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Program for Terrorist Affected Areas Relief in Malakand Division Khyber Pukhtunkhawa Province Pakistan
Program for Terrorist Affected Areas Relief in Malakand Division Khyber Pukhtunkhawa Province Pakistan

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Published by: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan on Feb 08, 2011
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Rapid Response; High Impact; Culturally Acceptable; Eco Friendly Promotion of Food Security and Grass Roots Economy

Generation in Terrorist Affected Areas of Malakand Division:

“Swat is the most interesting valley in Pakistan. It is also one of the most beautiful - certainly much greener and more fertile than the valleys further north because it lies within the monsoon belt. In Lower Swat, the valley is wide, the fields on either side of the river are full of Wheat and Lucerne, and the villages are prosperous and surrounded by fruit trees. In Upper Swat, the river tumbles through pine forests hemmed in by snow-capped mountains. “

PC-1 FORM

[Rehabilitation & Renewal] | Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Figure 1: Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Line Drawing

Figure 2: Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Shade House

Figure 3: Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Frame

Figure 4: Bioaugmented rapid composting; Line Drawing.

PC – 1
INTEGRATION, DEVELOPMENT & EMPOWERMENT For LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT (SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP)

June 2009
Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
#
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

ITEM
Name of the Project: Location: Authority responsible for: Plan Provision: Project objectives and its relationship with Sectoral objectives: Description, Justification and Technical Parameters: Introduction: Recommendations: Conservation Planning: Crop Rotation: Contour Farming: Strip-Cropping: Farm Conservation & Sustainable Development Program: Herbs (Medicinal & Culinary), Spices, Condiments & Aromatic/ Essential Oil Plants: Introduction: Sustainability Development Planning: Land Inventory: Bill: Plant Protection Sustainable Development Permaculture Polyculture Rational Farming: Animals & Fowl: Rain Water Harvesting Permanent Structures: Micro Irrigation: Livestock Nutrition: Upland Agriculture: The Ten Basic Steps of SALT: Community Economics: No Till: Community based Integrated Development of Trout Fisheries and Irrigation Channels: Description, justification, technical parameters and technology transfer aspects: Scope: Justification: Location: District Swat: Beyond Kalam: District Dir: Buner District: Shangla District: Environment and Land Characteristics: Land & Tenure: Affected Area: Issues: Interventions: Plan of Work: Methodology Proposed: Structural Deep Democracy Ecological Nutrient Management (ENM). Statistical Analysis: Design: Testing With Pilot Farms. Appropriate, Integrated and Sustainable Approach Needs-Based Community Development: Traditional Model: Assets-Based Community Development: Alternate Model: Economic Gardening: Containerized Factory & Hand Line Canning: Pilot Community Based Production Project: Year Wise Schedule: Logical Framework Matrix (LFM): Mountain Biodiversity: An Assessment Project Components:

Page
4 4 4 4 4 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 13 18 18 20 21 27 30 30 30 32 32 38 39 42 44 44 44 45 46 46 49 50 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 60 60 60 60 61 62 63 63 66 66 66 67 67 67 67 68 69 69 70 71 72 72

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64 65

Lessons Learnt: Establishment:

73 73

List of Figures:
#
Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figures 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24; 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30:

ITEM
Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Line Drawing Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Shade House Environment/ Predator Protected Geodesic Dome; Frame Bioaugmented Rapid Composting; Line Drawing Millennium Development Goals. Three Tiers for Development. Interventions. Generalized Soils. Contour Tillage. Secondary and Micronutrient Analysis. Physico-Chemical Analysis. Bacteriological Analysis. Pakistani Permanent Beds. Illustrations from How to Grow Herbs Stratification. Farmyard Rapid Composting with Bioaugmentation. Root Life. Bio Tractor. Angora Breeds. Roof-Top Water Harvesting. Surface Water Harvesting. Cast in Place EQ Proof Water Harvesting Tank Permanent Structure Earth Fill Dam. Animal-drawn no-till planter with seed and fertilizer tanks (Paraná, Brazil). Agroecological effects of conventional tillage and no tillage. Structure of a Human Activity System Social Network Analysis Asset Based Community Development Economic Gardening

Page
1 1 1 1 4 5 6 7 11 14 15 16 18 20 31 34 37 38 38 41 41 42 43 48 49 63 64 68 69

List of Tables:
Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: 42 Kanals. 8 Kanals. Plantings and Expected Returns, Rs. 14,000.00 per month. Effective Soil Depths. Topsoil Texture. Topsoil Texture Modifiers. Soil Permeability. Underlying Material. Slope of Land. Degree of Erosion. Degree of Wetness. Frequency of Overflow. Composting Benefits. Nutrient/ Yields. Spillway Size. SALT Varieties. 14 15 17 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 36 37 44 46 53

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GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN PLANNING COMMISSION PC-1 FORM
1. Name of the Project: Rapid Response; High Impact; Culturally Acceptable; Eco Friendly Promotion of Food Security and Grass Roots Economy Generation in Terrorist Affected Areas of Malakand Division: 2. Location: Malakand Division, NWFP. 3. Authority responsible for:
i. ii. iii. iv. Sponsoring: USAID Execution: Special Support Group in collaboration with Local Com munities. Operation and maintenance: Local Com munities. Concerned Department: P&DD, Go NWFP. This project is of emergency nature.

4. 5.

Plan Provision: Project objectives and its relationship with Sectoral objectives:
This project is highly critical in nature especially in the light of the present socioeconomic situation and is within the purview of the MDGs pertaining to the provision of food security and Vision 2030 in the following sectors: a. Poverty alleviation. b. Nutrition enhancement. c. Capacity building and human resource development of communities. d. Female capacity development and empowerment. e. Environment Protection.

Figure 5: Millennium Development Goals. The proposed project is in line with the Pakistan Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 of the Planning Commission of Pakistan. The proposed project will help in achieving the MTDF (2005-10) goals, targets and objectives besides supporting the implementation of its sectoral strategies. It will help Pakistan to fulfill international obligations of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

targets; Goal-1 (Halving extreme poverty and hunger; reduce by the proportion of people who live on less than one dollar a day. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger) and Goal-7; (Ensure Environmental Sustainability). In addition the proposed project supports the National Agricultural and Environment Policy, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) and National Environment Action Plan (NEAP). The proposed Project’s primary Objective is to reduce poverty and promote sustainable livelihoods by adopting a three tiered approach: 1. Social Mobilization and Gender Development. 2. Ensuring Food Security. 3. Promoting Sustainable Micro-Enterprise.

Figure 6: Three Tiers for Development. These objectives will be achieved through the following interventions.

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Figure 7: Interventions. The proposed project is justified by the dire and pressing need to emplace a Support Web for a disillusioned and bewildered populace. Social harmony and positive growth can only be ensured with sustainability if the parameters of a just and elegatarian society ensures that the minimum in requirements of every citizen are provided in a participatory manner. This will discourage extremism and foster stability. The principles of Bioenvironmental Management and transparent records that are easily accessible and verifiable will be adhered to. A careful phasing with concurrent activities to cut down upon lead times will ensure sustainability and success of the interventions. GIS will provide a powerful tool for management and ensure effective monitoring and evaluation. Sustainable Development Action Plans at State and District level will ensure harmony, while Social Mobilization and development of Village Councils along with Village Development Plans will ensure participation and ownership. All activities will be carried out, after capacity building, of the beneficiaries through local communities who will themselves be encouraged to become service providers. Broad Goals • Post Disaster Recovery. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

6.

Food Security. • Nutrition enhancement. • Female Empowerment. • Local Self-Reliance. • Environment Protection. Specific Objectives Household Food Security and Economy Generation for Small Farmers & Landless through: • Complete Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility. • Appropriate Cultural Practices. • Increasing Agricultural/ Horticultural Production. • Improved designs and structures of tunnels and production management for off-season vegetables. • Introducing technologies for profitable organic farming. • Protected Mushroom Production & Hand Line Canning. • Food security in the face of spiraling prices and uncertain socio-economic status as a high priority objective. • Introduction of Angora Rabbits for High Quality Weaving for Export. • Community Mobilization and Training. • Female Empowerment through participation in economic activities. • Increasing employment through introduction of innovative Micro Enterprise. • Developing Institutions in Rural Areas. • Raising income of Rural Poor. • Enhancing Health and Nutrition standards. • Ensuring self-sustained Rural Development. • Environment Protection/ Ecological repair. Quantitative Targets • Establishment of PMU in Mingora to implement the project. • Train 500 Master Trainers in constructing low-cost greenhouse structures/ operation and demonstrate replicable models. • Directly impact population of 5.00million. • Launch advocacy and awareness campaigns, and take all legal initiatives to develop local self-reliance, ensuring pure food items covering schools and colleges. • Erect 10,000 Environment/ Predator Protected Kitchen Gardens. • Emplace 10,000 Rapid Composting (Bioaugmented) Pits. • Construct 10,000 Environment Regulated Mushroom Growing Structures. • Train locals and import 10,000 pairs of Angora Rabbits. • Increase Wool Processing/ Weaving Units by 50 Community Based Units. • Emplace 10 Hand Line Canning Units. • Train and Establish 100 Food Processing Units.

Description, Justification and Technical Parameters:
Nature of Problem and Proposed Solution:

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Figure 8: Generalized Soils. 1. Loamy & Clayey, mainly non-calcareous, or alluvial or loess plains/ terraces. 2. Mainly steep, loamy, shallow soils or some rock outcrops of humid mountain regions. 3. Loamy and Clayey, part non-calcareous soils of alluvial or loess plains/ terraces. 4. Mainly steep, Loamy, shallow soils and rock outcrops of sub-humid mountainous ranges. INTRODUCTION: It is essential to understand that there is a need for conserving the soil in order to ensure continuous productivity. It is only by efficient use and management of soil that its productiveness can be maintained over an extended period of time. The use and management of soil includes: Planning, in order to determine proper use. Preparation of soil for planting. Treatment of soil for the production of plants. Complete plant nutrition and care. Proper harvest and post-harvest practices. Water is a precious, natural, renewable resource and the basis for all life. It must be treated with care and long term planning in order to ensure, as much as humanly possible, that it is, and remains, available to nurture all living things. RECOMMENDATIONS: Thorough inventory and survey of land. Showing land capability in order to prepare recommended land use maps. Mulching and inculcation of compost into the soil. Encouragement to no till permanent beds. Crop cover in monsoon season. Crop rotation. Strip-Cropping. Planting of windbreaks. Proper terracing including platform, retention and bench terracing as well as land leveling. Rodent/ Predator Control. Conservation Irrigation {Sprinkler, bubbler, drip, reticulation (sub soil)}. Bunds to control surface runoff. Water Harvesting and storage. Reforestation and stratification. Growing trees; herbs; forbs and shrubs for forage. Grass waterways. Land protection by erosion control structures. Small Dams. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Proper land use according to capability. Controlled grazing. Horticulture crops from fruit trees and bushes with proper nutrition to avoid disease and pests. Proper road construction with drainage and maintenance. Storm drainage. Aquifer Recharging. The Malakand Division is very much in need of Soil & Water Conservation Measures for the farm, such as: Conservation Planning. Land Resources Inventory. Crop Rotation. Contour Farming. Strip-Cropping. Terracing. Farm Drainage. Gully Control. Aquifer Recharging. Water Harvesting. Grass Waterways. Watershed Management. Conservation Irrigation. If a realistic and pragmatic view is taken of our present circumstances we are bound to come to rather disappointing conclusions. The good news is that there is tremendous scope of improvement and enhanced productivity. Our negligent and harmful practices are under-utilizing what could be bountiful and abundant productivity. The severity of the present problems has been reduced largely due to the Government’s Green Revolution of the 1960s. The time has now come to initiate a Grass Roots, Green Revolution. This can only be done through realistic planning and concentrated implementation. The use of locally produced modern, Hi-Tech, yet low cost materials can substantially reduce the negative impact of many of our problems. There is absolutely no point in being Technology Shy! Plant Nutrition through the use of 21st Century Nutrition products is one such step. Another step, that should be introduced, is the use of Anionic Polymers or Polyacrylamides, for reducing soil loss through erosion and slope stabilization. Soil losses have been reduced to as little as 2.3 mega grams per hectare, as compared to 101 mega grams per hectare on treated and control plots respectively [1]. The effects of Polymer Concentrations on Furrow Irrigation have shown that over a range of application rates, of at least 0.7 Kgs/ hectare and mean of 1.3 Kgs/ hectare, there was a furrow sediment loss reduction by 94 % and increase in net infiltration by 15 % [2]. Yet another step, that has achieved amazing results in the United States in the 1930s, was the formation of Conservation Districts. We can easily duplicate this success by undertaking similar efforts. Some important steps that can be undertaken follow. Conservation Planning: The basic wealth of any Country is its Natural Resources. These are divided into renewable and non-renewable. A just and equitable use of these resources is a rational use that provides benefits to all and ensures that this use is sustainable. This means using without using up and ensuring that Nature’s bounties are not abused and only used in such a manner that it continues to provide its living abundance to all coming generations. We are presently concerned with two of the three major renewable resources. These are the soil and water. Our present and past usage of these resources Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

leaves much to be desired. The Ecological Systems that sustain us are inter-linked and fragile. Thoughtless over exploitation renders them subject to degradation and eventual failure. Some of the immediate threats facing the Malakand Division, due to our negligence are: Soil erosion. Decline in soil fertility. Increased soil borne pests. Denuded Watersheds. Ravaging flash floods. Increasing aridity. Receding Water Tables. Climate change. This results in reduced agricultural capacity, while population pressures continue to mount. To overcome these grave problems it is all the more necessary to make detailed and realistic plans for proper soil and water use and their consequent rejuvenation. Subsequently it is imperative that these plans be carried out in letter and spirit. The first conclusion that is drawn from any preliminary survey of the Division’s Land and Water usage is that it is inappropriate to say the least. In order to come up with a realistic Conservation or Sustainable Development Action Plan the first step is to make a Land and Water Resources Inventory. This is subdivided into Land and Water. [1] Laboratory of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 1986. Wallace and Wallace. [2] Lentz and Sojka. US Dept. of Agriculture, Idaho, 1994. Crop Rotation: The growing of different crops in succession on the same land is called crop rotation. Benefits: The benefits of crop rotation are: Reducing soil erosion: Row crops which are placed 24 to 48 inches apart require frequent cultivation and leave little or no crop residue. The exposed soil between rows is subject to erosion. Less distance between rows and more crop residue left behind, decreases soil erosion. When different types of crops are grown on a piece of land in succession the overall result is lesser erosion. Improving yields: Different types of crops make different demands upon the soil or fertilizers required. They also leave behind different types of residue. For example a leguminous crop will leave behind a surplus of fixed Nitrogen. The soil will benefit from these demands and supplies made by various plants. When this factor is used intelligently, i.e. fertilization and rotation by carefully selected or recommended crops, the soil will benefit and productivity will be enhanced. Disease, insect and weed control: Different types of crops are host to various kinds of pests and are subject to different types of diseases. Where monoculture is practiced these pests and diseases get the opportunity of finding a constant host. Where rotation is practiced this is obviated and pest’s life cycles are interrupted. Different types of cultivation and weeding requirements also interrupt the seeding of weeds. Factors: There are many factors involved in the choice of a cropping system for a particular piece of land. Cropping systems should be flexible and permit change of acreage of crops from year to year. Obviously, financial considerations are additional to physical limitations. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Planning: The planning of a cropping system requires three questions to be borne in mind: What properties of the soil, in a field, require particular attention, in order to ensure efficient production, while maintaining or enhancing soil productivity in the long term? What different methods can be used to control crucial soil factors? What crops will fetch the highest returns and yet allow attention to the above questions? Contour Farming: The practice of plowing and planting across, rather than up and down, the slope is termed as Contour Farming. The objective of such an exercise is to conserve soil and water. In arid areas this practice results in slowing down runoff and allowing it to soak into the soil. In humid zones this results in preventing soil loss. This practice results in better yields. This is due to the fact that increased moisture content in the soil, even in humid zones, provides moisture to the plants during lean or drought periods. Key Contours: In order to be able to plow along the contour the farmer needs one, or more, key contour lines on each field. The purpose of a key contour is to guide the farmer in the plowing operation. In the case of short slopes, one key contour line halfway down the slope is sufficient. In the case of long or irregular slopes, several key contour lines may be needed. The laying out of key contour lines is a relatively simple operation. All that is required is a hand level and a few stakes. The first step is to determine which portion of the helper’s body (shoulder, chin or hairline) is the sighter’s eye level, when both are standing on level ground. When sighting through the level, if the hairline is against this portion of the helper's body, both are standing at the same elevation. The next step is to choose a key contour. A stake is driven into the ground and the level is set up. The helper moves along this contour in as much a level course as possible. When he has traveled the predetermined distance, the sighter looks through the level. He signals any adjustment in the helper’s position that may be required. When the sighter is satisfied he signals the helper and the next stake is driven into the ground. The sighter then moves to the position of the new stake and the process is repeated until the line is completely established. In case the contour line crosses a waterway, it should stop and not disturb any vegetation. Once all stakes are driven the line can be established by plowing. Contour Tillage: This is one of the simplest practices to conserve water and soil. It is most effective on slopes from 2 to 8 % and reduces soil and water loss from 20 to 40 %. This practice is also effective in improving Rangelands. Where grasses have deteriorated to short, soddy growth it has been found that contour tillage with furrows 4 to 6 inches across and not more than 5 feet apart, improve the vegetative growth. If higher grasslands undergo contour tillage the effect on neighboring low land is reduction of silting from 85 to 95 %.

