.) 2.en x + CJ y=eix The streamlines are hyperbolas.5 From inspection.1 This is the equation of a circle with the center at the origin. since there is no radial component of velocity. streamline pattern for a vortex.en y = x . the streamlines circular. 21 .cr r = . (This is the velocity field and The streamlines are concentric with their centers at the origin.Ve sin = . To show this more precisely. must be u = .= ex dy dx ~2 v u x Y + Xl = const.) (This velocity field corresponds to dy dx dy y v u Y x dx x .

u sin 8 + v cos 8 22 .(r V ) + --- ra: r roe Transformation: x =rcos 8 y=rsin8 Vr = U cos e + v sin 8 Ve = . 1 0 1 8V(} In polar coordinates: V V = -.._ _.

. V ...~ = r a- (0) + .(c) + -r ar 861 = 0 =0 (b) From Eq.!.. r 2 C c sine r Vr = .u= ex (2 +y-)" x cy (Xl = cr cosB I- c case I " y= +y2) 2 cr sinB r2 c.cos 0 + r C .s8 sin8 .8 u= cy (X +y2) '-ex 2 er sinB c sine = r2 r cr cosB c cose r y= (x ' + y") r2 -- Vr =~ r co.::.OJ = !Ql The flowfield is irrotational...sm 0 = - r Ve = .~ 2 r r (a) V'.~ r sin2e .~ cose sine + ~ cosO sine r r . (2.~ cosu sin8 = 0 r Va =.!. 10 1 8(0) V' V = --:. 0( -c / r) r =0 + 0 = lQ! 8B . 2. cos e = .23) V' x V = ez [0 + 0 .

r----------------------------------------------- ---------------- (b) \Ix V = e---7 [o(-c/r) z a_- _~ r2 _ _!_ r O(O)J Oe \I x V = IQl except at the origin. Z V= [ace/r) it + cr r _2. 2. O(O)J r ae = ez (c + C . The flowfield is singular at the origin.. Vx Vs=cr e.9 Vr=O... it is rotationaL 2.... where r = O. The vorticity is finite.0) = 2c ez ---7 . The flow is not irrotational.10 b 24 .

Mass flow between streamlines = ~ !jr

/:"0-

=pV

A.n

Let cd approach ab (1) Also, since

V

=

0-

(r.O), from calculus

dt"
. 'f'

-

=-

o If-

a

dr+

_'I'

or~r de
38

(2)

Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2)

and

P rV r = iJ8 or:

00-

2.11

u = ex =

orr : \tf OJ
=-

;0=

cxy + f(x)

(1)

v = - cy

CJry :

ex

\jJ

= cxy + f(y)

(2)

25

Comparing Eqs. (1) and (2), f(x) and fey) = constant

!\jf = c x y + const

I

(3) (4)

v = - cy =

3!f : ~ = - cl + f(x)
t3;
and fex) = cx2

(5)

Comparing Eqs. (4) and (5), fCy) = - cl

(6) Differentiating Eq. (3) with respect to x, holding

'v = const,

0= ex dy +cy dx or, (dY) dx Differentiating

= _ y/x
V'~comt

(7)

Eq. (6) with respect to x, holding ~ = const. . dy dx

O=2cx-2cyor,

Y (ddx)

= xlv
¢~const '-

(8)

Comparing Eqs, (7) and (8), we see that 1

Hence, lines of constant \II are perpendicular to lines of constant ~.

26

2.12.

The geometry of the pipe is shown below.

L{ z: /00

h7'

/Y"'-c

..

,

f

As the flow goes through the If-shape bend and is turned, it exerts a net force R on the internal surface of the pipe. From the symmetric geometry, R is in the horizontal direction, as shown, acting to the right. The equal and opposite force, -R, exerted by the pipe on the flow is the mechanism that reverses the flow velocity. The cross-sectional area of the pipe inlet is nd2/4 where d is the inside pipe diameter. Hence, A = nd2/4 = n(0.5i/4 = O.l96m2. The mass flow entering the pipe is m = PI A VI Applying the momentum (2,75), namely

=

(1.23)(0.196)(100) = 24.11 kg/sec.

equation, Eq. (2.64) to this geometry, we obtain a result similar to Eq.

R=-

#

(pV'dS)V

(1)

Where the pressure term in Eq. (2.75) is zero because the pressure at the inlet and exit are the same values. In Eq. (1), the product (p V' dS) is negative at the inlet (V and dS are in opposite directions), and is positive at the exit (V and dS) are in the same direction). The magnitude of p V . dS is simply the mass flow, m , Finally, at the inlet VI is to the right, hence it is in the positive x-direction, At the exit, V2 is to the left, hence it is in the negative x-direction. Thus, V 2 = - V I. With this, Eq. (1) is written as R = - [- m V I
=
ill

.

+ m V 2] = m (V I - V 2)

.,

-

[VI - (-V])] = m (2V])
= @822 Nj

R = (24.11)(2)(100)

27

&. inviscid flow.+pw&. &.dx=_dx (4) ex OJ & Ov pOx- IN u -dy+v &. dy=. Oz OJ iP) (7) flow (see Eq.1&i3v& Oz =""&". y-momentum: pu -+pv .dz=- m. x-momentum: & & &-q:. dy. Eqs. & lcp u-dx+v-. (2). and dz respectively: &..-1 p (iP -dx+--q:. 8. (2.= 8w& Oz.CHAPTER 3 3_1 Consider steady. Oz ex OJ Oz (3) Multiply (1). (8) into (7): . dy+-dz &. pu-+pv-+pw--=-OJ & (1) ex &.119)): V x V="'O Z. OJ (2) z-momentum: 8w Ow & pu-+pv-+pw-=-- q:.-dy pO:! (5) iW udz+v 0. and (3) by dx.: Ow 0r dz +w _-. -dy+w - i3v 0r - & 1 q. = 8y (8) Subt.dx+w. iY Oz 8v Ov Ov =-- q:. & -dz P OJ liP (6) Add + (5) (6): (4) + & Ov 8w) u (-dx+-dy+-dz i3v +v -dx+-dy+-dz ex ex & (& q OJ iW) ry Ov +w (& -dx+-dy+-dz & & _& For irrotational Hence: Ow) - =.

2 {(~J1] ~ (2)(PI .Oz.& u(~dx+ & q CU ~ dy+-dz & & J +v (81 ~ dv-i.:-dy+-dz p .pv dV which integrates to const. 1 2 P+.~ dz J -dx+ & OV 0- OV & +w (Ow -dx+-dy+-dz Oz 8z Ow Ow) & P 1 CP 0J = . oy rep Oz J 1 u du+ v dv + W dw= .4 2 w 11 29 .d (u + v 1 2 2 2 + _2 w ) ee - 1 2 d CV2) = V dV = - .P2) 3.~ -dx+--.pV 2 = for incompressible flow.dp P 1 dp = .~ dp . 3.

---.33 x 10 )(0.w = Pmg = (L36 X 104) (9.+ - 1 2 p Vs.6 Po=P".01 x 10) N/mj Note: It makes sense that the total pressure in the test section would equal one atmosphere.. and for an inviscid flow. 3.5 . p = 5 1. -t -t i V'" = u = constant v"" 30 . 2 '__:. ~ sec 3. PI ~ P2 = ~h = (1.1.8 V=V". = 8.8 130 )" - =tQB .33 x 10 )(0.1m. 3 -=Al 12 A2 1 2(1.23)(147i = 11. because the flow in the tunnel is drawn directly from the open ambient surroundings.1) = 1.8 ~.33 X 105 N/m2 ~h = 10 em = O.77 X 1 104 + 2 (1. we have no losses between the inlet and the test section.8 m2 sec ) = 1.01) x 10 123 5 = 98. . 3.33 x 10 N/m 5 4 2 po = P2 + 1 "2 P V.1) (L23{I-L~n W = 1147 m/se~ 3.7 Cp=l- ( - V ) 2 V~ =1-(98.:__-- 2(1~07 .23 kg/m".

