Geert Masureel (geert.masureel@theartificialbrain.

com)

Preface................................................................................................................................................. 5 It’s all about linking and comparison................................................................................................ 7 Warming Up....................................................................................................................................7 Linking, comparison and decisions............................................................................................... 7 Neural Networks............................................................................................................................. 8 Procedural or not ?........................................................................................................................... 10 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 10 Thanks time and space !...............................................................................................................10 Scripting is the answer !............................................................................................................... 11 Other advantages of scripting..................................................................................................... 11 The main protector............................................................................................................................ 13 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 13 The amygdala................................................................................................................................ 13 Emotions and feelings....................................................................................................................... 15 Some free thoughts on emotions.................................................................................................. 15 Fear................................................................................................................................................ 15 Feelings, the derivatives of fear................................................................................................... 16 Disgust and surprise..................................................................................................................... 17 Curiosity and acceptance............................................................................................................. 18 Pain................................................................................................................................................ 19 Aggression..................................................................................................................................... 19 Believe, the driving force !................................................................................................................ 21 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 21 Believe, always believe ….............................................................................................................21 The three states of believe and doubt......................................................................................... 22 The diverse forms of consciousness..................................................................................................24 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 24 Consciousness................................................................................................................................ 24 Some free thoughts..................................................................................................................... 24 Another approach towards answers............................................................................................ 25 Conscious versus subconscious.................................................................................................... 25 Self-awareness (self-conscious).................................................................................................... 27
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© Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel - Page 2 of 60

The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

Creativity, dreams, imagination and thinking........................................................................... 28 Impact on the digital brain.......................................................................................................... 29 Unexpected processes of the subconscious...................................................................................... 31 Intuition or following the own instincts...................................................................................... 31 Imitation and insight.................................................................................................................... 31 What about hormones ?.................................................................................................................... 33 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 33 Hormones...................................................................................................................................... 33 An odd question : is puberty required ?..................................................................................... 33 The impact on the digital brain................................................................................................... 34 The hormone part....................................................................................................................... 34 The pre-juvenile phase............................................................................................................... 34 The juvenile phase...................................................................................................................... 36 Deeper thoughts.................................................................................................................................37 'I think, therefore I am ...'............................................................................................................37 The buzzword 'perception'.......................................................................................................... 37 Values and ego.................................................................................................................................. 39 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 39 Relativity....................................................................................................................................... 39 Standard of values........................................................................................................................ 39 The world turns around you !..................................................................................................... 40 Self-interest, always !....................................................................................................................41 Altruism ….................................................................................................................................... 42 A number of important actors........................................................................................................... 43 Motivation..................................................................................................................................... 43 Appreciation versus punishment.................................................................................................43 Instincts......................................................................................................................................... 44 Memory.............................................................................................................................................. 45 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 45 What about synapses ?................................................................................................................. 45 Storing information...................................................................................................................... 45 The inner voice.............................................................................................................................. 46 The principles behind belief and fear......................................................................................... 47 The ‘play-zone’............................................................................................................................. 48 The long-term memory................................................................................................................ 49
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................... 54 Introduction...................................................................................... 54 The diagram.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Digidala (J)............................... style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel ............................................................................................................theartificialbrain..............................................Page 4 of 60 ....... 50 Fragmentation......................... 59 Epilog................................................ 58 Rewarding (K) and Punishment (D)..................................................... 56 Attention (E)............ 52 Appendix 1 : A sample diagram................................................................................................................................................................................................ 55 Surprise (F)........ 57 Main Data (O)............... 54 Explanation................................................................Visualization....................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B)................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51 Mirror neurons.................................................................................... 51 What types of memory are needed ?................................... 56 Curiosity (G)............................................................................................................ 60 __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www........................................................................................................ 57 Data Temp (M)........................................................................................................................................ 59 Conscious versus subconscious................................................................................................................................. 57 Labeling (L)..............................................................................................................................................................................................................51 Attention..................................... 57 Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N).....................................................................................................................................com is always required................................................ 52 Concentration..................................... 52 Introduction.............................................................................................. 58 Instincts (P).................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Pain (C).........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................58 Acceptance (I)................... This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type..........................................

a long time before I discovered being high gifted (in 1997. Different fields of expertise are mixed constantly. As bonus. but didn't find real answers.. At the age of 17 I discovered the personal computer and instantly I knew we would be best friends for life ! It didn't take long to see the similarities in the working of the brain and the way a computer operates and at the age of 22 I had a first (primitive) scheme how it could work. better manageable and cheaper. or C. don't be discouraged if it takes several readings to get a total overview of the picture . How to implement this is not always covered since that is not the primary goal of this writing. at the age of 27. Also in this area I personally have the feeling a lot is known (and sometimes made extremely complicated) but the pieces not always fall together and that is a shame since most people could (in)directly benefit from this … What needed to be done was to find out how our thinking process works. but there were so many necessary missing links like emotions.I. First I started reading the classical psychology books. It covers most fundamentals needed in developing an artificial brain.. But instead of overcomplicating things by imitating the brain to the letter. .) ! Why ? A wrong approach in the way of looking at this challenge is the answer ! Imitating brain functions (like neural networks or even some emotions) help us in a lot of domains where a simple form of intelligence is needed. It is quite heavy stuff and I would be surprised if anyone is capable to fully understand in-depth at the first reading. And although I try to explain everything in a simple way (with real life examples). Keep in mind that it is a summary of the path I had to follow for over more than 20 years.I....Page 5 of 60 .The ultimate A. but all main parts are described as well as why they are required to obtain a fully functional Artificial Brain. Challenge – The artificial brain Preface A lot of research has already been done in the field of A.com . but if developed in an experienced team it should be very well possible to have a fully functional artificial brain within a reasonable timeframe !!!! A side effect of my research is the fundamental wisdoms I discovered directly applicable in the field of human interest like psychology. but as some experts in neural networks have discovered by now. this capacity can be adjusted till virtually unlimited ! Of course. After all. and Mensa Belgium Member since then). computer systems are not the best host for gigantic parallel multitasking as required for supercomplex neural networks like brain imitations where this capacity is the primary necessity. wasn't it John Nash (Nobel prize winner in Economics in 1994) who once stated that existing information always leads you away from being creative in finding true answers . something is missing (as a matter of fact a lot is missing) to go from that one point to an actual self learning system capable of real thinking in 'new' fields (like we do). motivation and feelings © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Some major companies invest heavily in artificial neurons or even build microchips by cutting tiny slices of both human and non-human brain-parts and measuring the electric charge present at that moment in the hope to achieve a major breakthrough in creating an artificial brain ! The key question remains if this is the road to success and personally I am not really convinced it is ! The available processing power of computer systems (even with multiple processors per system) these days is so immense and thanks to networks. I struggled with the fact that everybody else was so different in mindset than I was (at that moment I hadn't figured out that it was me who was the odd man out). I needed to dig deeper and at that moment my actual search truly began. No. How I came to the knowledge in this document ? At the age of 14. Forget for a moment all you've ever learned about the brain (psychological and physical) and follow me in this journey. I took a complete different approach and as you will discover in this document... you will find a fully explained input diagram in Appendix 1.masureel@theartificialbrain. appreciation.B.B. it is not only simpler. At a certain moment it became almost unbearable and I realized I needed to find a way to figure out how 'the others' were thinking.I. fear.. and who am I to argue such wisdom ! This document is primary written as a theoretical guide in creating an A. but when looking closer no major breakthrough has yet been accomplished in creating an Artificial Brain (A.

but not simpler” ! So not a single item can be deleted out of this design if the target is a true working ánd autonomous digital brain.. I use the elementary rule Einstein mentioned once : “You should make everything as simple as possible.that I decided to make it my primary target to exactly figure out how our thinking process works. Geert Masureel geert. Have fun and not only discover that an artificial brain is very well possible but learn as well how You and everyone else is thinking . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.com __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.com is always required.theartificialbrain.masureel@theartificialbrain.Page 6 of 60 . In every design I make. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .. It took almost another ten years to see full clarity and a couple of years afterwards to overcome the last obstacles.

regenerate. as long as there is the possibility to compare and link. Keep this in mind ! Not all parts in the (human) brain communicate directly with each other and disconnections in the interconnected brainparts (lesions) mostly result in severe malfunctions. thanks to linking and comparison.. Some behavior is partially or completely triggered or influenced by these needs and therefore it is crucial to eliminate these factors or even discover the necessity of such a 'need' to obtain a functioning 'brain'. When we learn to walk or bicycle. preferably but not necessarily to something we already know. linking and thanks to both also taking decisions. Since none of us is born with a list of calibration. we are limited to our five senses (smell. lifting an arm.' when something new is on the market or happens to us. without being symmetrical or even logical … Because one of the main features of the thinking process is comparison. that looks (a little) like .com . . The decisions we took were the small corrections to obtain the balance. make the sound of a cow or even when You smell a cow cake You just stepped in. comparison and decisions Everything in the brain is about comparison. All organic brains (human and non-human) are pretty well defined and leave almost no room for error in the blueprint ! Therefore. This brings us to an essential issue.or reference points. Linking. Challenge – The artificial brain It’s all about linking and comparison Warming Up Stretching your legs. seeing and hearing). listening to some music or watching an exciting movie. As human. book. If the sound is louder than the previous time. there must be a point of reference or calibration. But if we look at some processes running in the background. So this should not be a surprise for those familiar with the working of neurons or neural networks … Good to know ! Some believe that the differences in both hemispheres of the human brain are the result of limited neurons available in the brain and therefore specific tasks are dedicated to specific parts.. Humans need to have the ability to reproduce. for the thinking process it even doesn't matter where the base signal originates (smell. eat. concludes the next incoming grenade could be very well right on top of him. It is also the reason why a person with a malfunction in one of the five senses will have no problem in optimizing one of the others to overcome this. Actually.. all of these processes are conducted by the brain. In most cases new experiences will change this point of reference. If one does not know how long a meter is or how heavy one kilogram is. primal experiences are used as initial reference points.. taste. when I use the sentence ‘everything in the brain is about comparison and linking’. Few people will doubt this. but the thinking process is perfectly capable of interpreting other 'sensors'. in fact I mean that in all these separate brain-parts the same principle of comparing and linking is applicable. . run away or to crouch lower.) as long as there is a possibility to compare and link. taste or even piece of art. a decision will be taken to duck. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. The brain exists out of neurons and linking and comparison is basically what most neurons do. sense.The ultimate A. song.I. like how the brain steers the ratio saliva (chemically a base) versus the amount of gastric juice (chemically an acid) via the taste. there is no way of comparing. Never wondered why we often say or think 'Hé. In this document I use human behavior as a starting point to discover the way the thinking process functions and it is of the utmost importance to keep in mind that the object 'human' is far more complicated than what I state here.and smell receptors is less common known. The moment 'our veteran'.. A soldier at the front will weight out the impact place of an incoming grenade by the whistling. That's why You think the same when I show a picture of a cow. we compare the visual information combined with the data provided by the organs of balance from previous times (falling) until we reach that point of true balance.Page 7 of 60 . It could be a new perfume. feeling.. but not always.masureel@theartificialbrain. the impact will be nearer and viceversa.

If the input is ‘far away’ from the ‘predefined’ values. Organic neurons work in an analog way and have the advantage of parallel processing resulting in an extremely fast ‘process-execution’. And even if we would be able to duplicate the brain. Since many neurons are generally used simultaneously in ‘brain processing’.com is always required. These examples can easily be achieved by combining some neurons as well. the PC has the benefit of low cost. It is better to understand the principles behind the organic neurons. preferable on a standard computing system like a PC and only there where really needed. If on the other hand the algorithm concludes that the nearest table value is too far (too many errors). All sorts of output can be generated and might be useful in separate parts of the digital brain.Page 8 of 60 . a digital neuron must not be the exact equivalent of the organic one ! A physical neuron has evolved during million of years and fulfills the needs for animals and humans whereas the ability to learn theoretical and abstract matter in case of humans is. In case the internal algorithm concludes that there are many reasons to give it a true. A digital version is per definition digital and. I am no longer a believer that it is the right way to create a highly flexible intelligent digital brain. even 200 million in the case of the corpus callosum) is just a tiny too much to get control over. but why overcomplicating things if simplification (more reliable and less neurons) is possible ! The basic conclusion here is that the more possible output we generate the larger the logical table of the connected neurons will be and the more processing power and memory space will be used. not likely (1). maybe (2). This could be described as a classical true/false statement. reliability. A balance therefore is necessary between the output values and the hardware available. nothing __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. neurons are capable of pattern-recognition. A good example is that if a certain input (dendrites) will be compared to the internal table (nucleus) and if the value is near or equal to an earlier correct line in the table. Nevertheless. Another important advantage of the digital neuron is that we are not limited to a true/false state of the axon firing (it fires or not). the amount of parallel processing is limited to the number of processors and separate threats supported by the operating system and programming language on the ‘PC’. likely (3). how would it be possible in short-term and with limited resources to adapt certain aspects without opening Pandora’s box ? Although I followed the road of neural networks for a small period of time. as explained later. false (0). a PC is in the disadvantage at first glance. But there is one little problem … … copying the human brain is simply too complex ! The number of axon-connections (we often talk about sky-scraping numbers. In general. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . rather a side effect of the amount of neurons present in the human brain. if no special (expensive) equipment is available (electronic imitations of physical neurons allowing parallel handling). But. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. the axon value should be false or 0. And this is exactly what needs to be done to optimize the neuron to function on a system with less parallel but more processing capabilities (like PC’s). processing power and availability ! Furthermore. By combining some neurons it is possible to create a simple ‘if … then’ statement. but grounds are present to doubt about this (more and further errors) a state of ‘maybe’ (value 2) should be present. not everything about neural networks is bad ! So let’s look a little closer at neurons and where they might be useful in our digi-brain. It’s very well possible to give extra values to the output of the axon since dendrites are capable of handling non true/false statements. That is in most cases what they do. compare this with the current available digital versions (neural networks) and optimize them for the use in a digital brain. By just adding this one state we actually make from this single neuron a high performing piece of decision ! Of course it is very well possible to generate other output sequences like true (4). the axon-value should be true or 1. The principle behind a neuron is that when the input (via dendrites) is near or equal to a predefined value (obtained through the learning process in the nucleus) it fires via the axon. the axon does not fire.theartificialbrain.Neural Networks Neural networks imitate the way neurons actually work in our brain and are a good example of how the comparison part could be solved.

ear adjustments to optimize the hearing. A sort of universal interface if you prefer it in programmer’s words. but is rather limited in fields of use. Challenge – The artificial brain more or less. this is what we refer to as intuition or following your instincts … Personally I would state that for the digi-brain.and input of the neurons or other techniques must be able of ‘communicating’ with each other or whatever modus operandi would be used. but criticizing without offering solutions is cheap ! The next chapter therefore provides the answer … © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. The out. There is one big “BUT” in this equation : fifty percent of the neurons present in the human brain is situated in the cerebellum and that is a stunning 50 billion neurons and even a multiplicity of synapses ! Therefore I would split this in manageable units all with a single function and where feasible applying other techniques to overcome this. The system must remain flexible enough to adapt future ‘experiences’ to the existing data and expand the area of use. As will be described later in this document. etc would of course reside within the cerebellum. but the outcome would be perfect input for the neural network of smelling ! Two conditions must be fulfilled in replacing the neural network structure and these are : • • Interaction must still be possible. sense of hearing and even smell. Speech.Page 9 of 60 .or visual (OCR) recognition in current neural networks already make use of this capacity. always ! A mathematical equation is just a discovered pattern. It is also the reason why so many checklists exists and are frequently used. And pattern recognition is also what the brain does. Nature does not need physics to survive. a neural network future is present for the digital cerebellum. In this last case better and more precise electronic techniques exist.com . A clear and logical design leaving few room for errors and side-effects ! The focus of this chapter was on illustrating that other possibilities than only neurons would work better. A checklist is nothing more than a pattern and someone recurrently using the same checklist will just need a glimpse of the checklist to see what is missing (in the executed pattern).masureel@theartificialbrain. Like the cerebellum in vertebrates the main focus of this digital cerebellum would be on sensory perception and motor output.The ultimate A.I. like attention. Just the same way as neural networks are presently used in prediction software in the financial world. Flexibility. but via mathematical expressions we call physical laws we see patterns in nature and are even able of predicting certain events. It might even be best only to use neural networks for those parts where pattern recognition is the only real answer like sight. A very low level process such as attention deserves an own space outside the cerebellum ! The motor function of these features like moving lips. to more specific areas outside the digital cerebellum. It would take a complete other expression or set of expressions to let the same hand juggle ! So predefined expressions are to be avoided ! A typical example of why it is not good practice to copy the human brain structure as such is that not everything is always as logical as could be ! Dyslexia is one fine example of this ! Dyslexic children performing balancing exercises frequently helps enormously because the same brain environment is used for both ! That is why for instance I would extract some side functions from the human cerebellum. Using math expressions to bounce a bal on a tennis racket is nice. processing of language and music.