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Figure 9: Contour Tillage. Strip-Cropping: If sloping land is left bare during the rainy season, it is subject to erosion. Such land is best protected by strip cropping. A farmer can plant his crops in large blocks or complete strips. On the other hand it is advisable to divide the fields into narrow strips. This is done in order to protect cleantilled strips of corn with non-cultivated strips of small grain or hay. Large sloping fields that are plowed and cultivated at the same time are subject to the maximum amount of erosion during the period when no crop has yet grown. A viable alternate is to plow and cultivate alternate strips. This ensures that erosion-resistant crops are growing between clean-tilled areas. It is then possible to practice crop rotation and use all standard soil conservation practices in order to ensure minimum erosion. Strip-Cropping Vs Contour Tillage. Strip-cropping is a vegetative form of soil erosion control as opposed to the mechanical method of Contour plowing. The two methods are roughly similar in water conservation but stripcropping is by far better in soil conservation. The effectiveness of strip-cropping depends upon the plants that are grown in the strip. Sodded grasses are the best soil conservation plants. However, there is no financial return offered. The legumes and hay crops are the best financial alternate. Legumes hold the added advantage of fixing Nitrogen and hay crops provide fodder for Cattle. Types of Strip-Cropping: Contour Strip-Cropping: This type is a combination of Strip-Cropping and Contour Plowing. Crops are planted in strips, placed crosswise to the slope and following the contour. Dense erosion-control crops alternate with clean-tilled erosion permitting crops. Field Strip-Cropping: In undulating slopes, with no true contour, the method of field stripcropping is used. Here the crops are planted in strips, in roughly uniform parallel rows, laid crosswise to the general slope. Wind Strip-Cropping: Here crops are planted in strips, crosswise to the prevailing wind, without regard to the contour of the land. This method is recommended on level to nearly level land, where soil erosion and water conservation are not a problem but wind erosion is the factor that needs attention. Buffer Strip-Cropping: A sod crop, made up of grass or legumes, or a mixture of both, when planted between strips, in regular rotation, is called buffer strip-cropping. These buffer strips are usually laid on those portions of a slope that are badly eroded and not suitable to regular cultivation. Managing Strip-Cropped Fields: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Careful planning and installation of strip-cropping will enable permanently maintained fields. It is necessary to alternate the method of plowing in order to avoid build up of high ridges over the years. Turning the land up the slope is also desirable, in order to allow seeping of water under the furrow slice. This is done by using a two way turning plow to turn all the furrows in one direction. In case strips are irregular in width and both sides are approximately on the contour, planting should be done from both edges inwards to the center of the strip. This enables the placing of the greatest number of long rows on the contour and the short rows in the center. Regular rotation, except on strips most prone to erosion, should be carried out. It should be kept in mind that the denser the vegetation and the longer the crop stays on ground the less the danger of erosion. Plants with extensive root systems, like small grains, are better placed to protect the soil. Perennial legumes have dense vegetation and a fibrous root system that results in a dense sod. This provides the most protection. In humid areas where row crops are alternated with small grains, the former are planted up slope of the latter. This is done because the row crops require deeper furrows and higher ridges. This provides some protection against erosion. The small grains do not have this advantage and the soil is subject to erosion until they emerge. Advantages of Strip-Cropping: This practice has been demonstrated to be a very economical system and a practical means of preventing, or reducing, erosion and water loss on cultivated land. There are many advantages in Strip-cropping and this practice is highly recommended for Malakand Division. Some of these advantages are: Reduced length of slope down which water runs retards the momentum of water. Slower momentum increases infiltration and shedding of soil particles. Dense vegetation growing in alternating strips further retards water momentum. Soil is opened by root systems and earth worms. Dense vegetation on the sod strips prevent silting of these pores. Strip-Cropping results in a large number of small fields, which in turn encourage crop rotations. Installation of strips is not expensive. Maintenance of strips is low. Degree of accuracy, as required for terraces, is not as high. Mistakes can be rectified on the next plowing. Time and energy are conserved as long strips are easily plowed, with fewer turns involved. Less power is used when plowing across a slope rather than up and down. Reduced runoff results in reduced loss of plant nutrients, resulting in turn, in higher yields. FARM CONSERVATION & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: An illustration of a supposed Conservation & Sustainable Development Program is detailed to bring home various features: Present Situation: A fifty kanals farm, owned by Gohar Rehman, two sons assist him on the farm. Total persons in household, 4 adults and 5 children. They own 2 buffaloes and five goats, some milk is sold to augment income (Rs. 7,000.00 per annum). The farm is presently used as follows: Cropping Pattern: Rainfed Wheat (reported yield 80 Kgs. per kanal/ 640 Kgs. per acre, market value Rs. 25,000.00 per crop) followed by Rainfed Maize (reported yield 100 Kgs. per kanal/ 800 Kgs. per Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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acre, market value Rs. 28,000.00) on 40 kanals gently sloping land 2 % (5 acres). Estimated income equivalent Rs. 5,000.00 per month. Pasture: 8 Kanals of sloping land with 5 % slope, some gullying. Homestead: 2 Kanals with 2-room adobe home without latrine facility, ½ kanal kitchen garden and cattle sheds. A ½ kanal pond exists for watering domestic cattle. Some poultry are raised. Water Source: A one inch 80 foot bore with ¾ inch delivery, hand pump. Weakness: No farm Drainage. Pond not productive. Soil fertility and consequent crop productivity very low. Insufficient pasture for cattle. No summer or winter covers. No terracing. No trees. No irrigation. Soil erosion beginning to be serious. Income low, children spending all their time helping on the farm. Collect Data for Conservation Program: Carry out Macro, Secondary and Micronutrient analysis of soil and leaf tissue of any crop in production.

Figure 10: Secondary and Micronutrient Analysis. Where: A1 Soil sample from Kitchen Garden Plot growing Lettuce. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

A2 Leaf tissue sample of Lettuce from Kitchen Garden Plot. B1 Soil sample from a Maize field. B2 Leaf tissue sample of Maize. Carry out Land Inventory. Sr. Symbol

Ch ara cte rist ic – Ra ng e. 1 2 3 4 5

Descriptive Term

Effective Soil Depth Topsoil texture Soil permeability Slope Erosion

30 inches (Moderately deep) 3 Clay loam, Fine (Heavy) H 0.7 inches/ hr. Fine soil,3 moderately slow 2 % Gently sloping B 50 % Moderate erosion 2 Table 1: 42 Kanals.

3H3/ 2B-2 Land Class: 42 kanals Class III Sr Symbol

Ch ara cte ris tic – Ra ng e. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Descriptive Term

Effective Soil Depth Topsoil texture Topsoil texture modifier Soil permeability Slope Erosion

8 inches Very shallow 5 Lighter Clay loam, Medium M Fragments > 10 inches dia.s Stony 0.4 Medium, Moderate 4 5 % Moderately sloping C 80 % Severe erosion 3 Table 2: 8 Kanals. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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5sM4/ 5C-3 Land Class 8 kanals Class V. Carry out Physico-Chemical Analysis of sub-surface water.

Figure 11: Physico-Chemical Analysis.

Carry out Bacteriological Analysis of sub-surface water.

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Figure 12: Bacteriological Analysis. Analysis: The farm lies on Piedmont Alluvial Plains. Soil consists of Heavy and Lighter Clay Loam. Temperature ranges from –2 degrees C in January to 26 degrees C in June. Average yearly humidity is 60 %. Average yearly wind speed is 1.4 kts and total precipitation is 2700 mm per year (30 years average). Soil is subject to erosion on the slopes. Drinking water is above the borderline for Nitrate levels (10.53 against upper level of 10.00 mg/ L). This is probably due to excessive use of Nitrate Nitrogen Fertilizer and subsequent leaching into the ground water. There is intermediate risk in drinking water rendering it unsatisfactory to drink. This is due to high viable counts and coliforms contamination. Soil Fertility levels are low, iron is tied down chemically and unavailable to the plants. There is excess of Lead, Chromium and Nickel probably due to vehicular emission from vehicles passing on the nearby road. Zinc and Calcium levels are unsatisfactory while Cobalt is absent. Organic content of soil is poor and method of storing farmyard manure leads to leaching of nutrients. Crop productivity is miserable. This is probably due to poor and wrong fertilization with unbalanced and unstabalized chemical fertilizers (100 Kgs. Urea and 50 Kgs. Diammonium Phosphate per acre, twice a year). Sustainable Development Suggestions: Sink 4 inch Bore with 2.5 inch Delivery (Rs. 25,000.00). Procure two Static Rain Guns (2 inch) with accompanying plastic piping and pressure pump (Rs. 30,000.00). Procure one Moving Rain Gun Trolley (1.25 inches) with accompanying plastic piping (Rs. 20,000.00). Procure Drip Irrigation System for 4 kanals (Rs. 32,000.00). Procure second hand piping (1 inch) for 2 kanals Permanent, Pakistani, No-Till beds with Reticulation (Rs. 3,000.00) Establish one Environment Protected Wah Garden 10 square meters (Rs. 1,500.00). Establish Permanent Composting beds, 8 square meters. Establish small adobe hen house and procure 50 layers (Rs. 10,000.00). Procure small hand operated, K2 oil heated incubator (Rs. 3,000.00). Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Carry out Strip-cropping and establish Crop Rotation on 4 acres (Rs. 10,000.00 revolving working Capital). Plant ½ acre drip irrigated Fruit orchard (Rs. 3,000.00). Establish and plant ¼ acres Permanent, Pakistani, No-Till beds for High value vegetables (Rs. 16,000.00 revolving working Capital). Level and prepare ½ acre for moving rain gun trolley irrigated market vegetables (Rs. 5,000.00 revolving Capital and Rs. 1,000.00 labor and machinery). Re-seed 1-acre sloping land with suited grasses, forbs and shrubs (Rs. 1,000.00). Sell goats and buy 4 sheep. Sell buffaloes and buy 2 Mixed Breed Cows (Rs.18,500.00). Improve pond, line with plastic, cover with branches and divert runoff towards inlet. Provide for over flow (Rs. 1,000.00). Improve natural waterways and repair gullies (Rs. 1,000.00). Miscellaneous Charges, electricity, stores, fertilizers, selling costs, machinery hire etc. (Rs. 19,000.00 revolving working Capital). Total Investment: Rs. 1,50,000.00 Fixed. Rs. 50,000.00 Revolving Working Capital. TOTAL Rs. 2,00,000.00 A loan of Rs. 2,00,000.00 at 14 % interest, repayable in monthly installments over 7 years after a 6 month initial period, at the rate of Rs. 15,000.00 per quarter. Planting Program:
Sr. Expected Return 2 acres 2 acres (subsequent) 1 acre 1 acre (subsequent) 1 acre 1 acre (subsequent) ½ acre ½ acre (subsequent) ½ acre (subsequent) ½ acre (subsequent) ¼ acre ¼ acre (subsequent) ¼ acre (subsequent) ¼ acre (subsequent) per annum per annum per annum Rs. 25,000.00 Rs. 22,000.00 Rs. 8,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 16,000.00 Rs. 20,000.00 Rs. 8,000.00 Rs. 4,000.00 Rs. 2,000.00 Rs. 4,000.00 Rs. 8,000.00 Rs. 5,000.00 Rs. 8,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 8,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs.1,68,000.00

Plan Acreage t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Wheat Maize Small Grains Lucerne Peas Cumin seed Cauliflower Radish Spinach Onions Green Chilies Tomatoes Broccoli Iceberg lettuce Milk Poultry Total

Table 3: Plantings and Expected Returns, Rs. 14,000.00 per month.

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Payment of Rs. 15,000.00 per quarter towards interest and loan amount will still leave an equivalent of Rs. 9,000.00 per month income for the farmer. This represents a Rs. 4,000.00 per month increase (80 %) over his previous income. With increasing skills, eventual fruit production and gradual expansion of horticulture he should be able to increase his standard of living to quite a large extent. The savings made to the soil are not quantifiable in financial terms. The development is sustainable and he will be able to leave a substantial patrimony to his children along with a decent education and other employment prospects. It is definitely possible to make a sustainable difference. Concentrated action at the Grass Roots level with Organization and Capacity enhancement is all that is required. In a District like ---------, where quite of few of Nature’s Bounties remain, the time to act is now! Some of the Western Districts of the NWFP are facing much greater degradation and unfavorable weather. There the task is so much the more difficult. Never the less, when Terraforming on Alien landscapes is possible; rehabilitation of the Rural Landscape is definitely possible. All that is required is Vision, Determination, Dedication and a lot of Hard Work! Pakistani, Permanent, No Till beds with mulch and compost, for growing vegetables (safe environment for earthworms). This bed can easily support sub-soil and drip irrigation as well as lowcost, small-scale, micro sprinkler trolleys for ½ acre coverage.

Figure 13: Pakistani Permanent Beds. All of the fore going have been tried on pilot scale in various locations around the Country and have been adapted to our local conditions and climate. This is as opposed to recommended Chinese and Australian methods. These Countries are indeed progressive. However there is a need to adapt from their wisdom, as they do not share the same longitudes and latitudes as ours. HERBS (Medicinal & Culinary), SPICES, CONDIMENTS & AROMATIC/ ESSENTIAL OIL PLANTS: Introduction: The above caption already brings out the wide variety of plants that lie within this bracket as well as the range of possibilities inherent within them. Agricultural commodities are as varied as the living abundance of Nature. Throughout history this particular group of agricultural commodities has played an important role in the commercial life of mankind. We all know the common saying, to add spice to one’s life. These commodities have added spice to the economies of many civilizations and made them sustainable. The Indo-Pak Sub Continent has been known, throughout the World, as a Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

major producer of herbs and spices. Herbs have been used to soothe pain and heal wounds. They are forms of food that contain vitamins and minerals. Herbs are natural drugs that work well and cause the least amount of discomfort. Hundreds of years ago the Arabs discovered that when horses and camels, that were ailing, had a chance to graze upon a particular grass, they were soon better. They called this variety Alfalfa or The Father of all Foods.[3] One look at the statistics of Alfalfa is enough to convince even the most skeptical of critics. Two tablespoons full of Alfalfa extract contain: Twice as much Calcium as an ordinary glass of milk. Almost as much protein as one fried beef-burger. Nearly the same amount of iron as two ounces of liver. Enough B complex for the most jangled nerves. Plenty of enzymes for good metabolism of ingested fats. Sufficient fiber to lower the highest cholesterol. In Malakand Division, with mild summers and cold winters, it is possible to grow a large variety of the more expensive and rare plants that fall within this group. Indeed, the list of naturally growing, indigenous plants is quite long and further research is bound to reveal many a hidden and even threatened treasure waiting to be discovered. Secondly, many of the valuable and exportoriented herbs and Essential/ Perfume Oil plants can be grown to furnish a prosperous Cottage Industry. Farmers who are engaged in the commercial growing of these minor cash crops are called enlightened. Their returns are greater and lives more rewarding. Perhaps the oldest distillation plant for the extraction of essential oil has been discovered in Harrapa. Unfortunately this art is practically lost in Pakistan. Rising market demand of herbs and essential oils, in developed Countries, has prompted them to grow herbs under expensive cover to catch the early spring and late fall markets. It is in these market niches where a comparative advantage can be obtained by appropriate manipulation of the growing process[4] (Inexpensive, Environment Controlled, Kitchen Garden Structures with Community growing for export). Joint Ventures with Foreign Importers should be examined. European consumption lies in the use of fresh culinary herbs, herbs used in pharmacy, perfumery or as insecticides and fungicides. An estimate from the Agri Business cell, way back in 1994, revealed that 75 % of Imports into Europe consisted of six herbs: Sage, Oregano, Marjoram, Mint, Thyme and Rosemary. Parsley is the most used herb but demand is met by local production. Other herbs are Basil, Bay leaves, Savory, Tarragon and Dill. Tariffs are not a problem. However, stringent quality requirements, phytosanitary control regulations and the closed distribution network for retail packs are the difficulties that have to be surmounted.

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Figure 14: Illustrations from How to Grow Herbs, A Sunset Book, 1975 and Natural Home Remedies, Karen Sullivan, Time-Life Books, 1997. The word herb is derived from the Latin herba, which means grass. There are three generally accepted[4] definitions of an herb. Botanically, herbs are non-woody annual, biennial (plant that completes its life cycle in two years, without flowering in the first year) and perennial plants that die back each year after blossoming. Another definition describes them as any of the herbaceous plants valued for their flavor, fragrance, or medicinal properties .In cooking; distinction is made between spices and herbs. Spices are usually considered to be derived from the root, bark, fruit or berries of perennial plants. Herbs are the leaves only of low growing shrubs and herbaceous plants. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) states that there is no clear-cut distinction between spices and condiments. As such they are grouped together. These terms are applied to natural plants or vegetable products or a mixture thereof, in whole or ground form, as are used for imparting flavor, aroma and piquancy to and for the seasoning of food. Plant parts, flowers, leaves, fruit and seed contain and emit sweet and pleasant aromas. They are used extensively in the perfume and food industry all over the World. There is a growing trend in trade in these plants and their extracts.[5]

[3] [4] [5]

Healing Power of Herbs, Dr. John Heinerman, 1975. Herb Farming for Potential European Market, ABC, MINFAL, 1994. How to Grow Herbs. A Sunset Book, 1975.

Sustainability Development Planning: The basic wealth of any Country is its Natural Resources. These are divided into renewable and non-renewable. A just and equitable use of these resources is a rational use that provides benefits to all and ensures that this use is sustainable. This means using without using up ensuring that Natures abundance is not abused and only used in such a manner that it continues to provide its living abundance to all coming generations. We are presently concerned with two of the three major renewable resources. These are the soil and water. Our present and past usage of these resources leaves much to be desired. The Ecological Systems that sustain us are inter-linked and fragile. Thoughtless over exploitation renders them subject to degradation and eventual failure. Some of the immediate threats we are facing, due to our negligence are: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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Soil erosion. Decline in soil fertility. Increased soil borne pests. Denuded Watersheds. Ravaging flash floods. Increasing aridity. Receding Water Tables. Climate change. This results in reduced agricultural capacity, while population pressures continue to mount. To overcome these grave problems it is all the more necessary to make detailed and realistic plans for proper soil and water use and their consequent rejuvenation. Subsequently it is imperative that these plans be carried out in letter and spirit. The first conclusion that is drawn from any preliminary survey of the Districts Land and Water usage is that it is inappropriate to say the least. Primary data, that has been collected, supports this statement. In order to come up with a realistic Conservation or Sustainable Development Action Plan the first step is to make a Land and Water Resources Inventory. This is subdivided into Land and Water. Land Inventory: It is important to keep in mind the reason of making a Land Inventory. This is to provide the requisite Primary data that will enable maximum and rational use of every acre of land within the District Maximum in terms of economic returns that keeps in mind limited resources. Rational in terms of harmony with Nature and sustainability for coming generations. A Land Inventory is the first step towards ascertaining Land capability. This amounts to mapping the land to show: Kind of soil with respect to: Soil Characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. Effective soil depth. Texture of topsoil. Soil permeability. Type of parent material. Land Characteristics: 1. 2. 3. Slope. Degree of erosion. Wetness of soil. Effective Soil Depth. Depth of a soil, down to a restrictive layer such as bedrock or hardpan, is known as Effective Soil depth. This is the depth to which plants roots can penetrate and moisture can be stored:

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Table 4: Effective Soil Depths. Sr Range Descriptive Term Symbol . 1 > 60 inches. Very deep 1 2 36 - 60 inches.Deep 2 3 20 - 36 inches.Moderately deep 3 4 10 - 20 inches. Shallow 4 5 0 - 10 inches. Very shallow 5 Soil depth is determined with the help of a soil auger.

