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HIGHSPEED NETWORKS AND
INTERNETS
PERFORMANCE AND QUALITY OF SERVICE
SECOND EDITION
WILLIAM STALLINGS
Copyright 2002: William Stallings
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 2: Protocols and Architecture .........................................................................1
Chapter 3: TCP and IP ....................................................................................................3
Chapter 4: Frame Relay ..................................................................................................8
Chapter 5: Asynchronous Transfer Mode..................................................................11
Chapter 6: HighSpeed LANs......................................................................................16
Chapter 7: Overview of Probability and Stochastic Processes................................18
Chapter 8: Queuing Analysis.......................................................................................22
Chapter 9: SelfSimilar Traffic .....................................................................................27
Chapter 10: Congestion Control in Data Networks and Internets...........................28
Chapter 11: Link Level Flow and Error Control .........................................................30
Chapter 12: TCP Traffic Control....................................................................................34
Chapter 13: Traffic and Congestion Control in ATM Networks ..............................37
Chapter 14: Overview of Graph Theory and LeastCost Paths ................................40
Chapter 15: Interior Routing Protocols ........................................................................45
Chapter 16: Exterior Routing Protocols and Multicast ..............................................47
Chapter 17: Integrated and Differentiated Services ...................................................49
Chapter 18: RSVP and MPLS.........................................................................................52
Chapter 19: Overview of Information Theory.............................................................54
Chapter 20: Lossless Compression................................................................................56
Chapter 21: Lossy Compression....................................................................................61
NOTICE
This manual contains solutions to all of the review questions and
homework problems in HighSpeed Networks and Internets. If you spot an
error in a solution or in the wording of a problem, I would greatly
appreciate it if you would forward the information via email to me at
ws@shore.net. An errata sheet for this manual, if needed, is available at
ftp:/ / shell.shore.net/ members/ w/ s/ ws/ S/
W.S.
1
2.1 The guest effectively places the order with the cook. The host communicates this
order to the clerk, who places the order with the cook. The phone system provides
the physical means for the order to be transported from host to clerk. The cook
gives the pizza to the clerk with the order form (acting as a "header" to the pizza).
The clerk boxes the pizza with the delivery address, and the delivery van encloses
all of the orders to be delivered. The road provides the physical path for delivery.
2.2 a.
The PMs speak as if they are speaking directly to each other. For example, when the
French PM speaks, he addresses his remarks directly to the Chinese PM. However,
the message is actually passed through two translators via the phone system. The
French PM's translator translates his remarks into English and telephones these to
the Chinese PM's translator, who translates these remarks into Chinese.
b.
An intermediate node serves to translate the message before passing it on.
2.3 Perhaps the major disadvantage is the processing and data overhead. There is
processing overhead because as many as seven modules (OSI model) are invoked
to move data from the application through the communications software. There is
data overhead because of the appending of multiple headers to the data. Another
possible disadvantage is that there must be at least one protocol standard per layer.
With so many layers, it takes a long time to develop and promulgate the standards.
2.4 No. There is no way to be assured that the last message gets through, except by
acknowledging it. Thus, either the acknowledgment process continues forever, or
one army has to send the last message and then act with uncertainty.
2.5 A case could be made either way. First , look at the functions performed at the
network layer to deal with the communications network (hiding the details from
the upper layers). The network layer is responsible for routing data through the
network, but with a broadcast network, routing is not needed. Other functions,
such as sequencing, flow control, error control between end systems, can be
accomplished at layer 2, because the link layer will be a protocol directly between
CHAPTER 2
PROTOCOLS AND ARCHITECTURE
2
the two end systems, with no intervening switches. So it would seem that a
network layer is not needed. Second, consider the network layer from the point of
view of the upper layer using it. The upper layer sees itself attached to an access
point into a network supporting communication with multiple devices. The layer
for assuring that data sent across a network is delivered to one of a number of other
end systems is the network layer. This argues for inclusion of a network layer.
In fact, the OSI layer 2 is split into two sublayers. The lower sublayer is
concerned with medium access control (MAC), assuring that only one end system
at a time transmits; the MAC sublayer is also responsible for addressing other end
systems across the LAN. The upper sublayer is called Logical Link Control (LLC).
LLC performs traditional link control functions. With the MAC/ LLC combination,
no network layer is needed (but an internet layer may be needed).
2.6 The internet protocol can be defined as a separate layer. The functions performed
by IP are clearly distinct from those performed at a network layer and those
performed at a transport layer, so this would make good sense.
The session and transport layer both are involved in providing an endtoend
service to the OSI user, and could easily be combined. This has been done in
TCP/ IP, which provides a direct application interface to TCP.
2.7 a. No. This would violate the principle of separation of layers. To layer (N – 1),
the Nlevel PDU is simply data. The (N – 1) entity does not know about the
internal format of the Nlevel PDU. It breaks that PDU into fragments and
reassembles them in the proper order.
b. Each Nlevel PDU must retain its own header, for the same reason given in (a).
3
3.1 A single control channel implies a single control entity that can manage all the
resources associated with connections to a particular remote station. This may
allow more powerful resource control mechanisms. On the other hand, this
strategy requires a substantial number of permanent connections, which may lead
to buffers or state table overhead.
3.2 UDP provides the source and destination port addresses and a checksum that
covers the data field. These functions would not normally be performed by
protocols above the transport layer. Thus UDP provides a useful, though limited,
service.
3.3 The IP entity in the source may need the ID and don'tfragment parameters. If the
IP source entity needs to fragment, these two parameters are essential. Ideally, the
IP source entity should not need to bother looking at the TTL parameter, since it
should have been set to some positive value by the source IP user. It can be
examined as a reality check. Intermediate systems clearly need to examine the TTL
parameter and will need to examine the ID and don'tfragment parameters if
fragmentation is desired. The destination IP entity needs to examine the ID
parameter if reassembly is to be done and, also the TTL parameter if that is used to
place a time limit on reassembly. The destination IP entity should not need to look
at the don'tfragment parameter.
3.4 If intermediate reassembly is not allowed, the datagram must eventually be
segmented to the smallest allowable size along the route. Once the datagram has
passed through the network that imposes the smallestsize restriction, the segments
may be unnecessarily small for later networks, degrading performance.
On the other hand, intermediate reassembly requires compute and buffer
resources at the intermediate routers. Furthermore, all segments of a given original
datagram would have to pass through the same intermediate node for reassembly,
which would prohibit dynamic routing.
3.5 The header is a minimum of 20 octets.
3.6 Possible reasons for strict source routing: (1) to test some characteristics of a
particular path, such as transit delay or whether or not the path even exists; (2) the
source wishes to avoid certain unprotected networks for security reasons; (3) the
source does not trust that the routers are routing properly.
Possible reasons for loose source routing: (1) Allows the source to control
some aspects of the route, similar to choosing a longdistance carrier in the
telephone network; (2) it may be that not all of the routers recognize all addresses
and that for a particular remote destination, the datagram needs to be routed
through a "smart" router.
3.7 A buffer is set aside big enough to hold the arriving datagram, which may arrive in
fragments. The difficulty is to know when the entire datagram has arrived. Note
that we cannot simply count the number of octets (bytes) received so far because
duplicate fragments may arrive.
CHAPTER 3
TCP AND IP
4
a. Each hole is described by a descriptor consisting of hole.first, the number of the
first octet in the hole, relative to the beginning of the buffer, and hole.last, the
number of the last octet. Initially, there is a single hole descriptor with
hole.first = 1 and hole.last = some maximum value. Each arriving fragment is
characterized by fragment.first and fragment.last, which can be calculated from
the Length and Offset fields.
1. Select the next hole descriptor from the hole descriptor list. If there are no
more entries, go to step eight.
2. If fragment.first is greater than hole.last, go to step one.
3. If fragment.last is less than hole.first, go to step one.
(If either step two or step three is true, then the newly arrived fragment
does not overlap with the hole in any way, so we need pay no further
attention to this hole. We return to the beginning of the algorithm where
we select the next hole for examination.)
4. Delete the current entry from the hole descriptor list.
(Since neither step two nor step three was true, the newly arrived fragment
does interact with this hole in some way. Therefore, the current descriptor
will no longer be valid. We will destroy it, and in the next two steps we will
determine whether or not it is necessary to create any new hole descriptors.)
5. If fragment.first is greater than hole.first, then create a new hole descriptor
"newhole" with newhole.first equal to hole.first, and newhole.last equal to
fragment.first minus one.
(If the test in step five is true, then the first part of the original hole is not
filled by this fragment. We create a new descriptor for this smaller hole.)
6. If fragment.last is less than hole.last and fragment.more fragments is true,
then create a new hole descriptor "newhole", with newhole.first equal to
fragment.last plus one and newhole.last equal to hole.last.
(This test is the mirror of step five with one additional feature. Initially, we
did not know how long the resembled datagram would be, and therefore
we created a hole reaching from zero to (effectively) infinity. Eventually,
we will receive the last fragment of the datagram. At this point, that hole
descriptor which reaches from the last octet of the buffer to infinity can be
discarded. The fragment which contains the last fragment indicates this fact
by a flag in the internet header called "more fragments". The test of this bit
creating in this statement prevents us from creating a descriptor for the
unneeded hole which describes the space from the end of the datagram to
infinity.)
7. Go to step one.
8. If the hole descriptor list is now empty, the datagram is now complete. Pass
it on to the higher level protocol processor for further handling. Otherwise,
return.
b. The hole descriptor list could be managed as a separate list. A simpler
technique is to put each hole descriptor in the first octets of the hole itself. The
descriptor must contain hole.last plus pointer to the predecessor and successor
holes.
3.8 The original datagram includes a 20octet header and a data field of 4460 octets. The
Ethernet frame can take a payload of 1500 octets, so each frame can carry an IP
datagram with a 20octet header and 1480 data octets. Note the 1480 is divisible by
8, so we can use the maximum size frame for each fragment except the last. To fit
4460 data octets into frames that carry 1480 data octets we need:
5
3 datagrams × 1480 octets = 4440 octets, plus
1 datagram that carries 20 data octets (plus 20 IP header octets)
The relevant fields in each IP fragment:
Total Length = 1500
More Flag = 1
Offset = 0
Total Length = 1500
More Flag = 1
Offset = 185
Total Length = 1500
More Flag = 1
Offset = 370
Total Length = 40
More Flag = 0
Offset = 555
3.9 For computing the IP checksum, the header is treated as a sequence of 16bit words.
and the 16bit checksum field is set to all zeros. The checksum is then formed by
performing the one's complement addition of all words in the header, and then
taking the one's complement of the result. We can express this as follows:
A = W(1) +' W(2) +' . . . +' W(M)
C = ∼A
where
+' = one's complement addition
C = 16bit checksum
A = one's complement summation made with the checksum value set to 0
∼A = one's complement of A
M = length of block in 16bit words
W(i) = value of ith word
Suppose that the value in word k is changed by Z = new_value – old_value. Let A"
be the value of A after the change and C" be the value of C after the change. Then
A" = A +' Z
C" = ∼(A +' Z) = C +' ∼Z
3.10 In general, those parameters that influence the progress of the fragments through
the internet must be included with each fragment. RFC 791 lists the following
options that must be included in each fragment: Security (each fragment must be
treated with the same security policy); Loose Source Routing (each fragment must
follow the same loose route); Strict Source Routing (each fragment must follow
the same strict route).
RFC 791 lists the following options that should be included only in the first
fragment: Record Route (unnecessary, and too much overhead to do in all
fragments); Internet Timestamp (unnecessary, and too much overhead to do in all
fragments).
3.11 Data plus transport header plus internet header equals 1820 bits. This data is
delivered in a sequence of packets, each of which contains 24 bits of network
header and up to 776 bits of higherlayer headers and/ or data. Three network
packets are needed. Total bits delivered = 1820 + 3 × 24 = 1892 bits.
3.12 • Version: Same field appears in IPv6 header; value changes from 4 to 6.
• IHL: Eliminated; not needed since IPv6 header is fixed length.
• Type of Service: This field is eliminated. Three bits of this field define an 8level
precedence value; this is replaced with the priority field, which defines an 8
6
level precedence value for noncongestioncontrol traffic. The remaining bits of
the typeofservice field deal with reliability, delay, and throughput; equivalent
functionality may be supplied with the flow label filed.
• Total Length: Replaced by Payload Length field.
• Identification: Same field, with more bits, appears in Fragment header.
• Flags: The More bit appears in the Fragment header. In IPv6, only source
fragmenting is allowed; therefore, the Don't Fragment bit is eliminated.
• Fragment Offset: Same field appears in Fragment header
• Time to Live: Replaced by Hop Limit field in IPv6 header, with in practice the
same interpretation.
• Protocol: Replaced by Next Header field in IPv6 header, which either specifies
the next IPv6 extension header, or specifies the protocol that uses IPv6.
• Header Checksum: This field is eliminated. It was felt that the value of this
checksum was outweighed by the performance penalty.
• Source Address: The 32bit IPv4 source address field is replaced by the 128bit
source address in the IPv6 header.
• Destination Address: The 32bit IPv4 destination address field is replaced by
the 128bit source address in the IPv6 header.
3.13 The recommended order, with comments:
1. IPv6 header: This is the only mandatory header, and will indicate if one or
more additional headers follow.
2. HopbyHop Options header: After the IPv6 header is processed, a router
will need to examine this header immediately afterwards to determine if
there are any options to be exercised on this hop.
3. Destination Options header: For options to be processed by the first
destination that appears in the IPv6 Destination Address field plus
subsequent destinations listed in the Routing header. This header must
precede the routing header, because it contains instructions to the node that
receives this datagram and that will subsequently forward this datagram
using the Routing header information.
4. Routing header: This header must precede the Fragment header, which is
processed at the final destination, whereas the routing header must be
processed by an intermediate node.
5. Fragment header: This header must precede the Authentication header,
because authentication is performed based on a calculation on the original
datagram; therefore the datagram must be reassembled prior to
authentication.
6. Authentication header: The relative order of this header and the
Encapsulating Security Payload header depends on the security
configuration. Generally, authentication is performed before encryption so
that the authentication information can be conveniently stored with the
message at the destination for later reference. It is more convenient to do this
if the authentication information applies to the unencrypted message;
otherwise the message would have to be reencrypted to verify the
authentication information.
7. Encapsulating Security Payload header: see preceding comment.
8. Destination Options header: For options to be processed only by the final
destination of the packet. These options are only to be processed after the
datagram has been reassembled (if necessary) and authenticated (if
necessary). If the Encapsulating Security Payload header is used, then this
header is encrypted and can only be processed after processing that header.
7
There is no advantage to placing this header before the Encapsulating
Security Payload header; one might as well encrypt as much of the datagram
as possible for security.
8
4.1 The argument ignores the overhead of the initial circuit setup and the circuit
teardown.
4.2 a. Circuit Switching
T = C
1
+ C
2
where
C
1
= Call Setup Time
C
2
= Message Delivery Time
C
1
= S = 0.2
C
2
= Propagation Delay + Transmission Time
= N × D + L/ B
= 4 × 0.001 + 3200/ 9600 = 0.337
T = 0.2 + 0.337 = 0.537 sec
Datagram Packet Switching
T = D
1
+ D
2
+ D
3
+ D
4
where
D
1
= Time to Transmit and Deliver all packets through first hop
D
2
= Time to Deliver last packet across second hop
D
3
= Time to Deliver last packet across third hop
D
4
= Time to Deliver last packet across forth hop
There are P – H = 1024 – 16 = 1008 data bits per packet. A message of 3200 bits
require four packets (3200 bits/ 1008 bits/ packet = 3.17 packets which we round up
to 4 packets).
D
1
= 4 × t + p where
t = transmission time for one packet
p = propagation delay for one hop
D
1
= 4 × (P/ B) + D
= 4 × (1024/ 9600) + 0.001
= 0.428
D
2
= D
3
= D
4
= t + p
= (P/ B) + D
= (1024/ 9600) + 0.001 = 0.108
T = 0.428 + 0.108 + 0.108 + 0.108
= 0.752 sec
Virtual Circuit Packet Switching
T = V
1
+ V
2
where
V
1
= Call Setup Time
V
2
= Datagram Packet Switching Time
T = S + 0.752 = 0.2 + 0.752 = 0.952 sec
CHAPTER 4
FRAME RELAY
9
b. Circuit Switching vs. Diagram Packet Switching
T
c
= EndtoEnd Delay, Circuit Switching
T
c
= S + N × D + L/ B
T
d
= EndtoEnd Delay, Datagram Packet Switching
N
p
= Number of packets =
L
P − H
]
]
]
T
d
= D
1
+ (N – 1)D
2
D
1
= Time to Transmit and Deliver all packets through first hop
D
2
= Time to Deliver last packet through a hop
D
1
= N
p
(P/ B) + D
D
2
= P/ B + D
T = (N
p
+ N – 1)(P/ B) + N x D
T = T
d
S + L/ B = (N
p
+ N – 1)(P/ B)
Circuit Switching vs. Virtual Circuit Packet Switching
T
V
= EndtoEnd Delay, Virtual Circuit Packet Switching
T
V
= S + T
d
T
C
= T
V
L/ B = (N
p
+ N – 1)P × B
Datagram vs. Virtual Circuit Packet Switching
T
d
= T
V
– S
4.3 From Problem 4.2, we have
T
d
= (N
p
+ N – 1)(P/ B) + N × D
For maximum efficiency, we assume that N
p
= L/ (P – H) is an integer. Also, it is
assumed that D = 0. Thus
T
d
= (L/ (P – H) + N – 1)(P/ B)
To minimize as a function of P, take the derivative:
0 = dT
d
/ (dP)
0 = (1/ B)(L/ (P – H) + N – 1) – (P/ B)L/ (P – H)
2
0 = L(P – H) + (N – 1) (P – H)
2
– LP
0 = –LH + (N – 1)(P – H)
2
(P – H)
2
= LH/ (N – 1)
P = H +
LH
N − 1
10
4.4 The number of hops is one less than the number of nodes visited.
a. The fixed number of hops is 2.
b. The furthest distance from a station is halfway around the loop. On
average, a station will send data half this distance. For an Nnode network,
the average number of hops is (N/ 4) – 1.
c. 1.
4.5 The mean nodenode path is twice the mean noderoot path. Number the levels of
the tree with the root as 1 and the deepest level as N. The path from the root to
level N requires N – 1 hops and 0.5 of the nodes are at this level. The path from the
root to level N – 1 has 0.25 of the nodes and a length of N – 2 hops. Hence the
mean path length, L, is given by
L = 0.5 × (N – 1) + 0.25 × (N – 2) + 0.125 × (N – 3) + . . .
L =
N 0.5 ( )
i
i ·1
∞
∑
− i 0.5 ( )
i
i ·1
∞
∑
· N − 2
Thus the mean nodenode path is 2N – 4
4.6 Yes. Errors are caught at the link level, but this only catches transmission errors. If a
packetswitching node fails or corrupts a packet, the packet will not be delivered
correctly. A higherlayer endtoend protocol, such as TCP, must provide endto
end reliability, if desired.
4.7 Reset collision is like clear collision. Since both sides know that the other wants to
reset the circuit, they just reset their variables.
4.8 On each end, a virtual circuit number is chosen from the pool of locally available
numbers and has only local significance. Otherwise, there would have to be global
management of numbers.
11
5.1
Controlling controlled Controlled controlling
0 0 0 0 NO_HALT, NULL 0 0 0 0 Terminal is uncontrolled. Cell is
assigned or on an uncontrolled ATM
connection.
1 0 0 0 HALT, NULL_A, NULL_B 0 0 0 1 Terminal is controlled. Cell is
unassigned or on an uncontrolled ATM
connection.
0 1 0 0 NO_HALT, SET_A, NULL_B 0 1 0 1 Terminal is controlled. Cell on a
controlled ATM connection Group A.
1 1 0 0 HALT, SET_A, NULL_B
0 0 1 1 Terminal is controlled. Cell on a
controlled ATM connection Group B.
0 0 1 0 NO_HALT, NULL_A, SET_B
1 0 1 0 HALT, NULL_A, SET_B
0 1 1 0 NO_HALT, SET_A, SET_B
1 1 1 0 HALT, SET_A, SET_B
All other values are ignored.
5.2
HUNT
HUNT
HUNT
Correct
Incorrect
Bit by bit
Cell by cell
consecutive
correct HEC
consecutive
incorrect
HEC
The procedure is as follows:
CHAPTER 5
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE
12
1. In the HUNT state, a cell delineation algorithm is performed bit by bit to
determine if the HEC coding law is observed (i.e., match between received
HEC and calculated HEC). Once a match is achieved, it is assumed that one
header has been found, and the method enters the PRESYNCH state.
2. In the PRESYNCH state, a cell structure is now assumed. The cell delineation
algorithm is performed cell by cell until the encoding law has been confirmed
δ times consecutively.
3. In the SYNCH state, the HEC is used for error detection and correction (see
Figure 17.17). Cell delineation is assumed to be lost if the HEC coding law is
recognized as incorrect α times consecutively.
The values of α and δ are design parameters. Greater values of δ result in longer
delays in establishing synchronization but in greater robustness against false
delineation. Greater values of α result in longer delays in recognizing a
misalignment but in greater robustness against false misalignment.
5.3 a. We reason as follows. A total of X octets are to be transmitted. This will require
a total of
X
L
]
]
]
cells. Each cell consists of (L + H) octets, where L is the number
of data field octets and H is the number of header octets. Thus
N ·
X
X
L
]
]
]
L + H ( )
The efficiency is optimal for all values of X which are integer multiples of the
cell information size. In the optimal case, the efficiency becomes
N
opt
·
X
X
L
+ H
·
L
L+ H
For the case of ATM, with L = 48 and H = 5, we have N
opt
= 0.91
b. Assume that the entire X octets to be transmitted can fit into a single variable
length cell. Then
N ·
X
X + H + H
v
c.
13
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
X
Transmission efficiency
48
96 144 192 240
N (fixed)
N (variable)
Nopt
N for fixedsized cells has a sawtooth shape. For long messages, the optimal
achievable efficiency is approached. It is only for very short cells that efficiency is
rather low. For variablelength cells, efficiency can be quite high, approaching 100%
for large X. However, it does not provide significant gains over fixedlength cells
for most values of X.
5.4 a. As we have already seen in Problem 5.3:
N ·
L
L + H
b.
D ·
8 × L
R
c.
14
2
4
8
16
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
8 16 32 64 128
Data field size of cell in octets
Packetization
delay (ms)
Transmission
efficiency
D64
D32
N
A data field of 48 octets, which is what is used in ATM, seems to provide a
reasonably good tradeoff between the requirements of low delay and high
efficiency.
5.5 a. The transmission time for one cell through one switch is t = (53 × 8)/ (43 × 10
6
) =
9.86µs.
b. The maximum time from when a typical video cell arrives at the first switch (and
possibly waits) until it is finished being transmitted by the 5th and last one is 2 ×
5 × 9.86µs = 98.6µs.
c. The average time from the input of the first switch to clearing the fifth is (5 + 0.6
× 5 × 0.5) × 9.86µs = 64.09µs.
d. The transmission time is always incurred so the jitter is due only to the waiting
for switches to clear. In the first case the maximum jitter is 49.3µs. In the second
case the average jitter is 64.09 – 49.3 = 14.79µs.
15
5.6 a. The reception of a valid BOM is required to enter reassembly mode, so any
subsequent COM and EOM cells are rejected. Thus, the loss of a BOM results in
the complete loss of the PDU.
b. Incorrect SN progression between SARPDUs reveals the loss of a COM, except
for the cases covered by (c) and (d) below. The result is that at least the first 40
octets of the AALSDU is correctly received, namely the BOM that originally
began the reassembly, and any subsequent COMs up to the point where cell
loss occurred. Data from the BOM through the last SARPDU received with a
correct SN can be passed up to the AAL user as a partial CPCSPDU.
c. The SN wraps around so that there is no incorrect SN progression, but the loss
of data is detected by the CPCSPDU being undersized. In this case, only the
BOM may be legitimately retrieved.
d. The same answer as for (c).
5.7 a. If the BOM of the second block arrives before the EOM of the first block, then
the partially reassembled first block must be released. The entire partially
reassembled CPCSPDU received to that point is considered valid and passed
to the AAL user along with an error indication. This mechanism works when
just the EOM is lost or when a cell burst knocks out some COMs followed by
the EOM.
b. This might be detected by the SN mechanism. If not, the loss will be detected
when the Btag and Etag fields fail to match. The Length indication may fail to
pick up this error if the cell bust loses as many cells as are added by
concatenation the two CPCSPDU fragments. In this case only the first BOM
may be legitimately retrieved.
5.8 a. Single bit errors are not picked up until the CPCSPDU CRC is calculated, and
they result in the discarding of the entire CPCSPDU.
b. Loss of a cell with SDU=0 is detected by an incorrect CRC. If the CRC fails to
catch the error, the Length field mismatch ensures that the CPCSPDU is
discarded.
c. Loss of a cell with SDU=1 is detectable in three ways. First, the SARPDUs of
the following CPCSPDU may be appended to the first, resulting in a CRC
error or Length mismatch being flagged when the second CPCSPDU trailer
arrives. Second, the AAL may enforce a length limit which, if exceeded while
appending the second CPCSPDU, can flag an error and cause the assembled
data to be discarded. Third, a timer may be attached to the CPCSPDU
reassembly; if it expires before the CPCSPDU is completely received, the
assembled data is discarded.
16
6.1 a. Assume a mean distance between stations of 0.375 km. This is an
approximation based on the following observation. For a station on one end,
the average distance to any other station is 0.5 km. For a station in the center,
the average distance is 0.25 km. With this assumption, the time to send equals
transmission time plus propagation time.
T ·
10
3
bits
10
7
bps
+
375 m
200 ×10
6
m sec
· 102 sec
b.
T
interfere
·
375 m
200 × 10
6
m sec
· 1.875 sec
T
interfere bit −times ( )
· 10
7
×1.875 ×10
−6
· 18.75 bit − times
6.2 a. Again, assume a mean distance between stations of 0.375 km.
T ·
10
3
bits
10
8
bps
+
375 m
200 ×10
6
m sec
· 12 sec
b.
T
interfere
·
375 m
200 × 10
6
m sec
· 1.875 sec
T
interfere bit −times ( )
· 10
8
×1.875 ×10
−6
· 187.5 bit − times
6.3 The fraction of slots wasted due to multiple transmission attempts is equal to the
probability that there will be 2 or more transmission attempts in a slot.
Pr[2 or more attempts] = 1 – Pr[no attempts] – Pr[exactly 1 attempt]
= 1 – (1 – p)
N
– Np(1 – p)
N–1
6.4 Slot time = Propagation Time + Transmission Time
= 10
3
m/ (2 × 10
8
m/ sec) + 10
2
bits/ 10
7
bps
= 15 × 10
–6
sec
Slot rate = 1/ Slot time = 6.67 × 10
4
Data rate = 100 bits/ slot × Slot rate = 6.67 × 10
6
bps
Data rate per station for N stations = (6.67 × 10
6
)/ N
6.5 Define
PF
i
= Pr[fail on attempt i]
P
i
= Pr[fail on first (i – 1) attempts, succeed on i
th
]
CHAPTER 6
HIGHSPEED LANS
17
Then, the mean number of retransmission attempts before one station successfully
retransmits is given by:
E retransmissions [ ] · iP
i
i ·1
∞
∑
For two stations:
PF
i
= 1/ 2
K
where K = MIN[i, 10]
P
i
· 1 − PF
i
( ) × PF
j
j ·1
i −1
∏
PF
1
= 0.5; P
1
= 0.5
PF
2
= 0.25; P
2
= 0.375
PF
3
= 0.125; P
3
= 0.109
PF
4
= 0.0625; P
4
= 0.015
The remaining terms are negligible
E[retransmissions] = 1.637
18
7.1 You should always switch to the other box. The box you initially chose had a 1/ 3
probability of containing the banknote. The other two, taken together, have a 2/ 3
probability. But once I open the one that is empty, the other now has a 2/ 3
probability all by itself. Therefore by switching you raise your chances from 1/ 3 to
2/ 3.
Don't feel bad if you got this wrong. Because there are only two boxes to
choose from at the end, there is a strong intuition to feel that the odds are 5050.
Marilyn Vos Savant published the correct solution in Parade Magazine, and
subsequently (December 2, 1990) published letters from several distinguished
mathematicians blasting her (they were wrong, not her). A cognitive scientist at
MIT presented this problem to a number of Nobel physicists and they
systematically gave the wrong answer (PiattelliPalmarini, M. "Probability: Neither
Rational nor Capricious." Bostonia, March 1991).
7.2 The same Bostonia article referenced above reports on an experiment with this
problem. Most subjects gave the answer 87%. The vast majority, including many
physicians, gave a number above 50%. We need Bayes' Theorem to get the correct
answer:
Pr Disease positive
[ ]
·
Pr positive Disease [ ]Pr Disease [ ]
Pr positive Disease
[ ]
Pr Disease [ ] + Pr positive Well
[ ]
Pr Well [ ]
·
0.87 ( ) 0.01 ( )
0.87 ( ) 0.01 ( ) + 0.13 ( ) 0.99 ( )
· 0.063
Many physicians who guessed wrong lamented, "If you are right, there is no point
in making clinical tests!"
7.3 Let WB equal the event {witness reports Blue cab}. Then:
Pr Blue WB
[ ]
·
Pr WB Blue [ ]Pr Blue [ ]
Pr WB Blue
[ ]
Pr Blue [ ] + Pr WB Green
[ ]
Pr Green [ ]
·
0.8 ( ) 0.15 ( )
0.8 ( ) 0.15 ( ) + 0.2 ( ) 0.85 ( )
· 0.41
This example, or something similar, is referred to as "the juror's fallacy."
CHAPTER 7
OVERVIEW OF PROBABILITY AND
STOCHASTIC PROCESSES
19
7.4 a. If K > 365, then it is impossible for all values to be different. So, we assume K
365. Now, consider the number of different ways, N, that we can have K values
with no duplicates. We may choose any of the 365 values for the first item, any
of the remaining 364 numbers for the second item, and so on. Hence, the
number of different ways is:
N · 365 × 364×K× 365 − K + 1 ( ) ·
365!
365 − K ( )!
If we remove the restriction that there are no duplicates, then each item can be
any of 365 values, and the total number of possibilities is 365
K
. So the
probability of no duplicates is simply the fraction of sets of values that have no
duplicates out of all possible sets of values:
Q K ( ) ·
365! 365 − K ( )!
365
K
·
365!
365 − K ( )!× 365
K
b.
P K ( ) · 1− Q K ( ) · 1 −
365!
365 − K ( )!× 365
K
Many people would guess that to have a probability greater than 0.5 that there
is at least one duplicate, the number of people in the group would have to be
about 100. In fact, the number is 23, with P(23) = 0.5073. For K = 100, the
probability of at least one duplicate is 0.9999997.
7.5 a. The sample space consists of the 36 equally probable ordered pairs of integers
from 1 to 6. The distribution of X is given in the following table.
x
i
1 2 3 4 5 6
p
i
1/ 36 3/ 36 5/ 36 7/ 36 9/ 36 11/ 36
For example, there are 3 pairs whose maximum is 2: (1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 1).
b.
· E X [ ] · 1
1
36

