Global Hazards Define Hazard/disaster Natural Hazard a natural event or physical process which affects people, e.g.

causing loss of life, injury, economic damage, disruption of peoples lives or environmental degradation. Briefly explain the nature of hazard types Hydro-meteorological hazards that are caused by running water and its processes (hydro) and those associated with or caused by weather patterns (meteorological). These include; flood, debris and mud flows, hurricanes, coastal storm surges, thunder and hailstorms, rain and windstorms, blizzards droughts, bushfires, temperature extremes and sand and dust storms. Geophysical hazards caused by earth processes. There are two types internal earth processes of tectonic origin, e.g. earthquakes, tsunami and volcanic activity. External earth processes of geomorphologic origin involving mass movements, e.g. landslides, rockslides and rock falls. The two types can also overlap- An avalanche may be hydro-meteorological in origin, but geophysical as an event. Explain threats to life and property Disaster a hazard becomes a disaster when a hazard event occurs near a vulnerable population susceptible to human and or economic loss.For example Hurricane Katrina. Vulnerability the capacity of a person or group to cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. Vulnerable populations include, areas with poor incomes, and so lack of money to relocate/rebuild after a hazard/pay for good infrastructure. Poorly educated areas not aware of how to react to a hazard. Location of population coastal areas more at risk, e.g. Hurricane Katrina. LEDC s are usually more at risk because they have lack of money to react in a hazard situation. Make use of the disaster risk equation 


Define context and chronic hazard Context hazards that have widespread threats with the potential to affect the entire planet. Climate change is an example of this. Chronic hazards are hazards that are ongoing. State impacts of global warming including the issue of injustice Climate change any marked trend or shift in climate that shows a prolonged change in the average value for any climate element, for example rainfall or drought. Global warming refers to a consistent recently measured rise in the average surface temperature of the planet.

This then sends cold water to the tropics to be warmed again. not just environmental. Climate change is unpredictable. These include. Without this the earth could not survive. however not all at the same degree. and could become catastrophic depending on how quickly the tipping point is reached. These therefore reflect solar radiation. Changing salinity the earths oceans and winds distribute heat between the warmest and coldest parts. For example rising sea temperatures cause the melting of glaciers and ice sheets which have a better albedo (reflective power). This the creates carbon dioxide which rises. leads to more melting. Climate change also has indirect impacts. Climate change has various issues . this will make them occur more often. Some scientists suggest this will occur when a global temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius has been reached. This therefore means that the melting of the ice caps. and will come to affect all areas of the world. increase. which leads to rising sea levels.The greenhouse effect A natural process that warms the Earth s atmosphere due to the trapping of heat that would otherwise be radiated back into space. The tipping point This is the point in which a change is irreversible. like carbon dioxide. Scientists argue this is because of human activity such as the burning of fossil fuels. food security and health and wellbeing. and without them this radiation would be absorbed by land and sea. The human factor is how effectively the world can mitigate the damaging effects. which makes it heavier and causes it to sink. Climate change is a global issues. impacts on societies and economies. An enhanced greenhouse effect occurs when the amount of greenhouse gases. The frequency and magnitude of hazards are increasing with climate change. In terms of climate change it is the point at which the temperatures have raised so significantly that climate change becomes irreversible. Frequency the number of occurrences in a given time period. It is a chronic (ongoing) hazard. The prediction of climate change requires successful modeling of the future by scientists from places such as the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). trapping and traps more heat in the earth. This depends on both physical and human factors. For example hurricanes need temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius to form. but reducing the production of greenhouse gases to slow down the rate of global warming. It has a massive amount of affects linked to rising temperatures. This occurs because in the North Atlantic the water is cold and saline (salty). The thermohaline circulation is a flow of warm and cold water that circulates around the world s oceans. . The sea levels are also rising as the ice caps melt. When it sinks it draws warmer water in from the oceans surface from the Tropics. and if temperatures rise. Global Hazard Trends Define magnitude and frequency Magnitude the size or extent of something. this is an example of positive feedback. enhancing the natural greenhouse effect. threatening their existence in terms of water availability. This include thermal expansion of the oceans as water expands by heating. causing the temperature to rise further.