Texture of Topsoil: The surface 6 to 8 inches of soil is called the topsoil. This is the depth that is normally worked in soil tillage operations. Soil texture is a good indicator of soil erodability and rate of infiltration of water into the soil. The relative proportions of the various size groups of individual soil grains in a mass of soil are the benchmark of soil texture. Silt, clay and sand with less than 2-mm diameter are considered. The amount of these three materials in a representative soil sample determines its texture class. The higher the percentage of sand the lighter the soil and as silt and clay content increases, the soil becomes progressively heavier. Table 5: Topsoil Texture. Sr. Textural Class Descriptive Term 1 Heavy clay. Very fine (very heavy) 2 Clay, silty clay, sandy clay, silty dryFine (heavy) loam, clay loam. 3 Clay-loam, silt-loam, loam, very fineMedium sandy loam. 4 Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loamyCoarse (very light) fine sand. 5 Loamy sand, sand, coarse sand. Very coarse (very light) 6 Well-decomposed organic soil. 7 Undecomposed organic soil. 8 Texture classes not separated. Muck Peat Undifferentiated

Symbol V H M L C O P X

The occurrence of coarse fragments in a soil, in sufficient quantities to influence land use, sometimes necessitates further modification of textural classes. These are represented by lower- case letters, which precede the above upper-case symbols. Table 6: Topsoil Texture Modifiers. Sr. Size Range 1 2 3 4 Fragments up to 3 inches in diameter. Fragments 3 to 10 inches in diameter. Fragments more than 10 inches in diameter. Rock outcrops of the bedrock.

Descriptive Term Gravelly Cobbly Stony Rocky

Symbol G C S R

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Soil Permeability: This is defined as the ability of air and water to move through a soil. Infiltration rate is the rate at which water enters a soil from the surface. As opposed to this soil permeability is measured as the amount of water that will pass through a column of saturated soil, of a given cross-section, under a specific hydraulic gradient, in a unit of time. The number that represents soil permeability is related to the rate of water movement through that soil under the top 10 inches. This number gives the soil permeability up to a point where a different zone of permeability exists. This zone is not to be confused with the zone that restricts root penetration and is restricted to the effective soil depth. Therefore in case such a zone exists in the soil under examination, two numbers are given representing the two permeability zones. In cases of deep surveys, for example those required for drainage systems, a third number is given. In such cases the first number will represent permeability at a depth of 10 to 36 inches, the second at a depth of 3 to 5 feet and the third will represent permeability from 5 to 9 feet. Table 7: Soil Permeability. Sr. Rate inches/ hour Probable texture Class Symbol 1 < than 0.05 Very fine or fine Very slow 1 2 0.05 to 0.2 Very fine or fine Slow 2 3 0.2 to 0.8 Fine or medium Moderately slow 3 4 0.8 to 2.5 Medium Moderate 4 5 2.5 to 5.0 Coarse Moderately rapid 5 6 5.0 to 10.0 Very coarse Rapid 6 7 > than 10.0 Very coarse and gravelly Very rapid 7 Parent Material: Primary soils are those that have been formed by soil forming processes from the underlying material. In the case of primary soils, the underlying parent material is always shown, regardless of depth. Secondary soil is that soil that has been formed from soil material that has been transported from some other location by wind or water. Table 8: Underlying Material. Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Material Acid crystalline rock Basic crystalline rock Serpentine Loess Shale, fine-grained sedimentary rock Sandstone, coarse-grained sedimentary rock Glacial material Limestone Muck Peat Sand Cemented hardpan – including hard caliche Semi-consolidated alluvium Lacustrine material Clay pan Gravel Symbol A B C D E F G L M P Q R S V Y Z

Slope: Soil and Water Conservation is influenced to a large extent by the degree of slope of the land. Slope is represented in percentage and this has been grouped according to influence on erosion and water. A one- percent slope means one-foot vertical drop for 100 feet horizontal distance. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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Table 9: Slope of Land. Sr. Slope Range inDescriptive Term Percent 1 0 to 2 Nearly level 2 2 to 5 Gently sloping 3 5 to 9 Moderately sloping 4 9 to 16 Strongly sloping 5 16 to 31 Moderately steep 6 31 to 51 Steep 7 51 to 76 Very steep 8 76 plus

Symbol A B C D E F G H

Slope of land is usually measured with a hand level. Slopes are not always uniform and as such do not always fall into the ranges given. In such case it is possible to combine two or more symbols, e.g. CD or a slope that ranges from 5 to 16 percent. In cases where slopes are uniform the symbol can be preceded by the exact %, e.g. 8C. Soil Erosion: Soil erosion refers to removal of soil by natural forces such as water or wind. The degree of erosion is classified by studying the soil profile and by degree of gullying that has occurred. Table 10: Degree of Erosion. Sr. Range Descriptive Term 1 < 25 % of original topsoil or originalNo apparent, or slight, erosion plowed layer removed. 2 25 to 75 % of original topsoil or originalModerate erosion plowed layer removed; occasional gullies may be present. 3 From 75 % of original topsoil to 25 % ofSevere erosion subsoil removed; occasional deep gully or frequent shallow gullies may be present. 4 All original topsoil and 25 to 75 % ofVery severe erosion subsoil removed. 5 Intricate network of very frequent gullies. Very severe gullies

Symbol 1 2 3 4 5

Degree of Wetness: Degree of wetness is the amount of free water within the normal root zone. Where it interferes with normal plant growth, it is taken into consideration. Water in the root zone may be the result of slow drainage or due to a fluctuating water table. This should not be confused with soil permeability, as a soil with good permeability may be wet due to poor underlying drainage. Table 11: Degree of Wetness. Sr. Range Descriptive Term Symbol 1 Choice of crops slightly limited, or planting datesSlightly wet land W1 slightly delayed 2 Crops are moderately affected or planting datesModerately wet land W2 delayed 3 Crops seriously affected or delayed Very wet land W3 4 Swamp or marsh; too wet for cultivated crops Extremely wet land W4 Some land is subject to overflow at varied intervals and for varied periods of duration. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Frequency of this action and length of duration may affect farming operations. In such cases it is included in the Land Inventory. Table 12: Frequency of Overflow. Sr. Range Descriptive Term Symbol 1 Crops occasionally damaged orOccasional overflow or of f1 planting delayed short duration 2 Crops frequently damaged or rangeFrequent overflow or of f2 of crops limited long duration 3 Growing of cultivated crops notVery frequent overflow or f3 feasible of very long duration Standard Mapping Symbols: The symbols shown above are standard, in order to overcome any possibility of confusion. Further they are represented on the map, in a standard manner, as a fraction symbol. Soil characteristics are shown as the numerator and land characteristics as the denominator. Soil: Slope - Erosion From a Land Inventory it is possible to determine the ability of the land to produce and the type of action that must be taken to protect it or enhance its productivity. Land Classes: Land classes are divided into two main categories: Suitable for Cultivation. Not Suitable for Cultivation. These are further divided into sub-categories: Class I: Deep, nearly level land that is not easily erodable. Suitable for all types of crops as determined by limiting factors like climate and light intensity. Class II: Good land with moderate limitations. Any one of the factors that are determined by the Land Inventory and less than ideal, cause this distinction. Class III: Moderately good land that can be cultivated with regular crop rotation. Class IV: This is land where long rotation between pasture and grain crops should be maintained on a 3 – 4 year basis. Class V: These may be level and not subject to erosion but may be unsuited to cultivation due to limiting factors as determined by the Land Inventory. Class VI: These may be somewhat limited to pasture or forest because of shallow soils or steep slopes. Class VII: These have severe limitations for pasture or forestry. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Class VIII: These lands are not suited for cultivation, pasture or forestry. Zoning: The method of regulating Land use in accordance to the best use that suits the overall community and the area itself by restricting usage and arranging components of the area in relation to a specified plan. Zoning is important for Sustainability as well as the equitable public regulation of private and government property. A zoning exercise is rigid only in so far as topological details are concerned. Principles should be adhered to without going into too many details. This leaves room for rational adjustments in accordance to future requirements. Use density in any sense is specified and sustainability or using without using up or causing irretrievable damage is ensured. Most of this data can be depicted graphically on various layers of a map. Urban. Civic. Business. Industrial. Residential. Recreational. Institutional. Cultural Heritage. Rural. Built-up area. Residential. Commercial. Institutional. Agricultural. Rangeland Wilderness. Forest. Recreational. Pristine. Reserves. Parks. Protected Areas. Heritage. Zoning is important for Sustainability as well as the equitable public regulation of private and government property. A zoning exercise is rigid only in so far as topological details are concerned. Principles should be adhered to without going into too many details. This leaves room for rational adjustments in accordance to future requirements. Use density in any sense is specified and sustainability or using without using up or causing irretrievable damage is ensured. Procedure: The procedure and manner of carrying out the exercise can be as follows (with necessary alterations depending upon specific sites). Declaration of Intent. Submission of Plan and Budgetary estimates (1 month). Government Sanction. Invitation of Public objections (1 month). Government consideration of objections, holding of inquiries if required and subsequent Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

sanction for preparation (1-2 months). Preparation and publication in consultation with stakeholders (12 – 18 months). Invitation of Public objections to draft scheme (1 month). Consideration of objections, modification of draft scheme if required and submission for Government sanction (4 months). Sanction of draft scheme and appointment of arbitrator. Arbitrator proceedings for each area, publication of award and submission of detailed proposal (6 - 12 months). Scrutiny of proposals by Tribunal of Arbitration, public proceedings and decisions (4 months). Final scheme forwarded to Government. Final sanction after scrutiny and financial implications determination (5 months). Enforcement (1 month after sanction). 36 to 48 months. Objectives: The objectives of the exercise are: Provides overall framework for Sustainable development. Enables orderly expenditure of Public funds in prioritized manner on projects of permanent, constructive and sustainable value. Stimulates wider interest in and understanding of development and environmental issues. Minimizes mutual conflict and brings about harmony and understanding between different groups and members of society. Ensures stimulation of and ensures basic economy generation. Protection, preservation and enhancement of the economic, social, cultural, environmental and aesthetic character of the District. Bill: [6] The urban sprawl and haphazard, unplanned construction in the District especially in the thickly populated areas has created problems not only directly related to growth but has begun to endanger the environment and our very way of life. It has therefore become necessary to empower and give guidelines to the local bodies to immediately arrest such growth hence the Bill to enable local councils to specify areas for Land Use. Whereas it is expedient to enable local councils in the Province to specify and designate areas in their local limits for land use for the management of growth, encouraging comprehensive planning, governing the development and use of land, regulating non-conforming use and to preserve the environment and our way of life and matters ancillary thereto in a manner that is economically feasible, socially just and environmentally sound in order to achieve Sustainable Development. It is Hereby Enacted as Follows: 1. This act may be called the Malakand Division Local Council Land Use & Sustainable Development Enabling Act, 2001. A simple enabling provision could of course be inserted in an already existing Act; however, this Act envisages the outline of the sort of zoning required by a Local Council.[7] 1.1 It shall extend to the whole of the District. 1.2 It shall come into force at once. * Although the Federal Government has declared certain Nature Reserves, there is no law either Provincial or Federal that would enable any Department or Organization to do so. 2. In this Act unless the subject context otherwise requires: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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“Construction” means any man made structure whether temporary or permanent, built upon the land requiring displacement of earth or change in nature of the land. “Designated” means designated by a Notification issued by the Local Council. “Government” means Government of ------------ District. “Local Areas” means an area under the jurisdiction of the Local Council. “Local Council” means Local Council constituted under the N.W.F.P. Local Council Ordinance, 1979 but does not include the Union Council. * Union Councils have been excluded from Local Councils, as it would create insurmountable problems at that tier of Government. “Record of Rights” means and includes the document detailed in section 39 of the N.W.F.P. Land Revenue Act, 1967. “Shamilat” means and includes any area so shown in record of rights. “Zone” means an area specified or designated under this Act. * The District should be enabled to plan and specify areas for particular use in order to realize its own needs and secondly to involve the community itself in the exercise. The list of zones has been shaped not to be overly specific but only to provide a framework towards planning. It shall ensure that haphazard overlapping of each zone does not take place. At the same time it would make it incumbent upon each Local Council to carry out zoning exercises as the following section puts a moratorium upon all construction until this exercise is completed. This list is not exhaustive and may need further vetting of town planning etc. 3. The Local Council shall designate the Local Areas within the Local Limits into one or more of the following Zones: Zone A. Low density residential areas consisting of single or double story residential detached homes of not less than 1 kanal plot size along with allied facilities and laid down setbacks. Zone B. Medium density residential areas consisting of double story houses of less than 1 Kanal plot size with allied facilities and laid down setbacks. Zone C. High-density residential areas of no limit on plot sizes and erected structures and allied facilities there upon. Zone D. Commercial area consisting of retail shops, bazaars and markets. Zone E. Commercial areas consisting of no limits, high rise shopping malls and other retail outlets and commercial bazaars. Zone F. Commercial area consisting of service areas such as motor mechanics and other service providers requiring large plot sizes. Zone G. Warehouses, godowns and mundies. Zone H. Industrial areas consisting of small and medium size industries and cottage industries. Zone I. Industrial areas of no limits large industries. * The proviso will ensure that the courts could go into the question of malafide changes thereby keeping a check upon such misuse. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Zone J. Agricultural area where no construction of more than 2000 sq. ft. is allowed for a minimum plot of 3 acres or more. * Urban area planning is already envisaged in the local body’s ordinance; however this has not been implemented. This section will not only solve that problem but shall also include the unplanned urbanization taking place in the rural areas. Zone K. Forest areas with regulated felling/ re-planting. Zone L. Rangelands for grazing/ pastures. Zone M. Natural reserves where no construction, agriculture, hunting or any human activity is allowed. Zone N. Shamilat land, community service areas such as parks, schools, mosques, grazing land, graveyards, etc. * The concept of Shamilat exists traditionally in our society. This concept is incorporated in the record of rights; the absence of any law regulating the use of such land has defeated its envisaged purpose of common village land to be used by its owners for collective benefit. This section aims to remedy that problem and give to the local council large tracts of land which could be used by them for community development and at the same time ensure and arrest misappropriation by individual Deh owners and preserve village communities as we know them today. It would also ensure resumption of all such land that has been encroached upon over the years. Zone O. Any other zone with the prior permission of the Government. * As the above section takes away the rights of the individual to make any construction after the designation of the zones and it is envisaged that all areas of the District (except the cantonments) shall be so zoned, it would be necessary to safeguard the existing construction. However, it is also envisaged that at a point later in time these areas must also fall in line with the designated zones as we have already allowed cancerous growth to overtake our cities and villages. 4. The local council may redesignate any zone or change its boundaries with the prior permission of the Government, provided that such a change or redesignation is not made maliciously. 5. A complete moratorium is hereby placed upon all construction and land use in the District until: 5.1 Master plan has been drawn under section 76 of the N.W.F.P. Local Government Ordinance, 1979 and approved by the District Government. 5.2 The local council for the areas falling within their local limits specifies zones. 6. Ownership and possession of Shamilat lands shall be deemed to vest exclusively in the local council within whose local area the Shamilat is situated. 7. The existing construction legally made before the commencement of this Act shall remain outside the ambit of this law until a procedure is laid down by the local council in the rules framed under this Act whereby a time frame shall be set out to put the existing construction in conformity with the zones specified under this Act. 8. The local council may: 8.1 Make rules to carry out the purpose of this Act. 8.2 Make byelaws to further manage, control and govern the zones designated by the local council. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

[6] [7]

Anjum Saeed, Rotary Club Abbottabad. Paras in Italics by the Author, Sirdar Timur Hyat-Khan.