.
`
,
+ 2
3
36

.
`
,
+ 3
5
36

.
`
,
+ 4
7
36

.
`
,
+ 5
9
36

.
`
,
+ 6
11
36

.
`
,
·
161
36
≈ 4.5
E X
2
[ ]
· 1
1
36

.
`
,
+ 4
3
36

.
`
,
+ 9
5
36

.
`
,
+ 16
7
36

.
`
,
+ 25
9
36

.
`
,
+ 36
11
36

.
`
,
·
791
36
≈ 22.0
Var[X] = E[X
2
] – µ
2
= 1.75
X
· 1.75 · 1.3
7.6 a.
x
i
1 2 3 4 5 6
p
i
1/ 6 1/ 6 1/ 6 1/ 6 1/ 6 1/ 6
b. E[X] = –1/ 6. On average the player loses, so the game is unfair
20
7.7 a.
x
i
E E 2E 3E
p
i
125/ 216 75/ 216 15/ 216 1/ 216
b. E[X] = – 17E/ 216 = 0.8E. Here's another game to avoid.
7.8 a. E[X
2
] = Var[X] + µ
2
= 2504
b. Var[2X + 3] = 4Var[X] + Var[3] = 16; standard deviation = 4
c. Var[–X] = (–1)
2
Var[X] = 4; standard deviation = 2
7.9 The probability density function f(r) must be a constant in the interval
(900, 1100) and its integral must equal 1; therefore f(r) = 1/ 200 in the interval (900,
1100). Then
Pr 950 ≤ r ≤ 1050 [ ] ·
1
200
dr
950
1050
∫ · 0.5
7.10 Let Z = X + Y
Var[Z] = E[(Z – µ
Z
)
2
] = E[(X + Y – µ
X
– µ
Y
)
2
]
= E[(X – µ
X
)
2
] + E[(Y – µ
Y
)
2
] + 2E[(X – µ
X
)(Y – µ
Y
)]
= Var[X] + Var[Y] + 2r(X, Y)σ
X
σ
Y
The greater the correlation coefficient, the greater the variance of the sum. A
similar derivation shows that the greater the correlation coefficient, the smaller
the variance of the difference.
7.11 E[X] = Pr[X = 1]; E[Y] = Pr[Y = 1]; E[XY] = Pr[X = 1, Y = 1]
If X and Y are uncorrelated, then r(X, Y) = Cov[X, Y] = 0. By the definition of
covariance, we therefore have E[XY] = E[X]E[Y]. Therefore
Pr[X = 1, Y = 1] = Pr[X = 1]Pr[Y = 1]
By similar reasoning, you can show that the other three joint probabilities are also
products of the corresponding marginal (single variable) probabilities. This
proves that P(x, y) = P(x)P(y) for all (x, y), which is the definition of
independence.
7.12 a. No. X and Y are dependent because the value of X determines the value of Y.
b. E[XY] = (–1)(1)(0.25) + (0)(0)(0.5) + (1)(1)(0.25) = 0
E[X] = (–1)(0.25) + (0)(0.5) + (1)(0.25) = 0
E[Y] = (1)(0.25) + (0)(0.5) + (1)(0.25) = 0.5
Cov(X, Y) = E[XY] – E[X]E[Y] = 0
c. X and Y are uncorrelated because Cov(X, Y) = 0
7.13 µ(t) = E[g(t)] = g(t); Var[g(t)] = 0; R(t
1
, t
2
) = g(t
1
)g(t
2
)
7.14 E[Z] = µ(5) = 3; E[W] = µ(8) = 3
E[Z
2
] = R(5, 5) = 13; E[W
2
] = R(8, 8) = 13
21
E[ZW] = R(5, 8) = 9 + 4 exp(–0.6) = 11.195
Var[Z] = E[Z
2
] – (E[Z])
2
= 4; Var[W] = 4
Cov(Z, W) = E[ZW] – E[Z]E[W] = 2.195
7.15 We have
E Z
i
[ ] · 0 Var Z
i
[ ] = E Z
i
2
[ ]
· 1 E Z
i
Z
j [ ]
· 0 for i ≠ j
The autocovariance: C(t
m
, t
m+n
) = R(t
m
, t
m+n
) – E[Z
m
]E[Z
m+n
] = E[Z
m
Z
m+n
]
E Z
m
Z
m+n
[ ] · E
i
Z
m−i
i ·0
K
∑

.
`
,
j
Z
m+n−j
j·0
K
∑

.
`
,
]
]
]
]
Because E[Z
i
Z
j
] = 0, only the terms with (m – i) = (m + n – j) are nonzero. Using
E Z
i
2
[ ]
· 1, we have
C t
m
t
m+n
[ ] ·
i n+i
i ·0
K
∑ with the convention that α
j
= 0 for j > K
The covariance does not depend on m and so the sequence is stationary.
7.16 E[A] = E[B] = 0; E[A
2
] = E[B
2
] = 1; E[AB] = 0; E[X
n
] = 0
C(t
m
, t
m+n
) = R(t
m
, t
m+n
) – E[X
m
]E[X
m+n
] = E[X
m
X
m+n
]
= E[(A cos(mλ) + B sin(mλ))(A cos((m+n)λ) + B sin((m+n)λ))]
= cos(mλ)cos((m+n)λ) + sin(mλ)sin((m+n)λ) = cos(nλ)
The final step uses the identities
sin(α + β) = sinα cosβ + cosα sinβ; cos(α + β) = cosα cosβ – sinα sinβ
22
8.1 Consider the experience of a single item arriving. When the item arrives, it will find
on average r items already in the queue or being served. When the item completes
service and leaves the system, it will leave behind on average the same number of
items in the queue or being served, namely r. This is in accord with saying that the
average number in the system is r. Further, the average time that the item was in
the system is T
r
. Since items arrive at a rate of λ, we can reason that in the time T
r
, a
total of λT
r
items must have arrived. Thus r = λT
r
.
8.2 a.
The height of the shaded portion equals n(t).
b. Select a time period that begins and ends with the system empty. Without loss
of generality, set the beginning of the period as t = 0 and the end as t = τ. Then
a(0) = d(0) = 0 and a(τ) = d(τ). The shaded area can be computed in two
different ways, which must yield the same result:
a t ( ) − d t ( ) [ ]dt
0
∫ · t
k
k ·1
a( )
∑
If we view the shaded area as a sequence (from left to right) of vertical
rectangles, we get the integral on the left. We can also view the shaded area as a
sequence (from bottom to top) of horizontal rectangles with unit height and
CHAPTER 8
QUEUING ANALYSIS
23
width t
k
, where t
k
is the time that the kth item remains in the system; then we
get the summation on the right. Therefore:
n t ( ) [ ]dt
0
∫
· a( )T
r
r · T
r
r · T
r
8.3 T
q
= q/ λ = 8/ 18 = 0.44 hours
8.4 No. 12.356 ≠ 25.6 × 7.34
8.5 If there are N servers, each server expects λT/ N customers during time T. The
expected time for that server to service all these customers is λTT
s
/ N. Dividing by
the length of the period T, we are left with a utilization of λT
s
/ N.
8.6 ρ = λT
s
= 2 × 0.25 = 0.5
Average number in system = r = ρ/ (1 – ρ) = 1
Average number in service = r – w = ρ = 0.5
8.7 We need to use the solution of the quadratic equation, which says that for
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, we have
x ·
−bt b
2
− 4ac
2a
w = ρ
2
/ (1 – ρ) = 4
ρ
2
+ 4ρ – 4 = 0
· −2 + 8 · 0.828
8.8 ρ = λT
s
= 0.2 × 2 = 0.4
T
w
= ρT
s
/ (1 – ρ) = 0.8/ 0.6 = 4/ 3 minutes = 80 seconds
T
r
= T
w
+ T
s
= 200 seconds
m
T
w
90 ( ) ·
T
w
ln
100
100 − 90

