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Anti-diabetic medication

Dari Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Langsung ke: navigasi , cari Jump to: navigation , search Obat-obat anti-diabetes mengobati diabetes mellitus dengan menurunkan glukosa kadar dalam darah. Anti-diabetic medications treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. Dengan pengecualian dari insulin , exenatide , dan pramlintide , semua diberikan secara lisan dan dengan demikian juga disebut agen hipoglikemik oral atau agen antihyperglycemic lisan. With the exceptions of insulin , exenatide , and pramlintide , all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents . Ada kelas yang berbeda dari obat anti-diabetes, dan pemilihan mereka tergantung pada sifat dari usia, diabetes dan keadaan orang tersebut, serta faktor lainnya. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs, and their selection depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors. Diabetes mellitus tipe 1 adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh kekurangan insulin. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease caused by the lack of insulin. Insulin harus digunakan dalam Tipe I, yang harus disuntikkan. Insulin must be used in Type I, which must be injected. Diabetes mellitus tipe 2 adalah penyakit resistensi insulin oleh sel. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease of insulin resistance by cells. Pengobatan meliputi (1) agen yang meningkatkan jumlah insulin yang disekresikan oleh pankreas, (2) agen yang meningkatkan sensitivitas target organ terhadap insulin, dan (3) agen yang mengurangi tingkat di mana glukosa diserap dari saluran pencernaan. Treatments include (1) agents which increase the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas, (2) agents which increase the sensitivity of target organs to insulin, and (3) agents which decrease the rate at which glucose is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Beberapa kelompok obat-obatan, sebagian besar diberikan melalui mulut, efektif dalam Tipe II, sering dalam kombinasi. Several groups of drugs, mostly given by mouth, are effective in Type II, often in combination. Kombinasi terapi dalam Tipe II dapat mencakup insulin, belum tentu karena agen oral telah gagal sepenuhnya, tetapi dalam mencari kombinasi efek yang diinginkan. The therapeutic combination in Type II may include insulin, not necessarily because oral agents have failed completely, but in search of a desired combination of effects. Keuntungan besar insulin disuntikkan dalam Tipe II adalah bahwa pasien terdidik dapat menyesuaikan dosis, atau bahkan mengambil dosis tambahan, saat kadar glukosa darah diukur oleh pasien, biasanya dengan meter yang sederhana, sesuai kebutuhan dengan jumlah gula yang diukur dalam darah. The great advantage of injected insulin in Type II is that a well-educated patient can adjust the dose, or even take additional doses, when blood glucose levels measured by the patient, usually with a simple meter, as needed by the measured amount of sugar in the blood.

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1 Insulin 1 Insulin 2 sekretagog 2 Secretagogues

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2.1 Sulfonylureas 2.1 Sulfonylureas 2.2 Nonsulfonylurea sekretagog 2.2 Nonsulfonylurea secretagogues  2.2.1 meglitinides 2.2.1 Meglitinides 3 sensitizers 3 Sensitizers o 3.1 Biguanides 3.1 Biguanides o 3.2 thiazolidinediones 3.2 Thiazolidinediones 4 Alpha-glukosidase inhibitor 4 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 5 Peptida analog 5 Peptide analogs o 5.1 Incretin mimetics 5.1 Incretin mimetics  5.1.1 seperti Glukagon peptida (GLP) analog dan agonis 5.1.1 Glucagonlike peptide (GLP) analogs and agonists  5.1.2 Lambung hambat peptida (GIP) analog 5.1.2 Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) analogs  5.1.3 analog peptida injeksi 5.1.3 Injectable peptide analogs o 5.2 amylin analog 5.2 Amylin analogues 6 Eksperimental agen 6 Experimental agents 7 Pengobatan alternatif 7 Alternative medicine o 7.1 Cassia 7.1 Cassia o 7.2 Kromium dan suplemen vanadium 7.2 Chromium and vanadium supplementation o 7.3 pengobatan tradisional berbasis tanaman 7.3 Traditional plant-based treatments o 7.4 Obat jamur 7.4 Medicinal fungi 8 Catatan 8 Notes 9 Referensi 9 References
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[ sunting ] Insulin [ edit ] Insulin
Artikel utama: insulin Main article: insulin Insulin biasanya diberikan subkutan , baik dengan suntikan atau dengan suatu pompa insulin . Insulin is usually given subcutaneously , either by injections or by an insulin pump . Penelitian sedang berlangsung rute lainnya administrasi. Research is underway of other routes of administration. Dalam pengaturan perawatan akut, insulin mungkin juga diberikan infus. In acute care settings, insulin may also be given intravenously. Ada beberapa jenis insulin, ditandai dengan laju yang mereka dimetabolisme oleh tubuh. There are several types of insulin, characterized by the rate which they are metabolized by the body.

[ sunting ] sekretagog [ edit ] Secretagogues
[ sunting ] Sulfonylureas [ edit ] Sulfonylureas
Artikel utama: sulfonilurea Main article: Sulfonylurea

Sulfonilurea adalah yang digunakan pertama kali secara luas obat-obat anti-hyperglycaemic oral. Sulfonylureas were the first widely used oral anti-hyperglycaemic medications. Mereka adalah insulin sekretagog , memicu pelepasan insulin dengan aksi langsung pada saluran ATP K dari pankreas sel beta . They are insulin secretagogues , triggering insulin release by direct action on the K ATP channel of the pancreatic beta cells . Delapan jenis pil ini telah dipasarkan di Amerika Utara, namun tidak semua tetap tersedia. Eight types of these pills have been marketed in North America, but not all remain available. The "generasi kedua" obat sekarang lebih umum digunakan. The "second-generation" drugs are now more commonly used. Mereka lebih efektif dibandingkan obat generasi pertama dan memiliki efek samping yang lebih sedikit. They are more effective than first-generation drugs and have fewer side effects. Semua dapat menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan. All may cause weight gain. Sulfonylureas mengikat kuat untuk protein plasma . Sulfonylureas bind strongly to plasma proteins . Sulfonilurea hanya berguna pada diabetes Tipe II, karena mereka bekerja dengan merangsang pelepasan insulin endogen. Sulfonylureas are only useful in Type II diabetes, as they work by stimulating endogenous release of insulin. Mereka bekerja terbaik dengan pasien lebih dari 40 tahun, yang memiliki diabetes mellitus untuk di bawah sepuluh tahun. They work best with patients over 40 years old, who have had diabetes mellitus for under ten years. Mereka tidak dapat digunakan dengan diabetes tipe I, atau diabetes kehamilan. They can not be used with type I diabetes, or diabetes of pregnancy. Mereka dapat dengan aman digunakan dengan metformin atau-glitazones. They can be safely used with metformin or -glitazones. Efek samping utama adalah hipoglikemia . The primary side effect is hypoglycemia . pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai untuk sulfonilurea generasi kedua adalah 1,0-2,0%. Typical reductions in A1C values for second generation sulfonylureas are 1.0-2.0%.
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Generasi pertama agen First-generation agents o tolbutamid (Orinase) tolbutamide (Orinase) o acetohexamide (Dymelor) acetohexamide (Dymelor) o tolazamide (Tolinase) tolazamide (Tolinase) o klorpropamid (Diabinese) chlorpropamide (Diabinese) Generasi kedua agen Second-generation agents o Glipizide (Glucotrol) glipizide (Glucotrol) o glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase) glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase) o glimepiride (Amaryl) glimepiride (Amaryl) o gliklazid (Diamicron) gliclazide (Diamicron)