The conditions for food security in the rural areas are not sustainable as existing Cultural Practices as well as Fertilizer/ Pesticide Regimes are harmful to the environment. Environment and Predator Protection are very much needed as nutrient leaching and absence of organic material and biota are severely restricting yields and aggravating pest and disease susceptibility. The problem is further compounded by the fact that we are practicing out dated and harmful methods of agriculture and horticulture. Unstabalized and inappropriate fertilizers that have been proved to be detrimental to the environment and cause conditions that lead to extensive use of Pesticides that are further damaging, are the rule of the day. This has led to Chemical Fertilizer and Pesticide Companies having a heyday at the expense of the poor farmer; the environment; biodiversity and human health. Environmental Pollution and degradation in the shape of liquid and biodegradable solid waste are spreading disease and contaminating the aquifers that are a source of drinking water for our coming generations. Wastewater Gardens are small-scale sewage treatment systems similar to Reedbeds, which use Phytoremediation (using plants for remediation of liquid waste) and Bioaugmentation (addition of specific non-toxic bacteria) and are efficient biological remediation measures that produce biomass as a byproduct while providing water fit for agriculture or aquaculture. Biodegradable Solid Waste is spreading disease and encouraging the prolific infestation of disease vectors such as rats; flies; mosquitoes etc. Rapid bioaugmented composting by addition of non-toxic bacteria suited to the task of breaking down degradable solid waste along with favorable conditions produce valuable soil amendment within weeks. In order to ensure Kitchen Garden Food SelfSufficiency at the very minimum and provide a basis for safe, more quantity and quality produce the problem needs to be addressed immediately. 6.1 Plant Protection through complete plant nutrition is very much achievable and desirable as introduction of toxic materials in the name of plant protection is extremely detrimental to the food chain. Introduction of Permaculture; Polyculture and Direct Seed; No-Till Farming to mimic the Forest Biome Eco Friendly Regime is the need of the times! Landless rural poor and females are marginalized with restricted economy generating capacity. They need to be focused upon by providing Food Security as well as Micro Industry/ Enterprise at their door steps. 6.2 Sustainable Development is not possible without sustainable agriculture. Environmental pollution of soil, water and air; resource depletion and nature degradation as well as socioeconomic problems, are seriously impacting the carrying capacity of the land. As such there is an urgent requirement for upland farming systems to be redesigned and transformed into more sustainable ones. Agriculture is a multifunctional and multiple objective activity which has to supply food in sufficient quantity and quality and the supply itself must be stable, sustainable and accessible. Agriculture must provide employment and generate basic income and profit at farm, regional and national levels and strictly avoid and minimize land degradation and destabilization; pollution of natural resources, protect the great cycles of nature; as well as ensure the overall health and well-being of humans, animals, birds, insects and microbes. 6.3 Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and perennial agricultural systems that mimic the relationships found in natural ecologies. Permanent agriculture is understood as agriculture that can be sustained indefinitely by creating stable agricultural systems. This has arisen from observation of rapidly growing use of destructive industrial-agricultural methods. These methods are poisoning the land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of soil from previously fertile landscapes. The term permaculture initially meant "permanent agriculture" but was quickly expanded to also stand for "permanent culture" as it was seen that social aspects were an integral part of a truly sustainable system. By the early 1980s, the concept had moved on from Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

being predominantly about the design of agricultural systems towards being a more fully holistic design process for creating sustainable human habitats. Permaculture's fundamental contribution to the field of ecological design is the development of a concise set of broadly applicable organizing principles that can be transferred through a brief intensive training. Modern permaculture is a system design tool. It is a way of: 1. Looking at a whole system or problem; 2. Observing how the parts relate; 3. Planning to mend damaged systems by applying ideas learnt from long-term sustainable working systems; 4. Seeing connections between key parts. "Radical design of information-rich, multi-storey polyculture systems" (Mollison & Slay 1991). Permaculture is a broad-based and holistic approach that has many applications to all aspects of life. At the heart of permaculture design and practice is a fundamental set of ‘core values’ or ethics which remain constant whatever a person's situation, whether they are creating systems for town planning or trade; whether the land they care for is only a window box or an entire forest. These 'ethics' are often summarized as; • Earthcare – recognizing that Earth is the source of all life, that Earth is our valuable home, and that we are a part of Earth, not apart from it. • Peoplecare – supporting and helping each other to change to ways of living that do not harm ourselves or the planet, and to develop healthy societies. • Fairshare (or placing limits on consumption) - ensuring that Earth's limited resources are used in ways that are equitable and wise. Modern thought about permaculture began with the issue of sustainable food production. It started with the belief that for people to feed themselves sustainably, they need to move away from reliance on industrialized agriculture. Where industrial farms use technology powered by fossil fuels (such as gasoline, diesel and natural gas), and each farm specializes in producing high yields of a single crop, permaculture stresses the value of low inputs and diverse crops. The model for this was an abundance of small-scale market and home gardens for food production, and a main issue was food miles. Such a web of intricate connections allows a diverse population of plant life and animals to survive by giving them food and shelter. One of the innovations of permaculture design was to appreciate the efficiency and productivity of natural ecosystems, to use natural energies (wind, gravity, solar, fire, wave and more) and seek to apply this to the way human needs for food and shelter are met.

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Figure 15: Stratification. Permaculture Guilds are groups of plants, animals and micro bacteria which work particularly well together. The Three Sisters of maize, squash and beans is a well known guild. The seven layers of the forest garden. In permaculture and forest gardening, seven layers are identified: 1. The canopy 2. Low tree layer (dwarf fruit trees) 3. Shrubs 4. Herbaceous 5. Rhizosphere (root crops) 6. Soil Surface (cover crops) 7. Vertical Layer (climbers, vines) An eighth layer, Mycosphere (fungi), is often included. Permaculture has also been used successfully as a development tool to help meet the needs of indigenous communities facing degraded standards of living from development of land and the introduction of industrialized food, “Demonstrating new ways of low impact, sustainable living". 6.4 Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, and inter-cropping. Alley cropping is a simplification of the layered system which typically uses just two layers, with alternate rows of trees and smaller plants. 6.5 Rational Farming: The Natural World is subject to certain Laws and patterns that serve to maintain a balance. This balance has led to evolutionary adaptation and development of life forms that are at the same time dependent upon Nature or the Eco System that they inhabit in the overall Environment as well as interdependent upon each other for survival. However, there exist numerous and often deleterious affect causing, human and pest interventions that must be rationally and sustainably managed on a sustained or self sustaining basis in order to perpetuate the Bioenvironment and avoid breakdown. Homo Technicalis has the ability to either nurture or destroy this delicate balance. Only complete understanding and careful monitoring can ensure correct and proper Bioenvironmental Management. The existing Food Chains and Webs need to be reinforced and replenished in order to ensure health and continued functioning. The vital human requirements for food, water, and air cannot be left to the mercy of ruthless, short sighted and short-term exploitation that leaves death, destruction, and permanent loss in its wake! A factor common to all of the before mentioned agricultural developments and indeed part of them is Plant Nutrition. In fact, the basis of the controversy is the deleterious effects of Plant Nutrition as Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

introduced by the Green Revolution. Rather than only highlight the positive results accrued by this revolution, it would serve humanity to take lessons from past mistakes or oversights and move to correct them. This does not take from venerable reputations but rather reinforces them by provision of continuity rather than termination. A greater and deeper understanding of organics and their inorganic building blocks is badly required. Organics are high-energy-level compounds that have arisen due to energy input (usually from the sun) to low-energy-level inorganic elements and or compounds. Thus, low-energy-level inorganic materials arise to constitute the parts of high-energy-level organic compounds and entities of progressively higher life forms that, in turn are subject to reversion to low-energy-level inorganic materials on decomposition and/ or death1. With this as a fact, there is absolutely no basis for an organic versus inorganic debate what so ever. The debate should revolve around the safety of the introduction by humans of fabricated materials into the environment. In case they are not safe then safer materials need to be developed and unsafe materials need to be banned, immediately or whenever such safe materials are available. It is an inescapable fact that all life forms require nutrition to maintain life. Modern research has shown that a life form must change its physical constituents quite rapidly in order to meet its growth and existence requirements. Indeed, we require a constant supply of all kinds of atoms, molecules, and compounds in order to replace what is being lost. The environment provides us with air and water to fulfill our need and indeed that of all life forms with Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen which make up over 90% of the life form’s body, be it human, animal or plants. Apart from this there are a number of essential raw materials required; this ranges from eighteen to forty for human beings. Of these eighteen are most commonly required, i.e. fifteen apart from the three already mentioned. These elements are the same for humans, animals, and plants. As yet however, only plants are able to synthesize these raw materials into assimilable forms and make them available to humans and animals on an economic scale. There are six classes of nutrients for humans; of these four supply indispensable building materials. These are water; protein; minerals and vitamins. The other two are classed as energy foods (carbohydrates and fats, oils) and are interchangeable whereas the previous four are not. Just as living organisms shed their components and replace them on a continuous basis thereby consuming energy so too does Nature constantly consume energy through breakdown of organic matter, weathering process in the soil, the hydrothermal cycle, and mobility of substances in soil, water, and air. Many dynamic and interdependent chains and cycles exist within the Biosphere as elements are cycled and recycled, are consumed and/ or replenished, subjected to output losses due to lack of input: output balance. Stable Eco Systems are those wherein minerals (essential elements) and particulate material are retained by recycling them within its constituent sub-systems. It is important to note that rebuilding of this dynamic recycling, in case of disruption, can take from 60 to 80 years and longer depending upon the severity of the disruption. Secondly, it has taken millions of years for these Eco Systems to evolve. For instance, soil that has been either deposited or built up in millions of years can be lost within a few years if mismanaged. Thus, large quantities of minerals are removed. If Compost or well-rotted Farm Yard Manure is inculcated in the soil, quantities of these minerals are returned to the soil and fertility is replenished to the extent of addition. Since Farm Yard Manure does not contain sufficient minerals to replace those removed, unless prohibitively large quantities of rarely available manure are added. Even when composted with biodegradable organic material, the output: input ratio is not balanced. Thus, agricultural soils face continuous depletion (Nutrient Mining). This is compounded by runoff and leaching losses due to poor cultural practices. Thirdly, over use of deadly pesticides and herbicides tend to kill or eliminate useful biota in the form of microbes and fungi. These biota are of vital importance as they mineralize organic material and provide them to plants and other energy pathways within the Eco System. Therefore, if uptake is value 5, retention is 1 and return is 2, then Nutrient Mining output: input ratio will be 5:3 representing a net loss of 2 per crop leading to declining fertility. When organic material and
1

Environment Systems Engineering, Linvil G. Rich. Mcgraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-052250-2

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biota are absent or deficient then the even 2 return is not or partially mineralized and will not be available to the plants. Thus, our Nutrient Reserves are soon exhausted. If cultivated land is managed correctly, nutrient reserves can be replenished and fertility levels can be increased. For example, nutrient loss from the Eco System is minimized by presence of plants that hold soil through their roots and thus prevent erosion; convert water run-off to evapo-transpiration and restrict leaching losses; provide shade and reduce rates of decomposition of organic matter so that the supply of soluble ions available for loss via run-off is lessened. If sufficient nutrients and compounds are provided to the plant, uptake from the reserve is curtailed and soil fertility is maintained. These nutrients etc. must be in a chemical form that makes it available to the plant and must be stable and safe for the environment. Thus, we see that provision of Plant Nutrition and Correct Cultural Practices are of prime importance. These are common to all seed; often critical for hybrid or Genetically Modified Organisms. If either of these two is not rational, the result is poor quality and quantity produce as well as more susceptibility of the plant to Negative Growth Factors and pest attacks. Thus, we see that humans require minerals either directly from plants or from animals dependent upon plants (meat, milk, eggs etc.). It is the human, animal or plant that makes organic compounds out of basic essential building materials. Some of these organic compounds are known as hormones, which are described as chemical messengers that excite one response or the other in the body’s organs or tissues. Plants normally obtain their mineral requirements from the soil and the ability of a soil to provide the proper elements and compounds, in proper amounts and in proper balance for growth of specified plants when temperature and other factors are favorable is what determines soil fertility (proper means in the ionic forms commonly absorbed by the plant).

Figure 16: Farmyard Rapid Composting with Bioaugmentation. It is highly recommended to use compost or manure for its primary beneficial roles such as:

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Table 13: Composting Benefits. Nutrient provision either by seed coating (not sufficient due to limited amount of nutrients that can be coated) or foliar application, ensures that the target plant is the sole beneficiary and weeds or other undesirable plant species do not receive the nutrient. Secondly, loss by leaching or run-off is reduced to almost zero. This is more so if the nutrients are chelated {derived from the Greek ‘Chelae’ or Claw and used to denote covering an element with organic material to provide ionic bonding affect of cation: anion (positive & negative ion attraction)}. The chelated nutrient ions bond to the leaf and stem surface and resist being washed off till they have a reasonable chance of being absorbed by the plant’s tissue. If we ensure that the nutrient element that we are providing to our crops are not dangerous to the environment and other life forms. If we provide the crops with these safe nutrients in a responsible manner and if these nutrients are sufficiently stable and do not decompose to toxic material through either hydrolysis or volatilization. Then there is no point what so ever in deriding their use. Von Liebeg’s Law states that the yield of a crop is limited by the nutrient in least supply. This means that supply of whichever of the essential building materials is restricted in terms of quantities required by the plant, it will restrict the yield. This is compared to a bucket with holes for various nutrients placed in accordance to amounts required. As these amounts are met, the hole is plugged and nutrient intake increases to the next critical nutrient element required by the plant. Maximum genetic potential yields are achieved only when all holes are plugged. Of course soil, management systems; cultural practices; climate, environment, mutual antagonism, or stimulation between various minerals and Negative Growth Factors play their own critical role in determining yields. If there are enough nutrients available for the following yields, total yield will be determined by the least available nutrient in terms of the plant’s requirements,

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Nutrient Yield (Kgs) Nitrogen 1000 Phosphorus 800 Potassium 600 Sulfur 1000 Magnesium 800 Calcium 300 ------------------------------Molybdenum 150 Table 14: Nutrient/ Yields. The yield will be restricted to 150 Kgs. It is important to note that this is true for crops of all kinds, under all management systems and independent of source or manner of derivation of the plant. In other words, this inescapable fact holds true for Organic; Super Organic; Smartly Bred or Genetically Modified Organisms. Therefore, our Management requirement is to provide enough environmentally safe and available forms of nutrients to fulfill the needs of the plant. This ensures achievement of genetic potential apart from other factors. These other factors such as water; climate; cultural practices and control of Negative Growth Factors (NGF), are also managed in order to achieve maximum genetic potential (MPG). The presence of nutrients in compost or manure is negligible as compared to an intensive crop’s requirements. Intensive cropping means intensive mining of finite supplies of nutrients available in any given soil. As we all know, soils vary greatly in nutrient availability, and inculcation of compost or manure is one way of replenishing these nutrient supplies. However, we have seen that there are inefficient and do not contain enough nutrients to fulfill the plant’s requirements. Added to this is the fact that particular nutrient deficient soils will not have sufficient amounts of that nutrient to cycle into the food chain and will eventually not only restrict the crop’s yield but will also not be available to the humans and animals that feed upon plants grown on such soils. If this element is lacking it will not find its way either into manure or compost and the cycle of deficiency will be reinforced. To overcome this, the element has to be obtained externally. Secondly, and more importantly, it is prohibitively expensive to analyze and update soil analysis for all elements required by a plant. On the other hand, how much of each nutrient is required by a particular species of plant for a given yield is known to science. There are some critical periods for plant development wherein growth and yield increase with increased availability of nutrients that can be used by the plant. Foliar feeding with correct combinations of nutrients as required by the plant in different growth periods will provide increased growth and vigor resulting in increased yields, weather proofing and disease resistance. Another factor that increases yields is the prolonging of root life after flowering in order to provide longer time for grain/ fruit to fill. In order to do this we need to keep the root growing vegetatively during the early period and after flowering, we need to elongate the period of root life. Plateau corresponds to flowering % Root Growth Death Drought Good Weather Days Figure 17: Root Life. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

This is done by hormones. The hormone balance of a plant is responsible for dictating its response to environmental factors. Changes in climate affect hormone balance. This is more in some varieties and less in others. This is dictated by the genetics of a plant. Down through the centuries humans have domesticated and then bred plants for desirable genetic traits. These genetic traits need to be tapped by the plant and this is only possible through the support of complete plant nutrition. However, genetic expression of potential can be modified to weatherproof a plant and ensure that climate change has less impact upon yields. 6.6 Animals & Fowl: Traditional pre-industrial agriculture was labor intensive, industrial agriculture is fossil fuel intensive and permaculture is design and information intensive and petrofree. Partially permaculture is an attempt to work smarter, not harder; and when possible the energy used should come from renewable sources such as wind power, passive solar designs or biofuels. A good example of this kind of efficient design is the chicken greenhouse. By attaching the chicken coop to a greenhouse you can reduce the need to heat the greenhouse by fossil fuels, as the chicken's bodies heat the area. The chickens scratching and pecking can be put to good use to clear new land for crops. Their manure can be used in composting to fertilize the soil. Feathers could be used in compost or as mulch. In a conventional factory situation all these chicken outputs are seen as a waste problem. Thus it is a further principle of permaculture that "pollution is energy in the wrong place".

Figure 18: Bio Tractor. Chickens in a chicken tractor prepare a section of land before it's dug up for a new vegetable bed. Chickens can be used as a method of weed control and also as a producer of eggs, meat and fertilizer. Some types of agroforestry systems combine trees with grazing animals. Angora breed of rabbits can be reared in a similar manner to provide high value fiber without attendant rearing costs as in sheep etc.

Figure 19: Angora Breeds. Angora rabbits survive and remain highly productive at altitudes ranging from 1,100 to 2,000 metres above sea level. They can also be reared on locally available resources, e.g., food, grass, and building materials (i.e., geodesic dome rabbit hutches can be made out of twigs and winter pruning). A few years after they were introduced into the hills of Nepal and India, they began to gain popularity Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

rapidly, mainly because of the high-value wool production from this breed of rabbits. A pair of Angora rabbits can produce wool worth thousands of rupees per year. As the wool is extremely light and of high value, rabbit keeping is particularly suitable and profitable for farmers in remote and inaccessible areas. Angora skin is also sold at high prices. The skin is used to make bags, hats, and gloves. The fiber is used to make sweaters; shawls and scarves. In addition, rabbit manure is valuable for crop production. Rabbit meat has yet to gain popularity, but it is a rich source of protein. Well established local Shawl Weaving and demand as well as substantial export potential exists by simply making a high value source of income available at the doorsteps of the deprived and marginalized sections of society. The Islampur model (Swat) can be replicated for maximizing impact and efficient use of added raw material availability depending upon the extent of Angora Rabbits breeding. 6.7 Promotion of Rain Water Harvesting: Broad Goals • Reduction of drudgery for females. • Check Soil Erosion. • Female Empowerment. Specific Objectives • Environmental conservation and enhancement through check on soil erosion and recharge of aquifers. • Community mobilization and training. • Female Empowerment. Quantitative Targets • Establishment of PMU in Muzaffarabad to implement the project. • Train 500 Master Trainers in constructing water harvesting structures and demonstrate replicable models. • Impact population of 5.00 million. • Launch advocacy and awareness campaigns, and take all legal initiatives to develop water conservation and ensuring purity. Water harvesting refers to the collection and storage of rainwater and also other activities aimed at harvesting surface and groundwater, prevention of losses through evaporation and seepage and all other hydrological studies and engineering interventions, aimed at conservation and efficient utilization of the limited water endowment of a physiographic unit such as a watershed. In general, water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater. The rainwater collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater. Rivers, lakes and groundwater are all secondary sources of water. At present, we depend entirely on such secondary sources of water. In the process, we forget that rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these secondary sources and remain ignorant of its value. Water harvesting means to understand the value of rain, and to make optimum use of rainwater at the place where it falls. We get a lot of rain, yet we do not have water. The annual rainfall over Malakand Division is computed to be ------- mm. This is -------- compared to the global average of 800 mm. However, this rainfall occurs during short spells of high intensity. Because of such intensities and short duration of heavy rain, most of the rain falling on the surface tends to flow away rapidly, leaving very little for the recharge of groundwater. This is also due to deforestation. This makes parts of the State experience lack of water even for domestic uses. This is because the rainwater is not conserved and allowed to drain away. Thus it does not matter how much rain we get, if we don't capture or harvest it. This highlights the need to implement measures to ensure that the rain falling over a region is tapped as fully as possible through water harvesting, either by recharging it into the groundwater aquifers or storing it for direct use. Training in Rainwater Harvesting Operations: The SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will develop a Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