.
`
,
·
1.333
0.4
ln 4 ( ) · 4.62 minutes
8.9 T
s
= (1000 octets × 8 bits/ octet)/ 9600 bps = 0.833 secs. ρ = 0.7
Constantlength message: T
w
= ρT
s
/ (2 – 2ρ) = 0.972 secs.
Exponentiallydistributed: T
w
= ρT
s
/ (1 – ρ) = 1.944 secs.
24
8.10 T
s
= (1)(0.7) + (3)(0.2) + 10(0.1) = 2.3 ms
Define S as the random variable that represents service time. Then
T
s
2
· Var S [ ] · E S − T
s
( )
2
[ ]
· 1 − 2.3 ( )
2
0.7 ( ) + 3 − 2.3 ( )
2
0.2 ( ) + 10 − 2.3 ( )
2
0.1 ( ) · 7.21ms
Using the equations in Figure 8.6a:
A = 0.5 (1 + (7.21/ 5.29)) = 1.18
a. ρ = λT
s
= 0.33 × 2.3 = 0.767
T
r
= T
s
+ (ρT
s
A)/ (1 – ρ) = 2.3 + (0.767 × 2.3 × 1.18)/ (0.233) = 11.23 ms
r = ρ + (ρ
2
A)/ (1 – ρ) = 3.73 messages
b. ρ = λT
s
= 0.25 × 2.3 = 0.575
T
r
= 2.3 + (0.575 × 2.3 × 1.18)/ (0.425) = 5.97 ms
r = 0.575 + (0.575 × 0.575 × 1.18)/ (0.425) = 1.49 messages
c. ρ = λT
s
= 0.2 × 2.3 = 0.46
T
r
= 2.3 + (0.46 × 2.3 × 1.18)/ (0.54) = 4.61 ms
r = 0.46 + (0.46 × 0.46 × 1.18)/ (0.54) = 0.92 messages
8.11 λ = 0.05 msg/ sec; T
s
= (14,400 × 8)/ 9600 = 12 sec; ρ = 0.6
a. T
w
= ρT
s
/ (1 – ρ) = 18 sec
b. w = ρ
2
/ (1 – p) = 0.9
8.12 a. mean batch service time = T
sb
= MT
s
; batch variance =
T
sb
2
· M
T
s
2
To get the waiting time, T
wb
, use the equation for T
w
from Table 8.6a:
T
w
·
T
s
A
1−
·
T
s
2
+
T
s
2
( )
2 1 − ( )
; then,
T
wb
·
M
M
2
T
s
2
+ M
T
s
2
( )
2 1− ( )
·
MT
s
2
+
T
s
2
( )
2 1− ( )
, where ·
M
MT
s
( ) · T
s
25
b.
T
1
·
1
M
× 0 +
1
M
× T
s
+
1
M
× 2T
s
+K+
1
M
× M − 1 ( )T
s
·
M − 1
2
T
s
T
w
· T
wb
+ T
1
·
MT
s
2
+
T
s
2
( )
2 1− ( )
+
M −1
2
T
s
c. The equation for T
w
in (b) reduces to the equation for T
w
in (a) for M = 1. For
batch sizes of M > 1, the waiting time is greater than the waiting time for
Poisson input. This is due largely to the second term, caused by waiting within
the batch.
8.13 a. ρ = λT
s
= 0.2 × 4 = 0.8; r = 2.4; σ
r
= 2.4
b. T
r
= 12;
T
q
· 9.24
8.14 T
s
= T
s1
= T
s2
= 1 ms
a. If we assume that the two types are independent, then the combined arrival
rate is Poisson.
λ = 800; ρ = 0.8; T
r
= 5 ms
b. λ
1
= 200; λ
2
= 600; ρ
1
= 0.2 ρ
2
= 0.6; T
r1
= 2 ms; T
r2
= 6 ms
c. λ
1
= 400; λ
2
= 400; ρ
1
= 0.4 ρ
2
= 0.4; T
r1
= 2.33 ms; T
r2
= 7.65 ms
d. λ
1
= 600; λ
2
= 200; ρ
1
= 0.6 ρ
2
= 0.2; T
r1
= 3 ms; T
r2
= 11 ms
8.15 T
s
= (100 octets × 8)/ (9600 bps) = 0.0833 sec.
a. If the load is evenly distributed among the links, then the load for each link is
48/ 5 = 9.6 packets per second.
ρ = 9.6 × 0.0833 = 0.8; T
r
= 0.0833/ (1 – 0.8) = 0.42 sec
b. ρ = λT
s
/ N = (48 × 0.833)/ 5 = 0.8
T
r
· T
s
+
C ×T
s
N × 1− ( )
· 0.13 sec
8.16 a. The first character in a Mcharacter packet must wait an average of M – 1
character interarrival times; the second character must wait M – 2 interarrival
times, and so on to the last character, which does not wait at all. The expected
interarrival time is 1/ λ. The average waiting time is therefore W
i
= (M – 1)/ 2λ.
b. The arrival rate is Kλ/ M, and the service time is (M + H)/ C, giving a utilization
of ρ = Kλ(M + H)/ MC. Using the M/ D/ 1 formula,
W
o
·
T
s
2 − 2
·
K M + H ( )
2
C
2
M
( )
2 − 2K M + H ( ) CM ( )
c.
26
T · W
i
+W
o
+T
s
·
M − 1
2
+
K M + H ( )
2
2MC
2
− 2K C M + H ( )
The plot is Ushaped.
8.17 a. System throughput: Λ = λ + PΛ; therefore Λ = λ/ (1 – P)
Server utilization: ρ = ΛT
s
= λT
s
/ (1 – P)
T
q
·
T
s
1 −
·
1− P ( )T
s
1 − P − T
s
b. A single customer may cycle around multiple times before leaving the system.
The mean number of passes J is given by:
J · 1 1− P ( ) + 2 1− P ( )P + 3 1 − P ( )P
2
+K· 1 − P ( ) iP
i−1
i ·1
∞
∑ ·
1
1 − P
Because the number of passes is independent of the queuing time, the total time
in the system is given by the product of the two means, JT
r
.
27
9.1 L
0
= 1; L
1
= 2/ 3; L
2
= (2/ 3)(2/ 3) = (2/ 3)
2
; L
N
= (2/ 3)
N
9.2 Base 3 uses the digits 0, 1, 2. A fraction in base 3 is represented by
X = 0.A
1
A
2
A
3
…, where A
i
is 0, 1, or 2. The value represented is:
X·
A
1
3
+
A
2
3
2
+
A
3
3
3
+L
If we imagine the interval [0, 1] is divided into three equal pieces, then the first digit
A
1
tells us whether X is in the left, middle, or right piece. For example, all numbers
with A
1
= 0 are in the left piece (value less than 1/ 3). The second digit A
2
tells us
whether X is in the left, middle, or right third of the given piece specified by A
1
. In
the Cantor set, we begin by deleting the middle third of [0, 1]; this removes all
points, and only those points, whose first digit is 1. The points left over (the only
ones with a remaining chance of being in the Cantor set) must have a 0 or 2 in the
first digit. Similarly, points whose second digit is 1 are deleted at the next stage in
the construction. By repeating this argument, we see that the Cantor set consists of
all points whose base3 expansion contains no 1's.
9.3 Multiplying each member of this sequence by a factor of 2 produces
… 1/ 4, 1/ 2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 …
which is the same sequence. The sequence is selfsimilar with a scaling factor of 2.
9.4 For the Pareto distribution Pr[X x] = F(x) = 1 – (k/ x)
α
Pr[Y y] = Pr[ln(X/ k) y] = Pr[X ke
y
] = 1 – (k/ (ke
y
))
α
= 1 – e
–αy
which is the exponential distribution.
9.5 a. H=1: E[x(at)] = aE[x(t)]; Var[x(at)] = a
2
Var[x(t)]
H=0.5: E[x(at)] = a
0.5
E[x(t)]; Var[x(at)] = aVar[x(at)]
For H = 1, the mean scales linearly with the scaling factor and the variance
scales as the square of the scaling factor. Intuitively, one might argue that this is
a "strong" manifestation of selfsimilarity.
b. In general, E[ax(t)] = aE[x(t)]; Var[ax(t)] = a
2
Var[x(t)]. Therefore
E[x(at)] = a
H–1
E[ax(t)]; Var[x(at)] = a
2H–2
Var[ax(t)]
c. H=1: E[x(at)] = E[ax(t)]; Var[x(at)] = Var[ax(t)]
H=0.5: E[x(at)] = E[ax(t)]/ a
0.5
; Var[x(at)] = Var[x(at)]/ a
Again, there is a strong manifestation of selfsimilarity for H = 1.
CHAPTER 9
SELFSIMILAR TRAFFIC
28
10.1 1. It does not guarantee that a particular node will not be swamped with frames.
2. There is no good way of distributing permits where they are most needed.
3. If a permit is accidentally destroyed, the capacity of the network is
inadvertently reduced.
10.2 Throughput is as follows:
0 λ 1 1 λ 10 10 λ
AA' traffic 0.8 (1.8 × 0.8)/ (0.8 + λ) 1.44/ 10.8 = 0.13
BB' traffic
λ
1.8λ/ (0.8 + λ) 18/ 10.8 = 1.67
Total throughput 0.8 + λ 1.8 1.8
The plot:
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
λ
AA'
BB'
Total Throughput
For 1 λ 10, the fraction of throughput that is AA' traffic is 0.8/ (0.8 + λ).
10.3 This problem is analyzed in [NAGL87]. The queue length for each outgoing link
from a router will grow continually; eventually, the transit time through the queue
exceeds the TTL of the incoming packets. A simplistic analysis would say that,
under these circumstances, the incoming packets are discarded and not forwarded
and no datagrams get through. But we have to take into account the fact that the
CHAPTER 10
CONGESTION CONTROL IN DATA
NETWORKS AND INTERNETS
29
router should be able to discard a packet faster than it transmits it, and if the router
is discarding a lot of packets, queue transit time declines. At this point, the
argument gets a bit involved, but [NAGL87] shows that, at best, the router will
transmit some datagrams with TTL = 1. These will have to be discarded by the
next router that is visited.
10.4
k · 2 + 2 ×
T
td
+ R
u
8 × L
d
· 2 + 2a
where the variable a is the same one defined in Chapter 11. In essence, the upper
part of the fraction is the length of the link in bits, and the lower part of the
fraction is the length of a frame in bits. So the fraction tells you how many frames
can be laid out on the link at one time. Multiplying by 2 gives you the roundtrip
length of the link. You want your sliding window to accommodate that number of
frames so that you can continue to send frames until an acknowledgment is
received. Adding 1 to that total takes care of rounding up to the next whole
number of frames. Adding 2 instead of 1 is just an additional margin of safety.
10.5 The average queue size over the previous cycle and the current cycle is calculated.
This value is the threshold. By averaging over two cycles instead of just
monitoring current queue length, the system avoids reacting to temporary surges
that would not necessarily produce congestion. The average queue length may be
computed by determining the area (product of queue size and time interval) over
the two cycles and dividing by the time of the two cycles
30
11.1 a. Because only one frame can be sent at a time, and transmission must stop until
an acknowledgment is received, there is little effect in increasing the size of the
message if the frame size remains the same. All that this would affect is connect
and disconnect time.
b. Increasing the number of frames would decrease frame size (number of
bits/ frame). This would lower line efficiency, because the propagation time is
unchanged but more acknowledgments would be needed.
c. For a given message size, increasing the frame size decreases the number of
frames. This is the reverse of (b).
11.2 Let L be the number of bits in a frame. Then, using Equation 11.4:
a ·
Propagation Delay
Transmission Time
·
20 × 10
−3
L 4 × 10
3
( )
·
80
L
Using Equation 11.2:
S ·
1
1+ 2a
·
1
1+ 160 L ( )
≥ 0.5
L ≥160
Therefore, an efficiency of at least 50% requires a frame size of at least 160 bits.
11.3
a ·
Propagation Delay
L R
·
270 ×10
−3
10
3
10
6
· 270
a. S = 1/ (1 + 2a) = 1/ 541 = 0.002
b. Using Equation 11.5: S = W/ (1 + 2a) = 7/ 541 = 0.013
c. S = 127/ 541 = 0.23
d. S = 255/ 541 = 0.47
11.4 A → B: Propagation time = 4000 × 5 µsec = 20 msec
Transmission time per frame =
1000
100 × 10
3
· 10 msec
B → C: Propagation time = 1000 × 5 µsec = 5 msec
Transmission time per frame = x = 1000/ R
R = data rate between B and C (unknown)
A can transmit three frames to B and then must wait for the acknowledgment
of the first frame before transmitting additional frames. The first frame takes 10
msec to transmit; the last bit of the first frame arrives at B 20 msec after it was
transmitted, and therefore 30 msec after the frame transmission began. It will take
CHAPTER 11
LINKLEVEL FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL
31
an additional 20 msec for B's acknowledgment to return to A. Thus, A can transmit
3 frames in 50 msec.
B can transmit one frame to C at a time. It takes 5 + x msec for the frame to be
received at C and an additional 5 msec for C's acknowledgment to return to A.
Thus, B can transmit one frame every 10 + x msec, or 3 frames every 30 + 3x msec.
Thus:
30 + 3x = 50
x = 6.66 msec
R = 1000/ x = 150 kbps
11.5 Round trip propagation delay of the link = 2 × L × t
Time to transmit a frame = B/ R
To reach 100% utilization, the transmitter should be able to transmit frames
continuously during a round trip propagation time. Thus, the total number of
frames transmitted without an ACK is:
N ·
2 × L × t
B R
+1
]
]
]
, where
X
]
is the smallest integer greater than or equal to X
This number can be accommodated by an Mbit sequence number with:
M · log
2
N ( )
]
11.6 In fact, REJ is not needed at all, since the sender will time out if it fails to receive an
ACK. The REJ improves efficiency by informing the sender of a bad frame as early
as possible.
11.7 Assume a 2bit sequence number:
1. Station A sends frames 0, 1, 2 to station B.
2. Station B receives all three frames and cumulatively acknowledges with RR 3.
3. Because of a noise burst, the RR 3 is lost.
4. A times out and retransmits frame 0.
5. B has already advanced its receive window to accept frames 3, 0, 1, 2. Thus it
assumes that frame 3 has been lost and that this is a new frame 0, which it
accepts.
11.8 Use the following formulas:
a 0.1 1. 10 100
S&W (1 – P)/ 1.2 (1 – P)/ 3 (1 – P)/ 21 (1 – P)/ 201
GBN (7) (1–P)/ (1+0.2P) (1–P)/ (1+2P) 7(1–P)/ 21(1+6P
)
7(1 – P)/ 201(1+6P)
GBN (127) (1–P)/ (1+0.2P) (1–P)/ (1+2P) (1 – P)/ (1+20P) 127(1–P)/ 201(1+126P)
SREJ (7) 1 – P 1 – P 7(1 – P)/ 21 7(1 – P)/ 201
SREJ (127) 1 – P 1 – P 1 – P 127(1 – P)/ 201
32
For a given value of a, the utilization values change very little as a function of P
over a reasonable range (say 10
3
to 10
12
). We have the following approximate
values for P = 10
6
:
a 0.1 1.0 10 100
Stopandwait 0.83 0.33 0.05 0.005
GBN (7) 1.0 1.0 0.33 0.035
GBN (127) 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.63
SREJ (7) 1.0 1.0 0.33 0.035
SREJ (127) 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.63
11.9a.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
• • • • • •
b.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
• • • • • •
c.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
• • • • • •
11.10 A lost SREJ frame can cause problems. The sender never knows that the frame
was not received, unless the receiver times out and retransmits the SREJ.
11.11 From the standard: "A SREJ frame shall not be transmitted if an earlier REJ
exception condition has not been cleared (To do so would request retransmission
of a data frame that would be retransmitted by the REJ operation.)" In other
words, since the REJ requires the station receiving the REJ to retransmit the
rejected frame and all subsequent frames, it is redundant to perform a SREJ on a
frame that is already scheduled for retransmission.
Also from the standard: "Likewise, a REJ frame shall not be transmitted if one
or more earlier SREJ exception conditions have not been cleared." The REJ frame
indicates the acceptance of all frames prior to the frame rejected by the REJ frame.
This would contradict the intent of the SREJ frame or frames.
11.12 Let t
1
= time to transmit a single frame
33
t
1
·
1024 bits
10
6
bps
· 1.024 msec
The transmitting station can send 7 frames without an acknowledgment. From the
beginning of the transmission of the first frame, the time to receive the
acknowledgment of that frame is:
t
2
= 270 + t
1
+ 270 = 541.024 msec
During the time t
2
, 7 frames are sent.
Data per frame = 1024 – 48 = 976
Throughput ·
7 × 976 bits
541.024 × 10
−3
sec
· 12.6 kbps
11.13 The selectivereject approach would burden the server with the task of managing
and maintaining large amounts of information about what has and has not been
successfully transmitted to the clients; the gobackN approach would be less of a
burden on the server.
34
12.1 The number of unacknowledged segments in the "pipeline" at any time is 5. Thus,
once steady state is reached, the maximum achievable throughput is equal to the
normalized theoretical maximum of 1.
12.2 This will depend on whether multiplexing or splitting occurs. If there is a oneto
one relationship between network connections and transport connections, then it
will do no good to grant credit at the transport level in excess of the window size
at the network level. If one transport connection is split among multiple network
connections (each one dedicated to that single transport connection), then a
practical upper bound on the transport credit is the sum of the network window
sizes. If multiple transport connections are multiplexed on a single network
connection, their aggregate credit should not exceed the network window size.
Furthermore, the relative amount of credit will result in a form of priority
mechanism.
12.3 In TCP, no provision is made. A later segment can provide a new credit
allocation. Provision is made for misordered and lost credit allocations in the ISO
transport protocol (TP) standard. In ISO TP, ACK/ Credit messages (AK) are in
separate PDUs, not part of a data PDU. Each AK TPDU contains a YRTUNR
field, which is the sequence number of the next expected data TPDU, a CDT field,
which grants credit, and a "subsequence number", which is used to assure that the
credit grants are processed in the correct sequence. Further, each AK contains a
"flow control confirmation" value which echoes the parameter values in the last
AK received (YRTUNR, CDT, subsequence number). This can be used to deal
with lost AKs.
12.4 The upper limit ensures that the maximum difference between sender and
receiver can be no greater than 2
31
. Without such a limit, TCP might not be able to
tell when the 32bit sequence number had rolled over from 2
31
– 1 back to 0.
12.5 a. SRTT(n) = α × SRTT(0) + (1 – α) × RTT × (α
n1
+ α
n2
+ … α + 1)
= α × SRTT(0) + (1 – α) × RTT × (1 – α
n
)/ (1 α)
SRTT(19) = 1.1 sec
b. SRTT(19) = 2.9 sec; in both cases, the convergence speed is slow, because in
both cases, the initial SRTT(0) is improperly chosen.
12.6 When the 50octet segment arrives at the recipient, it returns a credit of 1000
octets. However, the sender will now compute that there are 950 octets in transit
in the network, so that the usable window is now only 50 octets. Thus, the sender
will once again send a 50octet segment, even though there is no longer a natural
boundary to force it.
In general, whenever the acknowledgment of a small segment comes back,
the usable window associated with that acknowledgment will cause another
segment of the same small size to be sent, until some abnormality breaks the
pattern. Once the condition occurs, there is no natural way for those credit
allocations to be recombined; thus the breaking up of the usable window into
small pieces will persist.
CHAPTER 12
TCP TRAFFIC CONTROL
35
12.7 a. As segments arrive at the receiver, the amount of available buffer space
contracts. As data from the buffer is consumed (passed on to an application),
the amount of available buffer space expands. If SWS is not taken into account,
the following procedure is followed: When a segment is received, the recipient
should respond with an acknowledgment that provides credit equal to the
available buffer space. The SWS avoidance algorithm introduces the following
rule: When a segment is received, the recipient should not provide additional
credit unless the following condition is met:
available buffer space ≥ MIN
buffersize
2
, maximum segment size