End. place it in front of leg B.theartificialbrain. If (Hand is Left of Glass) then Move_Hand_A_Little_To_The_Right. then step c. find a stable balance. If I want to grab my glass of water I must first move my hand towards the glass no matter where my hand is ! This ‘moving towards’ can be done in different ways and can depend on external factors like ‘both arms in plaster’ (causing non standard ways of moving towards the glass).Page 10 of 60 . repeat this complete procedure for leg B End. End. then step b. It can even be that my glass is on a table 5 meter away and I need to walk to the table first before I can even start reaching for the glass. some sort of sequence is required. This walking also is procedural and lets put all in a nice procedure to illustrate my point : (Step A) While not Table_Is_Reached do begin lift up leg A. First step a. (Step B) While not Hand_Is_Open_Complete do Begin Open_Hand_A_Litlle_More.com is always required. If (Hand is Higher then Glass) then Move_Hand_Down_A_Little. …. balance on leg A. If (Hand is Right of Glass) then Move_Hand_A_Little_To_The_Left. If the execution of the separate steps of the sequence is done in a parallel or serial way is actually of no importance as long as there is a sequence in the main steps. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . but the human brain is not a quantum computer ! The human specie is optimized for living in its habitat (earth) and over here time and space do exist ! This explains why all physical actions are sequential by nature. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. So instead of focusing on how the system functions let’s try to find out if the human thinking can be seen as procedural. However to have a procedural way of operating. as discussed before.Procedural or not ? Introduction The way the human brain works is not serial but parallel based. (Step C) While not Glass_Is_Reached do Begin If (Hand is Lower then Glass) then Move_Hand_Up_A_Little. Thanks time and space ! Quantum computers can simultaneously handle vast amounts of processes in literally no time. then step z. That is the general idea behind procedural behavior.

com . you won’t ! Of course some thoughts can happen simultaneously or even interact and that leads us to the final conclusion. to be more specific interactive procedural. belief. Further in this document you will discover levels (like conscious and subconscious) and required parameters (like hormones. this ‘overlapping’ is also a reason to doubt whether the thinking process is procedural or not. In a lot of neuron and non neuron ‘thinking’.I. preparing a speech in the head. technically not required. Although it is for an A. Scripting is the answer ! The above demonstrates that all can be considered as (interactive) procedural and on computer systems we already have a technique capable of performing this : scripting ! Nonetheless. It is a rather simplistic example.masureel@theartificialbrain.The ultimate A. but understandable for all and I can get a lot of information out of it ! For instance we know the brain is capable of parallel processing but in ‘Step A’ in the example (the moving of the legs) it would be very unwise to parallel start this process for both legs A and B. it is advisable to allow simultaneously processing of diverse steps in a procedure to speed up and smoothen the execution. whether it is being creative (most likely messing around with procedures). One procedure must be able of controlling another and influencing it in diverse ways. Where is the procedure here ? The procedure can be considered as a list of thinks ‘to do’ before reaching the end point (in this case grabbing the glass) BUT the items in the list not necessary need execution in chronological way. fear. See it as a sort of checklist with steps to take in an interactive way and not necessary sequential. adding information or modifying variables to mention a few options. it might be a good idea to overlap the separate processes in order to advance things. interpreter and the higher operational systems.B. It looks like the different steps as such are procedural but the execution of the diverse steps not always is. …) to implement this in the ‘self thinking area’. one would just fall down ! However. but can be achieved by modern computers as well and is not exclusive for the human brain ! However. This requires parallel processing. reading and understanding a book or … … Try to find one thought that is otherwise. Therefore it might be better to name this behavior “interactive procedural behavior” ! Also the way we ‘think’ is interactive procedural. the standard behavior is pretty straight forward and easy definable but ‘the exceptions to the rule’ can often © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. but this is rather a technical issue in how to design the scripting language. Other advantages of scripting Hereunder you can find some additional benefits of scripting : • Exceptions are handled better. In the above example I could first open my hand even before I start walking towards the table and it is not impossible to even raise the hand towards ‘a good position’ also before starting to walk. you always will have a number of steps in any thinking process. Challenge – The artificial brain (Step D) While (Pressure_on_the_glass > This_Pressure_Would_Squeeze_the_glass) and (Pressure_on_the_glass <= At_This_Pressure_The_Glass_will_not_Slip_out_Of_The_Hand) do Begin Close_Hand_A_Little_More.Page 11 of 60 . Whether it is canceling. End. Conclusion : All in the human brain can be considered procedural. I could start ‘Step B’ (the opening of the hand) a little before I reach the table and I even could start moving the hand towards the glass (Step C) at that same time. engine. the current way of scripting is not capable of processing all to obtain full interactive procedural level.

com is always required. The trick is to find a balance between enough commands to comprehend all needed and avoiding commands capable of overruling certain safety rules implemented. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Scripts can easily be viewed and understood by us humans. This means less parallel processing is required in comparison to neurons and the result essentially is the same or even better ! Most operating systems and programming languages support multithreading. allowing compacter “neurons”. as clarified later in this document. Easy modifiable. This scripting of course implies a scripting language. Another tremendous advantage of scripting is that a simple pc is capable of running through scripts extremely fast (if there is an optimized interpreter). Scripting has the advantage that all rules can be defined easily and even the exceptions fit in the picture. Safety. Extra information. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Instincts.theartificialbrain. A script is easy to modify and it is uncomplicated to allow the system to alter or create new types of base scripts without extra hard coding new ‘types’ or ‘object’.Page 12 of 60 . Some basic instincts are required in order to let the system survive or even live. Safety versus flexibility versus complexity. so multiple processes can be handled. lots of ‘illogical linking’ happens at diverse levels of brain processing I can not stress enough to avoid the possibility of commands overruling safety procedures ! This could and will lead towards serious threats for mankind ! What commands should be present and how exactly to implement depends on the requirements of the digital brain and needs to be digged out deeper when this challenge comes in a later stadium. so we have a better control over how the system ‘thinks’ and it is even possible to make changes to certain scripts if required. which is of course necessary (remember : interactive procedural behavior !) and thanks to computer networks it is also possible to spread the load over diverse computers what will be unavoidable if visual and audio information need to be processed too. These scripts can be written in the same language as all other scripts and no additional programming is required to implement these instincts. Thanks to the scripting approach it is possible to make ‘objects’ a little stretchable and extra information regarding this ‘object’ can easily be added and used afterwards. Since this scripting (combined with neural networks) will happen on a very low level of the digital brain and.• • • • • • be hard to ‘include’.

I. Keep this in mind ! A Pavlovian-reflex (described further in this chapter) is not the same as an instinct. jumps out of his chair en strongly pulls the hand of the little child away from the stove. at this moment. it is released to the other parts in the brain for further processing. … … both the absence of what they really are and especially how to implement them in a digital environment are the key factors in why. yawn or even smiling. This last part needs a little further explanation. Challenge – The artificial brain The main protector Introduction The last 25 years can be characterized as a sequence of innovations in the field of computer technology. the burning of the hand (a clear negative experience which is even threatening) will be stored via the amygdala.Page 13 of 60 . An instinct is a predefined type of action (in the broadest sense of the word). On what base will the system do one thing and the other not ? It is impossible to do everything at once and on the other hand. it is absolutely of no importance for the thinking process where the input comes from as long as it can link (and compare). it is not necessary to cover them in depth here. The next time the child recognizes a source of heat with its little hand. isn't it ! Unfortunately the coin has two sides. sweating. If not all humans would laugh the same way or use sticking out the thong in case of a ‘bah’ experience. All predefined and necessary from the start of the organism to survive or to facilitate the social integration.The ultimate A. emotions. only the principle is. but this time there is somebody near to prevent the burning of the hand. will have the same effect as if the hand would have been burned effectively and an obvious link is added in the amygdala not to touch the stove. Sometimes instincts are mixed with the term reflexes and that is alright. it would limit the system enormously if all needs to be predefined and ‘hard coded’ ! On what base will the system conclude that something might be useful and another thing is not important or obsolete ? In other words why would a system prefer mathematics over literature or otherwise ? Motivation. This small part is our first line of defense and some name it the center of fear or emotional center and is an element of the limbic system. without burning and without hesitating ! The amygdala is our first line of defense and it works extremely fast. caused by this action. every signal on its way to be processed in the brain passes first through the amygdala and if approved. something one (animal or human) is born with. The blanching of this. If no one is in the neighborhood to prevent this from happening. confusion would arise with possible (deadly) conflicts as a result.and sucking (for babies) reflexes or breathing. love. As mentioned in a previous part. Before the child would have 'understood' that the stove is too hot. the hand would have been burned again.masureel@theartificialbrain. cardiomuscular contractions. as long as you keep in mind that instincts are never Pavlovian reflexes ! Fine examples of instincts or reflexes are the surviving. How can a system be self-adapting and self-learning ? That is the basic question and therefore it is imperative to look closer at concepts like fear or emotions as something we call motivation (explained later in this document) is dependent on this.com . Simply stated (but not entirely correct). the hand will be pulled back automatically. attention. In the above example of the burning hand of the little child. Nevertheless an artificial brain was impossible due to the lack of digital surrogates for typical ‘human’ properties like fear. it would simply take too long to process all the information in a normal way. The same applies to the amygdala and that is a different story ! Let’s take again our example of our little child. Fantastic. motivation and motivation … The amygdala In the brain of complex vertebrates resides the amygdala (in humans. no artificial brain is yet available. A lot of our so-called instincts originate there (see side frame for extra info). an almond shaped part in the brain near each ear). The adult suddenly notices that the child is about to burn its hand and starts to shout at the child. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Although the amygdala exists out of several independent functional cores (connected to the central core). A typical example is a small child who wants to place his hand on a hot surface like a burning stove.

For now the conclusion that motivation and the amygdala are apparently connected to each other is sufficient. The current situation of diverse tens of years of (almost) peace worldwide is unique and encouraging but absolutely not representative in the search of the brain functioning ! It is rather the result of economical principles and regions in conflict mostly are economically important or absolutely not (with the unfortunate result of no or very limited external interference of other nations). This indicates that sexuality could be an important motivator. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . the principle of an amygdala is mandatory and will be essential for a digital brain as well. How many people aren't extremely afraid to drive again after a severe car crash. Fear. who. A lot of people are also familiar with the knowledge that castrated tomcats and he-dogs in a lot of cases become less aggressive. How many sisters have not a panic fear for spiders because their lovely brother found it amusing to chase dear sister with a spider in the hand or simply throwing the spider in the hair.Once again. furiously leaves the home to move in again with her mother . Which is as such not so surprisingly ! One may never forget that it is only recently in human history that theoretical matter is of such meaning. must have at least 99 percent of impact on storage of data ! If this was not the case.theartificialbrain. for the child both situations are identical and a link will be stored in the amygdala. Some other amygdala related functions are aggression and most likely reproduction too. What motivation exactly is for the brain is at this moment not relevant and will be covered in depth later on.. Now imagine there is no stove near but in this case the child is playing with its building blocks and the adult shouting and strongly pulling the kid away from his toys is his mother. Nature is hard and hostile territory and offers more hostility than friendliness. life threatening situations wouldn’t be stored immediately and permanently and therefore the future of the species would be in great danger ! It is always good practice to keep in mind that not so long ago there where more threatening than non-threatening situations humans had to face.Page 14 of 60 .com is always required. the amygdala keeps playing an important role in our life. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. in this case that's true. it is quite predictable that all these innocent incidents will have a reflection in other aspects in the daily life and often where one would not expect it ! The amygdala is also of great significance in saving data in the long-term memory. and that is where the amygdala stands for. a selection of what to process and what to drop is needed and this selection always originates from motivation. a decrease of 30 percent of the amygdala occurs.. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. I can assure You that this kid will no longer play much with the building blocks in the future and that was not the purpose ! The previous example perfectly demonstrates that although there are two different ways of input sensory (the burning of the hand) and shock (yelling) the outcome is the same. Before. After castration. To avoid a complete overflow of the brain. This is not a scientific fact as such and no complete clearance is present at this moment on this topic since this only applies to male species and not in all cases has this been observed. This displays the low level the amygdala is working on … No matter how old we are.. after a domestic quarrel. Since one of the basic functions of the brain is linking (conscious or subconscious). As discussed later on.. fantastic because this is what we wanted to achieve ! Indeed. . .. only surviving and reproduction was important.. less active and often even lazy.

‘A subjective expression of an emotion’ is not so well chosen therefore and furthermore it implies that feelings are the result of emotions and that is not the case … Another commonly used approach is the ABC method to define emotions. An important conclusion here is that not trust but caution (combination fear and trust) creates most chances in surviving. Primarily.The ultimate A.B. it is wise to keep in mind that emotions (remember : the physical expression of feelings) could come in handy to better understand the thoughts and feelings of the A. dramatized feeling. Challenge – The artificial brain Emotions and feelings Some free thoughts on emotions In order to see full clarity in the principles behind the amygdala (actually the complete limbic system). If we are unable to link something we get afraid. Time after time they get a smack in the face ! On the other hand. Personally.I. as earlier described.B. an A. mix the terms emotions and feelings constantly referring to feelings. it is of utmost importance to exactly figure out what emotions. Whether emotions are the consequences of feelings or they arise simultaneously (axons can fire to many dendrites at once) is a discussion I am not willing to perform and it is not mandatory in the case of an A. Someone with an angry face will be recognized allover the world as someone to avoid. etc. Since most people. A good parent will notice the small (or expressive) changes in a child’s face or voice and will be able to relieve the burden of the child. it is. it is of the utmost importance that fear exists. our main protector ! Without fear you would cross roads without checking. it will work confusing otherwise … Fear It would be simply impossible to talk about feelings without first touching 'fear'. Simply because 100 percent trust is the same as the lack of fear (not-fear) ! Ask people who are credulous and have a little too much faith in other people. at that moment. an emotion actually needs a physical expression and then forget it. nothing more or less). It is more and more accepted that emotions and feelings are different things and that feelings are the subjective experience of an emotion.Page 15 of 60 . others can better react. but they are optional ! Yes. It is also the reason why faith is so important and © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.B. technically to be correct. In conjunction to the A. feelings and fear are. in the future of this document I will often use the term ‘emotions’ to make things a little easier to understand and more readable. What is for sure is that there must be a feeling to have an emotion.com . pet a lion in the zoo or even tell your boss what you really think of him or her ! Caution is also a form of fear. That is the main reason why new things frighten us and after a while the fear most of the time weakens.B. Know that. Someone full of trust is not cautious at all and will often do stupid things. In order to survive. Someone crying will need some comforting. Thanks to our capacity to physically display certain feelings (that is what emotions stand for. someone with absolute fear (not-trust) will collapse and display unpredictable behavior. It is the balance between fear and its opponent trust. I would like to emphasize that everything in the brain is subjective (discussed later on). It helps social (non-verbal) communication and it comes in handy when raising children. The main question is why emotions (not feelings) are so important ? The answer is interaction.masureel@theartificialbrain. I prefer the description of Robert Masters stating that emotion is psychosocially constructed. even professional ones. can work perfectly without the existence of emotions ! Feelings on the other hand are obligated and the rest of this chapter is dedicated to this subject..

A second remarkable thing we detect looking a little closer is that some feelings (like generosity) are traditionally taken as a part of the character and not looked at as feelings . Just imagine that a couple of thousand years ago. Fear (or not-fear) remains fear. Trust that 'justice' is done for oneself.. Trust one is better than another. miserliness... .theartificialbrain. Sadness and anger. Self respect. Superiority sense. This surprised me and after digging even deeper I discovered something of the greatest importance in the realization of an A. Anger. joy. Fear that the own efforts (or the lack of) caused something that could have been avoided. disgust. curiosity and acceptance). Fear of what other people will or would think about us. derivatives of trust (or not-fear) :       Happiness. Generosity. just the possibility to link it gives a comforting feeling. Envy or jealousy. both positive and negative feelings ! Let’s start with some 'negative' samples :        Sense of guilt. Fear that one is done wrong.B. you will even see that a man having less emotions (or feelings) than a woman is nothing more than a fable. Trust that things are the way they are 'supposed to be'. Fear that one actually is inferior to another person. as we will cover later on. Autistic people display this even better than words can. and that is correct. The major fears and not-fears (feelings) in fact are the key modelers in one’s personality ! The good news here is that these fears can be changed. … Feelings. a man would have had a guilt sense during hunting __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. surprise. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Sense of inferiority. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. When you look closer. sadness. it is very well possible to modify or influence one’s character (both conscious and subconscious) as long as the person self is willing to cooperate in this process. Self-confidence.. Try something new (out of the pattern) and they usually become hysteric ! When looking a little closer at the primary emotions (or feelings) like for example Plutchik lists (anger. Fear of deficit.com is always required. something interesting comes to the surface. Due to historical and sociological reasons men try more to suppress these feelings or often even don't know how to handle them (everything is better than being called a woes). Anger is often used as an easy way to avoid rejection or psychological pain too. the derivatives of fear Every feeling is a derivative of fear. no matter what gender.Page 16 of 60 . Trust in the own capacities. sadness and joy are essentially sub forms of fear ! Disgust and surprise are special and will be discussed later on and curiosity and acceptance are both ways of steering the fear-trust balance (also explained later). so yes.should be respected. Satisfaction and joy. One should be able to link experiences to something and whether that ‘something’ is correct or not is less important. not remarkably. Fear to lose certain attainments or attainments others achieved are not preserved for oneself. Sense of shame. Fear something is not 'good' enough. This explains why brainwashing will not work if someone is not willing to believe the ‘new information’ or this ‘new information’ is too much in conflict with other values. fear. Trust one is 'good' the way he/she is right now. Trust there is enough available. Dissatisfaction. Notice that in this case a partner (person) can be an attainment for some people ! Greed. Notice that some feelings are actually combinations of fear or not-fear and the above list is only there for demonstrative purposes. Get them first before they get you ! The 'positive' feelings are.

The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

every time he needed to kill 'that sweet and lovely little animal' in order to survive ! Women on the other hand (in that same period) were benefiting from having 'better developed' feelings (and emotions). This was necessary to raise the children and to obtain a better social contact with other 'moms'. What we describe as empathy is nothing more or less than a (conscious or even subconscious) simulation process of the feelings the other person is going through. That is the reason why someone with few empathic abilities is always someone having problems with the own emotions or feelings (as described earlier, typical for the male gender) ... … it is hard to link if no available information is there ! These empathy equations will certainty be one of the toughest nuts to crack for military application of a digital brain. If the focus is on suppressing the own feelings, few empathic capabilities will be present. This creates cold-blooded soldiers who are willing to do the dirty work but who become a possible threat at the same time with less control over. Not to mention the possible side effects in the long run on both the own mental state as well as possible destructive behavior towards the environment caused by suppressing feelings. On the other hand, if the empathic capabilities are too well defined, the robot or whatever carrier of the A.B. will not be capable of killing … … and that is something most military commanders wouldn’t appreciate ! Two workarounds are possible. The first one is creating multipersonalities, which is of course dangerous and hard to control what personality will become the more dominant. The second option is my favorite and is something human is incapable of : adding a third ‘conscious’ level, perfectly externally controllable. This would be comparable with a soldier temporarily under hypnosis, but without the capacity of waking up out of this hypnotic state and without being conscious of what it is doing at that particular moment ! The main advantage of this approach is that the system is not aware of anything and, in worst case, it will be experienced like a bad dream. The closer a feeling resides on the side of absolute fear (zero trust), the more we tend to call it a phobia and the more chance there is a link stored in the amygdala. And no, removing the amygdala (the center of fear) does not create 'fearless people' ! Around 1960, a lot of research was done in this field and the main conclusion was that people with a disconnected amygdala lived the life of a vegetable. This may seem strange at first, but in the chapter of motivation we will cover this in depth. For now it is enough to memorize that motivation is driven by feelings and, as mentioned above, feelings are derivatives of fear ...