[ sunting ] Nonsulfonylurea sekretagog [ edit ] Nonsulfonylurea secretagogues
[ sunting ] meglitinides [ edit ] Meglitinides Artikel utama: Meglitinide Main article: Meglitinide Meglitinides membantu pankreas memproduksi insulin dan sering disebut "-akting sekretagog pendek." Meglitinides help the pancreas produce insulin and are often called "short-acting secretagogues." Mereka bekerja pada saluran kalium sama dengan sulfonilurea, tetapi pada situs

telah menjadi agen yang paling umum digunakan untuk diabetes tipe 2 pada anak-anak dan remaja. [1] Dengan menutup saluran kalium dari sel beta pankreas. Meskipun harus digunakan dengan hati-hati pada pasien dengan gangguan hati atau ginjal fungsi. a biguanide. obat juga dilewati.0%. Jika makan akan dilewati. hence enhancing insulin secretion. Biguanides reduce hepatic glucose output and increase uptake of glucose by the periphery.5-2.0%.51. mereka membuka saluran kalsium. Amongst common diabetic drugs. [ sunting ] Biguanides [ edit ] Biguanides Artikel utama: biguanide Main article: Biguanide Biguanides mengurangi hati output glukosa dan meningkatkan uptake glukosa oleh pinggiran. Typical reductions in A1C values are 0. metformin .pengikatan yang berbeda. metformin .5-1.0%. including skeletal muscle. [ 1 ] By closing the potassium channels of the pancreatic beta cells. pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai adalah 0. [ 2 ] Mereka diambil dengan atau segera sebelum makan untuk meningkatkan respon insulin setiap kali makan. Metformin mungkin menjadi pilihan terbaik bagi pasien yang juga memiliki gagal jantung . Adverse reactions include weight gain and hypoglycemia. [ sunting ] sensitizers [ edit ] Sensitizers Insulin sensitizers mengatasi masalah inti dalam tipe-II diabetes resistensi insulin . [2] They act on the same potassium channels as sulfonylureas. has become the most commonly used agent for type 2 diabetes in children and teenagers. maka meningkatkan sekresi insulin.0%. metformin (Glucophage). [3] Harus sementara dihentikan sebelum prosedur radiografi yang melibatkan intravena iodinasi kontras sebagai pasien . Typical reductions in A1C values for metformin is 1. they open the calcium channels. y metformin (Glucophage). If a meal is skipped. They are taken with or shortly before meals to boost the insulin response to each meal. metformin is the only widely used oral drug that does not cause weight gain. the medication is also skipped. y y repaglinide (Prandin) repaglinide (Prandin) Nateglinide (Starlix) nateglinide (Starlix) Efek samping termasuk berat badan dan hipoglikemia. pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai untuk metformin adalah 1. Insulin sensitizers address the core problem in Type II diabetes² insulin resistance . biguanide. Di antara obat diabetes umum. termasuk otot rangka.5-2. metformin adalah obat oral hanya digunakan secara luas yang tidak menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan. Although it must be used with caution in patients with impaired liver or kidney function. but at a different binding site.

Hasil akhir adalah lebih baik menggunakan glukosa oleh sel. Ada formulasi rilis diperpanjang tersedia.0%. Metformin is usually the first-line medication used for treatment of type-2 diabetes.5-2. withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk. which enhance production of mRNAs of insulin dependent enzymes. sejenis protein peraturan nuklir yang terlibat dalam transkripsi gen mengatur glukosa dan metabolisme lemak. dosis awal adalah 500 mg sekali sehari. risiko asidosis digunakan [4] phenformin (DBI): used from 1960s through 1980s. Ini bertindak PPARs pada Responsif Proliferator Elemen Peroxysome (PPRE [1] ). tapi biasanya dicadangkan untuk pasien yang mengalami GI efek samping. Initial dosing is 500 mg once daily. The PPREs gen insulin pengaruh sensitif. The PPREs influence insulin sensitive genes. Metformin may be the best choice for patients who also have heart failure .0%.y y berada pada peningkatan risiko asidosis laktik . It is also available in combination with other oral diabetic medications. then if need be increased to 500 mg twice daily up to 1000 mg twice daily. Hal ini umumnya diresepkan pada diagnosis awal dalam hubungannya dengan olah raga dan penurunan berat badan sebagai lawan di masa lalu. but it is typically reserved for patients experiencing GI side effects. juga dikenal sebagai "glitazones. Hal ini juga tersedia dalam kombinasi dengan lain obat diabetes oral. where Metformin was prescribed after diet and exercise had failed. Thiazolidinediones ( TZDs )." mengikat PPAR . also known as "glitazones." bind to PPAR . [5] buformin : also withdrawn due to lactic acidosis risk. Typical reductions in A1C values are 1. These PPARs act on Peroxysome Proliferator Responsive Elements (PPRE [1] ). maka jika perlu ditingkatkan sampai 500 mg dua kali sehari sampai 1000 mg dua kali sehari. pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai adalah 1. The final result is better use of glucose by the cells. yang meningkatkan produksi mRNA enzim insulin dependent. [ sunting ] thiazolidinediones [ edit ] Thiazolidinediones Artikel utama: Thiazolidinedione Main article: Thiazolidinedione Thiazolidinediones ( TZDs ). There is an extended release formulation available. y y rosiglitazone (Avandia) rosiglitazone (Avandia) pioglitazone (Actos) pioglitazone (Actos) . [ 3 ] Should be temporarily discontinued before any radiographic procedure involving intravenous iodinated contrast as patients are at an increased risk of lactic acidosis . ditarik karena laktat. [ 5 ] Metformin biasanya merupakan obat lini pertama digunakan untuk pengobatan diabetes tipe-2. It is generally prescribed at initial diagnosis in conjunction with exercise and weight loss as opposed to in the past. a type of nuclear regulatory protein involved in transcription of genes regulating glucose and fat metabolism. di mana Metformin ditentukan setelah diet dan olahraga telah gagal. [ 4 ] buformin : juga ditarik karena risiko asidosis laktik. phenformin (DBI): dari tahun 1960 sampai 1980.52.