with temperatures rising up to 8 degrees Celsius. Geophysical hazards have however only risen by about 20 disasters a year from 1950 to 2005. They also use satellite imagery. and high pressure in the east leading to colder climates. and hurricanes in the central pacific. particularly in the South West and increased summer droughts. Scientists attempt to predict El Nino using methods such as NOAA drifting buoys which measure temperature.caused by burning embers landing away from the main fire starting new fires of their own. cut emissions by putting a limit on the amount the can be emitted. and milder European winters. and the increased vulnerable population. El Nino this is where the pressure systems therefore weather patterns reverse. and spread in three ways. and create incentives for companies who invest in cleaner technologies. Coral beaching Galapagos islands. It aims to. The consequences of El Nino are. crops and livestock washed away. and what protection to use such as sprinkler systems have helped reduce deaths. and this will create a shortage. which will mean companies can sell credits they no longer need. they loose crops and livestock. to over 400 per year in 2005. but only cause an average of 5 deaths a year. and Australia suffers from forest fires. but the 2006 -7 fires only killed 4 people. This creates low pressure in the west leading to warmer. Walker Cell (normal year) This is where the air in the upper atmosphere moves west to east. As the supply decreases. Crown fires fires spread through the treetops. The issue is that the cause of El Nino is unknown. and more vulnerable populations. the most frequent reasons for them starting are because of carelessness. and therefore it is very hard to predict. and surface air moves east to west. and how much is due to better technologies to report hazards. It therefore set up the ETS as a means of carbon offsetting. and also larger. especially in Peru. Low pressures form towards the east. In South America Heavy rain and flooding. It set emission targets for every country. Explain the nature of El Nino and its unpredictability El Nino is a cycle that affects the winds and ocean currents.There is severe flooding. currents. and spend the money on cleaner technologies. and educational programs showing people what to do. it means the price will rise. however averagely 84 homes are destroyed. The worldwide impacts include African/East Asian floods. get polluters to pay for the damage they cause.Describe trends in hazards and impacts The amount of hydro-meteorologicalhazards reported per year has gone from 50 a year in 1960. like oil. Asia and Australia suffer droughts over the entire region. Less than 10% are started deliberately. for example a temperature rise can cause better conditions for hurricanes. because there has been nothing to suggest global warming affects geothermal hazards. but rainy climates. This leads to warmer waters in the eastern Pacific. Describe a range of possible global warming scenarios The European Emissions Trading Scheme In 2007 the EU set targets to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 20% to what the levels were in 1990. Once they have started. Ground fires where dry leaf litter and twigs catch light and fire spreads through the undergrowth. The rise in geothermal hazards is more than likely just because the technology to report disasters has increased. creating warmer climates with heavy rainfall. meaning more occur. Methods such as controlled burning. where regular burning of leaf litter is used to reduce fuel for bush fires. Over time the EU plans to reduce the credits available below the level of demand. and gave some of the dirtiest industries. they are hard to stop. Spot fires . The Ash Wednesday bushfires in 1983 killed 75 people. The USA . The issue . It is hard however to work out how much of this huge increase is due to global warming. The likely reason for this is that hydro-meteorological hazards are very easily affected by the weather. and the demand increases. Australian Bushfires These are common. credits to emit certain amounts of carbon. and winds. and lighting strikes.

