Geert Masureel (geert.masureel@theartificialbrain.

com)

Preface................................................................................................................................................. 5 It’s all about linking and comparison................................................................................................ 7 Warming Up....................................................................................................................................7 Linking, comparison and decisions............................................................................................... 7 Neural Networks............................................................................................................................. 8 Procedural or not ?........................................................................................................................... 10 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 10 Thanks time and space !...............................................................................................................10 Scripting is the answer !............................................................................................................... 11 Other advantages of scripting..................................................................................................... 11 The main protector............................................................................................................................ 13 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 13 The amygdala................................................................................................................................ 13 Emotions and feelings....................................................................................................................... 15 Some free thoughts on emotions.................................................................................................. 15 Fear................................................................................................................................................ 15 Feelings, the derivatives of fear................................................................................................... 16 Disgust and surprise..................................................................................................................... 17 Curiosity and acceptance............................................................................................................. 18 Pain................................................................................................................................................ 19 Aggression..................................................................................................................................... 19 Believe, the driving force !................................................................................................................ 21 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 21 Believe, always believe ….............................................................................................................21 The three states of believe and doubt......................................................................................... 22 The diverse forms of consciousness..................................................................................................24 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 24 Consciousness................................................................................................................................ 24 Some free thoughts..................................................................................................................... 24 Another approach towards answers............................................................................................ 25 Conscious versus subconscious.................................................................................................... 25 Self-awareness (self-conscious).................................................................................................... 27
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© Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel - Page 2 of 60

The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

Creativity, dreams, imagination and thinking........................................................................... 28 Impact on the digital brain.......................................................................................................... 29 Unexpected processes of the subconscious...................................................................................... 31 Intuition or following the own instincts...................................................................................... 31 Imitation and insight.................................................................................................................... 31 What about hormones ?.................................................................................................................... 33 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 33 Hormones...................................................................................................................................... 33 An odd question : is puberty required ?..................................................................................... 33 The impact on the digital brain................................................................................................... 34 The hormone part....................................................................................................................... 34 The pre-juvenile phase............................................................................................................... 34 The juvenile phase...................................................................................................................... 36 Deeper thoughts.................................................................................................................................37 'I think, therefore I am ...'............................................................................................................37 The buzzword 'perception'.......................................................................................................... 37 Values and ego.................................................................................................................................. 39 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 39 Relativity....................................................................................................................................... 39 Standard of values........................................................................................................................ 39 The world turns around you !..................................................................................................... 40 Self-interest, always !....................................................................................................................41 Altruism ….................................................................................................................................... 42 A number of important actors........................................................................................................... 43 Motivation..................................................................................................................................... 43 Appreciation versus punishment.................................................................................................43 Instincts......................................................................................................................................... 44 Memory.............................................................................................................................................. 45 Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 45 What about synapses ?................................................................................................................. 45 Storing information...................................................................................................................... 45 The inner voice.............................................................................................................................. 46 The principles behind belief and fear......................................................................................... 47 The ‘play-zone’............................................................................................................................. 48 The long-term memory................................................................................................................ 49
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............................................................theartificialbrain......................................................................................... 57 Main Data (O).................................................. 51 What types of memory are needed ?.................................. 57 Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N)....................................................... 56 Digidala (J)............................................ 52 Concentration.....................................................................................................51 Attention..........................com is always required................................................ style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Introduction............................................................................... 55 Surprise (F)................................................................................................................51 Mirror neurons............................................................. 58 Rewarding (K) and Punishment (D)............................................. 54 The diagram....................... 54 Explanation.......................................... 59 Epilog.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55 Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B).................. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Introduction..................................................... 59 Conscious versus subconscious.......................... 58 Instincts (P)...................Page 4 of 60 ............................................................................................................................... 57 Data Temp (M).......... 56 Curiosity (G).58 Acceptance (I)............................................ 50 Fragmentation....................................................................Visualization.................................................... 57 Labeling (L)........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Attention (E)............................................................. 55 Pain (C).................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Appendix 1 : A sample diagram..........................

Also in this area I personally have the feeling a lot is known (and sometimes made extremely complicated) but the pieces not always fall together and that is a shame since most people could (in)directly benefit from this … What needed to be done was to find out how our thinking process works.I. but if developed in an experienced team it should be very well possible to have a fully functional artificial brain within a reasonable timeframe !!!! A side effect of my research is the fundamental wisdoms I discovered directly applicable in the field of human interest like psychology. motivation and feelings © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.B. At a certain moment it became almost unbearable and I realized I needed to find a way to figure out how 'the others' were thinking. After all..Page 5 of 60 . Keep in mind that it is a summary of the path I had to follow for over more than 20 years. fear. . but didn't find real answers. better manageable and cheaper.. First I started reading the classical psychology books. Some major companies invest heavily in artificial neurons or even build microchips by cutting tiny slices of both human and non-human brain-parts and measuring the electric charge present at that moment in the hope to achieve a major breakthrough in creating an artificial brain ! The key question remains if this is the road to success and personally I am not really convinced it is ! The available processing power of computer systems (even with multiple processors per system) these days is so immense and thanks to networks. or C. And although I try to explain everything in a simple way (with real life examples). I struggled with the fact that everybody else was so different in mindset than I was (at that moment I hadn't figured out that it was me who was the odd man out). It covers most fundamentals needed in developing an artificial brain. this capacity can be adjusted till virtually unlimited ! Of course.com .I.I. but all main parts are described as well as why they are required to obtain a fully functional Artificial Brain. Challenge – The artificial brain Preface A lot of research has already been done in the field of A. something is missing (as a matter of fact a lot is missing) to go from that one point to an actual self learning system capable of real thinking in 'new' fields (like we do)..) ! Why ? A wrong approach in the way of looking at this challenge is the answer ! Imitating brain functions (like neural networks or even some emotions) help us in a lot of domains where a simple form of intelligence is needed. but when looking closer no major breakthrough has yet been accomplished in creating an Artificial Brain (A. But instead of overcomplicating things by imitating the brain to the letter.. No.B. It is quite heavy stuff and I would be surprised if anyone is capable to fully understand in-depth at the first reading.. and Mensa Belgium Member since then). at the age of 27. it is not only simpler. How to implement this is not always covered since that is not the primary goal of this writing. and who am I to argue such wisdom ! This document is primary written as a theoretical guide in creating an A. At the age of 17 I discovered the personal computer and instantly I knew we would be best friends for life ! It didn't take long to see the similarities in the working of the brain and the way a computer operates and at the age of 22 I had a first (primitive) scheme how it could work. How I came to the knowledge in this document ? At the age of 14. you will find a fully explained input diagram in Appendix 1. I took a complete different approach and as you will discover in this document. As bonus. I needed to dig deeper and at that moment my actual search truly began. Forget for a moment all you've ever learned about the brain (psychological and physical) and follow me in this journey. a long time before I discovered being high gifted (in 1997.. don't be discouraged if it takes several readings to get a total overview of the picture .The ultimate A. wasn't it John Nash (Nobel prize winner in Economics in 1994) who once stated that existing information always leads you away from being creative in finding true answers .. but there were so many necessary missing links like emotions.masureel@theartificialbrain. appreciation. Different fields of expertise are mixed constantly.. but as some experts in neural networks have discovered by now. computer systems are not the best host for gigantic parallel multitasking as required for supercomplex neural networks like brain imitations where this capacity is the primary necessity.

style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .masureel@theartificialbrain. but not simpler” ! So not a single item can be deleted out of this design if the target is a true working ánd autonomous digital brain.com __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. It took almost another ten years to see full clarity and a couple of years afterwards to overcome the last obstacles.that I decided to make it my primary target to exactly figure out how our thinking process works.theartificialbrain. I use the elementary rule Einstein mentioned once : “You should make everything as simple as possible.com is always required. Have fun and not only discover that an artificial brain is very well possible but learn as well how You and everyone else is thinking . Geert Masureel geert. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.Page 6 of 60 . In every design I make...

So this should not be a surprise for those familiar with the working of neurons or neural networks … Good to know ! Some believe that the differences in both hemispheres of the human brain are the result of limited neurons available in the brain and therefore specific tasks are dedicated to specific parts. song. . When we learn to walk or bicycle.The ultimate A. thanks to linking and comparison. but not always. In most cases new experiences will change this point of reference. all of these processes are conducted by the brain. As human.and smell receptors is less common known. a decision will be taken to duck. like how the brain steers the ratio saliva (chemically a base) versus the amount of gastric juice (chemically an acid) via the taste. Since none of us is born with a list of calibration. preferably but not necessarily to something we already know. In this document I use human behavior as a starting point to discover the way the thinking process functions and it is of the utmost importance to keep in mind that the object 'human' is far more complicated than what I state here. This brings us to an essential issue. make the sound of a cow or even when You smell a cow cake You just stepped in.or reference points. primal experiences are used as initial reference points.) as long as there is a possibility to compare and link. as long as there is the possibility to compare and link. It is also the reason why a person with a malfunction in one of the five senses will have no problem in optimizing one of the others to overcome this. the impact will be nearer and viceversa.' when something new is on the market or happens to us. when I use the sentence ‘everything in the brain is about comparison and linking’. A soldier at the front will weight out the impact place of an incoming grenade by the whistling. that looks (a little) like . in fact I mean that in all these separate brain-parts the same principle of comparing and linking is applicable. Never wondered why we often say or think 'Hé.com . The decisions we took were the small corrections to obtain the balance. seeing and hearing). without being symmetrical or even logical … Because one of the main features of the thinking process is comparison.. Few people will doubt this.I...masureel@theartificialbrain.. we are limited to our five senses (smell. lifting an arm. linking and thanks to both also taking decisions.. listening to some music or watching an exciting movie. . but the thinking process is perfectly capable of interpreting other 'sensors'. Challenge – The artificial brain It’s all about linking and comparison Warming Up Stretching your legs. Keep this in mind ! Not all parts in the (human) brain communicate directly with each other and disconnections in the interconnected brainparts (lesions) mostly result in severe malfunctions. sense. book. run away or to crouch lower. If the sound is louder than the previous time. Humans need to have the ability to reproduce. taste. there must be a point of reference or calibration. It could be a new perfume. there is no way of comparing. feeling. The brain exists out of neurons and linking and comparison is basically what most neurons do.Page 7 of 60 . regenerate. concludes the next incoming grenade could be very well right on top of him. we compare the visual information combined with the data provided by the organs of balance from previous times (falling) until we reach that point of true balance. taste or even piece of art. comparison and decisions Everything in the brain is about comparison. If one does not know how long a meter is or how heavy one kilogram is. Some behavior is partially or completely triggered or influenced by these needs and therefore it is crucial to eliminate these factors or even discover the necessity of such a 'need' to obtain a functioning 'brain'. All organic brains (human and non-human) are pretty well defined and leave almost no room for error in the blueprint ! Therefore. eat. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. for the thinking process it even doesn't matter where the base signal originates (smell. The moment 'our veteran'. Linking.. That's why You think the same when I show a picture of a cow. Actually. But if we look at some processes running in the background.

And even if we would be able to duplicate the brain. if no special (expensive) equipment is available (electronic imitations of physical neurons allowing parallel handling). But. not everything about neural networks is bad ! So let’s look a little closer at neurons and where they might be useful in our digi-brain. By combining some neurons it is possible to create a simple ‘if … then’ statement. maybe (2). compare this with the current available digital versions (neural networks) and optimize them for the use in a digital brain.com is always required. neurons are capable of pattern-recognition. not likely (1). If on the other hand the algorithm concludes that the nearest table value is too far (too many errors). If the input is ‘far away’ from the ‘predefined’ values. That is in most cases what they do. I am no longer a believer that it is the right way to create a highly flexible intelligent digital brain. the amount of parallel processing is limited to the number of processors and separate threats supported by the operating system and programming language on the ‘PC’. And this is exactly what needs to be done to optimize the neuron to function on a system with less parallel but more processing capabilities (like PC’s). as explained later. how would it be possible in short-term and with limited resources to adapt certain aspects without opening Pandora’s box ? Although I followed the road of neural networks for a small period of time. A balance therefore is necessary between the output values and the hardware available. It is better to understand the principles behind the organic neurons. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. By just adding this one state we actually make from this single neuron a high performing piece of decision ! Of course it is very well possible to generate other output sequences like true (4). This could be described as a classical true/false statement. reliability. rather a side effect of the amount of neurons present in the human brain. A good example is that if a certain input (dendrites) will be compared to the internal table (nucleus) and if the value is near or equal to an earlier correct line in the table.Page 8 of 60 . the axon value should be false or 0. Another important advantage of the digital neuron is that we are not limited to a true/false state of the axon firing (it fires or not). In general. preferable on a standard computing system like a PC and only there where really needed. It’s very well possible to give extra values to the output of the axon since dendrites are capable of handling non true/false statements. but why overcomplicating things if simplification (more reliable and less neurons) is possible ! The basic conclusion here is that the more possible output we generate the larger the logical table of the connected neurons will be and the more processing power and memory space will be used. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . nothing __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. The principle behind a neuron is that when the input (via dendrites) is near or equal to a predefined value (obtained through the learning process in the nucleus) it fires via the axon. the PC has the benefit of low cost. the axon-value should be true or 1. Nevertheless. false (0). Organic neurons work in an analog way and have the advantage of parallel processing resulting in an extremely fast ‘process-execution’. the axon does not fire. These examples can easily be achieved by combining some neurons as well.Neural Networks Neural networks imitate the way neurons actually work in our brain and are a good example of how the comparison part could be solved. In case the internal algorithm concludes that there are many reasons to give it a true. a PC is in the disadvantage at first glance. likely (3). a digital neuron must not be the exact equivalent of the organic one ! A physical neuron has evolved during million of years and fulfills the needs for animals and humans whereas the ability to learn theoretical and abstract matter in case of humans is. processing power and availability ! Furthermore. but grounds are present to doubt about this (more and further errors) a state of ‘maybe’ (value 2) should be present.theartificialbrain. even 200 million in the case of the corpus callosum) is just a tiny too much to get control over. But there is one little problem … … copying the human brain is simply too complex ! The number of axon-connections (we often talk about sky-scraping numbers. Since many neurons are generally used simultaneously in ‘brain processing’. All sorts of output can be generated and might be useful in separate parts of the digital brain. A digital version is per definition digital and.

but the outcome would be perfect input for the neural network of smelling ! Two conditions must be fulfilled in replacing the neural network structure and these are : • • Interaction must still be possible.and input of the neurons or other techniques must be able of ‘communicating’ with each other or whatever modus operandi would be used. processing of language and music.masureel@theartificialbrain. to more specific areas outside the digital cerebellum. A clear and logical design leaving few room for errors and side-effects ! The focus of this chapter was on illustrating that other possibilities than only neurons would work better.com . this is what we refer to as intuition or following your instincts … Personally I would state that for the digi-brain.The ultimate A. Just the same way as neural networks are presently used in prediction software in the financial world.I. but is rather limited in fields of use. Flexibility. A sort of universal interface if you prefer it in programmer’s words. Using math expressions to bounce a bal on a tennis racket is nice. always ! A mathematical equation is just a discovered pattern. It is also the reason why so many checklists exists and are frequently used. The out. Nature does not need physics to survive.Page 9 of 60 . It would take a complete other expression or set of expressions to let the same hand juggle ! So predefined expressions are to be avoided ! A typical example of why it is not good practice to copy the human brain structure as such is that not everything is always as logical as could be ! Dyslexia is one fine example of this ! Dyslexic children performing balancing exercises frequently helps enormously because the same brain environment is used for both ! That is why for instance I would extract some side functions from the human cerebellum. ear adjustments to optimize the hearing. etc would of course reside within the cerebellum.or visual (OCR) recognition in current neural networks already make use of this capacity. but criticizing without offering solutions is cheap ! The next chapter therefore provides the answer … © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. sense of hearing and even smell. As will be described later in this document. A very low level process such as attention deserves an own space outside the cerebellum ! The motor function of these features like moving lips. Challenge – The artificial brain more or less. Speech. And pattern recognition is also what the brain does. A checklist is nothing more than a pattern and someone recurrently using the same checklist will just need a glimpse of the checklist to see what is missing (in the executed pattern). but via mathematical expressions we call physical laws we see patterns in nature and are even able of predicting certain events. In this last case better and more precise electronic techniques exist. There is one big “BUT” in this equation : fifty percent of the neurons present in the human brain is situated in the cerebellum and that is a stunning 50 billion neurons and even a multiplicity of synapses ! Therefore I would split this in manageable units all with a single function and where feasible applying other techniques to overcome this. like attention. It might even be best only to use neural networks for those parts where pattern recognition is the only real answer like sight. Like the cerebellum in vertebrates the main focus of this digital cerebellum would be on sensory perception and motor output. a neural network future is present for the digital cerebellum. The system must remain flexible enough to adapt future ‘experiences’ to the existing data and expand the area of use.

__________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. If (Hand is Left of Glass) then Move_Hand_A_Little_To_The_Right. If the execution of the separate steps of the sequence is done in a parallel or serial way is actually of no importance as long as there is a sequence in the main steps. balance on leg A.com is always required. Thanks time and space ! Quantum computers can simultaneously handle vast amounts of processes in literally no time. then step z. If (Hand is Higher then Glass) then Move_Hand_Down_A_Little. However to have a procedural way of operating. then step b. but the human brain is not a quantum computer ! The human specie is optimized for living in its habitat (earth) and over here time and space do exist ! This explains why all physical actions are sequential by nature. So instead of focusing on how the system functions let’s try to find out if the human thinking can be seen as procedural. some sort of sequence is required. End. find a stable balance. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. It can even be that my glass is on a table 5 meter away and I need to walk to the table first before I can even start reaching for the glass. First step a. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . This walking also is procedural and lets put all in a nice procedure to illustrate my point : (Step A) While not Table_Is_Reached do begin lift up leg A. then step c. (Step B) While not Hand_Is_Open_Complete do Begin Open_Hand_A_Litlle_More. (Step C) While not Glass_Is_Reached do Begin If (Hand is Lower then Glass) then Move_Hand_Up_A_Little.theartificialbrain. That is the general idea behind procedural behavior.Page 10 of 60 . …. End. repeat this complete procedure for leg B End. If I want to grab my glass of water I must first move my hand towards the glass no matter where my hand is ! This ‘moving towards’ can be done in different ways and can depend on external factors like ‘both arms in plaster’ (causing non standard ways of moving towards the glass). as discussed before.Procedural or not ? Introduction The way the human brain works is not serial but parallel based. If (Hand is Right of Glass) then Move_Hand_A_Little_To_The_Left. place it in front of leg B.

