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Basics of Fluid Mechanics
Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 606451335 email:barmeir at gmail.com
Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick BarMeir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.3 December 5, 2010)
‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”
from The Metalogicon by John in 1159
CONTENTS
Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer BarMeir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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xvii xxv xxvi xxvii xxvii xxviii xxx xxx xxxi xxxi xxxi xxxi xxxii xxxiii xxxiii xxxiii xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxiv xxxv xlv xlv xlv
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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv li li 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 30 34 43 43 51 51 53 53 54 54 54 55 57 61 62 63 63 64 67 67 67 69 69 73 77
1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .
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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .
CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 81 85 87 88 88 90 92 95 95 104 111 120 132 133
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
I
Integral Analysis
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141 141 142 143 145 145 152 154 160 163 169 169 169 170 171 171 172 176 179 180 187 188 191
5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .
6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 193 193 205 206 207 207 209 209 210 210 212
7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform
II
Diﬀerential Analysis
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215 215 216 219 221 226 226 227 228 232 242 242 246 256 261 261 261 262 263 264 265 269 270 273 274 276 277 278 280
8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii 281 283 284 291 293 293 294 296 298 304 304 305 307 310 312 315 317 319 319 320 321
A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Firstorder equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index 323 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
viii CONTENTS .
The raising height as a function of the radius . Two liquid layers under pressure . .12 1. . . . . . . .13 1. . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity.8 1. . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . .4 Diagram to explain ﬂuid mechanics branches . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . Capilary rise between two plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . .22 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1. . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . . . . .19 1. . . . .5 1.6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . .18 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . . .20 1. Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 30 31 33 34 34 36 39 39 52 53 54 55 . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . .2 3. . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . .10 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1. . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Rotating disc in a steady state . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass tube inserted into mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment . . . . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . ix .17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of inertia. .4 1. . . . . .1 3. Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . . . . . Description of liquid surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 1. . .14 1. . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . .
. . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . Earth layers not to scale .8 3.27 4. . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area . . .19 4. . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . .10 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . Inclined manometer . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . . . . . . Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . .x 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 4. . . .34 LIST OF FIGURES The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . .16 4. . . . . .32 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube .25 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . Inverted manometer . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle . . . . . . . . .30 4.21 4. . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . .5 3. . .11 4. . .24 4. . . . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane .28 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 4. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . .33 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . .12 3.14 4. Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . .2 4. . . Rectangular area under pressure .11 3. . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body . .13 4. . .22 4. . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tank and the eﬀects diﬀerent liquids .7 3. . . . . .13 4. . .4 4. . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . . .15 4. Description of parabola . . . . . . . . 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 62 67 70 70 71 72 74 75 76 77 80 83 85 88 89 90 90 91 92 95 96 97 99 100 103 104 105 106 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 4. . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . The forces on curved area . . . . . .18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . .3 4. . .17 4. . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device . . . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . .31 4. . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4. . . . . . . . . . . .20 4. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . .38 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity . . . . . . .6 5. Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . . .9 5. . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . .45 4. . . . .1 5. Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 5. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body . . . . . . .12 6. . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio . .39 4. . . . . . . . 194 Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . .5 6. . .8 5. .35 4. . .4 . . . . . . . . . .36 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . . . . .1 6. The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . xi 113 121 121 122 125 125 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 135 136 137 141 142 143 144 147 150 155 160 161 162 163 164 170 173 175 177 178 179 182 183 187 189 192 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 5. . . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 4. . . . . . . . . .9 6.43 4. . . . . . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4.41 4. . . . . . . . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . . . .46 4. . . . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. . .3 6. . . . . . . . . .7 5. . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . . . . . . 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . .50 5. .40 4. . . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . .7 6. .44 4. . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body . . . . . .37 4. . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . .3 Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . Control volume and system in motion . . . .
10 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . . . . . . . . Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . .17 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 8. . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. .5 8. . . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . .12 9. . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . . . . .6 9. . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . .2 9. .11 9.3 9. Image of countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . .19 8. . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . .3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 8. . . . . . . .13 8. . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . 216 218 220 221 229 230 232 234 235 237 237 237 238 243 245 246 246 248 249 252 254 256 263 265 266 266 267 268 269 279 280 281 282 282 283 284 284 290 8. . . . . . .13 9. . . . . . . . . . . .18 8. . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . .8 8.3 Cylindrical Coordinate System . . .16 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . Flood in vertical pipe. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . . . .16 8. . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . .20 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .15 9.4 9. . . . The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . . . .11 8. .1 8. . . Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . .9 9. . . . . Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 A. . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . .7 8. . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . .xii 7. .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 A. . . .8 9.2 The right hand rule . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . .10 LIST OF FIGURES Flow in an oscillating manometer . Linear strain of the element . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can.
. The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . xiii 301 302 303 321 . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . .5 A.LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . .4 A. .7 Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiv LIST OF FIGURES .
. . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . .7 1. . .4 1. . . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . . . . . . .1 3.5 1. . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . A. .3 1. . . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 15 23 35 41 42 48 65 66 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvi LIST OF TABLES .
page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. see equation (2.26). see equation (5. see equation (1. page 171 The velocity taken with the direction.17). see equation (2. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. page 104 The acceleration of object or system.38).136). see equation (2. see equation (6.22). see equation (6.43). see equation (2. see equation (2. page 47 Internal energy. page 43 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. page 44 xvii . page 44 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 187 viscosity at input temperature T. page 170 Units length. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum.3). see equation (1.0). see equation (6. Ti0 . see equation (2. see equation (4.23).6).7). see equation (2. see equation (6.9). page 169 Martinelli parameter. see equation (4.17). page 277 The area of surface. page 45 subscribe for control volume.0). page 142 Speciﬁc pressure heat.1). page 47 The shear stress Tenser. page 47 Speciﬁc volume heat. see equation (9. page 67 Body force.v.11).NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.1)..
see equation (2. see equation (2. page 63 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. page 47 Fluid thermal conductivity.2). page 44 Work per unit mass.3).18). see equation (2.67).17). page 86 general Body force.27). page 142 . page 46 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats.14). page 12 Torque.13).0).2). see equation (2.4). page 67 Enthalpy. page 48 Entropy of the system. see equation (5.104). see equation (2.17).42).2). page 12 velocity . see equation (4. see equation (7. see equation (1. page 44 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2.1. see equation (3.18). see equation (4. page 44 The gravitation constant. page 97 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. see equation (2.xviii Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i. page 194 Angular momentum. see equation (2. see equation (2.40). see equation (4. see equation (4.24). page 64 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (1. page 46 Speciﬁc enthalpy.6). page 44 the coordinate in z direction. see equation (2. see equation (1. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 44 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (2. page 46 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.6). see equation (3. page 69 Subscribe says. see equation (2.17). page 44 Speciﬁc gas constant.0).
com.3.artofproblemsolving. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.3.3 Dec 5. 2010 (3. xix .0.3 M 358 pages) Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. Addition of several examples. 2010 (3. Version 0. additional examples in mass conservation chapter. Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus.The Book Change Log Version 0. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code. Brought the mass conservation chapter to code. Version 0.0.2 Nov 19.0.3 M 378 pages) Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system.3. 2010 (3.3 M 362 pages) Further improved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process. Improve English in several chapters.1 Nov 12.
Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation.9.2. 2010 (3. 2010 (3. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan). . Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress. Improve English in several chapters.3. Version 0. Add example.0.xx LIST OF TABLES Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation.1 Oct 11.2. 2010 (3. Improvement of properties chapter. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter. Version 0. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations. Version 0.0 Oct 24. Add several examples on surface tension.9 Sep 20.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter.
. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.2. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.com.2. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. 2010 (2.artofproblemsolving. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www.4 March 01. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.artofproblemsolving. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. 2010 (2. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.3 Jan 01.artofproblemsolving.2. 2009 (2.6 March 10. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter. 2010 (2.com. Add example about the the third component of the velocity. English corrections.9 Dec 01.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. Corrections to Static Chapter. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www.1. English corrections. Version 0. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.com.
5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Add some examples to static chapter. English corrections. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 2009 (2. 2009 (2. Two open questions were released.8. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperaturevelocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter.1. 2009 (2. Add an example to mechanics chapter. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. . Version 0. 2008 (2.1.1 Sep 17.xxii LIST OF TABLES Add the open question concept. Version 0.8 Aug 6.5 Nov 01.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. Version 0.1.8a July 5.1.8. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.
1. Version 0.5 Jun 5. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. . Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.1a April 23.1. The mechanics chapter was released. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter). 2008 (1.1a April 23.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.6 Jun 30. Version 0. (thanks to Tousher). Minor corrections for all three chapters. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. 2008 (1.1. Version 0. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter.5a Jun 11.1. 2008 (1. 2008 (1.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters.LIST OF TABLES xxiii Version 0. 2008 Version 0.1 May 8. Version 0.
xxiv LIST OF TABLES .
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Minor contributions (typo corrections.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. etc. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). just smaller in the sense of less text changed. 2009 xxxiii . time. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. contact info. etc. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. date. Dec. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution.
Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. describing how you contributed to the book. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Contact at: my email@provider. Dan H. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.net . Eliezer BarMeir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009.
Tousher Yang April 2008.38) by Michal Zadrozny. January 2008. (Nov 2010) . Gupta.CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. review of statics and thermo chapters. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). Corretion to equation (2.
xxxvi LIST OF TABLES .
Spain. Eckert. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . BarMeir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers.D. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP970489 and PB980007. the author’s models were used in numerical works. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. books and software. xxxvii . The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. Now. R. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD972333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Dr. this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants).E. British industry. All the models have practical applicability. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. In his early part of his professional life.About This Author Genick BarMeir holds a Ph. In the area of compressible ﬂow. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). Moreover. For example. in GM. BarMeir was the last student of the late Dr. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. As the change in the view occurred. BarMeir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability.G. and Canada. Currently.
BarMeir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. A past project of his was building a four stories house. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. the author just know to learn quickly. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. The author lives with his wife and three children. practically from scratch. BarMeir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. . While he is known to look like he knows about many things. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion.
Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. Hence.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. the creation of the POTTO Project. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material.org/wiki/Main Page). one of this author’s sages. one should increase wisdom. xxxix .law. like an open source. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work.wikipedia. On one hand. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. However. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders.harvard. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. Kook. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. There is always someone who can add to the book. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. is a new idea3 . It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. As individuals we have to obey the law. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. As R. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals.
To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted.ac. The social function can have at least two components. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. Nigel R.ex. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. Thus. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. It is not just for experts to contribute. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. In a way. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). 77:139.uk/bugclub/raiders. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books.. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. Thus. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. For example. For some authors. For some contributors/authors. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. For others. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. While one can be as creative as possible. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. In these cases.” American Scientist.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. one also begins to better understand the material. Whatever the reasons. 1989 (see for information http://www. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. The answer varies from individual to individual.html) . While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject.
the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book.000 copies a month. But more than that. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Nevertheless. etc.” In this process. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. . Gas Dynamics Calculator (PottoGDC). some errors are possible and expected. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. Additionally. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world).CREDITS xli process. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. For example. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. NASA Langley Research Center. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. Thus. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. graphs and etc. Unlike a regular book. while in other cases only the gate keeper. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). In addition. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. Farassat. Thus. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. It is hoped that the books will be errorfree. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. Even if not complete. These data (tables. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr.
and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.0. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.01 TelAviv’notes 0.8. ﬁgures.0.xlii Table 1. However.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0. etc.0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.0 0. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. and special cases.0. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion.1 0.0.1.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.3 0.0. Books under development in Potto project. but it has roots in the way science progresses.0 0. advanced topics. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).0.0. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.0 0. and all of the examples and data (tables. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.1 0.0 0. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status.) are already presented. a process in which books .2 0.4.
Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. writing examples. many of whom volunteered to help. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Word processors. Abiword. only LTEX. . Further. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. The text processes. such as OpenOﬃce. because of the open nature of this project. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. and Microsoft Word software.. Schlichting. and perhaps troﬀ. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format.CREDITS xliii have a new version every a few years. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. Again. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. A new version is created every several years. i. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. are not appropriate for these projects. 6 Originally authored by Dr.e. especially LTEX. who passed way some years ago. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. But more A than that. which include the actual writing of the text. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. However.
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This author was bothered by this explanation. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow.8 August 6. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. it is very satisfying for the author.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. in this version. so much energy). Now. 2008 pages 151 size 1. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book.Prologue For This Book Version 0. Version 0.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering.1 April 22. In fact. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xlv . Even in this early development stage. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. aerospace engineering. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea.1. 2008 pages 189 size 2. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. and electrical engineering. and civil engineering. chemical engineering.
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previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).
How This Book Was Written
This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. In writing this book, it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The approach adapted in this book is practical, and more hands–on approach. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. So, issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. Otherwise, this book avoids this kind of issues. The structure of Hansen, Streeter and Wylie, and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.” Later, multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. Of course, this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The graphics were done by TGIF, the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The spell checking was done by ispell, and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell, a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick BarMeir, and is copyleft by him.
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Preface
"In the beginning, the POTTO project was and void; and emptiness was upon the face and files. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. And the Author there be words, and there were words." 8 . without form, of the bits moved upon said, Let
This book, Basics of Fluid Mechanics, describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus, physics, etc. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. For example, if you need information about, say, statics’ equations, you can read just chapter (4). I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. However, this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook, and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are, rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped.9 Reading everything will, naturally, increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. Like all volunteer work, there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. Moreover, due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations, the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. Nevertheless, I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. This book contains many worked examples, which can be very useful for many. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book, marked with a Mata mark. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future.
the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is only to explain his power. the present, the book is not well organized. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress.
9 At 8 To
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Furthermore, I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. Incorrect language, errors, ideas for new areas to cover, rewritten sections, more fundamental material, more mathematics (or less mathematics); I am interested in it all. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. If you want to be involved in the editing, graphic design, or proofreading, please drop me a line. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail.com”. Naturally, this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). This material never went through a close content review. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. In practice, this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . Several people have helped me with this book, directly or indirectly. I would like to especially thank to my adviser, Dr. E. R. G. Eckert, whose work was the inspiration for this book. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices, ideas, and assistance. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. There are also notes in the margin, but those are solely for the author’s purposes, ignore them please. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing, editing, graphic ability, LTEX knowledge, and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. If you have Internet email access, you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.com”.
10 Dr. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well, literature review is always good, isn’t it?). Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction, it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. However, other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated.
To Do List and Road Map
This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Nevertheless, there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. At this stage, many chapters are missing. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. These omissions, mistakes, approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this
Meta
sample this part.
Meta End
You are always welcome to add a new material: problem, question, illustration or photo of experiment. Material can be further illuminate. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand.
Properties
The chapter isn’t in development stage yet.
Open Channel Flow
The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces, motions, and statical conditions in continuous material. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension, ﬂuid statics, ﬂow in enclose bodies, or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise), ﬂow stability, etc. In fact, almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. Furthermore, the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.). For example, glass appears as a solid material, but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp, the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics)
1
com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . Moreover.2 CHAPTER 1. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. Or. For example. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. air with dust particle). It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation.1. 1. http://ekkinc. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp.
conﬂicts with the reality. turbulence. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations.) on the principles of buoyancy. Later.C. Yet. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. 1. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. For example. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. Euler. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. When cities increased to a larger size. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be . He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. Bernoulli family.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance.2.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. At some point. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. Newton. and D’Alembert. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. After his initial work. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. Naturally. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. For example. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. As in thermodynamics. etc. Torricelli. Thus. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. aqueducts were constructed.1. and continue with Empirical Analysis. there isn’t a clear winner. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. Before dealing with the boundaries. to be followed by stability. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed.
ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. people cannot relinquish control. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Coulomb. But. von Karman. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. Helmhoitz. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Hagen. Meyer. On the theoretical side. as in thermodynamics. However. after World War Two. d’Aubisson. were Brahms. Bhuckingham. Dupuit. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. Bossut.4 CHAPTER 1. Weisbach. and Kelvin. Dubuat. Thus. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. for example. resistance by Darcy. In the middle of the nineteen century. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). Rose. Rayleigh. Chezy. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. Stanton. Gas Dynamics. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. This problem led to two consequences. The NavierStokes equations. La Grange. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. and many others. there are many . Ganguillet. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. Therefore. Prandtl and his students Blasius. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. Thus. and Manning. Fabre. Hydraulics. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. At the end of the twenty century. and Poisseuille. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Taylor. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. mainly in pipes and open channels area. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. On the “experimental” side. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. and Aeronautics. Kirchhoﬀ. and the KuttaJoukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). the way how it was calculated changed. Rankine. Fanning. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. The experimentalists.
The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. The pressure component in the area . EKK. the pressure has three components. Inc). This diﬀerence can be. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. Hence. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors.g it has a direction. under certain limits. which is force per area has a new meaning. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. Thus.1). 1. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. For example. no shear stress is applied. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version). This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. these programs are as good as the input provided. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. for most practical purposes considered. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. But below the critical point. The unit used to measure is [N]. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. The traditional quantity. For example. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). the emphasis is on the physics. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. In gaseous phase. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. and it is referred to the direction of the area. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally.3. The second quantity discussed here is the area. In this book. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area.1. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. Later. then the change of volume is at best 5%. For the discussion here. The area is measured in [m2 ]. Thus. So. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. It must be remember that force is a vector. In the best scenario. e. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume.
3). 1. here it will be treated as a separate issue. F.6 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. Diﬀerent from solid. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. (1. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. In solid mechanics. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. . The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. then.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). the density remains constant. From solid mechanics study. h) (1. the velocity of the plate increases also. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force).2. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. (1. that is. U0x F However. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. 1.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. 1.3. After certain sample size. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. Thus. h is the distance between the plates. the density is deﬁned as Fig. the F denotes the force. Figure 1. it was shown that when the force per area increases. When this assumption is broken. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. In this discussion. isn’t it?).2) Where A is the area. thus the small distance analysis is applicable.
4.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.4) (1.5) From equations (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.3) (1.7) From Figure 1.4.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.8) From equation (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. In steady state.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.4) and (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.9) with equation (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.11) .6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1. Hence. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time. d = U δt = h δβ (1. 1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. δt is d = U δt (1.9) Combining equation (1.
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.45[N ] h 0.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. Assume steady state conditions. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly. water etc. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ].1[m] diameters with height of 0.2[m] and 0.5 m/sec. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. Solution .5 A µU ∼ = 53. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. Equation (1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. Thus.8 CHAPTER 1. In fact.01 End Solution Example 1. Example 1.6)) F = 1 × 1. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. the following can be written (see equation (1. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. The property of viscosity.069 × 0.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin.1 [m]. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.
In liquids. the Fig. 1.5.4 ¡ M= ∼ .986 0. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible.5. thus. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.1 × 12/60 = 0. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. The same way as in example (1. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases.5 Viscosity 1.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families.5. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. and it resists the ﬂow. In gases. However.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1.13 h 0. in gases. Thus.1).1. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. while in the dU liquids. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. Thus.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n rP hi as lip po ff di la ta nt .
It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. There is a large class of materials which shows a nonlinear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. Not all the materials obey this relationship. The viscosity coeﬃcient is .10 CHAPTER 1. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines.7. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. Figure 1. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity.6. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. 1. both materials are only a function of the temperature. 1. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.5). the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. Well above the critical point. K) in equation (1. 1.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. From the physical point of view.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure.13) are constant. On the liquid side below the critical point.13) The new coeﬃcients (n.5.
0026 0.5).8. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms).e06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.002 0. However.0016 0.0004 0. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition.5. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if τyx  > τ0 (1.0022 0. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. F.0024 0.7. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.000015 0. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. Ferraris. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress. Mindess and J. The kinematic vis. In the simple case. de Larrard and N. 1.e05 0.003 0. for most practical purposes. For example.14) dUx =0 dy if τyx  < τ0 (1. However. This fact explains Fig.0002 5. When n is below one.1. 1. S.0018 0. cosity is deﬁned as 0. When n. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. 1 C.0006 0. is above one.0028 0.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.of the temperature.0014 0.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required.5.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature.0012 0. Skalny. 215241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. [m2 /sec].001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. Materials Science of Concrete VI.. the liquid is dilettante. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic.0008 0. eds. VISCOSITY 11 always positive. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.000025 0. Martys.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.
1. T T0 3 2 (1.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.710−5 .51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.555 × 524.8 and Fig.5.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. For isothermal ﬂow.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.001 0. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.00001827 × × 0.002 0. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. Water viscosity as a func1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature.07 3 2 ∼ 2. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.12 CHAPTER 1.1 Example 1.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. 2008 0. have expressions that provide an estimate. For many gases. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases. Use the data provide in Table 1.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3.07 + 120 µ = 0.9. . 1.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.9. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.
0000146 0.00001480 0. .0002018 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000076 0.0000876 0.1.00001827 0.0001781 0.05 528. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.2.99 526.07 527.93 540.0000109 0.00001720 0.5.67 528. Viscosity of selected gases.67 524.0001254 Table 1.0000203 0.67 518.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.1.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table 1.00000982 0.
072 0.098 0.200 0.150.084 0.01915 0.6 0.000647 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.986 520 0. .000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.001547 0.14 CHAPTER 1.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table 1. Viscosity of selected liquids.3.000946 0.001194 0.05 0.000245 0.54 1.
Government Printing Oﬃce.5 151 289.4 49.256425 48.C. The lower pressure is. other points can be estimated.0 0.3 28. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. Atomic Energy Commission AECD3646 U. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). The second way. if one point is well documented. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. The lines of constant relative pressure.01 32.40685 22.3 5. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point.97 44.47 2.7 647.26 44. Furthermore.04 Tc [K] 33.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.5 2. then the critical . the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”). this graph also shows the trends. for practical purpose.358525 48.289945 27. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. Figure 1. Furthermore.10.0 15.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.636 58.9 15 Table 1. Vol.07 16. Washington D. Tr .11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.5 1.944 131.1.0 21. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. Liquid Metal viscosity 2. Even when there is a solidiﬁ. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.83865 46.4 190. 19.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.4.7685 36.S.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.183 39.Fig.865925 50. In this graph. In Figure 1.54 15.9696 2. 1.8823 73.4 or similar information. 258.00 30.003 20.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.016 4.6 26. ∼ 1[bar]. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.4 305. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.2 154. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.3 19.5.0 18. cation (mushy zone).8 132 304. May 1995 p.
41 154. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.15 ∼ 2. For most 3 Kyama.4 50.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.35[Bar] Tc = 154. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.35 373. Example 1. 2 1956. 26 No. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.2 = 21. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar]. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. Even for homogeneous mixture.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1.11 obtain the reduced viscosity. . Rev.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. when none is available.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.18) The third way. Makita. In this book.11 (1.
11. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 twophase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. 2008 Fig. . xi is the mole fraction of component i. and µi is the viscosity of component i.5.1. cases. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. The subscript i should be used for the j index. 1.2 Pr=0. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.22) Here.
M 32. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Mole Fraction. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. Example 1. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.18 6 CHAPTER 1.12.00001754 . 2008 Fig.0000203 0.2 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.4 Tr=1. x 0.2 0. 1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1. µ 0. 28.8 Viscosity.1 Tr=1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen.
To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.2 × 0. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0. This equation (1.0 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.001 kN .0024 0. m2 m2 and τs = 0.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.5. in theory. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.996 1.0215 N sec .875 1. m2 Figure 1.8 × 1.0 + 0.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.0 1.157 . Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.0 19 µmix ∼ 0.0 Φij 1.8 × 1. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.0000203 0.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0. µ0 = 0.2 × 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.0 1. End Solution In very low pressure. the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. An example for values for this formula.0000073 kN .0000182 .2 × 1.0024 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.25) .0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.00105 N sec .8 × 0. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.0 µi /µj 1.143 0. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.1.0000181 0.996 + 0.86 1.
7: A square block weighing 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1.VI. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0. dU ∼ 0. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders.1[m/s] (1.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0.26) Example 1. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.VI. hence.101 − 0. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder.VII.0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0.20 and CHAPTER 1.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0.4 revolution per second.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0.VI.a) .1 × π × 0. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec].c) Example 1.2 = dr End Solution dU dr (1. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.2 [m].1 − 0 (1.
In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r.1.c) End Solution 1. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω.a) T = 0 2 r τ dA = 2 0 2µr ωr 2 π r dr δ (1. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0.VII. Rotating disc in a steady state. Solution δ Fig.b) (1.VIII.VII.b) The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. The edge eﬀects can be neglected. In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius. U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3 21 (1.c) End Solution Example 1.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap.VIII. r and expression has to be developed for it.6 Fluid Properties The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. 1.13.1 × 30.VIII.6. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as R R (1. The rest of the properties lumped into this section. .
Example 1.IX. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C.b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2. State your assumptions.e) . it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible.c) E − ∆P E (1.22 CHAPTER 1.a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 (1.IX. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. Examples to described usage of property are provided.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 . E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.IX.d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α.IX. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume.6. For this example. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand.IX.IX.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank.
27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.5.74 [MPa] 4.62 1.228.06 1.97 2.5.109 [MPa] na 22.3 [Mpa] nf 7.52 26.5 [Bar] 172.064 [MPa] In the literature.34 1. Table 1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.80 1.00 [MPa] Est 78.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.79 K na 647. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1. FLUID PROPERTIES 23 1.32 1.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.49 0.49 [MPa] 6. Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data.3 4.1.20 1.034. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4. The .5 2. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.10 1. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).152.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).09 1.6.28 2.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.60 1. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries).096 K Pc 57.6.5 0.
32) On constant pressure lines. These deﬁnitions are related to each other.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant.33) From equation (1. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away. . v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1.24 CHAPTER 1. and therefore equation (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v dv dT =− P =const v (1.34) T Equation (1. In contrast.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1.35) The last equation (1. dP = 0. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.
b) ∆P ∆V /V (1.14.12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1. State your assumptions. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.01 = 2. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.1. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C. FLUID PROPERTIES 25 Example 1.a) air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig.XII.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 .XII. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1. The new pressure is P1 . 1.00035 End Solution Example 1.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. . Two liquid layers under pressure. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 .14.6.15 109 .714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.
e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .c) yields m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx 0 V −V BT Equation can be rearranged to be m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx V 1− BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT x (1. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1. In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure.XIII.XIII.d) ρ(x)dx 0 (1.e) Equation (1.c) End Solution Example 1.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.f) construction . In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom.XIII.XIII. calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods.XIII.XIII.26 CHAPTER 1. For this example.c) Combining equation (1.XIII.e) to 1− 4 Under g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.b) with equation (1.XIII.XII. It is convenient to change further equation (1.12.13: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers). .XIII.XIII.a) The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored.
XIII.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propogate from the surface to a depth D penpendicular the surface.XIII.1.XIII.l) BT ρ0 BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1. That is the density is function of the depth.XIII.14: Water in deep sea undergoes compresion due to hydrostic pressure.j) The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ 0 x + BT (1. the salinity can be complity ignored.6. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1.XIII. Assume that no variation of the temperatuere. the density at the bottom using equation (1.XIII.k) In the “constant” density approach.h) The solution is (1.i) or rearranged as ρ= (1.g) (1.XIII.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1.XIV.XIII.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1. .e) is ρ0 BT ρ0 =⇒ ρ= g (1. For constant bulk modulus. FLUID PROPERTIES 27 The integral equation (1.XIII. For the purpose of this excerss.
XIV.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1.XIV.g) 1.2. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added .c) The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of inﬁnitesimal time D dx t= (1.XIV. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point.b) The time the sound travel a small intervel distance.f) (1.XIV. is c= BT = ρ0 B T BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1. the desnitsy is diﬀerent for evry point since the density varies and the desnity is a function of the depth.d) BT − g ρ 0 x 0 ρ0 The solution of equation (1. The speed of sound at any depth point. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure. However.XIV. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.6.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D = √ t= BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard caclulation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1. x.28 Solution CHAPTER 1.XIV.XIV.
42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v (1. FLUID PROPERTIES 29 in special way. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1. In case the total change isn’t.38) (1.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.40) Rearranging equation (1. another approach with taking into account the energyvolume is needed. Hence.6.41) Equation (1. in special mixture. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change.37) Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.36) The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present. The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.43) End Advance material .37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.36) into equation (1.39) Where x1 . x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V . Thus.1.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = (1.27) or (1.
The forces in Fig. Thus.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. In many (physics. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. the equation (1.45) Equation (1.44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.44) For a very small area. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. the horizontal forces R2 dℓ1 cancel each other because symx metry. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. In the vertical direction. dℓ2 The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization). The relationship between the surface tension and the pres2dβ1 sure on the two sides of the sury face is based on geometry. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. Surface tension control volume analysis describing principals radii.15. 1.30 CHAPTER 1. Con2dβ2 sider a small element of surface. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). The second with two equal radii. Furthermore. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and bubbles. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. When the surface tension R1 is constant.46) . Thus. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. surface tension. The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials.
The inner diameter is 0.1.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C.021[m].45) is reduced to ∆P = 2σ R (1.b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 (1. SURFACE TENSION 31 Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.16).02[m] σ 1.XV.d) .02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0. Estimate the depression size. 1. Glass tube inserted into mercury. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1.5 Fig.15: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury. A soap bubble is made of two layers.7.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.48) Example 1. However.XV. inner and outer. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it.47) Where R is the radius of the sphere. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.16.XV. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0. It can be assume that the h 0.XV.c) b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W ∼0 (1.
The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv rf r0 w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 2σ gρr h= (1.e) End Solution Example 1.17: . It is worth noting that for very slow process. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . which contains n bubbles with equal radii. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. The reversible process requires very slow compression.47) for reversible process. that is the work is done on the system. r. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume. End Solution Example 1.49) The minimum work will be for a reversible process. It can be noticed that the work is negative. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage.32 Or after simpliﬁcation CHAPTER 1. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1.16: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid.50) Where.XV.
33 ℓ h Fig. Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force).7. Solution In Figure 1. Capilary rise between two plates. 1.18: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders. the pressure above and below and surface tension.1. SURFACE TENSION Calcualte the rise of liquid between two dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1.05[N/m]. the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1.b) (1.51) (1. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ.8 × ×1000 End Solution 2σ ρg (1. The question when the curveture should be ansered in the Dimentional analysis and for simpliﬁcation this eﬀect is neglected. the contol volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise.51) resutls in h= 2 × 0. Thus.17.a) .XVIII.17 exhibits the liquid under the current study. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity.001[m].17.52) Example 1.001 × 9.05 = 0.XVIII. Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which diﬀerent from simple one dimensional case. Cumpute the value for sufrace tension of 0. It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curveture on the upper part. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwords) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1.