Hence. V=Ve=-e 'r -+ -+ A-+ 2m r In polar coordinates: \1' V = --(rVr)+ -+ 13 rit lOV __ 0 r Of} \1' V = -+l~- -- r· -)+O=~ 2. the flow is a physical possible incompressible What happens at the origin? Visualize a cylinder of radius r wrapped around the line source per unit depth perpendicular to the page.9 For a source flow. The volume flow across this cylindrical surface is 31 . 3.) at 0 .10 -+ J.. except at the origin where r = 0. o.It is a physically possible incompressible -+ J flow.r flow. \l xV = -+ -+ -+ 1 k = i (0-0) .j (0 . Ull 0 0 \l x V =0 I The flow is irrotational.$) + k (0 - -+ 0.

then we have the volume flow per unit depth. Hence. ~ Hence V -V = __. t-.V ---+ 0 (V·V)= _.V. (2) and (3) m v (\7. This is precisely the definition of source strength. CD at origin To show that the flow is irrotational. Eq. (2) From the divergence theorem: (3) s v Combining Eqs.<is = (1) Since we are considering a unit depth. V) d V = A = constant (4) Shrink the volume to an infinitesimal value. (4) becomes (V· V) t-. from (l). lim .# s v . around the origin. /\ = constant # v· s ill.V = co. A Taking the limit as tJ.. calculate \7 xV er -4 ~ ~ res ez -+ er -+ -+ teo ez -> V xV=- 1 'r a- 8 so rVe 8 - 8 & Vz -- 1 8 it A 8 8B r 8 8z 0 Vr 2m 0 V xV = -r ee -+ - o 000 ~-~)+~~-~) 32 ~§ . A.V= -. - A tJ.

10 \l x V =0 everywhere" .}¢) + . Laplace's equation . for \If = V y. Laplaces equation: iilj/ 021j/ = 0 + 0 = 0' IS 1 entre 'd 'all y saris fi d . 0 2 _!_ ~ (r .!. Olj/ = 0 't' ex' 02lf &2 =0 Hence. --2 IS id 2 2 & OJ Similarly.=V 'Y "'" X· O¢ = 0 OJ Hence.r2 2 = _!_ ~ 0 r~ J+ 0= 0 is identically satisfied. ' Ie + -- --2 &. ! 3. Laplaces equation: 0 '11 ' ie --2 ¢ + . Oj2 3.11 Hence. 33 .L oe¢ 0 r iT a..0 ¢ = 0 + 0 = O· 1 entica y satis fi d .Hence.

A If/=-=e 2 -=0. 2V.-\· e = r=--' 1! I Equation of the semi-infinite body.A e =-A 2JfV". . tr-e sine 34 . Hence.o or. A 1 . upstream of the source. Bt.. --8=-2JfV 2JfV".V = V J sin e + !!:_ e = A 2tr 2 or. e + -. = The shape of the body is given by \. 3. k sin El. 2 V"" rsin8+ 2trV". a- Hence.12 The stagnation point is a distance A!2nV". rsm or. or A=2nV".. -- 2nV". Laplaces equation 1 0 (Olfl) 1 021f 10 1 _ +---=--(0)+-(0)-0 -- r a r- a- r2 i3f}2 r a r2 is identically satisfied.

859 -0.64 of Body Cartesian Coordinates To plot the pressure coefficient: A Vr = V cos 8 + 2~ 00 = V 00 2n.54 3.1.511 1.( -V J2 = ( _' )2 + ( V )2 =cosB+-cosB+.3416 0.6416 1.509 5.8 2.91 2.0 0.57 1.372 2.1416 0.522 0 0. Vr _ =cos8+V".142 3 2.0 -0.84 nl2 1.5 1.072 1. 1 r _Il V =_ sin V".14 2.57 4.84 2.V cos 8 + --"'2m = V V co cos 8 + ~ r or.3 1.02 1.57 1.39 2.5 2.0033 1.75 0. e 2 V 2 2 . _. V".!_ 1 2 V"" r 2 r r r 35 .990 0 0.[ x = r coss y = r sine 1 1.51 -1 -0. +sm B=1+-cosB+V".961 -0.eCrad) rt .255 1.

CJ 2.51 2.509 5.5 3.0 0. .75 0.4982 -0. /-01 ·1 t -/'0 ~-'-.98 0. i .0 ~ - ..886 0..02 1.0 V~ 2. I 0 /.072 1.8 2.eCrad) rt !: .580 -0.0 0.255 1.cQ 1..0 nl2 1.352 1 3 LOO 1.624 0.0 3.57 1.3 1. .91 2.:0' '.0 S:Q 36 .54 3. Sh'fif?E1 I .554 -0.0283 -0.4057 -0.5 2.

.O.:2- o r-~r---~------~------~------4-------4-~~~i o /.0 20 ~o Soo -0.4 0..2 X -0./( •Source A b 1 :x: b 0 SIi7k- • -.13 VoO . 37 .. 5 fa 'In<:tfu:m pdlnf ( ® I-A .4 3./1.g 0.

.At point A: Velocity due to freestream = V OX) Velocity due to source = -A 2.(r -b)= A - 27t Ab (2b) = 7r 3.-~---+~--2:Jr (r . VA = O.14 k sine For a doublet.. A o= V + ~ 0() 2:Jr (r + b) [ 1 + (r _ b) 1 =V + ~ co I o=V + ~ [r-b-Cr+b)] co 2:Jr· (r + b)(r.w = .b) 2 2 2:Jr (-2b) r2 - b2 Y.r(r+ b) (note that it is in the negative x-direction) (+A) Velocity due to sink = 2:Jr(r + b) (Note that it is in the positive x-direction) Total velocity at Point A: A 1 VA=V".--27r (1) r Olf/ = _ .!E_ cos 08 27r r e (2) 38 .b) A I 2:Jr (r + b) From point A to be a stagnation point..

16 From Eq.Substitute (2) into (1) O'¢ _ K cos --.15 1 err Vr= -_= rce ( (Vmcos8)1--.1 ( ---.93): _r v = (1-R2) r2 cosEl V"" 39 . 3. (3. r R2) At the surface. r = R 3.e) _ K cose ----- a r 2ff r 2J[ r2 Integrating with respect to r or.

(1.17 From Eq. (3. is the same.163 m2/sec I 40 . Thus. v.From Eq.23)(30) 6 ~O. (1+. (3. --+ to V roo Hence.V". the direction V. 2nrV"... <0 3.18 L' = Pox:> r Vro L' r~-p".94): _=_ V-. the direction of the resultant velocity at a given point will also change._r V = ( 1~-? cos6 R V". r Note that V oN co is itself a function of V ro via the second term.94): At any given point (r. Vr and Ve are both directly proportional of the resultant. The shape of the streamlines changes when V co changes.sm6---~ R2). no matter what the value of V co may be. as V changes. the shape of the streamlines remains the same. Hence. c 2 J From Eq. r2 .119): _. 3. (3.O).

002377 sh:g ft" 10-7 slug (ft)(sec) f1<c = 3. Re = pVD J.ft sec goo .3.8)(4.39. = ~ (0.167 = 9312 From Fig. CD = 1.7)(0.737 X Also: V = 120 mph = 120 (88) 60 ft/sec= 176 .. For the struts: D = 2 in = 0. ~ p".. p"" = 0.39.167) = 4.0078 32 Re = 199382 (0.0078) 0.002377) (176)2 = 36. Drag due to struts: Ds = ft? qoo S Co = (36.167) 3.8 Ib/ft2 }..002377)(187. 3.624)(1) Total drag due to struts and wires = Ds + Dw = = 23 lb 153 + 23 = 11761 41 . V.737 x 10-7 = 199382 ' From Fig.8)(0.l "= (0.624 2' .175)(1) D= = 153 lb ft For the bracing wires: _2_ in = 0.167 ft. ft. Hence.0078) = 0.175 Hence. CD = L The total frontal surface area of the wires is (80) (0. 3. Drag due to wires: Dw = qoo S CD = (36. The total frontal surface area of the struts is (25) (0.19 At standard sea level conditions.

and the lift on the airfoil where the circulation is taken as the total r is the same as for a circular cylinder. point sources and vortices. The strength of the vortices.8)(230)(0.036) = ~04. even if the closed curve is drawn a very large distance away from the airfoil. = (36.e4 / ~~ -~ > \ -..__ --- I --- ....e.140).i._c. L' = pro v""r /' /' --- r O/:dr/&deJ <.27 for the circular cylinder. 3.. S CD .rle.58 of the total drag ."U') c ~ ( ( 1~ ~rt7.. r "JvCl'j "" .e. the drag due to the struts and wires is ~ - 3M~ = 0.20 The flow over the airfoil in Figure 3... '\ Vc!.... CR. thus eliminating struts and wires completely. added together.37 can be syntheized by a proper distribution of singularities.f7~.. ills value of'T is the same along all closed curves around the airfoil.""" .. This is exactly equivalent to the single point vortex in Figure 3. (3. the airfoil becomes a speck on the page. 58 percent of the total drag.. In this case.- / 42 . CD = q". gives the total circulation. namely Eq. r.. around the airfoil. This clearly points out the drag reduction that was achieved in the early 1930's when airplane designers started using internally braced wings with one or more central spars. <..The total zero-lift drag for the airplane is (including struts and wires) .)" -/' / I ') - f1 ~.-fe '-. i...81 Note that. and the distributed point vortices appear as one stronger point vortex with strength I'.c. .:h'si-. for this example.