As a result of multiple retrospective studies." but voted 22:1 to keep the drug on the market. [ 11 ] Safety studies are continuing. and several other reports have failed to conclude the controversy. Kekhawatiran terbesar adalah peningkatan jumlah kejadian penyakit jantung yang parah pada pasien yang memakai itu. ada kekhawatiran tentang keamanan rosiglitazone. kerusakan hati dan [6] troglitazone (Rezulin): used in 1990s. The greatest concern is an increase in the number of severe cardiac events in patients taking it." tetapi memilih untuk menjaga 22:01 obat di pasar. [7] seperti yang dilakukan persidangan DREAM. [ 8 ] Keprihatinan mengenai keamanan rosiglitazone muncul ketika analisis retrospektif-meta diterbitkan dalam New England Journal of Medicine. despite its important and sustained effects on glycemic control . [11] Keselamatan studi masih berlangsung.y troglitazone (Rezulin): digunakan tahun 1990-an. meskipun itu didirikan bahwa kelompok. [ 6 ] Sebagai hasil dari studi retrospektif ganda. Bukti lemah untuk efek samping telah mengurangi penggunaan rosiglitazone. and a Food and Drug Administration panel [ 10 ] voted. [ 7 ] as did the DREAM trial. This weak evidence for adverse effects has reduced the use of rosiglitazone. memiliki efek menguntungkan pada diabetes. dan beberapa laporan lainnya telah gagal untuk menyimpulkan kontroversi. telah menunjukkan bahwa pioglitazone dapat menurunkan kejadian secara keseluruhan kejadian jantung pada penderita diabetes tipe II yang telah mengalami serangan jantung. dengan kontroversi. at least one large prospective study. PROactive 05. [9] Ada sejumlah besar publikasi sejak itu. there is a concern about rosiglitazone's safety. with some controversy. has beneficial effects on diabetes. has shown that pioglitazone may decrease the overall incidence of cardiac events in people with type II diabetes who have already had a heart attack. 20:3 that available studies "supported a signal of harm. [ 12 ] [ sunting ]-glukosidase inhibitor Alpha [ edit ] Alphaglucosidase inhibitors Artikel utama: -glukosidase inhibitor Alpha Main article: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor . withdrawn due to hepatitis and liver damage risk. Meta-analisis ini tidak didukung oleh analisis sementara dari uji coba yang dirancang untuk mengevaluasi masalah ini. secara keseluruhan. Proaktif 05. 20:03 bahwa studi yang tersedia "mendukung sinyal membahayakan. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terapi MENERAPKAN awal dengan obat-obatan jenis ini dapat mencegah perkembangan penyakit. as a whole. Concerns about the safety of rosiglitazone arose when a retrospective meta-analysis was published in the New England Journal of Medicine . ditarik karena hepatitis risiko. setidaknya satu studi prospektif besar. [12] In contrast. [ 9 ] There have been a significant number of publications since then. Sebaliknya. dan Food and Drug Administration panel [10] suara. meskipun penting dan berkelanjutan dampaknya pada kontrol glikemik . although it is established that the group. The meta-analysis was not supported by an interim analysis of the trial designed to evaluate the issue. [8] The ADOPT study showed that initial therapy with drugs of this type may prevent the progression of disease.

They are more commonly prescribed in Europe. but can be helpful in combination with other agents in type 2 diabetes . pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai adalah 0. These agents are effective by themselves only in the earliest stages of impaired glucose tolerance .0%. These medications are rarely used in the United States because of the severity of their side effects (flatulence and bloating). y y miglitol (Glyset) miglitol (Glyset) acarbose (Precose / Glucobay) acarbose (Precose/Glucobay) Obat-obat ini jarang digunakan di Amerika Serikat karena parahnya efek samping mereka (perut kembung dan kembung). so that glucose from the starch of a meal enters the bloodstream more slowly. Mereka memiliki potensi untuk menyebabkan penurunan berat badan dengan menurunkan jumlah gula dimetabolisme. They do have the potential to cause weight loss by lowering the amount of sugar metabolized. Typical reductions in A1C values are 0. and can be matched more effectively by an impaired insulin response or sensitivity. Mereka lebih sering diresepkan di Eropa. [19] Research has shown the culinary mushroom Maitake ( Grifola frondosa ) has a hypoglycemic effect.51. dan dapat dicocokkan lebih efektif dengan respon insulin gangguan atau sensitivitas. [ 19 ] [ sunting ] analog Peptida [ edit ] Peptide analogs . tetapi dapat membantu dalam kombinasi dengan agen lainnya dalam diabetes tipe 2 . Agen ini efektif sendiri hanya dalam tahap awal toleransi glukosa .Alpha-glukosidase inhibitor adalah "pil diabetes" tapi tidak secara teknis agen hipoglikemik karena mereka tidak memiliki pengaruh langsung terhadap sekresi insulin atau sensitivitas. These agents slow the digestion of starch in the small intestine. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are "diabetes pills" but not technically hypoglycemic agents because they do not have a direct effect on insulin secretion or sensitivity.5-1. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] possibly due to the fact the mushroom naturally acts as an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor . Penelitian telah menunjukkan kuliner jamur Maitake (Grifola frondosa) memiliki hipoglikemik efek. Agen ini memperlambat pencernaan pati dalam usus kecil. [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] mungkin karena fakta jamur secara alami bertindak sebagai inhibitor alfa-glukosidase . sehingga glukosa dari pati makanan memasuki aliran darah lebih lambat.0%.

Exenatide (also Exendin-4. [20] [21] exenatide hanya memiliki homologi 53% dengan GLP. thus an analogue of GLP would not be practical. but rather a GLP agonist. Endogenous GLP has a half life of only a few minutes. pelepasan insulin dari sel beta pankreas meningkat. Dua molekul calon utama yang memenuhi kriteria untuk menjadi incretin sebuah adalah Glukagon-seperti peptide-1 (GLP-1) dan penghambat peptida Lambung (alias glukosa-tergantung Insulinotropic peptida atau GIP). Endogen GLP memiliki kehidupan setengah hanya beberapa menit. [ sunting ]-seperti peptida Glukagon (GLP) analog dan agonis [ edit ] Glucagon-like peptide (GLP) analogs and agonists agonis GLP mengikat reseptor GLP membran. marketed as Byetta) is the first GLP-1 agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes . Exenatide bukan analog GLP. GLP agonists bind to a membrane GLP receptor.0%. y Exenatide (juga Exendin-4.Gambaran sekresi insulin Overview of insulin secretion [ sunting ] mimetics Incretin [ edit ] Incretin mimetics Incretins adalah insulin sekretagog . sehingga analog GLP tidak akan praktis. Both GLP-1 and GIP are rapidly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). The two main candidate molecules that fulfill criteria for being an incretin are Glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Gastric inhibitory peptide (aka glucose-dependent Insulinotropic peptide or GIP). dipasarkan sebagai Byetta) adalah yang pertama GLP-1 agonist disetujui untuk pengobatan diabetes tipe 2 . Kedua-GLP 1 dan GIP yang cepat tidak aktif oleh enzim peptidase dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4). [2] Sebagai konsekuensi dari ini. melainkan agonis GLP. yang meningkatkan ketahanan terhadap degradasi oleh DPP-4 dan meluas setengah-hidup. Incretins are insulin secretagogues . [ 2 ] As a consequence of this. Exenatide is not an analogue of GLP. insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells is increased.5-1. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Exenatide has . [22] Khas penurunan A1C nilai adalah 0.

responsible for the common side effect of nausea. Namun. is being developed by Novo Nordisk under the brand name Victoza . sedang dikembangkan oleh Novo Nordisk bawah merek nama Victoza . weight gain and/or hypoglycaemia have been observed when DPP-4 inhibitors were used with sulfonylureas.74% (points). DPP-4 inhibitors (also known as glyptins) lowered HbA1c by 0. 2010. Liraglutide . Taspoglutide is presently in Phase III Clinical Trials with Hoffman-La Roche . which increases its resistance to degradation by DPP-4 and extends its half-life. analog manusia sehari-hari sekali (97 homologi%). [ sunting ] Lambung penghambat peptida (GIP) analog [ edit ] Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) analogs y Tidak ada yang disetujui FDA None are FDA approved [ sunting ] analog peptida injeksi [ edit ] Injectable peptide analogs Artikel utama: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor Main article: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors DPP-4 inhibitor (juga dikenal sebagai glyptins) menurunkan HbA1c sebesar 0. and by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 25.y y only 53% homology with GLP. Produk ini telah disetujui oleh Badan Obat-obatan Eropa (EMEA) pada tanggal 3 Juli 2009. sedangkan DPP-4 inhibitor umumnya bobot risiko netral dan meningkatnya infeksi dan sakit kepala. Dampak [30] However.74% (poin). and is probably the mechanism by which weight loss occurs. dibandingkan dengan obat antidiabetes lain. effect on long-term health and morbidity rates are still unknown. but both classes appear to present an alternative to other antidiabetic drugs. while DPP-4 inhibitors were generally weight neutral and increased risk for infection and headache. [29] GLP-1 analog mengakibatkan penurunan berat badan dan memiliki efek samping gastrointestinal lebih. a once daily human analogue (97% homology). [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] The product was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) on July 3. These agents may also cause a decrease in gastric motility. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase blood concentration of . Agen-agen ini juga dapat menyebabkan penurunan motilitas lambung. [ 22 ] Typical reductions in A1C values are 0.5-1. tetapi kedua kelas muncul untuk menyajikan alternatif untuk obat antidiabetes lain. [ 29 ] GLP-1 analogs resulted in weight loss and had more gastrointestinal side effects. dan oleh US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pada tanggal 25 Januari 2010. berat badan dan / atau hipoglikemia telah diamati ketika DPP-4 inhibitor digunakan dengan sulfonilurea. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Taspoglutide saat ini pada Tahap III Clinical Trials dengan Hoffman-La Roche . [ 30 ] Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor meningkatkan konsentrasi darah incretin GLP-1 ( seperti peptida glukagon-1 ) dengan perusahaan degradasi menghambat oleh dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP-4). 2009. comparable to other antidiabetic drugs. Liraglutide .0%. bertanggung jawab atas efek samping yang umum dari mual. dan mungkin merupakan mekanisme yang terjadi penurunan berat badan. pada jangka panjang kesehatan dan-morbiditas merupakan harga masih belum diketahui.