Description of wetting and ular phenomenon.19. Thus. conG sider the point where three phases became in contact. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.XVIII.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.55) (1. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. the solid reaction force must be zero. The surface tension is a molec.18.54) into equation (1. thus. liquid. 1. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. Forces in Contact angle. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1. . The surface tension forces must be balanced.Fig. a contact angle is created to balance it.53) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. 1. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.53). For example. This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. equation (1.XVIII.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1. Thus. In Figure 1. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1. and gas can be ignored.18.34 CHAPTER 1. the solid phase.7.54) (1.
So. Siegel.Nickel Nickel Nickel ChromeNickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. Heat Transfer. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. The contact angle for air. however.. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. This statement is correct in most cases.I. vol 1 pp 365 . M.5 π/3. chemical component Steel Steel. and Ostrovsky. and Rohsenow W.7 π/4.4 π/3.76 to π/3.. Y. Table 1.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. Aladev O. E. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. On the other hand. G. 9. ASME.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. 4 Arefeva E.I. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).517. SURFACE TENSION 35 The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. Pages 509 . gas medium and the solid surface.N. For example. 1975 2 Bergles A. pages 14651470.372.. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”.7.19).1. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is nonwetting. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. I. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. V.T.83 π/3. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. No 12. J. E. .6. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. 3 Tolubinsky. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. 1117 1(7) In Russian.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4.7 π/6 to π/4. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface.83 π/4. Vol. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water.74 to π/3.74 π/4. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency.
20. Prog.46) is applicable to it. ρ = σ R(x) (1.. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. and Dhir. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. 659669 To explain the contour of the surface. Warrier.20.56) The radius of any continuous function. W.” J. 6 Basu. K. Equation (1. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. The pressure. Heat Transfer 115. R. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Labuntsov D. . 124. C.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x... F. 7 Gaetner.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields 0 0 0 g h(x). pp. J. In Figure 1. N.. Ser. and Dhir. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). Vol. Appalling equation (1. is the atmospheric pressure. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.. Description of liquid surface. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. R. G. papes 717 728.. A.. the Figure 1. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. x+dx. and Westwater. No 1.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. on the gas side. (1993). (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. H.20). The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4). h = h(x).20 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. Symp. K.” Chem. V. Eng. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . 56. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface.57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. Energetika I transport.. V.36 CHAPTER 1. 1. 8 Wang.
63) At inﬁnity. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.58) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 37 (1.62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. The diﬀerential dh is h.60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1.1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.64) . An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1. SURFACE TENSION Substituting equation (1.59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1.60) dh (1. constant = −1 .61) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.7.62) After the integration equation (1.61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence.57) into equation (1.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1.
this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations. 1. otherwise it will not be there. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.64) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Equation (1. Equation (1. 5 This p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. This book is introductory.67) = dx −1 (1. .1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume).68) Equation (1.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.70) Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube.69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. Furthermore. Shamefully.64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 (1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp −1 (1. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1.7.38 CHAPTER 1.1.68) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp  (1.
4 0.3 0. However. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. The raising height as a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.2 0. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1.6.8 2.0 0. The raising height as a tremely small radii equation (1. Equation (1.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.21 as blue line. This angle is obtained when a Fig.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { 0. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.4 2. there are information about the contact angle.22 exhibits the height as a function of Capilary Height the radius of the tube.2 1. function of the radii. However. For large radii equation (1. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. Furthermore.0 Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect).Fig. in reality there is no readily information for 0 R contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. The height based on equation (1. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.71) with a minus sign.8 Height [cm] 0.1. for ex. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. 1.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. . 2008 6 Actually. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates.” The depression height.22. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.71) is shown in Figure 1. In conclusion. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. 1. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The actual height is shown in the red line. high height which indicates a negative pressure. SURFACE TENSION h 39 But this simplistic equation is unusable and Theory useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. In that case equation (1.21.71). For a small tube radius.71) Figure 1. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 15 [mm].1 2.6 (1.22. 1.6 0.9 1.21.7 Radii [cm] May 29.5 1.7. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. actual However.2 1. h is similar to equation (1. On the other hand.0 0. equation (1.7.71) indicates that the function of the radius.
0728 ∼ . Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for. Neglect the weight of the ring. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.0[N/m2 ] r 0.22: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. However. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0. Estimate the surface tension? Solution .02 cm.40 CHAPTER 1.21: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.19: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].0728 ∼ ∼ 728. Therefore. the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].001 [m].04 × 0. End Solution Example 1.20: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.47). You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Example 1.0728 = ∼ 2. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.0002 End Solution Example 1.
15 43.1291 0.0773 0.7.70 26.1066 0.1.60 27. SURFACE TENSION To be continue End Solution 41 Table 1.50 28.10 22.1118 n/a n/a 0.1160 0.0842 n/a 0.1295 0.8 32.20 ∼ 21 64.50 41.0890 0.1159 0.1120 0.1484 0.1484 0.50 24.0966 0.20 43. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.6 25.20 24.0832 0.1063 0.95 34.0920 0.067 .1037 0.4 28.1117 n/a 0.1011 n/a 0.88 39.00 45.1177 0.12 425465.10 29.0598 n/a 0.7.048.2049 0.60 22.1085 0.0 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C  correction mN mK n/a 0.1191 0.70 38.0 22.90 43.95 36.10 32.1211 0.20 47.6 5. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Surface Tension 27.0 0.40 32.70 58.1160 0.30 43.12 33.3 22.1308 0.30 23.50 36.1094 0.
1172 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table 1.1189 n/a 0.91 14.00 41.1100 n/a n/a 0.90 0.1514 0.0935 0.1372 0.50 23.1104 .00 36.1101 0.7.42 CHAPTER 1.0777 0. The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water oXylene mXylene Surface Tension mN m T 25◦ C  correction mN mK 12.4 27 72.0972 0.80 30.70 38.60 n/a 5469 28.10 28.85 11.0902 0.
the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. 43 . a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. In this deﬁnition.CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter. So. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. The dimensions of this material can be changed. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two. Work In mechanics. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues.
5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.E.6) 2 (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results.3) Interesting results of equation (2. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. potential energy (gravity). etc. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum.2) The system energy is a state property. and electrical energy. The “new” internal energy. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The kinetic energy is K. For such body force. Eu .44 CHAPTER 2. = mU 2 2 (2. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. A common body force is the gravity. . is the internal energy per unit mass. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration). The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. The statement describing the law is the following. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. chemical potential. the conservation is applied to all systems. work.
10) The time derivative operator. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law.9) (2.2. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. choosing any point in time will make it correct.1. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.8) For the case were the body force. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. the integral is independent of the path.12) The last integral can go though several states. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.13) . If there is no lost. δQ =0 T (2. Bf . The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. Hence.7) In the same manner.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. BASIC DEFINITIONS 45 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points.
18) For isentropic process. the enthalpy of the system.46 CHAPTER 2. Thus. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. isn’t correct.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.19) (2.17) (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. h. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.20) (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.21) ρ .17) is reduced to dH = V dP . which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. equation (2.16) into (2. Furthermore.16) (2. The equation (2.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. it still remail valid for all situations. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.18) the (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2. Thus. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.15) (2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. For reversible process equation (2.
Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.26) . The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. pressure. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. k.1. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases.2.3145 kj kmol K (2. 47 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.24) For solid. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. Normally the relationship of temperature.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.
41195 0.327 From equation (2.400 1.25983 0. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.1.2091 2.7354 0.0416 1.7445 1.5203 1.393 1.999 44.7165 0.2537 1.237 1.183 28.6794 1.400 1.07279 0.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.5734 0. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.6385 0.0035 0.6618 1.1156 10.18855 0.186 1.01 28.289 1.6179 0.003 2.409 1.8723 0.9216 1.12418 0.054 4.28700 0.400 1.4909 1.7164 0.7113 0.016 16.4108 1.01 30.29683 0. Table 2.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.126 1.1.2518 3.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.230 31.29637 2.299 1.51835 0.29) (2.20813 0.097 18.5482 5.48 CHAPTER 2.013 114.7662 1.4897 1.124 44.07703 4.667 1.6529 0.8418 1.29680 0.044 1.27650 0.7448 1.07 28.1926 14.28) .970 39.18892 0.0299 1.04 20.14304 0.667 1.091 1.3122 1.0849 1.0413 1.948 58.48152 1.667 1.
∆s = 0.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.28) and subsisting into equation (2.32) (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 49 (2.36) (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.30) Utilizing equation (2.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.2.1).38) . The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.1. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2. k value ranges from unity to about 1.667. of Classical thermodynamics.
REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.39) . This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.50 CHAPTER 2.
2) Example 3. t in a location. 3.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 51 . This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. R .
d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.52 CHAPTER 3.b) and (3.I. 3.I.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window.I. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.I. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed. (3.I.a).I.1.I. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window. To simplify the calculations.I.c) These nonlinear equations (3. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components.b) and (3. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b. t and three equations.I.I. . at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.I.c) b= and equation (3.I.I.f) (3. Isolating t from (3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.a) and substituting into equations (3. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ. There there are three unknowns.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.e) into (3.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. and time. Calculate what is the veFig.I.I.11 . θ.c) can be solved explicitly. For given velocity.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics. U . dow. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.
m is the total mass of the object.4) where xi is the direction of either.2. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. In other words. 3. Also. x. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. etc. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. In x coordinate.2.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections.Fig. 3. The density. . rho) as a function of the location. Note. the center of mass is required to make the calculations.3) z Here.3. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. ﬁrst. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. the x mass.2.2. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. moment of inertia. CENTER OF MASS 53 3. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). the body will not rotate. Thus. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. Here.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. In same is calculated. y or z. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . center of the mass and two. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass.
t.3. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.5) Fig. ρ.3. Thus.8) . Thin body center of mass/area The density. equation (3. Thus equation (3.54 CHAPTER 3.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. Furthermore. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. ρ and the thickness.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. 3. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. 3. are constant and can be canceled. the body was a three dimensional shape. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. schematic.2.3 which has density.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. 3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.
equation (3.15) mation of moment of inertia.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. The schematic that explains the sum (3. 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 55 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.2.3.13) y’ C z Thus.3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.10) 3.3. . t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.2 3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.3.4.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.
3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.2.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.16) 3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.56 CHAPTER 3.5.5 and therefore.19) Hence. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.3.22) .17) equation (3.
r0 .6. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.7.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. 3. as shown in Figure 3. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. Fig. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3.3.7 around x coordinate.3.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 57 Equation (3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. For example.6.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. 3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. dr r 3.3. . End Solution Fig.
I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.24) to write as t/2 Fig. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3.Fig.58 CHAPTER 3. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. 3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. The results are present in Figure 3.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3. 3. February 28.8. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. 2 This . b has no eﬀect on the error. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. A square element for the calculations of inertia of twodimensional to three– dimensional deviations. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 .9.9. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio twodimensional to three–dimensional. Ad.
5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page).a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. Hint.c) Example 3.3.10 is a r2 d Izz dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. b/α.V. Solution dx dy y r x 59 2b 2a Fig. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.V. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. 3.3. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).20). 3.11. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. calculate the area ﬁrst.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3.V. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular. Hint. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia. Rectangular Moment of inertia.11. depicted in Figure 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.10. y = αx2 . First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .
7. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.12. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. 3. Assume that base is a and the height is h. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3.6).7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.60 CHAPTER 3.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. The center of every 2 element is at. . Triangle for example 3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.
29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.3. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 61 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. the product of inertia is commonly used. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3.3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.28) For example. End Solution a3 h 2 3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.3.31) A .30) expanding equation (3.
8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. Product of inertia for triangle.35) referred as principle system. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3. End Solution 3.13. . Example 3. 3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.35) System which creates equation (3.3.62 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.
thus. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity.41) .39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. Yet. Two. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. it can be treated as the regular derivative. Coriolis. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. F= ρ rdV V (3. stresses). 2 (Ur × ω). NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 63 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. ˙ 3. dm. The same as in the dynamic class. Angular. the system acceleration called the internal forces. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.4.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. ω×(r × ω).38) The velocity. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. r × ω. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3.3.
40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. 3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries.43) m It can be noticed (well.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. The force can be written. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. (3. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3. in the same fashion. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.64 CHAPTER 3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. consider a particle moving in x–y plane.42) where Tτ is the torque.5.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.44) To understand these equations a bit better. .
3. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .1. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 65 Table 3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α . yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .5.
66 CHAPTER 3.2. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc . yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table 3.
here this topic will be more vigorously examined. a = 0.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration.g. 4.1) erated system under body forces.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. where n is the steepest 67 . that pressure can increase and later decrease. z). There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations.1. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). y. gG (x. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. with acceleration. a as shown in Figure 4. dy. However. 4.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or quasi rest. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. Fig. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel Equation (4.1. In these derivations.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. several assumptions must be made. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. Later. Furthermore.
the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector.8) (4. the pressure is treated.7) .4) In general. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. it has a direction). the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. now.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix). the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.2) In the same fashion. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. For example.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is.6) Hence. Even though. If the pressure. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4.68 CHAPTER 4. P . This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. As before.
There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.9) and substituting it into equation (4.9) Utilizing equation (4. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. and temperature. 4. First. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. 4.11) (4. y. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented. However.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.11) and therefore P (x.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. pressure. ρ. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.3. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations.3. z) = −ρgz + constant (4.4.12) (4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. . PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 Some refer to equation (4. Traditionally. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 . it will be used. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant. y) = constant (4.10) and constant in equation (4. P . For example.8) as the Fluid Static Equation.10) can be integrated to yield P (x.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.
70 CHAPTER 4.2. the right hand side of the equation (4. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. The diﬀerence in the .15) In the literature.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. 4. It is evident from equation (4. Example 4.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. 4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure.3. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. Figure 4. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown.4 are in equilibration.
Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4. Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4.I.I.I.b) results in (4.2: .4.b) h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 − mB VB mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ].I.d) combining equations (4. Assume that for accelerated cart. The eﬀective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m]. Example 4.a) (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m]. (4.I. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C. The total Fig.c) The pressure diﬀerence between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4.3.I.a). Calculate the air mass in chamber B.I.4.I. 4. The liquid in the two chambers is water. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ].e) RT P B VB (4.f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept.
. Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4.d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower.3: The eﬀect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines. For the case.II. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank.16) End Solution Example 4. However.II. the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface.72 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. Part of the tank height is ﬁlled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density). The diﬀerence is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4.II.II.b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence.5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid). The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. The common instinct is to ﬁnd that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.5. Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water. Tank and the eﬀects different liquids. hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage. 4. FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig.
The high of the Mercury is 0.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 73 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4.III.a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ htotal ¡ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ ¡ htotal (4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.3. Hence.3.17) . The mercury density is 13545.2 4.d) 4.3.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure.000179264[kPa]. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.III. The description of the height is given in Figure 4. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature). Equation (4.b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height.III.3. Hence. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. Example 4.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.4.2. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.3. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.82[m/sec].c) (4.III. φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.85[kg/m3 ].
76 ∼ 101095. h .74 CHAPTER 4.39[P a] ∼ 1. 4.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. Pa = 13545.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. U tube is L. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. P valve 2 1 Example 4. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.82 × 0. Locate the liquids surfaces. The ratio of the Fig. Gas The pressure. L.6. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. For smaller width. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb .85 × 9. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. Thus.