B. engine. Therefore it might be better to name this behavior “interactive procedural behavior” ! Also the way we ‘think’ is interactive procedural. reading and understanding a book or … … Try to find one thought that is otherwise. preparing a speech in the head. This requires parallel processing. it is advisable to allow simultaneously processing of diverse steps in a procedure to speed up and smoothen the execution. to be more specific interactive procedural. one would just fall down ! However. fear. One procedure must be able of controlling another and influencing it in diverse ways.I. I could start ‘Step B’ (the opening of the hand) a little before I reach the table and I even could start moving the hand towards the glass (Step C) at that same time. Whether it is canceling. the current way of scripting is not capable of processing all to obtain full interactive procedural level. See it as a sort of checklist with steps to take in an interactive way and not necessary sequential. Where is the procedure here ? The procedure can be considered as a list of thinks ‘to do’ before reaching the end point (in this case grabbing the glass) BUT the items in the list not necessary need execution in chronological way. Other advantages of scripting Hereunder you can find some additional benefits of scripting : • Exceptions are handled better. but understandable for all and I can get a lot of information out of it ! For instance we know the brain is capable of parallel processing but in ‘Step A’ in the example (the moving of the legs) it would be very unwise to parallel start this process for both legs A and B. but can be achieved by modern computers as well and is not exclusive for the human brain ! However. Further in this document you will discover levels (like conscious and subconscious) and required parameters (like hormones. the standard behavior is pretty straight forward and easy definable but ‘the exceptions to the rule’ can often © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. you always will have a number of steps in any thinking process. End. In the above example I could first open my hand even before I start walking towards the table and it is not impossible to even raise the hand towards ‘a good position’ also before starting to walk. Challenge – The artificial brain (Step D) While (Pressure_on_the_glass > This_Pressure_Would_Squeeze_the_glass) and (Pressure_on_the_glass <= At_This_Pressure_The_Glass_will_not_Slip_out_Of_The_Hand) do Begin Close_Hand_A_Little_More. this ‘overlapping’ is also a reason to doubt whether the thinking process is procedural or not.The ultimate A. whether it is being creative (most likely messing around with procedures). belief. you won’t ! Of course some thoughts can happen simultaneously or even interact and that leads us to the final conclusion.masureel@theartificialbrain. technically not required. It is a rather simplistic example. adding information or modifying variables to mention a few options. …) to implement this in the ‘self thinking area’. Although it is for an A. it might be a good idea to overlap the separate processes in order to advance things. It looks like the different steps as such are procedural but the execution of the diverse steps not always is. Conclusion : All in the human brain can be considered procedural.Page 11 of 60 . but this is rather a technical issue in how to design the scripting language.com . interpreter and the higher operational systems. In a lot of neuron and non neuron ‘thinking’. Scripting is the answer ! The above demonstrates that all can be considered as (interactive) procedural and on computer systems we already have a technique capable of performing this : scripting ! Nonetheless.

Some basic instincts are required in order to let the system survive or even live. Thanks to the scripting approach it is possible to make ‘objects’ a little stretchable and extra information regarding this ‘object’ can easily be added and used afterwards. Safety versus flexibility versus complexity. Another tremendous advantage of scripting is that a simple pc is capable of running through scripts extremely fast (if there is an optimized interpreter). lots of ‘illogical linking’ happens at diverse levels of brain processing I can not stress enough to avoid the possibility of commands overruling safety procedures ! This could and will lead towards serious threats for mankind ! What commands should be present and how exactly to implement depends on the requirements of the digital brain and needs to be digged out deeper when this challenge comes in a later stadium. This scripting of course implies a scripting language. Since this scripting (combined with neural networks) will happen on a very low level of the digital brain and. allowing compacter “neurons”.com is always required. This means less parallel processing is required in comparison to neurons and the result essentially is the same or even better ! Most operating systems and programming languages support multithreading.• • • • • • be hard to ‘include’. Scripting has the advantage that all rules can be defined easily and even the exceptions fit in the picture. These scripts can be written in the same language as all other scripts and no additional programming is required to implement these instincts.Page 12 of 60 . __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Instincts. Safety. as clarified later in this document. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. so we have a better control over how the system ‘thinks’ and it is even possible to make changes to certain scripts if required. The trick is to find a balance between enough commands to comprehend all needed and avoiding commands capable of overruling certain safety rules implemented. A script is easy to modify and it is uncomplicated to allow the system to alter or create new types of base scripts without extra hard coding new ‘types’ or ‘object’.theartificialbrain. Scripts can easily be viewed and understood by us humans. Easy modifiable. which is of course necessary (remember : interactive procedural behavior !) and thanks to computer networks it is also possible to spread the load over diverse computers what will be unavoidable if visual and audio information need to be processed too. so multiple processes can be handled. Extra information.

On what base will the system do one thing and the other not ? It is impossible to do everything at once and on the other hand. but this time there is somebody near to prevent the burning of the hand. no artificial brain is yet available. If not all humans would laugh the same way or use sticking out the thong in case of a ‘bah’ experience. Sometimes instincts are mixed with the term reflexes and that is alright. Fantastic. at this moment.masureel@theartificialbrain. As mentioned in a previous part.The ultimate A. This small part is our first line of defense and some name it the center of fear or emotional center and is an element of the limbic system. it would simply take too long to process all the information in a normal way.Page 13 of 60 . confusion would arise with possible (deadly) conflicts as a result. the hand will be pulled back automatically. it is released to the other parts in the brain for further processing. caused by this action. jumps out of his chair en strongly pulls the hand of the little child away from the stove. the hand would have been burned again. This last part needs a little further explanation. will have the same effect as if the hand would have been burned effectively and an obvious link is added in the amygdala not to touch the stove. cardiomuscular contractions. Challenge – The artificial brain The main protector Introduction The last 25 years can be characterized as a sequence of innovations in the field of computer technology. motivation and motivation … The amygdala In the brain of complex vertebrates resides the amygdala (in humans. The next time the child recognizes a source of heat with its little hand. sweating. it would limit the system enormously if all needs to be predefined and ‘hard coded’ ! On what base will the system conclude that something might be useful and another thing is not important or obsolete ? In other words why would a system prefer mathematics over literature or otherwise ? Motivation. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Although the amygdala exists out of several independent functional cores (connected to the central core). Before the child would have 'understood' that the stove is too hot. attention. All predefined and necessary from the start of the organism to survive or to facilitate the social integration. as long as you keep in mind that instincts are never Pavlovian reflexes ! Fine examples of instincts or reflexes are the surviving. Simply stated (but not entirely correct). an almond shaped part in the brain near each ear).and sucking (for babies) reflexes or breathing. yawn or even smiling. Nevertheless an artificial brain was impossible due to the lack of digital surrogates for typical ‘human’ properties like fear. … … both the absence of what they really are and especially how to implement them in a digital environment are the key factors in why. without burning and without hesitating ! The amygdala is our first line of defense and it works extremely fast. An instinct is a predefined type of action (in the broadest sense of the word). love. A lot of our so-called instincts originate there (see side frame for extra info). the burning of the hand (a clear negative experience which is even threatening) will be stored via the amygdala. isn't it ! Unfortunately the coin has two sides. it is not necessary to cover them in depth here. emotions. If no one is in the neighborhood to prevent this from happening. How can a system be self-adapting and self-learning ? That is the basic question and therefore it is imperative to look closer at concepts like fear or emotions as something we call motivation (explained later in this document) is dependent on this. A typical example is a small child who wants to place his hand on a hot surface like a burning stove. something one (animal or human) is born with. The same applies to the amygdala and that is a different story ! Let’s take again our example of our little child.com . only the principle is. The adult suddenly notices that the child is about to burn its hand and starts to shout at the child. Keep this in mind ! A Pavlovian-reflex (described further in this chapter) is not the same as an instinct. In the above example of the burning hand of the little child. The blanching of this.I. it is absolutely of no importance for the thinking process where the input comes from as long as it can link (and compare). every signal on its way to be processed in the brain passes first through the amygdala and if approved.

This displays the low level the amygdala is working on … No matter how old we are.Once again. life threatening situations wouldn’t be stored immediately and permanently and therefore the future of the species would be in great danger ! It is always good practice to keep in mind that not so long ago there where more threatening than non-threatening situations humans had to face. This is not a scientific fact as such and no complete clearance is present at this moment on this topic since this only applies to male species and not in all cases has this been observed. What motivation exactly is for the brain is at this moment not relevant and will be covered in depth later on. . must have at least 99 percent of impact on storage of data ! If this was not the case. for the child both situations are identical and a link will be stored in the amygdala. the principle of an amygdala is mandatory and will be essential for a digital brain as well. The current situation of diverse tens of years of (almost) peace worldwide is unique and encouraging but absolutely not representative in the search of the brain functioning ! It is rather the result of economical principles and regions in conflict mostly are economically important or absolutely not (with the unfortunate result of no or very limited external interference of other nations). How many sisters have not a panic fear for spiders because their lovely brother found it amusing to chase dear sister with a spider in the hand or simply throwing the spider in the hair. a decrease of 30 percent of the amygdala occurs. Since one of the basic functions of the brain is linking (conscious or subconscious).Page 14 of 60 . Before. Fear.. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Nature is hard and hostile territory and offers more hostility than friendliness. furiously leaves the home to move in again with her mother . After castration. in this case that's true. A lot of people are also familiar with the knowledge that castrated tomcats and he-dogs in a lot of cases become less aggressive. This indicates that sexuality could be an important motivator. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .theartificialbrain. Which is as such not so surprisingly ! One may never forget that it is only recently in human history that theoretical matter is of such meaning.. To avoid a complete overflow of the brain. only surviving and reproduction was important.. the amygdala keeps playing an important role in our life. after a domestic quarrel.. who. less active and often even lazy. For now the conclusion that motivation and the amygdala are apparently connected to each other is sufficient. How many people aren't extremely afraid to drive again after a severe car crash. it is quite predictable that all these innocent incidents will have a reflection in other aspects in the daily life and often where one would not expect it ! The amygdala is also of great significance in saving data in the long-term memory.com is always required.. As discussed later on. Now imagine there is no stove near but in this case the child is playing with its building blocks and the adult shouting and strongly pulling the kid away from his toys is his mother. a selection of what to process and what to drop is needed and this selection always originates from motivation. fantastic because this is what we wanted to achieve ! Indeed. Some other amygdala related functions are aggression and most likely reproduction too. and that is where the amygdala stands for. . I can assure You that this kid will no longer play much with the building blocks in the future and that was not the purpose ! The previous example perfectly demonstrates that although there are two different ways of input sensory (the burning of the hand) and shock (yelling) the outcome is the same..

an A.masureel@theartificialbrain. Someone full of trust is not cautious at all and will often do stupid things. it is of the utmost importance that fear exists. Thanks to our capacity to physically display certain feelings (that is what emotions stand for. can work perfectly without the existence of emotions ! Feelings on the other hand are obligated and the rest of this chapter is dedicated to this subject. pet a lion in the zoo or even tell your boss what you really think of him or her ! Caution is also a form of fear.B. Someone crying will need some comforting. even professional ones.The ultimate A. someone with absolute fear (not-trust) will collapse and display unpredictable behavior. It is more and more accepted that emotions and feelings are different things and that feelings are the subjective experience of an emotion. I prefer the description of Robert Masters stating that emotion is psychosocially constructed. it is wise to keep in mind that emotions (remember : the physical expression of feelings) could come in handy to better understand the thoughts and feelings of the A. In conjunction to the A. ‘A subjective expression of an emotion’ is not so well chosen therefore and furthermore it implies that feelings are the result of emotions and that is not the case … Another commonly used approach is the ABC method to define emotions. Since most people. Personally.com . others can better react. it will work confusing otherwise … Fear It would be simply impossible to talk about feelings without first touching 'fear'. Know that.B. an emotion actually needs a physical expression and then forget it. I would like to emphasize that everything in the brain is subjective (discussed later on).. That is the main reason why new things frighten us and after a while the fear most of the time weakens. as earlier described. The main question is why emotions (not feelings) are so important ? The answer is interaction. in the future of this document I will often use the term ‘emotions’ to make things a little easier to understand and more readable. It is the balance between fear and its opponent trust. feelings and fear are. Primarily. Someone with an angry face will be recognized allover the world as someone to avoid. If we are unable to link something we get afraid.B. An important conclusion here is that not trust but caution (combination fear and trust) creates most chances in surviving. our main protector ! Without fear you would cross roads without checking. It is also the reason why faith is so important and © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Simply because 100 percent trust is the same as the lack of fear (not-fear) ! Ask people who are credulous and have a little too much faith in other people. it is of utmost importance to exactly figure out what emotions. at that moment. mix the terms emotions and feelings constantly referring to feelings.I. Challenge – The artificial brain Emotions and feelings Some free thoughts on emotions In order to see full clarity in the principles behind the amygdala (actually the complete limbic system). but they are optional ! Yes.Page 15 of 60 . etc. it is. A good parent will notice the small (or expressive) changes in a child’s face or voice and will be able to relieve the burden of the child. Time after time they get a smack in the face ! On the other hand. nothing more or less). In order to survive.B. technically to be correct. It helps social (non-verbal) communication and it comes in handy when raising children. What is for sure is that there must be a feeling to have an emotion. dramatized feeling. Whether emotions are the consequences of feelings or they arise simultaneously (axons can fire to many dendrites at once) is a discussion I am not willing to perform and it is not mandatory in the case of an A.

Self respect. A second remarkable thing we detect looking a little closer is that some feelings (like generosity) are traditionally taken as a part of the character and not looked at as feelings .Page 16 of 60 . Anger is often used as an easy way to avoid rejection or psychological pain too. Notice that some feelings are actually combinations of fear or not-fear and the above list is only there for demonstrative purposes.theartificialbrain. miserliness.com is always required. Sadness and anger. Trust one is better than another. fear. Due to historical and sociological reasons men try more to suppress these feelings or often even don't know how to handle them (everything is better than being called a woes).. Self-confidence. Trust that things are the way they are 'supposed to be'. Anger. no matter what gender. Trust in the own capacities. sadness and joy are essentially sub forms of fear ! Disgust and surprise are special and will be discussed later on and curiosity and acceptance are both ways of steering the fear-trust balance (also explained later). surprise. just the possibility to link it gives a comforting feeling. Trust that 'justice' is done for oneself. Try something new (out of the pattern) and they usually become hysteric ! When looking a little closer at the primary emotions (or feelings) like for example Plutchik lists (anger. Trust one is 'good' the way he/she is right now. Fear of what other people will or would think about us. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Generosity.. a man would have had a guilt sense during hunting __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. not remarkably. Get them first before they get you ! The 'positive' feelings are. and that is correct. This surprised me and after digging even deeper I discovered something of the greatest importance in the realization of an A. so yes. The major fears and not-fears (feelings) in fact are the key modelers in one’s personality ! The good news here is that these fears can be changed. This explains why brainwashing will not work if someone is not willing to believe the ‘new information’ or this ‘new information’ is too much in conflict with other values. When you look closer. Fear something is not 'good' enough. derivatives of trust (or not-fear) :       Happiness. the derivatives of fear Every feeling is a derivative of fear. Notice that in this case a partner (person) can be an attainment for some people ! Greed. both positive and negative feelings ! Let’s start with some 'negative' samples :        Sense of guilt. One should be able to link experiences to something and whether that ‘something’ is correct or not is less important. Fear that one actually is inferior to another person. Sense of shame. as we will cover later on. Trust there is enough available.should be respected. … Feelings. Fear to lose certain attainments or attainments others achieved are not preserved for oneself. sadness. Fear that the own efforts (or the lack of) caused something that could have been avoided. Dissatisfaction.B. Envy or jealousy. curiosity and acceptance).. it is very well possible to modify or influence one’s character (both conscious and subconscious) as long as the person self is willing to cooperate in this process. Fear of deficit. Just imagine that a couple of thousand years ago. something interesting comes to the surface.. Fear (or not-fear) remains fear. Superiority sense. Sense of inferiority. you will even see that a man having less emotions (or feelings) than a woman is nothing more than a fable. . Autistic people display this even better than words can. disgust. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Satisfaction and joy. joy. Fear that one is done wrong.

The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

every time he needed to kill 'that sweet and lovely little animal' in order to survive ! Women on the other hand (in that same period) were benefiting from having 'better developed' feelings (and emotions). This was necessary to raise the children and to obtain a better social contact with other 'moms'. What we describe as empathy is nothing more or less than a (conscious or even subconscious) simulation process of the feelings the other person is going through. That is the reason why someone with few empathic abilities is always someone having problems with the own emotions or feelings (as described earlier, typical for the male gender) ... … it is hard to link if no available information is there ! These empathy equations will certainty be one of the toughest nuts to crack for military application of a digital brain. If the focus is on suppressing the own feelings, few empathic capabilities will be present. This creates cold-blooded soldiers who are willing to do the dirty work but who become a possible threat at the same time with less control over. Not to mention the possible side effects in the long run on both the own mental state as well as possible destructive behavior towards the environment caused by suppressing feelings. On the other hand, if the empathic capabilities are too well defined, the robot or whatever carrier of the A.B. will not be capable of killing … … and that is something most military commanders wouldn’t appreciate ! Two workarounds are possible. The first one is creating multipersonalities, which is of course dangerous and hard to control what personality will become the more dominant. The second option is my favorite and is something human is incapable of : adding a third ‘conscious’ level, perfectly externally controllable. This would be comparable with a soldier temporarily under hypnosis, but without the capacity of waking up out of this hypnotic state and without being conscious of what it is doing at that particular moment ! The main advantage of this approach is that the system is not aware of anything and, in worst case, it will be experienced like a bad dream. The closer a feeling resides on the side of absolute fear (zero trust), the more we tend to call it a phobia and the more chance there is a link stored in the amygdala. And no, removing the amygdala (the center of fear) does not create 'fearless people' ! Around 1960, a lot of research was done in this field and the main conclusion was that people with a disconnected amygdala lived the life of a vegetable. This may seem strange at first, but in the chapter of motivation we will cover this in depth. For now it is enough to memorize that motivation is driven by feelings and, as mentioned above, feelings are derivatives of fear ...