.
`
,
The second term is easily explained: if the available buffer space is greater than
the largest possible segment, then clearly SWS cannot occur. The first term is a
reasonable guideline that states that if at least half of the buffer is free, the
sender should be provided the available of credit.
b. The suggested strategy is referred to as the Nagle algorithm and can be stated
as follows: If there is unacknowledged data, then the sender buffers all data
until the outstanding data have been acknowledged or until a maximumsized
segment can be sent. Thus, the sender accumulates data locally to avoid SWS.
12.8 a. E[X] = µ
X
= 1/ 4 = 0.25
Var[X] = E[X
2
] – E
2
[X] = (1/ 4) – (1/ 16) = 0.1875
σ
X
= (0.1875)
0.5
= 0.433
MDEV[X] = E[ X – µ
X
 ] = (1/ 4)[(3/ 4) + (1/ 4) + (1/ 4) + (1/ 4)] = 0.612
In this case, σ
X
< MDEV[X]
b. E[Y] = µ
Y
= 0.7
Var[Y] = E[Y
2
] – E
2
[Y] = 0.7 – 0.49 = 0.21
σ
X
= (0.21)
0.5
= 0.458
MDEV[X] = E[ Y – µ
Y
 ] = (0.3)(0.7) + (0.7)(0.3) = 0.422
In this case, σ
X
> MDEV[X]
12.9 SRTT(K + 1) = (1 – g)SRTT(K) + gRTT(K + 1)
SERR(K + 1) = RTT(K + 1) – SRTT(K)
Substituting for SRTT(K) in the first equation from the second equation:
SRTT(K + 1) = RTT(K + 1) – (1 – g)SERR(K + 1)
Think of RTT(K + 1) as a prediction of the next measurement and SERR(K + 1) as
the error in the last prediction. The above expression says we make a new
prediction based on the old prediction plus some fraction of the prediction error.
12.10 TCP initializes the congestion window to 1, sends an initial segment, and waits.
When the ACK arrives, it increases the congestion window to 2, sends 2
segments, and waits. When the 2 ACKS arrives, they each increase the congestion
window by one, so that it can send 4 segments. In general, it takes log
2
N round
trips before TCP can send N segments.
12.11 a. W = (10
9
× 0.06)/ (576 × 8) ≈ 13,000 segments
36
If the window size grows linearly from 1, it will take about 13,000 round trips,
or about 13 minutes to get the correct window size.
b. W = (10
9
× 0.06)/ (16,000 × 8) ≈ 460 segments
In this case, it takes about 460 round trips, which is less than 30 seconds.
12.12 Recall from our discussion in Section 12.1 that a receiver may adopt a
conservative flow control strategy by issuing credit only up to the limit of
currently available buffer space, or an optimistic strategy by issuing credit for
space that is currently unavailable but which the receiver anticipates will soon
become available. In the latter case, buffer overflow is possible.
12.13 AAL5 accepts a stream of cells beginning with the first SDU=0 after an SDU=1
and continuing until a cell with SDU=1 is received, and assembles all of these
cells, including the final SDU=1 cell, as a single segment. With PPD, some initial
portion of an SDU=0 sequence may get through with the remainder of the
SDU=0 sequence discarded. If the final SDU=1 cell is also discarded, then the
receiving AAL5 will combine the first part of the partially discarded segment
with the stream of cells that make up the next segment.
37
13.1 Yes, but ATM does not include such slidingwindow mechanisms. In some cases,
a higherlevel protocol above ATM will provide such mechanisms, but not in all
cases.
13.2 a. We can demonstrate this by induction. We want to show that the maximum
number of conforming backtoback cells, N, satisfies:
N · 1 +
T −
]
]
]
· 1 +
T −
]
]
]
First, suppose τ < T – δ. Then N = 1 and backtoback cells are not allowed. To
see this, suppose that the first cell arrives at t
a
(1) = 0. Since the cell insertion
time is δ, a second cell back to back would arrive at t
a
(2) = δ. But using the
virtual scheduling algorithm, we see that the second cell must arrive no earlier
than T – τ. Therefore, we must have:
t
a
(2) > T – τ
δ > T – τ
τ > T – δ
which is not true. Therefore, N = 1.
Now suppose T – δ < τ < 2(T – δ). Then N = 2 and two consecutive cells are
allowed, but not three or more. We can see that two consecutive cells are
allowed since T – δ < τ satisfies the required condition just derived, above. To
see that three consecutive cells are not allowed, let us assume that three
consecutive cells do arrive. Then, we have t
a
(1) = 0, t
a
(2) = δ, and t
a
(3) = 2δ.
Looking at the virtual scheduling algorithm (Figure 13.6a), we see that the
theoretical arrival time for the third cell is TAT = 2T. Therefore the third cell
must arrive no earlier than 2T – τ, and we must have:
t
a
(3) > 2T – τ
2δ > 2T – τ
τ > 2(T – δ)
which is not true. Therefore N = 2.
This line of reasoning can be extended to longer strings of backtoback
cells, and by induction, Equation (13.1) is correct.
b. We want to show that the maximum number of cells, MBS, that may be
transmitted at the peak cell rate satisfies:
MBS · 1 +
S
T
S
− T
]
]
]
· 1 +
S
T
S
− T
]
]
]
CHAPTER 13
TRAFFIC AND CONGESTION
CONTROL IN ATM NETWORKS
38
The line of reasoning is the same as for part (a) of this problem. In this case, we
assume that cells can arrive at a maximum of an interarrival time of T.
Therefore, an MBS of 2 means that two cells can arrive at a spacing of T; an
MBS of 3 means that 3 cells can arrive with successive spacings of T, and so on.
Here is an example that shows the relationship among the relevant parameters.
In this example, MBS = 4, T
S
= 5δ, T = 2δ, and τ
S
= 9δ.
t
a
(i)
Time
X + LCT
(TAT)
MBS
T
S
T
S
c. Suppose that τ
S
= (MBS – 1)(T
S
– T) exactly. Then,
1+
S
T
S
− T
]
]
]
· 1+
MBS −1 ( ) T
S
− T ( )
T
S
− T
]
]
]
· 1 + MBS − 1 ( ) · MBS
which satisfies Equation (13.2). Now suppose that we have the following:
(MBS – 1)(T
S
– T) < τ
S
< MBS(T
S
– T)
then the value
S
T
S
− T
is a number greater than the integer (MBS – 1) and less
than the integer MBS. Therefore:
1+
S
T
S
− T
]
]
]
· 1+ MBS −1 ( ) · MBS
which still satisfies Equation (13.2). However if τ
S
MBS(T
S
– T), then the
equation is not satisfied.
13.3Observe that if t (MBS × T), then the first term of the inequality applies;
otherwise, the second term applies.
13.4We have ER = max[Fairshare, VCshare], where
Fairshare = Target_rate/ #_connections
VCshare = CCR/ LF = (CCR × Target_rate)/ Input_rate
By the first equation, we know that ER Fairshare and ER VCshare
Case I: LF > 1
In this case VCshare > CCR. Therefore, ER > CCR
Case II: LF > 1
IIa Fairshare > VCshare
39
This condition holds if: Input_rate > CCR × #_connections
With this condition ER = Fairshare
Then ER > CCR if (Target_rate/ #_connections) > CCR
IIb VCshare > Fairshare
This condition holds if: Input_rate < CCR × #_connections
With this condition ER = VCshare
Then ER > CCR if Target_rate > IR
Case III: LF = 1
In this case, VCshare = CCR
IIa Fairshare > VCshare
This condition holds if: Input_rate > CCR × #_connections
With this condition ER = Fairshare
Then ER > CCR if (Target_rate/ #_connections) > CCR
IIb VCshare > Fairshare
This condition holds if: Input_rate < CCR × #_connections
With this condition ER = VCshare = CCR
40
14.1 n(n – 1)/ 2
14.2 a.
b. (a, b, c, f); (a, b, c, e, f); (a, b, e, f); (a, b, e, c, f); (a, d, e, f); (a, d, e, b, c, f);
(a, d, e, c, f);
c. 3
14.3
14.4 If G is a connected graph, then the removal of that edge makes the graph
disconnected.
14.5 First, show that the graph T constructed is a tree. Then use induction on the level
of T to show that T contains all vertices of G.
14.6 The input is a graph with vertices ordered V
1
, V
2
, …, V
N
.
1. [Initialization]. Set S to {V
1
} and set T to the graph consisting of V
1
and no
edges. Designate V
1
as the root of the tree.
2. [Add edges]. Process the vertices in S in order. For each vertex x in S, process
each adjacent vertex y in G in order; add edge (x, y) and vertex y to T provided
that this does not produce a cycle in T. If no edges are added in this step, go to
step 4.
3. [Update S]. Replace the contents of S with the children in T of S ordered
consistent with the original ordering. Go to step 2.
4. [Return Result]. If the number of vertices in T is N, return CONNECTED;
otherwise, return NOT_CONNECTED. Halt.
CHAPTER 14
OVERVIEW OF GRAPH THEORY
AND LEASTCOST PATHS
41
14.7 Start with V1
Iteration 1: Add V
5
, V
8
Iteration 2: Add V
2
, V
6
, V
4
Iteration 3: Add V
3
, V
7
Spanning Tree:
14.8 for n := 1 to N do
begin
d[n] := ∞;
p[n] := –1
end;
d[srce] := 0 {initialize Q to contain srce only 0}
insert srce at the head of Q;
{initialization over }
while Q is not empty do
begin
delete the head node j from Q;
for each link jk that starts at j do
begin
newdist := d[j] + c[j,k];
if newdist < d[k] then
begin
d[k] := newdist;
p[nk] := j
if k ∉ Q then insert K at the tail of Q;
end
end;
end;
14.9 This proof is based on one in [BERT92]. Let us claim that
(1) L(i) L(j) for all i ∈ T and j ∉ T
(2) For each node j, L(j) is the shortest distance from s to j using paths with all
nodes in T except possibly j.
Condition (1) is satisfied initially, and because w(i, j) ≥ 0 and L(i) = min
j∉T
L(j), it is preserved by the formula in step 3 of the algorithm. Condition (2) then
can be shown by induction. It holds initially. Suppose that condition (2) holds at
the beginning of some iteration. Let i be the node added to T at that iteration, and
let L(k) be the label of each node k at the beginning of the iteration. Condition (2)
holds for i = j by the induction hypothesis, and it holds for all j ∈ T by condition
(1) and the induction hypothesis. Finally for a node j ∉ T ∪ i, consider a path from
s to j which is shortest among all those in which all nodes of the path belong to T
∪ i and let L'(j) be the distance. Let k be the last node of this path before node j.
Since k is in T ∪ i, the length of this path from s to k is L(k). So we have
L'(j) = min
k∉T∪i
[w(k, j) +L(k)] = min[min
k∉T
[w(k, j) +L(k)], w(i, j) +L(i)]
42
The induction hypothesis implies that L(j) = min
k∉T
[w(k, j) +L(k)], so we have
L'(j) = min[L(j) , w(i, j) +L(i)]
Thus in step 3, L(j) is set to the shortest distance from s to j using paths with all
nodes except j belonging to T ∪ i.
14.10 Consider the node i which has path length K+1, with the immediately preceding
node on the path being j. The distance to node i is w(j, i) plus the distance to reach
node j. This latter distance must be L(j), the distance to node j along the optimal
route, because otherwise there would be a route with shorter distance found by
going to j along the optimal route and then directly to i.
14.11 Not possible. A node will not be added to T until its leastcost route is found. As
long as the leastcost route has not been found, the last node on that route will be
eligible for entry into T before the node in question.
14.12 We show the results for starting from node 2.
M L(1) Path L(3) Path L(4) Path L(5) Path L(6) Path
1 {2} 3 21 3 23 2 24 ∞ — ∞ —
2 {2, 4} 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 ∞ —
3 {2, 4, 1} 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 ∞ —
4 {2, 4, 1, 3} 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 8 236
5 {2, 4, 1, 3, 5} 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 5 2456
6 {2, 4, 1, 3, 5, 6} 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 5 2456
14.13 We show the results for starting from node 2.
h L
h
(1) Path L
h
(3) Path L
h
(4) Path L
h
(5) Path L
h
(6) Path
0 ∞ — ∞ — ∞ — ∞ — ∞ —
1 3 21 3 23 2 24 ∞ — ∞ —
2 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 8 236
3 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 5 2456
4 3 21 3 23 2 24 3 245 5 2456
43
14.14 a. We provide a table for node 1 of network a; the figure is easily generated.
M L(2) Path L(3) Path L(4) Path L(5) Path L(6) Path
1 {1} 1 12 ∞ — 4 14 ∞ — ∞ —
2 {1,2} 1 12 4 123 4 14 2 125 ∞ —
3 {1,2,5} 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 6 1256
4 {1,2,5,3} 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 5 12536
5 {1,2,5,3,4} 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 5 12536
6 {1,2,5,3,4,6} 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 5 12536
b. The table for network b is similar in construction but much larger. Here are the
results for node A:
A to B: AB A to E: AE A to H: AEGH
A to C: ABC A to F: ABCF A to J: ABCJ
A to D: AEGHD A to G: AEG A to K: AEGHDK
14.15
h L
h
(2) Path L
h
(3) Path L
h
(4) Path L
h
(5) Path L
h
(6) Path
0 ∞ — ∞ — ∞ — ∞ — ∞ —
1 1 12 ∞ — 4 14 ∞ — ∞ —
2 1 12 4 123 4 14 2 125 ∞ —
3 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 6 1236
4 1 12 3 1253 3 1254 2 125 5 12536
14.16 If there is a unique leastcost path, the two algorithms will yield the same result
because they are both guaranteed to find the leastcost path. If there are two or
more equal leastcost paths, the two algorithms may find different leastcost
paths, depending on the order in which alternatives are explored.
14.17 This explanation is taken from [BERT92]. The FloydWarshall algorithm iterates
on the set of nodes that are allowed as intermediate nodes on the paths. It starts
like both Dijkstra's algorithm and the BellmanFord algorithm with single arc
distances (i.e., no intermediate nodes) as starting estimates of shortest path
lengths. It then calculates shortest paths under the constraint that only node 1
can be used as an intermediate node, and then with the constraint that only
nodes 1 and 2 can be used, and so forth.
For n = 0, the initialization clearly gives the shortest path lengths subject to
the constraint of no intermediate nodes on paths. Now, suppose for a given n,
L
n
(i, j) in the above algorithm gives the shortest path lengths using nodes 1 to n
as intermediate nodes. Then the shortest path length from i to j, allowing nodes 1
to n+1 as possible intermediate nodes, either contains node n+1 on the shortest
path or doesn't contain node n+1. For the first case, the constrained shortest path
from i to j goes from i to n+1 and then from n+1 to j, giving the length in the final
term of the equation in step 2 of the problem. For the second case, the
constrained shortest path is the same as the one using nodes 1 to n as possible
44
intermediate nodes, yielding the length of the first term in the equation in step 2
of the problem.
45
15.1 No. That would violate the "separation of layers" concept. There is no need for IP
to know how data is routed within a network. For the next hop, IP specifies
another system on the same network and hands that address down to the network
layer protocol which then initiates the networklayer routing function.
15.2 When the unicast routing adapts to the shorter path, the delaybandwidth between
the sender and receiver decreases [than the case of the longer path], since shorter
paths experience less delays. The new path does not have the capacity to contain
all the packets with the window size filling the longer path, and so some packets
are dropped and TCP cuts back its window size.
15.3 A digraph could be drawn in a number of ways, depending on what are defined to
be nodes and what are defined to be edges. As Figure 14.10 illustrates, each node
and each router can be depicted as a node. The following digraph is a simpler
representation taken from the point of view of Host X:
15.4
B C A
3: N1
1: N2
4: N2, G, N3
3: N2, D, N4
4: N2, D, N4, F, N5
8: N1
8: N3, E, N4, D, N2
5: N3
6: N3, E, N4
6: N3, H, N5
6: N4, D, N2, B, N1
3: N4, D, N2
2: N4, E, N3
1: N4
2: N4, F, N5
15.5
Destination
Network
Next
Router
Metric
L(A, j)
Destination
Network
Next
Router
Metric
L(A, j)
1 D 6 1 D 6
2 D 3 2 D 3
CHAPTER 15
INTERIOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS
46
3 D 6 3 E 2
4 — 1 4 — 1
5 F 5 5 F 2
A's routing table prior to update A's routing table after update
15.6 First, a mechanism is needed for getting all nodes to agree to start the algorithm.
Second, a mechanism is needed to abort the algorithm and start a new version if a
link status or value changes as the algorithm is running.
15.7 a.
Router Distance L(x, 5) Next Hop R(x, 5)
A 3 B
B 2 D
C 3 B
D 1 —
b.
R L(x, 5) R(x, 5) L(x, 5) R(x, 5) L(x, 5) R(x, 5) L(x, 5) R(x, 5) L(x, 5) R(x, 5)
A 3 B 4 C 5 C • • • 11 C 12 C
B U U 4 C 5 C • • • 11 C 12 C
C 3 B 4 A 5 A • • • 11 A 11 D
D 1 — 1 — 1 — • • • 1 — 1 —
Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3 • • • Iteration 9 Iteration 10
U = Unreachable
15.8 Suppose A has a route to D through C, so A sends a poisoned reverse message to
C that indicates that D is unreachable via A (set metric to infinity). B will receive
this message and think that D is unreachable via A. But B can get to C itself and
does not need to go through A to do so. If C is the best first hop for A to get to D,
then C is also the best first hop for B to get to D across this network.
15.9 RIP runs on top of UDP, which provides an optional checksum for the data
portion of the UDP datagram. OSPF runs on top of IP. The IP checksum only
covers the IP header, so OSPF must add its own checksum. [STEV94]
15.10 Load balancing increases the chances of packets being delivered out of order, and
possibly distorts the roundtrip times calculated by TCP.
47
16.1 So that the queries are not propagated outside of the local network.
16.2 For convenience, flip the table on its side:
N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Total
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 15
This is the least efficient method, but it is very robust: a packet will get through if
there is at least one path from source to destination. Also, no prior routing
information needs to be exchanged.
16.3 Root to the left:
16.4 a. In this table, we show the hop cost for each network or link:
N1 N3 N4 N5 N6 L3 L4 Total
0 1 12 1 1 3 4 22
b.
N1 N3 N4 N5 N6 L3 L5 Total
0 1 12 1 1 3 2 20
16.5 MOSPF works well in an environment where group members are relatively
densely packed. In such an environment, bandwidth is likely to be plentiful, with
most group members on shared LANs with highspeed links between the LANs.
However, MOSPF does not scale well to large, sparselypacked multicast groups.
CHAPTER 16
EXTERIOR ROUTING
PROTOCOLS AND MULTICAST
48
Routing information is periodically flooded to all other routers in an area. This
can consume considerable resources if the routers are widely dispersed; also the
routers must maintain a lot of state information about group membership and
location. The use of areas can cut down on this problem but the fundamental
scaling issue remains.
16.6 PIM allows the a destination router to replace the groupshared tree with a
shortestpath tree to any source. Thus, this is the shortest unicast path from
destination to source, which is not necessarily the reverse of the shortest unicast
path from source to destination.
16.7 First, suppose that all traffic must go through the RPbased tree. If the RP is
placed badly with respect to the topology and distribution of the group receivers
and senders, then the delay is likely to be large. However, for applications for
which delay is important and the data rate is high enough, receivers' last hop
routers may join directly to the source and receive packets over the shortest path.
So, the RP placement is this case is not so crucial for good performance.
49
17.1 These answers are taken from RFC 1809, Using the Flow Label Field in IPv6 (June
1995).
a. The IPv6 specification allows routers to ignore Flow Labels and also allows for
the possibility that IPv6 datagrams may carry flow setup information in their
options. Unknown Flow Labels may also occur if a router crashes and loses its
state. During a recovery period, the router will receive datagrams with Flow
Labels it does not know, but this is arguably not an error, but rather a part of
the recovery period. Finally, if the controversial suggestion that each TCP
connection be assigned a separate Flow Label is adopted, it may be necessary to
manage Flow Labels using an LRU cache (to avoid Flow Label cache overflow
in routers), in which case an active but infrequently used flow's state may have
been intentionally discarded. In any case, it is clear that treating this situation
as an error and, say dropping the datagram and sending an ICMP message, is
inappropriate. Indeed, it seems likely that in most cases, simply forwarding the
datagram as one would a datagram with a zero Flow Label would give better
service to the flow than dropping the datagram.
b. An example is a router which has two paths to the datagram's destination, one
via a highbandwidth satellite link and the other via a lowbandwidth
terrestrial link. A high bandwidth flow obviously should be routed via the
highbandwidth link, but if the router loses the flow state, the router may route
the traffic via the lowbandwidth link, with the potential for the flow's traffic to
swamp the lowbandwidth link. It seems likely, however, these situations will
be exceptions rather than the rule.
17.2 These answers are taken from RFC 1809.
a. An internet may have partitioned since the flow was created. Or the deletion
message may be lost before reaching all routers. Furthermore, the source may
crash before it can send out a Flow Label deletion message.
b. The obvious mechanism is to use a timer. Routers should discard Flow Labels
whose state has not been refreshed within some period of time. At the same
time, a source that crashes must observe a quiet time, during which it creates
no flows, until it knows that all Flow Labels from its previous life must have
expired. (Sources can avoid quiet time restrictions by keeping information
about active Flow Labels in stable storage that survives crashes). This is
precisely how TCP initial sequence numbers are managed and it seems the
same mechanism should work well for Flow Labels.
17.3 Again, RFC 1809:
The argument in favor of using Flow Labels on individual TCP connections is that
even if the source does not request special service, a network provider's routers
may be able to recognize a large amount of traffic and use the Flow Label field to
establish a special route that gives the TCP connection better service (e.g., lower
delay or bigger bandwidth). Another argument is to assist in efficient demux at
the receiver (i.e., IP and TCP demuxing could be done once).
An argument against using Flow Labels in individual TCP connections is
that it changes how we handle route caches in routers. Currently one can cache a
route for a destination host, regardless of how many different sources are sending
CHAPTER 17
INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES
50
to that destination host. Thus, if five sources each have two TCP connections
sending data to a server, one cache entry containing the route to the server
handles all ten TCPs' traffic. Putting Flow Labels in each datagram changes the
cache into a Flow Label cache, in which there is a cache entry for every TCP
connection. So there's a potential for cache explosion. There are ways to alleviate
this problem, such as managing the Flow Label cache as an LRU cache, in which
infrequently used Flow Labels get discarded (and then recovered later). It is not
clear, however, whether this will cause cache thrashing.
Observe that there is no easy compromise between these positions. One
cannot, for instance, let the application decide whether to use a Flow Label. Those
who want different Flow Labels for every TCP connection assume that they may
optimize a route without the application's knowledge. Forcing all applications to
use Flow Labels will force routing vendors to deal with the cache explosion issue,
even if we later discover that we don't want to optimize individual TCP
connections.
17.4 From RFC 1809:
During its discussions, the EndtoEnd group realized this meant that if a router
forwarded a datagram with an unknown Flow Label, it had to ignore the Priority
field, because the priority values might have been redefined. (For instance, the
priorities might have been inverted). The IPv6 community concluded this
behavior was undesirable. Indeed, it seems likely that when the Flow Label is
unknown, the router will be able to give much better service if it uses the Priority
field to make a more informed routing decision.
17.5 a. λ = λ1 + λ2 = 0.5; Using the M/ M/ 1 equations in Table 8.6:
T
r
= T
s
/ (1 – λT
s
) = 1/ (1 – 0.5) = 2; Then
V = (4 – 2×2) + (4 – 2) = 2
b. Using the M/ M/ 1 equations from Table 8.9:
ρ
1
= λ
1
T
s1
= 0.25 = ρ
2
; ρ = ρ
1
+ ρ
2
= 0.5
T
r1
= T
s1
+ (ρ
1
T
s1
+ ρ
2
T
s2
)/ (1 – ρ
1
) = 1.67
T
r2
= T
s2
+ (T
q1
– T
s1
)/ (1 – ρ) = 2.33
V = (4 – 2×1.67) + (4 – 2.33) = 2.33
Therefore, the strict priority service is more efficient in the sense that it
delivers a higher utility for the same throughput.
17.6 a. During a bust of S seconds, a total of MS octets are transmitted. A burst
empties the bucket (b octets) and, during the burst, tokens for an additional
rS octets are generated, for a total burst size of (b + rs). Thus,
b + rS = MS
S = b/ (M – r)
b. S = (250 × 10
3
)/ (23 × 10
6
) ≈ 11 msec
17.7 Sum the equation over all session j:
51
S
i
, t ( )
j
≥ S
j
, t ( )
i
S
i
, t ( )
j
j
∑ ≥
i
S
j
, t ( )
j
∑
S
i
, t ( )
j
j
∑ ≥
i
C t − ( )
S
i
, t ( )
t − ( )
≥
i
j j
∑
C
The last inequality demonstrates that session i is guaranteed a rate of
g
i
·
i
j
j
∑
C
17.8 a. If the traffic is fairly bursty, then TH
min
should be sufficiently large to allow
the link utilization to be maintained at an acceptably high level.
b. The difference between the two thresholds should be larger then the typical
increase in the calculated average queue length in one RTT.
17.9 60 Mbits
52
18.1 a. Problem: IPv6 inserts a variable number of variablelength Internetlayer
headers before the transport header, increasing the difficulty and cost of packet
classification for QoS. Solution: Efficient classification of IPv6 data packets
could be obtained using the Flow Label field of the iPv6 header.
b. Problem: IPlevel security, under either IPv4 or IPv6, may encrypt the entire
transport header, hiding the port numbers of data packets from intermediate
routers. Solution: There must be some means of identifying source and
destination IP users (equivalent to the TCP or UDP port numbers). With IP
level security, there is a parameter, called the Security Parameter Index (SPI)
carried in the security header. While SPIs are allocated based on destination
address, they will typically be associated with a particular sender. As a result,
two senders to the same unicast destination will usually have different SPIs.
In order to support the control of multiple independent flows between source
and destination IP addresses, the SPI will be included as part of the
FILTER_SPEC.
18.2 The diagram is a simplification. Recall that the text states that "Transmissions
from all sources are forwarded to all destinations through this router."
18.3 a. The purpose of the label is to get the packet to the final router. Once the next
tolast router has decided to send the packet to the final router, the label no
longer has any function, and need no longer be carried.
b. It reduces the processing required at the last router: it need not pop the label.
[RFC 3031]
18.4 a. When the last label is popped from a packet's label stack (resulting in the stack
being emptied), further processing of the packet is based on the packet's
network layer header. The LSR which pops the last label off the stack must
therefore be able to identify the packet's network layer protocol.
b. The identity of the network layer protocol must be inferable from the value of
the label which is popped from the bottom of the stack, possibly along with the
contents of the network layer header itself. Therefore, when the first label is
pushed onto a network layer packet, either the label must be one which is used
ONLY for packets of a particular network layer, or the label must be one which
is used ONLY for a specified set of network layer protocols, where packets of
the specified network layers can be distinguished by inspection of the network
layer header. Furthermore, whenever that label is replaced by another label
value during a packet's transit, the new value must also be one which meets the
same criteria. If these conditions are not met, the LSR which pops the last label
off a packet will not be able to identify the packet's network layer protocol.
c. The restrictions only apply to the bottom (last) label in the stack. [RFC3032]
18.5 RTP uses periodic status reporting among all group participants. When the
number of participants becomes large, the period of the reporting is scaled up to
reduce the overall bandwidth consumption of control messages. Since the period
of reporting may be large (on the order of tens of seconds), it may convey coarse
grain information about the network congestion. Hence this information cannot
CHAPTER 18
PROTOCOLS FOR QOS SUPPORT
53
be used to relief network congestion, which needs finer grained feedback. This
information, however, can be used as a means for sessionlevel (as opposed to
packet level) flow control, where a source may adjust its transmission rate, and
receivers may adjust their playback points according to the coarse grained
information.
18.6 Define SSRC_r = receiver issuing this receiver report; SSRC_n = source receiving
this receiver report; A = arrival time of report; LSR = value in "Time of last sender
report" field; DLSR = value in "Delay since last sender report" field. Then
Total roundtrip time = A – LSR
Roundtrip propagation delay = A – LSR – DLSR
54
19.1 X = H(P
1
+ P
2
, P
3
) = –(P
1
+ P
2
)log(P
1
+ P
2
) – P
3
log(P
3
)
Y = (P
1
+ P
2
)H[(P
1
/ (P
1
+ P
2
), (P
2
/ (P
1
+ P
2
)]
= (P
1
+ P
2
)[(P
1
/ (P
1
+ P
2
)log(P
1
/ (P
1
+ P
2
) + (P
2
/ (P
1
+ P
2
)log(P
2
/ (P
1
+ P
2
)]
= –P
1
log(P
1
) + P
1
log(P
1
+ P
2
) – P
2
log(P
2
) + P
2
log(P
1
+ P
2
)
X + Y = –P
1
log(P
1
) – P
2
log(P
2
) – P
3
log(P
3
) = H(P
1
, P
2
, P
3
)
19.2 No, because the code for x
2
=0001 is the prefix for x
5
=00011. The sequence
000110101111000110 can be deciphered as:
0001 101011 1100 0110 = x
2
x
8
x
4
x
3
00011 010 11110 00110 = x
5
x
1
x
7
x
6
19.3
a.
x
1
00
x
2
11
x
3
010
x
4
011
x
5
100
x
6
101
b.
x
1
1
x
2
00
x
3
010
x
4
0111
x
5
01100
x
6
01101
c.
x
1
00
x
2
10
x
3
010
x
4
110
x
5
0001
x
6
1111
x
7
1110
x
8
01101
x
9
01100
d.
x
1
10
x
2
000
x
3
011
x
4
110
x
5
111
x
6
0101
x
7
00100
x
8
00110
x
9
00111
x
10
01000
x
11
01001
x
12
001010
x
13
001011
19.4 Let N be the average codeword length of C and N' that of C'. Then
N' – N = (P
i
L
k
+ P
k
L
i
) – (P
i
L
i
+ P
k
L
k
) = (P
i
– P
k
)(L
k
– L
i
) < 0
Therefore C' is less optimal than C.
19.5 Use Equation 6.1:
P X ( ) · P X E
i
( )P E
i
( )
i
∑ and assume P
A
= 0.8 and P
B
= 0.2.
P
A
= Pr(A/ A)P
A
+ Pr(A/ B)P
B
= 0.9 × 0.8 + 0.4 × 0.2 = 0.72 + 0.08 = 0.8
P
B
= Pr(B/ A)P
A
+ Pr(B/ B)P
B
= 0.1 × 0.8 + 0.6 × 0.2 = 0.08 + 0.12 = 0.2
CHAPTER 19
OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION THEORY
55
19.6 Scheme 1: This coding scheme could have not been generated by a Huffman
algorithm since it is not optimal. x4 could have been represented by a 1 instead of
10, and x3 could have been represented by a 00 instead of 001.
Scheme 2: It is a Huffman code because it is a prefix code, it is optimal, and it
forms a full binary tree.
P(x
1
) = 0.55; P(x
2
) = 0.25; P(x
3
) = 0.1; P(x
4
) = 0.1
Scheme 3: This coding scheme could have not been generated by a Huffman
algorithm since it is not a prefix scheme. x
1
is a prefix for x
3
.
Scheme 4: It is a Huffman code because it is a prefix code, it is optimal, and it
forms a full binary tree.
P(x
1
) = 0.3; P(x
2
) = 0.2; P(x
3
) = 0.1; P(x
4
) = 0.4
56
20.1 Advantage: MNP eliminates the necessity of using a special compression
indicating character because the three repeating characters both indicate that
compression has occurred and identify the character that was compressed.
Disadvantages: (1) MNP results in data expansion when sequence of only three
repeating characters are encountered in the original data stream. (2) MNP
encoding requires four characters compared to three characters for ordinary run
length encoding.
20.2
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<0,0,C(0)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<0,0,C(1)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<2,1,C(0)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<4,4,C(1)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<4,2,C(1)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<6,2,C(0)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<6,5,C(1)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<3,2,C(0)>
CHAPTER 20
LOSSLESS COMPRESSION
57
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<5,3,C(1)>
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
<6,3,EOF>
20.3 Initial Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
0 Decoding: a Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 a_
0 Decoding: aa Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 aa
3 a_
1 Decoding: aab Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 aa
3 ab
4 b_
3 Decoding: aabab Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 aa
3 ab
4 ba
5 ab_
58
5 Decoding: aabababa Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 aa
3 ab
4 ba
5 aba
6 aba_
2 Decoding: aabababaaa Dictionary
Index Phrase
0 a
1 b
2 aa
3 ab
4 ba
5 aba
6 abaa
7 aa_
0 0 1 3 5 2 => Final Decoding: aabababaaa
20.4 a. In LZ77, compression takes longer because the encoder has to search the
buffer to find the best match, whereas the decoder’s job is only to retrieve the
symbols from the buffer, given an index and a length.
b. Similarly, for LZ78, the encoding process requires the dictionary to be
searched for the best entry matching the input stream, whereas the decoder
simply retrieves an entry given by an index. However, the difference might
not be as significant as in LZ77, since both the encoder and decoder need to
build a dictionary.
20.5 LZ77 is a better technique for encoding aaaa…aaa, assuming the length of the
buffer is sufficiently large compared to k. In the best case, if the buffer size is k,
the sequence can be encoded with two triplets: <0,0,C(a)> and <1,(k – 1),EOF>.
LZ78 will need to generate a dictionary with entries like a, aa, aaa, etc., thus
generating a longer bitstream, beside the overhead from using a dictionary.
On the other hand, if the size of the LZ77 buffer is small compared to k, LZ78
would be slightly more efficient because LZ77 would encode a fixed number of
symbols in every triplet (i.e., k symbols), while LZ78 will encode one additional
symbol with each encoding.
20.6 a.
symbol g f e d space c b a
Probability 8/ 40 7/ 40 6/ 40 5/ 40 5/ 40 4/ 40 3/ 40 2/ 40
code 00 110 111 010 101 011 1000 1001
b.
59
a
1space
b
3b
space
c
1
2
3
4
5
6
6c
6space
d
9d
10space
7
8
9
10
11
e
12e
13e
5f
f
12
13
14
15
16
16f
17f
g
19g
20g
17
18
19
20
21
c.
Symbol P
i
Cumulative
Probability
Interval Binary
Representation
of Lower Bound
Code
a 0.05 0.05 [0, 0.05) 0.00000 00000
b 0.075 0.125 [0.05, 0.125) 0.00001 00001
c 0.1 0.225 [0.125, 0.225) 0.00100 0010
d 0.125 0.35 [0.225, 0.35) 0.00111 0011
e 0.15 0.5 [0.35, 0.5) 0.01011 01
f 0.175 0.675 [0.5, 0.675) 0.10000 100
g 0.2 0.875 [0.675, 0.875) 0.10101 101
space 0.125 1.0 [0.875, 1.0) 0.11100 11
20.7 a. We need to exploit the following fact. Each row of the sorted matrix is a circular
buffer that contains the original sequence in proper order, but rotated some
number of positions. The following procedure will do the job. Label the final
column in the sorted matrix L (the output string), the first column F, and the
output integer I. Then perform these steps.
1. Given L, reconstruct F. This is easy: F contains the characters in L in
alphabetical order.
2. Start with the character in row I, column L. By definition, this is the first
character of the original string.
3. Go to the character in F in the current row. This is the next character in the
string. This is so because each row is a circular buffer.
4. Go to the row that has the same character found in (3) in the Lth column.
Repeat steps (3) and (4) until the entire original string is recovered. The
following figure is an example.
60
In step 4, there may be more than one character in the Lth column matching the
current character in the F column. In our example, the first time that an A is
encountered in F, there are two choices for A in L. The ambiguity is resolved by
observing that multiple instances of a character must appear in the same order
in both F and L, although in different rows.
b. BWT alters the distribution of characters in a way that enhances
compression. Each character in L is a prefix to the character string
beginning with the character in F in the same row (except for the single case
where L contains the last character in the string). BWT sorts the rows so that
identical suffixes will be together. Often the same prefix character will occur
for multiple instances of the same suffix. For example, if the sequence "hat"
appears multiple times in a long string, all of these instances will be
contiguous in rows beginning with "hat". Typically, the prefix character for
almost all of these strings is "t". Thus, there could be a number of
consecutive instances of "t" in L, providing an opportunity for compression.
61
21.1 The only change is to the dc component.
S(0) S(1) S(2) S(3) S(4) S(5) S(6) S(7)
484 –129 –95 26 –73 4 –31 –11
21.2 a.
T
1
·
8 2 4 2
2 0 –2 0
2 2 0 2
0 0 0 2