18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. 4. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that .7. This technique utilizes the opposite range. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument.Fig. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 75 4.4. This way.3. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4.6). In the previous technique. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. Figure 4.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. Schematic of sensitive measurement device. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height.2. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other.2. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.3.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.3. In steady state. 4. thus the height become large. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.
22) For the small value of the area ratio. The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. Inclined manometer.23) becomes h2 = (4. Thus. Due to surface tension. With the equation for height (4. The equation (4. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer. 4. This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height.24) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. ρ2 .23) A2 A1 (4. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal.24) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4.25) If there is a insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant).19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4.19) the gas density was neglected. Additionally. the volume ratio.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.8. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). FLUIDS STATICS two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . . the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. then equation (4. A2 /A1 << 1. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a signiﬁcant complications. (4. For example.21) equation (4. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations. Additional parameter.8). a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 . this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. In this method.21).18) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . in writing equation (4. Here.76 CHAPTER 4.
PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted Utube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer.9).3. Thus equation (4. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.4. As ﬁrst approximation.27) Fig.3. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density.26) 1 a b 2 (4.30) .11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ. 4. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4.9. In the gas phase.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4.3.3. 4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. Thus. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4. Schematic of inverted manometer.28) As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure. 4. liquids and other. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed. right leg left leg 77 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4. density and location.
30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).32) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.33). they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. However. In general. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. a numerical integration must be carried out.33) (4.78 CHAPTER 4. In these cases.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.34) Equation (4.39).31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.35) (4. the value of the compressibility factor. Equation (4. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2.36) Without going through the mathematics. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 .32) and (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. Z. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. .
If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4.40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. So.43) .3.40) in equation (4.40) Equation (4. For these cases.37) The variables for equation (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 79 The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. Utilizing equation (4.38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.3.4.39) Equation (4. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. Fortunately. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).3.42) has units of length. here.42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4. with units of length. The integration constant.38) The integration of equation (4.28). The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1.
If you know of any of these solutions or similar.” The method described in the Example 1. The comparison between the two methods will be presented. Sometimes. In Example 1.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.13 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1. BT /g ρ0 .10. FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). please pass this information to this author.46) An approximation of equation (4. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density. 4. Additionally. pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4.44) and is plotted in Figure 4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).13 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state. .47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4.XIII. is a typical length of the problem. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4. the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location.45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.44) March 11. The solution is presented in equation (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections 2 3 = z g ρ0 (4.13 is more general which provided a simple solution5 . The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4.10.45) Fig.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution. However. P/BT is small (<< 1). it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side.80 This constant.
49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition.). just ignore it.4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4. . Hence. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.4 4.48) where h here referred to height or distance. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure.3. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. If you feel that it is too simple. For example. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. For h = 0. Here.53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.50) Separating the variables in equation (4. please. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4.50) with (4.3. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.52) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.4.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.51) (4. For the atmosphere. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 81 4.
56) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. However. h.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas.G.e. Equation (4. It has to be noted that these equations (4..82 CHAPTER 4.R. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4. negative direction). For engineering purposes.50)..57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height.56) and (4. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.57) Equation (4. inﬂuences at only large values of height. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.55) and (4. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4.55) represents only the pressure ratio. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. I am grateful to my adviser E.55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.56) Equation (4. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 .52) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. Equation (4. (4. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − .. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio. FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4. The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. . Cx .55) It can be noticed that equation (4.
Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. However. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height. equation (2. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). higher heights). the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 83 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. That is.4. Suppose that h for some reason.58) Advance material can be skipped 4.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4.4. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). That is. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. .25).55) is stable and if so under what conditions. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh.3. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4.11. In reality. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. Clearly.3. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.11) What could happen? There are Fig. Thus. h. 4. Under equilibrium.
25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4..59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4.63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4. From a mathematical point of view. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.65) .55) but can be approximated by equation (4.84 CHAPTER 4. The process.56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.64) and (4.63) provides the conditions to determine the stability.62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.62) Expanding equation (4.62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − .. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.
the unstable situation is continuously unstable. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. At ﬁrst glance. Thus.3. .11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 85 After rearrangement of the inequality (4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant.4.5. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. Equation (4. it is said that situation is neutral. 4.12. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. Thus.3.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. The varying gravity eﬀects Thus. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. the density.65) and using the ideal gas identity.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. equation (4. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. Fig. issues. However. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . 4. Again. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent on density and pressure. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. ρ and the body force.will not be introduced here. g. 4. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 .66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body.
69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.5.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. equation (4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. numerical integration is a possible solution.68) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.. FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. 4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. is employed. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.. As before. This equation conﬁrms .67) where G denotes the general gravity constant. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.3. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . Z.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.70) Equation (4. Thus. The integration of equation (4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).86 CHAPTER 4. equation (4.73) Equation (4.68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.71) = = 1− − + .70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4.
the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes..5. if applicable.3.. As before Taylor series for equation (4.3.4. 4.76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.78) . 4.77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 87 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + . it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.000 [m].3. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.40) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4.74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.
81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.7: A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. In general. FLUIDS STATICS 4. This question is one of the traditional question of the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. 4.88 CHAPTER 4.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. 4.13. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. As before. for the eﬀective gravity (4.79) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is gef f  = g 2 + a2 (4. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. Equation (4. in a two dimensional system. The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left.4. Thus. the previous derivations can be easily extended.80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. Example 4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force. The change of the acceleration from the right to left is . Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. body forces were considered as onedimensional. However.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.
4.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. If there is no resistance.01◦ g 9.812 = 11. Thus.83) (4.Fig. This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.4. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is gef f  = 52 + 9.84) (c) . In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. Calculate the shape of the surface. 4.14.82) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu.14. A cart slide on inclined plane. If there is a resistance. α < β. lar to the slope. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 89 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector). is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4. End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart.8: A cart partially ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.
2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig.4.16. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4.90 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Example 4. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4. So. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. the ﬁrst case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.86) (4. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. For simpliﬁcation reasons. example 4.17. The center of rotation is a distance. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. CHAPTER 4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.15.85) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. L from the “left” hand side. 4.87) Fig. 4.86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4. That eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.9 is provided. Schematic to explain the angular angle. Solution .
End Solution Example 4. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?.4.17 shows the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. 4.4.9 is rotating with upper part height of . The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. Thus. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.87) represent the pressure line. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other.11: In the U tube in example 4.17. At what rotating nt .9.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 91 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. End Solution Example 4. It is ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry. equation (4.
Earth layers not to scale. and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. This Fig.4. what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4. outer core. Two diﬀerent extremes can recognized in ﬂuids between the outer core to the crust.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase. The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core. 4.92 CHAPTER 4.18. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most signiﬁcant role. inspired from image made by user Surachit . FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. In reality. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers. it will be used to do some estimates. In geological system such as the Earth provide cases to be used for the ﬂuid static to estimating pressure. there might be an additional eﬀects which aﬀecting the situation but these eﬀects are not the concern of this discussion.9 explaination is provided to understand how to use the bulk modulus and the eﬀect of rotation. For the purpose of this book. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana BarMeir. If this assumption is accepted.
In that case.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4. The approximate deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4. Thus. the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4.13 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4.93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 93 In the other extreme north–south does not play any eﬀect since the radius is relatively very small.4. Hence.j). the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4.4. The solution of this equation obtained by diﬀerentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4.XIII.95) .94) The solution of equation (4. r. ρ0 (4. In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r.89) Using equation to express the pressure diﬀerence (see Example 1. for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant.90) In equation (4. Again.90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location.28).92) Equation (4.45) or in approximation of equation (1. If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1.92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation.
97) − ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G (4. Nevertheless. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally diﬃculty. The pressure diﬀerence is due to the large radius. FLUIDS STATICS The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r 1 G ∆P = 1 2G 1 1 BT − − 2 ρ0 ρ0 R 0 r .98) The other issue that related to this topic is.92) has to include the rotation eﬀects.R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G dr r2 (4. The pressure diﬀerence is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4.99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as 1 ρ0 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core.101) Integrating equation (4. the eﬀect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done. End Advance material . The rotation aﬀects the density since the pressure changes. The integral in equation (4.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = ρ3 BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4. In the range between the two extreme. It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity. In real liquid. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core. the ﬂow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid ﬂows around.102) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4. Thus.94 CHAPTER 4. What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account.
FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 4. Calculate the minimum forces. 4. 4.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.19. These calculations are divided into two categories.4.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h AA ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ AA a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. This section deals with these calculations. Later.103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 . M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.5. Initially. Example 4.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. straight surfaces and curved surfaces. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Rectangular area under pressure. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.5.19. a simple case will be examined.
FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4. 4. First. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. It is the total force.20. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. Several rep. Additional equation is needed.96 CHAPTER 4. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3.104) . These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.Fig. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3.20.103) and also a center of area. Looking at the above calculations. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler.
108) Fig.5.104) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β 0 xc A 1 (4. The general forces acting on submerged area.104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. The integral in equation (4.21.109) The moment of inertia. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero.106) and (4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 In this case. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area.110) can be combined the moment and .110) Example 4. Equation (4.106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4.109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.105) A+ 0 ξdA In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4. Ix x . Equations (4. 4.4. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.21 which has two forces that balance the body.
Ix x ρ sin β (4.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid.116) The integral in equation (4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4.118) y . additional equation is required.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−. However. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4. the forces can be negative or positive.113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4.106). Thus. Additionally. in non–symmetrical area there are two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area.114) In the solution. and the distance a or b can be positive or negative.22).110) and the total force is given by (4.115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.98 CHAPTER 4. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.111) (4.117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.
121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3.110) and (4. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4. Example to illustrate the Fig. (4.119) (4.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4. ξ (4.5.118). (4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. Example 4. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided. 4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.4.23. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 . moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36.g. There are many combix nations of problems (e.23) for triangle 1 and 2). metrical straight area. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.106).22.106).118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density.110) and (4.
The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.122) In the same way.23. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 + 0 +a Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 . It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .” Thus.110) and equation (4.123) . The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.1 Pressure Center In the literature. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4. The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a.118). 4.1. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4.5.100 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration.
the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4.4. 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal.124) according to equation (3. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar.1. but constant in segments. Thus. . these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem.129) Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA 10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. the density was assumed to be constant.5. the following can be written x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An (4.5. If density can be represented by average density. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue.126) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. 4. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. In fact.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections. It also means that the density can be a noncontinuous function. However.127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 . Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 . the reasonable average can be used.128) As before for single density. the integral has be carried out. In cases where density is non–continuous.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.
My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. . a2 = 1. h2 = 2[m]. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4.102 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. h3 = 3[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.and h4 = 4[m].134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . The moment around axis y. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ].5[m].75[m].130) where the density.14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. and b1 = 4. Moreover.133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.5[m]. Example 4.132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4.131) After similar separation of the total integral. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].24. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. The forces distances are a1 = 1.
4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difρ4 ference to be zero).133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos . spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular. as it can be noticed that in. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 103 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns. the following equations are obtained Thus.Fig. 4.5. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4. only two equations are needed. which are (4.133) can be used by modifying it. Equation (4.133) and (4.24.130). The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. stead of using the regular atmo.forces.
535 A3 = 3. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig.535 Ix x 1 = 14.696 A2 = 3.215 Ix x 2 = 44. 4.9497 A1 = 2. [m2 ]. P n dA ˆ (4. the pressure is treated as a scalar function.2892 xc2 = 3.5.5355 xc3 = 4.137) From this analysis (equation (4. The forces on curved area. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.136) The result of the integral is a vector. FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy. dA. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.25. if the y component of the force is needed.104 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4. So.92[N ] End Solution 4. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as . It is simpler to compute the terms separately.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.292 Ix x 3 = 86. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. At this stage. outward as positive. for example.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).
26.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. However. “y z” is tan θzy = (4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 105 Fy = A P dAy (4.141) and the angle in the other plane. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. 4. Equation (4. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value.139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. Thus. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot.26 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it.4.5. For example. Figure 4.142) body. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Inside the slot. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. Fig.15: .140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4.138) The same can be said for the x direction. Example 4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line).
b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). 4. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations.28. direct and indirect. The diﬀerential area that will be used is. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam. Ax (see Figure 4. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The Fx = integration ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area.). You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ].8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m].106 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. why? Fig. FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig.27.143) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). The gravity is 9. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ.28) as Ax xc A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. 4. . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle.27)). Solution The force in the x direction is CHAPTER 4.
348[m] 12 Well. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ). V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 − Fy = − b g ρ ∼ 22375.2.29.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation.65174 ∼ 0. The arc center (see Figure 4.4.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600. it is just a demonstration! .1 and 3. The force in the y direction is the area times width. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.5.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig. 4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 107 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).
2 ∼ 7792.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following θ0 O dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 π 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos dF θ/2 M= 0 dM θ0 Fig.108 The moment is CHAPTER 4.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399.348 × 22375.30. 4. FLUIDS STATICS Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0. Moment on arc element around Point “O.” or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 θ0 The vertical force can be obtained by Fv = 0 P dAv .
Fv = End Solution To demonstrate this point further. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. The element force (see Figure 4. and the direct approach second. The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). consider a more general case of a polynomial function. It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. Solution o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or θ0 P dAv 109 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. From mathematics. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries.31 . 4. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces.31. Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations.31).4.31) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. and thus. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 .5. It is much simpler now to use the second method.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. Example 4.16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. In fact.
The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract.32). FLUIDS STATICS O y The right side can be evaluated for any given function.32. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 dy dx ℓ dF b θ y = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 x x The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n 0= i=1 ai x − b i Fig.110 CHAPTER 4. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . In this case. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m5 ]. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 is measured in meters. For example. The distance is = (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. 4. To evaluate the moment.
he was able to cap.4. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b 111 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution. . ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era.Fig. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. However. more advance mathematics will be used. In fact. 4. This omission saves considerable time. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 . ture the essence. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue.6. Here.33. 150 years ago and more. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed 0 0 13 This topic was the author’s high school name. To understand this issue. It was taught by people like these. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. End Solution 4.
h0 as shown in Figure 4.33. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. On the other hand.146) F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. Thus. All the horizontal forces are canceled. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2).144) to F = ρg (4.146) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4.150) . On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. FLUIDS STATICS in liquid and center in a depth of. on the vertical direction.147) Rearranging equation (4. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. For any two rectangle bodies. (4. In illustration of this concept. The force per area (see Figure 4.34) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ 2π (4. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides.34. However. While the horizontal force is Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4.149) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards.144) represents a depth (into the page). the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. 4. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. Rearranging equation (4. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume.148) is F = −π r2 ρ g 2π The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. The solution of equation (4.112 CHAPTER 4.148) Fig.146) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. any shape is made of many small rectangles.145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.33. those will cancel each other.
Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. h1 t w hin h Example 4.35 . and density. h1 has to be zero. shown in Figure 4. as a Fig. The container diameter is w. Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 113 Example 4. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. ρw in liquid with denisty.35. t.4. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. r. You can provide that the angle or the depth. calculate the pressure inside the container. the height. In the case where thickness is half the maximum. Since there are no better examples. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. Assume that ρl > ρw .18: A cylindrical body. ρl . ﬂoating body. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . Thus. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). ρl and the surroundings air temperature. these examples are a must. ρl . Express the maximum wall thickness. Note that for the maximum thickness.6. 4.is ﬂoating in liquid with density.17: To what depth will a long log with radius. a length. ρs liquid density.