Disgust and surprise
As mentioned before these two basic emotions/feelings are special. Disgust is an all or nothing feeling. Either you are disgusted by something or you are not ! Being a little disgusted is not possible. It is also the only basic feeling which is not needed in order to obtain a fully working A.B.. For humans it is fundamental a protection system. Food tasting or smelling ‘bad’ or a room smelling terribly (often indicating the presence of unhealthy bacteria) will be avoided. The throw-up reflex, characterizing disgust, will protect you from eating contaminated food. It sometimes happens one saying to the other ‘You disgust me !’, but this is more a way of expressing the degree of dissatisfaction than it has to do with the feeling of disgust. No specific reflexes, typical for disgust, will be present … Surprise on the other hand is special since it can be both a positive and negative feeling. Surprise as such can be best considered as a layer between unexpected input and fear. Surprise is necessary for an A.B. since it is the way the system will be able to react to unexpected changes. We live on pattern recognition (what else do neurons) and we always expect something to happen. Most of the time this expectation will be the continuation of what was happening at that moment (the pattern). Standing on a dance floor with the music up loud, one supposes (subconsciously) the next moment the music will still be loud. If something happens to the dj’s equipment and the music all at sudden stops, one is surprised ! If I whisper during a conversation and unexpectedly raise my voice, you will be near having a heart attack ! If you come back to your hometown after 20 years and see new buildings and roads, you will be surprised ! If you meet a friend in the afternoon, you did see in the morning, with a complete different haircut (short instead of long hair), you will be surprised. The same applies to fusion cooking, the latest
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trend in haut-cuisine, if you are served a green ice-cream smelling and tasting like strawberries, you will be surprised ! The best humor is the one ending unforeseen. Surprise is one of the main ways the attention is focused on something specific (possibly threatening) ! This principle is the same for both humans and lots of animals and runs on a very low level in the brain. In the previous paragraph I stated that surprise could be both positive as negative, but this is not entirely correct. The outcome of surprise can be either condition but surprise as such is stateless. Surprise is also the driving element behind the well-known ‘fight-or-flight’ response. But what about confusion ? Is that not pretty much the same as surprise ? No ! Confusion is nothing more than opposite and conflicting information available for the brain. Nevertheless confusion is often indirectly the result of surprise. If you walk in a wood and all at the sudden a bear passes by, this will cause surprise. If two different people at that moment give conflicting information like “Drop on the ground and lay still” and “Run for your life”, there will be confusion (“which of both is accurate?”) ! So it is not truly the surprise causing the confusion but two or more conflicting data in how to react on the surprise. In the brain cause and consequence are not always easy to point out since many neurons can fire in a split second and most of the time the output becomes new input !

Curiosity and acceptance
Both “curiosity” and “acceptance” regulate fear. By nature one is afraid of new experiences and these are considered as threatening. The fear-slider will be positioned on the side of fear. If there was no mechanism to move this slider towards trust (not-fear), it would be impossible to overcome this and as a result life would be impossible ! Both humans and animals constantly are exposed to new experiences and fear alone would work contra-productive. Go near an animal not familiar with you and it will be afraid of approaching you. If you sit there long enough and are gentile to the animal, after a while it will make small moves towards you, slow and suspicious. The smallest move of your part will result in surprise and the animal will run away or at least take some steps back. Eventually the animal might overcome this first natural fear, thanks to curiosity, and see you as non-threatening. This last will especially be the case if a (food) reward is given. After a while the animal will be familiar with you (a pattern is established) and neither curiosity nor fear will still be necessary. “Acceptance” is also a fear regulator and is the main and fastest regulator towards trust. Someone accepting a certain situation will be without fear for that situation ! Religious people like Buddhists believe that there is a reason for everything. A situation causing an awful lot of fear for most people, like a violent hostage, will cause less fear for those accepting that this could be the end and especially if a positive image of an afterlife is present, like for our Buddhist friends. Forgiveness is nothing more or less than acceptance and it is the reason why victims of severe crimes able to forgive the criminal, finally are able to continue with their lives. Most feelings or emotions are, as seen before, derivatives of fear and if we take away the fear (acceptance), the emotion will no longer be a spoilsport since the emotion is simply eliminated ! “Acceptance” has another meaning as well, a more personal one ! Everybody wants to be accepted, the opposite of rejection. The reason I mention this here is because it is also important for the A.B.. This form of acceptance is a result of the punishment and rewarding system we all have. Not being accepted feels similar as doing something the wrong way (bad/punishment). A good description to make it even more understandable is that rejection (opposite of acceptance) is a sort of psychological slap in the face. Ignoring people during conversations is more or less rejecting people and can truly hurt ! The selfimage will suffer from it and anyone manipulating someone else will, consciously or subconsciously, uses this acceptance and rejection as powerful weapons, always ! Since it is impossible to have an A.B.
__________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.theartificialbrain.com is always required. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type, style and height must be easy readable !
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The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

without fear, rewarding- and punishment-system (motivation) the chances the A.B. will suffer from this drawback is extremely high ! It is important to understand that humans will for a long time not accept an A.B. (fear, religion, superiority feeling, …) and during the ‘education’ of the A.B. this topic must be addressed so the A.B. will be aware that they didn’t cause this ! The tutors also need to exceed this and accept and nourish the A.B. with this in mind ! I presume it is not the intention to create digital Hiltlers, Mussolinis or serial killers ! After reading this, it is obvious both regulators operate at a very low level and are mandatory in an A.B.

Pain
One surprising aspect in the list of basic emotions of Plutchik is the absence of pain. Physical pain has all ingredients to be considered as an emotion, even a basic emotion. But there is also something we refer to as emotional or psychological pain. Those reading this document are without doubt above average intelligence, it is not easy matter and my writing can hardly be compared with brilliant writers such as Shakespeare or Tom Clancy. So, if I would say, looking you straight in the eyes, that you are really stupid and have absolutely no idea of what you are reading, it will hurt you (possibly also make you angry or sad). This feeling is an emotional pain and for all clarity, it is not the result of anger or sadness as other processes raise those feelings. It would be fantastic if we could avoid these emotional pains in our A.B. since it is the cause of possible problems. The bad news is that an A.B. without these emotional pains would not be able to function in an intelligent way ! The reason for this latter conclusion is that pain is always a warning signal and results in avoiding something. If you hurt your foot, the pain will be the warning signal something is wrong and you will avoid walking on it as long as the pain remains. The same applies to emotional pain. The hurting of my fictive sentence of you being stupid will be considered as a warning signal that you may be doing something ‘wrong’ and you will avoid getting the same comments from me in the future ! Emotional pain is one of the most important motivators ! If I would keep on repeating my commentary, you would actually start avoiding me ! It will hardly surprise one that the way we handle physical and emotional pain in the brain is very similar and both make use of the same areas. This is one of the reasons self-mutilation exists. Some consider hurting and pain as ‘pleasant’ (Sado-Masochism, endorphin ‘addiction’ like in runners high) or even relieving (self-mutilation). Remember, in the brain it is all about linking and comparison ! Combine this with the ultimate goal of feeling ‘good’ and strange permutations like self-mutilation are in some cases the outcome … … this proofs once more that experiences are the most important factor in defining one’s life !

Aggression
Although aggression is not an emotion (anger is), it is wise to cover it here. If an intelligent system has no way of defending itself from external attacks, it will not live long ! One can argue with a bear but it is to be expected that the bear will not respond well on this ! In the well-known fight-or-flight reflex in either case the system will temporarily require more energy available than normal. For humans this will be a momentarily rise of adrenaline. In case the system concludes that ‘fight’ is the procedure to follow, aggression will be the result. Aggression causes the system to focus on a single thing and, dependent on the degree of aggression, it will block out the thinking system as a normal reaction since all attention is directed towards ‘the fight’. Real aggressive people often do things at that specific moment they regret later and insanity is a legal term for the point where aggression blocks out all ‘normal thinking’. Even though the first reflex might be not to implement a similar function in the A.B., it is not so wise ! Anger (as all emotions) is an important motivator. At certain moments the system must be angry at itself in order to deal with fear. It will be the anger that will lead to action and this action will allow new experiences and these can be the cause of overcoming the fear (gaining trust – believe). As explained
© Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.masureel@theartificialbrain.com - Page 19 of 60

learning theoretical matter is also a sort of experience and if the system would not have the ability to become angry it would be fully dependent on external input in order to gain trust for overcoming new experiences (except for curiosity. In most cases although. chances are higher that this will have your attention for a longer period than when a minor traffic incident caused some anger. Since all in the brain is linking and comparison this will occur automatically if the A. it might be wise to diminish the anger factor for the topic by a specific number.B. it is best implemented in the A. The first one is that per certain time period.theartificialbrain. something to be avoided ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. without subconscious level and. as a global variable. If you reflect on a specific negative experience it will still make you angry nevertheless it might have happened several years ago. It is important to implement some dimming mechanisms since it is virtually impossible to create an A. If you are having a quarrel and someone is ringing at the door.B. the doorbell will likely even enlarge the anger and could lead towards a snapping point. Is it possible to make the system better stress-resistant than animals and humans by not using a stack approach (placing one little annoyance on top of the other (increasing the var) until the point of outburst is reached and aggression is the result) ? The answer is yes and no ! Dependent on the requirements it is possible. the attention will (temporarily) be redrawn from the argue and the anger will decrease. the subconscious level will deal with the anger too ! This will happen in a rather uncontrolled way and therefore could lead to results one prefers not to have for an A.B.B. which is limited in time as motivator). ! This will turn out to be one of the main challenges if an A.B. as described elsewhere in this document. also decreasing the value. if the attention is drawn to something else the anger will stop. The time-factor will play an important role as well.Page 20 of 60 .elsewhere in this document. If your partner is cheating on you. Attention and severity are the key players in this. How long will the system remain angry about a certain issue ? Two aspects are determinant in this : • The reference in the associated object in the brain will remain active until other experiences diminish the anger associated with the object. This will cause the system to deal with anger in a better way than humans do ! A second good trick is if the systems ‘aggression variable’ reaches a certain value for a certain amount of time.com is always required. is designed on the fundamentals in this document. How long will the system be angry at the moment ? Sometimes we remain angry for a minute and other times it takes hours or days to calm down.B.B. the reflex could be to either start diminishing it automatically or forcing the system to focus on other things. used for industrial purposes. implemented in a robot used for peacekeeping missions in hostile territory will require a higher level of aggression in order to defend itself than for example an A. will be used for military reasons. • Some simple techniques can help in managing this for the A. The aggression factor will need to be high in order to do some ‘dirty work’ but it is the same amount of aggression required to damage the ‘own troops’. Notice that if the point of real aggression is reached. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . An A. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.B. without loosing the benefits of getting angry. Since aggression is hormone-driven. Communication can play an important factor as well since it will (in most cases) create experiences decreasing the anger value.

then a serious suicide attempt with high potential of success will follow. In these cases the surrounding often is surprised (something out of the pattern. all pieces of the puzzle fell together ! Believe and not fear is the absolute fundament in our thinking process ! Why are you afraid of something ? Because you believe it will harm you in some way. This is the hypnotic phase we will discus later on. You are afraid of crossing a road blindfolded because you are afraid you will die ! So. At first glance. Trust that suicide would be the outcome to all problems ! Even the ground rules of mathematics. it would conflict with the statement that © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. but those experiences are based on subjective matter as well and what else than believe is subjective matter … Molested or abused little children only at 'older' age have severe mental problems.. are derivates of fear. Remember that for our calibration-system first experiences work as calibration-point and children are not only impressed by 'mature' people but they believe that what is done by these people is the 'right thing' (non-fear or trust). believe that emotions express sorts of beliefs or appearances and I already knew that this was not entirely correct ! Emotions. In this way believe provides faith (not-fear).The ultimate A. Challenge – The artificial brain Believe. or even better the underlying feelings. the driving force ! Introduction It literally took me several years to overcome this one. as explained earlier. are axioms and this is nothing else than believe ! Nature does not need math to do what it does ! Science is our way of finding patterns for natural phenomenons and thereby sometimes being able of making predictions. if I can make you believe the road is clear and will remain clear for at least 24 hours. On the other hand believe had something to do with it. Of course experiences help in this. faith (not-fear) and fear (not-faith) pretty much look the same ! In all my previous models of an A. religions try to offer answers to 'difficult' questions and problems.masureel@theartificialbrain. With just a little imagination it would be correct to state that science functions as an extra sense thanks to the capacity of interpreting input that is not directly noticeable to the other senses … If believe would not be the driving force behind all thinking. always believe … I should have seen it sooner ! Many involved in unraveling emotions. But how could fear be steered and what about believe ? Two items I needed to fit into my scheme and no matter how I tried. I ended up with fear as the absolute basic where all the rest was build-upon and everything seemed to work fine as you can see throughout this document so far. is not longer capable of offering help and they somehow feel rejected by this system. believe. the fear will decrease and you will cross the road ! As mentioned earlier in this document. Suicide attempts are often made to get attention in the hope (again believe) the disbelieve is not correct (a cry for help). Only at 'older' age they realize that the way they have been treated was not “right’ and the mental struggle begins.I. the no-fear creator) that the social system can not longer be of assistance. but what ? Then. Believe is the determinant factor in moving the slider of fear from 0 (non-fear or trust) up to 100 percent (max fear or phobia). all at the sudden. People facing severe depression have the impression (believe) the social system (whatever that is). as seen before) and frequently say that the person was feeling a lot better recently.B.com . basis of most exact sciences. but when one accepts (remember. there was always something missing or there was a contradiction ! I simply didn't see it … Believe. calmer and even relaxed and looked in full control and happier … … no wonder since the fear-slider was more towards trust than fear.Page 21 of 60 .

as mentioned in the preface. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . in most cases. If both father and mother argue and the child is forced to choose one opinion and no previous data is available of unreliability of either parent. we will check the credibility of the source and this is not done in an objective way. Since believe is the fundament of all.everything in the brain is an interpretation of facts (as discussed later). exact science. sometimes do amazing things ! And hope is nothing else than the belief that there is a possibility that the circumstances will change. In order to make the ‘final’ decision what to believe. theology. All these mini-routes are actually believe and I must admit that sometimes they can be strange in nature and far-fetched ! Once you believe that a certain path will not lead towards answers. For instance if one source is a respected person (believe again) and the other is totally unknown. chances are high that the statement of the respected person will be taken as correct. Evidence was there but convictions too and it took an enormous effort to overcome those … … and what else than belief is a conviction ? Notice as well that lots of scientific proof originates from the belief of a single soul and the determination to prove his/her right … … whether we like it or not. …) ! Hope is a crucial factor in the thinking process too. Suicidal people give up hope and therefore they give up the believe that their life might change for the good (whatever this may be) and are willing to unplug … The three states of believe and doubt Believe essentially exists out of three states : believe. the old path will be immediately reopened. Not because no information was available but because. mathematics. The way we mainly interpret is indeed dependent of what we believe at that moment ! The following sample will demonstrate this perfectly : the discussion a few hundred years ago whether the earth was round or not. With a limited amount of information one must pick routes to follow and build further on these routes resulting in a network of possibilities. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. psychology. not interested. If future information suddenly arouses the belief that with the new information the old path could lead towards answers. People living in the barest and worst conditions. no information available. philosophy. sociology. Not knowing what to believe is actually ‘doubting’. I wanted to exclude the amount of external influence as much as possible. and the question is whether this should be the default state. Subjective because even respected people make mistakes ! Notice that the doubt will be more intense the higher the reliability of the diverse sources is. the child almost certainly will end up indecisive ! Another factor is the amount of available information. neutral state and disbelieve. The same also applies for two believable paths conflicting with each other ! Lots of scientists have the tendency of starting new ‘far-fetched’ paths with a state of unbelief and I am sure that if they had the initial reflex of belief-until-proven-otherwise they would advance faster … … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. regardless of what fields of expertise we are into (innovation.com is always required. You believe something or you don’t or you have no opinion on that subject ! You cannot believe or disbelieve a little bit ! This neutral state can be : no opinion. I show the need of ‘trust’ for small children in order to learn and this indicates that during the pre-juvenal phase the best default state is ‘believe’. belief and interpretation absolutely dominate our lives more than anything else. the path is dropped.theartificialbrain. During my 20 years’ search I often faced the problem of having non or very few information on specific topics. In the chapter “What about hormones ?”. etc. But what about doubt ? I can believe or disbelieve something and have doubts at the same time ! Does this imply that believe is rather a slider as fear is ? No ! Doubting is a process were believe is a state ! If conflicting ‘reliable’ information is available one often is forced to choose between the two or more possibilities. having hope. In that way I was forced of being both creative and skeptical at once. But more about this in that chapter.Page 22 of 60 . it is incorporated in everything we store and I will discus the storing-topic in the chapter “Memory”.

masureel@theartificialbrain. Challenge – The artificial brain this is actually what we name being open-minded and creativity flouts on this. Doubting is also often used in sentences as a polite way of saying “I don’t believe it for a moment !” and has nothing to do with doubt as such ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.Page 23 of 60 .com .The ultimate A.I.

theartificialbrain. but that is for later on … Traditionally the consciousness is divided in P. subconsciousness. This is very well possible since I can make the computer generate shapes automatically and can compare the network output with the input shape. not only is it confusing. Consciousness Some free thoughts Although it is a habitual wisdom that consciousness cannot be defined. One of the typical qualities usually linked to the consciousness is subjectivity. not to define it and secondly.com is always required. If I create a small neural network existing out of a few neurons to recognize simple shapes. an endless loop is born ! And what about dreaming ? The information the dream is based upon and the processing (internal thoughts) are both Access and the experience of the dream (ask someone waking up in sweat after a nasty dream) is Phenomenal. Some consider the things preached by ‘respected people’ as holy and extremely sapient while others might find it very dumb. but also no progress can be made in the understanding of the brain. Whether there is an upper consciousness or not is also something I wish to leave in the middle. according to the definitions there is a consciousness ?!? In the learning phase of this small network the learning as such is Access while the storing of the information is sort of experience and is Phenomenal.(Phenomenal) and A. upperand collective consciousness. containing no wisdom at all. First of all.The diverse forms of consciousness Introduction Traditionally there are four forms of consciousness : The consciousness. Running the network in executive mode. If one holds on to these criteria.(Access) consciousness. Respectively they stand for experience (P) and (the A-part) accessibility and behavior-control. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. For example. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . I would like to break this tradition (and not from a philosophical point of view). As mentioned before. the experience is the input of the dendrites and is Phenomenal and the reflection if the input comes near a predefined value (error level is low) is taking a decision and is therefore Access ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Events out of these two areas are described as subconscious events. Later on in this document I demonstrate that every input results in perception and therefore is always subjective by nature ! In other parts I will also demonstrate that other classic qualia like sapience actually relay as much on the subconsciousness (or even more sometimes) than on the consciousness.Page 24 of 60 . every experience (P) is based upon decisions (A) and all decisions (A) are based upon experience (P).B. Secondly let’s not forget that sapience is always subjective inherently. allow me to pick a last case. Only in further steps where more 'special communication' is required this comes into the picture. it is really quite simple to define the boundaries wherein the consciousness ‘resides’. but during dreaming the consciousness is not existent (at least not in the dreaming part) ! In order to demonstrate my main objection in following this approach. Once again perception. The last two are mostly ways of gathering or receiving 'external information' and their role is not so important to create a standalone artificial brain. it is too important for an A. it is not mandatory in this case. Therefore only the consciousness and subconsciousness are covered in detail in the following chapter. This last is especially correct when I would automate the learning process.