-...2 q"O= _!.036 = 13. = 0.l = -0. the second term in Eq. p"" V ro 2 = l (1. J V'dv=1 c c d (V2) 2 =0 From the momentum equation. m..36) = to. DV e -7 Dt ~ ds + 1 c V· ds -7 .80 Ib per unit sp~ L' = q"OS c[ M' ci4 = qoo S = (2. -7 Dds Dt =dV Hence.c!-. 4..97)(2)(1)(2)(-0.64) crne!> C = (2.97)(2)(1)(0. (1) becomes .3 c _.S 1353 =0.CHAPTER 4 c.. 43 .5.. 4..64 and c . ~ V'ds DDtr=1~.44 (1538)(2) From Fig.23)(50i = 1538 Nlnl 2 2 c= t ~= q"...428 ftllb per unit spaIlj 4.

(3) P _. 239-242). Hence. 1 DDVt' dS =. .pm V".p"" V eo J - K o (1 . DV Dt _. details (pp.~ C - na 2 =.5 c I. = 2 1t a where a is in radians. (1) becomes 2.vp· dS =PcP f dp When p = const. from Eq. then -f c dp = O. the first term in Eq. (4) Substituting Eqs. (2) and (4) into (1). we obtain ~ ~ Note: See Karamcheti. V co ) 1 2 2 2 . This is Eq.sine de 2 2 C C = ._ q""c2 It.p"" V ro CZ 4 2 a V"" J ~ 0 (1 .(-:-p".36).cos'B) ~ de 2 c = . (4. 4.cose) e (y). ds=O J 'j _.. Ideal-Fluid Aerodynamics. for more = .Z a [ 2 7rJ = .f c -+ c 2..-+ D V = ~ Vp (neglecting body forces) Dt p Hence. Hence 44 . or p = p(p).

3694 (-0.0.. m\~C =- FO.25 (B 2 +. then 2 (dZ) dx = -0.3694 45 ..- 1 f..058 .1111 cos2e) de =- J.!.r 0 - dz 1[ dx (cose -1) de J Jr 0 1 .3694 .. Jr J:r 1. ~ S c 0.:.cose).3 cos8 + 0.05 + 0.0223 + 0.0223 + 0.25 cosd.13334 cose + 0. for 0 S I .05 + 0.1) de /_ :J 01.6 (a) For 0 X S.1111 cos8)( cosfl .164 ( ~1. for 1.1111 cosfl.c =2n c .0.3694 (0.3694:S UL=(} = .25 cos 2 8) d8 Jr 1 J'" 1..5) = [QJB 57.3694 8S 11: ( ciX dz) 2 = -0..05 . e S.1) de - J.0888 _ 0.3 c c IT = c.0411 4. 1. (-0.0223 .25 cos8)(cose . Jr [0. 4 sin28) ]~.3 sin8 + 0..2222 2 (x) C Since x = .( 1 .3694 (0.0.4: For OA S '::'s c 1: (dZ) dx = 0.

1745] n + _!_ [0.16)] =~ ~ 4.2281 n: (b) C e =2 7t (ex + Ct.3694 (-0.0726 rad = ~4.r 1. sin28)K3694 46 .3 [3 -"(-4.1111 (~ +.0233)sin8+0.0305 ~ 0.2939 + 0.~ [0.06847 .05 cosEl + 0.25 (B + _!_ sin28) 24 ]~3694 + ~ [(-0.0701 + 0.111 (~ + ~ sin2e) 1 ]~3694 =.164 = -0.7 dz cosf dx de - - 2 f o 1.3694 (0.0223 + 0.0245] ..0109] sr = -0.1111 casle) 1.25 cos 8) .1712 + 0.0223 cosEl + 0.1334 sine + 0. is in radians 2~ c1 = 57.0761 + 0.[0.0.L=O) where Ct.- ~ 1 [0. 2 de + so " 2 ~ J" (-0.3694 = 2· [-0.05 ~ sine + 0.0223 El..0.1111 cose) coss 2 =7C f 13694 (-0.05 + 0.25 cosu) cosf st de de +n J 2 f.1307 + 0.

0223) sm 28 + 0.6847 + 0.6847 + 0.0436) - 2 .1630 1r J". ~3694 (-0.A2)J = _!_ [1 + ____!!__ (0.004371 0.1111 (0.782 47 .02185 .= ~ [-0.0277)] = 10.4899 .4899 .) ~f cos2e de dx dz .25 cosu) cos 28d8 + -2 1r f n: 1.0.0.05 + 0.1630 .1372)J = (0.0223 + 0.1745 J[ + 0.111] cosu) cosf de + 2 J[ 1 ["2 (-0.3861 C 4 cf 4·· 0.0.2:>61) - _ 2 := 0.09800) + 0.3694 (-0.009800 1r + 025 (0.1111 (-2- .O.04899 + 0.1111 (0.25 (0. sine sin39 r: + -6-)JI·.0277 1r Xc~ = _!_ [1 + !!_ (Al .3694 = ~ [-0.09800)J Al = (0.0.1372) + 0.

1063 % Difference 6.782 -0. Slne de 2 (1 + case) y(8)=2 Veo [ At) .9° 0.= c "2 (l ...160 0. (1) becomes C m .8 Experiment (Ref.! . An sin ne' 0=1 ~ .25% 2.8% 10.s.cosa) sin8 sin ne de (2) Note the following definite integrals: S " o t= cos 2 e dEl. =- J: Ao (1 ~ cosle) d8 - f n=) s: An (1 .095 ct c m~/'" (1) .4.6% _3.76 -0. = -7r 7r 2 J o sin 2 e de ""- J: 2 cose sinle de = 0 48 . ] With the above. II) CLL=O Theory -4. Eq. sin e' + L.case) dS = .

4. (4. = -0..25 10.104 8 X 10--4 49 .71). Eq.(-6) =. . (2) becomes: c mI.10 The slope of the lift curve is a. = 0~5-(-039) 4 . =--(A 2 7r 0 +A1--) A2 2 4.. 0104 per degree The slope of the moment coefficient curve is m.2421 = 0.. o cosn sine sin 2e de = 4 ff J: cose sine sin ne de = 0 forn= 3. 3. Xac - = __ m 0 ao + 025= --+ 0. Hence.(-0:045) 8 0-4 d = x 1 per egree 4 .(-6) From Eq. S r.037 .So Ir: sine sin ne de = 0 forn=2.. .

. r df By symmetry. V=-J 4n -+ r d£ x r .r (A ..... --> 5.... -+ ..2 d1 - Since df and r are always perpendicular (by inspection of the figure)....... where e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane of the loop..+R ) . directed into the page. - 1 2 (2nR) cos9 = 4. r 50 .CHAPTER 5 5.1 df x . -+ T -= (R df) e . . the resultant velocity due to the entire loop must be along the x-axis.... Hence..

02121 mR n(8) 5.CL = ~=~= q".8 Ib/ft2 2 2 3.1033 = pet degree 5.S 51 .054. = where a. = _! (0.1080 per degree = 6.S q". V2".(-1. = C~ (1 + 8) = (0.5.3) = 10.8)(170) .054) '" 10.0857 [7 .4 AR= b' (32)2 -=--=6.188 00 1+-.. P» V co = 120 mph ( = 0. = 0.002377) (176i = 36.18: 8 0.02 S 170 At standard sea level. 5. 54) n(8) 6.0 = 0.7121 C o.92 per rad 2450 = 0.( 1+.188 = 0. a= --6----.3916 (36.91 perrad . =4.] 88 per radian From Fig.3 ao a=--__:_-a l+_o-(1+T) nAR = .002377 slug/fr' 88 ftl sec] 60mph = 176 ft/sec qoo = _! p".0857 per degree CL = a (a - lXL=O) = 0.712)2 0.