.
`
,
P
1
= (W')
–1
T
1
W
–1
b.
P
1
·
1 1 1 0
1 1 –1 0
1 –1 0 1
1 –1 0 –1

.
`
,
8 2 4 2
2 0 –2 0
2 2 0 2
0 0 0 2

.
`
,
1 1 1 1
1 1 –1 –1
1 –1 0 0
0 0 1 –1

.
`
,
·
1 1 1 0
1 1 –1 0
1 –1 0 1
1 –1 0 –1

.
`
,
14 6 8 4
0 4 2 2
4 4 2 −2
0 0 2 −2

.
`
,
·
18 14 12 4
10 6 8 8
14 2 8 0
14 2 4 4

.
`
,
We use a gray scale with 21 levels, from 0 = white to 20 = black
P P
1
The two matrices are very similar.
c.
T
2
·
8 0 4 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 2
0 0 0 0

.
`
,
P
2
= (W')
–1
T
2
W
–1
CHAPTER 21
LOSSY COMPRESSION
62
P
2
·
1 1 1 0
1 1 –1 0
1 –1 0 1
1 –1 0 –1

.
`
,
8 0 4 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

.
`
,
1 1 1 1
1 1 –1 –1
1 –1 0 0
0 0 1 –1

.
`
,
·
1 1 1 0
1 1 –1 0
1 –1 0 1
1 –1 0 –1

.
`
,
12 4 8 8
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

.
`
,
·
12 4 8 8
12 4 8 8
12 4 8 8
12 4 8 8

.
`
,
P P
2
The two matrices are not very similar.
21.3 Predictor 0 is used for differential coding in the hierarchical mode of operation
and for the first pixel in the top row. For the remaining pixels in the top row, A is
the only preceding pixel (predictor 1). For the first pixel in each row but the top, B
is the only preceding pixel (predictor 2). Beyond these obvious restrictions, any of
the predictors can be used. Different images have different structures that can best
be exploited by one of these eight modes of prediction. Predictor 3 is based only
on the diagonal and predictor 7 is based only on the previous horizontal and
vertical pixels. The remaining predictors use all three preceding pixels with
different weightings.
21.4 At the receiver, the input frame is not available, only processed copies of each
frames. Therefore, in order for the receiver to reproduce the processing of the
sender, the sender must also used previous processed copies in the algorithm.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 2: Chapter 3: Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Chapter 11: Chapter 12: Chapter 13: Chapter 14: Chapter 15: Chapter 16: Chapter 17: Chapter 18: Chapter 19: Chapter 20: Chapter 21:
Protocols and Architecture .........................................................................1 TCP and IP ....................................................................................................3 Frame Relay ..................................................................................................8 Asynchronous Transfer Mode..................................................................11 HighSpeed LANs......................................................................................16 Overview of Probability and Stochastic Processes................................18 Queuing Analysis.......................................................................................22 SelfSimilar Traffic .....................................................................................27 Congestion Control in Data Networks and Internets...........................28 Link Level Flow and Error Control .........................................................30 TCP Traffic Control....................................................................................34 Traffic and Congestion Control in ATM Networks ..............................37 Overview of Graph Theory and LeastCost Paths ................................40 Interior Routing Protocols ........................................................................45 Exterior Routing Protocols and Multicast ..............................................47 Integrated and Differentiated Services ...................................................49 RSVP and MPLS .........................................................................................52 Overview of Information Theory.............................................................54 Lossless Compression................................................................................56 Lossy Compression....................................................................................61
NOTICE
This manual contains solutions to all of the review questions and homework problems in HighSpeed Networks and Internets. If you spot an error in a solution or in the wording of a problem, I would greatly appreciate it if you would forward the information via email to me at ws@shore.net. An errata sheet for this manual, if needed, is available at ftp://shell.shore.net/members/w/s/ws/S/ W.S.
the message is actually passed through two translators via the phone system. routing is not needed. 2. With so many layers.5 A case could be made either way. First. but with a broadcast network. and the delivery van encloses all of the orders to be delivered. The host communicates this order to the clerk. For example. error control between end systems. There is no way to be assured that the last message gets through. such as sequencing. 2. The network layer is responsible for routing data through the network. There is processing overhead because as many as seven modules (OSI model) are invoked to move data from the application through the communications software. Another possible disadvantage is that there must be at least one protocol standard per layer. Other functions. or one army has to send the last message and then act with uncertainty. b. The PMs speak as if they are speaking directly to each other. 2. because the link layer will be a protocol directly between 1 .CHAPTER 2 PROTOCOLS AND ARCHITECTURE 2. The clerk boxes the pizza with the delivery address. The cook gives the pizza to the clerk with the order form (acting as a "header" to the pizza). The French PM's translator translates his remarks into English and telephones these to the Chinese PM's translator. look at the functions performed at the network layer to deal with the communications network (hiding the details from the upper layers). can be accomplished at layer 2. flow control. when the French PM speaks. who places the order with the cook. he addresses his remarks directly to the Chinese PM. The phone system provides the physical means for the order to be transported from host to clerk. except by acknowledging it. who translates these remarks into Chinese. Thus. However. either the acknowledgment process continues forever.4 No. it takes a long time to develop and promulgate the standards.2 a.3 Perhaps the major disadvantage is the processing and data overhead. An intermediate node serves to translate the message before passing it on.1 The guest effectively places the order with the cook. The road provides the physical path for delivery. 2. There is data overhead because of the appending of multiple headers to the data.
LLC performs traditional link control functions.6 The internet protocol can be defined as a separate layer. To layer (N – 1). Each Nlevel PDU must retain its own header. for the same reason given in (a). The session and transport layer both are involved in providing an endtoend service to the OSI user. the OSI layer 2 is split into two sublayers. In fact.the two end systems. It breaks that PDU into fragments and reassembles them in the proper order. 2. and could easily be combined. The lower sublayer is concerned with medium access control (MAC). This argues for inclusion of a network layer. So it would seem that a network layer is not needed. The upper sublayer is called Logical Link Control (LLC). No. The functions performed by IP are clearly distinct from those performed at a network layer and those performed at a transport layer. Second. This would violate the principle of separation of layers. so this would make good sense. assuring that only one end system at a time transmits. The upper layer sees itself attached to an access point into a network supporting communication with multiple devices. no network layer is needed (but an internet layer may be needed). 2 . consider the network layer from the point of view of the upper layer using it. 2. The layer for assuring that data sent across a network is delivered to one of a number of other end systems is the network layer. with no intervening switches. With the MAC/LLC combination.7 a. The (N – 1) entity does not know about the internal format of the Nlevel PDU. b. This has been done in TCP/IP. the MAC sublayer is also responsible for addressing other end systems across the LAN. which provides a direct application interface to TCP. the Nlevel PDU is simply data.
(2) the source wishes to avoid certain unprotected networks for security reasons. the datagram needs to be routed through a "smart" router. The difficulty is to know when the entire datagram has arrived. such as transit delay or whether or not the path even exists.CHAPTER 3 TCP AND IP 3. If the IP source entity needs to fragment. On the other hand.3 The IP entity in the source may need the ID and don'tfragment parameters. which may lead to buffers or state table overhead. Thus UDP provides a useful. which may arrive in fragments. 3 . degrading performance. 3. The destination IP entity needs to examine the ID parameter if reassembly is to be done and. Furthermore.5 The header is a minimum of 20 octets. This may allow more powerful resource control mechanisms. these two parameters are essential. Once the datagram has passed through the network that imposes the smallestsize restriction.1 A single control channel implies a single control entity that can manage all the resources associated with connections to a particular remote station.6 Possible reasons for strict source routing: (1) to test some characteristics of a particular path. the segments may be unnecessarily small for later networks. (3) the source does not trust that the routers are routing properly. 3. though limited. the datagram must eventually be segmented to the smallest allowable size along the route. 3. Note that we cannot simply count the number of octets (bytes) received so far because duplicate fragments may arrive. service. It can be examined as a reality check. all segments of a given original datagram would have to pass through the same intermediate node for reassembly. Ideally. the IP source entity should not need to bother looking at the TTL parameter. (2) it may be that not all of the routers recognize all addresses and that for a particular remote destination.7 A buffer is set aside big enough to hold the arriving datagram. 3.4 If intermediate reassembly is not allowed. On the other hand. also the TTL parameter if that is used to place a time limit on reassembly. since it should have been set to some positive value by the source IP user. Possible reasons for loose source routing: (1) Allows the source to control some aspects of the route. intermediate reassembly requires compute and buffer resources at the intermediate routers. The destination IP entity should not need to look at the don'tfragment parameter. These functions would not normally be performed by protocols above the transport layer. Intermediate systems clearly need to examine the TTL parameter and will need to examine the ID and don'tfragment parameters if fragmentation is desired. 3. this strategy requires a substantial number of permanent connections.2 UDP provides the source and destination port addresses and a checksum that covers the data field. 3. which would prohibit dynamic routing. similar to choosing a longdistance carrier in the telephone network.
last plus one and newhole.a. The fragment which contains the last fragment indicates this fact by a flag in the internet header called "more fragments". 3. The test of this bit creating in this statement prevents us from creating a descriptor for the unneeded hole which describes the space from the end of the datagram to infinity. that hole descriptor which reaches from the last octet of the buffer to infinity can be discarded. Note the 1480 is divisible by 8. The descriptor must contain hole.first. then create a new hole descriptor "newhole" with newhole.first. (If either step two or step three is true. which can be calculated from the Length and Offset fields.first. go to step one.first is greater than hole.last is less than hole.last plus pointer to the predecessor and successor holes. The hole descriptor list could be managed as a separate list. If the hole descriptor list is now empty. b. Therefore. so we can use the maximum size frame for each fragment except the last. we did not know how long the resembled datagram would be.last.first minus one. If there are no more entries. and in the next two steps we will determine whether or not it is necessary to create any new hole descriptors. Delete the current entry from the hole descriptor list. Initially. (If the test in step five is true. and therefore we created a hole reaching from zero to (effectively) infinity.first = 1 and hole. If fragment. so we need pay no further attention to this hole. Initially. the number of the last octet.last. To fit 4460 data octets into frames that carry 1480 data octets we need: 4 . Eventually. we will receive the last fragment of the datagram. (Since neither step two nor step three was true. then the first part of the original hole is not filled by this fragment. 2.first is greater than hole. there is a single hole descriptor with hole.first equal to hole. relative to the beginning of the buffer. 8.) 6.first and fragment. (This test is the mirror of step five with one additional feature.last equal to hole. so each frame can carry an IP datagram with a 20octet header and 1480 data octets. We return to the beginning of the algorithm where we select the next hole for examination. 1. Otherwise. then create a new hole descriptor "newhole". the newly arrived fragment does interact with this hole in some way. If fragment.8 The original datagram includes a 20octet header and a data field of 4460 octets.last is less than hole.last and fragment. Select the next hole descriptor from the hole descriptor list. return.) 7.first equal to fragment. We create a new descriptor for this smaller hole. We will destroy it. the current descriptor will no longer be valid.first. the number of the first octet in the hole.) 5. the datagram is now complete. If fragment. and hole.last. Each hole is described by a descriptor consisting of hole.more fragments is true. then the newly arrived fragment does not overlap with the hole in any way. and newhole. with newhole. Each arriving fragment is characterized by fragment.last = some maximum value. The Ethernet frame can take a payload of 1500 octets.last. go to step eight. go to step one.) 4. If fragment. At this point. A simpler technique is to put each hole descriptor in the first octets of the hole itself. 3.last equal to fragment. Go to step one. Pass it on to the higher level protocol processor for further handling.
The checksum is then formed by performing the one's complement addition of all words in the header. RFC 791 lists the following options that should be included only in the first fragment: Record Route (unnecessary. . the header is treated as a sequence of 16bit words. +' W(M) C = ∼A where +' C A ∼A M W(i) = = = = = = one's complement addition 16bit checksum one's complement summation made with the checksum value set to 0 one's complement of A length of block in 16bit words value of ith word Suppose that the value in word k is changed by Z = new_value – old_value. . 3. and too much overhead to do in all fragments). Internet Timestamp (unnecessary. which defines an 85 . and then taking the one's complement of the result. Three network packets are needed. those parameters that influence the progress of the fragments through the internet must be included with each fragment.9 For computing the IP checksum. RFC 791 lists the following options that must be included in each fragment: Security (each fragment must be treated with the same security policy). and too much overhead to do in all fragments). 3.10 In general. •Type of Service: This field is eliminated.12 •Version: Same field appears in IPv6 header. and the 16bit checksum field is set to all zeros. We can express this as follows: A = W(1) +' W(2) +' . Then A" = A +' Z C" = ∼(A +' Z) = C +' ∼Z 3. value changes from 4 to 6.3 datagrams × 1480 octets = 4440 octets. plus 1 datagram that carries 20 data octets (plus 20 IP header octets) The relevant fields in each IP fragment: Total Length = 1500 More Flag = 1 Offset = 0 Total Length = 1500 More Flag = 1 Offset = 185 Total Length = 1500 More Flag = 1 Offset = 370 Total Length = 40 More Flag = 0 Offset = 555 3. This data is delivered in a sequence of packets. Let A" be the value of A after the change and C" be the value of C after the change. Loose Source Routing (each fragment must follow the same loose route). each of which contains 24 bits of network header and up to 776 bits of higherlayer headers and/or data. not needed since IPv6 header is fixed length.11 Data plus transport header plus internet header equals 1820 bits. Strict Source Routing (each fragment must follow the same strict route). Three bits of this field define an 8level precedence value. this is replaced with the priority field. •IHL: Eliminated. Total bits delivered = 1820 + 3 × 24 = 1892 bits.
then this header is encrypted and can only be processed after processing that header. appears in Fragment header. Routing header: This header must precede the Fragment header. It was felt that the value of this checksum was outweighed by the performance penalty. Fragment header: This header must precede the Authentication header.level precedence value for noncongestioncontrol traffic. This header must precede the routing header. 4. •Header Checksum: This field is eliminated. 2. 6. which is processed at the final destination. only source fragmenting is allowed. •Protocol: Replaced by Next Header field in IPv6 header. Encapsulating Security Payload header: see preceding comment. and will indicate if one or more additional headers follow. These options are only to be processed after the datagram has been reassembled (if necessary) and authenticated (if necessary). •Flags: The More bit appears in the Fragment header. 3. Generally. therefore. with in practice the same interpretation. Destination Options header: For options to be processed only by the final destination of the packet. 6 . and throughput. or specifies the protocol that uses IPv6. •Total Length: Replaced by Payload Length field. a router will need to examine this header immediately afterwards to determine if there are any options to be exercised on this hop. with more bits. •Destination Address: The 32bit IPv4 destination address field is replaced by the 128bit source address in the IPv6 header. authentication is performed before encryption so that the authentication information can be conveniently stored with the message at the destination for later reference. because it contains instructions to the node that receives this datagram and that will subsequently forward this datagram using the Routing header information. with comments: 1. In IPv6. which either specifies the next IPv6 extension header. because authentication is performed based on a calculation on the original datagram. 7. 8. •Source Address: The 32bit IPv4 source address field is replaced by the 128bit source address in the IPv6 header. therefore the datagram must be reassembled prior to authentication. •Identification: Same field.13 The recommended order. It is more convenient to do this if the authentication information applies to the unencrypted message. The remaining bits of the typeofservice field deal with reliability. IPv6 header: This is the only mandatory header. HopbyHop Options header: After the IPv6 header is processed. otherwise the message would have to be reencrypted to verify the authentication information. •Fragment Offset: Same field appears in Fragment header •Time to Live: Replaced by Hop Limit field in IPv6 header. Authentication header: The relative order of this header and the Encapsulating Security Payload header depends on the security configuration. delay. Destination Options header: For options to be processed by the first destination that appears in the IPv6 Destination Address field plus subsequent destinations listed in the Routing header. 3. If the Encapsulating Security Payload header is used. the Don't Fragment bit is eliminated. equivalent functionality may be supplied with the flow label filed. whereas the routing header must be processed by an intermediate node. 5.
7 . one might as well encrypt as much of the datagram as possible for security.There is no advantage to placing this header before the Encapsulating Security Payload header.
4.001 = 0.001 + 3200/9600 = 0.752 = 0.CHAPTER 4 FRAME RELAY 4.537 sec Datagram Packet Switching T = D1 + D 2 + D 3 + D 4 where D1 = Time to Transmit and Deliver all packets through first hop D2 = Time to Deliver last packet across second hop D3 = Time to Deliver last packet across third hop D4 = Time to Deliver last packet across forth hop There are P – H = 1024 – 16 = 1008 data bits per packet.752 = 0.2 a.428 + 0.752 sec Virtual Circuit Packet Switching T = V1 + V2 where V1 = Call Setup Time V2 = Datagram Packet Switching Time T = S + 0. Circuit Switching T = C 1 + C2 where C 1 = Call Setup Time C 2 = Message Delivery Time C 1 = S = 0.1 The argument ignores the overhead of the initial circuit setup and the circuit teardown.337 = 0.108 T = 0.108 + 0.2 + 0.108 + 0. D1 = 4 × t + p where t = transmission time for one packet p = propagation delay for one hop D1 = 4 × (P/B) + D = 4 × (1024/9600) + 0.001 = 0.17 packets which we round up to 4 packets). A message of 3200 bits require four packets (3200 bits/1008 bits/packet = 3.952 sec 8 .2 + 0.108 = 0.428 D2 = D3 = D 4 = t + p = (P/B) + D = (1024/9600) + 0.337 T = 0.2 C 2 = Propagation Delay + Transmission Time = N × D + L/B = 4 × 0.
take the derivative: 0 = dTd/(dP) 0 = (1/B)(L/(P – H) + N – 1) – (P/B)L/(P – H)2 0 = L(P – H) + (N – 1) (P – H)2 – LP 0 = –LH + (N – 1)(P – H)2 (P – H)2 = LH/(N – 1) LH P=H+ N−1 9 . Virtual Circuit Packet Switching TV = EndtoEnd Delay. Circuit Switching Tc = S + N × D + L/B Td = EndtoEnd Delay. we have Td= (Np + N – 1)(P/B) + N × D For maximum efficiency. Diagram Packet Switching Tc = EndtoEnd Delay. Virtual Circuit Packet Switching Td = T V – S 4. Virtual Circuit Packet Switching TV = S + Td TC = TV L/B = (Np + N – 1)P × B Datagram vs. Datagram Packet Switching L Np = Number of packets = P − H Td = D1 + (N – 1)D 2 D1 = Time to Transmit and Deliver all packets through first hop D2 = Time to Deliver last packet through a hop D1 = Np(P/B) + D D2 = P/B + D T = (Np + N – 1)(P/B) + N x D T = Td S + L/B = (Np + N – 1)(P/B) Circuit Switching vs. Thus Td = (L/(P – H) + N – 1)(P/B) To minimize as a function of P. Also.3 From Problem 4.b. we assume that Np = L/(P – H) is an integer.2. it is assumed that D = 0. Circuit Switching vs.
7 Reset collision is like clear collision.25 × (N – 2) + 0.5 The mean nodenode path is twice the mean noderoot path.5 × (N – 1) + 0. i =1 ∑ N (0. The path from the root to level N – 1 has 0.5 ) − ∑ i (0. but this only catches transmission errors. 1. The path from the root to level N requires N – 1 hops and 0. If a packetswitching node fails or corrupts a packet. the packet will not be delivered correctly. must provide endtoend reliability. On average. a station will send data half this distance. a. 4.4. they just reset their variables. Hence the mean path length. The furthest distance from a station is halfway around the loop. Otherwise. 4. Number the levels of the tree with the root as 1 and the deepest level as N.125 × (N – 3) + . is given by L = L = 0.4 The number of hops is one less than the number of nodes visited. L. The fixed number of hops is 2. 4. such as TCP. if desired. . Since both sides know that the other wants to reset the circuit.8 On each end. c. . there would have to be global management of numbers. Errors are caught at the link level.5 of the nodes are at this level. the average number of hops is (N/4) – 1.6 Yes.5 )i = N − 2 i i =1 ∞ ∞ Thus the mean nodenode path is 2N – 4 4. A higherlayer endtoend protocol. b. a virtual circuit number is chosen from the pool of locally available numbers and has only local significance. For an Nnode network.25 of the nodes and a length of N – 2 hops. 10 .