Page 25 of 60 . only automated processes can run in the background (subconscious). In this case it is more likely that pure luck will be the cause if a crash is avoided.masureel@theartificialbrain.and executive phase for the network. punishment and pleasure. while the subconscious leans more towards the executive phase. I took a different approach in defining both and remarkably.com . As we will see later on. And there is. In the case of a ‘normal’ day. we notice that all input is actually experience because notwithstanding what sense or senses is or are the receptor(s) of the input. rewarding. it works a lot better ! The main question in this equation is why a conscious and subconscious are required ? One may not forget that we are the result of millions of years of evolution and it is obvious that only improvements last (more chances in surviving for the specie). but the consciousness will possibly consider shifting back one or more gears to even attain a greater deceleration and basically give this command if needed. humans are energy saving creatures (more chances in surviving). A rookie will miss the experience and reflexes causing a possible overflow of processes for the consciousness. appreciation. Is something important (for this person) or not ? This meaning once again is based upon chances of surviving. Only when the vehicle right in front of 'our ace' suddenly brakes really hard. all at the same time ! It's obvious that these processes run in the background (via the subconscious). the same brain as we do today. Since humans of 5. The conscious’ level primary role is to maximize the surviving chances through fast detection and reacting on immediate danger. Simply stated. It is vital to look deeper into this. but the load is significantly lower. it will be stored.The ultimate A. All these maneuvers are pretty complex as such (ask a rookie). More than fifty percent of the time this will be done on 'automatic pilot' and the driving itself just happens without real (conscious) thinking. since much more of these processes need to be executed by the consciousness (maybe even how to switch gears). All input is experience ! If we look a little closer at experience.000 years ago had. the consciousness will demand all attention and those processes that are not important at that moment (listening to the music en picking the noose) will be killed. With just a little imagination one could state that the conscious is the learning input. turning the wheel. The base for potential storing in the brain is always “meaning”. there must be a surviving function integrated. The consciousness analyzes fast the possible options like : will hard braking be sufficient without the car following me bumping into me or do I have to swerve left or right to avoid an accident ? Some processes like how to shift gears will still be done by the subconscious. but a more experienced driver still has time left to listen to some music and even to pick the noose. if considered important. Although this is not entirely correct (described later on). Challenge – The artificial brain Another approach towards answers To facilitate this conscious-subconscious problem. this will strengthen the link petit-a-petit or immediately in the brain and will often be used as input as well as in solving the ‘problem’.I. Someone studying hard for a couple of hours will be exhausted (almost all on conscious level) while working a complete day at work in familiar matter (routine and on subconscious level) will be less fatigued or maybe even bored. using the blinker and even brake a little from time to time. An important supposition is that the consciousness can handle fewer processes at the same time than the subconscious because conscious processes use a lot more resources in terms of memory usage and load. the subconscious’ only purpose is to relieve the conscious. Conscious versus subconscious People working with artificial neural networks always need a learning. Both gather their information (mostly) from the same sources and process this in the exact same way. Changing gears. both conscious and subconscious are actually identical but operate on another level. If in the future similar events happen. it is a good starting point. A typical example of this is someone conducting a car. the total number of performed tasks might even be tremendously higher. As you will discover in a few minutes. globally taken. This indirectly indicates that concentration is energy consuming and as most species. as described in the next chapter. so this distinction between conscious and subconscious makes sense ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.

Experience. and only experience is capable of transferring a process from the conscious to the subconscious level ! This is the case because only experience gives the signal that it is save to do the transfer and that the full attention of the consciousness is no longer needed to operate this process.. in the broadest sense of the word. if no way would be present to deviate from the ‘existing’ path of high counter values. it will even be virtually impossible to memorize it. and is not only limited to the ‘creativity center’. Before you will have the insight in the matter. The principle I introduce here can be applied to all brain-storage. only the outcome. like failing for an exam.Page 26 of 60 • . it can be safely deleted to preserve space and memory and keep the system fast. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. If the neuron or chain of neurons is repeated frequently (high counter value) with success. All these mini-networks (or call it procedures) can and will be used in future linking as well. in the brain we link and this linking is done in a creative way during the learning curve. Ever tried to teach someone something he or she is not interested in ? Only if the fear (yes amygdala interference) is present that not learning this ‘uninteresting’ stuff will lead to a ‘bad’ thing.com is always required. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Also adding a counter and last used date will be necessary. Even the way emotions are handled operates mainly on experience. The brain is result based ! The more this mininetwork will be used. That is why I am a great advocate of teaching creatively. This is done using the wellknown method of 'trial and error' and is exactly the same as learning to ride the bike. If a certain neuron or chain of neurons is not used for a long period of time. The more neutral (less interesting) something is. Bad or good experiences will have a significant higher step than ‘neutral’ experiences. Nevertheless. First all 10 digits (0. Understanding complex theoretical concepts (what we usually call education) is not different from the previous and can also be classified under the concept of experience. Step by step and if one of these steps is not stable. In the play-area of the digital brain (a little like the frontal lobe) two things need to be done on neuron level : how many times is this neuron used in the learning process (a second counter) and the possibility to leave a certain path of neurons out of the chain. In the human brain this is often referred to as Long Term Potentiation (LTP). you will try a lot of links. will be used again in the near future. The higher the number of the diverse counters the more likely that it is the right path.theartificialbrain.9) must be learned. the procedure is ready to be stored in the long-term memory. compare them and decide if the result is correct (again the tree basic functions of the brain). A child experiencing that bad behavior leads to attention and getting new stuff. it would be good practice to keep this in mind and preserve a space where ‘neurons’ or ‘scripts’ can ‘play’ (in the future of this document I will mix these terms neuron and script but actually referring to the same). Just look at someone learning basic mathematics to understand this. will for sure use the same approach in the future and become unmanageable and a real pain in the ass. Once this is done. The digidala (digital amygdala) will be the key-factor in which step the numbering on a particular script should be increased. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . In some cases. The brain is capable of creating its own mini-neural networks and if the outcome of one of these mini-networks is considered positive. The first one (counter) is needed to indicate the creative system (what else is creating new patterns) which is the preferred way or path to follow. how absurd this might look at first. The internal connections in such a mini-network and how many neurons are used will differ for each individual and is not important. the more stable the links in this network will become and after a while something called long term potentiation will occur and the mini-network will be stored for a real long time in the long term memory (as described later). the increase should even be maximal on first experience. the chances in failure increase drastically (the reason why so many do not understand mathematics). Why ? • Well. In the digital brain. like real threatening experiences. no other or new paths could be taken and the learning would remain very primitive without improvements or simplifications being possible since only the ‘highest’ path could be followed. simple equations will be used with those same 10 digits as input and after a while these simple equations will even be used in other more complex equations. walk and blow the noose or any other 'physical' activity. the lower the step has to be.

meat was there) was sufficient. the link will be made that the other person in the mirror must be oneself ! As a result an “image” of oneself will be stored in the brain and will be used to compare with in the future. which we could also describe as self-consciousness ? Although it is almost impossible to support this with enough evidence. it is proof of the fact that the brain is capable of complex linking. personally I am a great advocate of the thought that this is a logical side effect of the human capacity to link. please feed the crying baby to my left side first please !’? I don’t think either … … so “selfishness” is inherent from the bitter start. the person will discover that the reflection is not ‘real’ and that by moving the reflection moves exactly the same way. rang every time a bell just before he gave his dog some meat.The ultimate A.. you would actually observe the same thing ! First.I. combined with the amount of neurons available. Self-awareness (self-conscious) All well. the topic on ego (selfishness) will be covered in depth.com . a long time ago. The remarkable is that only the brain capacity (nl. Let’s retell the story for those who never heard it before. self-aware no … … two different things ! Later on. In psychology the red dot on the forehead of a child and a mirror are used to demonstrate the existence of the self-awareness (the mirror-test). That way more pupils will be interested in the matter and better results will follow automatically.. after a while. In psychology the Pavlov-reflex is often used to demonstrate how many times we actually don’t use the consciousness but rather float on associations (links). © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.masureel@theartificialbrain. number of neurons) seems to be the decisive factor to create self-awareness … If an adult. the dog was slavering hearing the bell. An interesting side conclusion of this Pavlov test is that dogs obviously also use the system of consciousness and subconscious . there would be the spontaneous effect of looking at the reflection as it were a stranger (no information in the brain is yet available associated with the ‘image’ of this person). never using a mirror (and not knowing what a mirror’s purpose is). this process must be running in the background (subconscious). To make a dog slaver when it actually can notice on a conscious level via vision or smell that there is no meat. Only when the dog figures out that there actually is no meat (and this can take a while and is based on hope trough experience). Children with sufficient self-consciousness will touch the red spot on the own forehead while looking in the mirror. There simply was no link. the slaver will stop. especially after touching oneself. nothing more or less ! Just look around and you will find very few people who actually are self-aware and even less who are self-conscious ! Selfish yes. but to evade the statement ‘how can one be selfish if there is no self-awareness ?’. just think of a mother having a triplet or a maternity with multiple newborns. What Pavlov actually proved is that the above theorem of the experience transferred to the subconscious is indeed correct ! In the beginning there was the bell.Page 27 of 60 . Do you think one of the hungry babies will stop crying and spontaneously will say ‘I insist. comparison and decision. After a while. the meat and no slaver. After a while. A young child whose self-awareness is not yet present will touch the red dot of the ‘child’ in the mirror. This test was performed on a number of animals as well and on some like dolphins and elephants it had the same outcome as on humans. would be placed in the same situation. but what about the self-awareness. Now let’s take the example that more than one of them is hungry and only one feeding bottle is available. if a red dot will be spotted on the forehead (a difference). Pavlov was a scientist who. Once this link is established. compare and decide. And yes. Challenge – The artificial brain with a vivid imagination. The linking occurred at the moment the experience of the dog (every time the bell rang. If one of these babies is hungry the crying will start. selfawareness not (if we are willing to accept the concept of self-awareness). even when no meat was present. this person will touch it and not the one on the mirror … Personally I find the red dot test rather simplistic and not real proof of self-awareness and even less of self-consciousness ! Nevertheless.

To speed up the transfer routine and to preserve the conscious for 'urgent processes' (historically more chance to survive) the subconscious uses its own capability to simulate. it probably would make you shudder and maybe even raise goose bumps. Let’s give an example to describe this.K. One must not forget that only very recently in the history of humans the brain has to cope with such large amounts of pure theoretical and abstract matter (education). but bitter necessity ! In a previous chapter we demonstrated that conscious processes are transferred to the subconscious part of the brain once a routine is established (experience). from malfunctions in the brain to extensive use of amphetamines or other drugs shortly before sleeping. as long as it can compare.So self-awareness should not be taken in consideration in the blueprint of the artificial brain but should create itself if the digital brain is well designed and if the brain capacity is sufficient. To commit the murder. This is not a nice gadget. it just does do ! Never had a dream or nightmare that felt pretty real when waking up ? This brings us to sleepwalkers or people with sleeping disorders. imagination and thinking A major and essential part of the working of the conscious and subconscious are without doubt the simulation processes. But there is actually no spider ! One can hardly state that this is a Pavlovreflex since you probably have no real repetitive experience in walking around with spiders on your arms. The consciousness is not active and the person is actually sleeping. If you dream you are going to a place. this person had to drive over 20 kilometers by car to arrive at his mother-in-law’s house and to carry out his brutal action. Creativity. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Before that. all while sleeping ! Fortunately. It looks pretty much like the well known 127 IP loop back address in computer networking. more severe cases are known where it would be incorrect to state that all things done are essentially 'automated tasks'. Perhaps the best proof that consciousness and subconsciousness actually are the same (but on a different level) and use the same resources to operate. This is without doubt the reason why someone can have a dream of only a few seconds while if in real life it would have taken hours of action. This is only partially correct as described below. We also know that the brain is restricted in the amount of processes it can handle simultaneously. Although most 'sleepwalkers' make spastic and incoherent movements while dreaming. you do not waste time in actually doing so but nevertheless it will feel like real. dreams. This is what we refer to as dreaming. in the U. Enough existing studies reveal that while sleeping (actually dreaming) new study material is assimilated.com is always required. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.Page 28 of 60 . When I would ask you to close your eyes and to imagine that a large fat and deadly spider is crawling on your arm. In this specific case precise proof was provided that this person was. only two things were important : surviving and reproduction. a sleepwalker. Although there are many reasons why people sleepwalk. a man was acquitted of the charge of murder on his mother-in-law. It appears that the brain is perfectly capable of simulating processes. For example. link and decide. Our brain does absolutely make no difference between theoretical matter or standard daily experiences. such severe cases of sleepwalking are rather rare because in normal conditions a switch in the brain prevents physical actions (like walking or car driving) from happening. in other words the brain’s capacity is limited. This particular switch immediately returns the signal one has arrived. medically seen. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .theartificialbrain. there is one common thing.

Page 29 of 60 . To accomplish this. The links for the pattern. we are well aware what the dream was. imagination. All the above indicates that simulation processes can be done in a conscious (creativity. Try to wake up someone in the middle of a dream (REM) and it will take severe shaking to achieve this. this shows the correctness of the statement that the conscious and subconscious actually do the same and use the same resources. two layers should be present : one for the conscious and one for the subconscious processes. a fast internal simulation of the lie is made to check the credibility of the lie (compare). This demonstrates that the full attention of the brain during this phase is on the subconscious level ! Keep in mind that not all will be equal for both levels. unless the consciousness and subconscious operate in exactly the same way ! Most of the time we tend to forget what we dreamt. In some cases the solution to a problem will still be available (long term memory) but only if it concerns a 'problem' you're struggling with for a 'long time' and you can make a direct link to it (for example by directly thinking on a particular matter). right. conscious or subconscious. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Don't confuse this with a blackout where fear is in most cases the main cause. idea or solution popping up in the middle of the night. the link is simply not stable enough. The same applies to a flash. the lie becomes a little more subtle and less 'outer space' and is in fact largely based on 'reality'. foundation or algorithm for lying are created in this typical lying phase of the child and the results are satisfying.The ultimate A. a flash) level and in exactly the same way ! Impact on the digital brain What is the impact of all of this on our digital brain ? Well. A lie is per definition not reality and most of the time contains truth for more than ninety percent. Even lies fall under the category of the simulation process. as described earlier. this is situated in the (pre)frontal lobe. in most cases. nightmares. His colleague who “figured out this concept” first is creative . .. lies) or a subconscious (dreams.. and the short term memory is one of the only ways both 'meet' each other directly. An artist who throws some paint on a canvas to get rid of it is not creative. but it might as well be new input for further 'thinking'. As we will see later on.. This outcome can be a theorem.masureel@theartificialbrain.. Both layers identical and capable of handling all brain functions even utilities like attention. Secondly. If found acceptable. the lie will be told (decision). tend to wake up and confuse all 'new knowledge'. This is actually also the reason why students who love to party (a little too much) during the year and need to absorb gigantic amounts of study material the day before the exam. but the differences are minor. If we don't write it down immediately it's gone ! Why ? The answer is the short term memory ! Both states of consciousness use the same brain functions..) in order to stay on the road uses the complete visual cortex ! One would not expect this on the subconscious level. in most cases routine (subconscious) but the processing of the visual information of the road (turn left.com . They are the result of successive abstract processes (via trial and error) and the outcome is 'something'. After a while.. vision or image. Challenge – The artificial brain As mentioned before. so why changing . as seen before. For us humans.. All required actions to murder a mother-in-law. Every child goes through a phase of lying and it is remarkable how transparent and absurd these lies are in the beginning.. a large cluster of neurons should be present in the foundation of the blueprint allowing simulating processes. The liar usually picks an existing experience (linking) and only makes small changes to it.I. The subconscious struggles with the same restricted capacity as the consciousness and although the subconscious did a fantastic job in linking and comparing this information (during sleep). One confuses one thing with another. are exactly the same ! Driving the car is. but if we wake up during the dream. it could be wise to integrate the storage and retrieval of data exclusively for the subconscious level. the amount was simply too much and only partial or restricted links are stored. Sleeping a night over it is in this latter case a wise decision . This is the reason why in most lies there is a reflection of about ninety percent of reality. Creativity and thinking as such are the same (for the brain) and both work via simulation processes.

In the chapter ‘Memory’ I discuss the storage topic and other relevant information like ‘the play-zone’ in detail. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.Page 30 of 60 . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.A possible exception might be real ‘threatening’ information. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .theartificialbrain.com is always required. which needs to be stored immediately.

Secondly. If you feel your new design is missing something or is not entirely correct. as discussed earlier. Indeed a good cop (with lots of experience) just feels when something is not right ! Thousands of years ago this 'warning signal' offered more chances in surviving and avoiding danger. Why ? Because he really would like to be the other person and by copying this behavior he moves into that direction ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. the answer usually won't pop up just like that. at home or at work.). In most cases this is true IF the input concerns emotions or feelings. The imitation behavior in a meeting room : A junior spontaneously adapts the behavior of a senior (if respected). every math exercise is an imitation and a tennis tutor showing a pupil how to do a backhand will result in an imitation of that backhand. is because a reference (link) can be made where one can compare to. linking and comparing are the two main features of a thinking process.com . Automated processes reside via the subconscious and such a feeling of “intuition” will only occur in areas in which there is not enough experience in ! In that case the subconscious is processing a simulation process and concludes something is missing (comparison). The main reason why imitation is so powerful. Now that we know that intuition is not exclusively meant for emotions. Hence the statement that women are more intuitive than men. women know better how to cope with emotions (experience) than men. To illustrate the fact that this behavior is not only preserved for children.I. it is more complicated due to the more complex nature of our way of living. hypnosis. it is advisable to have a look at some research results done in that field. but in most cases the nature of the intuition will reside in other areas. the answer is quite simple. so in fully awake. the short-term memory is used up fast. as a result of historical and sociological reasons.. You just feel something is not right but you fail to point the exact reason. Earlier in this document we have seen that. but one of the few moments the subconscious can directly communicate with the consciousness (in this order) as seen before (shared use of short term memory during sleep). agitated or excited state the consciousness demands all focus (interprets this as surviving) and pays no attention at subconscious data in the short-term memory. meditation. the subconscious is trying to make its point and this manifests itself through the feeling we call “intuition” or “following the own instinct”.Page 31 of 60 .The ultimate A. . the only way the subconscious can communicate directly with the consciousness is in a state of relaxation (sleeping. There is no simple way for the subconscious to communicate directly with the consciousness (only viceversa). This is not coincidental of course. The result frequently doesn't show up until nighttime. ambitious junior will follow within seconds . but can be triggered as the result of any simulation process (every possible form of processable input the brain can handle). And. Every child imitates the behavior of the parents. You are nevertheless pretty sure. Challenge – The artificial brain Unexpected processes of the subconscious Intuition or following the own instincts Everyone has had this experience. Originally.. No matter how hard you try.. while sleeping. If mister senior crosses his legs. Although I will not cover this subject in-depth in this document (not really necessary for an artificial brain). but what ? This can be a certain feeling or a new design (technical) or the expression on the face of a potential customer. These days.. the only conclusion can be that neither women nor men are more or less intuitive than the other gender. the basic need for intuition is to enough experience in the specific field. Imitation and insight In most cases we learn new stuff by imitation. Once again. Actually. the subconscious main function was to burden the consciousness and perform tasks delegated by the consciousness.masureel@theartificialbrain.