Disgust and surprise
As mentioned before these two basic emotions/feelings are special. Disgust is an all or nothing feeling. Either you are disgusted by something or you are not ! Being a little disgusted is not possible. It is also the only basic feeling which is not needed in order to obtain a fully working A.B.. For humans it is fundamental a protection system. Food tasting or smelling ‘bad’ or a room smelling terribly (often indicating the presence of unhealthy bacteria) will be avoided. The throw-up reflex, characterizing disgust, will protect you from eating contaminated food. It sometimes happens one saying to the other ‘You disgust me !’, but this is more a way of expressing the degree of dissatisfaction than it has to do with the feeling of disgust. No specific reflexes, typical for disgust, will be present … Surprise on the other hand is special since it can be both a positive and negative feeling. Surprise as such can be best considered as a layer between unexpected input and fear. Surprise is necessary for an A.B. since it is the way the system will be able to react to unexpected changes. We live on pattern recognition (what else do neurons) and we always expect something to happen. Most of the time this expectation will be the continuation of what was happening at that moment (the pattern). Standing on a dance floor with the music up loud, one supposes (subconsciously) the next moment the music will still be loud. If something happens to the dj’s equipment and the music all at sudden stops, one is surprised ! If I whisper during a conversation and unexpectedly raise my voice, you will be near having a heart attack ! If you come back to your hometown after 20 years and see new buildings and roads, you will be surprised ! If you meet a friend in the afternoon, you did see in the morning, with a complete different haircut (short instead of long hair), you will be surprised. The same applies to fusion cooking, the latest
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trend in haut-cuisine, if you are served a green ice-cream smelling and tasting like strawberries, you will be surprised ! The best humor is the one ending unforeseen. Surprise is one of the main ways the attention is focused on something specific (possibly threatening) ! This principle is the same for both humans and lots of animals and runs on a very low level in the brain. In the previous paragraph I stated that surprise could be both positive as negative, but this is not entirely correct. The outcome of surprise can be either condition but surprise as such is stateless. Surprise is also the driving element behind the well-known ‘fight-or-flight’ response. But what about confusion ? Is that not pretty much the same as surprise ? No ! Confusion is nothing more than opposite and conflicting information available for the brain. Nevertheless confusion is often indirectly the result of surprise. If you walk in a wood and all at the sudden a bear passes by, this will cause surprise. If two different people at that moment give conflicting information like “Drop on the ground and lay still” and “Run for your life”, there will be confusion (“which of both is accurate?”) ! So it is not truly the surprise causing the confusion but two or more conflicting data in how to react on the surprise. In the brain cause and consequence are not always easy to point out since many neurons can fire in a split second and most of the time the output becomes new input !

Curiosity and acceptance
Both “curiosity” and “acceptance” regulate fear. By nature one is afraid of new experiences and these are considered as threatening. The fear-slider will be positioned on the side of fear. If there was no mechanism to move this slider towards trust (not-fear), it would be impossible to overcome this and as a result life would be impossible ! Both humans and animals constantly are exposed to new experiences and fear alone would work contra-productive. Go near an animal not familiar with you and it will be afraid of approaching you. If you sit there long enough and are gentile to the animal, after a while it will make small moves towards you, slow and suspicious. The smallest move of your part will result in surprise and the animal will run away or at least take some steps back. Eventually the animal might overcome this first natural fear, thanks to curiosity, and see you as non-threatening. This last will especially be the case if a (food) reward is given. After a while the animal will be familiar with you (a pattern is established) and neither curiosity nor fear will still be necessary. “Acceptance” is also a fear regulator and is the main and fastest regulator towards trust. Someone accepting a certain situation will be without fear for that situation ! Religious people like Buddhists believe that there is a reason for everything. A situation causing an awful lot of fear for most people, like a violent hostage, will cause less fear for those accepting that this could be the end and especially if a positive image of an afterlife is present, like for our Buddhist friends. Forgiveness is nothing more or less than acceptance and it is the reason why victims of severe crimes able to forgive the criminal, finally are able to continue with their lives. Most feelings or emotions are, as seen before, derivatives of fear and if we take away the fear (acceptance), the emotion will no longer be a spoilsport since the emotion is simply eliminated ! “Acceptance” has another meaning as well, a more personal one ! Everybody wants to be accepted, the opposite of rejection. The reason I mention this here is because it is also important for the A.B.. This form of acceptance is a result of the punishment and rewarding system we all have. Not being accepted feels similar as doing something the wrong way (bad/punishment). A good description to make it even more understandable is that rejection (opposite of acceptance) is a sort of psychological slap in the face. Ignoring people during conversations is more or less rejecting people and can truly hurt ! The selfimage will suffer from it and anyone manipulating someone else will, consciously or subconsciously, uses this acceptance and rejection as powerful weapons, always ! Since it is impossible to have an A.B.
__________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.theartificialbrain.com is always required. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type, style and height must be easy readable !
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The ultimate A.I. Challenge – The artificial brain

without fear, rewarding- and punishment-system (motivation) the chances the A.B. will suffer from this drawback is extremely high ! It is important to understand that humans will for a long time not accept an A.B. (fear, religion, superiority feeling, …) and during the ‘education’ of the A.B. this topic must be addressed so the A.B. will be aware that they didn’t cause this ! The tutors also need to exceed this and accept and nourish the A.B. with this in mind ! I presume it is not the intention to create digital Hiltlers, Mussolinis or serial killers ! After reading this, it is obvious both regulators operate at a very low level and are mandatory in an A.B.

Pain
One surprising aspect in the list of basic emotions of Plutchik is the absence of pain. Physical pain has all ingredients to be considered as an emotion, even a basic emotion. But there is also something we refer to as emotional or psychological pain. Those reading this document are without doubt above average intelligence, it is not easy matter and my writing can hardly be compared with brilliant writers such as Shakespeare or Tom Clancy. So, if I would say, looking you straight in the eyes, that you are really stupid and have absolutely no idea of what you are reading, it will hurt you (possibly also make you angry or sad). This feeling is an emotional pain and for all clarity, it is not the result of anger or sadness as other processes raise those feelings. It would be fantastic if we could avoid these emotional pains in our A.B. since it is the cause of possible problems. The bad news is that an A.B. without these emotional pains would not be able to function in an intelligent way ! The reason for this latter conclusion is that pain is always a warning signal and results in avoiding something. If you hurt your foot, the pain will be the warning signal something is wrong and you will avoid walking on it as long as the pain remains. The same applies to emotional pain. The hurting of my fictive sentence of you being stupid will be considered as a warning signal that you may be doing something ‘wrong’ and you will avoid getting the same comments from me in the future ! Emotional pain is one of the most important motivators ! If I would keep on repeating my commentary, you would actually start avoiding me ! It will hardly surprise one that the way we handle physical and emotional pain in the brain is very similar and both make use of the same areas. This is one of the reasons self-mutilation exists. Some consider hurting and pain as ‘pleasant’ (Sado-Masochism, endorphin ‘addiction’ like in runners high) or even relieving (self-mutilation). Remember, in the brain it is all about linking and comparison ! Combine this with the ultimate goal of feeling ‘good’ and strange permutations like self-mutilation are in some cases the outcome … … this proofs once more that experiences are the most important factor in defining one’s life !

Aggression
Although aggression is not an emotion (anger is), it is wise to cover it here. If an intelligent system has no way of defending itself from external attacks, it will not live long ! One can argue with a bear but it is to be expected that the bear will not respond well on this ! In the well-known fight-or-flight reflex in either case the system will temporarily require more energy available than normal. For humans this will be a momentarily rise of adrenaline. In case the system concludes that ‘fight’ is the procedure to follow, aggression will be the result. Aggression causes the system to focus on a single thing and, dependent on the degree of aggression, it will block out the thinking system as a normal reaction since all attention is directed towards ‘the fight’. Real aggressive people often do things at that specific moment they regret later and insanity is a legal term for the point where aggression blocks out all ‘normal thinking’. Even though the first reflex might be not to implement a similar function in the A.B., it is not so wise ! Anger (as all emotions) is an important motivator. At certain moments the system must be angry at itself in order to deal with fear. It will be the anger that will lead to action and this action will allow new experiences and these can be the cause of overcoming the fear (gaining trust – believe). As explained
© Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.masureel@theartificialbrain.com - Page 19 of 60

Notice that if the point of real aggression is reached.Page 20 of 60 . chances are higher that this will have your attention for a longer period than when a minor traffic incident caused some anger.B.B. Communication can play an important factor as well since it will (in most cases) create experiences decreasing the anger value. The first one is that per certain time period. In most cases although.B. An A. implemented in a robot used for peacekeeping missions in hostile territory will require a higher level of aggression in order to defend itself than for example an A. without subconscious level and.theartificialbrain.elsewhere in this document. without loosing the benefits of getting angry. it might be wise to diminish the anger factor for the topic by a specific number.B. Attention and severity are the key players in this. the attention will (temporarily) be redrawn from the argue and the anger will decrease. as described elsewhere in this document. It is important to implement some dimming mechanisms since it is virtually impossible to create an A. it is best implemented in the A. something to be avoided ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. The time-factor will play an important role as well. if the attention is drawn to something else the anger will stop. the reflex could be to either start diminishing it automatically or forcing the system to focus on other things. This will cause the system to deal with anger in a better way than humans do ! A second good trick is if the systems ‘aggression variable’ reaches a certain value for a certain amount of time. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . the doorbell will likely even enlarge the anger and could lead towards a snapping point. Is it possible to make the system better stress-resistant than animals and humans by not using a stack approach (placing one little annoyance on top of the other (increasing the var) until the point of outburst is reached and aggression is the result) ? The answer is yes and no ! Dependent on the requirements it is possible. If your partner is cheating on you. If you are having a quarrel and someone is ringing at the door. learning theoretical matter is also a sort of experience and if the system would not have the ability to become angry it would be fully dependent on external input in order to gain trust for overcoming new experiences (except for curiosity. the subconscious level will deal with the anger too ! This will happen in a rather uncontrolled way and therefore could lead to results one prefers not to have for an A. • Some simple techniques can help in managing this for the A. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. also decreasing the value. How long will the system remain angry about a certain issue ? Two aspects are determinant in this : • The reference in the associated object in the brain will remain active until other experiences diminish the anger associated with the object. is designed on the fundamentals in this document.B. If you reflect on a specific negative experience it will still make you angry nevertheless it might have happened several years ago.B. Since aggression is hormone-driven. used for industrial purposes. which is limited in time as motivator).B. as a global variable. will be used for military reasons. ! This will turn out to be one of the main challenges if an A. The aggression factor will need to be high in order to do some ‘dirty work’ but it is the same amount of aggression required to damage the ‘own troops’.com is always required. How long will the system be angry at the moment ? Sometimes we remain angry for a minute and other times it takes hours or days to calm down. Since all in the brain is linking and comparison this will occur automatically if the A.B.

With just a little imagination it would be correct to state that science functions as an extra sense thanks to the capacity of interpreting input that is not directly noticeable to the other senses … If believe would not be the driving force behind all thinking. believe. People facing severe depression have the impression (believe) the social system (whatever that is). Believe is the determinant factor in moving the slider of fear from 0 (non-fear or trust) up to 100 percent (max fear or phobia). there was always something missing or there was a contradiction ! I simply didn't see it … Believe. the no-fear creator) that the social system can not longer be of assistance. always believe … I should have seen it sooner ! Many involved in unraveling emotions. believe that emotions express sorts of beliefs or appearances and I already knew that this was not entirely correct ! Emotions. as seen before) and frequently say that the person was feeling a lot better recently. Challenge – The artificial brain Believe.I. or even better the underlying feelings. On the other hand believe had something to do with it. I ended up with fear as the absolute basic where all the rest was build-upon and everything seemed to work fine as you can see throughout this document so far. the fear will decrease and you will cross the road ! As mentioned earlier in this document. Suicide attempts are often made to get attention in the hope (again believe) the disbelieve is not correct (a cry for help). then a serious suicide attempt with high potential of success will follow. Only at 'older' age they realize that the way they have been treated was not “right’ and the mental struggle begins.. calmer and even relaxed and looked in full control and happier … … no wonder since the fear-slider was more towards trust than fear. is not longer capable of offering help and they somehow feel rejected by this system. But how could fear be steered and what about believe ? Two items I needed to fit into my scheme and no matter how I tried. You are afraid of crossing a road blindfolded because you are afraid you will die ! So. faith (not-fear) and fear (not-faith) pretty much look the same ! In all my previous models of an A. the driving force ! Introduction It literally took me several years to overcome this one.The ultimate A. it would conflict with the statement that © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. as explained earlier. but when one accepts (remember. are axioms and this is nothing else than believe ! Nature does not need math to do what it does ! Science is our way of finding patterns for natural phenomenons and thereby sometimes being able of making predictions. but those experiences are based on subjective matter as well and what else than believe is subjective matter … Molested or abused little children only at 'older' age have severe mental problems. In this way believe provides faith (not-fear). are derivates of fear. This is the hypnotic phase we will discus later on.masureel@theartificialbrain.B.com . basis of most exact sciences.Page 21 of 60 . all at the sudden. At first glance. all pieces of the puzzle fell together ! Believe and not fear is the absolute fundament in our thinking process ! Why are you afraid of something ? Because you believe it will harm you in some way. In these cases the surrounding often is surprised (something out of the pattern. religions try to offer answers to 'difficult' questions and problems. but what ? Then. Remember that for our calibration-system first experiences work as calibration-point and children are not only impressed by 'mature' people but they believe that what is done by these people is the 'right thing' (non-fear or trust). if I can make you believe the road is clear and will remain clear for at least 24 hours. Trust that suicide would be the outcome to all problems ! Even the ground rules of mathematics. Of course experiences help in this.

I show the need of ‘trust’ for small children in order to learn and this indicates that during the pre-juvenal phase the best default state is ‘believe’. But what about doubt ? I can believe or disbelieve something and have doubts at the same time ! Does this imply that believe is rather a slider as fear is ? No ! Doubting is a process were believe is a state ! If conflicting ‘reliable’ information is available one often is forced to choose between the two or more possibilities. neutral state and disbelieve. mathematics. All these mini-routes are actually believe and I must admit that sometimes they can be strange in nature and far-fetched ! Once you believe that a certain path will not lead towards answers. the child almost certainly will end up indecisive ! Another factor is the amount of available information. With a limited amount of information one must pick routes to follow and build further on these routes resulting in a network of possibilities. the old path will be immediately reopened. not interested. no information available. it is incorporated in everything we store and I will discus the storing-topic in the chapter “Memory”. The same also applies for two believable paths conflicting with each other ! Lots of scientists have the tendency of starting new ‘far-fetched’ paths with a state of unbelief and I am sure that if they had the initial reflex of belief-until-proven-otherwise they would advance faster … … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Subjective because even respected people make mistakes ! Notice that the doubt will be more intense the higher the reliability of the diverse sources is.Page 22 of 60 . In that way I was forced of being both creative and skeptical at once. Not knowing what to believe is actually ‘doubting’. People living in the barest and worst conditions. regardless of what fields of expertise we are into (innovation. During my 20 years’ search I often faced the problem of having non or very few information on specific topics.theartificialbrain. as mentioned in the preface. in most cases. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type.com is always required. In order to make the ‘final’ decision what to believe. I wanted to exclude the amount of external influence as much as possible. In the chapter “What about hormones ?”. and the question is whether this should be the default state. belief and interpretation absolutely dominate our lives more than anything else. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . the path is dropped. exact science. etc. Evidence was there but convictions too and it took an enormous effort to overcome those … … and what else than belief is a conviction ? Notice as well that lots of scientific proof originates from the belief of a single soul and the determination to prove his/her right … … whether we like it or not. Since believe is the fundament of all. philosophy. If both father and mother argue and the child is forced to choose one opinion and no previous data is available of unreliability of either parent. sociology. Not because no information was available but because. Suicidal people give up hope and therefore they give up the believe that their life might change for the good (whatever this may be) and are willing to unplug … The three states of believe and doubt Believe essentially exists out of three states : believe. For instance if one source is a respected person (believe again) and the other is totally unknown.everything in the brain is an interpretation of facts (as discussed later). psychology. …) ! Hope is a crucial factor in the thinking process too. You believe something or you don’t or you have no opinion on that subject ! You cannot believe or disbelieve a little bit ! This neutral state can be : no opinion. sometimes do amazing things ! And hope is nothing else than the belief that there is a possibility that the circumstances will change. theology. having hope. The way we mainly interpret is indeed dependent of what we believe at that moment ! The following sample will demonstrate this perfectly : the discussion a few hundred years ago whether the earth was round or not. chances are high that the statement of the respected person will be taken as correct. But more about this in that chapter. If future information suddenly arouses the belief that with the new information the old path could lead towards answers. we will check the credibility of the source and this is not done in an objective way.