Some countries delayed signing up. Flood forecasting was handicapped by insufficient rainfall information which masked the severity of the event. These lead to low magnitude earthquakes. which rises through the gaps in the continental plate. Bu 10 th April water polluted with sewage. Describe the distribution of natural hazards globally Distribution of geophysical hazards Plate boundaries -The earths crust is divided into seven major plates. It states that industrialized countries are to cut their overall greenhouse gas emissions to 5% below their 1990 levels by 2012. with trees and debris reducing the storage capacity of the channel. The melted plate makes magma. this cost them almost 6 million pounds. The council offered residents who had council houses other houses away from the flood. 175 countries signed up. and influencing this flood.with this is that a lot of companies have moved out of Europe. The council agreed they would not grant planning permission on any greenbelt land on the floodplain. and some never did. expanding it to areas such as the UK. Local companies including Tesco and Sainsbury s helped out with emergency food supplies. Power supplies were cut off and as most people were asleep. Management People were not being made aware they were living on a flood plain. Local businesses lost thousands of pounds in stock. conservative. The oceanic plate descends under the continental plate. heavy metals and mercury had swept through 2500 properties.Destructive plate boundaries are where a oceanic plate meets a continental plate and they collide together producing a range of different earthquakes from shallow to deep earthquakes. There were two deaths. and as it does it begins to melt due to friction. mostly under the sea. River channels were poorly maintained in some places. The Stern Review In 2006 the government published a review of global warming. Implications include a change from coal to cleaner gas fired power stations. trucks and small boats evacuating people to higher ground. and some suffered from shock. Kyoto Protocol this is a global agreement setting targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. and then fall by 1 -3% annually after that. and if it reaches the surfa ce. Identify and explain local risks in relation to global warming and other hazards Northampton Floods (1998) Cause 7th April a cool northerly airflow covered the UK an area of low pressure formed over Iceland. some shows were forced to close for months. therefore they were not aware of the dangers. and 5000 cars in the area were written off. and a number of smaller ones. destructive and constructive. it forms a volcano. There are three types of plate boundaries. and this creates volcanoes particularly along the mid Atlantic . A blocking anticyclone over Scandinavia meant that the rain remained virtually stationary over the midlands for almost two days. When the plates move apart magma fills the gap created. Some drainage systems were in a poor condition leading to worsened size and depth of the floods. In the EU only France. A mass evacuation was launched with lorries. 8th April this depression moved southwards across the UK 9th April thunderstorms broke out ahead of it. reducing the demand for credits. Some residents were stuck in their homes for over 12 hours. Sweden and the UK have achieved an 8% reduction. One in three houses in St James were uninsured. It stated that greenhouse gas emissions are to be stabilized by 2025. for example some had 4 meter gaps in. and an increase in petrol tax. The Northampton flood relief fund was established and over £160.000 was collected to help the victims. Constructive boundaries are where plates are moving apart. Some are oceanic and others continental.80% of the world s volcanoes are located on destructive plate boundaries. there was little time to take action and reduce damage. Flood defenses were poorly maintained and funded. Impact More than 2400 properties in Northampton were affected. El Nino has been worsened by global warming.

and it is 25% bigger than the UK. and found that the rise in sulfur dioxide indicated magma was on the move.32 an earthquake of magnitude 5. 57 people were killed.ridge. meaning that it hit an area scientists had not marked off as a danger zone. and it cost the government $363 million to clean up after. It also lies within South East Asia s major typhoon belts and landslides are also common in mountain districts. and caused areas of America to have to ground flights. An example of this is the San Andreas Fault. On May 18th at 8. they can only form 5 degrees above or below the equator. when most people who worked in forestry were not in the area. In order for the Corilosis effect to occur being about the rotation of air needed. but also perhaps because it occurred on a Sunday. This brought an estimated loss of $200 million to airlines per day. meaning that physical factors can in fact affect globalization significantly. creating an economic issue because goods could not be transported. This means they only form in particular hotter climates. around Florida. which appeared to be swelling. Date 18th May 1980. it sits across a major plate boundary. other methods had to be used. A volcano mountain range on a destructive plate boundary stretching from California to British Columbia is a dormant range. This was a lateral blast. who found a 10% increased cross border car hire demand. The amount of people killed was small for the size of the blast. As of this lapse of transportation it caused companies like BMW to struggle with production because of disrupted supply. Scientists took ash samples by plane. $40 million in agriculture. However a bulge was detected on the north flank. Mt St Helens Washington USA. Icelandic Volcano April 2010. west coast. The main issue was that because the ash cloud was formed over MEDC s there was more reliance on modern technology. and also the transport industry would be under great costs.1 caused an injection of magma out of the bulge on the north flank. This meant that it caused heavier costs. On March 20 th a magnitude 4 earthquake alerted that Mt St Helens was resuming activity after being dormant for 123 years. Also air flights are essential for the operation of the global network. causing 7000 vehicles not to be produced. Research 2 compulsory disaster hotspots and explain causes.5 meters per day. The blast was followed by pyroclastic flows pouring out the crater at temperatures of over 300 degrees Celsius and traveling over 400km/h. and create protective zones. The main issue was that flights had to be grounded because of the quantities of ash. found because of the demand for transport. The ash cloud circuled the globe in 17 days. the Philippine and Eurasian plates. impacts and interactions (California Coast and the Philippines) The Philippines It at major risk because. The Philippines consist of about 7000 islands. Iceland is located on a constructive plate boundary in the Atlantic Ocean. causing it to be 135 meters by May 17 th. and rarely erupts. car rental companies such as Avis. In April 2010 the Eyjafjallajokull volcano began releasing large quantities of ash and gas. and occasional high magnitude ones. The area around the volcano was evacuated where scientists predicted the magma would reach. It has a massive population of 91 million people (2007) and its G DP per . The Distribution of hydro metrological hazards Storms Hurricanes need temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius to form. It cost the forestry industry because of the huge amount of trees destroyed $450 million. producing frequent shallow earthquakes. I ts northern and eastern coasts face the Pacific. There was $100 million in property damage. It was growing at 1. which is the world s most tsunami-prone ocean. This is a destructive plate boundary.Conservative boundaries are where the plates slide past each other. such as the East coast of America. The wind blew this ash over Europe creating huge economic issues. Not all companies suffered. This may have been because of the technology used to predict it.