In gaining insight.It often happens that.com is always required. but because of the lack of knowledge this wasn’t the case. Not always. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .Page 32 of 60 . an insight in this field is obtained. the basic principles (algorithm) of the specific matter become clear and make it so much easier to progress in this material or even to discover new areas.theartificialbrain. remember those courses in school where a reproduction of the result was possible. A special chapter is dedicated to “mirror neurons” in this document. after a while and thanks to the experience. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. It is often assumed that the mirror neurons are heavily involved in this.

from stress to depression and you will see that hormone changes are the cause or at least present. Women on the other hand know that the more horny men are the less they can think clearly thanks to hormones. but the main conclusion is that it will not work well if it works at all ! Something else fascinated me for a long time and I believe the answer to this question is also the answer to this topic. Just look at the impact of falling in love. that’s for sure. but no data is present to support this ? What would be the motive to learn a certain specific item ? Because we say so !?! I could go on popping up similar questions for a long time. but how would it handle this emotionally ? What about the fact that it is fully capable of having a complete personality. The importance of hormones in the thinking process is imperative. Of course there is the factor of brain-growth as for all organic creatures but 25 years is an awful long time ! Especially if one takes into account that the average lifespan of humans 5. both for male and female.The ultimate A.com . If those kids have a little confidence in the (mature) person in front of them.masureel@theartificialbrain. the better … To be honest.B. there must be an evolutionary reason behind this.B. Challenge – The artificial brain What about hormones ? Introduction A crucial function of diverse parts of the brain is to steer hormone-balances like testosterone. unless a genetic failure or malfunction is present. needs to learn ? Getting used to all sensory input. one notices that hormones actually almost function as global variables and/or global events and therefore are able to influence all parts of the body (not only the brain as such). An odd question : is puberty required ? For a long time I wondered why it takes 25 years before the human brain is fully developed. But why ? The more logical outcome would be that the sooner the brain is fully developed. ghrelin and leptin for hungry and saturated feeling) reasons and can be left out of the A. it would just © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. I still don’t know the answer ! Partially it must have something to do with the slow pace we physically grow but at the age of 18 grow-pains are over and nevertheless it takes another 7 years before the brain reaches its ‘maturity’. These diverse parts react or interact on these changes in other ways or don’t react at all. depending on their specific function. When looking closer. But. Why and what would be the first thing this A.000 years ago must have been something between 25 and 30 years old ! No.g. Somehow humans with a faster developing brain-cycle did not gain from it. even if it conflicts with other information ! This is absolutely necessary because the amount of information to be processed in those years is not only enormous. Pre-juvenile children (till the age of approximately 8-10 years old) absorb new matter like they are in a hypnotic state. and for an A.-equation. estrogen and adrenaline. Pick almost any other mood swing.I. they take every answer or piece of information as correct. ? To answer that question.Page 33 of 60 . this time hormone related : is puberty (or similar) required for the thinking process. Personally I think this issue will remain unsolved … This brings up another surprising question. it always is the thinking process that both steers and receives input from these hormone changes.B. Without this capacity. How important is this for the digital brain and how to implement this (if necessary) ? Hormones A number of our hormones are purely there for regenerative and practical (e. Another example is the impact of menstruation on a woman. assume for a moment we place an artificial brain with all capacities of a mature person but without any data (experience) into a robot. but on what basis would this kid be able to decide what is important and what not ! Today a lot of this stuff is theoretical but only a few hundred years ago it was mainly basic information on how to survive and interact with others in the group.

What about hormones and how would the system start its learning phase !?! The impact on the digital brain The hormone part As discussed previously. create an own personality based on the earlier stages. the number of internal connections would end up so high that there wouldn’t be room left for ‘normal’ neurons … … so. hormones are the ideal solution to overcome this problem for us. every answer will be questioned ! At that time the individual will. without being less adequate ! All organic based creators suffer from the fact that if global vars would be present as such. no special or mysterious tricks. It would be good practice to foresee a central space in our A. whatever input at that moment could be handled as important or even an overflow of information could be the result. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . where these ‘hormones’ reside both as variables and events (to notify changes). the priority should be to get used to and optimize all sensory input and motor output. organic creatures ! The pre-juvenile phase Two important factors need to be considered : • How to create this required ‘hypnotic’ state ? Different approaches are possible.-)). Whatever these guys instruct or teach at that moment is considered as holy. The second important factor in this combination is that the attention of the ‘pupil’ must be focused on what the tutor is teaching. Which digital hormones must be present in order to achieve real intelligence ? This needs some further investigation. If no focus of attention is present towards the tutor(s).Page 34 of 60 . but my favorite is a combination of hard coding a phase where the motivation of what to learn is fully dependant on the primal tutor(s). just look at them as global variables or events and it will make things less complex. This latter combination deserves some extra explanation. It is for sure that some like adrenaline are imperative to even have a fully functional digital brain ! In the future. one is and stays fully aware of what happened during the session. Unless otherwise instructed at the end of the session.theartificialbrain. People familiar with hypnosis know that it is nothing more or less than creating a higher state of suggestibility (exactly what we need !). when I refer to (digital) hormones.com is always required. In idle moments (no tutor teaching). This implies that the conscious level remains active but on a lower pace. bit by bit. the almost complete base for the future personality will be formed in that timeframe ! Ask any parent. as it should be for most parents. hormone changes operate like global vars or global events.B. As a result of this intense learning period. The temporary rising of the subconscious level is a little harder to explain. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Only at the final stage (approximately 25 years old) the concept of cause and consequences is fully mature as well. It would be good practice as well to foresee a period of ‘sleep’ to help assimilate all conscious information via the subconscious (a digi-dream phase . combined with a temporary raise of priority of the subconscious level during that phase. The subconscious level on the other hand gains priority and stores the information __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. The approval or disapproval will function as correction. once the juvenile phase pops up.take an awful long time to obtain all crucial information upon which all later decisions will be based. This last point explains why even 20 year old people sometimes still act so stupid ! This whole issue is one of the main reasons I have my doubts with copying and digitizing the human brain just like this.

no teaching possible). The remark on the strict environmental conditions from the above paragraph is also applicable to this case.Page 35 of 60 . but in my humble opinion.The ultimate A. The system will then. The latter would probably be the rule in military concepts. In the case of hypnosis no extreme emotions are usually present and the information is stored better and faster. Although several possibilities exist to make the system pick someone as the primal tutor(s) without having the normal time consuming drawbacks of lifting cautiousness. This means that the environmental conditions must be optimal to avoid distraction from the tutor. Otherwise a bypassing fly or a screensaver in action could be considered as primal tutors by the system and I assume that is not the objective … The fear-slider (as explained later) can be placed at no-fear (absolute trust) for a small period of time (a couple of days) at first activation of the system. even destructive behavior. The third one is my absolute favorite one ! The advantage of a digital brain is that we are not restricted by capacity or available predefined space like is the case with an organic brain. This is the way it works for ducks and gooses. We also know that it can take weeks before certain ‘neutral’ data gets actually stored in the long-term memory and this points out that it is the task of the subconscious to actually store the data and not the conscious level. The drawback of this approach is that only one person will be accepted as tutor at first and it will take a while before the system will accept another as equal tutor (cautiousness of the system). a two-day “isolation” period to allow the calf to become familiar with the mother. Curiosity on the other hand is the force that allows us to make small steps towards these new things. • Who will the system accept as primal tutor(s) ? All animals. This indicates that somehow the amygdala is surpassed in storing this data. have the reflex of being cautious for new things (more chances in surviving). humans included. This approach looks a little like the system the gnu uses. In most cases there should be a time limitation for this since the system otherwise doesn’t has the capacity to learn from others than the initial tutors. the fear-slider at that moment (and for that process only) should be near to no-fear and full attention should be provided to this tutor. I personally have three favorites : • The system can be programmed to see the first moving or speaking “person” after primary activation as the main tutor.B. It is simple to implement and works perfect. Depending on the application of the A.com . Another disadvantage of this approach is that whatever first thing (human or not human) drawing the attention from the system. The problem here is that the system must have time enough to establish a recognition pattern towards the tutors and at the same time will start learning all sensory input and motor output. one (animal or person) is trustier and accepts it better. Once a non-threatening situation (pattern) is being recognized.masureel@theartificialbrain. But more on this topic in the chapter about memory. This approach of accepting primal tutors is not only relatively simple to implement. the system can be programmed to compare speech with the existing patterns and if one fits. consider all input as friendly and accept these tutors as equal. The immense disadvantage of this approach is that during that period all sensory input will be considered friendly. it could be wise not to end this or even restrict it and as such not allow others to be of influence (no voice pattern recognition. Once the system gets activated.I. if not conflicting with other ‘rules’ (again the conscious level). So why not creating an extra space where the voice pattern of the primal tutors can be stored before first activation. will be considered as the primal tutor. temporarily. Challenge – The artificial brain more efficient than otherwise. the best and most complete method ! • • • How to move the fear-slider towards trust in the pre-juvenal phase ? © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.

to give this serious thought ! The main rule is simple : if you don’t know the outcome of something for sure. with no data present at first activation. try to find a way around of something you can predict the effect of for sure ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. It is too complex to imagine what unexpected things (in the negative sense) might result out of that method. The same applies to tutors : if the object referring to this tutor is flagged as “trustworthy” (belief) there will be 100% trust and all new information will be considered as correct.com is always required.B.B. An A. the risk is present that the system could be too aggressive ! Since no data is available for a newborn baby of twenty years old. the trust-level at that moment will be maximal. Is ‘belief’ and ‘fear’ both necessary ? Is it not easier to implement only one ? I will answer this in the chapter “Memory”.If the default state of belief for new information is ‘belief. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .Page 36 of 60 . The juvenile phase Unlike the pre-juvenile phase. If we give the final default values as from the first activation. This allows the system to learn without questioning at all. the same is valid for a fully functional A. But personally I would seriously consider adding it anyway ! Why ? It is rather simple to implement and the outcome is far better predictable. a ‘digital puberty’ phase is not mandatory to obtain a working A..B.B. Somehow the A.B. will need some simulation of certain hormones like testosterone and adrenaline (as explained earlier) to work. is a serious matter that needs to be approached with wisdom and caution ! Control is everything ! Therefore I strongly advise everyone who attempts to create an A. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.theartificialbrain.

The following example is probably one of the best ways to demonstrate how perception influences our thinking process. But the primary factor in this 'experiences experience' is ‘perception’. sitting on the bed with his brother always ended in a hilarious pillow-fight.masureel@theartificialbrain. In this. This will undoubtedly result in a number of negative links towards the opposite sex. noise or a certain smell. but they are not the determinant factor. tree different interpretations and reactions : one neutral. where another day we actually don't care at all about this. Emotions are a major input source for the brain (both cause and result) and therefore deserve the term 'sense'. In case of feeling. the brain does not care what sort of input it has to process. one of the boys says 'Yesterday I sat on the bed with my brother'. this person will feel more and more (psychological) pain because of being stared after constantly (linking) and will decide (the decision) that having contact with others is not a very pleasant experience and is to be avoided ! A lonely person is born . You won’t suddenly see. The chances this will lead to a total solitary existence are much smaller since the experiences with the own gender were namely positive. at the age of puberty this person would probably find it more difficult than others to get in touch with the opposite sex.. Challenge – The artificial brain Deeper thoughts 'I think. Only experience is ! A good example to illustrate this is someone who is born with a severely misshaped face who is constantly stared after by others (that's experience). Someone thinking he or she is a bungler. Both environmental and genetic factors (the character) are important in what kind of experiences we will have. most of the time this will be external data like images.I. unfortunately purely hypothetic case. there will be no staring after and as a result no solitary existence would have existed (no such experiences). Feelings or emotions are always internal and an exception because they are variable.com . one sentence. The buzzword 'perception' The above example clearly shows the main impact of experiences in our personal growth. The mutual thing they all have in common is that they provide input to the brain. Tree persons. Although. one must first dig into the purpose of the senses. Experience is the key feature in how we think in the long term about ourselves. After a while. The second boy spontaneously starts to smile because. How do we interpret something ? As tackled in the beginning of this article. as child.. smell.' Who doesn't know this statement of Descartes ! But it reaches much further than the traditional conclusion of the self-awareness.. The girl on the other hand gets tears in her eyes thanks to a sexual abuse for many years on her brother’s bed. The other senses are more regular in the way they operate.. Although it is tempting to categorize this under feeling. or you can feel pain in the stomach or knee (internal). the data can come from both external or internal information. therefore I am . as long as linking and comparison is possible. You can feel the table via the nerve ends in the hand (external). Already in an early stage in his life this person will diagnose his 'being different' and being treated differently (by others) via the mirror and the being staring after (comparison). hear or taste better tomorrow and if you bump into a wall it will hurt as much as today. Let’s now assume humans are evolved enough to understand that this person is also a person like any other. feelings or emotions. except for the misshaped face.Page 37 of 60 . That is a fact ! Yesterday this one guy was indeed sitting on his brother’s bed. one positive © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. will reflect this in every possible way and act as such. Two boys and a girl are having a nice time in a club. A situation can make us angry one day. At a certain moment during the conversation.The ultimate A. The traditional five senses are human’s direct allies but I would like to add one to that list.

This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. but with interpretations of facts ! Someone with a little imagination could very well.. but (at brain level) rather experience an interpretation of 'life' . … which is accurate since everything is belief as seen before ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.. With the girl. because of the 'positive feeling'.. The probability that the second boy (good experience) will be more and more active involved in this conversation is great.Page 38 of 60 . most likely the opposite will happen . style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .com is always required. state that we do not really live our life. and correctly.. This also shows that both consciousness and subconscious actually are only capable of processing simulation processes (what else would perception be ?) ! We do not live with facts.theartificialbrain.and one negative.

the brain does not care where the input comes from as long as it can link and compare. but personally I do not agree with this for the reasons explained beneath. the simplest way to add new information in the case of our cow is to link the new information to the object cow. As also seen before. it is relative. I discussed the need of the (variable) calibration system to accomplish this.The ultimate A. would loose their job. Relativity Nothing we interpret is absolute. Somehow it is quite obvious. Someone moving from the Arctic to the Sahara will adapt remarkably fast ! Standard of values Does one choose ‘friendship’ over ‘money’ or vice versa ? It is one of these typical examples that suggest there must be a standard of values present somewhere in the brain. if I let you hear the sound of a cow or I show the picture of a cow. So. Sometimes we all are a little selfish (as discussed in detail later) and the way we fine-tune our calibration system is based on this.Page 39 of 60 . a legal system would even be obsolete ! If one would find a drug that cures all diseases. it is imperative to dig deeper in how linking is being performed in the thinking process. most people would consider this as 'good' but those working for the pharmaceutical industry (directly or indirectly). but also on how we tend to define it for ourselves. Earlier in this document. This flexible calibration system makes people unique ! Thanks to so many individual experiences. but what do they stand for and how do they influence the thinkingprocess ? In psychology ego is often divided in four or even more parts. As mentioned earlier. If everyone would define all terms the same way. since the brain always tries to compare and link and once the object 'cow' is present. although a cake © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.masureel@theartificialbrain. the brain will refer to the same thing : a cow (whatever this might be in your brain). spread over time. But the reality is different ! There is no standard at all ! To better understand this. you will most likely also think of 'the object cow' if you step into a cow cake. It is in our own best interest to keep balanced during biking ! Falling hurts and is considered as not pleasant. the moral question. In our example. Another typical example is the relativity of 'good' and 'bad'. this would be in contradiction with the linking and comparison principles our thinking process is based upon. This results in an explanation why physical pain (not pleasant) and psychical pain (also not pleasant) are treated the same way by the human brain. In most cases links between 'different objects' will be there as well.I. The definition not only depends on the time spirit and education. profit or investment and most likely define this as 'bad' (at least in short terms). Challenge – The artificial brain Values and ego Introduction Who hasn’t heard of these words. A poor guy winning the lottery will probably recalibrate his view on money. Often it is extremely hard to see what cause and consequence are ! This way of relative interpretation is also the main reason why we have such a high adaptability. you will first refer to the cow and thereafter pick the wanted specification (in this case the sound of a cow). So it is variable. it is very unlikely to find two people with exactly the same calibration settings ! Every experience (link) will play its role in future comparison for 'similar' information. Remember the example at the start of this document when learning to ride the bike.com . If I ask you to make the noise of a cow. Some will find thousand dollars a lot of money where others see one million dollars as pocket money.

but it never will be the pain the other is going through ! That is also the reason the own pains are heavier and worse than the pains of somebody else. If someone working on a farm frequently has to deal with cow cakes (not stepping into them. Always the same : linking and comparison. And that is exactly what will occur ! After a while the cow cake will be associated with a cow cake and will be directly accessible without deviations. The more memories (especially positive ones) the harder it will be to get over it. It is often presented as a treeview where the parent is the main object and the linked objects are ancestors. the higher this value will be in our fictive list.as such has nothing to do with the object cow ! The above principle is widely accepted by many people dealing with the way memory is stored into our brain. Time after time ! The more links (also indirect) refer to a certain object or subject. Fear and believe is more correct and as we saw before. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. during which it is possible to see death arriving. The more links. Some even love pain (SM). links to certain subjects or objects) have a huge weight in this algorithm (comparisons) ! The world turns around you ! The brain is only capable of processing the own signals (and not those of others) via simulation processes. but this would be incorrect (since this person no longer is) and this causes the fear. As seen before. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . The new __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. it becomes more important to have a direct link towards cow cakes. believe is the most important property in how we define and interpret fear. Because in these cases lots of links (direct and indirect) (memories) are present of the living related or acquainted. As also seen before. The more important something is. If one of these links is dropped (for instance the passing-away of somebody). These links cause a certain relationship. brothers/sisters. it is confused. the more we are willing to 'defend' it and that's why it sometimes really appears as if there actually is a list. Emotional pain (remember : emotions or feelings are derivatives of fear) ? Is fear then behind all of this? Yes and no. you can feel something similar. the brain is able to start making links towards the 'not being there anymore' of this individual and it will be less hard (the factor disbelieve is minor). It simply is so in contradiction with all other brain information available. In some cases certain people refuse to accept the death and continue to make new links (although this person is no longer alive) (often the case with the loss of children) and this will cause a lifetime of emotional pain. Notice that in case of a long term chronic illness.com is always required. But if we look a bit closer we will notice something special. children and friends. causing everyone to be little islands near each other. we tend to give labels as 'good' or 'bad' to certain 'objects' and this will have its reflection on the output ! That explains why someone having a 'bad' experience with friends at this moment might change the standard (temporarily or permanently. you will make much links to other individuals in the direct surrounding like parents.Page 40 of 60 . …). separated from the ‘old parent’. This would indeed be correct if it was not for the weight of the items. In best case. via emphatic ways (again simulation process). During lots of years. In the above-mentioned example. it is mostly very hard to accept. changes (or situations we are not familiar with) cause fear because no linking is possible. The interpretation (via linking and comparison) is that this is impossible (disbelieve) since the brain only has links to this person alive ! The brain actually doesn't know how to deal with this. cleaning them up. You are unable to actually feel the exact pain somebody else is going through. Last experiences (once again. the more important it will be (both positive and negative) simply because one will be confronted (at brain level) more with this object or subject. depending on future experiences) from 'friends above all' to 'money above all'. This illustrates that the memory storage is pointer-based and is pretty well comparable with placing a shortcut on the computer’s desktop to directly go to a certain document. we can link. Remember the brain is unable to handle facts (everything is interpretation) and the brain has several vivid links to that person living. Notice that this often happens in these moments that someone has serious doubts about his religion ! It was faith that provided at the same time that safe feeling and comfort but also the explanation (linking).theartificialbrain.