Challenge – The artificial brain this is actually what we name being open-minded and creativity flouts on this.masureel@theartificialbrain.com .The ultimate A. Doubting is also often used in sentences as a polite way of saying “I don’t believe it for a moment !” and has nothing to do with doubt as such ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.Page 23 of 60 .I.

theartificialbrain. Only in further steps where more 'special communication' is required this comes into the picture. Events out of these two areas are described as subconscious events. it is too important for an A.com is always required. an endless loop is born ! And what about dreaming ? The information the dream is based upon and the processing (internal thoughts) are both Access and the experience of the dream (ask someone waking up in sweat after a nasty dream) is Phenomenal. This last is especially correct when I would automate the learning process. it is not mandatory in this case. not only is it confusing.Page 24 of 60 . Respectively they stand for experience (P) and (the A-part) accessibility and behavior-control. the experience is the input of the dendrites and is Phenomenal and the reflection if the input comes near a predefined value (error level is low) is taking a decision and is therefore Access ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Secondly let’s not forget that sapience is always subjective inherently. Some consider the things preached by ‘respected people’ as holy and extremely sapient while others might find it very dumb. not to define it and secondly. If I create a small neural network existing out of a few neurons to recognize simple shapes.(Access) consciousness. every experience (P) is based upon decisions (A) and all decisions (A) are based upon experience (P). it is really quite simple to define the boundaries wherein the consciousness ‘resides’. Consciousness Some free thoughts Although it is a habitual wisdom that consciousness cannot be defined.B. Later on in this document I demonstrate that every input results in perception and therefore is always subjective by nature ! In other parts I will also demonstrate that other classic qualia like sapience actually relay as much on the subconsciousness (or even more sometimes) than on the consciousness. For example. Whether there is an upper consciousness or not is also something I wish to leave in the middle. I would like to break this tradition (and not from a philosophical point of view). but during dreaming the consciousness is not existent (at least not in the dreaming part) ! In order to demonstrate my main objection in following this approach. Therefore only the consciousness and subconsciousness are covered in detail in the following chapter. One of the typical qualities usually linked to the consciousness is subjectivity. This is very well possible since I can make the computer generate shapes automatically and can compare the network output with the input shape. containing no wisdom at all. The last two are mostly ways of gathering or receiving 'external information' and their role is not so important to create a standalone artificial brain.(Phenomenal) and A. upperand collective consciousness. according to the definitions there is a consciousness ?!? In the learning phase of this small network the learning as such is Access while the storing of the information is sort of experience and is Phenomenal. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Running the network in executive mode. allow me to pick a last case. First of all. but that is for later on … Traditionally the consciousness is divided in P. If one holds on to these criteria.The diverse forms of consciousness Introduction Traditionally there are four forms of consciousness : The consciousness. Once again perception. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . but also no progress can be made in the understanding of the brain. subconsciousness. As mentioned before.

the subconscious’ only purpose is to relieve the conscious. both conscious and subconscious are actually identical but operate on another level. Changing gears. In this case it is more likely that pure luck will be the cause if a crash is avoided. we notice that all input is actually experience because notwithstanding what sense or senses is or are the receptor(s) of the input. punishment and pleasure. Simply stated. I took a different approach in defining both and remarkably. while the subconscious leans more towards the executive phase. All input is experience ! If we look a little closer at experience. This indirectly indicates that concentration is energy consuming and as most species. As we will see later on. All these maneuvers are pretty complex as such (ask a rookie). turning the wheel. Conscious versus subconscious People working with artificial neural networks always need a learning. only automated processes can run in the background (subconscious).The ultimate A. The base for potential storing in the brain is always “meaning”. If in the future similar events happen. An important supposition is that the consciousness can handle fewer processes at the same time than the subconscious because conscious processes use a lot more resources in terms of memory usage and load. it is a good starting point. The consciousness analyzes fast the possible options like : will hard braking be sufficient without the car following me bumping into me or do I have to swerve left or right to avoid an accident ? Some processes like how to shift gears will still be done by the subconscious. And there is. Both gather their information (mostly) from the same sources and process this in the exact same way.000 years ago had. appreciation. Only when the vehicle right in front of 'our ace' suddenly brakes really hard. As you will discover in a few minutes. but the load is significantly lower. this will strengthen the link petit-a-petit or immediately in the brain and will often be used as input as well as in solving the ‘problem’.and executive phase for the network.Page 25 of 60 .com . the same brain as we do today. A rookie will miss the experience and reflexes causing a possible overflow of processes for the consciousness. the total number of performed tasks might even be tremendously higher. using the blinker and even brake a little from time to time. Since humans of 5. In the case of a ‘normal’ day. globally taken.I. rewarding. but a more experienced driver still has time left to listen to some music and even to pick the noose. the consciousness will demand all attention and those processes that are not important at that moment (listening to the music en picking the noose) will be killed. More than fifty percent of the time this will be done on 'automatic pilot' and the driving itself just happens without real (conscious) thinking. it will be stored. there must be a surviving function integrated. but the consciousness will possibly consider shifting back one or more gears to even attain a greater deceleration and basically give this command if needed. all at the same time ! It's obvious that these processes run in the background (via the subconscious). With just a little imagination one could state that the conscious is the learning input. it works a lot better ! The main question in this equation is why a conscious and subconscious are required ? One may not forget that we are the result of millions of years of evolution and it is obvious that only improvements last (more chances in surviving for the specie). Someone studying hard for a couple of hours will be exhausted (almost all on conscious level) while working a complete day at work in familiar matter (routine and on subconscious level) will be less fatigued or maybe even bored. Challenge – The artificial brain Another approach towards answers To facilitate this conscious-subconscious problem. since much more of these processes need to be executed by the consciousness (maybe even how to switch gears).masureel@theartificialbrain. Although this is not entirely correct (described later on). if considered important. A typical example of this is someone conducting a car. so this distinction between conscious and subconscious makes sense ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Is something important (for this person) or not ? This meaning once again is based upon chances of surviving. as described in the next chapter. It is vital to look deeper into this. The conscious’ level primary role is to maximize the surviving chances through fast detection and reacting on immediate danger. humans are energy saving creatures (more chances in surviving).

the more stable the links in this network will become and after a while something called long term potentiation will occur and the mini-network will be stored for a real long time in the long term memory (as described later). This is done using the wellknown method of 'trial and error' and is exactly the same as learning to ride the bike. it will even be virtually impossible to memorize it.9) must be learned. The first one (counter) is needed to indicate the creative system (what else is creating new patterns) which is the preferred way or path to follow. If the neuron or chain of neurons is repeated frequently (high counter value) with success. All these mini-networks (or call it procedures) can and will be used in future linking as well. like real threatening experiences. Ever tried to teach someone something he or she is not interested in ? Only if the fear (yes amygdala interference) is present that not learning this ‘uninteresting’ stuff will lead to a ‘bad’ thing. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Just look at someone learning basic mathematics to understand this. it would be good practice to keep this in mind and preserve a space where ‘neurons’ or ‘scripts’ can ‘play’ (in the future of this document I will mix these terms neuron and script but actually referring to the same). style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . Also adding a counter and last used date will be necessary. the chances in failure increase drastically (the reason why so many do not understand mathematics).Experience. will be used again in the near future. A child experiencing that bad behavior leads to attention and getting new stuff. compare them and decide if the result is correct (again the tree basic functions of the brain). The digidala (digital amygdala) will be the key-factor in which step the numbering on a particular script should be increased. walk and blow the noose or any other 'physical' activity.. In the play-area of the digital brain (a little like the frontal lobe) two things need to be done on neuron level : how many times is this neuron used in the learning process (a second counter) and the possibility to leave a certain path of neurons out of the chain. First all 10 digits (0. The brain is result based ! The more this mininetwork will be used. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. the increase should even be maximal on first experience. no other or new paths could be taken and the learning would remain very primitive without improvements or simplifications being possible since only the ‘highest’ path could be followed. like failing for an exam. That is why I am a great advocate of teaching creatively.Page 26 of 60 • . The principle I introduce here can be applied to all brain-storage. Step by step and if one of these steps is not stable. The higher the number of the diverse counters the more likely that it is the right path. how absurd this might look at first. only the outcome. and only experience is capable of transferring a process from the conscious to the subconscious level ! This is the case because only experience gives the signal that it is save to do the transfer and that the full attention of the consciousness is no longer needed to operate this process. In some cases. the procedure is ready to be stored in the long-term memory. The internal connections in such a mini-network and how many neurons are used will differ for each individual and is not important. Why ? • Well. in the broadest sense of the word. The brain is capable of creating its own mini-neural networks and if the outcome of one of these mini-networks is considered positive. simple equations will be used with those same 10 digits as input and after a while these simple equations will even be used in other more complex equations. Once this is done. In the human brain this is often referred to as Long Term Potentiation (LTP). and is not only limited to the ‘creativity center’. will for sure use the same approach in the future and become unmanageable and a real pain in the ass. Before you will have the insight in the matter. it can be safely deleted to preserve space and memory and keep the system fast.com is always required. if no way would be present to deviate from the ‘existing’ path of high counter values. The more neutral (less interesting) something is. Nevertheless. In the digital brain. you will try a lot of links. in the brain we link and this linking is done in a creative way during the learning curve. Understanding complex theoretical concepts (what we usually call education) is not different from the previous and can also be classified under the concept of experience. the lower the step has to be. Even the way emotions are handled operates mainly on experience. If a certain neuron or chain of neurons is not used for a long period of time. Bad or good experiences will have a significant higher step than ‘neutral’ experiences.theartificialbrain.

there would be the spontaneous effect of looking at the reflection as it were a stranger (no information in the brain is yet available associated with the ‘image’ of this person). never using a mirror (and not knowing what a mirror’s purpose is). personally I am a great advocate of the thought that this is a logical side effect of the human capacity to link. Self-awareness (self-conscious) All well. An interesting side conclusion of this Pavlov test is that dogs obviously also use the system of consciousness and subconscious . After a while. the topic on ego (selfishness) will be covered in depth. even when no meat was present. the slaver will stop. Pavlov was a scientist who. selfawareness not (if we are willing to accept the concept of self-awareness). In psychology the red dot on the forehead of a child and a mirror are used to demonstrate the existence of the self-awareness (the mirror-test).I..com .. especially after touching oneself. a long time ago. Let’s retell the story for those who never heard it before. would be placed in the same situation. And yes. combined with the amount of neurons available. if a red dot will be spotted on the forehead (a difference). The remarkable is that only the brain capacity (nl. Only when the dog figures out that there actually is no meat (and this can take a while and is based on hope trough experience). What Pavlov actually proved is that the above theorem of the experience transferred to the subconscious is indeed correct ! In the beginning there was the bell. it is proof of the fact that the brain is capable of complex linking. the meat and no slaver. To make a dog slaver when it actually can notice on a conscious level via vision or smell that there is no meat. which we could also describe as self-consciousness ? Although it is almost impossible to support this with enough evidence. after a while. In psychology the Pavlov-reflex is often used to demonstrate how many times we actually don’t use the consciousness but rather float on associations (links). meat was there) was sufficient. the person will discover that the reflection is not ‘real’ and that by moving the reflection moves exactly the same way. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. The linking occurred at the moment the experience of the dog (every time the bell rang. If one of these babies is hungry the crying will start.masureel@theartificialbrain. nothing more or less ! Just look around and you will find very few people who actually are self-aware and even less who are self-conscious ! Selfish yes. rang every time a bell just before he gave his dog some meat. this person will touch it and not the one on the mirror … Personally I find the red dot test rather simplistic and not real proof of self-awareness and even less of self-consciousness ! Nevertheless.Page 27 of 60 . That way more pupils will be interested in the matter and better results will follow automatically.The ultimate A. the link will be made that the other person in the mirror must be oneself ! As a result an “image” of oneself will be stored in the brain and will be used to compare with in the future. number of neurons) seems to be the decisive factor to create self-awareness … If an adult. Now let’s take the example that more than one of them is hungry and only one feeding bottle is available. the dog was slavering hearing the bell. Do you think one of the hungry babies will stop crying and spontaneously will say ‘I insist. but what about the self-awareness. Once this link is established. just think of a mother having a triplet or a maternity with multiple newborns. but to evade the statement ‘how can one be selfish if there is no self-awareness ?’. A young child whose self-awareness is not yet present will touch the red dot of the ‘child’ in the mirror. Children with sufficient self-consciousness will touch the red spot on the own forehead while looking in the mirror. There simply was no link. compare and decide. you would actually observe the same thing ! First. Challenge – The artificial brain with a vivid imagination. please feed the crying baby to my left side first please !’? I don’t think either … … so “selfishness” is inherent from the bitter start. this process must be running in the background (subconscious). self-aware no … … two different things ! Later on. This test was performed on a number of animals as well and on some like dolphins and elephants it had the same outcome as on humans. comparison and decision. After a while.

It looks pretty much like the well known 127 IP loop back address in computer networking. there is one common thing. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. This is not a nice gadget. This particular switch immediately returns the signal one has arrived. link and decide. Although most 'sleepwalkers' make spastic and incoherent movements while dreaming.com is always required. When I would ask you to close your eyes and to imagine that a large fat and deadly spider is crawling on your arm. To commit the murder. The consciousness is not active and the person is actually sleeping. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. but bitter necessity ! In a previous chapter we demonstrated that conscious processes are transferred to the subconscious part of the brain once a routine is established (experience).Page 28 of 60 .So self-awareness should not be taken in consideration in the blueprint of the artificial brain but should create itself if the digital brain is well designed and if the brain capacity is sufficient.theartificialbrain. such severe cases of sleepwalking are rather rare because in normal conditions a switch in the brain prevents physical actions (like walking or car driving) from happening. To speed up the transfer routine and to preserve the conscious for 'urgent processes' (historically more chance to survive) the subconscious uses its own capability to simulate. In this specific case precise proof was provided that this person was. This is what we refer to as dreaming. you do not waste time in actually doing so but nevertheless it will feel like real. This is without doubt the reason why someone can have a dream of only a few seconds while if in real life it would have taken hours of action. One must not forget that only very recently in the history of humans the brain has to cope with such large amounts of pure theoretical and abstract matter (education). it probably would make you shudder and maybe even raise goose bumps. dreams. But there is actually no spider ! One can hardly state that this is a Pavlovreflex since you probably have no real repetitive experience in walking around with spiders on your arms. If you dream you are going to a place. a man was acquitted of the charge of murder on his mother-in-law. from malfunctions in the brain to extensive use of amphetamines or other drugs shortly before sleeping. For example. medically seen.K. We also know that the brain is restricted in the amount of processes it can handle simultaneously. Although there are many reasons why people sleepwalk. Enough existing studies reveal that while sleeping (actually dreaming) new study material is assimilated. only two things were important : surviving and reproduction. Let’s give an example to describe this. This is only partially correct as described below. as long as it can compare. in other words the brain’s capacity is limited. Our brain does absolutely make no difference between theoretical matter or standard daily experiences. imagination and thinking A major and essential part of the working of the conscious and subconscious are without doubt the simulation processes. Before that. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . in the U. Perhaps the best proof that consciousness and subconsciousness actually are the same (but on a different level) and use the same resources to operate. it just does do ! Never had a dream or nightmare that felt pretty real when waking up ? This brings us to sleepwalkers or people with sleeping disorders. Creativity. more severe cases are known where it would be incorrect to state that all things done are essentially 'automated tasks'. It appears that the brain is perfectly capable of simulating processes. a sleepwalker. this person had to drive over 20 kilometers by car to arrive at his mother-in-law’s house and to carry out his brutal action. all while sleeping ! Fortunately.

lies) or a subconscious (dreams. imagination. Try to wake up someone in the middle of a dream (REM) and it will take severe shaking to achieve this. the lie becomes a little more subtle and less 'outer space' and is in fact largely based on 'reality'. a large cluster of neurons should be present in the foundation of the blueprint allowing simulating processes. tend to wake up and confuse all 'new knowledge'. nightmares.Page 29 of 60 . After a while.. in most cases routine (subconscious) but the processing of the visual information of the road (turn left. are exactly the same ! Driving the car is.) in order to stay on the road uses the complete visual cortex ! One would not expect this on the subconscious level.com . right.. If found acceptable. If we don't write it down immediately it's gone ! Why ? The answer is the short term memory ! Both states of consciousness use the same brain functions. but it might as well be new input for further 'thinking'. conscious or subconscious. the amount was simply too much and only partial or restricted links are stored. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. The links for the pattern. a fast internal simulation of the lie is made to check the credibility of the lie (compare). unless the consciousness and subconscious operate in exactly the same way ! Most of the time we tend to forget what we dreamt. in most cases. A lie is per definition not reality and most of the time contains truth for more than ninety percent. As we will see later on. One confuses one thing with another. two layers should be present : one for the conscious and one for the subconscious processes. but if we wake up during the dream. .. The liar usually picks an existing experience (linking) and only makes small changes to it. we are well aware what the dream was. The subconscious struggles with the same restricted capacity as the consciousness and although the subconscious did a fantastic job in linking and comparing this information (during sleep). To accomplish this. An artist who throws some paint on a canvas to get rid of it is not creative. For us humans. as described earlier.The ultimate A. Secondly. This is actually also the reason why students who love to party (a little too much) during the year and need to absorb gigantic amounts of study material the day before the exam.. as seen before.. and the short term memory is one of the only ways both 'meet' each other directly. a flash) level and in exactly the same way ! Impact on the digital brain What is the impact of all of this on our digital brain ? Well. foundation or algorithm for lying are created in this typical lying phase of the child and the results are satisfying. Creativity and thinking as such are the same (for the brain) and both work via simulation processes. All required actions to murder a mother-in-law. Even lies fall under the category of the simulation process. This is the reason why in most lies there is a reflection of about ninety percent of reality. Don't confuse this with a blackout where fear is in most cases the main cause. This demonstrates that the full attention of the brain during this phase is on the subconscious level ! Keep in mind that not all will be equal for both levels. In some cases the solution to a problem will still be available (long term memory) but only if it concerns a 'problem' you're struggling with for a 'long time' and you can make a direct link to it (for example by directly thinking on a particular matter). Sleeping a night over it is in this latter case a wise decision . this shows the correctness of the statement that the conscious and subconscious actually do the same and use the same resources. the link is simply not stable enough. They are the result of successive abstract processes (via trial and error) and the outcome is 'something'.. idea or solution popping up in the middle of the night.masureel@theartificialbrain.. Challenge – The artificial brain As mentioned before. the lie will be told (decision). The same applies to a flash. This outcome can be a theorem.I. vision or image. this is situated in the (pre)frontal lobe. His colleague who “figured out this concept” first is creative . it could be wise to integrate the storage and retrieval of data exclusively for the subconscious level. All the above indicates that simulation processes can be done in a conscious (creativity. Every child goes through a phase of lying and it is remarkable how transparent and absurd these lies are in the beginning.. so why changing . Both layers identical and capable of handling all brain functions even utilities like attention. but the differences are minor.

A possible exception might be real ‘threatening’ information.theartificialbrain.com is always required. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.Page 30 of 60 . which needs to be stored immediately. In the chapter ‘Memory’ I discuss the storage topic and other relevant information like ‘the play-zone’ in detail. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .

but one of the few moments the subconscious can directly communicate with the consciousness (in this order) as seen before (shared use of short term memory during sleep). it is more complicated due to the more complex nature of our way of living. meditation. Now that we know that intuition is not exclusively meant for emotions. agitated or excited state the consciousness demands all focus (interprets this as surviving) and pays no attention at subconscious data in the short-term memory. The result frequently doesn't show up until nighttime. the basic need for intuition is to enough experience in the specific field. These days. but can be triggered as the result of any simulation process (every possible form of processable input the brain can handle). women know better how to cope with emotions (experience) than men. linking and comparing are the two main features of a thinking process. Imitation and insight In most cases we learn new stuff by imitation. every math exercise is an imitation and a tennis tutor showing a pupil how to do a backhand will result in an imitation of that backhand. You just feel something is not right but you fail to point the exact reason.The ultimate A. Once again. You are nevertheless pretty sure. Indeed a good cop (with lots of experience) just feels when something is not right ! Thousands of years ago this 'warning signal' offered more chances in surviving and avoiding danger. In most cases this is true IF the input concerns emotions or feelings. as discussed earlier.I.masureel@theartificialbrain. at home or at work. the only conclusion can be that neither women nor men are more or less intuitive than the other gender. the subconscious is trying to make its point and this manifests itself through the feeling we call “intuition” or “following the own instinct”. but in most cases the nature of the intuition will reside in other areas.). Every child imitates the behavior of the parents. but what ? This can be a certain feeling or a new design (technical) or the expression on the face of a potential customer. Why ? Because he really would like to be the other person and by copying this behavior he moves into that direction ! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. To illustrate the fact that this behavior is not only preserved for children. If you feel your new design is missing something or is not entirely correct. Although I will not cover this subject in-depth in this document (not really necessary for an artificial brain). There is no simple way for the subconscious to communicate directly with the consciousness (only viceversa).com . the only way the subconscious can communicate directly with the consciousness is in a state of relaxation (sleeping. it is advisable to have a look at some research results done in that field. The imitation behavior in a meeting room : A junior spontaneously adapts the behavior of a senior (if respected). If mister senior crosses his legs. the answer usually won't pop up just like that. while sleeping. Earlier in this document we have seen that. This is not coincidental of course. And. No matter how hard you try.. the answer is quite simple. the short-term memory is used up fast. is because a reference (link) can be made where one can compare to.. The main reason why imitation is so powerful. as a result of historical and sociological reasons.. Secondly. Automated processes reside via the subconscious and such a feeling of “intuition” will only occur in areas in which there is not enough experience in ! In that case the subconscious is processing a simulation process and concludes something is missing (comparison). so in fully awake.Page 31 of 60 . hypnosis. Originally. ambitious junior will follow within seconds . Hence the statement that women are more intuitive than men. . the subconscious main function was to burden the consciousness and perform tasks delegated by the consciousness. Challenge – The artificial brain Unexpected processes of the subconscious Intuition or following the own instincts Everyone has had this experience.. Actually.

remember those courses in school where a reproduction of the result was possible.com is always required. It is often assumed that the mirror neurons are heavily involved in this.It often happens that. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Not always. after a while and thanks to the experience.Page 32 of 60 . A special chapter is dedicated to “mirror neurons” in this document. an insight in this field is obtained.theartificialbrain. In gaining insight. but because of the lack of knowledge this wasn’t the case. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. the basic principles (algorithm) of the specific matter become clear and make it so much easier to progress in this material or even to discover new areas.