Pada tahun 2007 .5-1. which occurs mostly at the beginning of treatment and gradually reduces. but some work by novel mechanisms.5-1. aleglitazar .5-1.development stopped due to adverse risk profile. yang terjadi terutama pada awal pengobatan dan secara bertahap mengurangi. aleglitazar . Mereka memiliki semua tindakan incretins kecuali stimulasi sekresi insulin. pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai adalah 0. pramlintide is the only clinically available amylin analogue.pembangunan berhenti karena profil risiko yang merugikan. sitagliptin (Januvia) disetujui FDA Oktober 2006.under clinical development) SGLT2 (sodium-tergantung glukosa transporter 2) inhibitor meningkatkan glukosa kemih. saxagliptin (Onglyza) FDA Approved July 2009. Others are undergoing phase I/II studies. Contohnya adalah: Examples are: y y y Vildagliptin (Galvus) UE Disetujui 2008.0%. tetapi beberapa pekerjaan oleh mekanisme novel.the incretin GLP-1 ( glucagon-like peptide-1 ) by inhibiting its degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). at least one compound that enhances the sensitivity of glucokinase to rising glucose is in the stage of animal research. pengurangan Khas di A1C nilai adalah 0. SGLT2 (sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2) inhibitors increase urinary glucose.0%. sitagliptin (Januvia) FDA approved Oct 2006. saxagliptin (Onglyza) Disetujui FDA Juli 2009. As of 2007 . [ sunting ] analog amylin [ edit ] Amylin analogues Amylin analog agonis lambat pengosongan lambung dan menekan glukagon . Seperti insulin. vildagliptin (Galvus) EU Approved 2008. Typical reductions in A1C values are 0. Some of these are simply newer members of one of the above classes. Beberapa ini adalah anggota hanya baru dari salah satu kelas di atas.dalam pengembangan klinis) PPAR / ligands ( muraglitazar and tesaglitazar . Amylin agonist analogues slow gastric emptying and suppress glucagon . Typical reductions in A1C values are 0. Sebagai contoh. Dan parah efek samping yang paling sering dari pramlintide adalah mual . pramlintide adalah tersedia amylin analog klinis saja. it is administered by subcutaneous injection .51. For example. The most frequent and severe adverse effect of pramlintide is nausea .0%. hal ini dikelola oleh injeksi subkutan . Like insulin. y y PPAR / ligan ( muraglitazar dan tesaglitazar . They have all the incretins actions except stimulation of insulin secretion. setidaknya satu senyawa yang meningkatkan sensitivitas glukokinase menjadi glukosa meningkat dalam tahap penelitian hewan. Lain menjalani tahap I / II studi. . Many other potential drugs are currently in investigation by pharmaceutical companies. [ sunting ] agen Eksperimental [ edit ] Experimental agents Banyak obat potensial lainnya saat ini dalam penyelidikan oleh perusahaan farmasi.0%.

" [31] A recent review article presents the profiles of plants with hypoglycaemic properties. [34] Phytochemical analysis of the Myrcia extracts reported kinds of flavanone glucosides (myrciacitrins) and acetophenone glucosides (myrciaphenones). Satu studi pada orang yang digunakan kasia tanah halus ( Cinnamomum aromaticum ) untuk konsumsi oral.6-bisphosphatase) inhibitors decrease gluconeogenesis in the liver. [ 32 ] The major recent development was done in Brazil around Myrcia sphaerocarpa and other Myrcia species.y y FBPase (fruktosa 1. Imeglimin akan menjadi yang pertama dari sebuah kelas baru jika disetujui. [33] Perlakuan yang biasa adalah dengan terkonsentrasi (root) Myrcia ekstrak. dilaporkan dalam literatur 1990-2000 dan menyatakan bahwa "tanaman Medis memainkan peran penting dalam pengelolaan diabetes mellitus khususnya di negara-negara berkembang dimana sumber daya yang sedikit." [ 31 ] Penggunaan terdaftar pertama-obat anti diabetes adalah sebagai ekstrak herbal yang digunakan oleh India di Basin Amazon untuk pengobatan diabetes tipe 2. [ 35 ] Garlic also significantly reduces fasting blood glucose levels in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Analisis fitokimia dari ekstrak Myrcia melaporkan jenis glucosides flavanon (myrciacitrins) dan glucosides asetofenon (myrciaphenones). [ 36 ] Setidaknya dua penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa kayu manis dapat bertindak secara signifikan mengurangi beberapa efek dari diabetes. [32] Perkembangan terakhir utama dilakukan di Brasil sekitar sphaerocarpa Myrcia dan lainnya Myrcia spesies. [36] Walnut leaf can significantly reduce fasting blood glucose levels in rats with alloxan -induced diabetes. [ 33 ] The usual treatment is with concentrated (root) Myrcia extracts. Imeglimin will be the first of a new class if approved. One study on people used fine ground cassia ( Cinnamomum aromaticum ) for oral consumption. dan tikus sehingga treates menunjukkan beberapa bukti regenerasi sel beta . [ sunting ] Obat Alternatif [ edit ] Alternative medicine Sebuah artikel yang baru-baru ini menyajikan profil tanaman dengan sifat hipoglikemik. Studi lain menggunakan ekstrak (MHCP) pada tikus laboratorium. and today promoted as vegetable insulin although not formally an insulin analog . Penelitian pada orang-orang yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2003 dilakukan di . The first registered use of anti-diabetic drugs was as herbal extracts used by Indians in the Amazon Basin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. reported in the literature from 1990 to 2000 and states that "Medical plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus especially in developing countries where resources are meager. FBPase (fructose 1.6-bisphosphatase) inhibitor penurunan glukoneogenesis di hati. commercialized as "Pedra hume de kaá". and inhibitory activities on aldose reductase and alpha-glucosidase. and rats thus treates show some evidence of regeneration of the beta cells . [35] Bawang putih juga secara signifikan mengurangi puasa kadar glukosa darah pada tikus diabetes dengan aloksan-diinduksi. dikomersialisasikan sebagai "Hume Pedra de KAA". dan kegiatan hambat pada reduktase aldosa dan alpha-glukosidase. Another study used an extract (MHCP) on laboratory rats. [ 34 ] Walnut daun dapat secara signifikan mengurangi kadar glukosa darah puasa pada tikus dengan aloksan -diabetes diinduksi. dan hari ini dipromosikan sebagai insulin sayur meskipun tidak secara formal suatu analog insulin . At least two studies have shown that cinnamon can act significantly reducing some effects of diabetes.