Not the values of your neighbor. as seen before. that's too bad'.com . strange but true ! You can only feel compassion if your situation is better in that particular field. but ten minutes later you will have forgotten about it. no ! I insist you go first'. Challenge – The artificial brain 'facts' are in conflict with this and make people doubt … If the deceased is someone totally unknown. Why are you member of a union or employers’ organization ? To protect your own interests or to gain (personally) from it.masureel@theartificialbrain. What happens in disastrous fires on ships or overcrowded places with few exits ? The individual will do anything to survive. boss or mother-in-law (unless you benefit from this) ! If in your opinion (and yours only) your vote won’t make any difference. the more elementary courtesy will fade away ! It is not by coincidence that in countries where few people are religious that selfishness prevails to that extent ! Each religion helps in defining a number of standard values. Empathic simulation processes are possible through linking and comparison. Why are religious people willing to obey to certain 'rules' which others (even from different religious groups) find odd ? Indeed. You can only sympathize in these fields you are familiar with and have similar experience. Did you have few toys and do you want to overcompensate your child ? Couldn't you or was it not allowed (by the parents) to become a football player.Page 41 of 60 . To reach the 'higher purpose'. but more likely 'You lucky bastard !'.. As a matter of fact.. Only few people will say under such circumstances to a complete stranger : 'No. that is sad !'. Except if there are some mutual interests involved which will induce linking like : age or place of the accident (I passed there ten minutes before the accident. how on earth would it ever be able not to be selfish (since it must somehow all be related to 'the self') !?! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Your world turns around you and depending on diverse factors the facts will be interpreted differently .. actor or musician. yourself. Self-interest. it could have been me !)). The hotter it gets or the more falling.The ultimate A. Disbelievers are not obliged to follow these 'rules' and automatically fall back on the 'own' values. one must walk between the borderlines of these values. to personally get into 'heaven' (the ultimate goal in most religions). you won’t vote at all or blanc (if voting is obligated) or you will simply issue a protest vote.. Compassion namely implies a certain superiority. At that moment You are confronted with the possibility that it could have been you or that it can happen to you which allows you to line and compare. are less dignifying than appear at sight ! A typical example is compassion. I've been asking this question at hundreds of people over the last ten years and never had a different answer ! Why do you vote for a specific political group ? The 'values' they stand for will be the ones you deem important. and are you pushing this dream (of yours) to become reality through your child (against its will) ? Also some of the noble feelings we have. who do you look first for ? Indeed. Semantics are more important than one would expect. Note that someone suicidal will not think of this deceased as 'Oh. Even they way we act towards our children is more often driven by selfishness than one would expect ! Look a bit closer at why you behave the way you do towards your children and try to find the links with your own childhood. you’ll probably say 'Oh. always ! This is without any doubt a daring statement. So you are actually slapping yourself on the back and are probably insulting someone ! Sympathizing on the other hand is different from compassion. but let’s look a bit closer at next examples before shooting the pianist ! If you look at a group photo and you know you are on it. burning pieces.I. if the brain is only capable of handling the own processes. .

but I have not seen a deep religious and well-educated chimp lately. This can be in the form of appreciation. Most common reflection will be “next time you are on your own” ! Isn’t that in conflict with the definition of altruism … It is possible that mirror neurons have an important role in this. other outcome ! On the other hand. This shows that there must always be a motivator in order to initiate action and that motivation always comes from within our thinking process.com is always required. other motives. it is also likely that mirror neurons could be the cause of narcissism as well. I touch this subject of narcissism here because it is so in conflict with altruism that at least it should be reviewed thoroughly ! Some experiments demonstrated that good-looking people (both men and women) get easier help than others (e.Alll information is somehow related to one-self. A small experiment I did with some adolescents displaying narcissistic behavior (thanks to over-rewarding (extreme ego) and no sort of punishment in case of ‘bad manners’).g. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. a good feeling (even compassion) or by having had a similar experience and knowing that it is hard to handle single. sadistic people will have a good feeling when not helping … … same input. a link can and will be made that one can benefit from ‘helping’ someone else. I could have avoided it” ! Altruism … For a long time the assumption was made that altruism was one of the main differences that distinguished humans from other primates (originating 6 million years ago when a sub branch of the chimps was born (our pre-ancestors)). But one of the main reasons one creature helps another ‘without rewarding’ is that at a later point the inverse might be necessary. this could explain why “guilt” is one of the most frequent emotions. on conscious or subconscious level. Recent research demonstrated that chimpanzees also have the altruism ability and therefore it can no longer be considered as exclusive for humans ! How is altruism possible if. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . and they do. This is especially important in socializing ! Just look at how people react to someone never being polite (or even being rude) when something is given or offered. However. If something happens and all is related to oneself.Page 42 of 60 . when asking for directions). as explained earlier. In that way it could be that altruism is actually a myth … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. The empathic information can lead to offering help. At a certain point. it is my opinion that experience (and rewarding) is the base for narcissism.theartificialbrain. everything is self related (selfish) ?!? One could state that education and religion play an important role in this. it is likely that ‘oneself’ could have done something to avoid this (that is the thought in the background) and that causes this guilt feeling … … it is hard to view other perspectives if one is only capable of handling the own information originating from the own perspective ! Merge this with the linking and comparison principles the brain is based upon and you understand the typical “if I had done this or that.

I. emotions. nl. needs some sort of motivation to (be able to) perform new tasks. With autistic © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. but reality showed a different outcome ! Someone (soldier or not) with a disconnected amygdala turned into a vegetable ! Why ? Since motivation is mainly based on fear (via values. This self-interest must be interpreted in a very open way and appreciation. the disconnected amygdala only results in someone with no motivation at all ! Each intelligent system. Challenge – The artificial brain A number of important actors Motivation The brain takes decisions that are. will always be for a conscious or subconscious reason. humans included. but it also helps in bending certain fears (emotions or feeling) into trust and thereby facilitating the 'actionprocess'. this indicates that appreciation (or rewarding) and punishment are ‘belief’-related and both pillars are the driving forces behind the complete ‘belief’-mechanism ! Appreciation (the strongest possible way of rewarding) determines how the remuneration system of the brain works ! Appreciation indirectly expresses that your life is not worthless ! Attention is a form of appreciation since it shows indirectly that someone is important (otherwise you wouldn't pay attention to that person). As seen before. At first sight. The total of these factors is what we describe as 'motivation'. It is not surprising that the punishment area is intensively interacting with the amygdala. Who doesn't like to get these compliments ! Why is appreciation so important for our way of thinking ? As mentioned above. motivation is necessary to start new 'actions'... Appreciation not only helps us in lifting the priority in our list of values. In the sixties a lot of research was done in creating the 'Über-soldier' and one of the main researches concerned people with a disconnected amygdala (the center of fear). is actually its primary ally and it is the absolute fundament for its intelligence ! On the other hand. People having problems with the amygdala functioning (like diverse forms of autism) need continues confirmation and appreciation.The ultimate A.Page 43 of 60 . this should result in a fearless soldier. if the intelligent system would not be able to set priorities or preferences and absorb all information as such. in one’s self-interest. Why would you get out of your chair to get something to drink if you had no sense of thirst ? Why would you study day after day on study material you are absolutely not interested in (fear of not getting your degree) ? Why do you prefer mathematics over English or vice versa (appreciation via good results and the confidence (notfear) you can handle it.masureel@theartificialbrain. directly or indirectly. there would be a total overflow of the complete system ! The three main motivators for human beings are : surviving. usually through positive experiences) ? . “fear”. appreciation and punishment). both have a specific area. It would be incorrect to look at appreciation without talking about rewarding and punishment. reproduction and acceptance (people would do literally everything to be part of the group). Appreciation versus punishment 'Well done !' or 'I couldn't have done it without your help !'. Remember also that one of the functions of the amygdala is to help storing the information in the long term memory. the fear-slider can only be moved via ‘belief’. In the human brain. punishment and values on the one hand and emotions on the other hand are the main driving causes. What drives us to take a certain decision or not ? Everything you will do. Otherwise after one action or one series of actions the system would end-up in a passive state ! Why in heaven’s name would the system take new actions and even more important based upon what ?!? Humans’ main enemy.com .

are conditioned in that way that whatever they do. continuously searching for approval and appreciation … … something to keep in mind when raising an intelligent system.people. the attention must be drawn to this (works best if this is accompanied with some sort of pain) until it is solved ! What about the surviving instinct ? Well. it is never good enough). This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. needs to have is actually very limited. A “regeneration instinct” is best implemented as well. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Some of the elements like surprise and curiosity could be considered as instincts and are mandatory. it is theoretically possible to obtain an A.B. Since this is very similar with the way the human brain works.B. will be required ! How ? By hard-coding that all the ‘negative’ (physical or emotional punishment) must be avoided and all the ‘positive’ (rewarding) must be embraced ! This is best done by implementing a pain and pleasure variable and the one with the highest value at that moment will determine if future similar experiences will be deliberately re-experienced. Children for whom only encouragement and approval and no punishment was used. either ! This ‘surviving instinct’ is rather a group of individual mechanisms (like the above-mentioned instincts) mostly fear-based combined with the earlier declared ‘pain and pleasure’-system directly related to the amygdala or digidala ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.theartificialbrain. the ‘negative’ is better and faster stored than the ‘positive’. They tend to be rather pessimistic and have a low self-image. often resulting in under-performing. Children who had to undergo continuous punishment and who were rarely encouraged and appreciated will suffer from a very low self-image and will often underperform (why bother. no punishment will ever follow.B.com is always required. If the system is low on energy. Since both rewarding and punishment are mandatory for a brain a low level implementation in the A.Page 44 of 60 . In some cases they will grow into perfectionists. loving Sado Masochism (pleasure value higher than pain value) … Instincts The number of instincts the A. Notice too that children having had an optimal balance between approval and disproval are the ones when growing adults who will have the least problems in socializing. we do not have such a thing and it is not required for the A.B.

so the object must be universal in order to link everything to everything like we are capable of and is required to achieve real intelligence. Without. this does not imply you will ever see or smell a cow in your life. That definitely is something to keep into account in the design of a digital brain ! The typical definition of memory is : “The ability to store.masureel@theartificialbrain. retain and (subsequently) recall information” and this is a good starting point. Years ago when databases where less standardized everybody in informatics used an own data-format and the better-written formats were binary and based on the principles of pointer-tables. as explained later in this chapter. Multiple tables could exist to allow sorting the pointers in diverse ways. Both allow fragmentation of data. Storing information The first step in memory handling is how to store the data. Virtual because the information in the object can be anything ! If you hear the sound of a cow. in a digital brain the storage will obviously most likely be on hard disk. it © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. While it will slow down the system a tiny. critical problems with reboots as a result or fatal errors in the software. A major advantage the brain has is that it is never switched off until death. the benefits by far supersede this disadvantage. long-term and working memory and some models have been created according to this knowledge. we discovered a number of areas involved like the amygdala and the hippocampus. the possibility exists that for some reason the program might get terminated unexpectedly.com . The information can also be non-sensory such as procedures. we know very little on how everything is stored in the brain. These changes can be in food. The lack of understanding gives us the opportunity to redefine the way things should be stored in an efficient and logical way for our A. While not all doctors do accept this. This is best done in mirror (duplicate) to overcome file-errors caused by the interruption or hard disk failure. If there was not such an aspect. feelings.. More memory space for humans than first thought ? A bizarre phenomenon in the medical world is the one of changed preferences after heart transplantations. none of the others is possible ! Since. Computer systems on the other hand need to store all on hard disk to overcome power failures. any form of data can be present. How can I justify this if you know that synapses form the absolute fundament in data storage in the human brain ? Well. a necessity.B. If this would turn out to be correct and one is aware of the large number of neurons near the intestines. The main challenge is how to store the impressions (what else is sensory input) in an ‘ordered’ way and available for other sensory experiences. For instance one might not like sweet pepper before the transplant and become a big fan afterwards or someone lazy becoming a disciplined cyclist. The principle behind pointer-tables is similar to synapses. as mentioned in the introduction. In other words how can I for instance make the link between the visual information. Challenge – The artificial brain Memory Introduction Although we know a lot of the human brain. the region of available memory could very well be larger than originally thought … What about synapses ? In this complete document I touched the term ‘synapse’ only a couple of times. etc. but that is pretty much it ! Thanks to some experiments and malfunctions we assume the existence of a sensory. the ‘evidence’ indicates that the neurons around the heart function as memory as well and this could be the explanation why some preferences of the (anonymous) donor are transferred via the transplant to the acceptant. A major key player in solving this is the need of a common factor.Page 45 of 60 . short-term. it is wise to store all (even processes in progress) on hard disk.I. sound and smell of a cow ? The answer is virtual objects.The ultimate A. Both the pointer-table and the synapse can point to many other pointer-tables or synapses and behind the reference they are pointing to. Oh yes. spare time or whatever. scripts.

random ‘labeling’ should be used and yes. multiple objects containing similar info originating from different sensory input will be present. It surprises me how often I say (internally) ‘what if I try it this way’ in solving problems. virtually unlimited in capacity and by nature allowing (any sort of) data to be fragmented over diverse files on diverse (network) drives. but not only would it consume an awful lot more memory (diverse objects containing similar information). If I need to run over all available images to detect if this one is of a cow before being able to ‘recall my cow’. the ‘phonological loop’ is actually fragments (words) of this inner voice ! Question is how to create this inner voice when no data or lexicon is present ! Surprisingly. I would remain busy for a dreadful lot of time and the complete system would run extremely slow. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. This theoretically would work.197. In the Baddeley and Hitch model of the working memory of the brain. So I need the ability to have access to information not directly related and if you look closer at this. but if the same exercise is shaken a little. The inner voice Before continuing.would be very well possible to have separate objects of the same without a link in between. The results of this experiment can be considered as a good starting point on how to store data in the digibrain ! As a matter of fact. The same applies to the human brain. audio and aromatic information of a cow for instance. not in the way to store but in the way to retain or recall the information.com is always required. The outcome was an ultra-lightweight (both in memory use as overhead storage) and extreme fast ‘database’.885. This will not only reveal the solution for this topic but will also show the path to real intelligence ! Talking to yourself. the system will be able of referring much of this sensory input to this label. The ‘phonetic labeling’ solves the problem in linking to the same object and recalling information structured referring to the same but from multiple points of view and that was the target ! During this progression. most of the time without sound … … it is the best and most accurate description I have for this phenomenon ! Everybody does it but not all are aware of doing so. If I need to think of the number 256. It incorporated the possibility to vary the size and type (numeric or alphanumeric) of the pointer-table and of course the option to sort (index) if required.theartificialbrain.053 (the common factor) to refer to the object ‘cow’. A partial. non-connected object for the visual. After a while the system will create sort of a vocabulary (like babies do) and the phonetic meaning will become more and more similar to ours. it will be hard ! The same applies to images. A couple of years ago I did some serious experimenting on this topic and wrote a low level binary data-container based on the principles of optimized pointertables. confusion occurs ! In the topic on synapses I touch the subject of pointer-tables and although the above ‘labeling’ best requires some way of indexing in order to sort the labels (for fast retrieval purposes). So what should this common factor be ? Hypothetically it can be anything ! It can be a number or an image. data storage is the base of every system … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. At start. After all. something strange appears ! No information is by itself connected to other separate information unless insight or comprehension is present ! That is the reason why some people have trouble solving mathematical expressions slightly modified ! As long as the basic pattern is there no problems pop-up. the solution is rather easy. it would also give trouble in internal communication. the thinking process can begin and is basically creating combinations of existing information (linking and comparison). however. Diverse input will point to the same object and the older meaningless labels will expire (number of times recently used and last access date). a revised version will be the first code I will make available on the net. Once this vocabulary gets developed. So the inner voice will build its vocabulary from meaningless to others towards a similar vocabulary most of us use. some implementation problems pop up then.Page 46 of 60 . style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . it is wise to have a closer look at something we call the inner voice. I would not advise the use of traditional databases to achieve this.