SET_B 0101 0011 All other values are ignored. NULL_B NO_HALT. SET_A. Cell on a controlled ATM connection Group B. SET_B HALT.2 Bit by bit HUNT Correct Cell by cell Incorrect consecutive incorrect HEC consecutive correct HEC HUNT HUNT The procedure is as follows: 11 . Cell is assigned or on an uncontrolled ATM connection. Cell on a controlled ATM connection Group A. SET_A. 5. SET_B NO_HALT. NULL_B 0000 Controlled controlling Terminal is uncontrolled. Terminal is controlled. NULL_A. SET_A. Terminal is controlled. 0001 0100 1100 0010 1010 0110 1110 NO_HALT.1 Controlling controlled 0 0 0 0 NO_HALT. NULL 1000 HALT. Cell is unassigned or on an uncontrolled ATM connection. Terminal is controlled. NULL_A. SET_A. NULL_B HALT. NULL_A. SET_B HALT.CHAPTER 5 ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE 5.
Greater values of α result in longer delays in recognizing a misalignment but in greater robustness against false misalignment. In the HUNT state.. In the optimal case. we have Nopt = 0. Assume that the entire X octets to be transmitted can fit into a single variablelength cell. In the SYNCH state. with L = 48 and H = 5. We reason as follows. 5. The values of α and δ are design parameters. Greater values of δ result in longer delays in establishing synchronization but in greater robustness against false delineation. Thus X N= X (L + H ) L The efficiency is optimal for all values of X which are integer multiples of the cell information size. Once a match is achieved. and the method enters the PRESYNCH state. In the PRESYNCH state. where L is the number L of data field octets and H is the number of header octets. Cell delineation is assumed to be lost if the HEC coding law is recognized as incorrect α times consecutively. 3. Each cell consists of (L + H) octets. the efficiency becomes X L Nopt = X = +H L+ H L For the case of ATM.17).91 b.e. 12 . a cell delineation algorithm is performed bit by bit to determine if the HEC coding law is observed (i. Then X N = X + H + Hv c. the HEC is used for error detection and correction (see Figure 17. The cell delineation algorithm is performed cell by cell until the encoding law has been confirmed δ times consecutively. This will require X a total of cells. it is assumed that one header has been found. a cell structure is now assumed. 2. A total of X octets are to be transmitted.3 a.1. match between received HEC and calculated HEC).
the optimal achievable efficiency is approached.4 a. approaching 100% for large X.Transmission efficiency 1.0 0.1 0 48 96 144 192 240 N for fixedsized cells has a sawtooth shape.3: b.4 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.2 0. efficiency can be quite high. it does not provide significant gains over fixedlength cells for most values of X.9 0. As we have already seen in Problem 5. D = c. For variablelength cells.7 N (fixed) 0. 8× L R N= L L +H N (variable) Nopt X 13 . 5. However. It is only for very short cells that efficiency is rather low. For long messages.
Packetization delay (ms) 2 D64 D32 4 N Transmission efficiency 1. The maximum time from when a typical video cell arrives at the first switch (and possibly waits) until it is finished being transmitted by the 5th and last one is 2 × 5 × 9.0 0.86µs = 64.6 8 16 32 64 128 Data field size of cell in octets A data field of 48 octets. The average time from the input of the first switch to clearing the fifth is (5 + 0.86µs.5 a.86µs = 98. d. which is what is used in ATM. The transmission time for one cell through one switch is t = (53 × 8)/(43 × 106 ) = 9. In the second case the average jitter is 64. c.09 – 49.9 0. seems to provide a reasonably good tradeoff between the requirements of low delay and high efficiency.3 = 14.09µs.3µs.8 8 0. 5.6 × 5 × 0.7 16 0.5) × 9.6µs. In the first case the maximum jitter is 49. The transmission time is always incurred so the jitter is due only to the waiting for switches to clear. b. 14 .79µs.
a. The SN wraps around so that there is no incorrect SN progression. This might be detected by the SN mechanism. b. can flag an error and cause the assembled data to be discarded. Thus. If the CRC fails to catch the error. so any subsequent COM and EOM cells are rejected. then the partially reassembled first block must be released. 5. b. Loss of a cell with SDU=0 is detected by an incorrect CRC. The result is that at least the first 40 octets of the AALSDU is correctly received. b. c. a. The same answer as for (c). The reception of a valid BOM is required to enter reassembly mode. only the BOM may be legitimately retrieved. c. the Length field mismatch ensures that the CPCSPDU is discarded. the loss will be detected when the Btag and Etag fields fail to match. if it expires before the CPCSPDU is completely received. and any subsequent COMs up to the point where cell loss occurred. If not. This mechanism works when just the EOM is lost or when a cell burst knocks out some COMs followed by the EOM. the assembled data is discarded. Loss of a cell with SDU=1 is detectable in three ways. d. but the loss of data is detected by the CPCSPDU being undersized. The Length indication may fail to pick up this error if the cell bust loses as many cells as are added by concatenation the two CPCSPDU fragments. the loss of a BOM results in the complete loss of the PDU.5. In this case.6 a. Second. Third. If the BOM of the second block arrives before the EOM of the first block. The entire partially reassembled CPCSPDU received to that point is considered valid and passed to the AAL user along with an error indication. In this case only the first BOM may be legitimately retrieved. the SARPDUs of the following CPCSPDU may be appended to the first. resulting in a CRC error or Length mismatch being flagged when the second CPCSPDU trailer arrives. First. Incorrect SN progression between SARPDUs reveals the loss of a COM. Data from the BOM through the last SARPDU received with a correct SN can be passed up to the AAL user as a partial CPCSPDU. a timer may be attached to the CPCSPDU reassembly.8 15 . namely the BOM that originally began the reassembly. Single bit errors are not picked up until the CPCSPDU CRC is calculated.7 5. except for the cases covered by (c) and (d) below. if exceeded while appending the second CPCSPDU. and they result in the discarding of the entire CPCSPDU. the AAL may enforce a length limit which.
1 a. Tinterfere = 375 m = 1. assume a mean distance between stations of 0.375 km. This is an approximation based on the following observation.875 ×10 −6 = 18.CHAPTER 6 HIGHSPEED LANS 6. For a station on one end.5 km.67 × 106 )/N 6. the average distance to any other station is 0.67 × 104 Data rate = 100 bits/slot × Slot rate = 6. Again. Assume a mean distance between stations of 0.67 × 10 6 bps Data rate per station for N stations = (6. Pr[2 or more attempts] = 1 – Pr[no attempts] – Pr[exactly 1 attempt] = 1 – (1 – p)N – Np(1 – p)N–1 6.875 ×10−6 = 187. For a station in the center.375 km. T= b.3 The fraction of slots wasted due to multiple transmission attempts is equal to the probability that there will be 2 or more transmission attempts in a slot. Tinterfere = 375 m = 1. 103 bits 375 m T= 7 + = 102 sec 10 bps 200 ×106 m sec b. the average distance is 0.75 bit − times 6.25 km. succeed on ith] 16 .4 Slot time = Propagation Time + Transmission Time = 103m/(2 × 108 m/sec) + 102 bits/107 bps = 15 × 10 –6 sec Slot rate = 1/Slot time = 6.5 bit − times 6. the time to send equals transmission time plus propagation time.875 sec 200 × 106 m sec Tinterfere (bit −times ) = 107 ×1. With this assumption.875 sec 200 × 106 m sec 103 bits 375 m + = 12 sec 8 10 bps 200 ×106 m sec Tinterfere (bit −times ) = 108 ×1.5 Define PFi = Pr[fail on attempt i] Pi = Pr[fail on first (i – 1) attempts.2 a.
375 0. P2 = 0. P1 = 0. P4 = 0.109 0.125. P3 = 0.5 0.637 17 . the mean number of retransmission attempts before one station successfully retransmits is given by: E [retransmissions] = ∑ iPi i =1 ∞ For two stations: PFi = 1/2K where K = MIN[i.0625.25. 10] Pi = (1 − PFi ) × ∏ PFj j =1 i −1 PF1 PF2 PF3 PF4 = = = = 0.Then.5.015 The remaining terms are negligible E[retransmissions] = 1.
41 (0.2 The same Bostonia article referenced above reports on an experiment with this problem. Then: Pr[Blue WB] = = Pr[WB Blue]Pr[ Blue] Pr[WB Blue]Pr[ Blue] + Pr[WB Green]Pr[Green ] ( 0." Bostonia.8 )(0. "If you are right. taken together. Don't feel bad if you got this wrong. Therefore by switching you raise your chances from 1/3 to 2/3. there is a strong intuition to feel that the odds are 5050. Marilyn Vos Savant published the correct solution in Parade Magazine.87 )(0. Because there are only two boxes to choose from at the end.8 )(0. the other now has a 2/3 probability all by itself. or something similar. M.063 ( 0. gave a number above 50%.15 ) = 0." 18 . and subsequently (December 2. The vast majority. The other two. is referred to as "the juror's fallacy. The box you initially chose had a 1/3 probability of containing the banknote. 7. "Probability: Neither Rational nor Capricious.01) + (0. not her). including many physicians.01) = 0. 1990) published letters from several distinguished mathematicians blasting her (they were wrong. there is no point in making clinical tests!" 7. A cognitive scientist at MIT presented this problem to a number of Nobel physicists and they systematically gave the wrong answer (PiattelliPalmarini.3 Let WB equal the event {witness reports Blue cab}.CHAPTER 7 OVERVIEW OF PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES 7.99 ) Many physicians who guessed wrong lamented.1 You should always switch to the other box.15) + ( 0. Most subjects gave the answer 87%.85) This example. But once I open the one that is empty.87 )( 0.2 )( 0.13)(0. have a 2/3 probability. March 1991). We need Bayes' Theorem to get the correct answer: Pr[Disease positive ] = = Pr[positive Disease]Pr[Disease ] Pr[ positive Disease ]Pr[ Disease] + Pr[positive Well]Pr[ Well] (0.
5073. N. 2). xi pi 1 1/6 2 1/6 3 1/6 4 1/6 5 1/6 6 1/6 X = [ ] 1. E[X] = –1/6. any of the remaining 364 numbers for the second item. and the total number of possibilities is 365K. with P(23) = 0. the number of people in the group would have to be about 100. So the probability of no duplicates is simply the fraction of sets of values that have no duplicates out of all possible sets of values: Q (K ) = b.9999997.7. 1 3 5 7 9 11 161 = E[X] = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = ≈ 4. 7. 2). then it is impossible for all values to be different. the probability of at least one duplicate is 0. so the game is unfair 19 .0 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 Var[X] = E[X2] – µ2 = 1. So. In fact. then each item can be any of 365 values. If K > 365. The distribution of X is given in the following table. and so on. xi pi 1 1/36 2 3/36 3 5/36 4 7/36 5 9/36 6 11/36 For example.3 b. 1).75 = 1. b.75 7. consider the number of different ways.5 that there is at least one duplicate. the number of different ways is: N = 365 × 364×K× (365 − K + 1) = 365! (365 − K )! If we remove the restriction that there are no duplicates. On average the player loses. the number is 23. Hence.6 a.4 a. P (K ) = 1− Q( K) = 1 − 365! ( 365 − K )! 365! = 365 K ( 365 − K) !× 365 K 365! (365 − K )!× 365 K Many people would guess that to have a probability greater than 0. (2. (2. there are 3 pairs whose maximum is 2: (1.5 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 1 3 5 7 9 11 791 E X 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 16 + 25 + 36 = ≈ 22. The sample space consists of the 36 equally probable ordered pairs of integers from 1 to 6. we assume K 365. For K = 100. that we can have K values with no duplicates.5 a. Now. We may choose any of the 365 values for the first item.
5) = 13. E[XY] = Pr[X = 1. then r(X. Y = 1] = Pr[X = 1]Pr[Y = 1] By similar reasoning.25) = 0 E[Y] = (1)(0.5 200 950 7. you can show that the other three joint probabilities are also products of the corresponding marginal (single variable) probabilities. xi pi E 125/216 E 75/216 2E 15/216 3E 1/216 b. E[X2] = Var[X] + µ2 = 2504 b.9 The probability density function f(r) must be a constant in the interval (900. E[XY] = (–1)(1)(0.12 a.8 a.11 E[X] = Pr[X = 1]. E[W2] = R(8. 7. the smaller the variance of the difference. Therefore Pr[X = 1. b. X and Y are uncorrelated because Cov(X.7 a. E[X] = – 17E/216 = 0.25) = 0 E[X] = (–1)(0. E[Y] = Pr[Y = 1]. Var[2X + 3] = 4Var[X] + Var[3] = 16. t2) = g(t1)g(t 2) 7.25) + (0)(0)(0. This proves that P(x. 7. X and Y are dependent because the value of X determines the value of Y. Here's another game to avoid. 1100) and its integral must equal 1.10 Let Z = X + Y Var[Z] = E[(Z – µ Z)2] = E[(X + Y – µX – µY)2] = E[(X – µ X)2] + E[(Y – µ Y)2] + 2E[(X – µ X)(Y – µY)] = Var[X] + Var[Y] + 2r(X. 7. the greater the variance of the sum.14 E[Z] = µ(5) = 3. Then Pr[950 ≤ r ≤ 1050] = 1 1050 ∫ dr = 0. standard deviation = 2 7. y).5) + (1)(0.13 µ(t) = E[g(t)] = g(t). therefore f(r) = 1/200 in the interval (900. No.25) = 0. Var[g(t)] = 0. 8) = 13 20 .5) + (1)(1)(0.5 Cov(X.5) + (1)(0. E[W] = µ(8) = 3 E[Z2] = R(5.25) + (0)(0.7.8E.25) + (0)(0. Var[–X] = (–1)2 Var[X] = 4. Y) = Cov[X. standard deviation = 4 c. Y) = E[XY] – E[X]E[Y] = 0 c. Y] = 0. Y) = 0 7. y) = P(x)P(y) for all (x. Y)σXσY The greater the correlation coefficient. 1100). Y = 1] If X and Y are uncorrelated. we therefore have E[XY] = E[X]E[Y]. A similar derivation shows that the greater the correlation coefficient. By the definition of covariance. R(t1. which is the definition of independence.
tm+n) = R(tm. only the terms with (m – i) = (m + n – j) are nonzero. E[A 2] = E[B2] = 1.195 7.E[ZW] = R(5. tm+n) = R(tm.6) = 11. cos(α + β) = cosα cosβ – sinα sinβ 21 . 7. Var[W] = 4 Cov(Z. tm+n) – E[Zm]E[Zm+n] = E[Z mZm+n] K K ∑ i Zm−i ∑ jZm+n− j E[ZmZm+n ] = E j=0 i =0 Because E[ZiZj] = 0. W) = E[ZW] – E[Z]E[W] = 2. Using E Zi2 = 1. E[AB] = 0.195 Var[Z] = E[Z2 ] – (E[Z])2 = 4. E[Xn] = 0 C(t m. tm+n) – E[Xm]E[Xm+n] = E[X mXm+n] = E[(A cos(mλ) + B sin(mλ))(A cos((m+n)λ) + B sin((m+n)λ))] = cos(mλ)cos((m+n)λ) + sin(mλ)sin((m+n)λ) = cos(nλ) The final step uses the identities sin(α + β) = sinα cosβ + cosα sinβ. we have C[tmtm+n ] = ∑ i n+i i =0 K [ ] with the convention that αj = 0 for j > K The covariance does not depend on m and so the sequence is stationary.16 E[A] = E[B] = 0. 8) = 9 + 4 exp(–0.15 We have E[Zi ] = 0 Var[Zi ] = E Zi2 = 1 [ ] E Zi Zj = 0 for i ≠ j [ ] The autocovariance: C(tm.
When the item arrives. Since items arrive at a rate of λ.2 a. which must yield the same result: a( ) a(t ) − d(t )]dt = ∑ tk ∫[ 0 k =1 If we view the shaded area as a sequence (from left to right) of vertical rectangles. Without loss of generality. it will leave behind on average the same number of items in the queue or being served. This is in accord with saying that the average number in the system is r. We can also view the shaded area as a sequence (from bottom to top) of horizontal rectangles with unit height and 22 . we can reason that in the time Tr .1 Consider the experience of a single item arriving. The shaded area can be computed in two different ways. a total of λTr items must have arrived. The height of the shaded portion equals n(t). namely r.CHAPTER 8 QUEUING ANALYSIS 8. set the beginning of the period as t = 0 and the end as t = τ. When the item completes service and leaves the system. b. the average time that the item was in the system is Tr . Then a(0) = d(0) = 0 and a(τ) = d(τ). it will find on average r items already in the queue or being served. Thus r = λTr . we get the integral on the left. 8. Further. Select a time period that begins and ends with the system empty.
4 Tq = q/λ = 8/18 = 0. where tk is the time that the kth item remains in the system.34 8.944 secs.3 8. 23 .4 Tw = ρTs/(1 – ρ) = 0.8 ρ = λTs = 0.width tk.5 Average number in system = r = ρ/(1 – ρ) = 1 Average number in service = r – w = ρ = 0.6 ρ = λTs = 2 × 0.7 Constantlength message: Tw = ρTs/(2 – 2ρ) = 0.2 × 2 = 0.5 If there are N servers. 12. Dividing by the length of the period T. then we get the summation on the right.4 8. 8.62 minutes 100 − 90 0.6 × 7. Exponentiallydistributed: Tw = ρTs/(1 – ρ) = 1.44 hours No.9 Ts = (1000 octets × 8 bits/octet)/9600 bps = 0. we have x = 2a 2/(1 – ρ) = 4 w=ρ ρ 2 + 4ρ – 4 = 0 = −2 + 8 = 0.833 secs. The expected time for that server to service all these customers is λTTs/N. we are left with a utilization of λTs/N.333 = mT w (90) = w ln ln( 4) = 4.6 = 4/3 minutes = 80 seconds Tr = T w + T s = 200 seconds T 100 1. which says that for −b ± b2 − 4ac ax2 + bx + c = 0.5 8.828 8.7 We need to use the solution of the quadratic equation.25 = 0. Therefore: ∫ [n(t) ]dt = a( )Tr 0 r= Tr r = Tr 8. ρ = 0. each server expects λT/N customers during time T.8/0.972 secs.356 ≠ 25.
575 + (0.3 × 1.97 ms r = 0.3 ) (0. s s 2(1 − ) then. ρ = λTs = 0.233) = 11. Then 2 2 2 2 2 T s = Var[S ] = E (S − T s ) = (1 − 2.7 ) + ( 3 − 2.425) = 1.6a: A = 0.54) = 4. w = ρ2 /(1 – p) = 0.3 × 1.23 ms r = ρ + (ρ 2 A)/(1 – ρ) = 3.3 ) (0.575 × 2.05 msg/sec. ρ = λTs = 0.25 × 2.49 messages c. ρ = λTs = 0.3 = 0. s = M s 2(1− ) 2(1− ) s where = M ( MTs ) = Ts 24 . Ts = (14.3 + (0.18)/(0.767 × 2.18)/(0.2) + 10(0.7) + (3)(0.575 × 1.46 × 2.1) = 2.18 a.5 (1 + (7.575 Tr = 2.3 + (0.3 × 1.6a: Ts A Tw = = 1− 2 (T 2 + T ) .18)/(0. batch variance = T sb = M Ts To get the waiting time.46 + (0.6 a. use the equation for Tw from Table 8.46 Tr = 2.1) = 7.46 × 1.54) = 0.61 ms r = 0.2 × 2.8.3 ms Define S as the random variable that represents service time.767 Tr = T s + (ρTsA)/(1 – ρ) = 2.21ms [ ] Using the equations in Figure 8.18)/(0.18)/(0.73 messages b.92 messages 8.21/5.3 + (0.425) = 5.10 Ts = (1)(0.9 2 2 8.46 × 0.33 × 2.11 λ = 0.400 × 8)/9600 = 12 sec. T wb.575 × 0.12 a.3 = 0.3 ) (0. ρ = 0.2 ) + (10 − 2. mean batch service time = Tsb = MTs.29)) = 1.3 = 0. T wb 2 2 ( M2Ts2 + M T ) = (MT 2 + T ) . Tw = ρTs/(1 – ρ) = 18 sec b.
4. λ 1 = 400. This is due largely to the second term.4.65 ms d. ρ = 0. σr = 2. 8. ( ) 25 .6 ρ2 = 0.8) = 0.8 Tr = Ts + C × Ts N × (1 − ) = 0.8.8. then the combined arrival rate is Poisson.2 ρ2 = 0. ρ1 = 0. a. Using the M/D/1 formula. T r = 0. and so on to the last character.0833/(1 – 0. λ 1 = 200.33 ms.0833 = 0. and the service time is (M + H)/C. T r1 = 2 ms. T r1 = 3 ms.6 packets per second. Tr = 12. ρ = λTs = 0. b. The arrival rate is Kλ/M. ρ1 = 0. The equation for Tw in (b) reduces to the equation for Tw in (a) for M = 1.b. caused by waiting within the batch. which does not wait at all. The first character in a Mcharacter packet must wait an average of M – 1 character interarrival times. ρ = 9.15 Ts = (100 octets × 8)/(9600 bps) = 0.6 × 0.8.13 sec 8. If we assume that the two types are independent. λ = 800. then the load for each link is 48/5 = 9.2.833)/5 = 0.24 8. T r1 = 2. Tr2 = 11 ms 8. K ( M + H )2 C 2M Ts Wo = = 2−2 2 − ( 2K ( M + H ) CM ) c. For batch sizes of M > 1. λ2 = 400.2 × 4 = 0. Tq = 9.13 a.4 b.0833 sec. r = 2.6. T r = 5 ms b. The expected interarrival time is 1/λ. λ2 = 200.14 Ts = T s1 = T s2 = 1 ms a. giving a utilization of ρ = Kλ(M + H)/MC.42 sec b. ρ = λTs/N = (48 × 0. T1 = 1 1 1 1 M−1 ×0+ × Ts + × 2T s +K+ × ( M − 1)T s = Ts M M M M 2 2 ( MT2 + T ) + M − 1 Ts s s T w = T wb + T 1 = 2(1− ) 2 c.16 a. λ 1 = 600. The average waiting time is therefore Wi = (M – 1)/2λ. Tr2 = 6 ms c. Tr2 = 7. the waiting time is greater than the waiting time for Poisson input.4 ρ2 = 0. If the load is evenly distributed among the links. ρ1 = 0. the second character must wait M – 2 interarrival times. λ2 = 600.
therefore Λ = λ/(1 – P) Server utilization: ρ = ΛTs = λTs/(1 – P) T (1− P )T s Tq = s = 1− 1 − P − Ts b. System throughput: Λ = λ + PΛ. JTr . The mean number of passes J is given by: ∞ 1 J = 1(1− P ) + 2(1− P )P + 3(1 − P )P 2 +K = (1 − P ) ∑ iPi−1 = 1−P i =1 Because the number of passes is independent of the queuing time. A single customer may cycle around multiple times before leaving the system. the total time in the system is given by the product of the two means.17 a. 8.T = Wi + W o + Ts M−1 K ( M + H )2 = + 2 2MC 2 − 2K C( M + H ) The plot is Ushaped. 26 .
Var[x(at)] = aVar[x(at)] For H = 1. H=1: E[x(at)] = aE[x(t)]. we see that the Cantor set consists of all points whose base3 expansion contains no 1's.A 1 A2 A3 …. Var[x(at)] = a2H–2Var[ax(t)] c. b.CHAPTER 9 SELFSIMILAR TRAFFIC 9. 9. L 1 = 2/3. 1. 4. middle.5.3 Multiplying each member of this sequence by a factor of 2 produces … 1/4. or right piece.4 For the Pareto distribution Pr[X x] = F(x) = 1 – (k/x)α Pr[Y y] = Pr[ln(X/k) y] = Pr[X key] = 1 – (k/(ke y ))α = 1 – e–αy which is the exponential distribution. Var[x(at)] = a2 Var[x(t)] H=0. Similarly. 1]. Var[x(at)] = Var[x(at)]/a Again. H=1: E[x(at)] = E[ax(t)]. all numbers with A1 = 0 are in the left piece (value less than 1/3). The sequence is selfsimilar with a scaling factor of 2.5E[x(t)]. The second digit A2 tells us whether X is in the left. The value represented is: A A2 A3 X = 1 + 2 + 3 +L 3 3 3 If we imagine the interval [0. where A i is 0.2 Base 3 uses the digits 0. 9. points whose second digit is 1 are deleted at the next stage in the construction. then the first digit A1 tells us whether X is in the left. 8. 1. one might argue that this is a "strong" manifestation of selfsimilarity. LN = (2/3) N 9. or right third of the given piece specified by A1 . In the Cantor set. Therefore E[x(at)] = aH–1E[ax(t)]. whose first digit is 1. or 2. 1/2. there is a strong manifestation of selfsimilarity for H = 1. A fraction in base 3 is represented by X = 0. middle.5: E[x(at)] = a0. 16 … which is the same sequence. we begin by deleting the middle third of [0. the mean scales linearly with the scaling factor and the variance scales as the square of the scaling factor. In general. For example. 2.5: E[x(at)] = E[ax(t)]/a0. Intuitively. 2. By repeating this argument. E[ax(t)] = aE[x(t)]. and only those points. Var[x(at)] = Var[ax(t)] H=0. L2 = (2/3)(2/3) = (2/3)2 .1 L0 = 1. this removes all points. 9. 1. The points left over (the only ones with a remaining chance of being in the Cantor set) must have a 0 or 2 in the first digit.5 a. Var[ax(t)] = a2 Var[x(t)]. 27 . 1] is divided into three equal pieces.
67 1.5 AA' 0.0 λ 0.13 18/10.5 Total Throughput Throughput BB' 1. The queue length for each outgoing link from a router will grow continually. the incoming packets are discarded and not forwarded and no datagrams get through. There is no good way of distributing permits where they are most needed.8 + λ) 1.8 1. It does not guarantee that a particular node will not be swamped with frames. the fraction of throughput that is AA' traffic is 0.8)/(0.CHAPTER 10 CONGESTION CONTROL IN DATA NETWORKS AND INTERNETS 10.8 = 1.8 + λ).44/10.8 = 0.8/(0. the transit time through the queue exceeds the TTL of the incoming packets. But we have to take into account the fact that the 28 .8 + λ 1. If a permit is accidentally destroyed.0 0. 10.0 0 1 2 3 4 For 1 λ 10. eventually. A simplistic analysis would say that.8λ/(0. 2.1 1.2 Throughput is as follows: 0 AA' traffic BB' traffic Total throughput The plot: 2. under these circumstances. the capacity of the network is inadvertently reduced.8 0. λ 5 6 7 8 9 10 10.8 λ 1 1 λ 10 10 λ (1.8 + λ) 1.3 This problem is analyzed in [NAGL87]. 3.8 × 0.
Adding 2 instead of 1 is just an additional margin of safety. queue transit time declines. By averaging over two cycles instead of just monitoring current queue length. Adding 1 to that total takes care of rounding up to the next whole number of frames. and the lower part of the fraction is the length of a frame in bits. Multiplying by 2 gives you the roundtrip length of the link.4 k = 2 + 2 × Ttd + Ru = 2 + 2a 8 × Ld where the variable a is the same one defined in Chapter 11. the argument gets a bit involved. These will have to be discarded by the next router that is visited. at best. At this point. The average queue length may be computed by determining the area (product of queue size and time interval) over the two cycles and dividing by the time of the two cycles 29 . This value is the threshold. and if the router is discarding a lot of packets. the upper part of the fraction is the length of the link in bits. the system avoids reacting to temporary surges that would not necessarily produce congestion. So the fraction tells you how many frames can be laid out on the link at one time.router should be able to discard a packet faster than it transmits it. 10.5 The average queue size over the previous cycle and the current cycle is calculated. In essence. 10. the router will transmit some datagrams with TTL = 1. but [NAGL87] shows that. You want your sliding window to accommodate that number of frames so that you can continue to send frames until an acknowledgment is received.