[13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Alasan Maitake menurunkan gula darah karena fakta jamur secara alami bertindak sebagai inhibitor glukosidase alfa . Though not yet evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration . Satu studi pada orang-orang menggunakan bubuk kayu manis halus ( Cinnamomum cassia ) untuk konsumsi oral. Universitas Pertanian NWFP. Pakistan concluded "that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Agaricus blazei . Penelitian telah menunjukkan Maitake jamur (Grifola frondosa) memiliki hipoglikemik efek. Iowa State University diterbitkan pada tahun 2001 digunakan dimurnikan hydroxychalcone ( MHCP ) dari kayu manis. Pakistan menyimpulkan: The study on people . [2] Other mushrooms like Reishi . dan mungkin bermanfaat bagi pengelolaan diabetes . Peshawar. [ 38 ] [ 39 ] The Food and Drug Administration has not yet evaluated the use of cinnamon for the management of diabetes. NWFP Agricultural University. Universitas Pertanian NWFP. Pakistan menyimpulkan "bahwa dimasukkannya kayu manis dalam diet penderita diabetes tipe 2 akan mengurangi faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan diabetes dan penyakit jantung. [2] jamur lain seperti Reishi . It should be noted that the spice sold as cinnamon is often obtained from C. Part of the study's conclusion stated that "the MHCP is fully capable of mimicking insulin" and recommended further studies. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Agrocybe cylindracea [ 46 ] and Cordyceps [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ] have been noted to lower blood sugar levels to a certain extent. Penelitian pada orang-orang yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2003 dilakukan di Departemen Gizi Manusia. Studi lain menggunakan ekstrak (MHCP) pada tikus laboratorium. setidaknya dua penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa kayu manis dapat bertindak secara signifikan mengurangi beberapa efek dari diabetes. Research has shown the Maitake mushroom ( Grifola frondosa ) has a hypoglycemic effect. [40] [41] Agaricus Blazei . Bagian dari studi ini kesimpulan menyatakan bahwa "MHCP sepenuhnya mampu meniru insulin" dan direkomendasikan studi lanjut. Peshawar. Peshawar. bukan C. and may be beneficial for the management of diabetes . aromaticum (cassia). at least two studies have shown that cinnamon can act significantly reducing some effects of diabetes. verum (true cinnamon). Another study used an extract (MHCP) on laboratory rats.Departemen Gizi Manusia. walaupun mekanisme itu saat ini tidak diketahui. The study on people published in 2003 conducted in the Department of Human Nutrition." [ 37 ] The study on laboratory rats at Department of Biochemistry. [ sunting ] Cassia [ edit ] Cassia Meskipun belum dievaluasi oleh Administrasi Makanan dan Obat ." [37] Penelitian pada tikus laboratorium di Departemen Biokimia. Iowa State University published in 2001 used purified hydroxychalcone ( MHCP ) from cinnamon. Biophysics and Molecular Biology. Biofisika dan Biologi Molekuler. Perlu dicatat bahwa rempah-rempah dijual sebagai kayu manis sering diperoleh dari C. not C. aromaticum (kasia). [38] [39] The Administrasi Makanan dan Obat belum mengevaluasi penggunaan kayu manis untuk pengelolaan diabetes. One study on people used fine ground cinnamon ( Cinnamomum cassia ) for oral consumption. Verum (kayu manis benar). [42] [43] [44] [45] cylindracea Agrocybe [46] dan Cordyceps [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] telah tercatat gula darah tingkat yang lebih rendah sampai batas tertentu. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] The reason Maitake lowers blood sugar is due to the fact the mushroom naturally acts as an alpha glucosidase inhibitor . although the mechanism is currently unknown.

[ 56 ] [ 57 ] [ 58 ] [ 59 ] Chromium supplements such as chromium picolinate have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in people with type 2 diabetes. trigliserida. [52] The results of this study demonstrate that intake of 1. dan kolesterol total pada orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dan menunjukkan bahwa masuknya kayu manis dalam diet orang dengan tipe 2 diabetes akan mengurangi faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan diabetes dan penyakit jantung. The study on laboratory rats at Department of Biochemistry. 3. NWFP Agricultural University. dan. karena dosis besar kayu manis tidak berbahaya.Cholesterol and triglycerides are risk factors in heart disease and diabetes. [64] Chromium . [53] [54] Part of the study's conclusion stated that "the MHCP is fully capable of mimicking insulin" and recommended further studies. and. [56] [57] [58] [59] Kromium suplemen seperti kromium picolinate memiliki telah terbukti meningkatkan toleransi glukosa pada orang dengan diabetes tipe 2. and triglycerides . beberapa ahli menyarankan agar pengobatan diabetes dengan kayu manis. triglyceride.Kolesterol dan trigliserida merupakan faktor risiko penyakit jantung dan diabetes. Biofisika dan Biologi Molekuler. Iowa State University diterbitkan pada tahun 2001 digunakan dimurnikan hydroxychalcone dari kayu manis. Biophysics and Molecular Biology. although the authors stated that the evidence for this effect remains weak. and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes and suggest that the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. [ 52 ] Penelitian pada tikus laboratorium di Departemen Biokimia. LDL cholesterol . kolesterol LDL . Ekstrak bernama "MHCP". Bagian dari studi ini kesimpulan menyatakan bahwa "MHCP sepenuhnya mampu meniru insulin" dan direkomendasikan studi lanjut. LDL cholesterol. [ 64 ] . because large doses of cinnamon are not innocuous.published in 2003 conducted in the Department of Human Nutrition. [ 63 ] A meta analysis of these trials concluded that chromium supplements had no beneficial effect on healthy people. or 6 g of cinnamon per day reduces serum glucose. meskipun penulis menyatakan bahwa bukti efek ini masih lemah. dan penelitian menunjukkan kromium yang menurunkan kadar total kolesterol . The extract was named "MHCP". Peshawar. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] [ 62 ] although other studies have not replicated this result. atau 6 g kayu manis per hari mengurangi glukosa serum. and studies show that chromium lowers levels of total cholesterol . 3. but that there might be an improvement in glucose metabolism in diabetics. [63] A meta analisis uji coba ini menyimpulkan bahwa suplemen kromium tidak memiliki efek menguntungkan pada sehat orang. [ 55 ] [ sunting ] Kromium dan suplemen vanadium [ edit ] Chromium and vanadium supplementation Kromium . [60] [61] [62] meskipun penelitian lain belum direplikasi hasil ini. Iowa State University published in 2001 used purified hydroxychalcone from cinnamon. tetapi bahwa mungkin ada perbaikan dalam metabolisme glukosa pada penderita diabetes. Pakistan concluded: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa asupan 1. [55] Other studies have failed to reproduce these results. some experts advise against treatment of diabetes with cinnamon. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] Studi-studi lain telah gagal untuk mereproduksi hasil ini. dan trigliserida . kolesterol LDL.

alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Research is ongoing to establish the full significance of benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetes. [70] A pilot study has also found evidence that Tai Chi and Qigong reduce the severity of type 2 diabetes. taking benfotiamine might allow patients to be less scrupulous in trying to normalize blood sugar levels and thus free them from the danger of hypoglycemia and the stress of stringent blood sugar monitoring. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus).Sebuah bentuk vanadium . [ 70 ] Benfotiamine . a pro-vitamin of vitamin B 1 which has been in use in Europe as an over-thecounter medicine for alcoholic neuropathy for the past half century with no significant sideeffects or toxicity. [73] dan nefropati diabetes [74] terlepas dari apapun tidak mempengaruhi pada kadar gula darah pasien. In theory. sulfat vanadyl. benfotiamine mungkin mengambil memungkinkan pasien menjadi kurang teliti dalam mencoba untuk menormalkan kadar gula darah dan dengan demikian membebaskan mereka dari bahaya hipoglikemia dan stres pemantauan gula darah yang ketat. [ 72 ] diabetic neuropathy. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ] [ 68 ] [ 69 ] Sebuah penelitian juga menemukan bukti bahwa Tai Chi dan Chikung mengurangi keparahan diabetes tipe 2. biji ketumbar (Coriandrum sativum). tampaknya untuk meningkatkan kontrol glukosa pada penderita diabetes tipe 2. seems to improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. A study was made of the effects on glucose homeostasis in normal and streptozotocin (induced) diabetic mice of eleven plants that have been used as traditional treatments for diabetes. while still protecting them against the negative effects of hyperglycemia. Celandine (Chelidonium majus). Benfotiamine . dan lily lembah (Convallaria majalis). vanadyl sulfate. [ 73 ] and diabetic nephropathy [ 74 ] independently of any affect on the blood sugar levels of the patient. baru-baru ini ditemukan untuk memblokir utama jalur metabolik dimana kelebihan glukosa darah dalam tubuh diubah menjadi endproducts glikasi lanjut (AGEs) yang menyebabkan komplikasi diabetes. [ sunting ] perlakuan tanaman berbasis Tradisional [ edit ] Traditional plantbased treatments Penelitian dilakukan dari efek pada homeostasis glukosa dalam normal dan streptozotocin (induced) mencit diabetes tanaman sebelas yang telah digunakan sebagai pengobatan tradisional untuk diabetes. pro vitamin-vitamin B 1 yang telah digunakan di Eropa sebagai-the-counter obat di atas untuk neuropati alkohol untuk setengah abad terakhir tanpa efek samping atau toksisitas yang signifikan. Tikus diberi diet yang mengandung daun kering dari tanaman berikut: agrimony (pilosa eupatoria).A form of vanadium .Vanadium . has recently been found to block the major metabolic pathways by which excess blood glucose in the body is transformed into the advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) which cause diabetic complications. eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Secara teori. [72] neuropati diabetes. [ 71 ] Studies have shown that taking oral benfotiamine can prevent diabetic retinopathy. sementara masih melindungi mereka terhadap dampak negatif dari hiperglikemia. [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] Vanadium . buah kering dari juniper (Juniperus communis). umbi bawang putih (Allium sativum) dan akar manis (Glycyrhizza glabra). wanita mantel (Alchemilla vulgaris). Penelitian ini sedang berlangsung untuk menetapkan signifikansi penuh benfotiamine dalam pengobatan diabetes. [71] Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa mengambil benfotiamine oral dapat mencegah retinopati diabetes. The mice were given diets containing dried leaves from the following .

[13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] Alasan Maitake menurunkan gula darah karena fakta jamur secara alami bertindak sebagai inhibitor glukosidase alfa . HealthValue. SR. coriander. "muka pada diabetes untuk milenium: terapi obat diabetes tipe 2. seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum). can retard the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice". [ 76 ] Other mushrooms like Reishi . Studi menyimpulkan bahwa "Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman pengobatan tradisional tertentu untuk diabetes. "Benefits and harms of antidiabetic agents in patients with diabetes and heart failure: systematic review.620174. 3. [40] [41] Agaricus Blazei ." . doi : 10. alfalfa (Medicago sativa). BMJ (Clinical research ed. bisa menghambat perkembangan diabetes streptozotocin pada tikus". Blackburn. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] The reason Maitake lowers blood sugar is due to the fact the mushroom naturally acts as an alpha glucosidase inhibitor . eucalyptus and juniper. PMID 17761999 . ^ a b "Helping the pancreas produce insulin" . ^ Eurich. Varney.healthvalue. FA.healthvalue.html . ketumbar. and may be beneficial for the management of diabetes . MedGenMed Medscape kedokteran umum 6 (3 Suppl): 9.plants: agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria). [75] The study concluded that "The results suggest that certain traditional plant treatments for diabetes. ^ a b "Membantu pankreas memproduksi insulin" .1136/bmj. ^ Rendell (2004). [ 75 ] [ sunting ] Obat jamur [ edit ] Medicinal fungi Penelitian telah menunjukkan Maitake jamur (Grifola frondosa) memiliki hipoglikemik efek. [ sunting ] Catatan [ edit ] Notes 1. "Manfaat dan bahaya agen antidiabetes pada pasien dengan diabetes dan gagal jantung: review sistematis.620174. BMJ (penelitian klinis ed. celandine (Chelidonium majus). FA. bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and roots of liquorice (Glycyrhizza glabra). Tsuyuki. Retrieved 2007-09-21 . RT.html .) 335 (7618): 497. yaitu agrimony. SR.39314. lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris).net/diabetespancreasbeta." :.39314. PMID 15647714 . Majumdar.1136/bmj. alfalfa. Johnson. dan mungkin bermanfaat bagi pengelolaan diabetes . PMID 15647714 . [42] [43] [44] [77] cylindracea Agrocybe [78] dan Cordyceps [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] telah tercatat gula darah tingkat yang lebih rendah sampai batas tertentu. ^ Eurich. alfalfa. although the mechanism is currently unknown. Johnson. RT. Varney. . McAlister. http://www. walaupun mekanisme itu saat ini tidak diketahui. "Advances in diabetes for the millennium: drug therapy of type 2 diabetes. http://www. Tsuyuki. DOI : 10. PMID 17761999 . Diperoleh 2007/09/21. DF. JA (2007). Research has shown the Maitake mushroom ( Grifola frondosa ) has a hypoglycemic effect." . dried berries of juniper (Juniperus communis). and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis). Blackburn. J.) 335 (7618): 497.80 . namely agrimony. [76] jamur lain seperti Reishi . kayu putih dan juniper. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] Agaricus blazei .80 . JA (2007). ^ Rendell (2004). MedGenMed : Medscape general medicine 6 (3 Suppl): 9. McAlister. DF. J. Majumdar." .net/diabetespancreasbeta. eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). blackberry (Rubus fructicosus). 2. HealthValue . [ 42 ] [ 43 ] [ 44 ] [ 77 ] Agrocybe cylindracea [ 78 ] and Cordyceps [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ] have been noted to lower blood sugar levels to a certain extent.