B. from stress to depression and you will see that hormone changes are the cause or at least present. Personally I think this issue will remain unsolved … This brings up another surprising question. Somehow humans with a faster developing brain-cycle did not gain from it. ? To answer that question. both for male and female. there must be an evolutionary reason behind this. unless a genetic failure or malfunction is present. Just look at the impact of falling in love.The ultimate A.g.I.masureel@theartificialbrain. even if it conflicts with other information ! This is absolutely necessary because the amount of information to be processed in those years is not only enormous. but the main conclusion is that it will not work well if it works at all ! Something else fascinated me for a long time and I believe the answer to this question is also the answer to this topic.Page 33 of 60 . and for an A. An odd question : is puberty required ? For a long time I wondered why it takes 25 years before the human brain is fully developed.com . These diverse parts react or interact on these changes in other ways or don’t react at all. But. that’s for sure. it would just © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.000 years ago must have been something between 25 and 30 years old ! No. assume for a moment we place an artificial brain with all capacities of a mature person but without any data (experience) into a robot.B. How important is this for the digital brain and how to implement this (if necessary) ? Hormones A number of our hormones are purely there for regenerative and practical (e. When looking closer. depending on their specific function.-equation. this time hormone related : is puberty (or similar) required for the thinking process. Pre-juvenile children (till the age of approximately 8-10 years old) absorb new matter like they are in a hypnotic state. Without this capacity. Of course there is the factor of brain-growth as for all organic creatures but 25 years is an awful long time ! Especially if one takes into account that the average lifespan of humans 5. The importance of hormones in the thinking process is imperative. If those kids have a little confidence in the (mature) person in front of them. Another example is the impact of menstruation on a woman.B. I still don’t know the answer ! Partially it must have something to do with the slow pace we physically grow but at the age of 18 grow-pains are over and nevertheless it takes another 7 years before the brain reaches its ‘maturity’. the better … To be honest. but no data is present to support this ? What would be the motive to learn a certain specific item ? Because we say so !?! I could go on popping up similar questions for a long time. but on what basis would this kid be able to decide what is important and what not ! Today a lot of this stuff is theoretical but only a few hundred years ago it was mainly basic information on how to survive and interact with others in the group. Women on the other hand know that the more horny men are the less they can think clearly thanks to hormones. it always is the thinking process that both steers and receives input from these hormone changes. Challenge – The artificial brain What about hormones ? Introduction A crucial function of diverse parts of the brain is to steer hormone-balances like testosterone. Pick almost any other mood swing. ghrelin and leptin for hungry and saturated feeling) reasons and can be left out of the A. But why ? The more logical outcome would be that the sooner the brain is fully developed. one notices that hormones actually almost function as global variables and/or global events and therefore are able to influence all parts of the body (not only the brain as such). but how would it handle this emotionally ? What about the fact that it is fully capable of having a complete personality. needs to learn ? Getting used to all sensory input. Why and what would be the first thing this A. estrogen and adrenaline. they take every answer or piece of information as correct.

Which digital hormones must be present in order to achieve real intelligence ? This needs some further investigation.theartificialbrain. without being less adequate ! All organic based creators suffer from the fact that if global vars would be present as such. no special or mysterious tricks. Unless otherwise instructed at the end of the session.B. The second important factor in this combination is that the attention of the ‘pupil’ must be focused on what the tutor is teaching. whatever input at that moment could be handled as important or even an overflow of information could be the result. the number of internal connections would end up so high that there wouldn’t be room left for ‘normal’ neurons … … so. People familiar with hypnosis know that it is nothing more or less than creating a higher state of suggestibility (exactly what we need !). Whatever these guys instruct or teach at that moment is considered as holy. create an own personality based on the earlier stages. bit by bit. This implies that the conscious level remains active but on a lower pace. The temporary rising of the subconscious level is a little harder to explain. In idle moments (no tutor teaching). one is and stays fully aware of what happened during the session. just look at them as global variables or events and it will make things less complex. once the juvenile phase pops up.Page 34 of 60 . The approval or disapproval will function as correction. as it should be for most parents. It is for sure that some like adrenaline are imperative to even have a fully functional digital brain ! In the future. hormones are the ideal solution to overcome this problem for us.com is always required. This latter combination deserves some extra explanation. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. What about hormones and how would the system start its learning phase !?! The impact on the digital brain The hormone part As discussed previously. hormone changes operate like global vars or global events. combined with a temporary raise of priority of the subconscious level during that phase. If no focus of attention is present towards the tutor(s). This last point explains why even 20 year old people sometimes still act so stupid ! This whole issue is one of the main reasons I have my doubts with copying and digitizing the human brain just like this. Only at the final stage (approximately 25 years old) the concept of cause and consequences is fully mature as well. It would be good practice as well to foresee a period of ‘sleep’ to help assimilate all conscious information via the subconscious (a digi-dream phase . when I refer to (digital) hormones. but my favorite is a combination of hard coding a phase where the motivation of what to learn is fully dependant on the primal tutor(s). where these ‘hormones’ reside both as variables and events (to notify changes). As a result of this intense learning period.-)). The subconscious level on the other hand gains priority and stores the information __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . organic creatures ! The pre-juvenile phase Two important factors need to be considered : • How to create this required ‘hypnotic’ state ? Different approaches are possible. the almost complete base for the future personality will be formed in that timeframe ! Ask any parent. the priority should be to get used to and optimize all sensory input and motor output. every answer will be questioned ! At that time the individual will. It would be good practice to foresee a central space in our A.take an awful long time to obtain all crucial information upon which all later decisions will be based.

This indicates that somehow the amygdala is surpassed in storing this data. We also know that it can take weeks before certain ‘neutral’ data gets actually stored in the long-term memory and this points out that it is the task of the subconscious to actually store the data and not the conscious level. Curiosity on the other hand is the force that allows us to make small steps towards these new things. even destructive behavior.The ultimate A. This approach of accepting primal tutors is not only relatively simple to implement. humans included. if not conflicting with other ‘rules’ (again the conscious level). The third one is my absolute favorite one ! The advantage of a digital brain is that we are not restricted by capacity or available predefined space like is the case with an organic brain. it could be wise not to end this or even restrict it and as such not allow others to be of influence (no voice pattern recognition. • Who will the system accept as primal tutor(s) ? All animals. This means that the environmental conditions must be optimal to avoid distraction from the tutor.masureel@theartificialbrain. will be considered as the primal tutor. I personally have three favorites : • The system can be programmed to see the first moving or speaking “person” after primary activation as the main tutor. In the case of hypnosis no extreme emotions are usually present and the information is stored better and faster. But more on this topic in the chapter about memory. no teaching possible). Depending on the application of the A. This approach looks a little like the system the gnu uses. The system will then. Once a non-threatening situation (pattern) is being recognized. Challenge – The artificial brain more efficient than otherwise. The drawback of this approach is that only one person will be accepted as tutor at first and it will take a while before the system will accept another as equal tutor (cautiousness of the system). Another disadvantage of this approach is that whatever first thing (human or not human) drawing the attention from the system. have the reflex of being cautious for new things (more chances in surviving). the fear-slider at that moment (and for that process only) should be near to no-fear and full attention should be provided to this tutor. So why not creating an extra space where the voice pattern of the primal tutors can be stored before first activation. In most cases there should be a time limitation for this since the system otherwise doesn’t has the capacity to learn from others than the initial tutors. The problem here is that the system must have time enough to establish a recognition pattern towards the tutors and at the same time will start learning all sensory input and motor output.Page 35 of 60 . a two-day “isolation” period to allow the calf to become familiar with the mother. Otherwise a bypassing fly or a screensaver in action could be considered as primal tutors by the system and I assume that is not the objective … The fear-slider (as explained later) can be placed at no-fear (absolute trust) for a small period of time (a couple of days) at first activation of the system. one (animal or person) is trustier and accepts it better. temporarily.I. Although several possibilities exist to make the system pick someone as the primal tutor(s) without having the normal time consuming drawbacks of lifting cautiousness. the best and most complete method ! • • • How to move the fear-slider towards trust in the pre-juvenal phase ? © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.B. The immense disadvantage of this approach is that during that period all sensory input will be considered friendly. Once the system gets activated. This is the way it works for ducks and gooses. the system can be programmed to compare speech with the existing patterns and if one fits. The remark on the strict environmental conditions from the above paragraph is also applicable to this case. consider all input as friendly and accept these tutors as equal. The latter would probably be the rule in military concepts. but in my humble opinion.com . It is simple to implement and works perfect.

theartificialbrain.B. try to find a way around of something you can predict the effect of for sure ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. If we give the final default values as from the first activation. the same is valid for a fully functional A.If the default state of belief for new information is ‘belief.com is always required. The same applies to tutors : if the object referring to this tutor is flagged as “trustworthy” (belief) there will be 100% trust and all new information will be considered as correct. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . with no data present at first activation.B. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Somehow the A. Is ‘belief’ and ‘fear’ both necessary ? Is it not easier to implement only one ? I will answer this in the chapter “Memory”. The juvenile phase Unlike the pre-juvenile phase.B. will need some simulation of certain hormones like testosterone and adrenaline (as explained earlier) to work. But personally I would seriously consider adding it anyway ! Why ? It is rather simple to implement and the outcome is far better predictable. This allows the system to learn without questioning at all. the risk is present that the system could be too aggressive ! Since no data is available for a newborn baby of twenty years old.. the trust-level at that moment will be maximal.B. to give this serious thought ! The main rule is simple : if you don’t know the outcome of something for sure. An A. It is too complex to imagine what unexpected things (in the negative sense) might result out of that method.Page 36 of 60 .B. is a serious matter that needs to be approached with wisdom and caution ! Control is everything ! Therefore I strongly advise everyone who attempts to create an A. a ‘digital puberty’ phase is not mandatory to obtain a working A.

Two boys and a girl are having a nice time in a club. That is a fact ! Yesterday this one guy was indeed sitting on his brother’s bed. one of the boys says 'Yesterday I sat on the bed with my brother'. there will be no staring after and as a result no solitary existence would have existed (no such experiences)..Page 37 of 60 . The following example is probably one of the best ways to demonstrate how perception influences our thinking process. unfortunately purely hypothetic case. The traditional five senses are human’s direct allies but I would like to add one to that list. The other senses are more regular in the way they operate. therefore I am . But the primary factor in this 'experiences experience' is ‘perception’. Feelings or emotions are always internal and an exception because they are variable. Already in an early stage in his life this person will diagnose his 'being different' and being treated differently (by others) via the mirror and the being staring after (comparison). where another day we actually don't care at all about this. Let’s now assume humans are evolved enough to understand that this person is also a person like any other. one must first dig into the purpose of the senses. In this. Tree persons. except for the misshaped face. feelings or emotions. The mutual thing they all have in common is that they provide input to the brain. most of the time this will be external data like images. this person will feel more and more (psychological) pain because of being stared after constantly (linking) and will decide (the decision) that having contact with others is not a very pleasant experience and is to be avoided ! A lonely person is born . The buzzword 'perception' The above example clearly shows the main impact of experiences in our personal growth. You can feel the table via the nerve ends in the hand (external). The second boy spontaneously starts to smile because. In case of feeling. Although it is tempting to categorize this under feeling. The girl on the other hand gets tears in her eyes thanks to a sexual abuse for many years on her brother’s bed. as long as linking and comparison is possible.. one sentence. Only experience is ! A good example to illustrate this is someone who is born with a severely misshaped face who is constantly stared after by others (that's experience). This will undoubtedly result in a number of negative links towards the opposite sex.com . Someone thinking he or she is a bungler. or you can feel pain in the stomach or knee (internal). the data can come from both external or internal information. noise or a certain smell. as child. smell. A situation can make us angry one day. How do we interpret something ? As tackled in the beginning of this article. tree different interpretations and reactions : one neutral.' Who doesn't know this statement of Descartes ! But it reaches much further than the traditional conclusion of the self-awareness.I. Challenge – The artificial brain Deeper thoughts 'I think. You won’t suddenly see. one positive © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. hear or taste better tomorrow and if you bump into a wall it will hurt as much as today. At a certain moment during the conversation. will reflect this in every possible way and act as such. but they are not the determinant factor. The chances this will lead to a total solitary existence are much smaller since the experiences with the own gender were namely positive.. After a while.. Emotions are a major input source for the brain (both cause and result) and therefore deserve the term 'sense'. sitting on the bed with his brother always ended in a hilarious pillow-fight. Although. at the age of puberty this person would probably find it more difficult than others to get in touch with the opposite sex. the brain does not care what sort of input it has to process.masureel@theartificialbrain.The ultimate A. Experience is the key feature in how we think in the long term about ourselves. Both environmental and genetic factors (the character) are important in what kind of experiences we will have.

theartificialbrain.and one negative.com is always required..Page 38 of 60 . because of the 'positive feeling'. The probability that the second boy (good experience) will be more and more active involved in this conversation is great. state that we do not really live our life. With the girl.. and correctly. most likely the opposite will happen . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. This also shows that both consciousness and subconscious actually are only capable of processing simulation processes (what else would perception be ?) ! We do not live with facts. but (at brain level) rather experience an interpretation of 'life' . style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . … which is accurate since everything is belief as seen before ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www.. but with interpretations of facts ! Someone with a little imagination could very well..

So it is variable. a legal system would even be obsolete ! If one would find a drug that cures all diseases. Earlier in this document. since the brain always tries to compare and link and once the object 'cow' is present. Sometimes we all are a little selfish (as discussed in detail later) and the way we fine-tune our calibration system is based on this. this would be in contradiction with the linking and comparison principles our thinking process is based upon. The definition not only depends on the time spirit and education. most people would consider this as 'good' but those working for the pharmaceutical industry (directly or indirectly). but personally I do not agree with this for the reasons explained beneath. would loose their job. But the reality is different ! There is no standard at all ! To better understand this. I discussed the need of the (variable) calibration system to accomplish this. the brain will refer to the same thing : a cow (whatever this might be in your brain). you will most likely also think of 'the object cow' if you step into a cow cake.The ultimate A. Someone moving from the Arctic to the Sahara will adapt remarkably fast ! Standard of values Does one choose ‘friendship’ over ‘money’ or vice versa ? It is one of these typical examples that suggest there must be a standard of values present somewhere in the brain. if I let you hear the sound of a cow or I show the picture of a cow. Somehow it is quite obvious. the simplest way to add new information in the case of our cow is to link the new information to the object cow. A poor guy winning the lottery will probably recalibrate his view on money. This results in an explanation why physical pain (not pleasant) and psychical pain (also not pleasant) are treated the same way by the human brain.I. As also seen before. the brain does not care where the input comes from as long as it can link and compare. although a cake © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Remember the example at the start of this document when learning to ride the bike. As mentioned earlier. but what do they stand for and how do they influence the thinkingprocess ? In psychology ego is often divided in four or even more parts. In most cases links between 'different objects' will be there as well. but also on how we tend to define it for ourselves. Another typical example is the relativity of 'good' and 'bad'. the moral question. So. If I ask you to make the noise of a cow. it is imperative to dig deeper in how linking is being performed in the thinking process. Some will find thousand dollars a lot of money where others see one million dollars as pocket money. profit or investment and most likely define this as 'bad' (at least in short terms). you will first refer to the cow and thereafter pick the wanted specification (in this case the sound of a cow). spread over time.Page 39 of 60 . it is relative. it is very unlikely to find two people with exactly the same calibration settings ! Every experience (link) will play its role in future comparison for 'similar' information. Often it is extremely hard to see what cause and consequence are ! This way of relative interpretation is also the main reason why we have such a high adaptability. If everyone would define all terms the same way. Relativity Nothing we interpret is absolute. Challenge – The artificial brain Values and ego Introduction Who hasn’t heard of these words.masureel@theartificialbrain. In our example. This flexible calibration system makes people unique ! Thanks to so many individual experiences.com . It is in our own best interest to keep balanced during biking ! Falling hurts and is considered as not pleasant.