23 S = 255/541 = 0. This is the reverse of (b).2: S= 1 1 = ≥ 0.47 Propagation time = 4000 × 5 µsec = 20 msec 1000 Transmission time per frame = = 10 msec 100 × 103 Propagation time = 1000 × 5 µsec = 5 msec Transmission time per frame = x = 1000/R R = data rate between B and C (unknown) A can transmit three frames to B and then must wait for the acknowledgment of the first frame before transmitting additional frames. increasing the frame size decreases the number of frames. 11. the last bit of the first frame arrives at B 20 msec after it was transmitted.4: Propagation Delay 20 × 10−3 80 a= = = 3 Transmission Time L 4 × 10 L ( ) Using Equation 11. All that this would affect is connect and disconnect time. an efficiency of at least 50% requires a frame size of at least 160 bits. c. using Equation 11. b. Because only one frame can be sent at a time. and transmission must stop until an acknowledgment is received.5 1 + 2a 1+ (160 L) L ≥ 160 Therefore.CHAPTER 11 LINKLEVEL FLOW AND ERROR CONTROL 11. d.5: S = W/(1 + 2a) = 7/541 = 0. This would lower line efficiency. 11. there is little effect in increasing the size of the message if the frame size remains the same.2 Let L be the number of bits in a frame.3 a = a. For a given message size.4 A → B: B → C: .1 a.013 S = 127/541 = 0. Increasing the number of frames would decrease frame size (number of bits/frame). It will take 30 11. The first frame takes 10 msec to transmit. c. b. because the propagation time is unchanged but more acknowledgments would be needed. Propagation Delay 270 × 10 −3 = = 270 LR 10 3 106 S = 1/(1 + 2a) = 1/541 = 0.002 Using Equation 11. Then. and therefore 30 msec after the frame transmission began.
Station B receives all three frames and cumulatively acknowledges with RR 3. Station A sends frames 0.8 Use the following formulas: a S&W GBN (7) GBN (127) SREJ (7) SREJ (127) 0. the transmitter should be able to transmit frames continuously during a round trip propagation time. 4. Thus. B can transmit one frame to C at a time. 1. 11. B has already advanced its receive window to accept frames 3. 10 100 (1 – P)/3 (1 – P)/21 (1 – P)/201 (1–P)/(1+2P) 7(1–P)/21(1+6P 7(1 – P)/201(1+6P) ) (1–P)/(1+2P) (1 – P)/(1+20P) 127(1–P)/201(1+126P) 1–P 7(1 – P)/21 7(1 – P)/201 1–P 1–P 127(1 – P)/201 31 . The REJ improves efficiency by informing the sender of a bad frame as early as possible. A times out and retransmits frame 0. 0.2P) (1–P)/(1+0.2 (1–P)/(1+0. 11. since the sender will time out if it fails to receive an ACK. Thus. A can transmit 3 frames in 50 msec.1 (1 – P)/1. 2.5 Round trip propagation delay of the link = 2 × L × t Time to transmit a frame = B/R To reach 100% utilization. Thus. or 3 frames every 30 + 3x msec. 3. Thus it assumes that frame 3 has been lost and that this is a new frame 0.an additional 20 msec for B's acknowledgment to return to A. the RR 3 is lost. B can transmit one frame every 10 + x msec. It takes 5 + x msec for the frame to be received at C and an additional 5 msec for C's acknowledgment to return to A.6 In fact. Thus: 30 + 3x = 50 x = 6. the total number of frames transmitted without an ACK is: 2 × L × t N= + 1 . 5.7 Assume a 2bit sequence number: 1. 2 to station B. BR where X is the smallest integer greater than or equal to X This number can be accommodated by an Mbit sequence number with: M = log2 (N ) 11. 1. REJ is not needed at all. which it accepts.2P) 1–P 1–P 1.66 msec R = 1000/x = 150 kbps 11. 2. Because of a noise burst.
33 1.12 Let t1 = time to transmit a single frame 32 . The sender never knows that the frame was not received.9a. it is redundant to perform a SREJ on a frame that is already scheduled for retransmission.0 10 0.0 1.0 1." The REJ frame indicates the acceptance of all frames prior to the frame rejected by the REJ frame.)" In other words.63 ••• 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 ••• b.83 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.035 0.33 1. ••• 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 ••• 11. since the REJ requires the station receiving the REJ to retransmit the rejected frame and all subsequent frames. unless the receiver times out and retransmits the SREJ.005 0. This would contradict the intent of the SREJ frame or frames.0 1.0 100 0.05 0.For a given value of a.33 1. the utilization values change very little as a function of P over a reasonable range (say 103 to 1012).035 0. 0. We have the following approximate values for P = 106: a Stopandwait GBN (7) GBN (127) SREJ (7) SREJ (127) 11. Also from the standard: "Likewise.0 1. ••• 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 ••• c.0 1. 11. 11.11 From the standard: "A SREJ frame shall not be transmitted if an earlier REJ exception condition has not been cleared (To do so would request retransmission of a data frame that would be retransmitted by the REJ operation. a REJ frame shall not be transmitted if one or more earlier SREJ exception conditions have not been cleared.10 A lost SREJ frame can cause problems.0 0.63 0.1 0.
024 msec During the time t2 . the time to receive the acknowledgment of that frame is: t2 = 270 + t1 + 270 = 541.13 The selectivereject approach would burden the server with the task of managing and maintaining large amounts of information about what has and has not been successfully transmitted to the clients. 33 . From the beginning of the transmission of the first frame. Data per frame = 1024 – 48 = 976 7 × 976 bits Throughput = = 12.t1 = 1024 bits = 1. 7 frames are sent.024 msec 106 bps The transmitting station can send 7 frames without an acknowledgment.6 kbps 541. the gobackN approach would be less of a burden on the server.024 × 10−3 sec 11.
9 sec. it returns a credit of 1000 octets.1 sec b. In ISO TP.5 a. 12.2 This will depend on whether multiplexing or splitting occurs. each AK contains a "flow control confirmation" value which echoes the parameter values in the last AK received (YRTUNR. in both cases. the relative amount of credit will result in a form of priority mechanism. A later segment can provide a new credit allocation. their aggregate credit should not exceed the network window size. 34 . This can be used to deal with lost AKs. the initial SRTT(0) is improperly chosen. Furthermore.α) SRTT(19) = 1. 12.6 When the 50octet segment arrives at the recipient.4 The upper limit ensures that the maximum difference between sender and receiver can be no greater than 231. 12. If there is a onetoone relationship between network connections and transport connections. the usable window associated with that acknowledgment will cause another segment of the same small size to be sent. In general. Provision is made for misordered and lost credit allocations in the ISO transport protocol (TP) standard. which grants credit. Thus. which is used to assure that the credit grants are processed in the correct sequence. then a practical upper bound on the transport credit is the sum of the network window sizes. ACK/Credit messages (AK) are in separate PDUs. Thus. because in both cases. not part of a data PDU. the sender will now compute that there are 950 octets in transit in the network. once steady state is reached. no provision is made. SRTT(19) = 2. subsequence number).3 In TCP. even though there is no longer a natural boundary to force it. Without such a limit. If one transport connection is split among multiple network connections (each one dedicated to that single transport connection). which is the sequence number of the next expected data TPDU. and a "subsequence number". However. whenever the acknowledgment of a small segment comes back. 12. CDT. until some abnormality breaks the pattern. the sender will once again send a 50octet segment. Each AK TPDU contains a YRTUNR field. If multiple transport connections are multiplexed on a single network connection. Further. the convergence speed is slow. a CDT field.1 The number of unacknowledged segments in the "pipeline" at any time is 5. the maximum achievable throughput is equal to the normalized theoretical maximum of 1.CHAPTER 12 TCP TRAFFIC CONTROL 12. 12. Once the condition occurs. thus the breaking up of the usable window into small pieces will persist. there is no natural way for those credit allocations to be recombined. SRTT(n) = α × SRTT(0) + (1 – α) × RTT × (α n1 + αn2 + … α + 1) = α × SRTT(0) + (1 – α) × RTT × (1 – α n)/(1. so that the usable window is now only 50 octets. TCP might not be able to tell when the 32bit sequence number had rolled over from 231 – 1 back to 0. then it will do no good to grant credit at the transport level in excess of the window size at the network level.
49 = 0.21 σX = (0. 12. b. the amount of available buffer space contracts. then the sender buffers all data until the outstanding data have been acknowledged or until a maximumsized segment can be sent. E[Y] = µ Y = 0.25 Var[X] = E[X2 ] – E2 [X] = (1/4) – (1/16) = 0. The SWS avoidance algorithm introduces the following rule: When a segment is received.422 In this case. the following procedure is followed: When a segment is received.12. When the 2 ACKS arrives.7)(0. and waits.7 Var[Y] = E[Y2 ] – E2 [Y] = 0. The first term is a reasonable guideline that states that if at least half of the buffer is free.06)/(576 × 8) ≈ 13.21)0. the recipient should not provide additional credit unless the following condition is met: buffersize available buffer space ≥ MIN . maximum segment size 2 The second term is easily explained: if the available buffer space is greater than the largest possible segment. When the ACK arrives. As segments arrive at the receiver. they each increase the congestion window by one.433 MDEV[X] = E[X – µ X] = (1/4)[(3/4) + (1/4) + (1/4) + (1/4)] = 0.458 MDEV[X] = E[Y – µ Y] = (0. then clearly SWS cannot occur.9 SRTT(K + 1) = (1 – g)SRTT(K) + gRTT(K + 1) SERR(K + 1) = RTT(K + 1) – SRTT(K) Substituting for SRTT(K) in the first equation from the second equation: SRTT(K + 1) = RTT(K + 1) – (1 – g)SERR(K + 1) Think of RTT(K + 1) as a prediction of the next measurement and SERR(K + 1) as the error in the last prediction. σX > MDEV[X] 12. the recipient should respond with an acknowledgment that provides credit equal to the available buffer space.1875)0. E[X] = µ X = 1/4 = 0. W = (109 × 0. so that it can send 4 segments. The above expression says we make a new prediction based on the old prediction plus some fraction of the prediction error.10 TCP initializes the congestion window to 1. it increases the congestion window to 2. The suggested strategy is referred to as the Nagle algorithm and can be stated as follows: If there is unacknowledged data. sends 2 segments.11 a. 12.5 = 0. As data from the buffer is consumed (passed on to an application). In general. the sender accumulates data locally to avoid SWS. it takes log2 N round trips before TCP can send N segments.612 In this case.1875 σX = (0. the sender should be provided the available of credit. Thus.7 – 0. the amount of available buffer space expands. sends an initial segment.000 segments 35 .3)(0. 12. σX < MDEV[X] b. If SWS is not taken into account.5 = 0.8 a.7 a.7) + (0. and waits.3) = 0.
12 Recall from our discussion in Section 12. With PPD.000 round trips. then the receiving AAL5 will combine the first part of the partially discarded segment with the stream of cells that make up the next segment. or an optimistic strategy by issuing credit for space that is currently unavailable but which the receiver anticipates will soon become available. which is less than 30 seconds. as a single segment. and assembles all of these cells. it takes about 460 round trips.06)/(16.13 AAL5 accepts a stream of cells beginning with the first SDU=0 after an SDU=1 and continuing until a cell with SDU=1 is received. buffer overflow is possible. including the final SDU=1 cell. it will take about 13. 12.000 × 8) ≈ 460 segments In this case. some initial portion of an SDU=0 sequence may get through with the remainder of the SDU=0 sequence discarded.1 that a receiver may adopt a conservative flow control strategy by issuing credit only up to the limit of currently available buffer space. If the final SDU=1 cell is also discarded. or about 13 minutes to get the correct window size. W = (109 × 0. In the latter case. 12. b.If the window size grows linearly from 1. 36 .
we have ta(1) = 0. above. suppose τ < T – δ. Then N = 2 and two consecutive cells are allowed. but ATM does not include such slidingwindow mechanisms. Therefore. that may be transmitted at the peak cell rate satisfies: S =1+ S MBS = 1 + TS − T TS − T 37 . ta (2) = δ.CHAPTER 13 TRAFFIC AND CONGESTION CONTROL IN ATM NETWORKS 13. Therefore. We can demonstrate this by induction. we see that the second cell must arrive no earlier than T – τ. N. a second cell back to back would arrive at ta(2) = δ. Then. and by induction. To see that three consecutive cells are not allowed. let us assume that three consecutive cells do arrive. but not in all cases. Therefore the third cell must arrive no earlier than 2T – τ. 13. We want to show that the maximum number of cells.1) is correct. suppose that the first cell arrives at ta(1) = 0. In some cases.6a). Since the cell insertion time is δ. and we must have: ta(3) > 2T – τ 2δ > 2T – τ τ > 2(T – δ) which is not true. a higherlevel protocol above ATM will provide such mechanisms. and ta (3) = 2δ. We can see that two consecutive cells are allowed since T – δ < τ satisfies the required condition just derived. Therefore N = 2. we see that the theoretical arrival time for the third cell is TAT = 2T. we must have: ta(2) > T – τ δ>T–τ τ>T–δ which is not true.1 Yes. Now suppose T – δ < τ < 2(T – δ). Equation (13. N = 1. but not three or more. b.2 a. But using the virtual scheduling algorithm. This line of reasoning can be extended to longer strings of backtoback cells. We want to show that the maximum number of conforming backtoback cells. satisfies: N = 1 + = 1 + T − T− First. MBS. To see this. Then N = 1 and backtoback cells are not allowed. Looking at the virtual scheduling algorithm (Figure 13.
TS = 5δ. T = 2δ. VCshare]. Therefore. where Fairshare = Target_rate/#_connections VCshare = CCR/LF = (CCR × Target_rate)/Input_rate By the first equation. MBS = 4.4We have ER = max[Fairshare. ( MBS − 1)(TS − T ) 1+ S = 1+ = 1 + ( MBS − 1) = MBS TS − T T S − T which satisfies Equation (13. Then. we assume that cells can arrive at a maximum of an interarrival time of T. ER > CCR Case II: LF > 1 IIa Fairshare > VCshare 38 . Therefore: then the value 1+ S = 1+ ( MBS − 1) = MBS T S − T which still satisfies Equation (13. MBS ta(i) Time X + LCT (TAT) T S TS c.3Observe that if t (MBS × T). and τS = 9δ. and so on. Now suppose that we have the following: (MBS – 1)(TS – T) < τS < MBS(T S – T) S is a number greater than the integer (MBS – 1) and less TS − T than the integer MBS.2). Suppose that τS = (MBS – 1)(T S – T) exactly. an MBS of 2 means that two cells can arrive at a spacing of T. the second term applies. MBS(TS – T). Therefore. otherwise. In this case. Here is an example that shows the relationship among the relevant parameters.2). an MBS of 3 means that 3 cells can arrive with successive spacings of T. we know that ER Fairshare and ER VCshare Case I: LF > 1 In this case VCshare > CCR. then the first term of the inequality applies. then the 13. In this example. 13.The line of reasoning is the same as for part (a) of this problem. However if τS equation is not satisfied.
This condition holds if: Input_rate > CCR × #_connections With this condition ER = Fairshare Then ER > CCR if (Target_rate/#_connections) > CCR IIb VCshare > Fairshare This condition holds if: Input_rate < CCR × #_connections With this condition ER = VCshare Then ER > CCR if Target_rate > IR Case III: LF = 1 In this case. VCshare = CCR IIa Fairshare > VCshare This condition holds if: Input_rate > CCR × #_connections With this condition ER = Fairshare Then ER > CCR if (Target_rate/#_connections) > CCR IIb VCshare > Fairshare This condition holds if: Input_rate < CCR × #_connections With this condition ER = VCshare = CCR 39 .
[Initialization]. f). (a. f). Then use induction on the level of T to show that T contains all vertices of G. 40 . d. (a. return CONNECTED. b. b. b. 3. (a. go to step 4. c. e. Replace the contents of S with the children in T of S ordered consistent with the original ordering. If the number of vertices in T is N. c. show that the graph T constructed is a tree. V2 . Designate V1 as the root of the tree.4 If G is a connected graph. e. e. then the removal of that edge makes the graph disconnected. [Return Result]. If no edges are added in this step. f). [Add edges].CHAPTER 14 OVERVIEW OF GRAPH THEORY AND LEASTCOST PATHS 14. (a. c.3 14. d. e. d. c. c.5 First. e. 2. f).1 n(n – 1)/2 14. f). add edge (x. 4. For each vertex x in S. Set S to {V1 } and set T to the graph consisting of V1 and no edges. Halt. 14.2 a. c. Process the vertices in S in order. y) and vertex y to T provided that this does not produce a cycle in T. [Update S]. b. b. return NOT_CONNECTED. VN. (a.6 The input is a graph with vertices ordered V1 . process each adjacent vertex y in G in order. f). b. f). otherwise. e. 3 14. …. 14. (a. Go to step 2. 1. (a.
w(i. p[nk] := j if k ∉ Q then insert K at the tail of Q.7 Start with V1 Iteration 1: Add V5. So we have L'(j) = mink∉T∪i [w(k.14. j) +L(k)] = min[mink∉T[w(k. and because w(i. Finally for a node j ∉ T ∪ i. end end. it is preserved by the formula in step 3 of the algorithm. end. j) +L(i)] 41 . V6.k]. j) +L(k)]. and let L(k) be the label of each node k at the beginning of the iteration. if newdist < d[k] then begin d[k] := newdist. L(j) is the shortest distance from s to j using paths with all nodes in T except possibly j. for each link jk that starts at j do begin newdist := d[j] + c[j. Let k be the last node of this path before node j. Let us claim that (1) L(i) L(j) for all i ∈ T and j ∉ T (2) For each node j. and it holds for all j ∈ T by condition (1) and the induction hypothesis. d[srce] := 0 {initialize Q to contain srce only 0} insert srce at the head of Q. Condition (2) then can be shown by induction. 14. the length of this path from s to k is L(k). j) ≥ 0 and L(i) = minj∉T L(j). V7 Spanning Tree: 14. Let i be the node added to T at that iteration.8 for n := 1 to N do begin d[n] := ∞. p[n] := –1 end. V8 Iteration 2: Add V2. {initialization over } while Q is not empty do begin delete the head node j from Q. Since k is in T ∪ i. Condition (2) holds for i = j by the induction hypothesis.9 This proof is based on one in [BERT92]. V4 Iteration 3: Add V3. Condition (1) is satisfied initially. Suppose that condition (2) holds at the beginning of some iteration. It holds initially. consider a path from s to j which is shortest among all those in which all nodes of the path belong to T ∪ i and let L'(j) be the distance.
5.13 We show the results for starting from node 2. As long as the leastcost route has not been found. L(j) is set to the shortest distance from s to j using paths with all nodes except j belonging to T ∪ i. 6} 3 3 3 3 3 3 21 21 21 21 21 21 3 3 3 3 3 3 23 23 23 23 23 23 2 2 2 2 2 2 24 24 24 24 24 24 ∞ 3 3 3 3 3 — 245 245 245 245 245 ∞ ∞ ∞ 8 5 5 — — — 236 2456 2456 14. the last node on that route will be eligible for entry into T before the node in question. i) plus the distance to reach node j. 4. w(i. 5} {2.The induction hypothesis implies that L(j) = min k∉T[w(k. j) +L(k)]. 4. 1} {2. so we have L'(j) = min[L(j) . 3} {2. because otherwise there would be a route with shorter distance found by going to j along the optimal route and then directly to i. with the immediately preceding node on the path being j. 3. 1. 4. h 0 1 2 3 4 Lh (1) ∞ 3 3 3 3 Path — 21 21 21 21 Lh (3) ∞ 3 3 3 3 Path — 23 23 23 23 Lh (4) ∞ 2 2 2 2 Path — 24 24 24 24 Lh (5) ∞ ∞ 3 3 3 Path — — 245 245 245 Lh (6) ∞ ∞ 8 5 5 Path — — 236 2456 2456 42 . A node will not be added to T until its leastcost route is found. 14. 14.11 Not possible. 14. 4. This latter distance must be L(j).12 We show the results for starting from node 2. M L(1) Path L(3) Path L(4) Path L(5) Path L(6) Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 {2} {2. the distance to node j along the optimal route. 4} {2. 3. 1. The distance to node i is w(j. j) +L(i)] Thus in step 3.10 Consider the node i which has path length K+1. 1.
17 This explanation is taken from [BERT92].14. The FloydWarshall algorithm iterates on the set of nodes that are allowed as intermediate nodes on the paths.e.. and so forth.2.3. the two algorithms will yield the same result because they are both guaranteed to find the leastcost path. giving the length in the final term of the equation in step 2 of the problem. We provide a table for node 1 of network a. Here are the results for node A: A to B: AB A to C: ABC A to D: AEGHD 14. Then the shortest path length from i to j. For n = 0. and then with the constraint that only nodes 1 and 2 can be used. the two algorithms may find different leastcost paths. Now.4} {1.2.5.5. For the second case. 14. It then calculates shortest paths under the constraint that only node 1 can be used as an intermediate node. the constrained shortest path is the same as the one using nodes 1 to n as possible 43 . allowing nodes 1 to n+1 as possible intermediate nodes.5} {1. Ln(i.2.14 a.2. It starts like both Dijkstra's algorithm and the BellmanFord algorithm with single arc distances (i.4. For the first case.3} {1.15 h 0 1 2 3 4 Lh (2) ∞ 1 1 1 1 Path — 12 12 12 12 Lh (3) ∞ ∞ 4 3 3 Path — — 123 1253 1253 Lh (4) ∞ 4 4 3 3 Path — 14 14 1254 1254 Lh (5) ∞ ∞ 2 2 2 Path — — 125 125 125 Lh (6) ∞ ∞ ∞ 6 5 Path — — — 1236 12536 A to E: AE A to F: ABCF A to G: AEG A to H: AEGH A to J: ABCJ A to K: AEGHDK 14. M L(2) Path L(3) Path L(4) Path L(5) Path L(6) Path 1 2 3 4 5 6 {1} {1. the constrained shortest path from i to j goes from i to n+1 and then from n+1 to j. the initialization clearly gives the shortest path lengths subject to the constraint of no intermediate nodes on paths. depending on the order in which alternatives are explored.2} {1. j) in the above algorithm gives the shortest path lengths using nodes 1 to n as intermediate nodes.5. the figure is easily generated. no intermediate nodes) as starting estimates of shortest path lengths. suppose for a given n.6} 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 12 12 12 12 12 ∞ 4 3 3 3 3 — 123 1253 1253 1253 1253 4 4 3 3 3 3 14 14 1254 1254 1254 1254 ∞ 2 2 2 2 2 — 125 125 125 125 125 ∞ ∞ 6 5 5 5 — — 1256 12536 12536 12536 b.16 If there is a unique leastcost path. If there are two or more equal leastcost paths. either contains node n+1 on the shortest path or doesn't contain node n+1. The table for network b is similar in construction but much larger.3.
intermediate nodes. 44 . yielding the length of the first term in the equation in step 2 of the problem.