3916 .73 per radian nAR .92 ao 1 +-_.215 mill 1[(6) We = 4.(1 + r ) 1+ (1+0. (5.73 5. Eq.J 5.31ij D. S CD. (5. = 0.92 a= ----.reAR = (0.05 = 0.0764 per deg CI = CL a + CIL=O = 0.8)(170)(0.3° = 0.«= .73 equations for both the straight and swept = 5.3916)2 Jr(. From Helmbold's ---r====~--=--= 5.r(6) = 0.5 c= D. (a) a. .82). where a.81).1 per degree = 0. (36.02) = 0. Eq.01267 = 179.ao 5..01267) 5. cos A = 5.:.05 perradian-- have 52 .64)(6..304)2+0..304 1349 perra d·anI· 1_ (b) From Helmbold's equationfor a swept wing.02) '"'8 per ra d = 0..1 (57. we will lise Helmbolds wmgs.73 cos 45° and ao cosA = 4.304 equation for a straight wing.= q".12) JrAR Jr(6.73 G 247 C!.3) ~ = 5.6 To be consistent.0764 [ill 5. ~1+(0.--=-------=4.

a ----.05 +ao cosA/(n-AR) 4.73 =3.=====--.73 per radian ~ JrAR = Jr(3) 5.=========------= -.05 = ~ 1.73 ~1 + (0.43)2 In Problem 5.05 +ao cosA/(n-AR) 4.608i + 0.. cos A ~l+[ao cosA/(nAR)f 4.= -- 5.73 = 0. with an aspect ratio of 6. Moreover.608 = ---.247 53 . = 5.43 ffAR Jr(3) ao cos A a=---.05 ao cos A = 4.43 ~1+(0..215 1. we had a swept = 327 = 0. = +0.ght 4. J 5.23785 ==3. cos A = 4..========~------ ~l+[ao cosA/(JrAR)]2 4.05 = 0.608 5.2 I 7 per ra d·~-I iaru Comparing the results of parts (a) and (b).5185.=====---::::: ~1+(0.77 aStr:l. we readily conclude that the effect of wing sweep is to reduce the lift slope.778 (b) a.05 = ---.7 Again.6. the reduction is substantial. we use Helmbold's (a) ilo equations.222 I per ra lauj di _I 1.215)2 +0..

The lift slope for the swept wing is only 77% of that for the straight wing when the aspect ratio of both wings is 6. wing sweep affects the lift slope to a greater degree for higher aspect ratio wings than for lower aspect ratio wings. In Problem 5). because the lift slope for low aspect ratio wings is already considerably reduced just due to the aspect ratio effect.83 3. with aspect ratio 3. This makes some sense. 54 .222 The lift slope for the swept wing is 83% of that for the straight wing. we have a swept aSlTaighl ::= 2.667 = 0. Conclusion: Wing sweep decreases the lift slope. Moreover.

.0 + O} = IQl 6. (0 .1 ---> T e ---> -. r2 ~ -.CHAPTER 6 6. r e. ---> -- 1& 2 r cr The flow is a physical possible incompressible 6.2 -> V· V = -- 1 i3 r2 a ~ [r (-)]+ ---(0)+---r2 r sin 8 08 r sin 8 13¢ +0+0=0+0+0= fA! l:j flow. ( &/r2) 0) + r sin 8 e ~ 0 138 } = Flow is irrotational.0) . (r sine) ep - ---> Vx V= 1 r2 sin8 i3 i3 88 0 ac r2 o¢ 0 0 1 r smB 2.3 For the sphere: 55 .r e e ---> (etl d¢ . r2 sin 8 1 {O . ---> { e .". 2 C 1 8 1 13(0) \7' V = .

56 .5/4 = -1. hence (Cp)sphere = . (Cp)sphere = (Cp)cyL -1.For the cylinder: At the top of the sphere: e = n/2.25 For no manometer deflection.75 Hence: The pressure tap on the cylinder must be located at an angular position 48.6° above or below the stagnation point.25 = 1-4 sin2e sine = 0.

p p.227 x 106 ---'-' ft lb slug h=6006(519)=3. at standard sea level.1 p=pRT = _E_ = (7. we have again Cp = 6006 ft Ib slug DR ft Ib cv = 4290 slug OR Also.4 .=.CHAPTER 7 7.4 6006 r-1 ft Ib slug R 0 Cv=~-=-- R r -1 ft Ib 4290--slug R 0 e= Cv T = 4290 (934) = 4.007 x 106 -- ft Ib slug .. 1716 0. R = 519°R. Hence E = 4290 (519) = 2.610 x 10 -slug (b) For a calorically perfect gas.2 (a) Cp--= _.117xl06 ft Ib slug 57 . Hence.R (1.Ol03 siu IftJj g 7.8)(2116) RT (1716)(934) .4)(1716) 0. are constants. independent of temperature. cp and c. 6 ft lb h = CpT = 6006 (934) = 5.

P = p"" ( Poo J ___E___ I/r = 0.g m 4 .4)(287) = 1004.5 joule 0. 5 joule x 10 -_ kg 5 joule 10 -_ kg _ e2 .359 Im31 k g 7.en-P2 "" (1004.. 1 ..CV (T2 .01 11°·2857 =~ 0 = p RT P_ (287)(259) X 10 5 = 11.884 x S2 ..5)(690-288) .5) .j_ou_le_ T) PI 288 kg oK 7.5)(690-288) = 4_038 _ ... hencev=- RT P 58 ..3 Cp =~ r -} r-l ~ := (1. = ~= = 717.2. = (287)(245) = .en_TI .en_69_0.en 8..--------------------------------_.656:= 258.SI = cp .4 kg ° K 287 0.6186 ( 3...5404 kg mJ T=To [ pJ~~1 ~ -J Po =50 10 = 1.35 x 10 0 6 86 k! 3 pm = RT".T1) _ - (718..2.35 X 104 4) 1/114 '" 0.e: = [lJ p"" liT p".6 x 10 4.4 c...(287) .5 joule kg OK h2 -hl Cp (T2 .Tr) = (1004._------ -- 7..el .4 p "" 4.R .6 pv=RT..

- _ (C )1/7 P (iN) _ r1 ( cp s C1 )1/7( P )-(1/7)-1 _ .4) slug 0 R (1300)1 ft 1b =3.) 7 = (~ 1) 7 \.728 x 106-2 1 srug V2 V1 ·ho=h+ =c T+ =(6006)(480)+ P 2 2 7_8 Let (ho)..-1 v p-I r 'ts = 1 (lA)(0..4)(1716) = 6006 ft Ib (0.. I· 1 v.7 c= p rR .01 x 105) = 3.-1 (pv 7)11>'( p )H-r)ir r _ .!_ = P2 P2 (!!J.536 X 10-5_ m2 N 7.es = total enthalpy of the reservoir = cp (TQ)res 59 ..r -1 = (1.For a~ isentropic process: R.2)(1.

Teo - . -p)+V p = 2(1. _ Poo -262.01 x 105)(0.1 (-.61 0. VZ 2 2 2 V= 2(p".. =~2(l0045)(262. Hence. it is also adiabatic.-h)+V. + V.5'_ -247.9 (7-ll/Y ()CY-l)ir 02857 -= Tao T ( -r.' =1345mJse~ =~2 cp(T".. h. -) 0. Hence 7.J P _ P .1-247.8-19 '(345-3422) % error = 345 x 100 = ~ Q80( 60 .10 p".6 ex Since the flow is isentropic. T. 110 = constant..61~05) +(300.2 m/sec '" 0.(ho)e = total enthalpy at the exit = Cp T. = constant V= ~2(h".+p~=p+p- V2.6)+(300)2 1.-T)+V.)2 =342. For an adiabatic flow.

61-03) 0.6b) and (7. (7. (4) becomes 61 . RT=p/p Combining Eqs.01 x 10 )(0.53) V2 h+ = constant 2 From Eqs. h=cpT= -- JR.v = ~2(1004.L: 1'-1 (p) p + V2 2 = constant (4) In the limit ofy -+ co.5)(262J7.55o/~ 7.13 From Eq.53) can be written as ·.9). (7. (1) and (2).819 432 . Eq.408. (2) h=_L_(Pl r-1 p) (3) Hence.T r-1 (1) From the equation of state. (7 .12 V= 5 214) + (300)1 = 432 m/sec 2(1.7) 432 +(300)2 =408mJsec % error = ( x 100 = 15. Eq.

e. However.-. philosophically this author feels strongly that Bernoulli's equation is fundamentally a statement of Newton's second law . the ratio of specific heats for incompressible flow is infinite. For the study of inviscid incompressible flow.. constant density flow. namely Bernoulli's equation. This is just another example of the special inconsistencies associated with the assumption of incompressible flow. both leading to the same equation. 62 . we now see that it is both.it is a mechanical equation. we need only to apply the fundamental principles of mass conservation and Newton's second law. the energy equation for compressible flow can be reduced to Bernoulli's equation for the case ofy --700. This is how we derived Bernoulli's equation in a very straightforward manner in Chapter 3. The principle of conservation of energy is redundant and is not needed. For an incompressible flow. p + '12 P V2 = constant which is Bernoulli's equation. Hence. the application of the fundamental principles of Newton's second law and the conservation of energy are redundant.. As to the question whether Bernoulli's equation is a statement of Newton's second law or an energy equation. which of course does not exist in nature. This is why we have stated earlier in this book that incompressible flow is a m:yth. i.+p 2 = constant or. Hence.~? P v. which of course does not exist in nature.