5000 tones of SO2 was released. 12500 buildings were damaged. but not as serious) $40. many very small. 63 people died and 14.31am. It showed signs of eruption form April 1991 (steam/earthquakes) therefore a 30km exclusion zones were set up. Some evacuees also died in camps exposed to disease.000 islands.000 farmers and their family. spread over latitudes between 5 degrees North and 20 Degrees north. California Lies on the San Andreas fault. also 5. The second eruption was cataclysmic. El Nino/La Nina cycles increase range of hazards California coast Wealthiest state of the USA 40 million (also vulnerable. This causes occasional fires and droughts because of hot weathers. and 9000 homes and businesses were without electricity for several days . 1994 Earthquake Date and Time 4. The cost of the damage was US$6 billion. 80.0-5. 17 th January 1994.capita in 2006 was $5000.04pm. Volcanic er Mt Pinitabu June 15th 1991. 48.500 people were without water. The biggest eruption in over 50 years. 1989 Earthquake Date and Time 5. Climate Change and its Causes . meaning that it contributed significantly to global warming.000 were injured.000 damged.000 people were evacuated by the first eruption (12 June). Status Population GDP per capita Landscape Philippines Lower-middle income country 91 million (huge amount vulnerable) $5000 Mountainous country with crowded coastal lowlands. 200. 17 th October 1989. Magnitude 6. mainly in agriculture. and there was a massive pyroclastic blast causing lahars.000 Coastal area contains the huge conurbations of Los Angeles. Effective monitoring reduced the death and injry toll to just over 4300 people.2 aftershock. Economic losses were $710 million.0. San Francisco and San Diego Summary Elongated area ranging from subtropical in north to tropical in south major tectonic hotspot which is also subject to extreme weather hazards brought by El Nino. they have averagly 20 per year. Also California is subject to severe climatic patterns.Typhoone are the main hazard. Magnitude 7.7 and thousands of aftershocks from 4. a middle -income country.000 hectares of farmland were buried beneath ash. 350 of those people died. a dome the size of the volcano collapsed. Just over 1000 homes were destroyed and over 23. particularly El Nino. where the Pacific and North American plate which is a conservative plate. disrupting the livelihoods of 500. Consists of 7.1. and at other times floods and land slides. Classic hotspot where typhoon belt interacts with mobile plate boundary in a rapidly developing country. meaning it is far enough above the equator for the Coriolis effect to take place. 366 businesses were destroyed and 3530 damaged.

both long and short term .Describe trends in global climate.

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