Thus. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0.19: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. hin = Example 4. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. it can be inserted into the above equation. FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. the air.114 CHAPTER 4. so that the last solution is the only physical solution.
BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 115 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature.6. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. Thus.4. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. The thickness is known. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g .
This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.116 CHAPTER 4. Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . The body’s density is α ρl . FLUIDS STATICS Example 4. h0 and left at rest. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape.21: In some situations.20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. End Solution Example 4.
Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. Body with density between the two liquids. What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. the body can be separated into two: one in ﬁrst liquid and one in the second liquid. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . The element force is dAx h 2 dA 117 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus. There are situations where density is a function of the depth.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere. the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4. In the same vein. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂoating between the two liquids. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities.22: In the introduction to this section.4. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. Solution In the discussion to this section. it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid.
they have to accounted for. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R.XXIII. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4.8) with a t wall thickness. x1 . End Solution Example 4. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. Thus.23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7. However. For the thickness below this critical value.a) .118 CHAPTER 4. A is canceled on both sides. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained.
XXIII.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4. The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4.XXIII.h) .g) ρs The solution of (4. The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.4.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.6. For a given ratio of t/R.e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water.XXIII. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above.XXIII.XXIII. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4.b) Equation (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simpliﬁcation equation (4. The last solution is the solution that was needed.g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The ﬁrst two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world.XXIII.XXIII.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 119 (4.
b) End Solution 4. other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4.c) End Solution Example 4. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component.1 Stability . As it was shown in the previous example. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth. These solutions are rejected.120 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4. Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d. wedge) will be located. a wood wedge of wood with a ﬁx weight/load.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and ﬁx load.XXIV. For simplicity.24 a general solution was provided.XXV. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth). f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4. Find the reverse function. End Solution Example 4. For example.6.25: In example 4. πd Vw = Thus.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4.XXIV.XXIV. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere.b) (4. the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4.e.XXV. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i. assume that the body is of a solid material.
it is referred to as the neutral stable.36. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. be ﬂoating.36c. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. A wooden cubic (made of pine. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. B’ as shown in Figure 4. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity.4. These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa.36c . in any of these six positions. In fact.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 121 Figure 4. the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. Small amount of tilting of Fig. This B situation is similar to Figure 4.37). 4. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. the cubic results in returning to the original position. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body.36c. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. When the body is tilted at a small angle. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). Schematic of ﬂoating cubic.37.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. . However. 4. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. the body is in situation like in 4. for example) is inserted into water.36b). So.38. That is. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. β. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 .
38 as ∆F . and. when given a tilted position. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F GM δF δF ∆F G dA B B’ Fig. W referred to the weight of the body. shown in Figure 4. when the body is not symmetrical. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). BB is the distance between points B and point B’. The body. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used. β.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. BB W = M (4. 4. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. B’. However. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. BB .). the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4.152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.38. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. So the perpendicular distance. . The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats.153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. B. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4.122 CHAPTER 4. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. For small angle. should to be calculated. move to a new buoyant center.38.
the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4. The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3.155) And combining equations (4.XXVI.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone. Solution The ﬂoating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4.158) Example 4. The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. the cone has zero depth. For middle range.26: A solid cone ﬂoats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1).153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4.154) with (4. BB can be written from equation (4. The angle of the cone is θ. At this condition.4. Looking at Figure 4. Analyze this situation.XXVI.155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable.1.6.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. The distance.b) . the cone is unstable. For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0.156) lim (4. The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.38. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 123 The integral in the right side of equation (4. M.
158) requires that several quantities should be expressed.e) Substituting equation (4.e) into (4. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4.XXVI.XXVI. Example 4. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.XXVI.XXVI. Solution Equation (4.1 and is Ixx = La . FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.XXVI.c) can be simpliﬁed as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4.XXVI. L. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density. Where L is the length into the 12 page.c) Equation (4.XXVI. Show that the block’s length.d) yield the solution when GM = 0 ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4.f) 0= − − =⇒ = 3 −1 4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened. why? . The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared.124 CHAPTER 4. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples.
9 Ixx 0.4 1.3 1.2 1.159) 2.8 1.0 0. − 1 (1 − α) (4.4 α = 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.4 α = 0.5 α = 0.5 0.39.5 0.40.3 0.2 0.1 1.2 α = 0.0 1.6.0 1. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.0 α = 0. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.0 0.0 a h April 16. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.9 1.5 0.7 α = 0.8 0.4. 4. 4.6 0.0 0.1 1. Stability of Square Block 3.3 1.1 0.7 0.6 0. L.6 1.2 Thus.4 0. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl 0.2 0.0 0.161) End Solution .2 1.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4.37) h1 2.8 0.5 α = 0. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.160) 2 where α is the density ratio.8 2. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 125 h h1 L a Fig.
FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3.159)). In commercial ships. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia. there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia.2 0.41.1 0. For example.5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4. the fuel is .0 body width is not stable anymore.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2. Thus.41. the equation is Fig.126 CHAPTER 4. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. For cylinder (circle) the 0. 4.0 can be expressed. 2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0.4 0.7 0. Thus.5 0. This is not a hypothetical question.3 0.6 0.9 1. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.8 0. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for diﬀerent shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. but rather practical.161) 1. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape.0 0. For each of these axises. The 0.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16. For stability analysis. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). In cylin1. With the exception of the circular shape.0 0.
Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ.158) have to be found. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.42. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3. 4. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Example 4. tougher. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4.6.42. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .4. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody . So.
is enough to be ig. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the . here.6. the slow reaction of the load.128 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. account these shifting mass speeds.43).1. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. Moreover. 4.43. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined.Fig. in this analysis. furniture. Sometimes.43. FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . For practical purposes. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . for stability analysis. For example. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. However. The movement of the load (grains. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).
163) Equation (4.4.162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface.167) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid.163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G . the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4.164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank. G Gc = GG sin β (4. This quantity.165) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4.6. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.168) . At the same time. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 outside. G1 G1 . it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.
172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. T a distance. The engineer could Fig. GM . The angle. θ. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body.6. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. GM . The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. of the ship. Moving the weight. equation (4.1.169) Where. GM . can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank.2 Metacentric Height.171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected. This control of the stability.44. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4.171) provides the solution. 4. Wtotal . Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. .173) (4.172) with equation (4.130 CHAPTER 4. 4. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body.170) (4. design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.
For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.45. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. Fig. Thus. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). After the tilting. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. Generally. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now).45). The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body).45. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or unsymmetrical body.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. is when b = 3 a. .4. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. it must be taken into account. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.6. 4. When the ﬂoating object is immersed into two layers.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 131 The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lays between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. However. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. There are two situations that can occur. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before.6. 4. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. However. The center of the moment is needed to be found. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies.1.1.
etc.1.6. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). Thus.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. 4. In this section. coating.6. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. the liquid is not in motion. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. in this case.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. the common explanation is wrong. the body should be accelerate. However. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g.176) In general.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. Example 4. End Solution .132 4.174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. If the ﬂoating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother. Thus.
3. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. or water over air(gas–liquid). density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. the needle cannot be held by the liquid. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. I. ρL . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. 4. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. For example in die casting.7. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. For perfectly straight interface. Thus. This instability deals with a dense.4. In poor designs or other situations. However. ρG . Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. some of heavy liquid moves down. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. Example 4. For example. Taylor.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. If the surface will be disturbed. This condition is determined by competing .46. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. After certain diameter. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 133 Fig. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid.3. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted.
181) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. 4. In that case. and the buoyancy forces. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. Thus. Thus. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4.134 CHAPTER 4.47.182) . FLUIDS STATICS forces. Thus.179) According to equation (1.57). Thus. the surface density.178) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. x. example of a cosine function will be examined. equation (1.47).57) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4.180) (4. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. the situation is Fig. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. On the other hand.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4.
48. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. the error is not signiﬁcant. the force is ρ g h × A.7. At the bottom. they are not part of the control volume. At the cylinder bottom.48. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere.48. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4. To analyze it. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 135 (4. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h.4. In reality. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down.185) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.186) . the lighter liquid will “prevent” it. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. This acts Fig. At the top.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.181) and (4.48. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place. the force is the integral around the depression. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. Additionally when the depression occurs. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4.183) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. Thus. 4. For the depression.
49. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. At that case. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. The cross section of the interface. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down.187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle.188) (4. 4.136 CHAPTER 4. Thus.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. the speciﬁc radius is limited. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.190) Fig. For the cylindrical geometry. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. As shown in Figure 4. θ = π/2. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.49).48.191) . The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.
The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter.191.4 2400 × 9. For example.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. .7. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations.50. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4. σ r∼ 8 π 0. 4. In Figure 4. End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig. Example 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 137 The actual radius will be much larger. In equation (4.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].the depression is larger for square area. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4.190) can be used. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). However. this angle is never can be obtained.4.81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 .49.
S. You can assume that the process is isothermal.138 CHAPTER 4. Is there any diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases. what is the diﬀerence? . FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Is there any diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so. Example 4. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). ω. Use the ideal gas model.50 has three layers of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. for known geometries of the ﬂuids.32: A canister shown in Figure 4.
Part I Integral Analysis 139 .
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the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. L.1. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. These differential equations will be used in Fig. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. This name is in honored J. 5. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume.motion. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. This method applied and used in very few cases. 141 . Ad. Even though this system looks reasonable.
Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is nondeformable con. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. energy. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. entropy etc. non–deformable and deformable. After a certain time. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system.2. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. The red dotted lines are the control volume.142 CHAPTER 5. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5.1 represent the system.2.1. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume.1. The green lines in Figure 5. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). 5. the control volume is a system. . The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. mass. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). momentum. At the same time. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand.piston with in and out ﬂow. 5. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. trol volume. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. Fig. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location.
3. In this chapter.v. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. is made of msys = mc.5. Thus.3.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.1.3). is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5. + ma − mc (5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.1) The system mass after some time.v. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. according Figure 5. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3).6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. the mass conservation will be discussed.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. (5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.v. The interface of the control volume can move. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. 5.v.7) . The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume. CONTINUITY EQUATION 143 5.
10) Equation (5. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. t) = 1− cos . The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. Example 5.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.1: The density changes in a pipe. (5.3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume.4. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. X dx L Fig. Substituting equation (5.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. due to temperature variation and other reasons. In the same manner. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.1. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.v.v. 5.9) into equation (5. ρ0 L t0 .8) and (5.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5.144 CHAPTER 5.7) are similar and can be combined.
Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe. r and angle. (5. dt c.11) Equation (5. End Solution 5.5.v. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc. L.v.3. Vc. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.3.v. t. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. ρ0 c.v.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence.v. L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a nondeformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.11) is simpler than equation (5. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.c.10) become conservation of the volume. and time. the derivative in equation (5.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time.10). Continuity with Fixed b.10).4 length is L and its area is A. 5. Using equation (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. . CONTINUITY EQUATION 145 The conduit shown in Figure 5.v. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c.
Find the height as a function of the other parameters.v.7 Ap .2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.v.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. (5. c.3.2. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.v.1 CHAPTER 5. Sc. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.v.12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. Example 5.2 illustrates this point.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . 5. Physically.v. Ubn dA (5.2.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. Urn dA (5. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Hence. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.5.v.v.15) The meaning of the equation (5. Sc. Example 5. Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.3.146 5.
Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. Third. However. CONTINUITY EQUATION 147 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. the air eﬀects are negligible. In reality. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. Second. First.3.v. liquid boundary in bucket.v. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic.5. In this analysis. ﬂow in = c. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c.5. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. several assumptions must be made.2.v. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface.v. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). (Uj + Ub ) dA . no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. c. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. Fourth. 5.
II. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else .II. Uj .c) The solution of equation (5. c.II. mi .a) into (5.a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.b) The above two equations (5.II. the side. thus the relative velocity. End Solution Example 5.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly. e.v.II. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. Substituting the ﬁrst equation. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.7 Ap Ub (5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A.II.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.v. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. (5. When examining solution there are two limits.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.g.148 CHAPTER 5. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.II.a) and (5. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface).
3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow.2. Sc. CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). End Solution 5. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity. The right side of equation (5. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc.5. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5.v.3.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc.v. thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence.v.3. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .v. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.16) .
6. For the ﬁrst case.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.4. Example 5. h as function of the time.150 CHAPTER 5.16). First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. determine the height.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5. 5. Height of the liquid for example 5. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. What happen if the h0 = 0? .16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 .18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. min h Fig.
the height will increase. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 151 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . If the reverse case appeared. the governing equation (5.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. However. For second case. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. Essentially. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero.5.3. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height.
org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. y) = ∂G ∂x (5.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . This is engineering book and thus. y) − − (x1 .22) Initially. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed.21) This theorem named after Reynolds. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. For its derivative of equation (5. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. speciﬁc enthalpy. Osborne. y) ∂y dy dy (5. End Solution 5.archive. y) dα (5. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. y) = f (α. it will be provided. . Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x.25) papers can be read online at http://www. Nevertheless. (18421912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 .v f ρ Urn dA (5. y) − f (x1 .v. if there will be a demand for such. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 .4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy.23) is f (x. To make the previous derivation clearer. the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. y) − G(x1 .24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 .152 CHAPTER 5. c.
F . The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c.5. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. y) dx ∂y (5. The intensive property.v.31) The change with time of the accumulative property.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. with time. F . The same can be said for the other side. is then F2 dx2 dt (5. f is investigated or the accumulative property. F .25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x. (5. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). F .30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. Urn = U1 − Ub .26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential). F . REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 153 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.32) .28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.4. Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule.29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 .
t. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. Additionally. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used.154 CHAPTER 5.V.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.V.33) 5. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration). Since the time variable.c) End Solution . the velocity became uniform. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.a) The integration of the equation (5.V.b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5. Thus.V. (5.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5.v. Example 5. After magical mixing. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance.13). later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5.v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc.
13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 155 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. right. 5.5.5. Example 5. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. The above integrals on the .7. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. the left. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem.7. and upper. Boundary Layer control mass. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. In this case. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle.
The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. 7 hours.1 ) 5. However sometime. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. The tank is 3/4 fulls.02kg/m3 AU 0.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow.13) is used. Example 5. Thus. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.156 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. and 8 hours.1 kg/sec = = 1.1 kg/sec. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .
dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.5. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus.v. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. For simplicity.5. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled. assume that the process is isothermal. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. Thus. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 157 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 .v boundary velocity + Sc. End Solution Example 5. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc.v. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour.
Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. mi . Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V .10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. . Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.v. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5.158 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius.v Vc.
v. ρUrn dA Vc.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.5.v. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary. .10. Sc.v. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 159 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5.5.
Example 5. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. local averaged velocity in three coordinates.8. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out.160 CHAPTER 5.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. However. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . However. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. . To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic.11: Solve example 5. 5.S. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? 5. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. There is no general way to provide these quantities.8. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig.