As seen before. Some even love pain (SM). But if we look a bit closer we will notice something special. it becomes more important to have a direct link towards cow cakes. via emphatic ways (again simulation process). it is confused.theartificialbrain. depending on future experiences) from 'friends above all' to 'money above all'. In some cases certain people refuse to accept the death and continue to make new links (although this person is no longer alive) (often the case with the loss of children) and this will cause a lifetime of emotional pain. The more important something is.com is always required. changes (or situations we are not familiar with) cause fear because no linking is possible. This illustrates that the memory storage is pointer-based and is pretty well comparable with placing a shortcut on the computer’s desktop to directly go to a certain document. The more memories (especially positive ones) the harder it will be to get over it. brothers/sisters. Time after time ! The more links (also indirect) refer to a certain object or subject. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. The interpretation (via linking and comparison) is that this is impossible (disbelieve) since the brain only has links to this person alive ! The brain actually doesn't know how to deal with this. the brain is able to start making links towards the 'not being there anymore' of this individual and it will be less hard (the factor disbelieve is minor). As also seen before. Remember the brain is unable to handle facts (everything is interpretation) and the brain has several vivid links to that person living. separated from the ‘old parent’. This would indeed be correct if it was not for the weight of the items. Emotional pain (remember : emotions or feelings are derivatives of fear) ? Is fear then behind all of this? Yes and no. you will make much links to other individuals in the direct surrounding like parents. Fear and believe is more correct and as we saw before. Notice that this often happens in these moments that someone has serious doubts about his religion ! It was faith that provided at the same time that safe feeling and comfort but also the explanation (linking). you can feel something similar. And that is exactly what will occur ! After a while the cow cake will be associated with a cow cake and will be directly accessible without deviations. It simply is so in contradiction with all other brain information available. it is mostly very hard to accept. we can link. the higher this value will be in our fictive list. If one of these links is dropped (for instance the passing-away of somebody). cleaning them up. children and friends. Because in these cases lots of links (direct and indirect) (memories) are present of the living related or acquainted. The new __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. You are unable to actually feel the exact pain somebody else is going through. In best case. the more we are willing to 'defend' it and that's why it sometimes really appears as if there actually is a list.as such has nothing to do with the object cow ! The above principle is widely accepted by many people dealing with the way memory is stored into our brain. but it never will be the pain the other is going through ! That is also the reason the own pains are heavier and worse than the pains of somebody else. during which it is possible to see death arriving. Last experiences (once again. Notice that in case of a long term chronic illness. believe is the most important property in how we define and interpret fear. The more links. If someone working on a farm frequently has to deal with cow cakes (not stepping into them. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . During lots of years. causing everyone to be little islands near each other. …). It is often presented as a treeview where the parent is the main object and the linked objects are ancestors. Always the same : linking and comparison. These links cause a certain relationship. In the above-mentioned example. links to certain subjects or objects) have a huge weight in this algorithm (comparisons) ! The world turns around you ! The brain is only capable of processing the own signals (and not those of others) via simulation processes. we tend to give labels as 'good' or 'bad' to certain 'objects' and this will have its reflection on the output ! That explains why someone having a 'bad' experience with friends at this moment might change the standard (temporarily or permanently. but this would be incorrect (since this person no longer is) and this causes the fear.Page 40 of 60 . the more important it will be (both positive and negative) simply because one will be confronted (at brain level) more with this object or subject.

At that moment You are confronted with the possibility that it could have been you or that it can happen to you which allows you to line and compare. As a matter of fact.. strange but true ! You can only feel compassion if your situation is better in that particular field. Did you have few toys and do you want to overcompensate your child ? Couldn't you or was it not allowed (by the parents) to become a football player. Empathic simulation processes are possible through linking and comparison. always ! This is without any doubt a daring statement. you’ll probably say 'Oh. Semantics are more important than one would expect. boss or mother-in-law (unless you benefit from this) ! If in your opinion (and yours only) your vote won’t make any difference. one must walk between the borderlines of these values. that's too bad'. Only few people will say under such circumstances to a complete stranger : 'No. So you are actually slapping yourself on the back and are probably insulting someone ! Sympathizing on the other hand is different from compassion. the more elementary courtesy will fade away ! It is not by coincidence that in countries where few people are religious that selfishness prevails to that extent ! Each religion helps in defining a number of standard values. but let’s look a bit closer at next examples before shooting the pianist ! If you look at a group photo and you know you are on it. but more likely 'You lucky bastard !'..masureel@theartificialbrain. yourself. Not the values of your neighbor. Compassion namely implies a certain superiority. actor or musician. burning pieces. but ten minutes later you will have forgotten about it. Except if there are some mutual interests involved which will induce linking like : age or place of the accident (I passed there ten minutes before the accident.I. as seen before. that is sad !'. To reach the 'higher purpose'. how on earth would it ever be able not to be selfish (since it must somehow all be related to 'the self') !?! © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.The ultimate A. are less dignifying than appear at sight ! A typical example is compassion.. Even they way we act towards our children is more often driven by selfishness than one would expect ! Look a bit closer at why you behave the way you do towards your children and try to find the links with your own childhood. if the brain is only capable of handling the own processes. no ! I insist you go first'. to personally get into 'heaven' (the ultimate goal in most religions). I've been asking this question at hundreds of people over the last ten years and never had a different answer ! Why do you vote for a specific political group ? The 'values' they stand for will be the ones you deem important. Why are religious people willing to obey to certain 'rules' which others (even from different religious groups) find odd ? Indeed.com . Challenge – The artificial brain 'facts' are in conflict with this and make people doubt … If the deceased is someone totally unknown. What happens in disastrous fires on ships or overcrowded places with few exits ? The individual will do anything to survive. Why are you member of a union or employers’ organization ? To protect your own interests or to gain (personally) from it. You can only sympathize in these fields you are familiar with and have similar experience. Disbelievers are not obliged to follow these 'rules' and automatically fall back on the 'own' values.Page 41 of 60 . Self-interest. Your world turns around you and depending on diverse factors the facts will be interpreted differently . and are you pushing this dream (of yours) to become reality through your child (against its will) ? Also some of the noble feelings we have. . The hotter it gets or the more falling. you won’t vote at all or blanc (if voting is obligated) or you will simply issue a protest vote. it could have been me !)). who do you look first for ? Indeed. Note that someone suicidal will not think of this deceased as 'Oh..

This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. a good feeling (even compassion) or by having had a similar experience and knowing that it is hard to handle single. The empathic information can lead to offering help. everything is self related (selfish) ?!? One could state that education and religion play an important role in this. it is also likely that mirror neurons could be the cause of narcissism as well. when asking for directions). I touch this subject of narcissism here because it is so in conflict with altruism that at least it should be reviewed thoroughly ! Some experiments demonstrated that good-looking people (both men and women) get easier help than others (e. But one of the main reasons one creature helps another ‘without rewarding’ is that at a later point the inverse might be necessary. Recent research demonstrated that chimpanzees also have the altruism ability and therefore it can no longer be considered as exclusive for humans ! How is altruism possible if. it is my opinion that experience (and rewarding) is the base for narcissism. other motives.theartificialbrain.com is always required. If something happens and all is related to oneself. as explained earlier. However. and they do. This can be in the form of appreciation. I could have avoided it” ! Altruism … For a long time the assumption was made that altruism was one of the main differences that distinguished humans from other primates (originating 6 million years ago when a sub branch of the chimps was born (our pre-ancestors)).Alll information is somehow related to one-self. In that way it could be that altruism is actually a myth … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Most common reflection will be “next time you are on your own” ! Isn’t that in conflict with the definition of altruism … It is possible that mirror neurons have an important role in this. A small experiment I did with some adolescents displaying narcissistic behavior (thanks to over-rewarding (extreme ego) and no sort of punishment in case of ‘bad manners’). sadistic people will have a good feeling when not helping … … same input. a link can and will be made that one can benefit from ‘helping’ someone else. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . this could explain why “guilt” is one of the most frequent emotions. on conscious or subconscious level. but I have not seen a deep religious and well-educated chimp lately. This shows that there must always be a motivator in order to initiate action and that motivation always comes from within our thinking process. other outcome ! On the other hand. This is especially important in socializing ! Just look at how people react to someone never being polite (or even being rude) when something is given or offered.g. At a certain point. it is likely that ‘oneself’ could have done something to avoid this (that is the thought in the background) and that causes this guilt feeling … … it is hard to view other perspectives if one is only capable of handling the own information originating from the own perspective ! Merge this with the linking and comparison principles the brain is based upon and you understand the typical “if I had done this or that.Page 42 of 60 .

punishment and values on the one hand and emotions on the other hand are the main driving causes. nl. in one’s self-interest. As seen before. At first sight. humans included. but it also helps in bending certain fears (emotions or feeling) into trust and thereby facilitating the 'actionprocess'. Otherwise after one action or one series of actions the system would end-up in a passive state ! Why in heaven’s name would the system take new actions and even more important based upon what ?!? Humans’ main enemy. will always be for a conscious or subconscious reason. but reality showed a different outcome ! Someone (soldier or not) with a disconnected amygdala turned into a vegetable ! Why ? Since motivation is mainly based on fear (via values. if the intelligent system would not be able to set priorities or preferences and absorb all information as such. With autistic © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Challenge – The artificial brain A number of important actors Motivation The brain takes decisions that are.Page 43 of 60 . reproduction and acceptance (people would do literally everything to be part of the group).com . In the sixties a lot of research was done in creating the 'Über-soldier' and one of the main researches concerned people with a disconnected amygdala (the center of fear). appreciation and punishment). is actually its primary ally and it is the absolute fundament for its intelligence ! On the other hand.. This self-interest must be interpreted in a very open way and appreciation. Who doesn't like to get these compliments ! Why is appreciation so important for our way of thinking ? As mentioned above. It is not surprising that the punishment area is intensively interacting with the amygdala. both have a specific area. Why would you get out of your chair to get something to drink if you had no sense of thirst ? Why would you study day after day on study material you are absolutely not interested in (fear of not getting your degree) ? Why do you prefer mathematics over English or vice versa (appreciation via good results and the confidence (notfear) you can handle it. Appreciation versus punishment 'Well done !' or 'I couldn't have done it without your help !'. needs some sort of motivation to (be able to) perform new tasks. The total of these factors is what we describe as 'motivation'.masureel@theartificialbrain. It would be incorrect to look at appreciation without talking about rewarding and punishment. motivation is necessary to start new 'actions'. People having problems with the amygdala functioning (like diverse forms of autism) need continues confirmation and appreciation.I. the disconnected amygdala only results in someone with no motivation at all ! Each intelligent system. emotions. usually through positive experiences) ? .. What drives us to take a certain decision or not ? Everything you will do. the fear-slider can only be moved via ‘belief’. Remember also that one of the functions of the amygdala is to help storing the information in the long term memory. “fear”.The ultimate A. directly or indirectly. this should result in a fearless soldier. Appreciation not only helps us in lifting the priority in our list of values. there would be a total overflow of the complete system ! The three main motivators for human beings are : surviving. In the human brain. this indicates that appreciation (or rewarding) and punishment are ‘belief’-related and both pillars are the driving forces behind the complete ‘belief’-mechanism ! Appreciation (the strongest possible way of rewarding) determines how the remuneration system of the brain works ! Appreciation indirectly expresses that your life is not worthless ! Attention is a form of appreciation since it shows indirectly that someone is important (otherwise you wouldn't pay attention to that person).

If the system is low on energy.Page 44 of 60 . This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. often resulting in under-performing. Children for whom only encouragement and approval and no punishment was used. needs to have is actually very limited. Notice too that children having had an optimal balance between approval and disproval are the ones when growing adults who will have the least problems in socializing. the ‘negative’ is better and faster stored than the ‘positive’.B.theartificialbrain. loving Sado Masochism (pleasure value higher than pain value) … Instincts The number of instincts the A. no punishment will ever follow. Since this is very similar with the way the human brain works.B. we do not have such a thing and it is not required for the A. They tend to be rather pessimistic and have a low self-image. continuously searching for approval and appreciation … … something to keep in mind when raising an intelligent system. Children who had to undergo continuous punishment and who were rarely encouraged and appreciated will suffer from a very low self-image and will often underperform (why bother.com is always required.people. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . it is never good enough). it is theoretically possible to obtain an A. Since both rewarding and punishment are mandatory for a brain a low level implementation in the A. are conditioned in that way that whatever they do. will be required ! How ? By hard-coding that all the ‘negative’ (physical or emotional punishment) must be avoided and all the ‘positive’ (rewarding) must be embraced ! This is best done by implementing a pain and pleasure variable and the one with the highest value at that moment will determine if future similar experiences will be deliberately re-experienced. A “regeneration instinct” is best implemented as well.B.B. either ! This ‘surviving instinct’ is rather a group of individual mechanisms (like the above-mentioned instincts) mostly fear-based combined with the earlier declared ‘pain and pleasure’-system directly related to the amygdala or digidala ! __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. the attention must be drawn to this (works best if this is accompanied with some sort of pain) until it is solved ! What about the surviving instinct ? Well. Some of the elements like surprise and curiosity could be considered as instincts and are mandatory. In some cases they will grow into perfectionists.

Years ago when databases where less standardized everybody in informatics used an own data-format and the better-written formats were binary and based on the principles of pointer-tables. In other words how can I for instance make the link between the visual information.com . A major key player in solving this is the need of a common factor. the ‘evidence’ indicates that the neurons around the heart function as memory as well and this could be the explanation why some preferences of the (anonymous) donor are transferred via the transplant to the acceptant. retain and (subsequently) recall information” and this is a good starting point. etc. Challenge – The artificial brain Memory Introduction Although we know a lot of the human brain. as mentioned in the introduction. The main challenge is how to store the impressions (what else is sensory input) in an ‘ordered’ way and available for other sensory experiences. That definitely is something to keep into account in the design of a digital brain ! The typical definition of memory is : “The ability to store. spare time or whatever. While not all doctors do accept this. The information can also be non-sensory such as procedures. Virtual because the information in the object can be anything ! If you hear the sound of a cow. critical problems with reboots as a result or fatal errors in the software. scripts. we know very little on how everything is stored in the brain. If this would turn out to be correct and one is aware of the large number of neurons near the intestines. Oh yes. the possibility exists that for some reason the program might get terminated unexpectedly.Page 45 of 60 . the benefits by far supersede this disadvantage. The principle behind pointer-tables is similar to synapses.The ultimate A. These changes can be in food. we discovered a number of areas involved like the amygdala and the hippocampus. The lack of understanding gives us the opportunity to redefine the way things should be stored in an efficient and logical way for our A. so the object must be universal in order to link everything to everything like we are capable of and is required to achieve real intelligence. any form of data can be present. feelings. but that is pretty much it ! Thanks to some experiments and malfunctions we assume the existence of a sensory. this does not imply you will ever see or smell a cow in your life. While it will slow down the system a tiny. Computer systems on the other hand need to store all on hard disk to overcome power failures. it is wise to store all (even processes in progress) on hard disk. long-term and working memory and some models have been created according to this knowledge. Both allow fragmentation of data. as explained later in this chapter. Multiple tables could exist to allow sorting the pointers in diverse ways. Both the pointer-table and the synapse can point to many other pointer-tables or synapses and behind the reference they are pointing to. If there was not such an aspect. How can I justify this if you know that synapses form the absolute fundament in data storage in the human brain ? Well. it © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Storing information The first step in memory handling is how to store the data. none of the others is possible ! Since.I. For instance one might not like sweet pepper before the transplant and become a big fan afterwards or someone lazy becoming a disciplined cyclist.. More memory space for humans than first thought ? A bizarre phenomenon in the medical world is the one of changed preferences after heart transplantations. A major advantage the brain has is that it is never switched off until death. short-term.masureel@theartificialbrain. sound and smell of a cow ? The answer is virtual objects. a necessity.B. in a digital brain the storage will obviously most likely be on hard disk. Without. This is best done in mirror (duplicate) to overcome file-errors caused by the interruption or hard disk failure. the region of available memory could very well be larger than originally thought … What about synapses ? In this complete document I touched the term ‘synapse’ only a couple of times.

197. The outcome was an ultra-lightweight (both in memory use as overhead storage) and extreme fast ‘database’.Page 46 of 60 . After a while the system will create sort of a vocabulary (like babies do) and the phonetic meaning will become more and more similar to ours. The inner voice Before continuing. the thinking process can begin and is basically creating combinations of existing information (linking and comparison). random ‘labeling’ should be used and yes. not in the way to store but in the way to retain or recall the information. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Diverse input will point to the same object and the older meaningless labels will expire (number of times recently used and last access date). style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . multiple objects containing similar info originating from different sensory input will be present.885. If I need to think of the number 256. After all. but not only would it consume an awful lot more memory (diverse objects containing similar information). The ‘phonetic labeling’ solves the problem in linking to the same object and recalling information structured referring to the same but from multiple points of view and that was the target ! During this progression. This theoretically would work. audio and aromatic information of a cow for instance. So what should this common factor be ? Hypothetically it can be anything ! It can be a number or an image. The same applies to the human brain.com is always required. a revised version will be the first code I will make available on the net. So the inner voice will build its vocabulary from meaningless to others towards a similar vocabulary most of us use. It incorporated the possibility to vary the size and type (numeric or alphanumeric) of the pointer-table and of course the option to sort (index) if required. data storage is the base of every system … __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. the solution is rather easy. The results of this experiment can be considered as a good starting point on how to store data in the digibrain ! As a matter of fact. but if the same exercise is shaken a little. At start. however. So I need the ability to have access to information not directly related and if you look closer at this. I would not advise the use of traditional databases to achieve this. the ‘phonological loop’ is actually fragments (words) of this inner voice ! Question is how to create this inner voice when no data or lexicon is present ! Surprisingly. it will be hard ! The same applies to images. Once this vocabulary gets developed. some implementation problems pop up then. A couple of years ago I did some serious experimenting on this topic and wrote a low level binary data-container based on the principles of optimized pointertables. I would remain busy for a dreadful lot of time and the complete system would run extremely slow. it would also give trouble in internal communication.theartificialbrain. virtually unlimited in capacity and by nature allowing (any sort of) data to be fragmented over diverse files on diverse (network) drives. it is wise to have a closer look at something we call the inner voice. This will not only reveal the solution for this topic but will also show the path to real intelligence ! Talking to yourself.would be very well possible to have separate objects of the same without a link in between. non-connected object for the visual. If I need to run over all available images to detect if this one is of a cow before being able to ‘recall my cow’. most of the time without sound … … it is the best and most accurate description I have for this phenomenon ! Everybody does it but not all are aware of doing so. the system will be able of referring much of this sensory input to this label. A partial. confusion occurs ! In the topic on synapses I touch the subject of pointer-tables and although the above ‘labeling’ best requires some way of indexing in order to sort the labels (for fast retrieval purposes). In the Baddeley and Hitch model of the working memory of the brain.053 (the common factor) to refer to the object ‘cow’. It surprises me how often I say (internally) ‘what if I try it this way’ in solving problems. something strange appears ! No information is by itself connected to other separate information unless insight or comprehension is present ! That is the reason why some people have trouble solving mathematical expressions slightly modified ! As long as the basic pattern is there no problems pop-up.