4)(287)(300) = 347.4)(1716)(3593) = 929.455 (1.2 V2 _c Te = T - ° 2c p = 519 - (138'1)2 = 359.412 (1.2) = 11.4)(287)(276) = 333 ill/sec 63 .104 (300) = ~31. .2 m/sec M = V = 250 = 0._ = = 0.104 and p _0 P = 1.92 T* = 0.412 P = 1.104) T To T _0 0.3 oR 2( 6006) a.528)(1.CHAPTERS 8-1 a= -JJRT =-J(1.7455 atml T* T* T .7455 P p* Po P P = 0.8333 (1.1 "R 8.2 _0 T T = 1.RTe = -J(1.412 To = 1. = -JJRTe = -J (1.1 04 T = 1.4)(287)(230) = ~04 ill/sec] 8.2) = r.92 (300) = ~76 oK! a" = -JJRT = -J(1.72 a From Tables: 347.3 a = -J.:~946 = = 0.2 oK! po = 1.412) = 0.694 atmj p* = P* ~ = (0.

= 1:S" T Hence.56 atIIi) = 1698 ftlsec a* = .4)(1716)(1200) = !1.6 (1. for the test section flow.L = L P _0 P Po P = (0.RT =~(1.715 T = 1. Po = 7.824 and p .RT* a* =.715 (700) = 11200 DR) = 6.824 P = 7.75! 8.6 P = 6.8 (230) = 414 oK 64 .528)(12.757! M* = _'!__ = 2983 1698 8.058 T = 2.5 P = 12.1.715 T* = 1.4 a= ~.5) p* = 6.M* = _'!__ a* = 250 333 = p.3 To = 2.8 T = 1.058 and ~ = 125 T P To = 2. T* T =- T* T To T _0 = (0.J..8333) (2.JO.058 (700) = 11441 oR! Po = 12.5 From Tables: ~ = 7.4)(l716)(700) = 1297 ftlsec M= v a From Tables: = 2983 1297 = 2.058) = 1.6) = 110.5 (1.824 (1) = 7.6 * * .6) - = ~O atIll! .824 attn To = 1.

Since the flow is isentropic, both Po and To are constant throughout reservoir, M ~ 0_ Hence, the reservoir pressure and temperature are Po = 7.824 atm

the flow.

Also, in the

8.6

From the Standard Altitude Tables, at 10,000 ft.,

Poo = 1455.61b/fe
From Table Al:

and T

<>0

= 483.04 OR

For M"O == 0_82; Po = 1.555, __'&_= L134

r.,

T",

ForM=

1:

p
_0

.P

= 1.893,

_0

T
T

= 12

Since the flow is isentropic, Po == constant and To = constant-

p= L~poo Po n,

=~

L89.)

(L555)(1455.6)

=11196 Ib/ft11

T=_I___'&_T =_1 (1.134)(483.04)= To Too '" L2

@56.5°Rj

8.7

From Table A.2:

h = 7.72,
Pl

!!.2_ = 3.449,
PI

T2 It

=)

_.-

)38

,

Po, =9.181,
PI Hence,

ttvh=0_50391,

Po, =0.4601

Po,

T2 = T} It = L238 (288) == 1644.5°Kj TI

65

= ___E_1_ = (1)(1.01 x 10 P RTI (287)(288)
1

5 )

= 1.222 kg/nr'

P2

=

!!..2..
PI

PI

= 3.449 (1.222) = &.21 kg/m31

S2

=

s} = ~R

en -Po,

Po,

= (287)

.

en

joule 0.4601 = 222.8 --

kg OK

8.8

P
___2_

p]

=

1033.

From Table A.2,

, M1 = 3.~,

T
_2

T}

= 2.679,

p
____'2_

PI

= 12,06

Thus,

From Table AJ, for M1

= 3.0, _0_,
T]

T

== 2.8

T02 = To, = ;'
I

T

r, = 2.8

(518.9) = 11453°Rj

po? = Po! PI = (12.06) (1) = 112.06 atIl1l PI

8.9

Po, Pc,

=·e·(S2-sJ)lR=e-{J99.5)1287=0.499

From Table A2:

1M! = 2.51
66

8.10

From Table A2:

T2 _
T]

=

2.799 and M2

=

0.469)

~

Hence,

T2 = _- T1 = 2.799 (480) TI
a2 = .Je1.4)(1716)e13435)

T,

=

1343.5~

=

1796.6 ftfsec
=

V2 = M2 a2 = (0.4695)(1796.6)

1843.5 ft/secl

From Table AI, for M2 = OA695,

~ = 1.044 T2

T

A/' = )yRT; = .J(lA)(1716)(l169)
. V M 2• ------ 2

= 1676 ft/sec

a;

-

84"'-

.;J.)

1676

-10 )~031 .

. 8.11

Is the flow subsonic or supersonic? .

For sonic flow, ~ = -. _1_= p ~28 From Table AI, for

1.893, which is

higher than 1.555. Hence, the flow is subsonic. -

Po _
P

- 1.55), M - 0.82.

.-

_

a = .J;RT = .J(1.4)(287)(288)

= 340.2 m/sec

v = Ma = (0.82)(340.2)
8.12

=

278.9 .m/sec

The ratio 7712.8 = 3.645 is larger than 1.893. Hence, the flow is supersonic. This 2116 means that a normal shock wave exists in front of the nose of the Pi tot tube. From Table A.2, for

67

4)(1716)(519) = 1116.5 ft/sec INCORRECT p error .01 x 10') ~ 303 rn/sec 1.002376 slug/ft' v ~ P(p" .6 ft/sec VI = MJ = (1. 0.1.22 k fro3 RT (287)(288) g v ~ ~2(P" -p) ~ P 2(1555.1(1.0)(1.8-2116) Q002376 ~2170.~8690/ /0 -..9 .8 = 3. 0/ /0 -p) ~ 2(7712.~4 60~ .56)(1116.01 x lOs = 1.13 (a) p = L = 1.303 .9 .6) = /1742 ftlsecl 8.56 I )JRT1 al =. 278. (2): 68 .t( 8.645M 2116 ' al = = 1.278. I( (b) p = - P RT = 2116 (1716)(519) = .5-1742 1742 .22 INCORRECT 0/ error .14 P2 == 1+ 2y PI r+l (M~-1)= r+l+2r M~ -2r = l-r+2r r+l M~ (1) r+l (2) M2 = 1+[(r-l)/2]M~ 2 • r M~ -(r-l)/2) Working with the expression inside the parenthesis of Eq.7712.2170.

000 ft. .15 At 80.9 a". (8.80) 8.2.2 (r -1) (4) Combining Eqs.2 From Appendix A: For M.4)(1716)(389. = 3.99) = 1188. =3.--_:__------:--.v-I r-1 1+ _'_M2 =1 +-2 2 2 l+(r~l) M~ =1+(y-1) 1+(r~I) M~ r M~-(r-1)/2 2r M.99°R V"./(1..9 ftlsec M".:___~ _ 4r M~ -2(r-1)+2(r-1)+(r-1)2M. (2). P 2 Pz PI 4y My -2 (y-l) ~ =~ ])'-1 [1-Y+2r M2] 7 PI y+l J which is Eq.+ (y .048 (389.. -(r-l) 1 -1 M~ ] . Cy+l)2M2 I.:___-----"--.6 ftlsec = 967.1) [ 2+(r. T _0 To.= 389. = 3097.6 = 3.048 To = 3. and (1).99) 967. = ~iRT = .048 T co = 3. = (12 +2r+1) M. (4). = 2112 60 (88) = 3097. 4r M~-2 (r-1) 4y M~-2 (y-1) (y +lfM~ 4y Mi . we have: P P _____l_ = [ . T".7 "R 69 .) 4r M~ -2(y-l) 4y M~ -2 (r-1) _ 4y M~ 2 +(r -2r+l) M.

000 K. reprinted by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. T co = 300 K. which means that Eq.18 Use Eq. 2 ed. It is also incorrect. chemically reacting flows. 1989.From Appendix B. .2)(300) = i78. From Eq. Moo = [2J 8_17 The temperature at the stagnation point is the total temperature in the freestrearn. McGraw-Hill.40) is not valid for such a chemically reacting flow. the temperature at the stagnation point on the Apollo was close to 11. . For the analysis of high temperature. nd . See for example Anderson.40) For To = 11. Mcfiraw-Hill. we have To = (260. the specific heats are not constant. (8. Air at 11. In such a chemically reacting gas. it would chemically dissociate and ionize. 1990..40). 8. this equation becomes: 11.648 70 .. much lower than our estimate above. but still plenty high. and Mro = 36. or Anderson.000 K. (8.67 = r-1 2 (36i 648 Y. In reality. techniques much different than those discussed in this book must be used. Since T co = 300 K.000 K is a partially ionized plasma. Modern CompressIble Flow. because the total temperature is constant across the normal shock. 2000. (8. because long before the air would reach this temperature.060Ig This is an ungodly high temperature. Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics.000 = 1+ 300 35.