The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label.9 under the blow line.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume. It can be notice that the velocity. 5.9. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward.5.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. Substituting into (5. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary.37) Fig. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 161 (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. Control volume and system before and after the motion. .6.9. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x.9.
b) Fig. sin(2α) r2 2 (5.XII. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.XII. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity.13: .XII.XII. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5. MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.162 CHAPTER 5.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5. α provides the averaged velocity. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed.10. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.XII.i) Example 5. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.f) 1 α − .XII.XII.h) (5.g) Where here S represent some length. Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.12: Calculate the velocity. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.e) (5. The value dS is r cos α.XII.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as Ux = U dS S (5. 5.
equation (5. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder).40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5. Thus.b) 5. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. 5. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.a) (5. Example 5.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. Solution X(y) x 163 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig. y velocity for a circular shape The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side.12.11. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example.XIII.7.14: .XIII. Thus. every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction.5. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity.
the ﬂow is steady state and equation (5. The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture.05 = 1. the total volume ﬂow in is equal to volume ﬂow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0.a) Thus in this case. what Fig.05 Urout = 35 = 8. Urin = Aout 0. Solution In the ﬁrst scenario. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.15[m] ˙ ˙ (5.2 End Solution Example 5. However.10 0.1 + 0.XV. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe.05 [kg/s].05 m2 .05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 . If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of .002 [m3 /s].14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. Schematic of the boat for example 5.05 = 0.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0. In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a diﬀerent speciﬁc density at 0. since the ﬂow is incompressible ﬂow. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.12.164 CHAPTER 5. Assume incompressible process. the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].1 [kg/s]. 5. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec.75m/sec Ain 0.
c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and ﬂuctuated depending on the location of the piston.0003 [m].7.000001 [m3 /s]. The ﬁrst choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing.002[m/ sec] 923.d) (5. I hope that no one will have teachers like him.7[kg/m3 ] = 0. However.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work. .05 − mexit mexit = 1. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting ﬁeld. Yet. Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are. So governing equation is (5.5. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston).XV.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0. The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume.v. If the piston is withdrawn at O.01 [m/s].XV.012 π (5.1 + 0. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0.XV. At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0.e) Example 5.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5. This part of the solution is art.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 .15).005[m] and the tip radius is 0. There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem. −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not aﬀected.XV.07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 165 (5. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).
the equation (5. For this case. U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity. There several coordinate systems that can used. Using equations (5.5[m/s].17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the waterjet pump. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained.XVI.166 CHAPTER 5.XVII.b) In the case. in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5.XVI. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b. attached to the blood edge. In this device.c. Later the two stream are mixed. At this stage.d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5. The second part of the control volume is the air. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant.a) and (5. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger. In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4.0[m/s] and U2 = 0. The air governing equation is blood b. stationary. there are two unknowns.XVI. MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to speciﬁc material. attached to plunger. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub .2.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used.c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device. and two equations. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity.XVI. In that case. velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5. Ub and Utip .15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5.a) . Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside).XVI.XVI.
XVII.b) .5.7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 167 (5.
168 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION .
This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector.1 Momentum Governing Equation 6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6. For several bodies (n).2) The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6. the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.3) 169 .1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.1. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude).1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction.
7) Fig.170 CHAPTER 6. it can be written as Fs = c. . hence. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. the terms on the left hand side. Sn dA + c.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. Sn . only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure. 6. Where the surface “force”. or the forces. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. In this chapter. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. is in the surface direction. are the body forces.1. have to be discussed. Here for simplicity. and τ are the shear stresses. Thus.). The forces. Sn .2 External Forces First. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. 6. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6.1. Thus. excluding the external forces.v.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. is made out of two components.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). The gravity acts on all the system elements. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6.v. Again. the main body force is the gravity. The surface “force”.1.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6. τ dA (6.
v.v.v.v. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). g · ˆ ρ dV i c.6. (6. ducts.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c.v. friction (nonﬂuid). In Cartesian coordinate.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. c. for example in the x coordinate. U . is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference.13) .v. Thus.v. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements. c. etc.v.v.v. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe. c. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. the components are Fx + c.9) The liquid velocity. Fext . where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). ρ U U rn dA (6. c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6.v.1.v. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. supporting solid structures.v.v.v. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 171 6. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. (6. t = dt c. Equation (6.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components.1. With external forces equation (6. c.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v. P cos θx dA + c.v.1.11) ρ U dV + c.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. c. 6. t dt c.
. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.6.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.5. τ dA = c.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.15) 6.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6.1. Thus.172 CHAPTER 6. equation (6.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape. ρ U Urn dA (6. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. In this situation. a acc ρ dV (6. g ρ dV − c.v. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. in these situations. P dA + c.v.1.v. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6.v.3. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.18) Equation (6.v. 6. Additionally.
What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .a) into equation (6. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet. 6.I.6.1.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.2.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6.2.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 173 Example 6.I. Neglect the friction. Fig.I. Example 6.2). Uo θ Ui F Fig b. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.I.a) Substituting equation (6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects.
The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. Hence Fx max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. End Solution Example 6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.II.3 with a mass . because it is a steady state. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. Equation (6. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates.11) can be reduced.174 Solution CHAPTER 6.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.II.
v.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c.3. First.v. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.0001 Equation (6.v.v. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 175 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.01 [gk/sec]. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.III. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. the velocity has to be found.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. ρ U z · U rn dA .v.v.v.0015 [m3 ]. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0. 6.III.v. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.1. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.b) c. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. τ z dA = c.3. =0 c. The entrance area is 0. c. c.0001[cm2 ].v. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.v. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. τ z dA = (6. This situation is a steady state for constant density. Hence. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0.3.6. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement.
v. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6.v. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. Improvements can be made to this analysis.4.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.v. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.v. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.III. In the Figure 6. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller. fan etc.176 CHAPTER 6.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right.v.III. Here. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.v. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A1 − P A2 The last term in equation (6.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A2 − P A1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. . This surface is called slip surface.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c.III. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. this analysis is used for academic purposes. Combining all transform equation (6.v. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.III.d) 6. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump. P cos θz dA = c.
20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. this direct conversion can be.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6.6. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6.19) 177 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. Thus. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. 6. and is. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. Here.4. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. Calculate the friction force on the . The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. in many case more eﬃcient. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. Notice that Example 6. a major obstacle in the past. the pressure around control volume is the same. Hence. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered.2.5 is pushed by liquid jet. Furthermore. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. In Jet propulsion. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. Essentially. pressure drops from the calculation.
the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. U 0 .IV.4. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig.v. τ dA = c. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c.5. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit.v.178 CHAPTER 6. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. g ρ dV − c. P dA + c. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. The velocity of the jet is uniform.v. U0 . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. namics friction is µd .a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical.v. 6. ρ U U rn dV (6. .v.v.v.
.IV. A rocket with a moving control volume. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.2.6.b) The substituting (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity. This method is cumbersome in many cases. 6.IV.v.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.b) into equation (6.2. 179 (6. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.IV.10). End Solution 6.IV.6.
The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket. the ﬁrst term FR . dU /dt = 0 is not zero.2. c.24) Clearly. g ρ dV + c. ρUy Urn dA (6. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. it can be neglected. vanishes.180 CHAPTER 6. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. (6.v. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it.v. However. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero. c. Yet. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels.26) . This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel.v. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. the derivative with respect to time.v.v. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6. This change is minimal and for this analysis. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. However.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion.v. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.
gas ﬂow out is constant as well. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). However. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature.28).27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem.27) Separating the variables equation (6.6.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6. is a function of the several parameters such the duration. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 181 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . Thus it is assume that FR = 0. the speed (the Reynolds number). it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . Thus. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.28) Before integrating equation (6.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem.” . Integrating equation (6. For which he noticed this “constant velocity. material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation.2.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6.
V.7. Substituting equation (6.V. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere.V. Furthermore.v.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6.v.V.V. Equation (6.7. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6. linear function of the height.7.182 CHAPTER 6.V. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. Solution Uo FR Fig.V. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.d) into equation (6. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. 6.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6. ρdA = 0 (6. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.a) Equation (6.V.V. mt .a) can be transferred to dmc.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle.12) for two dimensions is used.V. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.e) . Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist. Sc. U0 = B h (6.v. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.
y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6.V. Perhaps surprising. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.2. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6.6.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 .5. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. The mass con. In fact.V.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.V.V.V. 6.V.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V.f) into (6.V. The tank depth. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn . Using a similar control volume2 . F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.2. Using this function.8.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6. is not relevant.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 183 Equation (6.8.Fig.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time. .V. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). Substituting (6. h.
The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc.v.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.v. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.V. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change.v. Here this eﬀect is neglected. mc. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). It .v. (6.184 CHAPTER 6.V.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6. and the resistance due to air is negligible. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average.v. a Vc.v. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ).
V. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.r) . dt dt dt (6.v. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc. Ux Vf Thus.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.V. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6. However.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6. From equation (6. d Ux Ux + mc.v.V. Ux = mc.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.V. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.v.v. d d Ux Ux + mc.2.V.v. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 185 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.V. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.V.6.v.V.
For these cases a correction factor can be used. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6. Substituting equations (6.s) into equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.v U dV (6.v.35) . There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.V.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.186 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time.V. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.r) and (6.v U = ρ V c. For example.V. ρ Ux dV (6. Here. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.V. For example.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.V.V.
C ρV c. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. ρ Ux dV (6.6. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. 6. Sc. 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad.3. if the density is not constant. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one. However.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). the following discussion is provided.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.9.9 commonly used in industry.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. applying equation (6.Fig.v.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6.39) The angular momentum equation. ditionally increase of velocity occur.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.40) . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit.v 187 U dV = c. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6.v. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6. To demonstrate this idea.
Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). Ut2 and radial component. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 .41) results in Um2 (6. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ .p. The exit liquid velocity. Notice that tangential liquid velocity. Un2 . Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 .40[m].188 CHAPTER 6.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. The height of the impeller is h. U2 has two components. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. 6. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. Example 6. The angular velocity is 1200 r.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . one the tangential velocity.41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence.42) (6.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. r. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. The thickness of the impeller. and h. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 .m. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .
VII. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls). The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem.10. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. . the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. 6.6. Develop exFig. Additionally.10. The gas obeys the ideal gas law.a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. forces for example 6. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind.4. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process).2. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. No gas leaves the rocket. No resistance to the rocket (can be added). The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank. The cross section of the liquid is constant. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas.3) without a solution. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 189 6.
a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.h) (6.VII.VII. Furthermore.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.j) . The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.d) mg R T V0g (6.VII.VII. equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase).VII. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.VII.190 CHAPTER 6.VII. Using the above deﬁnition.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .VII.VII.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6.VII.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.g) (6.VII. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.
1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. Example 6.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 191 (6.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.VII.VII. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.4. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6. 6.VII.9: In Example 6.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6. End Solution (6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.m) Example 6.4. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity.11: .VII.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .6. Example 6.
Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6. Fig.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints.11. 6. consider the unsteady eﬀects. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front.11 .192 Situations CHAPTER 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6.
Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. is included on the right hand side. The ﬂuid.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. this law allows to solve problems.2) (7. For example.2) is similar to equation (6. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. which is external force. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. However. here it will be derived. 193 . 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. Moreover.1) Equation (7. as all phases and materials. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented. For example. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. which were assumed in the previous chapters.
Hence. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7. convection4 and radiation. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. 7.v. . The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7. 3 There 4 When (7. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. There are three modes of heat transfer. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. In most problems. conduction. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient.194 CHAPTER 7.1. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. dealing with convection.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer. the radiation is minimal. the surface forces Fig. As in the previous chapter. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction.
THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7.12) .2) for system is kT Asys 195 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.9) the velocity appears twice. In the last term in equation (7.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7.8) Equation (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.1.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.7. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.11) Equation (7.8) for more details). Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.
7. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. small.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. the temperature is assumed to constant.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed.15) Equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. With these deﬁnitions equation (7.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. Additionally. the gas density is very small compared to Fig.2. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density. 6 This 5 Later . which was discussed on page 46.196 CHAPTER 7.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates.15). Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height. h. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.
is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7.3. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero.17) Equation (7.1. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with BarMeir’s instability. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 197 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero.7. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical.20) In this analysis.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. . However.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 .16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. 7 For the mass conservation analysis. However.3.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. 7. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. However. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. this quantity will be used. for simplicity.
Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . Additionally. Clearly. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects.15) which is applicable to this case. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter. The temperature is constant8 . Ec which is very small.26) The governing equation (7. E.198 CHAPTER 7.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. Eckert.G.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier.R. Yet. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. In this case. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. .24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. Furthermore. this change is a function of Eckert number.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. The pressure terms in equation (7.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. In this light.
29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.33) .1.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.h. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 199 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average.s) of equation (7. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used.7.28) V V The second integral (in the r. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. Furthermore.30) Substituting the results of equation (7.30) into equation (7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.
200
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as
2
ρ U dV CF =
V
ρ U 2 dV
V
ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡
V
2
(7.34)
Here, CF is the correction coeﬃcient. Note, the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is
2 2
ρ U dV CF =
V
= ρ U 2 dV
ρ ¡ ρ ¡
U dV
V
= U 2 dV
Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V
(7.35)
V
V
This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . For a pipe geometry, the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7.36)
It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity, Uave is obtained by using equation (7.32) which yields 1/2. Substituting equation (7.36) into equation (7.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V V
=
Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯
2
= dV
3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3
(7.37)
The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. For circular shape, a good guess number is about 1.1. In this case, for simplicity reason, it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case, diﬀerent directions cancel each other out.
11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2
201
V
hA
(7.38)
The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7.39)
Therefore, the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7.40)
Ue =
A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt
(7.41)
Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as
2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz =
(7.42)
2 U ∼ =
(π − 2) r dh 8h dt
2
+
(π − 1) r dh 4h dt
2
+
dh dt
2
(7.43)
f (G)
dh U∼ = dt
(π − 2) r 8h
2
+
(π − 1) r 4h
2
+ 12
(7.44)
It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. However, the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.
13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. However, it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. But in the same vain, some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.
202 The last term is
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
A
Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2
dh A dt Ae
2
Ue ρ Ae
(7.45)
Combining all the terms into equation (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.h.s. results in d U gh + dt 2 2
2
(7.46)
hA +
U gh + 2 2
2
A
dh 1 − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
Ue Ae = 0
(7.47)
Equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .
Advance material can be skipped
Dividing equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.40)
A
Ae A
Ue
d U gh + dt 2 2
2
hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2
2
dh 1 A − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
$ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.48)
Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus
f (G) Ub
U
dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2
2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.49)
Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0 (7.50)
f (G)2 h
15 This
d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.51)
part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
203
End Advance material
Combining the gh terms into one yields
f (G)2 h
d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2
dh dt
2
f (G)2 −
A Ae
2
=0
(7.52)
Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter, Te , as Te = A f (G) Ae
2
(7.53)
This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. Dividing equation (7.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter, equation (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.54)
The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or

(7.55)
dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G)
= t + k2
(7.56)
The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A
discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.
204
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7.59) (7.58)
This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.61) (7.60)
The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
(7.62)
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.63)
While equation (7.63) is still non linear equation, the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt
2
=
2gh −1 +
A Ae 2
(7.64)
It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. The initial velocity
17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. Thus for a very short time, the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. However, if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct.
7.2. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH
205
ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. Equation (7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae
2 h h0
dh √ = 2gh
t
dt
0
(7.66)
The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √
2
h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh
Ae 2 A
(7.67)
dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then
2gh
A Ae
(7.68)
1−
1−
U∼ =
2gh
(7.69)
Equation (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Yet, this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7.70)
7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach
Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. In the calculations
18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15, 1608 October 25, 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime.