cadre of Master Trainers in construction and maintenance of water harvesting structures (500 men and women) each master trainer will then consequently train some 10 village activists with the support of the project team. The Master Trainers and other trainees will be selected in consultation with the local VOs organized by SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP in the area. The training will focus on low cost, alternate means of construction with emphasis on maintenance and sustainability of the interventions. The project team will train the Master Trainers on fast-track basis. It will be followed by regular backstopping and monitoring to create an impact. The selection of the Master Trainers will be on-merit, based on the following criteria: • Willingness to impart knowledge after receiving training. • Willingness to transfer the technology. Mobilization of local people and following up on the establishment of Rainwater harvesting will be jointly conducted by the local communities and the project staff. The cost of social mobilization and follow up will be reimbursed to the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. Water Harvesting: Rooftop harvesting has been practiced since ages, and even today it is practiced in many places throughout the world. A simple storage device attached to roof run off is the simplest way to harvest water. Many different types of containers are in use for storage purposes from used oil drums to polyethylene tanks. However, according to an ILO publication “Your Health and Safety at Work. Male and Female Reproductive Health Hazards in the Workplace”, polyethylene is “suspected” to cause cancer in human beings. The word suspected is further elaborated to mean where a substance shows inconclusive evidence of causing cancer in human beings but is confirmed in animals. Thus it is safer to avoid the use of polyethylene tanks. Secondly, transportation of large size containers is restricted. Therefore, a simple tried and tested alternate is proposed. This consists of Pre-Cast RCC Rings that are normally used in lining wells. The rings of 3 - 4 – or 5 feet diameter are stacked on each other to a specified height. An alternate reinforced monolithic water tank can be cast in place to achieve Earthquake Proof status. The intervention has been displayed in the Akhter Hameed Khan National Center for Rural Development (NCRD) at Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan. Here a series of plastered and un-plastered tanks demonstrate an affordable and quickly set up tank that is more permanent and carries the added advantage of maintaining water temperature. This is not so in the case of polyethylene or fiber glass tanks where summer temperatures cause stored water to heat up to uncomfortable levels thus restricting use. Thirdly, use of concrete is very common in the EQAA in the shape of hollow and solid blocks. Gravel is available in plenty and sand is readily procured. Communities can be persuaded to prepare the rings themselves after training and construct them at conveniently located sites, thereby stimulating local economies. Transportation costs will be reduced and storage till erection will not be a problem. To prevent leaves and debris from entering the system, mesh filters will be provided at the mouth of the drainpipe leading to the tank. Further, a first-flush device will be provided in the conduit before it connects to the storage container. If the stored water is to be used for drinking purposes, a sand filter will also be provided. The tank can be installed above the ground and outside the building. Each tank must have an overflow system for situations when excess water enters the tank. The overflow can be connected to the drainage system. The quantity of water stored in a water harvesting system depends on the size of the catchment area and the size of the storage tank. The storage tank has to be designed according to water requirements, rainfall and catchment availability. First-Flush Device: A first-flush device is a valve or a simple device, which is used to ensure that runoff from the first spell of rain, is flushed out and does not enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries with it a relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface. A diversion valve that can be used in water harvesting systems. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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Design parameters for storage tanks: 1. Average annual rainfall 2. Size of the catchment 3. Drinking water requirement The system is to be designed for meeting potable water requirement of a 7-member family living in a building with a rooftop area of 100 sq. m. Average annual rainfall in the region is ------mm. Minimum daily potable water requirement per person is 10 liters. Area of the catchment (A) = 100 sq. m. Average annual rainfall (R) = 1,300 mm (1.3 m) Runoff coefficient (C) = 0.7 Annual water harvesting potential from 100 sq. m. roof = A x R x C = 100 x 1.3 x 0.7 = 91 cu. m. (91,000 liters) say 20,000 gallons. The tank capacity has to be designed for the dry period, i.e., the period between the two consecutive rainy seasons. With a monsoon extending over four months and winter rains, the average dry season is of 46 days. Drinking water requirement for the family (dry season) = 46 x 7 x 10 = 3,220 liters As a safety factor, the tank should be built 20-30 per cent larger than required, i.e., say 1,000 gallons. This tank can meet the basic drinking water requirement of a 7-member family for the dry period. Alternately, kitchen garden requirements can be met by 20 cycles of full tank per annum. When attached with simple shift- able drip irrigation lines the area under intensive cultivation can be increased to cater for small-scale commercial production of vegetables and nursery stock. This can also be a further income strengthening project after initial successful completion of the 1st phase. Demand and Supply Analysis: There is great need of supplementing water availability at the door steps of the populace. With breakdown in supplies and dwindling fresh water sources the need is even more pressing. Supply is not able to cope with demand and alternate measures need to be adopted. Water is a primary necessity for the people, agricultural production and for the industries. Water is the only valuable source that is required for everyday life but is fast depleting. Rain water harvesting is an activity of direct collection of rain water which can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into ground water. RWH shall meet as substantial portion of the domestic needs. RWH can act a long term solution to improve ground water availability. This low cost, simple technology can be adopted by everyone from villager to the resident of urban areas and from a common man to a corporation. Most of the water supply schemes in Malakand have been badly affected along with disruption of water resources. The scheme will meet/ supplement the drinking water demand in the terrorism affected areas from rain water.

Figure 20: Roof-Top Water Harvesting; Figure 21: Surface Water Harvesting.

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Monolithic; Cast In Place; Earthquake Resistant; Reinforced Concrete, Roof-Top, Rain Water Harvesting Tank (500 Gallons capacity): Permanent, Inner: Outer Modular Shuttering (for ease of transportation). Fiber Glass Shuttering strips 12 inches x 9 (9 ft). This concept of Community development involves organized Village Councils to implement Development Schemes entirely themselves with active training and supervision on the part of the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. Beneficiary ownership will be ensured through active involvement in all logistic and construction efforts. Communities will acquire skills in reinforced concrete casting enabling them to take up block/ hollow block, pipes and rings casting for infra structure improvement activities. No large external consultants and contractors will be employed even to the extent of awarding local carriage to community members. Trainers of trainers will be engaged and are available with the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. Dynamic Community Mobilization requires such interventions to firm up local communities and organize them for self-reliance.

Inner Shuttering

Outer Shuttering

Figure 22: Cast in Place Water Harvesting Tank. Permanent Structures: These are built where permanent waterways are intended. Also large gullies with large drainage areas can support the construction of such structures. If water is to be stored on a permanent basis, this is the type of structure that is required. There also exists the possibility of generating Hydel Power from these Mini dams. Fish can be readily stocked and the water can also be used for irrigation and drinking supply purposes. In all cases it is more advisable and economically feasible to build multi-purpose mini dams where ever possible.
Inner Shuttering

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Figure 23: Permanent Structure Earth Fill Dam. The preceding illustrations are that of one kind of a Farm Pond that will suit many uses. By far the most important aspect, in this type of pond, is the spillway. If the spillway is too small there is every likelihood of failure of the pond. A combination of Pipe and Side spillway is the best. The Pipe spillway is for normal flow while the side spillway is for emergencies. Only extra run-off goes into the side spillway. Therefore it is possible to keep it in good sod cover, as it is dry most of the time. The bottom of the side spillway must be higher than the top of the pipe spillway. The distance, in height, between the two is shown, as “S” in illustration B. This distance will vary in accordance to the size of the watershed and that of the pond. It is possible to arrive at the right value of “S” by dividing the size of the watershed, in acres, with the size of the surface of the pond, also in acres. The result is then divided by 6. For example a watershed of 4.5 acres divided by a pond surface of 0.25 acres will yield 18 to be divided by 6. Thus a figure of 3 feet as the value of “S” or distance, in height, between the bottom of the side spillway and the top of the pipe spillway is established. This value of 3 feet is also the limit in height differential. In case this value is higher than 3 feet a different type of spillway will have to be designed by an experienced engineer. Long experience has determined the size of a Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

spillway. By allowing the proper distance “S” between the pipe and side spillway the following sizes for spillways will suffice. Watershed Area In acres. Diameter Spillway in inches. 4 inches 6 inches 8 inches 10 inches of Pipe Bottom width of Side Spillway in feet 5 to 8 feet 8 to 10 feet 10 to 15 feet 15 to 20 feet

5 acres 10 acres 10 to 20 acres 20 to 30 acres

Table 15: Spillway Size. The bottom width of the side spillway is increased by 1 foot for each 2-acre increase in watershed area greater than 10 acres. 6.8 Micro Irrigation is the most efficient way to provide water to plants, and is particularly desirable in water scarce mountain areas where water is valuable and efficient use is essential. The concept and technology was developed in Israel 20 years ago and has the potential to save up to 70 per cent of the water used in flood irrigation and increase yields by up to 50-60 per cent. Micro irrigation currently irrigates a little less than two million hectares worldwide, or less than one percent of the total global irrigated acreage and this may largely be due to its high investment cost. This technology is accessible to small, landless and marginal farmers through developed and extensively field tested several affordable and reliable micro-irrigation systems. Water availability is the primary determinant to land productivity. For farmers with a reliable source of water, however small, the following systems are available Drum Kit drip irrigation system: The drum kit is a pre-packaged design for 100 sqm garden plots. The package includes 5 lateral lines, fitted with a total of 180 micro-tubes (which replace high-cost drippers), filters, and valves. This system can irrigate 300 plants in 20 rows and needs a 200 liter drum of water twice a day. The system is highly suitable for row-planted vegetable crops like tomato, brinjal, chilli and capsicum. The Micro-sprinkler System: While drip irrigation is most suited for row crops, sprinkler is extremely useful in closely spaced, leafy vegetables such as onion, coriander and spinach grown over a small area. The system consists of a set of 15 micro-sprinklers with pipes and irrigates an area of 250 sq.m. Farmers in countries as diverse as India, Israel, Jordan, Spain and the United States have cut their water use by 30 to 70 percent and raised crop yields by 20 to 90 percent by using drip irrigation systems that deliver water directly to crop roots. 6.9 Livestock Nutrition: Semi-liquid molasses, a by-product of sugar factories, is extensively used as animal feed in many parts of the sugarcane growing areas of the world. In Bhutan, with Inner block assistance from the FAO/UNDP, efforts have been made to manufacture a nutrient Shuttering for ruminants by molding cane molasses, urea (fertilizer grade), cereal bran, oilseed cake, and minerals into a solid brick size block known as a Urea Molasses Block (UMB). This block provides essential nutrients such as protein and minerals to rumen microbes (microbes in the part of the ruminant’s stomach known as the rumen which act on the food consumed by the animal and make it digestible) to improve the digestion of fiber. This technology is a cost-effective approach to maximizing the use of locally available feed resources for better animal productivity. 6.10 Upland Agriculture: Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) is soil conservation oriented farming system developed in the Philippines in the late 1970s. It is basically an agroforestry S a r d a r T a i m u r H y a t - K h a n Outer Shuttering Page 80

technology developed for sustaining agricultural production on sloping lands. It is a relatively simple, practical, low-cost, and appropriate method of diversified farming on sloping land that aims at sustaining maximum benefit and minimizing soil erosion at different altitudes. It can turn a sloping parcel of land, containing both agricultural and support land types, into a highly productive upland farm. It is a simple, applicable, low-cost but effective way of farming hilly lands without losing the topsoils through erosion. It also conserves soil moisture. Hedgerows are planted along contours of sloping land at intervals of four to six metres and various cereal crops and perennial cash plants are cultivated in the alleys. Hedgerows also act as effective barriers to soil erosion. Hedgerows can also be pruned several times a year, and the pruned leaves can be used as green manure or for composting. The inclusion of large amounts of fresh biomass provides a substantial increase to the organic matter content of soils. The nitrogen-fixing activities of hedgerows also enrich the soil. The Ten Basic Steps of SALT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Make an A-frame. Locate the contour lines using the A-frame. Prepare the contour lines. Plant leguminous trees and shrubs on contours, boundaries, and on the top of the hill. Cultivate the strips alternately until the hedgerows develop. Plant permanent crops on every third strip. Plant crops that can be harvested early. Trim hedgerows regularly and pile the leguminous leaves and twigs at the base of your crop. Practice crop rotation. Maintain your green terraces. One target area is the rehabilitation of degraded lands, both agricultural and non-agricultural. This is because one of the principal problems facing mountain/hill agriculture today is that of soil erosion from sloping lands amongst other factors already mentioned, and the consequent decline in productivity. This is leading to a critical situation in which, on the one hand, mountain populations are increasing and, on the other, the carrying capacity of mountain lands is decreasing. A sustainable agricultural system is necessary for long-term improvements in the quality of life. The technology is tailored to small family farms for growing both annual food crops and perennial crops. In addition, based on the condition of more land being available, SALT also provides the opportunity to develop a viable agrosilvipastoral system on the family farm. At present, the technology is being tested in different ecozones in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas with the aim of developing suitable models, with various species, crop combinations, and technology packages to meet the needs of both man and the environment. The results of the use of SALT are very promising. • A healthy growth of crops can be seen in the alleys between the hedgerows.
• •

Soil erosion starts decreasing from the very first year of the use of the technology. With the use of nitrogen-fixing hedgerows, more crop yield has been obtained with the same or even less fertilizer input.

Hedgerow systems act as barriers to soil erosion and sources of in situ green manure or composting. There are four different models of SALT: SALT I SALT II This model focuses mainly on food crop This model focuses on agro-livestock technology. It production. It is simple in application, low in is a simple modification of SALT I in the sense that Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

cost, but is an extremely effective agroforestry technology with agricultural crops and forestry in a ratio of 3:1. Compared to present and traditional upland farming management practices, this technology substantially decreases erosion. In addition, it increases crop yield. SALT III This focuses on the conversion of nonproductive marginal land into economically productive land to supplement production from other SALT models. This model has three components: SALT I, SALT II, and a separate plot of land to produce valuable timber. Farmers owning landholdings of about two hectares can use this model.

it integrates livestock rearing with crop cultivation. The livestock species that can be raised under the system are cattle, sheep, and goats. The manure is a good source of fertilizer. Goats (the poor man’s cow) are a potential source of milk, meat, hair and skin.

SALT IV This focuses on developing a horticulture and plantation crop-based system known as the “agrofruit livelihood technology”. To improve hill agriculture and economics, commercialization of hill agriculture is required. Thus, horticulture is a promising option with comparative advantages. The objectives of this model are to produce food, increase cash income, and conserve soil on farmlands. Table 16: SALT Varieties. 6.12 Community Economics requires a balance between the three aspects that comprise a community: justice, environment and economics, also called the "triple bottom line", or "ecologicaleconomics-ethics" (EEE) or "triple E". A cooperative farmer's market could be an example of this structure. The farmers are the workers and owners. Additionally, all economics are limited by their ecology. No economic system stands apart independently from its eco-system; therefore, all external costs must be considered when discussing economics. 6.13 In an No Till system, crops are planted in previously unprepared soil by opening a narrow slot, trench, or band of sufficient width and depth to achieve proper seed coverage and fertilizer placement. No-till farming integrates ecology into the farming system design and considers the complex biological web that is at work in a system of healthy and efficient soils, plants, and animals. It recognizes that management decisions affect the habitats and food sources of organisms important to regulating biological processes, and therefore agricultural productivity. There are four intertwined soil and crop management techniques involved in NT farming practices — no soil turning, maintenance of permanent vegetative cover, direct seeding, and rotation of both cash and cover crops. Although it focuses on micro-watersheds and rural landscapes, NT farming addresses the entire rural space and overcomes the shortcomings of earlier top-down, non-inclusive approaches. And finally, by recognizing the leadership role played by farmer-led organizations, NT farming facilitates the increasingly broad-based stakeholder participation in design and implementation, moving away from working mainly with central governments in project and program design. In combination with water and solar energy, land and soils form the foundation for agriculture and forests. Their successful management provides food, clothing, and shelter. Land and soils also provide key environmental services such as partitioning of water and gases, a home for a multitude of life forms, pollution control, and mineral recycling. Nearly 1 billion rural households rely directly on the services of natural capital stocks and intricately interdependent ecosystems — water, land and soils, forest and fisheries — for their daily livelihood (World Bank, 2001). As the availability of these resources declines and their quality deteriorates, our livelihood is threatened. The degradation of soils is a major threat to rural households. Soil erosion, salinization, compaction, and other forms of degradation affect 30 percent of the world’s irrigated land, 40 percent of rainfed agricultural lands, and 70 percent of rangeland (World Bank, 2001). No-till farming encompasses four broad, intertwined management practices: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

• •

Minimal soil disturbance (no plowing and harrowing). Maintenance of a permanent vegetative soil cover. • Direct sowing. • Sound crop rotation. No-till farming is a component of the Sustainable Land Management (SLM) and Better Land Husbandry (BLH) approaches, No-till systems have been adopted by a wide range of farmers for the last two decades on some 60 million ha worldwide on all farm sizes and under varied cropping systems (Derpsch, 2001), ranging from the Pampas of Argentina and the sub-tropics and tropics of Brazil and Paraguay to the prairies of Canada, the rice-wheat zone of India and Pakistan, and Australia, Central Asia, Central America, USA, and Mexico. The goal and challenge of sustainable land management (SLM) is to make optimum use of available biophysical, biological, biochemical, and human resources to produce feed and fiber in a given area. Implicit in SLM is that governments and other major stakeholders give priority to appropriate policies and coordinated interventions that will help to achieve the following five objectives: More rational land use, Fair access to land resources, Improved land management practices, Avoidance of land degradation, and Development of an updated knowledge and information base. Better Land Husbandry (BLH) components: An integrated and synergistic resource management approach embraces locally appropriate combinations of the following technical options: • Build-up of soil organic matter and related biological activity to optimum sustainable levels (to improve moisture and nutrient supply and soil structure) through cover crops, and/or better management of crop residue, farmyard manure, green manures, surface mulch, enriched fallows, agroforestry, and the use of compost. • Integrated plant nutrition management with locally appropriate, cost-effective combinations of organic/ inorganic and on/ off-farm sources of plant nutrients (e.g., organic manures, crop residues, rhizobial N-fixation, transfer of nutrients released by weathering in the deeper soil layers to the surface via tree roots and leaf litter, rock phosphate, lime, and stable chemical fertilizer). • Better crop management, improved seeds of appropriate varieties, improved crop establishment at the beginning of the rains (to increase protective ground cover, thereby reducing water loss and soil erosion), weed management, and integrated pest management; • Better rainwater management to increase infiltration and reduce runoff to improve soil moisture conditions within the rooting zone, thereby lessening the risk of drought stress during dry spells, while reducing erosion. • Improved soil rooting depth and permeability by breaking the cultivation-induced compacted soil layer through conservation tillage practices by means of tractor-drawn subsoilers, oxdrawn chisel plows, through no-till and hand-hoe planting pits/double-dug beds; and/ or interplanting of deep-rooted perennial crops, trees and shrubs, and annual cover crops. • Reclamation where appropriate (if technically feasible and cost effective) of arable land that has been severely degraded by such processes as gullying, loss of topsoil from sheet erosion, soil compaction, acidification, and/or salinization. • Adoption of people-centered learning approaches through which farmers are able to learn about and investigate the costs and benefits of alternative land husbandry practices. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

• • • • •

Community-based participatory approaches to planning and technology development that build on the inherent skills and capability of rural people to formulate and implement their own development plans, and to develop and disseminate their own improved land husbandry technology. Better land husbandry for business through the promotion of field level interventions that offer farmers tangible economic, social, and environmental benefits. (Adapted from FAO and United Republic of Tanzania, 2000.)