it does not matter whether these are organic or digital in nature ! On what base does a neuron (axon) fire ? Yes. disbelief or no opinion. But let’s go back to absolute basics to discover why belief is involved in everything concerning the brain. Challenge – The artificial brain The principles behind belief and fear Belief is the mysterious factor in the A. The research did not clear anything and the question remains if the partner is © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. Unconfirmed. it looks as both depend on each other.-riddle. it is actually the belief behind the fear that will steer the fear and this belief can steer the first mentioned belief. as explained earlier. Seeing a bear all the sudden right in front of you will trigger the surprise mechanism (the belief something is dangerous) and this will cause fear.I.masureel@theartificialbrain. The second question is how this method of moving-the-fear-slider works.The ultimate A. chances are high a serious doubt will rise. It is a speculation. dependent on the input and how many errors away from a ‘known’ reference. Only when you belief it is safe again (and this can be a while after the encounter) the fear will decrease. If someone else tells you a month later the same. If the bear just passes by without even looking at you. This will have serious impact since the belief in the partner will (at least temporarily) switch to disbelief ! But even more dramatic is that all other types of ‘belief’ related to the object partner would be questioned as well. A good example to demonstrate this is the confrontation with a bear. especially if no data is available indicating the opposite. We already saw some mechanisms like acceptance and curiosity doing the job. The answer is neurons. in other words a sort of belief ! This is actually what thinking is about and why the play-zone (described later this chapter) is required. it will be stored and the properties present at that moment will influence the complete bundle of information available at that moment. This zone allows the system to place forms of belief above information (the thinking process) and if the outcome is positive (belief it could be correct). disbelief will probably be the result. So belief can have a direct impact on belief. even after the bear is back in the bushes and no input of his presence is longer available. the fear will still be present. Nevertheless this data will be stored and a pointer towards this will also be saved in the object ‘partner’. fear not. experience is ! Experience is just another word for ‘content’ to be stored ! If a new ‘positive’ experience occurs.Page 47 of 60 . This last can best be explained by an example. It is well possible that. after this second warning signal. The right question to ask in solving this riddle is if fear can steer belief ? The answer is no ! Although it sometimes looks that way.B.-puzzle ! If I point at a chair and ask you if you believe that it is a chair. but most of the time these are not the driving force. This is because a second pointer with ‘negative’ information (the experience) will be stored. The opposite would happen if I point a finger at a table and ask if you believe it is a chair ! The concept of a chair is well defined in our brain and during our lives we encounter lots of chairs.B. Both the elements against as in favor will have a reference as well. It is everywhere but can be so hard to indicate ! How does belief work ? That is the main question in solving the A.com . But if I show you something futuristic and very abstract and ask the same question. Dependent on the outcome the doubt will be : • • Confirmed. the outcome will be less predictable ! You will try and find similarities in the favor of the concept ‘chair’ and depending on the balance the outcome will be one of the three states : belief. that path will be continued ! Although the subject of belief is covered already in several parts throughout this document some questions remained unanswered … The first question is if it is really necessary to have both belief and fear stored since. The scripting I mentioned before will therefore contain data such as certain feelings (fears) and the status of belief for that specific object. This was already explained in the chapter on belief. again with a pointer in the ‘partner’ object. you would do some research. the answer will be most likely positive (and maybe you will be curious that it might be something else because I ask this rather stupid question). If someone is telling you that your partner is cheating on you. Never forget that a single thought exists out of much different sorts of fragmented data.

you will probably believe this info and the fear slider will move quite fast towards fear. If you discover your partner in bed with a new playmate yourself.B..theartificialbrain. A vision is in fact a sort of fantasy and some visions are best avoided for an A.B. in our own interest ! The line between geniality and insanity is often very slim and this is the reason why ! To keep control over an A. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. A side-effect of this will be that the belief in the messengers of ‘the bad news’ will in future encounters be questioned more … Doubt is actually always a form of belief on top of the current belief and will be the cause of fear (in this case most likely jealousy and anger).B. The reliability of the information. If you have a best friend you consider (experience) as very reliable and he or she is the messenger of the cheating message. This not only applies to organic creatures. the (pre)frontal cortex plays an important role in creativity and creativity is actually another word for playing with different sorts of information.. This possible cheating will be something constantly playing in the head and it will draw the attention to the internal thoughts the whole time. The above example also demonstrates that it is likely to have a pointer in a centralized table in the digibrain with ‘important’ (unfinished) issues. this will be experienced as very reliable information and will cause the fear-slider to move faster towards fear. all information the brain processes is subjective and if there would be a way of playing with all these different kinds of information (linking). as well ! For humans. If the messenger has a history of being unreliable. the belief that the partner is trustworthy is correct and ‘belief’ will be restored. Since all information is subjective and not all information combined results in realistic or wanted ‘thoughts’. so it should be your partner worrying instead.B. The belief will be that maybe the belief that your partner is exclusively for you is not (longer) correct. Once the results indicate it is safe or even required to enlarge this region. but is this wise ? Fantasy. the fear slider will only move slightly at once. it will keep you awake ! A second question is how belief can influence the fear-slider ? Two parameters are important in this : • • The number of references (experiences) available for this specific topic. although it might be a hoax. but for all custom designed systems like an A. daydreaming. which we define as intelligence can occur. the ‘play-zone’ or digital (pre)frontal cortex is best kept small. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .B. During dreaming this will somehow be integrated in the dreams.Page 48 of 60 . the first reflex is to preserve a lot of space for this area in the A. then and only then new ideas and thoughts. But self creating links is the path to intelligence ! As stated earlier. the previous is of major importance ! Memorizing information can be done by anybody and is basically the ‘labeling’ I discussed before. It will literally be hard to focus on other things ! Notice as well that this will happen on both conscious as subconscious level.com is always required. imagination and similar all are side effects of this play-zone.• trustworthy. The ‘play-zone’ If the target is a true intelligent A. It is a hoax and the so-called new playmate turns out to be for the opposite sex. only then it may be __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. Since intelligence is mainly dependent of this play-zone. a limitation is best considered.B. It will even be hard to get some sleep because the attention is always drawn towards this and as long as this happens on conscious level. like humans and elephants or even aliens. The more similar (in the broadest sense of the word) links. the more the fear-slider will be moved in one or the other direction. always. Since this statement enfeebles all previous negative statements. Ask people of a child missing for five years how devastating this state is ! Enfeebled. For the A. a similar region will be needed and I refer to this as ‘the play-zone’ for obvious reasons..

the amygdala plays an even more important role in storing information. This results in a weak link and chances are high that relatively soon this will be overwritten with new data. Neither fear nor trust is dominating and it could be described as boring. We now know that fear can reach from 0% fear (absolute trust) to 100% fear (phobia). for this kind of processes the multi-store © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. This deserves some more explanation. It is the amygdala (or simplified : fear) indicating how fast data will be stored in the long-term memory ! Threatening situations need to be stored faster and better than neutral input. unless you somehow believe that memorizing this poem could take away the threat or buy time ! It is also good to keep in mind that fear values closer to fear have a negative effect on recalling information because at such moments the consciousness claims all attention and the actual storing and recalling of information happens on subconscious level ! The A. meaningless and uninteresting information. The human brain does this in a similar way. an extra flag indicating that the information is ready to be overwritten should do the job. It is mainly this information being processed during sleep as well on a subconscious level as described before in the topic on dreaming. only the first impression will be stored and the fight-or-flight state will be triggered causing tunnel vision (lots of adrenaline running through the vanes).B. The long-term memory The same flag could also be used to indicate that the problem is satisfyingly solved and ready to be transferred to the subconscious level ! One of the criticisms on the multi-store model of Atkinson and Shiffrin is that they claimed that only rehearsal is capable of storing data in the long-term memory. In a lot of cases. Let’s label this as the neutral zone. at 50%. So the system must be capable of dropping this information and this is done automatically by no longer giving it attention.Page 49 of 60 . In between. The more the fear-slider is away from this neutral zone (either fear or trust). will suffer from this as well since fear and some hormones like adrenaline are required to obtain motivation ! An environment of trust on the other hand helps enormously in fast learning because only very few processes will run on the conscious level and the attention can be fully focused on the matter (if there is motivation) ! But what about movements for example ? We do not label these (no phonological store) and they are somehow stored very well in the long-term memory ! Well.masureel@theartificialbrain. the point of balance between fear and trust is reached and fear-values in that area are neutral. Since the play-zone is in control of solving problems and one may assume that ‘the problem’ is present in the play-zone because it is somehow important at that moment. Challenge – The artificial brain enlarged ! One of the typical properties for a play-zone is that the data will be stored consciously until a satisfying answer is present or the system no longer considers it as ‘interesting’. the faster data will be stored.The ultimate A.I. chances are small it will work well. this is so and can be described as experience. Have you ever tried to learn new matter you have absolutely no interest in and which you can’t link to existing information and for which no penalty is waiting if you fail the exam ? You will have to rehearsal an awful lot and will forget it after a short time ! Where is the motive ? It is also good to keep in mind that when the slider is to close to 100% fear. but as I explained already in a previous chapter. then the information may be transferred to the subconscious level and it will at first (not much experience) be hard to recall it. Someone else for example could come up with a good solution or ‘the problem’ is considered too difficult and the motivation in trying to solve it is absent. it is necessary to keep the information until the problem is actually solved. As stated before it will be the experience (multiple use) giving it a higher priority and a stable link. For diverse reasons solving ‘the problem’ might become obsolete. If the result is satisfying. Diverse experiments in memorizing information reveal that the basic information of an unsolved riddle is better preserved than if solved. If I would ask you to memorize a poem at such a time.com . For the digital brain.

Page 50 of 60 . Due to a malfunction in the brain this boy is capable of this and it is impressive ! But since not all is correct. will be composed out of existing objects allowing the brain to do what it best does : linking ! That is the reason why visualization is working so well to remember lists of words. combined with the fact that this cannot be done after a single look. it is rather hard to state that the brain processes 8 Megabits per second. you would be surprised and have the reflex to focus your attention on the changes.model of Atkinson and Shiffrin as such works perfectly IF the input has also this ‘emergency-factor’ of the amygdala (pain-driven) ! Badly falling is to be avoided quickly without endless rehearsals ! Visualization So far we nearly touched the subject of visualization and it is well known that this helps much in better storing data. in future encounters. We namely isolate shapes and like with everything in memory storage. most likely ‘camel’. if we do not process images like a digital camera does. I know the case of this young guy capable of drawing an almost perfect image of a city. it is comparing apples with oranges … Another argument in my defense is that when we look at a view. If a picture were stored. A word as such has no __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. as I state several times throughout this document. At first. but from a 30° different angle. the scene might be more detailed ! The above demonstrates that the ‘play-zone’ is best capable of ‘rendering’ fictive scenarios build out of shapes. It is processed information and is one of the reasons why illusionists like David Copperfield can do their tricks ! It is also the reason why we are capable of visualization and that you most likely will not have a ‘real image’ during this visualization but rather a composition of shapes. Besides the fact that this would be impossible if images as such were stored. We also have the capacity to place these shapes in an environment. This indicates that the shape of both a camel and dromedary point to the same object. without you knowing. the visual information the human brain has to process is in the neighborhood of 8 Megabits per second. how funny it might be. This indicates that instead of images we rather store scenario’s composed out of shapes ! This approach has several advantages and the main benefit is that it requires less storage ! That is also the reason why you probably wouldn’t remember half of the objects present in a room after leaving the room. the reflex will be to look at the back to determine the number of bumps. I could agree but since that is not the case I find it a daring statement. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel .com is always required. the better and more accurate it will be stored and recalled. If our eyes were CCD-camera’s. The two main principles our vision is based upon is the simultaneous processing of ‘shapes’ and ‘colors’. the more we repeat it. this indicates that the image we think we see. in most cases we are still capable of recognizing all. Take the example of a camel and a dromedary. If I would move a tree in your garden from the left to the right. Try it out (best done with the eyes shut) and imagine a cat on the back of a horse … … you see what I mean ! If I would ask you to imagine walking around in a shop you frequently visit. The link to an Artificial Brain is the way we handle vision. it also shows that the compositions we make are often 3D. it would be a piece of cake to remember all ! And yes. after flying over it for a short period. For diverse reasons this topic deserves a closer look ! According to some. If everything is subjective. both will be treated as equal but once one knows the difference is in the number of humps on the back. The combination of both results in what we see. is not the actual image and that is the case. but further specifications are stored there to make the distinction between both. Only people confronted regularly with these animals will notice other differences and probably be capable of storing both shapes as separate objects. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. in detail. this also indicates that we do not use images as such in the visual processing ! So. something I will not cover in this document. This allows a memory efficient way of visualization and a scenario.theartificialbrain. once the object camel is detected.

This causes inferior learning possibilities and bad assessment since both require the need of linking information and data available. they will be the foundation ! The labeling system I describe in this chapter is also somehow related to mirror neurons and this could also explain some autism symptoms. Therefore if the labeling system is not working properly and ‘easy linking’ like color-changes are not handled well. episodic buffer or other ‘brain-related’ types of memory is to be considered at that moment. /. Females would have more mirror neurons than males and this is. The question is if these are required to obtain our A. that is the fundament of a powerful thinking system ! I mentioned it before.Page 51 of 60 . causing the typical symptoms..B. This meaning is actually added information somehow connected to other information and therefore the storage system should be capable of storing fragmented information in an optimized way ! For instance in a subtraction this extra info could be that if the second number is higher than the first one. but we first learn al 10 digits (0. One of the theories on autism is a lack of mirror neurons. If the labeling does not work correct. Remember that surprise is equal to something-out-of-the-pattern and has a factor of expectation as well (which is also sort of pattern on top).B. a space frame where all fits in and often a ‘timetable’ in which order the scenario must be executed. this could very well be the reason why autistic people have the exaggerated surprise reflex (causing fear) when for instance a bus passes in another color than usual. I describe the imitation processes and pretty much of what is dedicated to mirror neurons falls under this.com . and I believe it is not obligated ! In the chapter ‘The diverse forms of consciousness’. This is one of the main reasons I am such a fan of scripting ! The extra information can be stored (or removed) well in a script and the script as such (basically a text-stream) can be stored fragmented within a binary file allowing both fast storage as retrieval ! Since the amount of data will be substantial and in order to keep all running smoothly. Another element indirectly indicates that the above-mentioned statement of the interconnection between labeling and mirror neurons could be correct ! Both have one thing in common for sure : language related ! Mirror neurons are linked to language and the phonological loop in the model of the working memory from Baddeley and Hitch is too ! This last is nothing more or less than labeling … What types of memory are needed ? The diverse types of memory required for the A. * ! We store little bits of information for everything we learn and add meaning to it.9) and afterwards we use them in equations as pointers ! We do not need to learn every equation by heart ! The same applies to the basic operators like +. Challenge – The artificial brain meaning. For humans it is almost sure that somehow language is associated with mirror neurons but research also revealed that it is gender dependent. It is normal that diverse sorts of sensory memory will be present since the processing of the sensory input itself will need memory ! The main memory will be based on the above and whether the need will rise to have a central executive.I. but placed in a scenario it comes alive ! The basic memory-usage to deal with this ‘virtual’ scenario is rather small since it exists mainly out of pointer values. Game-creators are familiar with this principle … Fragmentation Pointers. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.masureel@theartificialbrain.The ultimate A. I prefer storage within binary files and optimize it for fragmentation ! A single file for every object or script would become unmanageable ! Mirror neurons A lot of theories exist on this topic but very few is known for sure. the two numbers can be switched and a minus-sign must be added to the result indicating that this number is negative. according to some. it is hard to link information (learn) and to recall associated information (bad linking). the reason why women have better empathic skills then men. Although it takes more than just the above mentioned ‘playzone’ and data available to create these imitation processes. Primates have them and what distinct these neurons from others is the ability to fire even if oneself is not performing ‘the task’. pointers and pointers. -. will be dependent on the used techniques.

In my humble opinion it would be better practice to focus research on concentration rather than on attention since.Attention Introduction Attention is in psychology and cognitive neuroscience a very well documented and researched topic. external attention is best documented since it is the easiest to obtain (relatively) objective information for.B.com is always required. If everything would be amplified the problem would remain. as illustrated earlier. in this example. this slight touch feels more intense than when one is in a relaxed state of mind. therefore a mechanism of suppression must be present as well. This causes these senses to be amplified. Paranoia is therefore always a problem in concentration (amplification) often accompanied by exaggerated expectations … Suppression. From all the areas. What is out of the ‘normal’ pattern can be life-threatening and for most that is an important motivator ! Since all information is subjective and is handled similar by the brain.Page 52 of 60 • . When a friend. Of course. I will be concentrated to notify any possible signs by a bear (ears. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . When I look at a specific topic. chances are high that I will be within a split second in the top of a near standing tree ! Due to the amplified senses. sight and touch). This leads us to the absolute necessity of different tracks per input (and this input can be both internal as external). sneaking on me successfully. it is clear to all that this would lead to a quick and unavoidable death of such a project ! Concentration In the above-mentioned definition of attention we notice ‘selective concentration’. the main question is what is the driving force behind concentration ? The answer is motivation ! Some of the motivators are hard coded. touching the back of my shoulder just slightly with one single finger. I can just stare out the window not seeing much but a vague color and shape scene. the colors become more intense and the shapes sharper thanks to amplification (covert attention) ! If I am out during the night somewhere in an unknown forest where a bear warning is recently launched. So. it is just not possible to __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. most of the time combined with the appreciation/punishment system.theartificialbrain. there is just one single way of how concentration works : amplification and suppression : • Amplification. If no isolation of the individual ‘objects’ is present. If we are unable to find a way an A. I had an expectation pattern that unsuspected input probably originated from a bear nearby as well. Diverse dimensions of attention have been discovered like : active versus passive. could focus attention on something. Surprise for example. attention is just a consequence of concentration ! Concentration is always a way of prioritizing processes and even deliberately suppressing parts of information within one process (listening to a single voice ignoring all other ‘noises’ for instance). internal versus external and overt versus covert. others are based on the fear-trust part I earlier described in this document. as the definition indicates. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. A widely accepted definition for attention is : “Attention is the cognitive process of selective concentration on one thing while ignoring the rest”. is one of these build in motivators and covers most of the passive and external dimensions (even part of covert attention).