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and glycemia effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus on patients' colorectal cancer". "Immunological. efek glycemia dan suplemen makanan dengan sylvaticus Agaricus pada kanker kolorektal 'pasien": Eksperimental. Recôva. (2004)). T. Sobue. AL (2009). PMID 12224646 . MR. "Structural features and hypoglycemic activities of two polysaccharides from a hot-water extract of Agrocybe cylindracea". Lebovitz. 77. ^ Fortes. hematological. "Fitur Struktural dan aktivitas hipoglikemik dua polisakarida dari air panas ekstrak cylindracea Agrocybe": Karbohidrat. S. Norwood Norman (2003) Farmakologi Core. ^ Kiho.1016/0008-6215(94)84277-9 . PMID 18997106 . ISBN 0-13-089329-3 . doi : 10. Holland. ISBN 0-13-089329-3 . v · d · e Oral obat anti-diabetes dan insulin analog ( A10 ) v · d · e Oral anti-diabetic drugs and Insulin analogs ( A10 ) Biguanides Metformin # ‡ Buformin Á ‡ Phenformin Á Metformin # ‡ Biguanides Buformin Á ‡ Phenformin Á TZDs ( PPAR ) TZDs ( PPAR ) Dual PPAR agonis Dual PPAR Pioglitazone ‡ Rivoglitazone ‚ ‡ rosiglitazone ‡ troglitazone Á Pioglitazone ‡ Rivoglitazone ‚ ‡ Rosiglitazone ‡ Troglitazone Á Insulin Sensitizers Insulin Sensitizers Aleglitazar ‚ ‡ Muraglitazar § ‡ Tesaglitazar § Aleglitazar ‚ ‡ Muraglitazar § ‡ Tesaglitazar § . Melo. RC. PMID 8149381 . Adams. Carbohydrate research 251 : 81±7.1016/0008-6215 (94) 84277-9 . S. Biologi dan kedokteran 234 (1) 53-62.. and biochemistry 66 (7): 1576±8. Recôva. Konsep dalam. "Imunologi. Harold E. Ukai. VA: American Diabetes Association . ^ Kiho. doi : 10.3181/0806-RM-193 . Therapy For Diabetes Mellitus and Related Disorders (4 th ed. RC. [ sunting ] Referensi [ edit ] References y y Lebovitz. Alexandria. Michael Ian. VL. Bioscience.glucosidase inhibitor from the seeds of balsam pear (Momordica charantia) and the fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa". AL (2009). Ukai. (2004). VA: American Diabetes Association . Alexandria. S (1994). ^ Fortes. Norman Norwood (2003). hematologi. 81-7 DOI : 10. S (1994). biotechnology. Englewood Cliffs. ISBN 1-58040-187-2 . VL. Ian Michael.3181/0806-RM-193 . Core Concepts in Pharmacology . ISBN 1-58040-187-2 .1271/bbb. MR. Experimental biology and medicine 234 (1): 53±62. Harold E. T. Novaes. NJ: Prentice Hall. Melo. DOI : 10. Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.1576 . Novaes. Sobue. Belanda. Adams. PMID 18997106 .). doi : 10. Penelitian 251. PMID 8149381 . Terapi Diabetes Mellitus Untuk Terkait dan Gangguan (4 th ed.66. 78.

agonist 1 generasi : Acetohexamide ‡ Carbutamide ‡ klorpropamid ‡ gliklazid ‡ tolbutamid ‡ Tolazamide 1st generation : Acetohexamide ‡ Carbutamide ‡ Chlorpropamide ‡ Gliclazide ‡ Tolbutamide ‡ Tolazamide Sulfonylureas 2 generasi : glibenclamide (glyburide) # ‡ Sulfonylureas Glipizide ‡ Gliquidone ‡ Glyclopyramide 2nd K + ATP generation : Glibenclamide (Glyburide) # ‡ K+ ATP Glipizide ‡ Gliquidone ‡ Glyclopyramide 3 generasi : glimepiride 3rd generation : Glimepiride Meglitinides / "glinides" Nateglinide ‡ repaglinide ‡ Mitiglinide Meglitinides Nateglinide ‡ Repaglinide ‡ Mitiglinide /"glinides" GLP-1 Exenatide ‡ Liraglutide ‡ Taspoglutide ‚ ‡ Albiglutide ‚ ‡ analog Lixisenatide Exenatide ‡ Liraglutide ‡ Taspoglutide ‚ ‡ GLP-1 Albiglutide ‚ ‡ Lixisenatide analogs DPP-4 Alogliptin ‚ ‡ Linagliptin ‚ ‡ Saxagliptin ‡ sitagliptin ‡ inhibitor Vildagliptin Alogliptin ‚ ‡ Linagliptin ‚ ‡ Saxagliptin ‡ DPP-4 Sitagliptin ‡ Vildagliptin inhibitors cepat bertindak ( insulin lispro ‡ Insulin aspart ‡ glulisine Insulin ) short acting ‡ ( insulin Reguler ) ‡ long acting ( glargine insulin ‡ Insulin Analog / detemir ‡ insulin NPH ) ‡ ultralong bertindak ( insulin degludec ‚) ‡ insulins lain Inhalable Insulin Exubera Á fast acting ( Insulin lispro ‡ Insulin aspart ‡ Analogs Insulin glulisine ) ‡ short acting ( Regular insulin ) ‡ long acting ( Insulin /other insulins glargine ‡ Insulin detemir ‡ NPH insulin ) ‡ ultralong acting ( Insulin degludec ‚ ) ‡ Inhalable Insulin Exubera Á Alphaglukosidase inhibitor Acarbose ‡ Miglitol ‡ voglibose Acarbose ‡ Miglitol ‡ Voglibose AlphaLainnya glucosidase Other inhibitors Amylin analog Pramlintide Pramlintide Amylin analog Sekretagog Secretagogues .

H 2 antagonis . Uji klinis : ‚ Tahap III . Clinical trials : ‚ Phase III . devp / horm / cell cong / tumr . Á Withdrawn from market. Renin inhibitor ) Antihypertensives ‡ Diuretics ‡ Vasodilators ‡ Beta blockers ‡ Calcium channel blockers ‡ renin-angiotensin system ( ACE inhibitors . sysi / Epon noco ( d )/ H2 / H3 / H5 ) proc . Thrombolytics/fibrinolytics ) ‡ Antihemorrhagics blood forming ( Platelets . Angiotensin II receptor antagonists . Cardiac stimulants ) Sistem kardiovaskular (C) Cardiovascular system ( C ) Antihipertensi ‡ Diuretik ‡ vasodilator ‡ Beta blockers ‡ Kalsium channel bloker ‡ sistem renin-angiotensin ( ACE inhibitors .SGLT2 inhibitor SGLT2 inhibitors Lainnya Other # Canagliflozin ‚ ‡ Dapagliflozin ‚ ‡ Remogliflozin § ‡ Sergliflozin § Canagliflozin ‚ ‡ Dapagliflozin ‚ ‡ Remogliflozin § ‡ Sergliflozin § Benfluorex ‡ Tolrestat Á Benfluorex ‡ Tolrestat Á WHO-EM Á. Bile acid sequestrants ) Kulit ( D ) Skin Emollients ‡ Cicatrizants ‡ Antipruritics ‡ Antipsoriatics ‡ obat dressing (D) Emollients ‡ Cicatrizants ‡ Antipruritics ‡ Antipsoriatics ‡ Medicated dressings Genitourinari Kontrasepsi hormonal ‡ agen Fertilitas ‡ SERMs ‡ Sex hormon Hormonal . H 2 antagonists . sysi / drug ( A10 / H1 / H2 / epon H3 / H5 ) v · d · e Farmakologi : kelompok obat utama v · d · e Pharmacology : major drug groups Saluran gastrointestinal asam lambung ( Antasida . Empedu sequestrants asam ) Antihyperlipidemics ( Statins . Proton pump inhibitor ) ‡ antiemetik ‡ / metabolisme ( Pencahar ‡ Antidiarrhoeals / Antipropulsives ‡ Anti-obesitas obat ‡ Anti-diabetes A) ‡ Vitamin ‡ Dietary mineral stomach acid ( Antacids . Angiotensin II antagonis reseptor . Coagulants . Anticoagulants . obat ( A10 / H1 / horm / sel anat / phys / . Trombolitik / fibrinolytics ) ‡ organ darah ( B Antihemorrhagics ( Trombosit . Antifibrinolytics ) organs ( B ) jantung terapi / antianginals ( Jantung glikosida . Antiarrhythmics . Antikoagulan . stimulan Cardiac ) cardiac therapy/ antianginals ( Cardiac glycosides . Proton Gastrointestinal pump inhibitors ) ‡ Antiemetics ‡ Laxatives ‡ Antidiarrhoeals / Antipropulsives ‡ tract / Anti-obesity drugs ‡ Anti-diabetics ‡ Vitamins ‡ Dietary minerals metabolism ( A ) Darah dan membentuk Antithrombotics ( Antitrombosit . Ditarik dari pasar. fibrate . koagulan . § Jangan ke tahap III # WHO-EM . Fibrates . Antifibrinolytics ) Antithrombotics ( ) Blood and Antiplatelets . § Never to phase III M : AKHIR M : END Anat / Phys / devp / noco ( d ) / cong / tumr proc . Renin inhibitors ) Antihyperlipidemics ( Statin . antiarrhythmics .