Figures 24,25: Animal-drawn no-till planter with seed and fertilizer tanks (Paraná, Brazil) .

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Figure 26: Agroecological effects of conventional tillage and no tillage. Introduction of no-till farming practices is badly needed in order to avoid serious climate, soil quality and food production problems in the next 20 to 50 years. No-till farming helps soil retain carbon. Healthy topsoil contains carbon-enriched humus — decaying organic matter that provides nutrients to plants. Soils low in humus cannot maintain the carbon-dependent nutrients essential to healthy crop production, resulting in the need to use more fertilizers. A lack of carbon in soil promotes erosion, as topsoil and fertilizers are often washed or blown away from farm fields and into waterways. In no-till agriculture, farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil. Soil loses most of its carbon content during plowing, which releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. Increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have been associated with global climate change. 6.14 Community based Integrated Development of Trout Fisheries and Irrigation Channels: Specific objectives of the proposed project are: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. 7.

To develop water resources of the Swat River and its tributaries for raising trout fish and irrigation purposes Establish partnership with the communities in raising and marketing trout fish Combat rural poverty by increasing income generation opportunities of the communities Identify potential market for live trout marketing in Pakistan and abroad for earning increased income per unit sale of the trout fish Increase protein production and improvement of health of the communities Establish partnership with the potential investors and local communities for sustainable marketing of products. Description, justification, technical parameters and technology transfer aspects.

Description: The proposed project is based on the concept that the rural communities living in the remote parts of Malakand Division are mostly poor and they do not enjoy adequate income generation opportunities at local level. They do follow agricultural, pastoral and other subsistence level income generation activities and mostly depend on the forestry resources for meeting their daily livelihoods and wood-fuel needs. Consequently, forestry and range land resources in the fragile mountains are exploited beyond sustainable levels. With a view to enhance their income generation capacity and utilize the available natural resources by supporting the communities in developing trout fish enterprise, the proposed project has been designed to exploit the potential of the available natural resources using innovative techniques in trout fish farming and marketing. As trout fish is known for its taste and quality, it can earn substantial income for the communities without any additional annual cost. The project design comprises of developing community fish ponds and supporting and training the communities in its rearing and marketing in Pakistan and abroad. Community organizations would be established in the proposed project area. The project will organize and involve communities in supporting development of fish ponds including all technical inputs on their common or individual lands. The community components will include labor, fish rearing, watch and ward, whereas the implementing agency (SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP) will cover cost of design, construction including construction material and establishing marketing chains. SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will initially work with the communities and organize, educate, train, finance the construction of water channels and fish ponds besides establishing marketing chains including financing of mobile freezers. SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will work to create self sustainable marketing by communities over a period of five years. The NWFP Fisheries Department has got hatcheries in Swat Valley and will provide the required egg/fingerlings every year. Initially the project will be initiated in 18 villages possessing suitable land and gravity water. The project is proposed as an integrated project, where along with Fish farming on a cooperative basis, the project will also energies the villagers either through hydel generation or solar panels depending on the economies and water availability. The proposed project comprises of the following components: I Trout Fisheries Development A. Sites selection; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Potential sites will be selected in consultation with the NWFP Wildlife and Fisheries Department and local communities in the trout zone on Swat River and its tributaries. The owners of the land both individual and communities will be approached and pursued for development of community trout fish ponds on a cooperative basis. After consultations and agreements formal Terms of Partnership will be signed with the private and community owners. The cooperatives will be expected to provide unskilled labor for the work involved. A total of eighteen suitable sites will be selected for developing fish ponds during the five year project period. B. Community Mobilization; The local communities in the potential areas will be contacted and informed about the objectives, importance and benefits of the proposed project. SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will identify motivated members of the communities as catalysts for facilitation and implementation of the proposed project and conflict resolution. This shall be followed by educating and training the community in trout fish rearing. C. Water Resources Development; Fresh water is an abundantly available resource in Swat Valley mostly flowing down by gravity in various tributaries of river Swat. Water resources will be developed by surveying and preparing a design for channelizing water into the ponds through developing gravity flow water channels and diverting them to the fish ponds. If feasible and required in difficult terrain hydraulic rams which operate using hydraulic energy without using any power will be used for lifting water. On an average 2000 rft. water channel will be constructed for supplying water to the fish ponds on regular basis. D. Development of Fish Ponds; Designs for developing appropriate fish ponds on scientific basis will be prepared using the services of an expert architect followed by construction of the ponds and water channels as per design. The construction of ponds will include a small diversion wier, channel, silt settling tank and fish pond including hydraulic rams where necessary. The ponds will be built as per design and based on the availability of leveled fields in areas where gravity water flow is available. Where available, channelizing of spring water will be given priority. E. Fish seed/egg procurement; Healthy and vigorous fish seed egg of excellent quality/breed will be procured from an appropriate local or outside hatchery for seeding the ponds at appropriate season after ensuring that the ponds are complete and regular water flow is ensured on sustainable basis. The NWFP Fisheries Department has established hatcheries in Swat Valley, which can supply the required fish seed on payment of the cost. F. Fish feeding and rearing; Fish feed would be procured in adequate quantity from a good source and stored near the pond for feeding of the fish on regular basis. The male/female members of the cooperative will be trained in feeding and rearing of fish on scientific lines including health and hygiene. Sorting of fish of various sizes and age will be done at appropriate time for production of marketable fish. Gradually the female members will be trained in preparing fish feed from local products, which is also organic. Initially fish feed will be procured from market, however, in the long term it will be manufactured locally using organic feed components. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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G. Fish Harvesting and Marketing; Trout fish of desirable age and size will be harvested at appropriate time of the year for marketing. The pond technicians will be trained in fish harvest and post harvest treatments including packing and freezing. For freezing and storage marketing special freezers will be mounted on the vehicle for transportation of fish. Market survey will be conducted and potential markets identified in Pakistan and abroad for selling trout fish depending on the demand. Hotels and departmental stores in Punjab and NWFP are the likely potential markets. Marketing will include publicity, packing and actual trading of trout fish in the market. H. Registration of the Intellectual property right and trade mark Trout fish of Swat Valley is highly organic and superior in quality because of the unique environment and pure water of the mountains free of all sorts of pollution. Therefore, the intellectual property right of trout fish would be registered under the trade name of Swat or any other biophysical feature of the valley. This will greatly help in protecting the rights and discouraging piracy allowing the communities to get the benefit in the longer run. Irrigation Channel Development In addition to developing water for fish pond and feeding the hydel power station, the out flow water can also be used for developing irrigation channels for irrigating the community lands. These channels will be developed with support from the project resources and the beneficiaries will play their part in kind. This activity will help in increasing productivity of community land and thus their sources of income will greatly be increased. The irrigated field will be used to produce organic cash crops like seasonal and off season vegetables, orchards and other such valuable crops for the benefit of the local communities. The water so developed will also be used for human and livestock drinking and will therefore help in meeting the drinking water needs of the communities. On an average 500 rft irrigation channel will be developed for feeding a single fish pond. Justification of the project Malakand Agency mostly comprises of the Himalayan moist temperate forests, which serve as a source of fresh water giving life to the Swat river that not only recharges the ground water but also downstream. Besides, serving as a source of water for drinking, irrigation and energy generation these rivers supports a variety of fresh water flora and fauna and are therefore playing an important role in balancing the fresh water ecosystem. Fresh water ecosystem in Malakand Agency is rich in exotic trout (rainbow and brown trout). These areas have got tremendous potential for trout fish production on sustainable basis. Community based trout fisheries development in the remote areas of Swat Valley, which mostly comprises of poor of the poorest segment in NWFP will prove helpful in eradicating poverty. Because of hostile weather conditions especially in winter coupled with highly rugged terrain, the sources of income of communities living in these remote parts of NWFP are very limited. Consequently, the local communities mostly exploit the forestry and rangeland resources of the fragile mountains to earn their livelihoods. Thus the fragile mountain ecosystem is exposed to erosion and the beautiful landscape is degraded. Trout being a famous fish and table delicacy may serve as a viable source of income for the communities not only by its live marketing outside Swat Valleys but may also attract tourists and generate market at the door step in the otherwise very rich Valley in terms spectacular landscape. Therefore, development of community based trout fisheries could generate a chain of activities leading to enhancing the income generation capacity of the rural poor and alleviating poverty. In Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan III.

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addition increased production of trout fish would help in increased production of white meat and rich source of protein in the area. In view of the above exposition, it is therefore assumed that the project is highly justifiable in terms of its social acceptability, economic viability, environmental safety and technical excellence. The positive value of benefit cost analysis of the project is an indicator that the proposed project is justified provided all necessary financial, technical and administrative inputs are provided in time as per the provision of the PC-1. As regards the governance aspects of the project, SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will establish special unit consisting of locals to take care of the trout fish culture and business on regular basis. Technical parameters The proposed project is technically feasible as trout rearing has already been tested and found appropriate in terms of growth, development and marketing. Required professional expertise in fresh water fisheries is also available at local level, which could be utilized for project implementation. In addition the required fish seed could be procured from the exiting hatcheries at local level or arranged from Kaghan valley in NWFP. Other technical inputs like equipments, tools and required feed will be made available well before the project is actually implemented. The local communities will be informed about the importance of the proposed project for increasing their income level and sustainable management of the resources aiming at the well being of the communities. For this purpose adequate arrangements will be made for running a comprehensive awareness campaign in the project area. In additional, capacity of the local communities will further be developed for shouldering the responsibilities of running the enterprise on sustainable basis. Two men and women from each village shall be trained in rearing, feeds, packing and marketing of fish for sustainability. Demand and supply analysis Trout fish has got tremendous demand in the local market and supply is currently meager. Therefore a great deal of scope exists for increasing the trout fish supply and satisfying demand in the market. Demand and supply analysis of the trout fish will be done in the first year of the project by the marketing unit of the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP and annual marketing plans will be developed. Earlier the trout fish was raised in one of the private farm at Batdara in Neelum Valley, AJ&K in 2004, which were sold for Rs. 500-600 per kg. at source. For marketing trout fish a specialized marketing unit will be established in SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP, which will establish market chain and will work on all aspects of marketing of the produce. In addition a marketing officer along with two assistants will be recruited by the project to work on marketing of the produce. Moreover, publicity in print and electronic media will also be done for introducing the product to the consumers. Major financial benefits of the proposed project are: • • • • • Productive use of the river water, Increased income generation opportunities through provision of direct labour opportunities, Enterprise and marketing of highly prized and delicious fish, Energy generation, Irrigation of agricultural fields by the in and out flow of water developed for Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

trout fisheries, ii) Economic

Economic benefits of the project will include micro economic development of the local community through increase in their income and at macro level the govt. of AJK will earn revenue in the form of various taxes. Per capita income of the local population will also increase leading to economic development. Other economic benefits of the project are: • • iii) Increase in the socio-economic status of local communities. Increased production of protein Social benefits with indicators

As the project is based on the concept of involving communities in developing and managing the project especially after the life of the project, it is socially acceptable. The local community will be benefited in terms of supporting them in increased income generation opportunities, employment, development of irrigation channels, provision of electricity and enterprise development. The livelihood sources of local community will greatly be increased and their standard of living will improve. Thus the project will support the local community in combating poverty in the remote areas. The indicators includes increase in per unit crop production as a result of irrigation, provision of direct employment opportunities to dozens of local persons, electrification of five villages in the target area and infrastructure development using a certain proportion of the net project revenue. Major socio-economic indicators of the proposed project are given bellow: • • • • Establishment of sixteen community organization (COs) Establishment of cooperatives within sixteen COs Development of five small community hydel power plants for generation of electricity Development of sixteen community water channels for irrigating agricultural fields and supply water for irrigation and drinking iv) Employment generation (direct and indirect)

The project will generate direct employment opportunities for four professionals, six support staff, sixteen technicians, over a hundred laborers and sixteen guards. In addition thousands of people will get opportunities of indirect employment in various enterprise and marketing over the long term. v) Environmental impact

As the proposed project aims at conserving the fresh water fish resources and creating income generation opportunities for the local communities enabling them to earn their livelihood, their dependence on forestry and rangeland resources will greatly be decreased. This will greatly help in protecting the natural vegetation in the fragile mountains of Swat Valley that directly discharge water in the Jehlum reservoir. Therefore, the project is environmentally safe and sustainable and its impacts on environment will be highly positive. The proposed project is line with the provision of Agenda-21, Millennium Development Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Goals, National Conservation Strategy and National Environment Action Plan and would therefore help in achieving the environmental objectives. The proposed project is in line with the provisions of the Pakistan Environment Protection Act-1997. Therefore, the proposed project has got positive environmental impacts. vi) Impact of delays on project cost and viability

Any delay in the implementation of the project will lead to cost escalation and it would not be possible to achieve the targets set against the estimated cost. Thus delay in project implementation should as far as possible be avoided. Management structure and manpower requirements including specialized skills during construction and operational phases SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP is a state level organization, mandated to support the terrorism affected communities in improving their livelihood opportunities. SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP covers all the ----- Terrorism affected districts of NWFP and will be responsible for actual implementation of the project. SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will establish close cooperation with the NWFP Fisheries and Wildlife Department, which will provide technical support at various stages of project implementation. In addition, services of professional experts would be hired as and when required, besides outsourcing some of the activities. Manpower requirements during execution and operation of the project The SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP has got professional capacity in community mobilization, conducting sustainable livelihood assessment through participatory learning and assessment techniques, involving community in asset based assessment, prioritization and decision making to implement projects effectively and efficiently. Besides most of the professionals are highly equipped with knowledge in developing community based livelihood rehabilitation plans and village development plans. They have got a very wide experience of implementing multidisciplinary projects. A specialized trout fish unit will be established in SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP comprising of trout fish professionals, marketing experts, support staff and technicians for implementation of the project. In addition the NWFP Fisheries Department will also be kept on board during the implementation for technical support and advice. Additional projects/decisions required to maximize socio-economic benefits from the proposed project Additional project/decisions will include boosting the agricultural productivity through provision of irrigation facilities by diverting the outflow water of the fish ponds to the agricultural fields. This will help in diversification of crops and income especially from off season vegetables. In addition, hydel power production will be used in electrification of the remote rural villages, which otherwise could not get electricity from the national grid. These and other such additional project benefits will further strengthen the process of community organizations and cooperative farming to the benefit of local communities. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