Assume two women speaking to you simultaneously. It is technically possible to filter out a single voice via complex filtering and just using one track. but how would the system be able at that moment to react on other input in that range since all will be filtered out as if it was not there ! In other words the system’s focus could not be changed in the same input area as long as the current focus remains. therefore is that both the surprise as the concentration mechanism will need some experimenting before the right settings will be discovered and similar problems can be avoided. Another fact substantiating my call from different tracks is the need to remain aware of the other incoming information as well.B. This expectation actually is nothing more than a pattern as well. If the other person al the sudden starts talking significantly louder without noticeable reason (not expected). for us humans. The hyperactive part could originate from this since the human body will produce adrenaline for every surprise ! The main conclusion for the A. otherwise you would be surprised (and likely embarrassed too). As described before this mechanism is mainly based on detecting pattern changes and if somehow this mechanism sees changes in patterns that are normally not triggered. even if they are not always correct ! It is not my favorite possibility. so filtering will offer no real solution and lead to fragmentized sound instead of isolating the complete conversation.The ultimate A. the noise of an exploding balloon (indicating a possible threat) would simply be ignored. whether it is vision. a major factor in this is a dopamine deficiency. but the track of attention as well as the other track must remain monitored by surprise ! ADHD for instance is pretty much concentration related and is something we need to avoid in the A. ! Even though it is believed that. One of the possibilities is to keep the complete incoming signal intact for the surprise mechanism and split it only afterwards. you expect others to laugh.I. Surprise will trigger attention.Page 53 of 60 . Problem for this is that there is no way of telling in advance how many tracks will be needed and if this gets solved somehow. personally I consider two main system errors leading to similar behavior : • • A malfunction in the amplification mechanism causing the system to react on almost all stimuli. If you tell a joke. Challenge – The artificial brain amplify or suppress a single stream out of the complete stream. the frequency of both voices will be likely within the same range. Another solution could be to split all at the moment of incoming.masureel@theartificialbrain. but the theoretically potential is there. At that moment if the above-mentioned balloon pops (something out of the normal pattern) the surprise mechanism would be triggered causing “attention” to pay full attention on this. A system used for astronomic reasons focusing on one asteroid coming near the shuttle.B. something to be avoided.com . This last remark reveals something important ! Both the surprise and attention mechanism best operate on the same level instead of making surprise the conductor of attention. that will happen. the splitting itself takes much time and resources increasing the reaction time of the system. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. there is something we call expectation. The reason I mention this here is that we also need to determine at what level the splitting in tracks need to be done. the concentration will be drawn towards ‘the surprise’. both monitored by the surprise mechanism. causing all the tracks to be monitored separately by the surprise mechanism. one will be surprised as well. sound or even thoughts ! It could be if somehow filters were used but even then the problem would remain. If the system’s attention would be focused on a voice. would be unable to spot another one maybe more threatening ! Although I did not touch this subject in the chapter on surprise. The first solution has the advantage that the splitting can be done in two channels : one channel for the focus and one for all the rest. The surprise mechanism could also have a fundamental role in this. If I do this.

This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. I took the freedom not to elaborate more than necessary.Appendix 1 : A sample diagram Introduction Although different schemes can be created based upon the information in this document. On the next pages you will find the accompanying explanation. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . The diagram N O 1 K Digi LTP M Main Data Rewarding Data Temp Via A Labeling L I 'Urgent' matter Acceptance P J Instincts H Aggression Digidala 1 G D Curiosity E F Punishment Attention 1 C Surprise Pain B A Play-Zone (Internal thoughts) Other internal thoughts Digital Cerebellum Motor output Sensory input __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. one of my favorites is displayed below : The Input Diagram. Too many sub-diagrams would be needed to cover the entire concept and the functioning of each component separately and this is not in first instance the purpose.Page 54 of 60 . The diagram is not UML or any other modeling language and therefore the shapes used in the diagram only have a pure visual purpose. As you will discover.com is always required. Therefore. the complexity lies not within the amount of required components but rather in the interaction between all the components ! The diagram demonstrates all these required components and the inter-relations.theartificialbrain.

Most of the time a single thought exists out of many parts of information and even other internal thoughts. Something I kept out of the diagram since it is not required as such.) might use the same principle. instructs the Digital Cerebellum (A) to move to a certain point a couple of meters away that the system immediately arrives ! This will take time (lots of brain processes) and one or more senses will be used to determine if the system has reached the objective.B. has a direct input in the amygdala allowing a super-fast handling of this incoming information. The only rule in this is that the information (the sense) must have a fast result. It is not because an A. for example the instruction to move an arm up. Most of the time. it is more correct to refer to this as the short-term memory. • Pain (C) Although it is tempting to place Pain (C) in the Digital Cerebellum (A) it is not wise to do so as described in the main document. In other words. Pain (C) also needs to increase the aggression factor (Aggression (H)) to give the system more chances in surviving. Since all input comes from either one and all output will be (part of) a new thought (Play-zone (B)) or motor output (Digital Cerebellum (A)) it is okay to take both as starting points. Especially this last argument takes away the reason one would consider a sense having direct interaction with the Digidala (J) ! Nevertheless.Page 55 of 60 . Challenge – The artificial brain Explanation In every brain. The Play-zone (B) is the component handling all internal thoughts as described in the main document. Pain can have both a physical and an emotional origin and plays an important role in motivation. one must also keep in mind that the diverse conscious-levels have an impact as well since they also perform parallel ! Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B) The Digital Cerebellum (A) and the Play-zone (B) are the starting components. all senses the system will have and the steering of all movements. but other senses the Artificial Brain possesses (dependent on the use of the A. I added a dashed line in the diagram from the Digital Cerebellum (A) to the Digidala (J) illustrating this possibility. This information needs to be stored temporarily to process the thought adequately.com . Therefore both the Play-zone (B) as well as the Digital Cerebellum (A) need direct access to the Pain (C) component. Pain (C) also will serve as new input for internal thoughts (Play-zone (B)) and most of the time for Instincts (P) as well allowing the system to react on it.The ultimate A. Keep in mind that this scheme is not an exact copy of how the human brain works but a universal diagram to obtain an intelligent Artificial Brain ! The arousal information. A direct link of the outcome of the visual information for example would be impossible. Although it might be tempting to see this as the ‘working memory’. artificial or not. The Play-zone (B) also has the ability to give direct instructions to the Digital Cerebellum (A) as well. The location for the short-term memory therefore is best located within the Play-zone (B). in the human brain for example. The Play-zone (B) itself is best viewed as (part of) the working memory. Since internal thoughts can contain virtually anything and only the system holds control over this. • The Digital Cerebellum (A) stands for all possible sensory input and motor output. It is clear that the diverse subcomponents of the Digital Cerebellum (A) might require their own memory and even internal data space to obtain a functional system.masureel@theartificialbrain.I. a direct link to the Digidala (J) would work contra productive and is therefore best avoided. it is extremely hard to isolate a single event ! Everything is influencing one-another continuously (parallel processing and multiple input-sources) and sometimes extra input based upon the outcome of the original input in a single component arrives in another component in just a split second making the isolation even tougher ! As if that was not enough. the main instruction is given on conscious level and the handling will be done on subconscious level. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert.B. The handling of this information not only requires other components like ‘Attention’ (E) but it is also relatively slow processed.

covert.Page 56 of 60 . Attention (E) can indirectly be triggered via Pain (C) or Surprise (F). Surprise (F) always triggers Attention (E). Actually.g. As described in the main document. The Play-zone (B) on the other hand requires a direct input in the Attention (E) component. It is the Playzone in charge of defining what internal processes are important and should be focused on at that moment. the only reason Surprise (F) exists is to foresee a mechanism that can run in the background and activate Attention (E) ! This last remark could be interpreted as if Surprise (F) is only operating on the subconscious level but that is incorrect. Since both Surprise (F) and Pain (C) trigger Attention (E). Aggression (H) also requires a direct link to Attention for obvious reasons that the system would be unable to defend itself. For the same reason no link between Surprise (F) and Curiosity (G) is present as well. A loud explosion automatically triggers Surprise (F) and if the complete sky all the sudden turns into another color or brightness (e. passive. Thanks to the fact that the Play-zone (B) is capable of deliberately focusing on other ‘thoughts’ (giving a higher priority of attention). It needs to run in the background for both conscious levels. only the Play-zone (B) and the Digital Cerebellum (A) can trigger the Surprise (F) mechanism. In the diagram something surprisingly pops-up : the Digital Cerebellum (A) has no direct connection to Attention ! The reason for this is that in the Digital Cerebellum (A) the primary processing of the sensory input is handled and at that level an interconnection would trigger Attention (E) to all incoming information. In the Digital Cerebellum (A) all sensory input is handled that way (even vision or sound). something to compare with is necessary. Keep in mind that during dreaming (pure subconscious level) one can have Surprise (F) too. also triggers Attention (E). external or internal as base for triggering Attention (E). Curiosity (G) Curiosity (G) does not require a link to Attention (E) because Curiosity (G) is a way of diminishing fear to allow new experiences (as explained in the main document).com is always required. I can assure you that Surprise (F) will be triggered as well ! The same applies for the Play-zone (B) where an unexpected thought or outcome will result in Surprise (F). overt. Pain (C). style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . a nuclear explosion). sticking with a needle causes full attention ! Surprise (F) As seen in the previous item (Pain (C)).theartificialbrain. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Pain (C) can be suppressed as it is for humans. If I stick with a needle unexpected. something to be avoided in my humble opinion ! Nevertheless. Otherwise Pain (C) would keep on triggering Attention (E) and all other incoming signals would be ignored or an overflow of the system would occur. It always is Attention (E) triggering Curiosity (G) and Curiosity (G) triggering the Digidala (J) where the fear can be diminished if no other warning signals are __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. In order to detect changes. as mentioned before. The reason why is that only these both components can notify a change-in-the-pattern. Never woke up during a terrifying dream where al the sudden something extreme happened and triggered the Surprise (F) mechanism … It is also required that a link between Surprise (F) and (some sort of) short-term memory is present. the surprise mechanism would remain triggered as long as the pain is present and that is not what is wanted ! In the diagram you can see the connection of both the Play-zone (B) and the Digital Cerebellum (A) to Surprise (F) and either one needs to trigger Surprise (F) if something is out-ofthe-pattern (like (the first reaction on) sticking with a needle). some neurons will be activated in that region and the value will be much higher than the ‘normal’ level. you will be surprised ! The pitfall is that if we would do so.Most people would connect the Pain (C) component to the Surprise (F) component as well and understandable : if I stick you with a needle in the butt. But to keep things simple I did not draw that link in the diagram … Attention (E) In the main document I cover this and lots of possibilities exist like active.

“Last used date” and “Times used” will increase and if the area is full.I. data which is the least important (long time no use or low number of uses) will be overwritten. Labeling (L) If the incoming data somehow can be labeled. It is wise to compare this component with the hippocampus. Challenge – The artificial brain present indicating danger. based upon a number of variables.The ultimate A. I deliberately did not include a link between these two components as it would requires a complete new diagram to explain the functioning of belief and the interaction of the diverse components on this. Since it is the Digidala (J) and the Digi LTP (N) which are the main key-players in storing the data definitive in the Main Data (O). Remember that isolating a single event is hard and most data exists out of diverse parts of input as explained in the topic on ‘Fragmentation’ in the main document. Nevertheless Curiosity (G) can diminish fear. it will be done ! As explained in the main document labeling is the way different sorts of information can be linked together regardless their origin.com . This would overcomplicate the scheme and the number of interconnections would increase dramatically since the Digidala (J) then triggers. In most input cases Attention (E) will pass the signal towards the Digidala (J) and dependent on a number of factors it will be classified as ‘Urgent’ (if the fear factor is far away from the neutral zone) and a direct link to the Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N) will be the result allowing the Digi LTP (N) to store this information immediately and forever. it will be fast overwritten allowing the Data Temp (M) to remain manageable or it will go to the Digi LTP (N) for possible definite storage in the Main Data (O). Therefore the link from the Digidala (J) towards Attention (E) must be included.Page 57 of 60 . The Digidala (J) is also the center of data-transfer. All matter to be possibly stored or retrieved needs to pass through the Digidala (J). Although this is the input diagram.masureel@theartificialbrain. it is very well possible that some of these pointers refer to overwritten information and an incomplete ‘thought’ can be the result. processed in the Digidala and this must be ventilated somehow and a good way is re-requesting Attention (E) this time with the ‘better’ values incorporated. Data Temp (M) If the accompanying values of the diverse variables are not high enough to instruct the Digidala (J) to consider it as ‘Urgent’. A two-way connection between the Digidala (J) and Attention (E) exists since some information processed in the Digidala can be alerting and requiring the focus but this also will be more the case in retrieved data. both conscious and subconscious. the smart reader will see that the Data Temp (M) component is the storage part of the working memory ! Digi LTP (Long Term Potentiation) (N) Long Term Potentiation (LTP) is the process in the human brain allowing information to be stored for a real long time (multiple years up to a lifespan). depending on the diverse values of the included variables. for simplicity reasons. It is closely connected to belief as well but the Play-zone (B) plays an even more important factor in this. For reasons of clarity. this data will go directly from the Digidala (J) to Data Temp (M) without Labeling (L). as if it is for us humans. The Digi LTP (N) is the component in the digital brain © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. no immediate and definitive store of the information is required and it will be temporarily stored in this component. This is handled in the Labeling component (L) and is well described in the main document. Digidala (J) The Digidala component (J) handles everything about fear. Since most data exists out of some information and a number of pointers towards other information. but later more on this. Dependent on the characteristics of the information. If the input is information from the Digital Cerebellum (A). a number of components. I also did not include the retrieval part of data either where retrieved information can and will function partially or complete as input. like certain movements.

The input for both comes via Attention (E) (the blue colored circle labeled ‘1’) and remember that this can happen on both conscious and subconscious level ! A variable for both will determine in which degree some input will be considered as ‘with rewarding’ or ‘with punishment’. Those variables are continuously changing dependent on a lot of actors like ambiance. It is hard to prove. as to be expected. The data in Main Data (O) must be searched first in retrieving data and if no data is found there. Punishment (D) will always result in (emotional or physical) Pain (C) and/or some sort of Aggression (H) (to react on the pain). Notice as well that the requirement of a pre-juvenal phase (as explained in the main document) can be achieved by making the Acceptance component (I) dependent of some digi-hormone. In this pre-juvenal phase everything is generally more accepted and once the system must start learning by itself (the juvenal phase) it is best not to accept all ‘just because’. A too small Data Temp (M) will cause the system to overwrite existing data too fast and a too small Main Data (O) will obviously lead towards a diminished learning capacity and might even cause safety and surviving problems. The reason for the division in two data modules (Data Temp (M) and Main Data (O)) is to guarantee speed and safety.theartificialbrain. the last used parameter will be recent enough to keep it undeleted for a long time ! With this information in the back of the head it is wise to consider the temporarily character of the Data Temp with a large margin … The exact dimensions of both data containers is something that will depend on the use of the system and in order to find an optimal balance between both some experimenting will be required. only then the Data Temp component (M) may be searched. This latter transitional stage is required because Punishment (D) causes not all Pain (C) and is not the only trigger-source for Aggression (H) either.Page 58 of 60 . whereas Punishment (D) requires Pain (C) or Aggression (H) as intermediates. it would be unwise to give this a direct link towards Acceptance (I). This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. Since this data is used from time to time. If a number of variables reaches a certain point. A too large Data Temp (M) or Main Data (O) has no disadvantages as such except for space requirements and a possible slower access speed.com is always required. The same principle of overwriting exists here as it does in the Data Temp module (M). Acceptance (I) has a link to the Digidala (J) in order to allow modifying the fear-slider. aggression. pain. Notice that minor important information used once a week for example may remain in the Data Temp (M) for many years without ever being transferred to Main Data (O) or being overwritten. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . as explained earlier. Nevertheless. etc and the one __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. the place where all definite data is stored. no overwriting will occur as long as other (candidate) data is available with a lower “Times used” value. Main Data (O) The Main Data (O) module is. Since input from the Digital Cerebellum (A) is not completely processed yet. the information can be considered as important enough to store definitively. Acceptance (I) As explained in the main document Acceptance (I) has a similar purpose as Curiosity (G) : moving the fear-slider towards trust. Therefore the more logical choice is to provide only the Play-zone (B) a direct link to Acceptance (I).allowing the same to happen. but I wouldn’t be surprised that this is what is causing the typical rebellion behavior of teenagers … Rewarding (K) and Punishment (D) In the diagram you will see that Rewarding (K) has a direct link to the Digidala (J) and Attention (E). If the “Times used” parameter is not the lowest in the Data Temp (M).

The ultimate A. © Copyright 2005-2007 – Geert Masureel – geert. In that way rewarding pain can lead to expanding the limits. which best happens centralized at subconscious level. However. as explained in the main document. It will be clear to all that interaction between the different processes of a single instinct might be mandatory and therefore the possibility of an “action trigger” should be included allowing fast response. Conscious versus subconscious The main target of the subconscious level is to assist the conscious level. …) and physical (revalidating.masureel@theartificialbrain. In the main document I mention the preferred use of scripting outside the Digital Cerebellum (A) (even partially within) and one of the advantages of this is that someone externally can (re)define new instincts after the system is up and running. In the diagram the dotted light gray rectangle therefore contains the required components best preserved only at subconscious level. The disadvantage of this is that ‘circumstances’ (a single brain-process is inexistent) help defining these two variables allowing strange combinations to occur like sadomasochism or loving punishment ! However for the digital brain one could consider to implement a time limit for acceptance of the Digital Cerebellum (A) input in that equation. this would cause such a drawback in possible future (motor skill) learning that it is to be avoided ! A better solution is to incorporate a system that blocks out the signal once a certain pain value is reached. This will allow the system to be appreciated.I. Some extreme emotional pains can and will be blocked out … … and the possibility of “loving punishment” remains ! It is good practice to foresee a way of externally triggering both directly as well. The disadvantages of the latter solution are identical to human problems related to this approach. Challenge – The artificial brain with the higher value wins at that moment. In reality once the conscious level reached the gray zone. In our diagram this is the link from Pain (C) to the Digidala (J).Page 59 of 60 . the signal is passed over to the subconscious level. All other important actors like Pain (C) and Aggression (H) have a direct link to the Digidala.com . punished and rewarded for physical movements required in learning the motor output but will no longer allow these signals once all motored skills are present. Instincts (P) Since instincts are basically there to protect the system it is logical that the triggering component is the Digidala (J). top-sporting). I also explain that both are identical with the exception of storing and retrieving data. as happens in the human brain in the amygdala. both psychologically (difficult theoretical matter. overcoming some emotional scarves.

B. __________________________________________________ You may distribute this document or use parts out of it for free but a reference to http://www. This reference must be within reasonable distance from a quote and the font type. cats. don’t you hate books with more paper than reasonable text ? I surely do and since I am not bound by any publisher. I am not such a fan of writing and therefore everything is rather concentrated. can be created ? The answer is YES! I will even state that any intelligent creature one will ever encounter will have these fundamentals ! Dependent on the specifics of the creature. all of these are actually combinations of what is covered and often have a semantic or philosophical explanation.theartificialbrain. respect and so many important actors I did not mention in this document ? Well. I had the opportunity to do it my way ! Special thanks go to my lovely wife and wonderful daughter who had and have to live with such a weirdo like myself ! It surely is not always easy for them … … but as weak defense.Epilog Is it really possible that based on these fundamentals a truly intelligent A. my excuses for that. It is best not to overcomplicate things and first learn to walk before trying to run a marathon … As you will have discovered by now.com is always required. I can officially state that it is not always easy to be me either ! I also thank the many dogs. style and height must be easy readable ! © Copyright 2005-2007 Geert Masureel . However. sheep and innocent people whom I observed during those twenty years of research to doublecheck things over and over and who gave me so much valuable input. other sensory input and motor output will be present but the same fundamentals will work in the background and yes.Page 60 of 60 . it might be possible that more levels than just the conscious and subconscious will be present (apart from the above and collective consciousness) … What about love. requiring a certain amount of words or pages.

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