15.5 Destination Network 1 2 Next Router D D C 8: N1 8: N3. D. each node and each router can be depicted as a node. H. F. D. depending on what are defined to be nodes and what are defined to be edges. The following digraph is a simpler representation taken from the point of view of Host X: 15. N2. the delaybandwidth between the sender and receiver decreases [than the case of the longer path]. D. IP specifies another system on the same network and hands that address down to the networklayer protocol which then initiates the networklayer routing function.2 When the unicast routing adapts to the shorter path. N3 3: N2. N4 6: N3. N2 2: N4. That would violate the "separation of layers" concept. E. N4. As Figure 14. E.1 No. N4 4: N2. E. There is no need for IP to know how data is routed within a network. j) 6 3 45A 6: N4. N1 3: N4. G.CHAPTER 15 INTERIOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS 15. N5 15.3 A digraph could be drawn in a number of ways. since shorter paths experience less delays. N5 Next Router D D Metric L(A. D.4 B 3: N1 1: N2 4: N2. j) 6 3 Destination Network 1 2 . D. N2 5: N3 6: N3. N3 1: N4 2: N4.10 illustrates. The new path does not have the capacity to contain all the packets with the window size filling the longer path. N5 Metric L(A. For the next hop. 15. N4. and so some packets are dropped and TCP cuts back its window size. B. F.
so OSPF must add its own checksum. a mechanism is needed for getting all nodes to agree to start the algorithm. and possibly distorts the roundtrip times calculated by TCP. 5) R(x. a mechanism is needed to abort the algorithm and start a new version if a link status or value changes as the algorithm is running.10 Load balancing increases the chances of packets being delivered out of order. 46 . Second. Router A B C D b. But B can get to C itself and does not need to go through A to do so.6 First. 5) B D B — 11 C 11 C 11 A 1 — Iteration 9 12 C 12 C 11 D 1 — Iteration 10 3 B U U 3 B 1 — Iteration 1 U = Unreachable 4 C 4 C 4 A 1 — Iteration 2 ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 15. The IP checksum only covers the IP header. 15. OSPF runs on top of IP.8 Suppose A has a route to D through C. 5) L(x. 5) R(x.9 RIP runs on top of UDP. 5) Distance L(x.3 4 5 D — F 6 1 5 3 4 5 E — F 2 1 2 A's routing table prior to update A's routing table after update 15. which provides an optional checksum for the data portion of the UDP datagram. R A B C D L(x. 15. B will receive this message and think that D is unreachable via A. 5) R(x. 5) L(x. 5) R(x. 5) R(x. so A sends a poisoned reverse message to C that indicates that D is unreachable via A (set metric to infinity). 5) L(x. If C is the best first hop for A to get to D. then C is also the best first hop for B to get to D across this network.7 a. 5) 3 2 3 1 5 C 5 C 5 A 1 — Iteration 3 Next Hop R(x. [STEV94] 15. 5) L(x.
CHAPTER 16 EXTERIOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS AND MULTICAST
16.1 So that the queries are not propagated outside of the local network. 16.2 For convenience, flip the table on its side: N1 1 N2 1 N3 1 N4 2 N5 1 N6 1 L1 1 L2 2 L3 2 L4 1 L5 2 Total 15
This is the least efficient method, but it is very robust: a packet will get through if there is at least one path from source to destination. Also, no prior routing information needs to be exchanged. 16.3 Root to the left:
16.4 a. In this table, we show the hop cost for each network or link: N1 0 b. N3 1 N4 12 N5 1 N6 1 L3 3 L4 4 Total 22
N1 0
N3 1
N4 12
N5 1
N6 1
L3 3
L5 2
Total 20
16.5 MOSPF works well in an environment where group members are relatively densely packed. In such an environment, bandwidth is likely to be plentiful, with most group members on shared LANs with highspeed links between the LANs. However, MOSPF does not scale well to large, sparselypacked multicast groups. 47
Routing information is periodically flooded to all other routers in an area. This can consume considerable resources if the routers are widely dispersed; also the routers must maintain a lot of state information about group membership and location. The use of areas can cut down on this problem but the fundamental scaling issue remains. 16.6 PIM allows the a destination router to replace the groupshared tree with a shortestpath tree to any source. Thus, this is the shortest unicast path from destination to source, which is not necessarily the reverse of the shortest unicast path from source to destination. 16.7 First, suppose that all traffic must go through the RPbased tree. If the RP is placed badly with respect to the topology and distribution of the group receivers and senders, then the delay is likely to be large. However, for applications for which delay is important and the data rate is high enough, receivers' last hop routers may join directly to the source and receive packets over the shortest path. So, the RP placement is this case is not so crucial for good performance.
48
CHAPTER 17 INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES
17.1 These answers are taken from RFC 1809, Using the Flow Label Field in IPv6 (June 1995). a. The IPv6 specification allows routers to ignore Flow Labels and also allows for the possibility that IPv6 datagrams may carry flow setup information in their options. Unknown Flow Labels may also occur if a router crashes and loses its state. During a recovery period, the router will receive datagrams with Flow Labels it does not know, but this is arguably not an error, but rather a part of the recovery period. Finally, if the controversial suggestion that each TCP connection be assigned a separate Flow Label is adopted, it may be necessary to manage Flow Labels using an LRU cache (to avoid Flow Label cache overflow in routers), in which case an active but infrequently used flow's state may have been intentionally discarded. In any case, it is clear that treating this situation as an error and, say dropping the datagram and sending an ICMP message, is inappropriate. Indeed, it seems likely that in most cases, simply forwarding the datagram as one would a datagram with a zero Flow Label would give better service to the flow than dropping the datagram. b. An example is a router which has two paths to the datagram's destination, one via a highbandwidth satellite link and the other via a lowbandwidth terrestrial link. A high bandwidth flow obviously should be routed via the highbandwidth link, but if the router loses the flow state, the router may route the traffic via the lowbandwidth link, with the potential for the flow's traffic to swamp the lowbandwidth link. It seems likely, however, these situations will be exceptions rather than the rule. 17.2 These answers are taken from RFC 1809. a. An internet may have partitioned since the flow was created. Or the deletion message may be lost before reaching all routers. Furthermore, the source may crash before it can send out a Flow Label deletion message. b. The obvious mechanism is to use a timer. Routers should discard Flow Labels whose state has not been refreshed within some period of time. At the same time, a source that crashes must observe a quiet time, during which it creates no flows, until it knows that all Flow Labels from its previous life must have expired. (Sources can avoid quiet time restrictions by keeping information about active Flow Labels in stable storage that survives crashes). This is precisely how TCP initial sequence numbers are managed and it seems the same mechanism should work well for Flow Labels. 17.3 Again, RFC 1809: The argument in favor of using Flow Labels on individual TCP connections is that even if the source does not request special service, a network provider's routers may be able to recognize a large amount of traffic and use the Flow Label field to establish a special route that gives the TCP connection better service (e.g., lower delay or bigger bandwidth). Another argument is to assist in efficient demux at the receiver (i.e., IP and TCP demuxing could be done once). An argument against using Flow Labels in individual TCP connections is that it changes how we handle route caches in routers. Currently one can cache a route for a destination host, regardless of how many different sources are sending 49
One cannot.9: ρ 1 = λ1 Ts1 = 0. whether this will cause cache thrashing. because the priority values might have been redefined. Using the M/M/1 equations from Table 8. in which infrequently used Flow Labels get discarded (and then recovered later).4 From RFC 1809: During its discussions. During a bust of S seconds.67 Tr2 = T s2 + (T q1 – Ts1)/(1 – ρ) = 2. Then V = (4 – 2×2) + (4 – 2) = 2 b. during the burst.to that destination host. (For instance.5 17. λ = λ1 + λ2 = 0. 17.5.33 V = (4 – 2×1.67) + (4 – 2. in which there is a cache entry for every TCP connection. if five sources each have two TCP connections sending data to a server.7 50 .25 = ρ 2 . a total of MS octets are transmitted.6: Tr = T s/(1 – λTs) = 1/(1 – 0. one cache entry containing the route to the server handles all ten TCPs' traffic. it had to ignore the Priority field. for instance. It is not clear. the priorities might have been inverted). Forcing all applications to use Flow Labels will force routing vendors to deal with the cache explosion issue. Indeed. Using the M/M/1 equations in Table 8. the strict priority service is more efficient in the sense that it delivers a higher utility for the same throughput. it seems likely that when the Flow Label is unknown.6 a. the EndtoEnd group realized this meant that if a router forwarded a datagram with an unknown Flow Label. S = (250 × 103 )/(23 × 106 ) ≈ 11 msec Sum the equation over all session j: 17.33) = 2. Thus. There are ways to alleviate this problem.5) = 2. a. such as managing the Flow Label cache as an LRU cache. Thus. let the application decide whether to use a Flow Label. b + rS = MS S = b/(M – r) b. even if we later discover that we don't want to optimize individual TCP connections. however. ρ = ρ 1 + ρ2 = 0.33 Therefore. for a total burst size of (b + rs). Those who want different Flow Labels for every TCP connection assume that they may optimize a route without the application's knowledge.5 Tr1 = T s1 + (ρ1 Ts1 + ρ2 Ts2)/(1 – ρ1 ) = 1. tokens for an additional rS octets are generated. A burst empties the bucket (b octets) and. So there's a potential for cache explosion. Observe that there is no easy compromise between these positions. Putting Flow Labels in each datagram changes the cache into a Flow Label cache. the router will be able to give much better service if it uses the Priority field to make a more informed routing decision. 17. The IPv6 community concluded this behavior was undesirable.
9 51 . then THmin should be sufficiently large to allow the link utilization to be maintained at an acceptably high level.t ) j ≥ Sj ( .t) i Si ( . b. If the traffic is fairly bursty. 60 Mbits 17.t ) i C ≥ (t − ) ∑ j j The last inequality demonstrates that session i is guaranteed a rate of gi = i C ∑ j j 17.t) j j Si ( . The difference between the two thresholds should be larger then the typical increase in the calculated average queue length in one RTT.t )∑ j ≥ iC(t − j ) Si ( .t )∑ j ≥ i ∑ Sj ( .8 a.Si ( .
further processing of the packet is based on the packet's network layer header. The restrictions only apply to the bottom (last) label in the stack. there is a parameter. the label no longer has any function. increasing the difficulty and cost of packet classification for QoS. hiding the port numbers of data packets from intermediate routers. Once the nexttolast router has decided to send the packet to the final router.4 a. Problem: IPlevel security.2 The diagram is a simplification. In order to support the control of multiple independent flows between source and destination IP addresses. If these conditions are not met. or the label must be one which is used ONLY for a specified set of network layer protocols. whenever that label is replaced by another label value during a packet's transit. [RFC3032] 18. Solution: Efficient classification of IPv6 data packets could be obtained using the Flow Label field of the iPv6 header. Furthermore. possibly along with the contents of the network layer header itself. With IPlevel security. the SPI will be included as part of the FILTER_SPEC. b. where packets of the specified network layers can be distinguished by inspection of the network layer header. Recall that the text states that "Transmissions from all sources are forwarded to all destinations through this router.1 a. When the last label is popped from a packet's label stack (resulting in the stack being emptied). Problem: IPv6 inserts a variable number of variablelength Internetlayer headers before the transport header.5 RTP uses periodic status reporting among all group participants. Since the period of reporting may be large (on the order of tens of seconds). the new value must also be one which meets the same criteria. and need no longer be carried. it may convey coarse grain information about the network congestion. may encrypt the entire transport header. called the Security Parameter Index (SPI) carried in the security header. [RFC 3031] 18. The LSR which pops the last label off the stack must therefore be able to identify the packet's network layer protocol. the period of the reporting is scaled up to reduce the overall bandwidth consumption of control messages." 18. they will typically be associated with a particular sender. under either IPv4 or IPv6. b. c. Hence this information cannot 52 .CHAPTER 18 PROTOCOLS FOR QOS SUPPORT 18. The identity of the network layer protocol must be inferable from the value of the label which is popped from the bottom of the stack. Solution: There must be some means of identifying source and destination IP users (equivalent to the TCP or UDP port numbers). It reduces the processing required at the last router: it need not pop the label. two senders to the same unicast destination will usually have different SPIs. The purpose of the label is to get the packet to the final router. 18. when the first label is pushed onto a network layer packet. While SPIs are allocated based on destination address. the LSR which pops the last label off a packet will not be able to identify the packet's network layer protocol. When the number of participants becomes large. Therefore. either the label must be one which is used ONLY for packets of a particular network layer. As a result.3 a. b.
which needs finer grained feedback. where a source may adjust its transmission rate. SSRC_n = source receiving this receiver report.6 Define SSRC_r = receiver issuing this receiver report. 18. however. can be used as a means for sessionlevel (as opposed to packet level) flow control. Then Total roundtrip time = A – LSR Roundtrip propagation delay = A – LSR – DLSR 53 . This information. A = arrival time of report. and receivers may adjust their playback points according to the coarse grained information. LSR = value in "Time of last sender report" field. DLSR = value in "Delay since last sender report" field.be used to relief network congestion.
2 = 0. x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 00 10 010 110 0001 1111 1110 01101 01100 d. P3 ) 19.5 Use Equation 6. Then N' – N = (Pi Lk + P kLi ) – (Pi Li + P kLk) = (P i – Pk)(Lk – Li ) < 0 Therefore C' is less optimal than C.4 × 0. PA = Pr(A/A)PA + Pr(A/B)PB = 0.8 + 0.1: P (X) = ∑ P (X Ei )P(E i ) and assume PA = 0. (P2 /(P 1 + P 2 )] = (P 1 + P 2 )[(P1 /(P 1 + P 2 )log(P1 /(P 1 + P 2 ) + (P 2 /(P 1 + P 2 )log(P2 /(P 1 + P 2 )] = –P 1 log(P1 ) + P 1 log(P1 + P 2 ) – P2 log(P2 ) + P 2 log(P1 + P 2 ) X + Y = –P1 log(P1 ) – P2 log(P2 ) – P3 log(P3 ) = H(P1.1 X Y = H(P 1 + P 2 . P2 .CHAPTER 19 OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION THEORY 19.12 = 0. 19.2 No.3 a.2 i 54 .72 + 0.08 + 0. x1 1 x2 00 x3 010 x4 0111 x5 01100 x6 01101 c. because the code for x2 =0001 is the prefix for x5 =00011. x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 10 000 011 110 111 0101 00100 x8 00110 x9 00111 x10 01000 x11 01001 x12 001010 x13 001011 19.9 × 0.4 Let N be the average codeword length of C and N' that of C'.1 × 0.8 and PB = 0. x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 00 11 010 011 100 101 b.08 = 0.2 = 0.8 + 0. P3 ) = –(P 1 + P 2 )log(P1 + P 2 ) – P3 log(P3 ) = (P 1 + P 2 )H[(P1 /(P 1 + P 2 ).6 × 0. The sequence 000110101111000110 can be deciphered as: 0001 101011 1100 0110 = x2 x8 x4 x3 00011 010 11110 00110 = x5 x1 x7 x6 19.2.8 PB = Pr(B/A)PA + Pr(B/B)PB = 0.
P(x2 ) = 0. Scheme 2: It is a Huffman code because it is a prefix code. P(x4 ) = 0.2.1. P(x3 ) = 0. P(x1 ) = 0. it is optimal.1 Scheme 3: This coding scheme could have not been generated by a Huffman algorithm since it is not a prefix scheme. P(x1 ) = 0.25. it is optimal. Scheme 4: It is a Huffman code because it is a prefix code.4 55 . x 1 is a prefix for x3 . and it forms a full binary tree.55. x4 could have been represented by a 1 instead of 10. and it forms a full binary tree.19.3. P(x4 ) = 0. P(x3 ) = 0. and x3 could have been represented by a 00 instead of 001.6 Scheme 1: This coding scheme could have not been generated by a Huffman algorithm since it is not optimal.1. P(x2 ) = 0.
0.C(0)> 56 . Disadvantages: (1) MNP results in data expansion when sequence of only three repeating characters are encountered in the original data stream.1.1 Advantage: MNP eliminates the necessity of using a special compressionindicating character because the three repeating characters both indicate that compression has occurred and identify the character that was compressed.2.0.4. 20.5.C(1)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <3.C(0)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <4.2.C(0)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <6.CHAPTER 20 LOSSLESS COMPRESSION 20.C(1)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <2. (2) MNP encoding requires four characters compared to three characters for ordinary runlength encoding.2.C(1)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <4.C(1)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <6.C(0)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <0.2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <0.
3.C(1)> 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <6.EOF> 20.3.0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 <5.3 Initial Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 0 Decoding: a Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 a_ Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 aa 3 a_ Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 aa 3 ab 4 b_ Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 aa 3 ab 4 ba 5 ab_ 0 Decoding: aa 1 Decoding: aab 3 Decoding: aabab 57 .
On the other hand. In the best case. LZ78 will need to generate a dictionary with entries like a. since both the encoder and decoder need to build a dictionary. while LZ78 will encode one additional symbol with each encoding. Similarly.(k – 1). 20. g 8/40 00 f 7/40 110 e 6/40 111 d 5/40 010 space 5/40 101 c 4/40 011 b 3/40 1000 a 2/40 1001 58 . thus generating a longer bitstream. whereas the decoder simply retrieves an entry given by an index. b. compression takes longer because the encoder has to search the buffer to find the best match.C(a)> and <1. etc. the encoding process requires the dictionary to be searched for the best entry matching the input stream. beside the overhead from using a dictionary. k symbols).4 a. However. LZ78 would be slightly more efficient because LZ77 would encode a fixed number of symbols in every triplet (i.5 Decoding: aabababa Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 aa 3 ab 4 ba 5 aba 6 aba_ 2 Decoding: aabababaaa Dictionary Index Phrase 0 a 1 b 2 aa 3 ab 4 ba 5 aba 6 abaa 7 aa_ aabababaaa 0 0 1 3 5 2 => Final Decoding: 20. if the size of the LZ77 buffer is small compared to k. for LZ78. the sequence can be encoded with two triplets: <0. aaa. symbol Probability code b. In LZ77. the difference might not be as significant as in LZ77.e.. assuming the length of the buffer is sufficiently large compared to k.5 LZ77 is a better technique for encoding aaaa…aaa. aa..6 a.EOF>. whereas the decoder’s job is only to retrieve the symbols from the buffer. 20. if the buffer size is k.0. given an index and a length.
10101 0. 0. the first column F.01011 0. Label the final column in the sorted matrix L (the output string).0 Interval Binary Code Representation of Lower Bound 0. 1.00100 0.125.7 a.05.10000 0.35.225.675) [0.00111 0.875) [0.5.125 20. 0. 59 .225) [0.675 0. 4. This is the next character in the string.11100 00000 00001 0010 0011 01 100 101 11 a b c d e f g space [0.1 0. By definition. Go to the character in F in the current row. 2. column L. but rotated some number of positions.00000 0. 0. 0.125 0.125) [0.05) [0.35 0. and the output integer I. Go to the row that has the same character found in (3) in the Lth column.15 0.875.a 1space b 3b space c c. We need to exploit the following fact. The following procedure will do the job. this is the first character of the original string. 1.675. This is so because each row is a circular buffer.225 0.35) [0.5) [0. This is easy: F contains the characters in L in alphabetical order. Repeat steps (3) and (4) until the entire original string is recovered. Each row of the sorted matrix is a circular buffer that contains the original sequence in proper order.2 0. 0. 0.05 0. The following figure is an example.125 0.05 0. 0. Start with the character in row I.00001 0.175 0. Symbol 1 2 3 4 5 6 6c 6space d 9d 10space 7 8 9 10 11 e 12e 13e 5f f 12 13 14 15 16 16f 17f g 19g 20g 17 18 19 20 21 Pi Cumulative Probability 0. 3.075 0.5 0. Given L. reconstruct F.875 1.0) 0. Then perform these steps.
In step 4. b. there are two choices for A in L. all of these instances will be contiguous in rows beginning with "hat". the prefix character for almost all of these strings is "t". For example. Thus. providing an opportunity for compression. Typically. BWT sorts the rows so that identical suffixes will be together. there could be a number of consecutive instances of "t" in L. In our example. The ambiguity is resolved by observing that multiple instances of a character must appear in the same order in both F and L. Each character in L is a prefix to the character string beginning with the character in F in the same row (except for the single case where L contains the last character in the string). 60 . the first time that an A is encountered in F. there may be more than one character in the Lth column matching the current character in the F column. if the sequence "hat" appears multiple times in a long string. BWT alters the distribution of characters in a way that enhances compression. although in different rows. Often the same prefix character will occur for multiple instances of the same suffix.
1 1 1 0 8 1 1 –1 0 2 P1 = 1 –1 0 1 2 1 –1 0 –1 0 2 4 2 0 –2 0 P = (W')–1T W–1 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 –2 0 1 1 –1 –1 2 0 2 1 –1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 –1 6 4 4 0 8 4 18 14 12 4 2 2 10 6 8 8 2 −2 = 14 2 8 0 2 −2 14 2 4 4 1 1 1 0 14 1 1 –1 0 0 = 1 –1 0 1 4 1 –1 0 –1 0 We use a gray scale with 21 levels.CHAPTER 21 LOSSY COMPRESSION 21. b.1 The only change is to the dc component. c.2 a. 8 0 T2 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 P1 P2 = (W')–1T2 W–1 61 . S(0) 484 8 2 T1 = 2 0 S(1) –129 S(2) –95 S(3) 26 S(4) –73 S(5) 4 S(6) –31 S(7) –11 21. from 0 = white to 20 = black P The two matrices are very similar.
4 At the receiver. Therefore. Different images have different structures that can best be exploited by one of these eight modes of prediction. For the first pixel in each row but the top. A is the only preceding pixel (predictor 1). 21. The remaining predictors use all three preceding pixels with different weightings. 62 . Beyond these obvious restrictions. the sender must also used previous processed copies in the algorithm. only processed copies of each frames. in order for the receiver to reproduce the processing of the sender. P2 21.3 Predictor 0 is used for differential coding in the hierarchical mode of operation and for the first pixel in the top row. Predictor 3 is based only on the diagonal and predictor 7 is based only on the previous horizontal and vertical pixels. B is the only preceding pixel (predictor 2). For the remaining pixels in the top row. any of the predictors can be used.1 1 1 0 8 1 1 –1 0 0 P2 = 1 –1 0 1 0 1 –1 0 –1 0 1 1 1 0 12 1 1 –1 0 0 = 1 –1 0 1 0 1 –1 0 –1 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 –1 –1 –1 0 0 0 1 –1 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 0 12 0 = 12 0 12 P The two matrices are not very similar. the input frame is not available.
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