6.14 Scope: The scope of the proposed project is to formally and scientifically deploy various interventions that have been researched and tried out in various sites in rural locations of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir. Since these interventions have been tried and tested in various combinations and some on standalone basis there is a need to integrate them and prove effectiveness in order to establish best practices for replication. The project will employ various combinations using different technologies. Each combination will be examined for optimum returns keeping in mind financial constraints and ease of replicability. A complete and integrated food security support base will emerge based on agro ecological conditions and skills of local producers. The entire proposed project is aimed at poor rural females and marginalized farmers. Due attention will be paid to the landless and ways and means will be identified to build up food security for them as well. 6.15 Justification: Field trials have proved the efficacy of the various interventions that are proposed for applied research. There is a great need to study them scientifically and for consensus to be developed amongst the agricultural institutions and scientists based on on-ground results. Rapid population increase and concomitant increased pressure upon already depleted natural resources demands that new and innovative steps be deployed in order to ensure food security for those living below the poverty line. Nutritional enhancement is crucial amongst females and young children. This project is primarily aimed at solving the issue of food security amongst poor, vulnerable and marginalized sections of the populace. Secondly, fields of intervention wherein these population groups can themselves provide input and effort will be identified. 7. Location: Malakand is a region in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Named after Malakand Agency, a part of this region, it covers one third of the total area of the province. The area of Malakand Region is 29,872 sq. Km and its population is 5.52 million. The region is further divided into Chitral, Dir upper, Dir Lower, Swat, Buner, Shangla Districts and Malakand Agency. Swat is known as the Switzerland of Pakistan. The river Swat is a clear water river starting from the Ushu range of mountains to the spread of the valley of Swat. It is the greenest valleys of Northern Pakistan and is well connected to the rest of Country. One can also get here either from Peshawar (160 KMs) or Islamabad. (250 KMs) The valley of Swat is located in the middle of the foot hills of the Hindukush mountain range. The main town of the valley is Saidu Sharif. Swat is the garden of Ashoka and was a prosperous land in the Buddhist times (2 BC to 5 AD) There are at least over 100 archeological sites in the valley less than 10% of them are excavated. Kalam is the most beautiful part of the Swat valley. The land of waterfalls, lakes, pastures, and glaciers, surrounded by lush green mountains, covered with forests and vegetation. 7.1 About Malakand Region: 7.1.1 Malakand Agency: Malakand agency lies at a strategically important position as it acts as a Gateway to Swat, Dir, Chitral and Bajaur. It is surrounded by a series of mountains that were overgrown with different kinds of trees. In the past though, they have a barren look today. The Swat River flows through it down towards Charsadda district where it falls into the Kabul River. Malakand Agency is bounded on the north by Dir district on the East by Swat district, on the south east and south west by Mardan and Charsadda districts respectively and on the west by Momand and Bajaur Agencies. The area of Malakand protected area is 952 sq.km. Malakand agency is divided into two sub-divisions. Swat Ranizai and Sam Ranizai. Malakand is the headquarters of Malakand Agency. 7.1.2 District Swat: Swat lies between 340-13'-55" and 350-53'-40" north latitudes and 700-47'-15" east longitude in Malakand Division of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The area of Swat is about 3,798 sq. km with a population of 1.577million in 2004-05. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Swat Valley and complex of adjoining valleys lies within the Hindu Kush Mountains and covers an area of 8,220 sq Kms. Trans Himalayan climate prevails in the area which is average 600 m elevation in the south and 6,000 m in the north. The Swat River is the main drainage and runs from North East to South West. The valley is open towards the south and narrow and restricted towards the North with a number of small side valleys. The valley floor consists of heavy silt deposit and is rich and fertile though over used and mismanaged to create heavy infestation of viruses and pests. Dangerous pesticides have been used extensively. The Swat River flows swiftly for 35 Km from Kalam to Madyan and is erosive in nature. The rest of 70 Kms in the lower part of the valley from Madyan to Khawza Khela the river is slow and deposits silt eroded from higher watersheds. North of Madyan the terrain is rocky and difficult and lies within the Kohistans area. There is less rain in summers and the altitude of 3,500 to 5,000 m consists of upper pastures. The rest of the area consists of Dir and Bajaur Districts and onwards through a narrow gorge to the Momand Tribal Area of FATA before entering the wide and open Peshawar Valley near Charsadda. Kalam is 29 kilometers (18 miles) from Bahrain and about 2,000 meters (6,800 feet) above sea level, the valley opens out, providing rooms for a small but fertile plateau above the river. In Kalam the Ushu and Utrot rivers join to form the Swat River. Here, the road ends and shingle road leads to the Ushu and Utrot valleys. From Matiltan one gets a breath-taking view of the snow-capped Mount Falaksir 5,918 meters (19,415 ft.), and another un-named peak 6,096 meters (20,000 ft.) high. 7.1.3 Beyond Kalam: The scenery is alpine and heavily forested and the trekking is best of all. 25 km further from Kalam is the Mahodand valley. It has an unobstructed view of Swat's highest peak, the 5,918 m Falaksir. Also, situated here is the beautiful Mahodand Lake. 7.1.4 District Dir: Dir is administratively subdivided into Upper Dir and Lower Dir districts. Dir district is 5,280 square kilometers in area and part of the Malakand division, lying along the Afghanistan border between Chitral and Peshawar. Almost all of it lies in the valley of the Panjkora which raises high in the Hindu Kush at Latitude. 35.45 and joins the Swat River near Chakdara, where the district is usually entered, at Latitude. 34.40. Apart from the Tehsils of Adenzai round Chakdara and Munda in the south-west, Dir is rugged and mountainous with peaks rising to 16,000 feet in the north-east and to 10,000 ft. along the watersheds with Swat to the east and Afghanistan to the west. The only motor able road to Chitral reaches 10,234 ft at the Lowari Pass. Timergara, however, the district headquarters, lies at only 2,700 ft. twice the altitude of Peshawar but much lower than the traditional and eponymous capital of Dir at the foot of the Lowarai. Except for them and a number of rapidly growing bazaar towns along the main roads the population is rural, scattered in more than 1200 villages over the plains of Adenzai and Munda and the deep narrow valleys of the Panjkora and its tributaries. Of these the largest are Barawal, Usherai, Nihag, Karo and Toormang. Dir district was officially split into Upper Dir and Lower Dir in 1996. Until 2000 as funds were not available to provide the accommodation needed at Dir town by government departments at a district headquarters, both districts continued to be administered by a single deputy Commissioner stationed at Timergara. The topography of Dir is mainly hilly. The Panjkora River flows through and divides Dir in almost two equal parts. The climate is extremely cold in winters and moderately warm in summer. Accessibility: Dir is well connected by road with the rest of the country by Timergara and Mardan. Peshawar International airport has air linkage to all over the country as well as with the rest of the world. 7.1.5 Buner District: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

For revenue administration the District is divided into six (6) Tehsils vis-à-vis Gadezai, Daggar, Gagra, Chagharzai, Chamla, and Totalai. Buner is one of the less developed Districts of the North West Frontier Province. Geology & Physical Features. Buner lies between 34-9 and 34-43 N latitude and 72-10 and 72-47 E longitude. It is bound on the North by Swat District, on the West by Malakand Agency, on the South by Mardan District, and on the East by River Indus and Hazara Division. The region is encircled by hills on all sides and is separated from Swat by a range of mountains; elevation varies from 1,200 ft in Totalai (Khudukhel) in the South to 9,550 ft of Dosara peak in the North. The hilly tracks are enriched with minerals, which have now become a symbol of business in the area. The area of Buner District is mostly surrounded by big hills which are covered with pine trees. There are three main rivers namely Barndu, Chamla and Budal and the former flows in the midst of the District. Most of the population is rural and main source of their livelihood is agriculture. Main crops of the area are wheat, maize, tobacco, and sugarcane. Mining: The Mountains of Buner District are rich in various minerals and very little efforts have been made in this regard in the past. However, marble industry is well developed in the area. There are around 150 marble industries in Buner District and about 40-50 marble industries are under construction. Forestry: Total forest area is 32,102 hectares. Buner District falls in the subtropical ecological zone with warm summers and mild winters. Generally the forests are over exploited with very poor canopy cover. Main forest types are shrubs (acacia, kaha sanatha etc) at lower elevations and chir pines at higher elevations. Local people are dependent on this forest to meet their timber, fuel wood and fodder requirements. About 30 years ago during era of “Wali Swat”, the area was known for its forests. Those forests comprised of Chir, Samantha, Olea and Phulai etc. at that time, after merger of the area with Pakistan, road network was developed and administration control become loose that led to over exploitation of forests. In addition to this, few locals and non-locals started illegal timber business. Resultantly forest resources were badly damaged in only two decades. Seasonal Ajars (Nomadic grazers) have also played their role in forest depletion. With ever-increasing population pressure locals are forced to think over the situation but no joint effort/ decision could be made in this regard. Agriculture: The average annual rainfall is approximately 30 inches per annum in the area. Main crops of the area are Wheat, Maize, Tobacco, Sugarcane, Barley and Pulses. Vegetable production is very low. However potatoes, ladyfingers, pumpkins, beans, tomatoes, etc. are grown on a small scale. A few types of fruits are also grown in the area such as apricots, mulberries, figs, plums, walnuts, wildpersimmons, and apples etc. 35.08 % of the land is cultivable. Buner has a total surface of 172,096 hectares out of this 111,733 hectares are uncultivable and are classified as forest, pasture or unusable leaving 60,363 hectares of potentially cultivable land. Various projects which previously operated such as B.D.P. (Buner Development Project) etc. had installed lift irrigation schemes and tube-wells which have increased the production of cereal crops but still the gap between demand and supply could not be bridged. Economically, majority of the people are poor and joint family system is common in the area. Most of the houses are made of mud; however, living standards are gradually improving because many people of Buner are serving abroad. Buner is a rural area with no known urban center. Pir Baba and Sowari Bazaars, which the people consider urban settlements, also carry rural features. Tobacco and marble industries are vivid symbols of business in the area. Yet, agriculture is still the main source of livelihood for most of the people. Other major sources of income of the local population are daily labor, business and Government Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

services. Alongside this many people are also serving in the cities of Pakistan and also in several countries of the World specifically Saudi Arabia, England, America, India, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia and UAE. 7.1.6 Shangla District: Shangla is a District in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan that contains two Tehsils Alpuri and Puran. Alpuri Town is the district headquarters. There are two main Sub divisions Puran and Alpuri and three sub Tehsils: Tehsil Besham, Tehsil Chakesar, and Tehsil Martung. Tehsil Hq of Puran is situated in Aloch. Shangla has the lowest Human Development Index in the Province. Shangla, previously a sub division of Swat District, was upgraded to the status of a district on July 1, 1995 by the then Chief Minister Aftab Khan Sherpao. Geography: Shangla hill (Shangla top), separates the district from Swat, and the Shangla Pass is the only way of communication between the two districts. The district is bounded on the east by Provincially Administrated Tribal Area of Batagram and Kala Dhaka (Black Mountain of Hazara) along which the Indus River flows for about 75 kilometers, on the west by District Swat, on the south by District Buner and tribal area of Kala Dhaka and on the north by District Kohistan. The total area of the district is 1,586 square kilometers. Shangla District consists of small valleys and is situated between hillocks and surrounded by high mountains full of forests comprising Pindrow Fir, Morinda Spruce, Blue Pine (Kail), Chir Pine and Deodar Cedar trees. The general elevation of the district is 2,000 to 3,000 meters above sea level. The highest point (3,440 m) is near Kuz Ganrshal in the north of the district. There are beautiful isolated valleys most suitable for seed production of high demand cross pollinated vegetable crops. Moreover Shangla has a tremendous potential for hydel power generation, one such project underway is at Khan Khwar. Population: According to the 1998 census, the District had a population of 435,563 with an average annual growth rate of 3.3% and population density of 274 persons per square kilometer. The total number of households is 64,391 with an average household size of 8.1. Almost the entire population of Shangla consists of Pathan tribe Yousafzai. The Babozai, a sub tribe of the Yousafzai live in this area particularly in Puran valley. They are specially known for their hospitality. Almost the entire population is Muslim (99.8%) with very small numbers of Christians, Hindus, and Ahmadis 8. Climate: Six seasons pertain in the area consisting of: 1. Spring. 2. Dry Summers. 3. Wet Summers. 4. Early monsoons. 5. End monsoons. 6. Winters. July is the hottest and January is the coldest month. In the north snow laden peaks in July look over the entire Malakand Agency area wherein wheat is harvested in end May. Rain: End December to end April. End July to mid September. Dry: End May to mid July. Start October to end November. December to February has light rain of long duration whereas there are heavy thunder storms in spring and rivers come to flood. Annual rainfall is covered in four parts. 1. Kohistan North of Madyan with seldom and sporadic rains in summer. Semi Arid: 450 – 700 mm. 2. Upper Swat above Khawza Khela, here rainfall consists of steady downpours. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Wet Mountains: 1,000 – 1,750 mm. Middle Swat, Khawza Khela to Barikot. Semi Wet/ Semi Hot: 1,000 – 1,250 mm. 4. Malakand Agency, Tehsil Adenzai of lower Dir, Barikot to Malakand, less rain in summer. Semi Arid/ Semi Hot: 450 – 700 mm. (Anon. 1986). 8.1 Environment and Land Characteristics: The land is managed under a complex system of arability and organization. Alternate dry and wet spells throughout the year coupled with Global Warming, heavy population pressure and clear cutting of forests have all served to degrade the environment substantially. Population consists of Yousafzai; Swati; Kohistani; Gujars; Julaha; Ahangar. Religious elements consist of Syeds; Akhundzadas; Sahibzadas; Mullan and elements from within the Afghan refugees. 8.2 Land & Tenure: 1. Arable Land near villages/ homes: “Bari”. 2. Small Holdings: “Gowagai”. 3. Square/ Regular shaped Holdings: “Sahpar”. 4. Rectangular Holdings: “Berarahra”. 5. Narrow and Long Holdings: “Karkha”. 6. Near Streams/ Rivers: “Showlgarah”. Lands outside or far from villages that are irrigated are called “Kas” and are tilled mostly by tenants. Near the Mountains where deep soil lands are lying fallow are called “Sadeen” and are now under “Barani” or Rainfed regime where tractors are heavily used. The jungle covered slopes of the valley sides are termed “Kareen” and consist of thin soil cover used mostly for grazing. “Mera” or highly fertile plain land is called “Ghar” near the mountains; “Sum” in the level valley and “Tang” if it is surrounded by streams or the river. Extensive crops consist of Rice; Wheat; Fodder; Vegetables and Fruit. Intercrop of fodder within orchards is increasing. “Barani” area is Khawazakhela; Kabal; Barikot; Chakdarra; In the South Thana Shamozai, Manyar, Galaygai is used mostly for livestock such as sheep and goats. During dry spells year’s livestock is increased over agriculture whose yields are steadily decreasing due to lack of nutrient recycling and good management practices. The main valley has Wheat/ Corn – Rice and two crops are harvested while the mountain areas are restricted to single corn crop. In summers “Shahtoot” and in winters “Shahbaloot” trees leaves are used for fodder. In the mountain area Corn or potatoes; Lobia beans and turnips are grown while Kalam is heavily cropped with potatoes and Cabbage. There is a need of introducing Fodder Trees extensively. Mid Swat and Dir raise sheep mostly while Buner and Malakand raise goats. 8.4 Affected Area: A total area of ---- Sq Kms was affected by the Terrorist activities impacting ---- Districts of Malakand Division with devastating results. A population of ---- million was directly affected in ---- villages with over ------- houses damaged. Mortality was to the tune of ------ fatalities and ------- people were injured. Over Rs. ---- billion losses are estimated in public and private sectors with extensive infrastructure damages. 9. Issues: The issues that have to be dealt with in the aftermath of Military action are complex and highly sensitive. It will be counterproductive to deal with the matter as routine. Descent of INGOs and NGOs to spread development in a manner that is the presently the norm will serve to exacerbate rather than solve the issues. Sensibilities related to local culture and traditions will have to be uppermost in any strategy for rehabilitation. Any perceived cultural invasion on top of military action will create negative results on a long term basis. VIP culture; photo opportunities and overt western values will create problems that will accrue to be faced once again in the near future. 3. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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Having won the war on terror we need to win the peace as well! This will only be possible when a culturally acceptable approach is adopted. Development is the best means of ensuring a balanced approach towards life that believes in “Live and let Live”. Any intervention that is of routine nature and has long term benefits that are not visible will also be counterproductive. The requirement is of Short/ Medium and Long-Term and High Impact interventions that provide positive; immediate and visible results. 10. Interventions: This project will impact the lives of ----- million people, inhabiting --- UCs in ---- terrorist affected districts of Malakand division on Pilot basis. 10.1 It is proposed to implement Food Security; ecologically sound Agricultural/ Horticultural rehabilitation; intensive Kitchen Gardening and Rapid Composting Project in conjunction with Livestock Production and Grass Roots Economy Generation. In order to maximize impact it is proposed that Rapid Composting and Environment/ Predator Protected Kitchen Garden Facilities be provided. This will ensure a Carbon Sink for Biodegradable Waste as a rich and organic nutrient source as well as provide food security as a very minimum return. The effort can be considered as a gateway towards intensive horticulture for export of organically grown vegetables to other parts of the Division as well as Pakistan and neighboring Countries. Mushrooms grown in specially designed growing structures and introduction of Angora Rabbits as a source of high grade and demand wool for traditional shawls is one such intervention that will provide benefit. 10.2 Grazers from amongst the populace of Nomadic and Semi Nomadic livestock owning tribes such as “Gujjars” and “Ajars” need to be focused upon as they constitute a major portion of marginalized and poverty stricken families. • Develop a uniform policy for the use of old plantations on hillsides. In order to have maximum return from old (>5-10 years old) plantations silvo-pastoral systems are proposed. Since grass production will decline with increasing age of the trees, grass cutting will not be economical anymore. Grazing will improve the recycling of water, nutrients and energy and is less labor intensive. The areas can be given on lease with prescribed rules and regulations on the use by the pastoralists. Controlled grazing systems are proposed, in this way, the problem of reduced (winter) grazing areas can be partly solved, and all parties will enjoy the benefits of plantation and protection. • Plantation of Seabuckthorn and other forage trees will extend the options available to the grazers as well as reduce pressure upon coniferous trees. Burning of grass that kills biota and young trees will also be avoided. Re-plantation of grazing lands with three dimensional shrubs, forbs and herbs will also supplement • The major trekking routes of (semi-) nomadic grazers can be extended to the whole of Malakand Division, to get a complete overview of the seasonal movements of nomads. The map should become part of each planning activity related to hillside development planning. • Enhance dialogue of nomadic grazers with Local Government and facilitate (together with Livestock Department) towards problem solving actions. 10.2.1 Recommendations:  Include more users, esp. grazers, in the planning and implementation process of Village Development Planning (VDPs) if possible from the initial stage. If their needs and ideas are incorporated in VDPs, it will improve the planning. Implementation and maintenance of certain activities. In the planning phase of VDPs one should, in addition, consider the following aspects:  Trekking routes through the village area  Major watering points  Carrying capacity of the range lands, selection of best grazing lands Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Number and type of livestock (already included) Total grazing area needed for grazing of livestock /total area to be planted The kind of species to be planted In this way a village will be enabled for sustainable and sufficiently large plantation, without any problems for those who keep livestock. 10.3 Plan of Work:    10.3.1 Objectives Wise Activities & Methodology: Objectives1: Establishment of Village Councils using Page Rank for Executive Committee selection. 2: Improved designs and structures of vegetable growing tunnels, using Geodesic Domes for Upland areas, production management and complete plant nutrition for off-season vegetables for small landholders; Introduction of Angora Rabbits; Protected Mushroom Production; Small, Alternate Energy Incubators for Backyard Poultry/ breeding of exotic birds. 3: Provision of Livestock Nutrition; introduction of silage techniques and planting of fodder trees; Herbs; Forbs & Shrubs/ improved quality and quantity forage including conservation irrigation and complete plant nutrition. Breed improvement through provision of quality breeding animals. 4: Establishment of Trout Fisheries, Irrigation Channels & Small Hydro Power Units. 5: Establishment of additional wool processing/ weaving facilities; Food Processing and Hand line Canning. 10.3.2 Activities: a. Rapid Composting through bioaugmentation for biodegradable Solid Waste Treatment. b. Phytoremediation and bioaugmentation for Liquid Waste Treatment. c. Erection of: i. Geodesic Dome Structures from Australian Concept of Permaculture complete with micro irrigation {Sub-Soil (Reticulation), Drip and Sprinkler} based on RoofTop and Surface Water Harvesting for conservation of water resource. ii. Low/ Medium and High tunnels. iii. Preparation of beds for growing. iv. Provision of Nutrients: a. Pure and stable mineral elements in foliar compounds. b. Total Organic (Compost). v. Dissemination of Perma and Poly Culture. vi. Establishment of Nurseries for Seabuckthorn; Berry Bushes; Fodder Trees; Herbs; Forbs and Shrubs. vii. Introduction of Direct Seed Mulch Based Farming. viii. Adoption of SALT Technology. ix. Introduction of Small, Alternate Energy Incubators for backyard Poultry and breeding of exotic birds. x. Provision of Angora Rabbits. xi. Construction of “Khumbi Kulla” Environment/ Predator/ Disease Protected Mushroom Growing dedicated structure. xii. Livestock Nutrition. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

xiii. xiv. xv.

Growing Eco friendly Field Crops. Establishment of Trout Fisheries; Irrigation Channels and Small Hydro Power Plants. Hand Line Canning.

10.3.3 Methodology Proposed:

Figure 27: Structure of a Human Activity System (Engeström 1987)

a.