The research did not clear anything and the question remains if the partner is © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. even after the bear is back in the bushes and no input of his presence is longer available. but most of the time these are not the driving force. If someone else tells you a month later the same. A good example to demonstrate this is the confrontation with a bear. Unconfirmed. The answer is neurons. Challenge – The artificial brain The principles behind belief and fear Belief is the mysterious factor in the A. experience is ! Experience is just another word for ‘content’ to be stored ! If a new ‘positive’ experience occurs. dependent on the input and how many errors away from a ‘known’ reference. it looks as both depend on each other. as explained earlier. Only when you belief it is safe again (and this can be a while after the encounter) the fear will decrease. Both the elements against as in favor will have a reference as well. This was already explained in the chapter on belief. Nevertheless this data will be stored and a pointer towards this will also be saved in the object ‘partner’. The second question is how this method of moving-the-fear-slider works.Page 47 of 60 . in other words a sort of belief ! This is actually what thinking is about and why the play-zone (described later this chapter) is required. If someone is telling you that your partner is cheating on you. it will be stored and the properties present at that moment will influence the complete bundle of information available at that moment. the outcome will be less predictable ! You will try and find similarities in the favor of the concept ‘chair’ and depending on the balance the outcome will be one of the three states : belief.B. it does not matter whether these are organic or digital in nature ! On what base does a neuron (axon) fire ? Yes. It is well possible that. The opposite would happen if I point a finger at a table and ask if you believe it is a chair ! The concept of a chair is well defined in our brain and during our lives we encounter lots of chairs. But if I show you something futuristic and very abstract and ask the same question. Seeing a bear all the sudden right in front of you will trigger the surprise mechanism (the belief something is dangerous) and this will cause fear. If the bear just passes by without even looking at you. the answer will be most likely positive (and maybe you will be curious that it might be something else because I ask this rather stupid question). This is because a second pointer with ‘negative’ information (the experience) will be stored.The ultimate A. disbelief or no opinion. The scripting I mentioned before will therefore contain data such as certain feelings (fears) and the status of belief for that specific object. the fear will still be present. especially if no data is available indicating the opposite.I. The right question to ask in solving this riddle is if fear can steer belief ? The answer is no ! Although it sometimes looks that way. again with a pointer in the ‘partner’ object.B.masureel@theartificialbrain. It is a speculation. But let’s go back to absolute basics to discover why belief is involved in everything concerning the brain. This last can best be explained by an example. that path will be continued ! Although the subject of belief is covered already in several parts throughout this document some questions remained unanswered … The first question is if it is really necessary to have both belief and fear stored since. So belief can have a direct impact on belief. fear not. you would do some research. Never forget that a single thought exists out of much different sorts of fragmented data.com . This zone allows the system to place forms of belief above information (the thinking process) and if the outcome is positive (belief it could be correct). It is everywhere but can be so hard to indicate ! How does belief work ? That is the main question in solving the A. Dependent on the outcome the doubt will be : • • Confirmed.-riddle. This will have serious impact since the belief in the partner will (at least temporarily) switch to disbelief ! But even more dramatic is that all other types of ‘belief’ related to the object partner would be questioned as well.-puzzle ! If I point at a chair and ask you if you believe that it is a chair. chances are high a serious doubt will rise. We already saw some mechanisms like acceptance and curiosity doing the job. after this second warning signal. it is actually the belief behind the fear that will steer the fear and this belief can steer the first mentioned belief. disbelief will probably be the result.

It is a hoax and the so-called new playmate turns out to be for the opposite sex.com is always required.B. Since intelligence is mainly dependent of this play-zone. always. It will literally be hard to focus on other things ! Notice as well that this will happen on both conscious as subconscious level. imagination and similar all are side effects of this play-zone.B. Since this statement enfeebles all previous negative statements. the ‘play-zone’ or digital (pre)frontal cortex is best kept small.Page 48 of 60 .. daydreaming.B. A side-effect of this will be that the belief in the messengers of ‘the bad news’ will in future encounters be questioned more … Doubt is actually always a form of belief on top of the current belief and will be the cause of fear (in this case most likely jealousy and anger). as well ! For humans. This not only applies to organic creatures. The more similar (in the broadest sense of the word) links. all information the brain processes is subjective and if there would be a way of playing with all these different kinds of information (linking). This possible cheating will be something constantly playing in the head and it will draw the attention to the internal thoughts the whole time. The above example also demonstrates that it is likely to have a pointer in a centralized table in the digibrain with ‘important’ (unfinished) issues. the first reflex is to preserve a lot of space for this area in the A. Since all information is subjective and not all information combined results in realistic or wanted ‘thoughts’. so it should be your partner worrying instead. the (pre)frontal cortex plays an important role in creativity and creativity is actually another word for playing with different sorts of information. The reliability of the information. you will probably believe this info and the fear slider will move quite fast towards fear. For the A. If you discover your partner in bed with a new playmate yourself. then and only then new ideas and thoughts. in our own interest ! The line between geniality and insanity is often very slim and this is the reason why ! To keep control over an A. it will keep you awake ! A second question is how belief can influence the fear-slider ? Two parameters are important in this : • • The number of references (experiences) available for this specific topic. the previous is of major importance ! Memorizing information can be done by anybody and is basically the ‘labeling’ I discussed before. the belief that the partner is trustworthy is correct and ‘belief’ will be restored. only then it may be __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.B.B.theartificialbrain. Ask people of a child missing for five years how devastating this state is ! Enfeebled. a similar region will be needed and I refer to this as ‘the play-zone’ for obvious reasons. this will be experienced as very reliable information and will cause the fear-slider to move faster towards fear. but is this wise ? Fantasy. But self creating links is the path to intelligence ! As stated earlier. Once the results indicate it is safe or even required to enlarge this region. the more the fear-slider will be moved in one or the other direction. although it might be a hoax. If you have a best friend you consider (experience) as very reliable and he or she is the messenger of the cheating message.. which we define as intelligence can occur. The belief will be that maybe the belief that your partner is exclusively for you is not (longer) correct. the fear slider will only move slightly at once. The ‘play-zone’ If the target is a true intelligent A. like humans and elephants or even aliens.B.. It will even be hard to get some sleep because the attention is always drawn towards this and as long as this happens on conscious level. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .• trustworthy. If the messenger has a history of being unreliable. A vision is in fact a sort of fantasy and some visions are best avoided for an A. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. but for all custom designed systems like an A. During dreaming this will somehow be integrated in the dreams. a limitation is best considered.

com . For the digital brain. In between. The long-term memory The same flag could also be used to indicate that the problem is satisfyingly solved and ready to be transferred to the subconscious level ! One of the criticisms on the multi-store model of Atkinson and Shiffrin is that they claimed that only rehearsal is capable of storing data in the long-term memory. only the first impression will be stored and the fight-or-flight state will be triggered causing tunnel vision (lots of adrenaline running through the vanes). In a lot of cases. If I would ask you to memorize a poem at such a time. then the information may be transferred to the subconscious level and it will at first (not much experience) be hard to recall it. So the system must be capable of dropping this information and this is done automatically by no longer giving it attention. Have you ever tried to learn new matter you have absolutely no interest in and which you can’t link to existing information and for which no penalty is waiting if you fail the exam ? You will have to rehearsal an awful lot and will forget it after a short time ! Where is the motive ? It is also good to keep in mind that when the slider is to close to 100% fear. It is the amygdala (or simplified : fear) indicating how fast data will be stored in the long-term memory ! Threatening situations need to be stored faster and better than neutral input. this is so and can be described as experience. Diverse experiments in memorizing information reveal that the basic information of an unsolved riddle is better preserved than if solved. for this kind of processes the multi-store © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. We now know that fear can reach from 0% fear (absolute trust) to 100% fear (phobia).The ultimate A. an extra flag indicating that the information is ready to be overwritten should do the job.I. Neither fear nor trust is dominating and it could be described as boring. The human brain does this in a similar way. If the result is satisfying. Someone else for example could come up with a good solution or ‘the problem’ is considered too difficult and the motivation in trying to solve it is absent. will suffer from this as well since fear and some hormones like adrenaline are required to obtain motivation ! An environment of trust on the other hand helps enormously in fast learning because only very few processes will run on the conscious level and the attention can be fully focused on the matter (if there is motivation) ! But what about movements for example ? We do not label these (no phonological store) and they are somehow stored very well in the long-term memory ! Well.masureel@theartificialbrain. the point of balance between fear and trust is reached and fear-values in that area are neutral. the amygdala plays an even more important role in storing information. Challenge – The artificial brain enlarged ! One of the typical properties for a play-zone is that the data will be stored consciously until a satisfying answer is present or the system no longer considers it as ‘interesting’.B. As stated before it will be the experience (multiple use) giving it a higher priority and a stable link.Page 49 of 60 . unless you somehow believe that memorizing this poem could take away the threat or buy time ! It is also good to keep in mind that fear values closer to fear have a negative effect on recalling information because at such moments the consciousness claims all attention and the actual storing and recalling of information happens on subconscious level ! The A. For diverse reasons solving ‘the problem’ might become obsolete. chances are small it will work well. The more the fear-slider is away from this neutral zone (either fear or trust). This results in a weak link and chances are high that relatively soon this will be overwritten with new data. This deserves some more explanation. meaningless and uninteresting information. at 50%. Since the play-zone is in control of solving problems and one may assume that ‘the problem’ is present in the play-zone because it is somehow important at that moment. it is necessary to keep the information until the problem is actually solved. the faster data will be stored. It is mainly this information being processed during sleep as well on a subconscious level as described before in the topic on dreaming. but as I explained already in a previous chapter. Let’s label this as the neutral zone.

model of Atkinson and Shiffrin as such works perfectly IF the input has also this ‘emergency-factor’ of the amygdala (pain-driven) ! Badly falling is to be avoided quickly without endless rehearsals ! Visualization So far we nearly touched the subject of visualization and it is well known that this helps much in better storing data. The combination of both results in what we see. it would be a piece of cake to remember all ! And yes. At first. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. both will be treated as equal but once one knows the difference is in the number of humps on the back. A word as such has no __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. if we do not process images like a digital camera does. as I state several times throughout this document. For diverse reasons this topic deserves a closer look ! According to some. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . will be composed out of existing objects allowing the brain to do what it best does : linking ! That is the reason why visualization is working so well to remember lists of words. The two main principles our vision is based upon is the simultaneous processing of ‘shapes’ and ‘colors’. the scene might be more detailed ! The above demonstrates that the ‘play-zone’ is best capable of ‘rendering’ fictive scenarios build out of shapes. Due to a malfunction in the brain this boy is capable of this and it is impressive ! But since not all is correct. once the object camel is detected. It is processed information and is one of the reasons why illusionists like David Copperfield can do their tricks ! It is also the reason why we are capable of visualization and that you most likely will not have a ‘real image’ during this visualization but rather a composition of shapes. it is rather hard to state that the brain processes 8 Megabits per second. this also indicates that we do not use images as such in the visual processing ! So.com is always required. how funny it might be. This indicates that the shape of both a camel and dromedary point to the same object. in future encounters. This allows a memory efficient way of visualization and a scenario. the visual information the human brain has to process is in the neighborhood of 8 Megabits per second. the more we repeat it. it also shows that the compositions we make are often 3D. We also have the capacity to place these shapes in an environment. something I will not cover in this document. We namely isolate shapes and like with everything in memory storage. Try it out (best done with the eyes shut) and imagine a cat on the back of a horse … … you see what I mean ! If I would ask you to imagine walking around in a shop you frequently visit. If I would move a tree in your garden from the left to the right.Page 50 of 60 . after flying over it for a short period. in most cases we are still capable of recognizing all. in detail. This indicates that instead of images we rather store scenario’s composed out of shapes ! This approach has several advantages and the main benefit is that it requires less storage ! That is also the reason why you probably wouldn’t remember half of the objects present in a room after leaving the room. but from a 30° different angle. I know the case of this young guy capable of drawing an almost perfect image of a city. Take the example of a camel and a dromedary. Only people confronted regularly with these animals will notice other differences and probably be capable of storing both shapes as separate objects. If our eyes were CCD-camera’s. Besides the fact that this would be impossible if images as such were stored. without you knowing. If a picture were stored.theartificialbrain. most likely ‘camel’. but further specifications are stored there to make the distinction between both. combined with the fact that this cannot be done after a single look. you would be surprised and have the reflex to focus your attention on the changes. this indicates that the image we think we see. The link to an Artificial Brain is the way we handle vision. the better and more accurate it will be stored and recalled. If everything is subjective. is not the actual image and that is the case. the reflex will be to look at the back to determine the number of bumps. I could agree but since that is not the case I find it a daring statement. it is comparing apples with oranges … Another argument in my defense is that when we look at a view.

causing the typical symptoms.9) and afterwards we use them in equations as pointers ! We do not need to learn every equation by heart ! The same applies to the basic operators like +. One of the theories on autism is a lack of mirror neurons. episodic buffer or other ‘brain-related’ types of memory is to be considered at that moment. but placed in a scenario it comes alive ! The basic memory-usage to deal with this ‘virtual’ scenario is rather small since it exists mainly out of pointer values. -.masureel@theartificialbrain. the two numbers can be switched and a minus-sign must be added to the result indicating that this number is negative. Game-creators are familiar with this principle … Fragmentation Pointers. This causes inferior learning possibilities and bad assessment since both require the need of linking information and data available. this could very well be the reason why autistic people have the exaggerated surprise reflex (causing fear) when for instance a bus passes in another color than usual. Primates have them and what distinct these neurons from others is the ability to fire even if oneself is not performing ‘the task’.I. Another element indirectly indicates that the above-mentioned statement of the interconnection between labeling and mirror neurons could be correct ! Both have one thing in common for sure : language related ! Mirror neurons are linked to language and the phonological loop in the model of the working memory from Baddeley and Hitch is too ! This last is nothing more or less than labeling … What types of memory are needed ? The diverse types of memory required for the A.B. and I believe it is not obligated ! In the chapter ‘The diverse forms of consciousness’. The question is if these are required to obtain our A. This meaning is actually added information somehow connected to other information and therefore the storage system should be capable of storing fragmented information in an optimized way ! For instance in a subtraction this extra info could be that if the second number is higher than the first one. according to some. the reason why women have better empathic skills then men.. /. will be dependent on the used techniques. that is the fundament of a powerful thinking system ! I mentioned it before. Challenge – The artificial brain meaning. If the labeling does not work correct.B. Therefore if the labeling system is not working properly and ‘easy linking’ like color-changes are not handled well. it is hard to link information (learn) and to recall associated information (bad linking).com . Although it takes more than just the above mentioned ‘playzone’ and data available to create these imitation processes. For humans it is almost sure that somehow language is associated with mirror neurons but research also revealed that it is gender dependent. but we first learn al 10 digits (0.The ultimate A. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.Page 51 of 60 . they will be the foundation ! The labeling system I describe in this chapter is also somehow related to mirror neurons and this could also explain some autism symptoms. Remember that surprise is equal to something-out-of-the-pattern and has a factor of expectation as well (which is also sort of pattern on top). It is normal that diverse sorts of sensory memory will be present since the processing of the sensory input itself will need memory ! The main memory will be based on the above and whether the need will rise to have a central executive. Females would have more mirror neurons than males and this is. This is one of the main reasons I am such a fan of scripting ! The extra information can be stored (or removed) well in a script and the script as such (basically a text-stream) can be stored fragmented within a binary file allowing both fast storage as retrieval ! Since the amount of data will be substantial and in order to keep all running smoothly. I prefer storage within binary files and optimize it for fragmentation ! A single file for every object or script would become unmanageable ! Mirror neurons A lot of theories exist on this topic but very few is known for sure. a space frame where all fits in and often a ‘timetable’ in which order the scenario must be executed. pointers and pointers. * ! We store little bits of information for everything we learn and add meaning to it. I describe the imitation processes and pretty much of what is dedicated to mirror neurons falls under this.

touching the back of my shoulder just slightly with one single finger. external attention is best documented since it is the easiest to obtain (relatively) objective information for.theartificialbrain. chances are high that I will be within a split second in the top of a near standing tree ! Due to the amplified senses. I will be concentrated to notify any possible signs by a bear (ears. Paranoia is therefore always a problem in concentration (amplification) often accompanied by exaggerated expectations … Suppression. others are based on the fear-trust part I earlier described in this document. Diverse dimensions of attention have been discovered like : active versus passive.B. Of course. in this example.Attention Introduction Attention is in psychology and cognitive neuroscience a very well documented and researched topic. could focus attention on something. this slight touch feels more intense than when one is in a relaxed state of mind. as the definition indicates. there is just one single way of how concentration works : amplification and suppression : • Amplification. therefore a mechanism of suppression must be present as well. So. From all the areas.com is always required. If everything would be amplified the problem would remain. it is clear to all that this would lead to a quick and unavoidable death of such a project ! Concentration In the above-mentioned definition of attention we notice ‘selective concentration’. When I look at a specific topic. it is just not possible to __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. I can just stare out the window not seeing much but a vague color and shape scene.Page 52 of 60 • . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. sight and touch). I had an expectation pattern that unsuspected input probably originated from a bear nearby as well. This causes these senses to be amplified. attention is just a consequence of concentration ! Concentration is always a way of prioritizing processes and even deliberately suppressing parts of information within one process (listening to a single voice ignoring all other ‘noises’ for instance). sneaking on me successfully. most of the time combined with the appreciation/punishment system. This leads us to the absolute necessity of different tracks per input (and this input can be both internal as external). If no isolation of the individual ‘objects’ is present. A widely accepted definition for attention is : “Attention is the cognitive process of selective concentration on one thing while ignoring the rest”. If we are unable to find a way an A. What is out of the ‘normal’ pattern can be life-threatening and for most that is an important motivator ! Since all information is subjective and is handled similar by the brain. In my humble opinion it would be better practice to focus research on concentration rather than on attention since. as illustrated earlier. internal versus external and overt versus covert. is one of these build in motivators and covers most of the passive and external dimensions (even part of covert attention). Surprise for example. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . the colors become more intense and the shapes sharper thanks to amplification (covert attention) ! If I am out during the night somewhere in an unknown forest where a bear warning is recently launched. When a friend. the main question is what is the driving force behind concentration ? The answer is motivation ! Some of the motivators are hard coded.