Anthelmintics . antineoplastik . relaksan otot ‡ Bifosfonat Anabolic steroids ‡ Anti-inflammatories ( NSAIDs ) ‡ bones . QI ) Vaksin Antimicrobials : Antibacterials ( Antimycobacterials ) ‡ Antifungals ‡ Infections and Antivirals ‡ Antiparasitics ( Antiprotozoals . Alkylating . imunosupresan ) Immunomodulators ( L04 ) Immune Immunostimulants . Dissociatives . tulang . Topoisomerase inhibitors ) L02 ) Immune penyakit ( L03Immunomodulators ( imunostimulan . disease ( L01. dan sendi ( M ) steroid anabolik ‡ Anti-inflamasi ( OAINS ) ‡ Antirheumatics ‡ Kortikosteroid ‡ Muscles . Malignant topoisomerase inhibitor ) Anticancer agents ( Antimetabolites . Lokal ) ‡ Anorectics ‡ -ADHD Agen Anti ‡ Antiaddictives ‡ Antikonvulsan ‡ Agen Antidementia ‡ Antidepresan ‡ Agen Antimigraine ‡ 's Agen antiparkinson ‡ antipsikotik ‡ Anxiolytics ‡ depressants ‡ Entactogens ‡ Entheogens ‡ Euphoriants ‡ halusinogen ( Psychedelics . Antineoplastic . and Antirheumatics ‡ Corticosteroids ‡ Muscle relaxants ‡ Bisphosphonates joints ( M ) Analgesik ‡ Anestesia ( Umum . alkylating . Anthelmintics . Deliriants ) ‡ hipnotik / Sedatif ‡ Mood stabilizer ‡ Otak dan Neuroprotectives ‡ Nootropics ‡ Neurotoxins ‡ Orexigenics ‡ Serenics ‡ Stimulan sistem saraf ( N ‡ terjaga-Mempromosikan Agen Analgesics ‡ Anesthetics ( General . Ectoparasiticides ) ‡ IVIG ‡ .sistem ( G ) contraception ‡ Fertility agents ‡ SERMs ‡ Sex hormones Genitourinary system ( G ) Sistem endokrin ( H ) Endocrine system ( H ) Hipotalamus-hipofisis hormon ‡ Kortikosteroid ( Glukokortikoid . IVIG ‡ Vaccines P . Mineralocorticoids ) ‡ Sex hormones ‡ Thyroid hormones / Antithyroid agents Infeksi dan Antimikroba : Antibakteri ( Antimycobacterials ) ‡ antijamur ‡ Antivirus ‡ infestasi ( J . racun Spindle . Dissociatives . Deliriants ) ‡ Hypnotics / Sedatives ‡ Mood Stabilizers ‡ Neuroprotectives ‡ Nootropics ‡ Neurotoxins ‡ Orexigenics ‡ Serenics ‡ Stimulants ‡ Wakefulness-Promoting Agents Sistem Dekongestan ‡ Bronchodilators ‡ Batuk obat-obatan ‡ H 1 antagonis pernapasan ( R Decongestants ‡ Bronchodilators ‡ Cough medicines ‡ H 1 antagonists . Immunosuppressants ) disease ( L03L04 ) Otot . P Antiparasitics ( Antiprotozoals . Mineralocorticoids ) ‡ Jenis Kelamin hormon ‡ Hormon tiroid / agen antitiroid Hypothalamic-pituitary hormones ‡ Corticosteroids ( Glucocorticoids . QI ) Ganas penyakit ( L01-L02 ) Agen antikanker ( Antimetabolites . Ectoparasiticides ) ‡ infestations ( J . Local ) ‡ ) Brain and Anorectics ‡ Anti-ADHD Agents ‡ Antiaddictives ‡ Anticonvulsants ‡ nervous system Antidementia Agents ‡ Antidepressants ‡ Antimigraine Agents ‡ Antiparkinson's (N) Agents ‡ Antipsychotics ‡ Anxiolytics ‡ Depressants ‡ Entactogens ‡ Entheogens ‡ Euphoriants ‡ Hallucinogens ( Psychedelics .Spindle poisons .

toleransi glukosa Gangguan ) Prediabetes ( Impaired fasting glucose . obat ( A10 / H1 / horm / sel anat / phys / . sysi / drug ( A10 / H1 / H2 / epon H3 / H5 ) . Nonketotic hyperosmolar ) · Diabetic angiopathy · Diabetic / prognosis myonecrosis · Diabetic nephropathy · Diabetic neuropathy · Diabetic retinopathy · Diabetic cardiomyopathy · Diabetic dermadrome ( Diabetic dermopathy . Neuropathic ulcer ) M : AKHIR M : END Anat / Phys / devp / noco ( d ) / cong / tumr proc .5 · Types of Type 2 · MODY · NDM ( Transient . devp / horm / cell cong / tumr . prognosis ulkus neuropatik ) Diabetic comas ( Diabetic hypoglycemia . Permanent ) diabetes Diabetes dan kehamilan : diabetes Gestational Diabetes and pregnancy : Gestational diabetes Tes darah Blood tests Gula darah · glikosilasi hemoglobin · Glukosa toleransi test · fruktosamin Blood sugar · Glycosylated hemoglobin · Glucose tolerance test · Fructosamine Diabetes manajemen Diabetes diet · Anti-diabetes obat · Insulin terapi · Istilah diabetes Diabetic diet · Diabetes Anti-diabetic drugs · Insulin therapy · Glossary of diabetes management Diabetik koma ( Diabetic hipoglikemia .) Respiratory system ( R ) Sensorik organ ( S ) Sensory Ophthalmologicals ‡ Otologicals Ophthalmologicals ‡ Otologicals organs ( S ) Lain ATC ( V ) Penangkal ‡ Media Kontras ‡ Sediaan Penyidik ‡ dressing Antidotes ‡ Contrast Other ATC ( V media ‡ Radiopharmaceuticals ‡ Dressings ) v · d · e Diabetes ( E10-E14 . Diabetic cheiroarthropathy . sysi / Epon noco ( d )/ H2 / H3 / H5 ) proc . 250 ) v · d · e Diabetes ( E10±E14 . hiperosmolar Nonketotic ) · diabetes angiopathy · diabetes myonecrosis · diabetes nefropati · Diabetik neuropati · Diabetic retinopathy · Diabetic cardiomyopathy · Diabetic Komplikasi / dermadrome ( Diabetic dermopathy . 250 ) Pradiabetes ( Gangguan glukosa puasa . Diabetes cheiroarthropathy . Tetap ) Type 1 · Type 1. Diabetic Complications ketoacidosis . Impaired glucose tolerance ) Jenis diabetes Tipe 1 · Tipe 1. diabetik ketoasidosis . Diabetes bulla .5 · tipe 2 · Mody · NDM ( transien . Diabetic bulla .

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