OT.64 (300)= Ill. t= ~-= 683.40) to estimate a reasonably valid stagnation temperature for the Apollo.055. insert y = 1. (8.40). we have to use an "effective gamma" of 1.0551 In order to use Eq. To double check this.055. (8. To=36. return to Eq.=36. and calculate To.OOOKj 71 .or.7 648 11.64 L.

= 0.7° sin(f3 .8. = 2: P2 = 4.2 Pi ~ X Po. for M.7209)(151.1 ~ = Sin-l (~) 15 = 41.CHAPTER 9 9.8 0 h= 500 f1! SS9 Ff- From Table A. = Po.l.8)(2.5) (2.e) = _ MOl M2 -_ -_ .65' Po. M. POI PJ = (0..193 X 105 N/m~ From the e-~-Mdiagram: e = 17. POi Po.2.8 0 h = 559 Tan ~ = 559 Tan 41.7) - fITil TOI From Table A.65 x 104) = 11. = 151.5774 1 P2 = 12. PI 104) = 12. T2 PI I =1.- 05774_ sin(30 -17. for Mi = 4: Po.9x 10 N/m4 6 72 .5. PI PI = (4. = 4.7209. = 0.687. 'T.

Therefore. Since Po..---------------------------- 93 Consider an oblique shock. . Po. for an oblique shock depend onlv on Mn. (8. where P2/Pl and T2/T. . not Mn2• (it relates M. Po I P2 2 . clearly Po. (8. using Mn. = e-(S2-s1)1Rthen Po. If we wish to use Eq.78) does not relate M2 to M. 2 Depends on M2. ' the total pressure ratio Po.78) for an oblique shock. (8. (1) above.78) cannot be used for the derivation of Po z I PI for an oblique shock. (8. It can not be used for an oblique shock. not MOl x r---"""""_'_---"" Depends on normal Mach number upstream of the shock. in Eq. is a valid column.80) holds only for a normal shock. On the other hand.78). in Eq. M n. (8. depends only on Mn.78) are replaced by M" and M.4 To CORRECTLY calculate Po. : 73 . P1 O 2 9. For such a case. 2 . ). However. even with MJ replaced by Mn. Because Eq.. then Eq. . (:o:J / A "" Depends on actual Mach number behind the shock M2. when using Table A2 to determine changes across an obligue shock. for an oblique shock to M. but the column giving P is not valid. (8_80). 1 For these reasons. the derivation of Eq. (1) In the derivation of Eq. This holds only for a nOIII!& shock. through Eq. then both M2 and M. (8. we related M2 directly to M. Po.

8: = I Po" =4. = 0.5 From the e~~-Mdiagram: I~ 461 = From Table A:2.613 atn1! PI 74 . . would be as follows: From Table A.' (0 error = 29.I.613 (1 ann) = 13.67 atm. = 1.613. PJ = 4.2. M.73 PI From Table A. for M n.73)(1) . T2 = 1.532. for M.85 . 2 Pl .8127 Po. = 1.67 x 100 = 53·9). PI = 3.8.67 -- a terri ly arge error.8127)(36. Po! =36.' ~o 4.67 (1 atm) = 4..6165 1[. 1. b 1 9. P2 = 3.85 atIlll (b) The INCORRECT calculation of P 0.for M n.From Table A2.8: Po. ~ PI = (0. PI I "l P2 = 1'1.4.67 PI Po Po. Totally VV"RONG 0.Po. P: = 129. = 0. for MI = 3: Po. Po.

5) 9. = 0.22.M2 = Mn. Sin(p .2.6 From the El-[3-M diagram.5°_ From Table A.7°1 From the El-I3-M diagram: M n.7°.54~ Sine 46 .5 sin 48° 2.2: P0 = 0.17: E1_ PI = 5. shock detachment occurs when a> 28_]<. .60 From Table A.8) = 0_6165 = 11. = 2. = [3 = 48° = MJ sin [3 = 3.327 atlTIl PI and the maximum pressure occurs when a = 128. for M.327 pmax = l2. PI = 5.5039..327 (1 atm) = 15. [3 = 64._When a = El= 28..4601: Po~ 2 Mn. 75 .

8 atm. From Table A. Po.8 -21. = 0. for Mi = 4: Po.7 atmj 76 .876)(0.27 Po:> Po.2) From Table A.1388(15L8)=2L07atm POI 2 I Loss b) in total pressure = Po. = 4.27)(0.4601)(76. for M = 3. for M2 = 1..P0 2 = 151.M2 = Mn.2. P0 Po =0.B) Sine 48 .30.2·..5: Po~ = 76.1388 Po.876 r. r. PI PI I = 151. Po.648 Sin(j3 . From Table AJ.. = 0. for M.8 (1 atm) = 151.5) Po:> = 115. P""' = (0.07 = 1130.37 atIDI 9.8 From Table AJ. = Po. . = 0.5039 = 1.8 PI Hence.648. Po . Po. POI = 151. Po = Po.

Po. for M. Po.8-47. Po Po Pc>.513 sin(j3 . 13= 38. . Po.]0 =2.2.5 = 2.499.5: From Table A2.6236)(OA 99)( 151. .6atm! M.24= il04. Po.8)(1 atm) = 4724 Po. = D MJ sin 13= 4 sin 38.3) . _1 Pi = (0.6236 Po.513 M2 = M = 0.21: Po.7 .21.=4 From part (b) above. = 0. . From the 13-8-M diagram: 132 = 47. = 0.Po.3° 77 . PI ' Loss in total pressure c) = atm Ps.From the 8-13-M diagram. Po. = 2. Po. = 151.25. Mn . = _. for M2 = 2. = 0. _. M2 = 2.7 Mn .499. n = 0.21 From Table A.e) sin(3 8.

9. T.21 sin 47.2.947)(0.6625 J sin(})2 -(}2) = 0.9 / !!(I :' . followed by a normal shock is a more efficient means of slowing a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds than a single normal shock itself. (0. Hence.6625 sin(47. a series of oblique shocks followed by a normal shock yields a smaller total pressure loss than a normal shock by itself.624: Po. for M "z == 1. ~ > .8877)(0.8-63.1 aM CONCLUSION: To decrease a supersonic flow to subsonic speeds via a shock system. = 0.2.0.3-20) = 1. ~PI PI = Po • = Loss in total pressure = Po.8877.3° = 1.444: Po" .947 Po.499)(151.8) po" = !'2 Po.624 1 From Table A. Po. a system of oblique shocks. = 151.For the second shock: M.! I / M. Po. 113 = M D = 0. 63.444 From Table A.68=188. = M2 sin [32 = 2. Po.Po.68 atm Po.. . for M3 = 1. 78 .. M n) Po.

2° = = (3.2 =125.From the 8-13-M diagram.6165 sin(34.' .8. sin(/31 .673. 131 34. = 1.2° = 1.24 For the Reflected Shock: From the 8-13-M diagram.2) sin 34.8 From Table A.· for M n] = 1.6809 sin(44 -18.361.8°1 atm) = P3 = P3 Pl PI = (2. <1>'= 132 - e= 44 -18.532.673)(3.2Jor Mn.2) =~ Note: The fact that M3 and Mn! are equal is just a coincidence.8]) 2.2) = "2:::: sinCS] . Mn. P2 From Table A.613)(1 P2 PI !9.66 atml 79 .24 sin 44° = 1.6165 M2 = M 0.2 .'2 = 0.24 and 8 = 18.56: T1 13 = 1.6809 M3 = M n.] M.2 132 = 44° == M2 sin r:t2 l--' = 2.56 PJ = 2.8: P2 p] = 3613 ~ 'T 12 = 1. for M2 = 2.B) = 0.2°: M 1l. = 0.2.

7) = 10.477 atilll 80 .! pz = _!j_ ~ PI = (~) POl PI J6. (1716)(405) = ~.3: ForMl V2 =2. = 2: Po. o.8 (1.1.73 T2 = (7. = Po. =- G 30"R / I From Table A. for M.38° + 26. Ir r.824)(0.10 ~~O. Thus 0. = (2_) 2. = 7.7olm 7.149)(2116) m. tf'.537 x 104 slug/fi31 Po.824)(0.38° = 49.01 From Table A.7) = 15. VI =26.8)(630) = k05°Rj P2 = .38° = e + VI = 23.149 atllll l To) T0.8 Tr However: P 01 =P 01 and T = T . = ~ PI PI = (7.Pz = (0.9.824. Pl To) = = 1.76° Hence.Iz = 3.