Structural Deep Democracy: This is an Alternate Community Management System for Sustainable Development. TRUST and CONSENT • Structural Deep Democracy(SD2) is a Social Network Optimization approach to democratic-republicanism. • SD2 uses PageRank as a centrality algorithm to analyze votes to determine the center of TRUST and CONSENT in a human trust network. • The top three or five lead such an organization with one of them as the executive. • This creates a small and efficient locus of trust and accountability to lead the organization eliminating the popularity game of conventional populisticdemocracy. SD2's assumptions are: 1. Solving world problems requires collective action 2. Collective action is best organized democratically 3. Democracy is based on voting. 4. Votes are processed with *centrality algorithms* 5. Representative democracy is based on the idea that, if given the opportunity, people generally vote for those more qualified than themselves. The *centrality algorithm* that takes step #5 as many steps as mathematically possible is PageRank. SD2 uses PageRank to select three or five leaders of the group, then keeps those leaders accountable with frequent rank recalculations • PageRank: rank = (# of in-votes) X (avg. strength of in-vote), AND strength of out-vote = rank / (# of out-votes) • Executive committees usually are composed of the executive director and the other two highest ranked executives. • Each individual executive will usually choose one or two advisors, making the committee usually six or nine members. • The executives will usually have voting power of one vote each. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Disappearing Task Forces are usually formed by the executive committee, and usually have one or three Task Leaders. Each Task leader usually has two, three, or four assistants. • Voting is usually one vote per director. Votes may be: "yes" • "no" • "pass/neutral" • "yes/protest" • "no/protest" • "further deliberation" Instead of the *in-degree* algorithm (vote summation) the voting data is processed with PageRank. • SD2 uses PageRank to select small decision making bodies - only three or five have voting power. • This is to centralize accountability and to streamline operations. • In the field of sociology, PageRank is being used as a *centrality* algorithm its being used to find the *center* of human networks.

Figure 28: Social Network Analysis. Created from poll data gathered by Sirdar Timur Hyat-Khan and Contact Youth in Islamabad Pakistan, June, 2005. Mark Rosst processed the data with NetDraw. Groups were colored using the Newman/Girvan algorithm. Image is public domain. Research carried out over a period of 20 years in various rural locations of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir has shown that the very first stumbling block in the path of sustainable development is the mechanism of Community Organizations (COs) or Village Organizations (VOs) and the manner in which the Management Committee is elected. Social divisiveness and disharmony is a direct result of the infighting that accompanies popular voting methods. Elected groups are more often the largest minority rather than the majority which results in exclusion of the majority from participating in their own development. Elite capture and Particular Interest Group Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

b.

c.

lobbying overcomes idealistic democracy which soon degenerates into an oligarchy or rule of the rich. Ill feelings generated from elections have long term impacts that negatively impact collective and participatory development. Keeping in mind large scale illiteracy especially in the rural areas, computer hardware and software has been researched to simplify Executive Committee Selection that closely parallels our indigenous “Panchayat” or “Jirga” System. The system is the closest to the egalitarian values enshrined in Islam and will be acceptable to all. The Devolution Plan envisaged the Village Council of Villages and Sub Villages of populations not exceeding 500 adults as the basic unit for governance. These are the real grass roots that would empower the populace to firmly hold the reins of governance for local self reliance or localization for globalization. All adult members of the unit are enlisted in a scroll down pictorial display. The voter is identified either through fingerprint recognition or retinal scan. The voter simply scrolls down the list and selects 5 names excluding himself (inbuilt in software). The software will not accept more than 5 selections while less than 5 are compensated for within the Page Rank algorithm. All results pass through three different software packages to arrive at a pictorial display of the social network with selecting patterns clearly indicated. The central 5 selectees are invited to form the Executive Committee to run the affairs of the Village. Accountability is inbuilt as a simple rerun of the exercise quickly determines if Centrality has been retained or lost during the interim period. Special task Forces are created to oversee various activities that are important to development. The next step is to prepare Village Development Plans (VDPs). This is only possible if experts consult with the local populace to establish Regional and District Sustainable Development Plans that are integrated and address all issues pertinent to Sustainable Development. These Action Plans will determine the framework for VDCs. Collective Activity System Used in Developmental Work Research. "In the model, the subject refers to the individual or sub-group whose agency is chosen as the point of view in the analysis. The object refers to the 'raw material' or 'problem space' at which the activity is directed and which is molded or transformed into outcomes with the help of physical and symbolic, external and internal tools (mediating instruments and signs). The community comprises multiple individuals and/or sub-groups who share the same general object. The division of labor refers to both the horizontal division of tasks between the members of the community and to the vertical division of power and status. Finally, the rules refer to the explicit and implicit regulations, norms and conventions that constrain actions and interactions within the activity system. (Engeström, 1990). Activity systems are also in interaction with other activity systems. In farming activity, this means for instance farmer colleagues, administrative and marketing systems. The concept of contradiction is an important tool in the methodology of developmental work research. Internal contradictions of an activity system can be a driving force for its change and development. They manifest themselves within a component or between components of the activity system. The activity is studied in its historical and cultural context and historical analysis is necessary in revealing the contradictions. The change and development of an activity system proceed in cycles through many phases. Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan

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d. e.

f.

g.

The methodology of developmental work research has been used in multiple studies in work activities in the field of health care, industry and teaching. This study applies the methodology in agricultural research following pioneering work in the field. Being contextual and systemic, the methodology of developmental work research gives an opportunity to study the relations of phenomena beyond the confines of traditional, natural and social scientific disciplines. It also gives tools to develop the activity from the point of view of the farmers and not only describes and analyses Multifunctional Crop Rotation Model (MCR). To maintain quality production without synthetic pesticides and avoiding use of heavy machinery. No till permanent beds will be employed. Ecological Nutrient Management (ENM). To provide crops with pure and stable mineral nutrients in an economically and ecologically acceptable way without single directly available Fertilizers. As nutrients have leached from the soils, in order to rebuild fertility levels there is a need for augmenting compost with secondary and micronutrients in the short term and rebuilding nutrient cycling based upon minimum external inputs in the long term. Statistical Analysis: Conducted on data to identify the important farm level variables influencing health, welfare status and practices. Based on the results of the implementing (Phase 1) and statistical (Phase 2) analyses, the survey farms will be classified by type and health and welfare characteristics. Case-studies will be implemented on key farms, for each of the characterized farm types, in order to explore in more detail specific influential factors and constraints. It is envisaged that case studies will involve informal (PRA, etc.) and formal (farm records and closed questions) methods. Design: This is not a typical research methodology. In fact it is a process very different from classical research. Classical research investigates a particular problem, phenomena or a set of problems, in order to understand the mechanisms involved. Design, however, involves another process entirely. In design one synthesizes the knowledge into the larger units through which the "whole" functions in reality. In other words, in research one "discovers something", while in designing one "creates something" out of its vision and synthesized knowledge. Agro-designing methodology involves several steps (Vereijken, 1995). It starts with an inventory of the needs and objectives of the stakeholders concerned. Objectives are then ordered hierarchically and rated. The most important of these are then transformed into a suitable set of parameters. In other words, in order to quantify selected objectives, a set of measurable key parameters should be developed. The next step is to establish appropriate agricultural methods and techniques serving more than one objective, for example, intensive fertilization in general serves the objective of high yield and is detrimental to other objectives such as the environment and capable of bridging gaps between conflicting objectives. Finally, the set of multi-objective parameters and methods is linked in a general theoretical prototype based on agronomic, agroecological and economic considerations. Theoretical prototypes are then tested in practice and their shortcomings are used as the learning points for the next phase, (re)designing of the same or another farming system. Sustainability is both site-specific and determined by macro institutional and economic settings. The overall sustainability of a farming system can best be expressed by the index (degree) of sustainability reached. This index can be derived Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

• • • • •

• • • • •

from farm balances such as nutrients, soil organic matter, energy, labor, economic return, resource use and biodiversity value and from other relevant farm data (Znaor, 1996). While classical research focuses on problem solving, design is a problemprevention methodology and is suitable for multi- and interdisciplinary research teams with the vision of how to improve agricultural sustainability. h. Testing With Pilot Farms. Prototyping research takes place in interaction with a group of ten pilot farms, to: • Ensure input of experience and knowledge of leading farmers; • Test the design at variable soil and management conditions. Results for quantity and quality of products, environment and nature of the farms are evaluated annually using a set of parameters with quantified innovative norms. Shortcomings are analyzed systematically with the pilot farmers in order to improve farming methods and management: 1. Is it ready for use? 2. Is it manageable for the farmers? 3. Is it acceptable to the farmers? 4. Is it effective? i. It is proposed to introduce an Appropriate, Integrated and Sustainable Approach to Rural Development, keeping in view latest trends that are producing “Results”. A short analysis is given below: Needs-Based Community Development: Traditional Model: Based on Needs Goal Institutional Change Conversation Problems and Concerns Change Agent Power View of Individual Consumer/ Client Needs are based on Community Problems Assets-Based Community Development: Alternate Model: Based on Assets Goal Building Communities Conversation Gifts & Dreams Change Agent Relationship View of Individual Producer / Owner Assets are based on Community “Treasures” “Asset-Based” Development: Reorients development from a “needs-based” approach. Needs-based models seek to identify weaknesses in a local community and then implement strategies to overcome those weaknesses This method of mobilizing citizens focuses on negative characteristics of a community and demoralizes local residents, thus limiting proactive action at the local level. Focusing on local assets, instead of needs and deficits, allows residents to identify possibilities for change that they can control, and energizes residents to take action.

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Figure 29: Asset-Based Community Development:

While the needs-based approach focuses on garnering external resources to solve problems, the alternative asset based approach looks for residents’ personal skills and dreams and links them to action through a public articulation of these local assets. j. Economic Gardening: Using local resources to grow their own jobs through entrepreneurial activity — Economic gardening—instead of recruiting them from outside the community, or Economic Hunting. The idea evolved from work by Dr. David Birch at MIT who argued that a majority of all new jobs in any local economy were produced by small local businesses. Core Elements of Economic Gardening: 1) Providing information, infrastructure and connections for local growth companies; 2) Providing connections between industry and academia; Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

3)

Focusing on quality of life and amenities.

Figure 30: Economic Gardening. Containerized Factory & Hand Line Canning: Configured & Pre-Installed: • Marmalade; Tomato Paste; Ketchup; Fruit Pulp; Pure Juices; Nectars; Concentrates & Baby Food. • Edible Oil Processing Plants. • Potato/ Onion Processing. • Milling Plants. • Milk Products. • Fodder Pellets. • Slaughtering/ Rendering Plants. • Green Beans & Berries Processing/ Freezing/ Packing. • Ice Blocks/ Flakes Plant. • Mineral Water & Honey Plants. l. Pilot Community Based Production Project: k.

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Projects for Wool Spinning, Shawl and Carpet Weaving, Bed Linen and Quilt Production, Bridal Dresses, etc. through Provision of Training/ Equipment/ Raw material and Collective Marketing.
a) Year Wise Schedule:
Years 1 Year-1 Activities I Site selection/ mapping/ GIS Stakeholder dialogue SD2: II Division/ District Sustainable Development Action Plans. III Poverty Mapping. IV Composting: V Dome/ Tunnel Erection: VI Mushroom Kulla Construction: VII Trout Fisheries. VIII Irrigation Channels. IX Hydro Power Plants. X Angora Rabbits. XI Growing: XII Processing/ Canning: XIII Marketing & Analysis: Year-2 Activities I Stakeholder dialogue: II Composting: III Growing: IV Rearing: V Processing/ Canning: VI Analysis: VII Peer Review: VIII Replication: IX Marketing: Year-3 Activities 1 Stakeholder dialogue: 11 Composting: 111 Growing: 1V Rearing: V Processing/ Canning: 2 3 4 5 6 Months 7 8 9 10 11 12

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VI Analysis: V1I Peer Review: V11I Replication: IX Marketing. X Transfer.

14.

Logical Framework Matrix (LFM): Narrative Summary Goal/ Overall Objective Food Security for marginalized / poor/ females/ children. Project Purpose Enhance Nutrition of target group. Increase income through sale of marketable surplus Outputs/ Results 1. More effective food security in eco-friendly manner for small landholders and landless. 2. Establish Calendars for various combinations of vegetable/ herbs/ spices growing. 3. Income Enhancement. 4. Increase capacity of SSG Staff for outreach activities. Activities/ Inputs The actual tasks required to produce desired outputs. 1.1 Successful rapid composting. 1.2 Numbers and types of structures erected. 2.1 Vegetable/ Herb/ Spice/ Mushroom Growing. 2.2 Fertigation. Objectively Verifiable Indicators(OVIs) Means/Source of verification(MOV) Risks/ Assumptions Political/ Economic and Climate Stability Technology Transfer in user friendly manner.

Meeting minimum daily FAO) standards food intake standards

Calories and nutrient Replicability/ analysis of produce. Acceptability

1. Quantities of various • Village Council • Budget produce for self supervision of field support. consumption. data collection. • Appropriat 2. Appropriate out of • Market analysis. e input by season production implementing against market • staff. Village Council availability and demand. supervision of field • Political 3. Marketable surplus. data collection. stability. • Replicability record. 4. Field Trials.

• • • •

Verification of records kept by Implementing Staff (M&E SSG/ Village Council. Six monthly progress reports (Technical & Financial) Annual Progress Report Field visit to monitor implementation of project

• •

Budget disbursed as planned. Staff available for research

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3.1 Canning. 4.1 Video Films/ documentaries will be prepared

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Mountain Biodiversity: An Assessment In mountain environments, the general economic standpoint remains valid, but there is also a much more direct aspect of the value of biodiversity—it provides physical stability on mountain slopes and therefore also safety from avalanches, landslides and erosion. Thus biodiversity can be thought of as providing ecological services (Luck et al 2003) rather than simply offering resources that are available to be “used up.” The importance of the stability and protection services, as well as other services provided by mountain biodiversity such as water capture, is clearly stressed These relate observed biodiversity patterns on mountains to topics such as reduced land area and habitat heterogeneity, species interactions, organism size, and population age structure and genetics. All of this is capped by the effects of human land uses on mountain biodiversity, including sustainable development and conservation issues, and potential influences of climatic change. Project Components: • Social Mobilization: The project aims to capitalize the experience of SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP in social mobilization and its staff would motivate village activists to construct Environment/ Predator Protected structures for out of season and regular growing of vegetables and mushrooms for domestic use. • Training in Green House Operations: SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP will develop a cadre of Master Trainers in construction; maintenance and operation of Green House structures (500 men and women) each master trainer will then consequently train some 10 village activists with the support of the project team. The Master Trainers and other trainees will be selected in consultation with the local VCs organized by SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP in the area. The training will focus on low cost, alternate means of construction with emphasis on maintenance and sustainability of the interventions. The project team will train the Master Trainers on fasttrack basis. It will be followed by regular backstopping and monitoring to create an impact. The selection of the Master Trainers will be on-merit, based on the following criteria: • Willingness to impart knowledge after receiving training. • Willingness to transfer the technology. Mobilization of local people and following up on the establishment of Food Security interventions will be jointly conducted by the local communities and the project staff. The cost of social mobilization and follow up will be reimbursed to SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. Capacity Building. Partnership, Policy and Advocacy: It is important to build capacity of the public institutions, NGOs, universities and research institutions in green house operations and other methods of Plasticulture research, teaching and outreach so that the effort remains sustainable after the completion of the project. The project will lay a great emphasis on development of partnerships with and between all key stakeholders, including the private sector. Likewise, emphasis will be given to policy research and advocacy related to environment/ predator protected, green house operations, including the; allocation of more funds for research institutions; human resource development in public institutions; revision of curricula in teaching institutions; Lessons Learnt: Gender Concerns: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

Women play an important role in agriculture and food production in developing countries. They are the dominant labor force in agriculture, and make a crucial contribution through engaging themselves in all agricultural activities from preparation of the soil to post-harvest operations. Development of rural women and encouraging their full participation as equal partners in the social and economic mainstream is one of the greatest challenges being faced by most developing countries today. Labor migration, especially from the mountain areas, is common in many developing countries, including Pakistan. Whilst the men leave the village to work in towns and cities - or even abroad -the women are left to do all the work needed at home. This both increases their workload, but also empowers women to undertake tasks they never have done before. Environment/ Predator Protected Kitchen Gardening: Kitchen garden requirements can be met by 20 cycles of a full tank (1,000 gallons capacity) per annum. When attached with simple shift- able drip irrigation lines the area under intensive cultivation can be increased to cater for small-scale commercial production of vegetables and nursery stock. This can also be a further income strengthening project after initial successful completion and raised skills levels of the community members after the 1st phase. ESTABLISHMENT: The proposed project shall be implemented under the overall umbrella of NWFP Government and executing agency for the Project will be the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. Firstly, employees of the SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP suited to the job will be given preference on deputation basis. In cases where suitable candidates are not available in the executing agency they will be hired from the open market. i) Project Management Unit (PMU) SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP shall be the Executing Agency with a project management unit (PMU) established under the Head Office. PMU will be headed by a full time “Project Director (PD)” supported by a Finance Officer, Horticulture Specialist, Data Processing Expert, along with Office Staff etc. The Project Director, PMU shall be responsible for execution of the project. The procurement and contract management shall be managed by the PMU. PD shall be responsible to provide monthly progress report to the CEO SPECIAL SUPPORT GROUP. PD will also be responsible to get the expenditures of the project audited by a firm of Chartered Accountants. ii) Project Implementation Units (PIUs) Project Implementation Units shall be established in central rural locations of each District. Each Implementation Unit shall comprise of: one area coordinator, horticulturist, data entry operator, office staff etc. The coordinators at Sub-Division level shall liaise with PMU, various contractors, executing staff at Union Council level, service providers etc. and concerned line departments. She/ he shall implement the policies/ guidelines prepared, thereafter and shall be responsible for implementation of work plan prepared by PMU. Besides this She/ he shall be responsible to monitor progress of work, as per procedure laid down by PMU, and responsible to submit progress reports on monthly basis to PMU and others as required. iii) Staff at District Level For smooth working in the field, for greater coordination between service provider and beneficiary, a team comprising of a Horticulturalist and a Social mobilizer will be provided for every District. Community members will be encouraged to participate actively in the Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Page 80

installation process and to supervise implementation. Overall responsibility will lie with the staff of the Project.

PREPARED BY: Sardar Taimur Hyat-Khan Bioenvironmental Manager. 0301-5456088

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Annex V

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