Another solution could be to split all at the moment of incoming. The hyperactive part could originate from this since the human body will produce adrenaline for every surprise ! The main conclusion for the A. One of the possibilities is to keep the complete incoming signal intact for the surprise mechanism and split it only afterwards. whether it is vision. for us humans. The reason I mention this here is that we also need to determine at what level the splitting in tracks need to be done.masureel@theartificialbrain. the splitting itself takes much time and resources increasing the reaction time of the system. even if they are not always correct ! It is not my favorite possibility.Page 53 of 60 .I.B.The ultimate A.B. sound or even thoughts ! It could be if somehow filters were used but even then the problem would remain. the concentration will be drawn towards ‘the surprise’. there is something we call expectation. both monitored by the surprise mechanism. therefore is that both the surprise as the concentration mechanism will need some experimenting before the right settings will be discovered and similar problems can be avoided. Problem for this is that there is no way of telling in advance how many tracks will be needed and if this gets solved somehow. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. This last remark reveals something important ! Both the surprise and attention mechanism best operate on the same level instead of making surprise the conductor of attention. If I do this. but the theoretically potential is there. As described before this mechanism is mainly based on detecting pattern changes and if somehow this mechanism sees changes in patterns that are normally not triggered. Challenge – The artificial brain amplify or suppress a single stream out of the complete stream. Assume two women speaking to you simultaneously. Another fact substantiating my call from different tracks is the need to remain aware of the other incoming information as well. The first solution has the advantage that the splitting can be done in two channels : one channel for the focus and one for all the rest. a major factor in this is a dopamine deficiency. the noise of an exploding balloon (indicating a possible threat) would simply be ignored. that will happen. If the system’s attention would be focused on a voice. It is technically possible to filter out a single voice via complex filtering and just using one track. you expect others to laugh. If you tell a joke. would be unable to spot another one maybe more threatening ! Although I did not touch this subject in the chapter on surprise. The surprise mechanism could also have a fundamental role in this. but how would the system be able at that moment to react on other input in that range since all will be filtered out as if it was not there ! In other words the system’s focus could not be changed in the same input area as long as the current focus remains. ! Even though it is believed that. something to be avoided.com . the frequency of both voices will be likely within the same range. At that moment if the above-mentioned balloon pops (something out of the normal pattern) the surprise mechanism would be triggered causing “attention” to pay full attention on this. otherwise you would be surprised (and likely embarrassed too). If the other person al the sudden starts talking significantly louder without noticeable reason (not expected). Surprise will trigger attention. but the track of attention as well as the other track must remain monitored by surprise ! ADHD for instance is pretty much concentration related and is something we need to avoid in the A. personally I consider two main system errors leading to similar behavior : • • A malfunction in the amplification mechanism causing the system to react on almost all stimuli. one will be surprised as well. This expectation actually is nothing more than a pattern as well. causing all the tracks to be monitored separately by the surprise mechanism. A system used for astronomic reasons focusing on one asteroid coming near the shuttle. so filtering will offer no real solution and lead to fragmentized sound instead of isolating the complete conversation.

On the next pages you will find the accompanying explanation.com is always required.Page 54 of 60 . The diagram N O 1 K Digi LTP M Main Data Rewarding Data Temp Via A Labeling L I 'Urgent' matter Acceptance P J Instincts H Aggression Digidala 1 G D Curiosity E F Punishment Attention 1 C Surprise Pain B A Play-Zone (Internal thoughts) Other internal thoughts Digital Cerebellum Motor output Sensory input __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Too many sub-diagrams would be needed to cover the entire concept and the functioning of each component separately and this is not in first instance the purpose. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Therefore. As you will discover. I took the freedom not to elaborate more than necessary.Appendix 1 : A sample diagram Introduction Although different schemes can be created based upon the information in this document. the complexity lies not within the amount of required components but rather in the interaction between all the components ! The diagram demonstrates all these required components and the inter-relations. The diagram is not UML or any other modeling language and therefore the shapes used in the diagram only have a pure visual purpose. one of my favorites is displayed below : The Input Diagram.theartificialbrain.

com . Since internal thoughts can contain virtually anything and only the system holds control over this. The location for the short-term memory therefore is best located within the Play-zone (B). The Play-zone (B) itself is best viewed as (part of) the working memory. Therefore both the Play-zone (B) as well as the Digital Cerebellum (A) need direct access to the Pain (C) component. It is clear that the diverse subcomponents of the Digital Cerebellum (A) might require their own memory and even internal data space to obtain a functional system. Pain (C) also will serve as new input for internal thoughts (Play-zone (B)) and most of the time for Instincts (P) as well allowing the system to react on it. it is more correct to refer to this as the short-term memory. but other senses the Artificial Brain possesses (dependent on the use of the A. The Play-zone (B) is the component handling all internal thoughts as described in the main document. Challenge – The artificial brain Explanation In every brain. The Play-zone (B) also has the ability to give direct instructions to the Digital Cerebellum (A) as well. Keep in mind that this scheme is not an exact copy of how the human brain works but a universal diagram to obtain an intelligent Artificial Brain ! The arousal information. I added a dashed line in the diagram from the Digital Cerebellum (A) to the Digidala (J) illustrating this possibility. Something I kept out of the diagram since it is not required as such. In other words.I. all senses the system will have and the steering of all movements. the main instruction is given on conscious level and the handling will be done on subconscious level. Most of the time. in the human brain for example. • Pain (C) Although it is tempting to place Pain (C) in the Digital Cerebellum (A) it is not wise to do so as described in the main document. The only rule in this is that the information (the sense) must have a fast result.B. A direct link of the outcome of the visual information for example would be impossible. Since all input comes from either one and all output will be (part of) a new thought (Play-zone (B)) or motor output (Digital Cerebellum (A)) it is okay to take both as starting points. instructs the Digital Cerebellum (A) to move to a certain point a couple of meters away that the system immediately arrives ! This will take time (lots of brain processes) and one or more senses will be used to determine if the system has reached the objective. Most of the time a single thought exists out of many parts of information and even other internal thoughts. one must also keep in mind that the diverse conscious-levels have an impact as well since they also perform parallel ! Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B) The Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B) are the starting components. artificial or not. Pain (C) also needs to increase the aggression factor (Aggression (H)) to give the system more chances in surviving.masureel@theartificialbrain. The handling of this information not only requires other components like ‘Attention’ (E) but it is also relatively slow processed. Pain can have both a physical and an emotional origin and plays an important role in motivation.Page 55 of 60 . Especially this last argument takes away the reason one would consider a sense having direct interaction with the Digidala (J) ! Nevertheless. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. has a direct input in the amygdala allowing a super-fast handling of this incoming information.B. for example the instruction to move an arm up.) might use the same principle. • The Digital Cerebellum (A) stands for all possible sensory input and motor output. It is not because an A.The ultimate A. This information needs to be stored temporarily to process the thought adequately. Although it might be tempting to see this as the ‘working memory’. a direct link to the Digidala (J) would work contra productive and is therefore best avoided. it is extremely hard to isolate a single event ! Everything is influencing one-another continuously (parallel processing and multiple input-sources) and sometimes extra input based upon the outcome of the original input in a single component arrives in another component in just a split second making the isolation even tougher ! As if that was not enough.

something to be avoided in my humble opinion ! Nevertheless. covert. Thanks to the fact that the Play-zone (B) is capable of deliberately focusing on other ‘thoughts’ (giving a higher priority of attention). In the Digital Cerebellum (A) all sensory input is handled that way (even vision or sound). Curiosity (G) Curiosity (G) does not require a link to Attention (E) because Curiosity (G) is a way of diminishing fear to allow new experiences (as explained in the main document). But to keep things simple I did not draw that link in the diagram … Attention (E) In the main document I cover this and lots of possibilities exist like active. As described in the main document. sticking with a needle causes full attention ! Surprise (F) As seen in the previous item (Pain (C)). Aggression (H) also requires a direct link to Attention for obvious reasons that the system would be unable to defend itself. I can assure you that Surprise (F) will be triggered as well ! The same applies for the Play-zone (B) where an unexpected thought or outcome will result in Surprise (F).Most people would connect the Pain (C) component to the Surprise (F) component as well and understandable : if I stick you with a needle in the butt. If I stick with a needle unexpected. Never woke up during a terrifying dream where al the sudden something extreme happened and triggered the Surprise (F) mechanism … It is also required that a link between Surprise (F) and (some sort of) short-term memory is present. It is the Playzone in charge of defining what internal processes are important and should be focused on at that moment. In order to detect changes. some neurons will be activated in that region and the value will be much higher than the ‘normal’ level. the surprise mechanism would remain triggered as long as the pain is present and that is not what is wanted ! In the diagram you can see the connection of both the Play-zone (B) and the Digital Cerebellum (A) to Surprise (F) and either one needs to trigger Surprise (F) if something is out-ofthe-pattern (like (the first reaction on) sticking with a needle).g. you will be surprised ! The pitfall is that if we would do so. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. A loud explosion automatically triggers Surprise (F) and if the complete sky all the sudden turns into another color or brightness (e. The Play-zone (B) on the other hand requires a direct input in the Attention (E) component. external or internal as base for triggering Attention (E). Keep in mind that during dreaming (pure subconscious level) one can have Surprise (F) too. a nuclear explosion). Otherwise Pain (C) would keep on triggering Attention (E) and all other incoming signals would be ignored or an overflow of the system would occur. Surprise (F) always triggers Attention (E). For the same reason no link between Surprise (F) and Curiosity (G) is present as well. Actually. only the Play-zone (B) and the Digital Cerebellum (A) can trigger the Surprise (F) mechanism. In the diagram something surprisingly pops-up : the Digital Cerebellum (A) has no direct connection to Attention ! The reason for this is that in the Digital Cerebellum (A) the primary processing of the sensory input is handled and at that level an interconnection would trigger Attention (E) to all incoming information. The reason why is that only these both components can notify a change-in-the-pattern. Pain (C) can be suppressed as it is for humans. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Attention (E) can indirectly be triggered via Pain (C) or Surprise (F). as mentioned before.com is always required. It always is Attention (E) triggering Curiosity (G) and Curiosity (G) triggering the Digidala (J) where the fear can be diminished if no other warning signals are __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. passive. also triggers Attention (E). It needs to run in the background for both conscious levels. Since both Surprise (F) and Pain (C) trigger Attention (E).Page 56 of 60 . Pain (C). overt.theartificialbrain. the only reason Surprise (F) exists is to foresee a mechanism that can run in the background and activate Attention (E) ! This last remark could be interpreted as if Surprise (F) is only operating on the subconscious level but that is incorrect. something to compare with is necessary.

The Digidala (J) is also the center of data-transfer. it is very well possible that some of these pointers refer to overwritten information and an incomplete ‘thought’ can be the result. Challenge – The artificial brain present indicating danger. Since most data exists out of some information and a number of pointers towards other information. In most input cases Attention (E) will pass the signal towards the Digidala (J) and dependent on a number of factors it will be classified as ‘Urgent’ (if the fear factor is far away from the neutral zone) and a direct link to the Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N) will be the result allowing the Digi LTP (N) to store this information immediately and forever.Page 57 of 60 . for simplicity reasons. it will be fast overwritten allowing the Data Temp (M) to remain manageable or it will go to the Digi LTP (N) for possible definite storage in the Main Data (O). Remember that isolating a single event is hard and most data exists out of diverse parts of input as explained in the topic on ‘Fragmentation’ in the main document. Labeling (L) If the incoming data somehow can be labeled. both conscious and subconscious. but later more on this. “Last used date” and “Times used” will increase and if the area is full. Nevertheless Curiosity (G) can diminish fear. no immediate and definitive store of the information is required and it will be temporarily stored in this component. This would overcomplicate the scheme and the number of interconnections would increase dramatically since the Digidala (J) then triggers. The Digi LTP (N) is the component in the digital brain © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. I deliberately did not include a link between these two components as it would requires a complete new diagram to explain the functioning of belief and the interaction of the diverse components on this. based upon a number of variables. Digidala (J) The Digidala component (J) handles everything about fear. I also did not include the retrieval part of data either where retrieved information can and will function partially or complete as input. All matter to be possibly stored or retrieved needs to pass through the Digidala (J).com . For reasons of clarity. the smart reader will see that the Data Temp (M) component is the storage part of the working memory ! Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N) Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is the process in the human brain allowing information to be stored for a real long time (multiple years up to a lifespan). depending on the diverse values of the included variables. A two-way connection between the Digidala (J) and Attention (E) exists since some information processed in the Digidala can be alerting and requiring the focus but this also will be more the case in retrieved data. It is closely connected to belief as well but the Play-zone (B) plays an even more important factor in this. Data Temp (M) If the accompanying values of the diverse variables are not high enough to instruct the Digidala (J) to consider it as ‘Urgent’. a number of components. as if it is for us humans. it will be done ! As explained in the main document labeling is the way different sorts of information can be linked together regardless their origin. this data will go directly from the Digidala (J) to Data Temp (M) without Labeling (L). This is handled in the Labeling component (L) and is well described in the main document. like certain movements. It is wise to compare this component with the hippocampus.I. Dependent on the characteristics of the information.The ultimate A. If the input is information from the Digital Cerebellum (A). data which is the least important (long time no use or low number of uses) will be overwritten. Although this is the input diagram.masureel@theartificialbrain. Therefore the link from the Digidala (J) towards Attention (E) must be included. Since it is the Digidala (J) and the Digi LTP (N) which are the main key-players in storing the data definitive in the Main Data (O). processed in the Digidala and this must be ventilated somehow and a good way is re-requesting Attention (E) this time with the ‘better’ values incorporated.

Acceptance (I) As explained in the main document Acceptance (I) has a similar purpose as Curiosity (G) : moving the fear-slider towards trust. whereas Punishment (D) requires Pain (C) or Aggression (H) as intermediates. pain. etc and the one __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. If a number of variables reaches a certain point. Notice as well that the requirement of a pre-juvenal phase (as explained in the main document) can be achieved by making the Acceptance component (I) dependent of some digi-hormone. A too small Data Temp (M) will cause the system to overwrite existing data too fast and a too small Main Data (O) will obviously lead towards a diminished learning capacity and might even cause safety and surviving problems. The input for both comes via Attention (E) (the blue colored circle labeled ‘1’) and remember that this can happen on both conscious and subconscious level ! A variable for both will determine in which degree some input will be considered as ‘with rewarding’ or ‘with punishment’. Therefore the more logical choice is to provide only the Play-zone (B) a direct link to Acceptance (I). If the “Times used” parameter is not the lowest in the Data Temp (M). Notice that minor important information used once a week for example may remain in the Data Temp (M) for many years without ever being transferred to Main Data (O) or being overwritten. Nevertheless. as explained earlier.Page 58 of 60 .allowing the same to happen.com is always required. Those variables are continuously changing dependent on a lot of actors like ambiance. the place where all definite data is stored. It is hard to prove. Acceptance (I) has a link to the Digidala (J) in order to allow modifying the fear-slider. but I wouldn’t be surprised that this is what is causing the typical rebellion behavior of teenagers … Rewarding (K) and Punishment (D) In the diagram you will see that Rewarding (K) has a direct link to the Digidala (J) and Attention (E). the information can be considered as important enough to store definitively. In this pre-juvenal phase everything is generally more accepted and once the system must start learning by itself (the juvenal phase) it is best not to accept all ‘just because’. no overwriting will occur as long as other (candidate) data is available with a lower “Times used” value. Since input from the Digital Cerebellum (A) is not completely processed yet. Punishment (D) will always result in (emotional or physical) Pain (C) and/or some sort of Aggression (H) (to react on the pain). The reason for the division in two data modules (Data Temp (M) and Main Data (O)) is to guarantee speed and safety. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. the last used parameter will be recent enough to keep it undeleted for a long time ! With this information in the back of the head it is wise to consider the temporarily character of the Data Temp with a large margin … The exact dimensions of both data containers is something that will depend on the use of the system and in order to find an optimal balance between both some experimenting will be required. it would be unwise to give this a direct link towards Acceptance (I). Since this data is used from time to time. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . aggression. only then the Data Temp component (M) may be searched. This latter transitional stage is required because Punishment (D) causes not all Pain (C) and is not the only trigger-source for Aggression (H) either. A too large Data Temp (M) or Main Data (O) has no disadvantages as such except for space requirements and a possible slower access speed.theartificialbrain. Main Data (O) The Main Data (O) module is. The data in Main Data (O) must be searched first in retrieving data and if no data is found there. as to be expected. The same principle of overwriting exists here as it does in the Data Temp module (M).

© Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. The disadvantages of the latter solution are identical to human problems related to this approach. All other important actors like Pain (C) and Aggression (H) have a direct link to the Digidala. In that way rewarding pain can lead to expanding the limits.The ultimate A. The disadvantage of this is that ‘circumstances’ (a single brain-process is inexistent) help defining these two variables allowing strange combinations to occur like sadomasochism or loving punishment ! However for the digital brain one could consider to implement a time limit for acceptance of the Digital Cerebellum (A) input in that equation. as happens in the human brain in the amygdala. which best happens centralized at subconscious level. However. In reality once the conscious level reached the gray zone. In the diagram the dotted light gray rectangle therefore contains the required components best preserved only at subconscious level. This will allow the system to be appreciated. top-sporting). …) and physical (revalidating. In the main document I mention the preferred use of scripting outside the Digital Cerebellum (A) (even partially within) and one of the advantages of this is that someone externally can (re)define new instincts after the system is up and running. In our diagram this is the link from Pain (C) to the Digidala (J).I.Page 59 of 60 . I also explain that both are identical with the exception of storing and retrieving data. this would cause such a drawback in possible future (motor skill) learning that it is to be avoided ! A better solution is to incorporate a system that blocks out the signal once a certain pain value is reached. as explained in the main document. punished and rewarded for physical movements required in learning the motor output but will no longer allow these signals once all motored skills are present. Conscious versus subconscious The main target of the subconscious level is to assist the conscious level. both psychologically (difficult theoretical matter. overcoming some emotional scarves. Challenge – The artificial brain with the higher value wins at that moment. Some extreme emotional pains can and will be blocked out … … and the possibility of “loving punishment” remains ! It is good practice to foresee a way of externally triggering both directly as well.masureel@theartificialbrain. Instincts (P) Since instincts are basically there to protect the system it is logical that the triggering component is the Digidala (J). It will be clear to all that interaction between the different processes of a single instinct might be mandatory and therefore the possibility of an “action trigger” should be included allowing fast response.com . the signal is passed over to the subconscious level.

can be created ? The answer is YES! I will even state that any intelligent creature one will ever encounter will have these fundamentals ! Dependent on the specifics of the creature. other sensory input and motor output will be present but the same fundamentals will work in the background and yes. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. respect and so many important actors I did not mention in this document ? Well.com is always required. I am not such a fan of writing and therefore everything is rather concentrated. It is best not to overcomplicate things and first learn to walk before trying to run a marathon … As you will have discovered by now. all of these are actually combinations of what is covered and often have a semantic or philosophical explanation. don’t you hate books with more paper than reasonable text ? I surely do and since I am not bound by any publisher. requiring a certain amount of words or pages. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . my excuses for that. cats.Epilog Is it really possible that based on these fundamentals a truly intelligent A.B.Page 60 of 60 . I had the opportunity to do it my way ! Special thanks go to my lovely wife and wonderful daughter who had and have to live with such a weirdo like myself ! It surely is not always easy for them … … but as weak defense. However. sheep and innocent people whom I observed during those twenty years of research to doublecheck things over and over and who gave me so much valuable input.theartificialbrain. I can officially state that it is not always easy to be me either ! I also thank the many dogs. it might be possible that more levels than just the conscious and subconscious will be present (apart from the above and collective consciousness) … What about love. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.

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