9 = 31. 9.9: v2.521 8] .3: for MJ = 2. VI = 14.1Jor MI = 1.79 .11 From Table A.To> = T<'I T = . for Po.1306 M2 = 2.79 e= 9.27.127 Po.6 From Table A.=47. for MI = 1. From Table A.11 = 130 0 1 0 Angle of rearward Mach line = ~2 -8 = 19.3.VJ = 47.' ) TJ = (1.47 ).8)(630) = 11134 0 Rj From Table A.91 1 Note: The rearward Mach line is below the upstream direction for this problem.58: POI PI = 4.14.12 Referenced to the upstream direction: Angle of forward Mach line = ).23.58. P2 =~ =~ EL P2 = P2 PI (4.6.12 V2 . P2 = 31. For M2 = 3.27 = ~3. ~l = 30° = 19.3 8° = \-3.127) (_1 __ ) 0.47 . for M2 = 2.1.

= 3 and 8 = 30.. 1.73. = 2. M. PI .= 6.8 For M3 = 2..From the e-~-M diagram: For M. M3 = = ~.541. M-2Mn.4: .30.56.6°. _. .4 1 T2 Po P2 From Table A. To. = 0. ~ = 53.128 + 30. = 16.73°.6) 1. _' = 36. even after it is brought back to its original direction.04.48.. . _I PD ~ = 2. sin(fJ . P3 *. For M.: Po.. for M. 3. and M. =Mj sin ~=3sin53. IT"= 2. * 82 . V2 = 8.531 p) 1) Po.2.M.= 2.128 From Table A3: For M2 V3 = 8.37 sin(53. Why? Because there is an entropy increase across the shock wave.6 = 38.553.1 o M.Ph T3 Tj.73° V3 From Table A3: For From Table AI: = 38.23 PJ T3 Clearly.37.8) = 05231 =1. *.l. _J.481 .1=2. which permanently alters the thermodynamic state of the original flow. = 0.

6: V2 = V1 = 19.6: Po. Po.13 = 26.5° = 1.4F 0 + e = 41.4 pz PI = pz Po. PI From Table A3. r M2 PI·' 2 83 .95 VI = 41.13 (a) For MJ = 2.0352)(1)(19. POI POI = (0.41 -+ POl M2 = 2.403 Pl From Table AI.16 From Table A2: PJ = 1.7022 PI . =M.9.83: P2 =28.41 + 5° = 46.6 sin 26.83 From Table A1. for MI = 2. sin 13 = 2.6 and 8 = 5°.95) = 0. for MJ = 2. forM2=2.5° M".

sin sin PI cosa cos5° 10 9j Mn..5° =. Cd = --7 r M.1.6 sin 35.7022) cos 5° = ~ . Pt = Po.3° = 2. Pt)l (_1_1 63. cosrz -- = 0.9° = 1. .012 .403 . =" MJ sin P = 2.41 ° From Table AI..6: Po.a = 0.452 = l':02!( Mo. for M2 = 337: Po.2: P3 = 2. = 19.4)(2. P2 = 63. for MJ = 2. = (1.4)(2.95 PI VI From Table A3.529 PI = From Table A.529 _ 0315) cos 150 = ~ cos a. (P3 ~--- P2 P.0.) sm a = c( -.6: = 41.24 84 .~ 2 (2.ct = 2 (1.6)2 sinl5° cos15° ~ Cd = C.148 -.33) (1)(19. for MJ 2. = MJ sin ~ = 2.6) 2 2 ~ (l.95)=0315 c£ = 2 (P3 y M~ sin a P2) Pt .525 From Table A.33 P2 = P2 P0 PI 2 Po.6 sin 59.

25 P2 P2 = ~ PI cl - Po. = 19. = ( 1 ) (1)(19.0725 Po.95.P3 =5. = 275.6)2 = m 9. Po.687. P".0.vJ =41.-.687 .4)(2. 2 (5.14 85 . Po. cos ex-P2) -.0725) (1. PI 275.95) = 0.25 2 Y M~ (P3 .41° PI PI Po.

Forregion VI 2: = 49_76° = VI Vl + e = 49. and Po.08 1 P4 =. = 0.27.69.733.76° -7 M3 = 4.78: Po} = 407.6835 Po. =.fJ) . 05643 M4 = Thus.76 P2 Forregion V}. POl = 54. Po.. = P4 5. =MJ sin ~ =3 sin 44 =2.25) .69° + 200 = 38. =36.83 P3 4: Forregion M.69° -7 Ms = 2. = 18. sine 44 .76° + 5° = 54.4. M PI n.73: Pl For M2 = 3..78 FOT M3 = 4. vs Mn sincp . 3: = Vl + e = 54.. = 0.76° -+ Ml = 327 For Mr=s J: Po.48 86 .5643. = 1.165 For region 5: V5 = V4 + e = 18.881.76° + 20° = 74.

09) cos 25 + (1. PI 54.4)(3)2 .0.P3 cos 25° ce = 2 (1.516 f_ = length L' = P4 cos 25° + ps f_ cos 5° .76 (1)(36. c However. Po.56 of each face of the diamond wedge.823)(0. PI 16. c/2 f = cos 100 jJ !_ _ c 2 cos 10 10. J!_ (_1_) = 1.6707 12 == P2 P3 PI PI Pz = 11l2_ Po. Po.73) Po.418! 1 = 05077 0 cr = (0. Po.5077) = 87 .6707)( 1 ) (1)(54. == 16_56 Ps Pressure ratios P2 PI = P2 Po. Po.P2 1! cos 5° .6707) cos 5°] 0 Cf= 0.73) = 0.[(4.823 . Pl 407. Po.09 PI Po. Po.. ~ = (1)(0. .:.881 Pl Ps Pl Let == Ps Po.6835)(36.. = (_1_) Po. Po.881C f_ 0.---------------------------------.516 .83 2 P4 == 4.76) == 0. P0 = (0.

(9A2) in the text.= 0.€ sin 50 .P2 .0. for M. = 1.516 .0 = 1130.333 (0.45 0 e = vz : VI max = 1 H.=I 88 .. [(4. .f sin 250 + p.09) sin 250 + (1..6707) sin 50] (lA)(3) C Cd = 0.333 . VI = 0.P3 i! SiD 250 Cd = 2 2!:.15 The maximum expansion would correspond to M2 ~ = 00.D' = P4 . lim +1 --tan {~ r -1 -t -1 ~I ~-·M( 2)-1 -tan ~M2 -1} y + 11 2 r Since.0.f sin 50 .881.45 . then 130. From Eq.5077) = ~ f c ~ 9.

J M2 I (~:~~) - To calculate P2/P]' we have.302.27. 0 = V2 + e = 71. To calculate 4.805. for MJ = 5 and Mn. M. P2 = 1. vi = 71..l = 1. 3(d) qoo 4 (P2 -pJ However. the flow is expanded through an angle of1 0° .9.48.6 (nearest entry) 89 . M 2- M .786 sin(151. (D')cyl = q"" S Cd = qoo d(1 )/(4/3) = For the dimensional wedge airfoil. referring to Figure 9. sin 13 = 5 sin (l5. PI Also.10.2 It sin(p - B) 0.83 + 10= 81. 4 "3 (d) q".±(r~M~ 3 2.48.38 = Hence. Hence.83 V3 P3 .P) = 1.5) = 4. Thus. for Mn. for M2 = PI (nearest entry).16 F or the cylinder.13 = 15.303 From Appendix B. F~o~ Table C.l = e = 5°. t = d and q".1 (P2 _ P3) PI PI 2 ~r . t = r_ PI MI2 2 (D')cyl (D'L . M3 5. with Cd based on frontal area.

~ Note: TIlls is why we try to avoid blunt leading edges on supersonic vehicles. is sketched below..9794 POI Thus.5) -(L4)(5) 2 2 117. PI 1037 Hence. PO. Po. = (_1_) (1)(0. Po. at hypersonic speeds..9794)(529. ® . = 1.r .) 9.805 . )!>o ~ . Mao.5 PI Po.6.1 PJ For M3 = 5. . ~2 = 0.1) = 0. • L-~~-Q_ .. blunt leading edges are necessary to reduce the aerodynamic heating. (D') . Po.0.. Po. (However.!:¥ - - b 90 .From Appendix A: For Ml = 5. P3 = P3 Po.cyt = (D )w (P2 _ P3) PI Pl 2 -r 3 Ml 2 = 3 = (1. p~.17 The supersonic flow over a flat plate at a given angle of attack in a freestream with a given Mach number. = 529.303. PJ = 1037 ~ From Appendix B: For Mn.

the downstream flow must be inclined slightly downward. Repeat steps 2-4 until P4 = P5. Also. the iteration has converged. P4 = P5. To calculate the trailing edge shock and expansion waves. Calculate the strength of the trailing edge expansion wave for a local expansion angle of (a-$). and due to overall momentum considerations. a value OfP43. It is this boundary condition that fixes the strengths of the expansion wave and the shock wave at the trailing edge. the entropy in region 4 is different than in region 5 because the flows over the top and bottom of the plate have gone through shock waves of different strengths.This gives. line ab is a slip line. If they are different. of e. i. assume a new value 5. ' 91 . This gives a value for P5.. Use the following iterative approach: 1. 4_ Compare P4 and ps from steps 3 and 4. and the flow direction downstream.e. among other quantities.. When this condition is satisfied. Calculate the strength of the trailing edge shock for the local deflection angle (a$).The flow direction downstream of the leading edge is given by line abo The flow direction is below the horizontal '(below the direction of Ms) because lift is produced on the flat plate. The boundary condition that must hold across the slip line is constant pressure. Assume a value for $_ 2. and the trailing edge flow is now determined.

= Me a" = (2.I. From Table A. we see that 0.4)(1716)(252. Po.3)(779.1151.7) = = 10.02 x lOS P0.4 atrnj p. To. To P Dc: = constant and T and Po = constant. = 8. and Ae/A* =11. = 12.058. Pe r.3143 !Me 1.3 Ahead of the normal shock in front of the Pitot tube.RTe .----------------------------------_--------- CHAPTER From Table A.31 Po. po = (_1_) 125 (5 atm) = 10. 10 10.4416 2.182.00195 slug/fi31 - a. Hence.1 !Me = 2.4t. for AJA * = 2.2) = 11792 ftlse~ 102 Po Po = 1 = 3.193. = -J.l. =~ RTe = (OA )(2116) (1716)(252.92 X 10 = 0. = 2.5. = Po = 2.02 x 105 N/m2 Po. For isentropic flow.7) = 7792 ftlsee u.J(1. = 10. 4 92 . =p = ~ 0 ~~ 01:' =T 0 = 1520°81 p" = ~ Po.

1ZT * RT* I. = r- 2 1 M*2 = .007519 slug/ft' T* T* = .2 R To D u* = a* = .01186) Po = 0. slug ft' * p* = f!_ po = (0.>'-1) _- 2 Thus.1ZT* and p* . ill • =- p* A * ~.To = (0.01186-.007519)(1020) • ( 4) _.65 AelA* =\3. 144 =0. = -P_ RT* * Hence.634)(0.From Table A.2: Me From Table AI: = 2. 93 .0361 lOA '" m = p*u*A*' > po= P _0 RTo = (5)(2116) (1716)(520) = 0.833)(520) = 433.J(1_4)(1716)(4332) = 1020 ftIsec m=p*u*A*=(0. M* = To T* Po -= . r +1 2 P* ( y+ I)YJ(.213- slug sec 105 '" m = p*u*A* u* = ~. then 1+ = p *A* RT* >/1 'r Since.

*7 m---. = 5 atm A* • m= = = 5(2116) = 10580 Ib/ft2 41144 = 0.7 94 .4) (1716) mo (.02778 (105809)(0.2_)6 2.213 slug sec which is the same as obtained in Problem lOA 10.4 = 0.I• _ PoA K VR 7+1 ( - 2 ) Cr··!l/(r-I) 10_6 p.02778) fi (1.* R LA* (+ -Y2 1)-!(r+ 1 )I2 C7 l -1 ~ Jf: Of.m= ..

016 Te = Te = TJl.5) _. then At > A *. g = 337. A* 1M! = 0-5b Po Pt = 1. P"= (_1_) 1.186 (1.5) = 94.186 Pt = II EE_ p~ r.28 and Ae/A* P. ""(0.616 _e A From Table AI.5 m/sec ~..016 . zs: = 1.056 0.843 atUlj 10.166.5 can not be used here because the flow is not choked.4)(287)(283..947)(1. M. for Pe .34 A" A * 1.e.. i.: = RTe (0. The throat size is larger than that for sonic At A* flow..166 Since Ae = 1.34. _t A A * =A _I = _.5°K 5 pe . is subsonic.8 Note: The equation for ill given in Problem 10. check to see if the flow is sonic at the throat.166)= 1.= ~ = 283.056)(0.176 k 1m3 (287)(283. E£.056: Me= 0.1 (2. Pe = 1.947) = 10.01 x 10 ) = 1. the throat Mach number is not sonic.616 < A" = 2.016 = 288/1. T.5 m/sec 95 . _= 1.3. hence the throat Mach number.947 From Table A.056: Me = 0.RTe = ._. . for & = 1.J(1. = ~1_.5) lie = Me a. = 2.28. for At = 1.28)(337.First. ill • =PeAeu" P _0 From TableA1.

421. then the flow is completely subsonic. (_1_) Table A. for Po Pe = 1.035) = 1. is reduced below 0. for Pc> = 1. (b) Po = Pc _1_ = 1.75 From Table AI.3 and AcfA* A. and the flow is precisely sonic at the throat. Note run the same calculation as in parts (a) and (b) above. sonic flow at the throat. It is subsonic everywhere Hence.75 atm is far above the exit pressure.529) = 0. At = A *.333.886 fOT From Table AI. and the nozzle will be choked.333. 0.3)(1-616) = 0. if we else. we find: Po = (_1_) Pe = 1.035. A * 153 Since At > A ".4848 m2 ..I.42 and A Ae * =1.88 kg/seq 10.0_ (2. A * A.-- --------------------------------------------.129: Me=0.999"" LO. we have Ae = 1.866 atm. Hence. Hence.. Me = 0.33. Pe If4 = 0.31. _. we suspect that a normal shock wave exists within the nozzle.53 (1.129.127 A* 96 .064.. 0.176)(0. Ae = At (:J"" = (0. from the above IMe = 0. clearly when p. (c) will occur supersonic that. 0. No shock wave exists.94 From Table AI: Al ~ ". From the above results.539.I A* A A A (1) = _I _o A" A*" =_ 1. from = 2.4848)(945) = ~3.. = PeAeue = (1.9 (a) Po P. Since pe = 0. _1_ = L064. Po Pe = 1.

say at a location where A2!At = 1. z .024..n Q'!l::: r7 he WI A 't I'- r-J6W =z 'f'i> 1">' n" =. set up the following trial-and-error process as follows: Assume a normal shock exists inside the nozzle.A _"* Note that POi < PDt which comes from the shock wave theory discussed in the text.. Hence. There must be a shock wave inside the nozzle.. F/OUf Shock Flow ------------~~ hot'fL. = total pressure for the flow ahead of shock. the abovecalculation is meaningless.. Let: Al * = sonic throat area for the flow ahead of the shock. Po = total pressure for the flow behind shock. with a consequent change in both p. Key equation: 97 . Instead.. and A * across the shock.7366..127) = 0. then A* Ae A * 153) clearly the flow can not be completely isentropic. A2* = sonic throat area for the flow behind the shock. (_1_1 P 0. Since it is impossible for At < A *.At = ~ Ac = (1. ..

6512: _2_ A2 * = 1. .66 = 0.2 for MJ .872. _.66: _l Po. POl Po.9166 Po.6512 From Table AI.1 ) (1. Pc = 1.I.204: MJ = 1.163 pe = Pc Po. From Table A.6874: A* A2 =1. = 0. = 1.1018 -A~ Az * A" -At =- Az =(1.53) ( _.9166)(1 atm) = 0. Hence.788 atm.6874. for M2 = 0.54 154: M2 = 0. (1): From TableA.1018)= A. = 0. = Po FromTableA. _.75. Po = (_1~) (0.1356 .4: Me = 0.(1) To find the values of the ratios in Eq.47. Az A2 * 1204 1. A __ - M2 = 0. move the shock wave slightly From Table AI: M. for ~ rom Returning to Eq.4 FA Table A. for Mi = 1. (1): A2 Po = 1.I.I for A2/AJ* = 1.l. Po From Table A. ' 1163 This is slightly higher than the given Pe downstream.forM2=0.

Hence. Po = --·1(0.75 atm Po:>.735 atm.0. p. = 0. . where.6596.274 (1.63 M2 = 0. _. = Pe 1 atm 0.50. = 1.178/ I Hence. (1): p.178 ( 1 '\ .735 = 1.735 Thus.- From Table AJ: A. ~= A2 * Ae~ A2 * At A2 A2 == (l 053) (_1_) 1. = Po ~ Po = -(0. Po P. Po.1862 Po From Eq.353 FromTableA1: Me=0.301 _ 1.301 _ (1.1265) = ]. Assume A2/Ar = 1.1265 . 99 .49.75 .274 A. (d) PO.154 atm = 6. A ___1_ A2 * = 1. 0.From Table AI. which is precisely the given area ratio of the nozzle. A* . calculated agrees with Pe given.49 .8838)(1 atm) = 0.0. Thus. =1. 1.274 From Table Al: From Table A2: From Table AJ: MJ = 1.53.335: Me A2 * = 0.204) 0. . P Po Pe = _o _. Po. for Ae = 1.8838 Po. = 1.1862 Interpolate: P (1) = 0. for this case. we have a completely isentropic expansion. A2 = 1.788..872)(1 atm) POl POI ' 1.Po.

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