206
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
of the exit velocity of a tank, two such corrections were presented. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. In the case of the tank, the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. In fact, the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. In cases that dissipation play major air air role, the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. H For example, the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. Additionally, the integral methods is Fig. 7.4. Flow in an oscillating manometer. too crude to handle issues of free interface. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind.
7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation
The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work, the problems can be solved. The following sections provides further explanation.
The reason is that while the velocity is constant.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation. Equation (2.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.3. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.75) .1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity.7.3.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7. equation (7.72) for nondeformable control volume does not vanished. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. the pressure is different. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.74) in 7. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 207 7.3. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.
83) from equation (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.208 CHAPTER 7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.81) As before equation (7.82) in (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.84) . ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.
In many cases.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.86) 7.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 209 (7. For example. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity. linear and rotational. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.4. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations.85) For no shaft work equation (7.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. The only acceptation to the above statement.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass. r and m are the distance and mass respectively.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far.7. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.4.E. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. However. for the gravity force is GM m (7. .88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. 7. = − ref F ·d (7.
3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates. and z = 0.4. Thus. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. The same can be done for the other two coordinates.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the .2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.210 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.4. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. y = 0.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7.
The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.103) P Ubn dA .7.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 293 for vector explanation). consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. Hence.4. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential. θ. From physical point of view. θ and z respectively. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 211 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7. However. To understand it better.99) ˆ where r.97) (7.98) (7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. and k are units vector in the coordinates r.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U .
212 CHAPTER 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.4.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow. .
Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 213 .
.
The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. the solution is not unique. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. as he done to many other equations or conditions. 215 .g. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. As usual SimonDenis Poisson independently. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the NavierStokes equations. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. In diﬀerential analysis.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. NavierStokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 .
The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. Historically.1. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow).1. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A.216 CHAPTER 8. (8. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. Sometimes. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. 8. 8. the complexity of the equations. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. Even for simple situations.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.1. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). on one hand.3) .
It also can be noticed that. the operation. neglecting higher order derivatives.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates.8. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8. The net mass change.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.8) dv (8. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. as depicted in Figure 8.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )x − (ρ Ux )x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )y − (ρ Uy )y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )z − (ρ Uz )z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )x+dx = (ρ Ux )x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. in the x coordinate. MASS CONSERVATION 217 The ﬁrst term in equation (8.2.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . . for example.2.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.
the r is “trapped” in the derivative. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications.11)–(8. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dzr + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .2. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates. the change of r with r. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. r .10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. 8. Hence. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8.12) Combining equations (8. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume.218 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.g. e. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8.
the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.14) with the change in the control volume (8.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates.8). t0 . There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8.8. MASS CONSERVATION 219 Combining equation (8. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). However. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. At time.1.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 . For academic purposes.16) The continuity equations (8. 8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. several examples are constructed here. (8.2.18) Compare to equation (8.2. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding.17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. .16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .15) and (8. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. Hence.2 page 296).8).
3.3.I. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height. it is treated as a constant.220 CHAPTER 8. 8.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. ρ. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom.I.I. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.I.I.I. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.f) . Substituting the density.I.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.I.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. For this question.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).1 function of the y coordinate.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.I. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.I.
2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.f) holds for any time and thus. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. Hence.2.4.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. Example 8.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.4.II. MASS CONSERVATION 221 Uy is a function of the time but not y.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. 4 Since (8.8. .f) as a constant4 . End Solution 8.2. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature. For this example. 8. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.2.I.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions. from the extraction point. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.I. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. Equation (8.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration.I.I. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.
c) Where Ux is the belt velocity. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .15 .II.II.II. See the resembles to equation (8. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8.II.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. .II. however it can be considered as steady state.f) (8.II. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide.I.1 for the general function T = F (x).b).b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.II. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8.II.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. On personal note. However. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8.222 Solution CHAPTER 8. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. Hence equation (8. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.II. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.
8. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8.a) Equation (8.h) ∂y .f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.g) ∂y a Equation (8.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case. MASS CONSERVATION 223 Example 8.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.III. Thus. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).III. Notice the symmetry of the situation. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.III.III.III.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state.c) (8.III.III.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8. For the second part equation (8. The velocity.III.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.III.III.b) (8.III. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.2.
III.III.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8. Hence. if it exist.4: Can the following velocities coexist. this kind of presentation is possible. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8.a) Mathematically speaking.i) End Solution Example 8. The private solution is Uy private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.IV. In this problem these physical .5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). End Solution Example 8.224 CHAPTER 8. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded.III. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component.j) (8. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance.V. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.IV.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8. must be compressible ﬂow. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8. Thus.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).IV. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density.
c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.V. ρ.a) and noticing that the density.V.j) .e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.V. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8. Ux .h) Equation (8. c3 .i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8.V.V.b) Substituting equation (8. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8. real value.2.V.V. must be zero and thus the constant.f) (8. MASS CONSERVATION 225 components are ignored for academic reasons. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. The solution of (8.V. is substituted.V.V.b) into equation (8.V.V. Hence. Equation (8.V.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.V.8. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.V.d) (8.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.V.
226 CHAPTER 8.g. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.j) by (8.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. t). y. are presented. z.k) Where the constant.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.V.V.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time.24) into equation (8. 8.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e. vector or tensor. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.V. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (??)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8.3. scalar. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively. .24) Substituting equation (8. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8.
28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt  The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.31) Equation (8.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 227 By the deﬁnition of equation (8. y. y. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example. x. t) i + Uy (x.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld.29) Equation (8. y. t) k (8.3.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ.2. t) = Ux (x. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8.8.32) .3. t) j + Uz (x. z. z. Therefore. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time. it can be written that U (x. z.3.27) 8. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. y. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8.2 8.
39) .34) (8.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state. A ) (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.228 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow. So it can be written that F τ = f (F . 8.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book).33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8.
A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. However.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 229 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. tetrahedron in the z direction. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. similarly for τxz . The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ.5. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface.4. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8. 8.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface.8. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8.5. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions.44) . these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8.
The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant). The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation. . Hence.45) The same can be done for y and z directions.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center.230 CHAPTER 8. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. for cases that body force. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. τyx τ However. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body.6. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. However. uniform and hence act not through the mass center. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. dx For simplicity and generality. 8.5 for moment of inertia. The shear stress at point x is τxy . it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. The areas are related to each other through angles. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. The body force can exert torque is Fig. can create torque. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations.
MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 231 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .48) into (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction.4.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx y + dτxx dy η y (8.49) results y+dy y τxx y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration).52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. For example.50) The integral of (8. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof. It can be ignored. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not. End Advance material The net torque in the zdirection around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8.8.49) Substituting (8. .
” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig. 8. However. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. this change.7. Previously it was shown that equation (6. for almost all practical purposes.232 CHAPTER 8. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. However.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8.55) 8.11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. . y. can be neglected11 . Equation (6. and internal forces.7). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x. z 10 . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. Later it will be used and generalized. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. y. gravitation forces. z and the j is any of the other x. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8.
the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. or z.58) The same can be written for z direction.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 233 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass. Equation (8.64) .61) equation (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.57) and (8. Hence. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x. y. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.59) where i in this case is x.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.57) fxy = τyx y+dy × dx dz − τyx y × dx dz (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx x+dx × dy dz − τxx x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8.8.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.
As engineers do in general. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. At time t. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. Additionally. a.65) End Advance material Equations (8.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). b. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. and c. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. the result is a continuous deformation. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids.8)).234 where here CHAPTER 8. or z. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. In contrast. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump Fig. Furthermore. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8.8 (by the blue color).65) or (8. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. The control volume moves to a new location. y. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. 8. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids.8.
66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. The deformation of the control volume has several components. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume.67) In these derivatives.5.8.68) where. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. It can be noticed at this stage.9. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. is the diagonal component which dealt below. at this stage. In general equation (8.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. . The only missing thing. However. 8. 12 While 13 The Fig. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 235 volume.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation.
The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system.x.75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . In addition. y’ ) frame. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change. b.73) Equation (8. Figure 8. For example.236 CHAPTER 8.8) in the control volume move to the new locations. √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ . The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8.76) (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. τii (where i is either . y coordinates). on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ .75) (8. The small deformations a . The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.74) from (8. The angular strain rate in the (x.77) d x= dx .74) (8. c. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. y. It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.9.
Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stress. Fig. and d y is its linear strain in the ydirection.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8.8. and (8. 8.80) Equation (8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . Thus. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 237 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx.5. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle.78). Hence.10(b).77).10(b)).79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8.81) .10. (8. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles.79) Here. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8.
Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.11. 8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle. (8.81) with equation (8.84) From (8.85) From equation (8.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.90) . Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.83) Equation (8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8.82) Combining equation (8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.87) and (8.87) y’ (8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ. (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.238 CHAPTER 8.
95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. K.8. 1967.91) rearranging equation (8.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G.89) and (8.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. Cambridge University Press. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. . Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ . p. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation.71). It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 .90) results in 2 4 239 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. Batchelor.5.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.141.
λ. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive.9.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues.2. However. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 .3 . are similar to the viscosity µ. Equation (8.240 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. it will be provide before version 0. The dimension of the bulk viscosity.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. With God help. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . this association was established. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation. it does not add any additional information. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. First. an additional correction will be needed.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. connection between τxy and the deformation was built. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.99) ·U (8. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms. Using the coordinates transformation. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence.
106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.8.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8.101) To explain equation (8.5. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8. In most cases.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. Thus.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates.100) into equation (8. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient. λ. can be over 100 times larger than µ. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 . Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0. . For example. substitute equation (8.102) For the total eﬀect. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured.101). In material such as water. τxy .103) ∂Ux ∂x (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 241 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . Clearly for incompressible ﬂow.
A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ).108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). For this discussion. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity.242 For incompressible ﬂow the term ρ CHAPTER 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated. In the literature. pressure. thus equation (8.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions.112) + ρgz 8.106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories. . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes.6.
The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. In another view.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. scale. The condition (8.12. etc) (8. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface.113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change.Fig. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r . x. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b.113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). While this condition (8.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. when the ﬂow is with a strong velocity ﬂuctuations. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. For example. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. 8. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 243 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true. y). t) = 0 (8. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8.113) is given in a vector form.114) Note.6. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale.8.117) . The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df r = 0 on the surface f (r .115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero.
and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. . Furthermore. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. In index notation equation (8. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory).119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8. this constant is determined from the volume conservation. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location. In other cases. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii.244 CHAPTER 8. In this book. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. Oﬀ course.121) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. In same instances.119) (8.120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8.
in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom.6. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. For example. . BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 245 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. pulling the side will pull all the material. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. Anal. Jean.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example.8. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. 197–217. Arch. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel.13. 74 (1980). shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. no.57). The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity. Rational Mech. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. 3. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. material. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). 8.13. Kerosene lamp. M. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up.
8. examples with two phase are presented. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). In that case.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) Examples of an onedimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. .15.14. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. Schematic of kerosene lamp. the physical condition in Figure 8. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension. The only (almost) propelling source of the ﬂow is the surface gradient. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . example dealing won one phase are present. } } } 8.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. 20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. The distance between the plates is . In the case. Later. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. Even in that case. The control volume shown in darker colors. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow. this eﬀect is not discussed. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient. First. somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant.15). Example 8.246 CHAPTER 8. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). the surface tension gradient remains. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. However. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. In this Fig. book.
124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density).130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8.125) Thus. Furthermore. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.7. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). the mass conservation yields =0 247 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal. The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8.127) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Solution In this example.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.131) .128) (8.
One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both.25 Ψ = 1.6 0. Newtonian ﬂuid.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow.75 green line to 3 the blue line.6 0. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.134) (8. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.0 0.3 0.75 Ψ = 1.75 Ψ = 2. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con.1 0.133) (8.75 Ψ = −1.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.75 Ψ = 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig.2 Ψ = −1.0 0.8 Ux Uℓ 0. .tween 1. the left hand side is equal to constant.131) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform.2 0. In that case. dition21 .4 0. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented. Equation (8.0 y ℓ October 4.16. However.9 1.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8. The boundaries conditions are 1.7 0.25 Ψ = 2.0 0. 8. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.25 Ψ = −0.75 Ψ = −0.25 Ψ = 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.248 CHAPTER 8.25 1.4 0.
The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) 249 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi o z n dr Fig a. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element. Fig.17. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8. of (only) radius. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. Thus.140) . Hence. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. 8.8. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis.7.138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction.
136) since the condition did not change.138) into equation (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided.143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder.250 CHAPTER 8.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.141) Equation (8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition.137) and (8. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe. Integrating equation (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems.142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8. While the above analysis provides a solution.144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8.142) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .145) (8. However.17a. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8. The applicable equation is still (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8. However.
136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.153) Equation (8. The same result is obtained.150) Substituting equation (8.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8.151) Equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 251 (8.8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.152) is the governing equation only the z direction. However.154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical.7.154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8. Example 8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.7.149) (8.7: .152) or its solution (8. the governing equation (8.150) and equation (8.
155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used.VII.VII.18. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient.b) Dividing equation (8. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional.18. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions.7. Solution CHAPTER 8.c) 0 0 (8. That is. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8.252 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig.d) . Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8.VII. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates.VII. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. or z coordinate.VII. However. 8.VII.a) The PDE above (8. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed. After the previous example.
EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Integration of equation (8.VII.j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations. Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.VII.VII. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.e) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII. Example 8.VII.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 . . Furthermore. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes. 1882 September 1.8.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 253 (8.7.VII.
. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8. The dominate force is the gravity.1 dimensional in the x direction. Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). As it will be shown later. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom). The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction.VIII. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished). Calculate the velocity proﬁle. Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0). For this system. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8. For this example.19.254 CHAPTER 8. The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate.19). assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. Write the governing equations for this situation. pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8.a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. 8. Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant. The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction.19. the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible. For simplicg sin θ ity.
b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8.VIII.VIII.k) .VIII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Thus.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.VIII.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8.b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.8. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.d) If there is additional requirement.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 255 (8.VIII. equation (8.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.7.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.VIII. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.VIII.VIII.VIII.VIII. Integration of equation (8.VIII.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.VIII.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8.VIII. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8.
Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct. 8. However. The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. The Fig. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. For the liquid.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisﬁed. The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. . The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8. Thus.20. two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions. thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs.l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary). 8. Example 8. solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants.VIII. the maximum height). The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase.256 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed. This explanation bothered this author. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state.7.
8.VIII.162) (8.160) (8.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.164) (8. the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8.161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.160) yields ρg ρ (8.158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 257 (8.163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8. .159) (8. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.159) with (8.156) Note.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.7.
165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.258 CHAPTER 8.169) Or rearranging equation (8.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.164) and (8.170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8. So equation (8.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8.171) . Equation (8.162). (8.169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.
7.172) (8.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 . The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 259 (8. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero. The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8.8.177) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids28 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Further rearranging equation (8.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. is inﬁnite long. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively.176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well. mostly the gas. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface. 28 This 27 Later .
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .260 CHAPTER 8.
books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. Thus. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. In fact.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air.D.1 Introduction Traditionally. 261 . This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . there was a Ph.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. In the past. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. Initially the models were using simple assumptions. only the trends and simple calculations are described. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. Additionally. As result. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. For many engineers. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. 9. is required for many engineering problems. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. For simple models. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. Here.
. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. However. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. and importance to real world. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. 9. the concept of ﬂow regimes. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . double choking phenomenon (hopefully). However. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases.262 CHAPTER 9. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multiphase but also. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve nondimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. and more importantly. For example. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. will know and understand the trends. Hence.
Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. Hence. nonetheless it exists. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. In fact. . it is assumed that air is made of only gases. For example.4. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. In our calculation. 9. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials).4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. However. Practically for many cases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. KIND OF MULTIPHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 263 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. 9.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height.9. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow.000 in about two and half years.1. or a large acceleration. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee.
and avalanches. paint spray. There are many more categories. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. Generally. Yet. is only an extreme case of liquidgas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. in nature can be blood ﬂow. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. The liquid–solid. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. and river ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids).5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. spray casting. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. and industries. although important. For example. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. For example. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. For the gas. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. When the . In the past. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. Jr. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. However. for example. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. 9. Since there are three phases. rain. Open Channel ﬂow is. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. for an example. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. solid propellant rocket. The multiphase can be found in nature. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. Thus. Many industrial process also include liquidliquid such as painting.264 CHAPTER 9. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. March 29. they can be solid–liquid.. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. ﬂuidized bed. solid–gas. 1887). In a four (4) miles long train. In almost all situations. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquidliquid where the density ratio is extremely large. mud ﬂow etc.
horizontal. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. the cocurrent is the more common. Yet. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow).5. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. and what ever between them. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES 265 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction.2. plug ﬂow. . dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. For example. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. In general. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig.1. 9. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. Additionally.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. Generally. it is referred as counter–current. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. Thus. 9. For example. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow.5.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle).5. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gasliquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. and annular ﬂow.2. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. 9.9. up or down.
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CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity), the friction between the phases increase. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9.3). The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension, and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. In fact, all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. Fig. 9.3. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. liquid ﬂow rate. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small, then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance, for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. At some point, when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases, the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. At this stage, the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9.4). The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Thus, the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure, choking occurs relatively Fig. 9.4. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. Thus, the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if
6 The 7 Well,
liquid level is higher. all the ﬂow is wavy, thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition.
9.5. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES
267
this category is accepted). After a certain distance, the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. Hence, as in compressible ﬂow, liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds, the return path is not move the exact same way. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. For example, ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. However, there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Qualitatively, the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Besides the length, other parameters can aﬀect the “near.”
Dispersed Bubble
Liquid Superficial Velocity
Elongated Bubble
Slug Flow Annular Flow
Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity
Fig. 9.5. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes.
The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9.5. As many things in multiphase, this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions, e.g. in normal gravitation, weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity), etc. 9.5.1.2 Vertical Flow
The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities, with the gravity or against it. In engineering application, the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. The buoyancy
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CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Bubble Flow
Slug or Plug Flow
Churn Flow
Annular Flow
Dispersed Flow
Fig. 9.6. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity.
is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. For the ﬂow against gravity, the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Thus, there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity, the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. Thus, the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. When many bubbles collide, they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9.6). Notice, the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”; the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way, see Figure 9.6. After additional increase of “super slug” , all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Again, it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure.
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9.5.1.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity
269
The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. In cases where the surface tension is very important. Pulsing For example, out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. 9.7. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. the vertical conﬁguration. As the gas ﬂow increases, the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further, all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas, the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid, there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. Here, it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9.7). In the literature, Figure 9.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude ,Reynolds, and Weber numbers. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity, this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side, the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. After the ﬂow has settled, the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. However, the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. While this author is not aware of an actual model, it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations.
Liquid Flow Rate
9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions
Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system, both will be united in this discussion. However, for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid, respectively. The liquid–liquid (also
270
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length, over its cross section, and with time. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow, some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a onedimensional ﬂow. This method is the most common and important to analyze twophase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. Perhaps, the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube.
9.6.1
Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions
The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.1)
It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.2)
Where A is the entire area of the tube. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9.4) mL ˙ A (9.3)
It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9.5)
For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density), the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9.7)
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS
271
Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.8)
In a similar fashion, the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9.9)
This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.10)
It must be noted that Liquid holdup, LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. Thus, a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9.11)
Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.13)
Where Um is the averaged velocity. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. Thus, the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.14)
Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. Also, it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.
272
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1), the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.15)
This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus, for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.16)
Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. Substituting equations (9.1) and (9.7) into equation (9.16) results in
mG ˙ mL ˙
ρaverage =
˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL
QG QL
(9.17)
Equation (9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become
+ (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then
X ρG
ρaverage =
1
(9.18)
vaverage =
1 ρaverage
=
X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL
(9.19)
The relationship between X and α is
AG
X=
mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α
AL
If the slip is one SLP = 1, thus equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.21)
For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations.26) .23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9. the simplest is to used it for approximation. this assumption has to be broken.1: Under what conditions equation (9. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments).22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow.24) or modifying equation (9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. Now.23) Example 9.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. Thus. Initially. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 273 9. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. Furthermore.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9.9.7. The average velocity (see also equation (9. In fact.
In fact.079 and n = 0. In that case. since there isn’t anything better.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow. acceleration must occur. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.274 CHAPTER 9. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9. However. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. acceleration. . this dependency can be neglected.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow).7. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. These losses are nonlinear and depend on each other. from equation (9. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. and body force(gravitation).7.25). For example.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section.25.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. Yet. 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. for small distances (dx) and some situations.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress.1.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9.
9.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.37) a There are several special cases.9. For the last point.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9. dρL / dx = 0.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 275 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. dX/ dx = 0.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. For example.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. .36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9. dA/ dx = 0. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9.7.7. Equation (9.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. the friction loss can be estimated. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only.1.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9.
39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.276 9. 8 This method was considered a military secret. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9. Thus.. φG = dP dx dP dx (9. 9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.7. there are two parameters as shown below. Taitle .38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density).1. private communication with Y.40) 9.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density. The density in equation (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.7.1.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.7.
distribution. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. . To insert the Diagram. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. and geometry. For example.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. 9.” Therefor. 3. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 277 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9.45) For the gas phase. in this discussion. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. etc).44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquidliquid system. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. In solid–liquid. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. 2. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. Thus.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. cubic.8. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases.9. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.
The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).51) 24 Re (9. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. it can be approximated for several regimes. Re.8. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.49) Equation (9. However. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. there are two sets of similar characteristics.48) Inserting equating (9.48) into equation (9. The drag coeﬃcient. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9.52) . The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9.278 CHAPTER 9.44 (9. However. CD ∞ . All these possibilities are diﬀerent. When the liquid velocity is very small.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. possibility. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. the Newton’s Law region. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9. 9. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.
the case of liquid. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. Thus. For small gas/liquid velocity.8. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 279 In most cases of solidliquid system. If the velocity is larger. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”.9. For the case of gas. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 .9). Consequently. Thus. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. the particle will drift with the liquid. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. In that case.8. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. For particles. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. the particle will sink into the liquid. in many cases the middle region is applicable. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. Thus. So far the discussion was about single particle. When the velocity is lower. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. 9. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. Yet. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. the function f (α) is not a linear function. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. USavarge . the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. For the ﬁrst region.
the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. the length of conduit is very limited. this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. Hence. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow. Hence. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. Furthermore. 9. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. 9.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate.9. In the gas phase. Thus. However. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended).8. Nevertheless.280 CHAPTER 9. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound.
the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. Thus. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. Hence. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. opening a can of milk or juice. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. for example. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. However. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity.54. be ﬁnite. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. However.9. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. For example. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 281 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. But in most cases. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. Annular Extented Flow In that case.9. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. 9. 9. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. For example. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. UL /US → 0.10. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. In short tube. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. some of the particles enter into the liquid core.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquidgas systems). Otherwise. Liquid Body Foreces . The countercurrent ﬂow occurs.54) 6 8 From equation 9. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. In most cases. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount.
Initially. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. . due to the gravity. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid.12. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. or small wood particles) by rotating the container.11. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. 9. the pressure in the can increase. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. 9. Figure 9. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. There are more things to be examined and to be studied.12). The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. Fig. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. water solution. Picture of Countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. in some cases.). Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. Then. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed.282 CHAPTER 9. The container is made of two compartments. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. If there are two holes. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. For example. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. In this ﬂow regime.
there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. ﬂow with gravity or against it. . This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. 9.7) page 133) it can be considered stable for small diameters.9. The analysis is provided. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. Probably. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. When the driving (body) force is very small. In many situations. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. 9. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed .9.7).1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity).9. At this point. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. However. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence.13. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 283 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. no counter–current ﬂow possible.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. In horizontal tubes. Flood in vertical pipe. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid.
When there is no water (in liquid phase). etc11 . 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi G = τi L .284 CHAPTER 9. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. In some situations. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. .13. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. Thus. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side).15. Thus.Fig.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime.14. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. The model can be improved by considering turbulence.14. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. is unknown. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. 9.9. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. coexist. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected.15. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. mass transfer. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. However. QL . the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. 9. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. The liquid ﬂow rate. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. wavy interface. Additionally. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Fig.
61) (9. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions.9.62) Uy = (9.59) (9.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.). On the liquid side. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9.58) (9.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. Hence. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.9. Thus. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. C1 . [U (x = 0) = 0]. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.55) The integration constant. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 285 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of countercurrent ﬂow.56) (9.63) .
68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9.70) . h. But. There are three solutions for equation (9.286 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.15). Integration equation (9.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . also.65) is x@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9.65) The solution for equation (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. This point can be obtained when equation (9. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.69). The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.69) is equated to zero.
9.72) Simplifying equation (9. .9.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. equation (9. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. For this shear stress. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. for simplicity reasons.73) Again.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9.67)). the linear equation is used. Thus.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). for a given ﬁlm thickness.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 287 This critical shear stress. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9.76) noticing that equation (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. Here. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical interf ace = τL @wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL @wall = (9. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well. For simplicity.
77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. of the equal velocities.79)(a).78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption.64) when (x = h). C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.82) With the integration constants evaluated.84) The velocity in Equation (9.78) into equation (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.83) (9.81) At the other boundary condition.C. However.79) (9. in that case. equation (9. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). (9.288 CHAPTER 9. . the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. cause this assumption to be not physical.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.80) (a) (b) or (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.
The wall shear stress is τG @wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence .79)(b).9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG @x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface. the two conditions can co–exist.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 289 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. condition (9. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. Then if the interface becomes wavy.87) (9.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG @wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9. if no special eﬀects occurs. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances.9.86) (9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result.
In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. the total balance is needed. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. However.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9.95) . General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry.96) (9. Figure 9.290 CHAPTER 9. However.94) Simplifying equation (9. 9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. Fig.16.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw L Lτw G surface can be neglected. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.
this analysis equation (9. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 291 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. 9.9. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. . The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing.10.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. In that case. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy.
292 CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW .
this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. Furthermore. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented. A. Vector in Cartesian coor . Uy is the vector component in the y direction.dinates system. Thus. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. A. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs.). nates depicted in Figure A. the 293 Fig.1.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. Hence without additional reading.
V )) (A.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars.1. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. A.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. A.5) . a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. V . (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. U + V = V + U 3.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. The following are vectors. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. multiplication of U × V results in W . There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. h2 . Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. The right hand rule.2. V )) n (A.294 unit vector is APPENDIX A. U . and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = U  · V  sin (∠(U . U ·V = U V U U  · V  cos (∠(U . Then the following can be said U U V 1.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.4). a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6.
The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division.A. The reason that these current combinations.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. However. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction.7) (A. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. For example.6) (A. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. VECTORS 295 where θ is the angle between U and V . The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large.1. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). etc. is that these combinations have physical meaning.10) (A. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. . or vector with the angle.
such as.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector.13) . More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. the curl. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. In multivariate calculus.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. Many of the operations of vector world. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. respectively.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. the gradient. For example. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. i. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. j. y. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. divergence.z). A.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. and z directions.y. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor.296 APPENDIX A. For example. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3.1.
18) .14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again.1. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar.15) (A. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. y. in honor of PierreSimon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). z)ˆ + Ny (x.A. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A. VECTORS 297 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. z)ˆ + Nz (x. y. N .17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . y. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. y. z) = Nx (x.16) Note that the result is a vector.
1801 – January 1.html .298 APPENDIX A. x2 .fullerton. normally for steady state.1. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . This results reduces equation. Thus. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. For example. x2 .21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . x3 .21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral. y. · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. A. The basic of these relationships is explored. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. x3 . Special case of equation (A.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. 1862). The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. x2 .edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. x3 .22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855).19) In GaussOstrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24.
Ellipsoidal coordinates. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero.3. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 299 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. velocity. Yet.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. Spherical coordinates. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. the chain role is applicable. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. Elliptic . it can done for the cross product. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. Similarly. A.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. Cylindrical coordinates. and acceleration.1. Prolate spheroidal coordinates.A.25) (A.24) (A. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R).1. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. Parabolic coordinates.
26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A.3. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. θ. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r.3. in most cases. in this case. http://wwwhistory.ac. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical.mcs. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. In Fig. Bispherical coordinates. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . Toroidal coordinates. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry.stand. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. r. θ. Bicyclide coordinates and Capcyclide coordinates. Cylindrical Coordinate System.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. → and z. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. Flatring cyclide coordinates.29) 3 Coolidge. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. . Flatdisk cyclide coordinates. and z.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. A. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A.300 APPENDIX A. Julian (1952). Historically. The new concept here is the length factor. The coordinate θ is angle.html.
Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis.4.1. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location.30) (A. A location is represented by a radius and two angles.31) (A. boom explosion. Spherical Coordinate System. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.A. A.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.37) . The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. sound wave propagax tion etc. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 301 (A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r threedimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.4.
the unit vectors are: r. there is dispute what with unit vectors. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig.3. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. θ. As in almost all cases. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.5. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance. The general Orthogonal is r.302 APPENDIX A. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need.2.42) . A. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. For example in cylindrical coordinates. However. and z . In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h.
44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A.1. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 303 (A. 2 φ= + + Fig. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) .43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.A. .45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system.6. A.
ODE are categorized into linear and nonlinear equations. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A.t dt =0 (A. However.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . . second derivative etc4 .47) 4 Note that mathematically. A.g.1. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. du . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table A. Note that the derivatives are integers e.304 APPENDIX A. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . The most general form is f u.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. ﬁrst derivative.2. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A.
c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1. u) = X(t) U (u).2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.A. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.48) can be written as F (t.I. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.b) (1.48) A. (1.d) (1.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A. Example A.e) .I.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.I.I.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .I. u) dt 305 (A.2.I.2.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).c) Equation (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.
51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.58) (A. This family is part of a linear equations.53).2.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next. .306 A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A. Thus equation (A.52) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.2.1 APPENDIX A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.55) (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.
One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.III. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 307 Example A.62) Example A.2.A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A. .2.3 Non–Linear Equations NonLinear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.
65) Example A.III.III.IV. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.III.b) Using the deﬁnition (1.3. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .d) (1. a t) dt (A.a) .III.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function. v) dt (A. v) − v (A. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A. For this case.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.63) into t dv + v = f (1.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.b) equation (1.III.III.III.2.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.63) for any real positive a.c) (1.308 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A. The solution is then ln t = dv +c f (1. t) = f (a u.
c) (1. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.IV.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.2. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.d) (1.IV.b) .IV. In fact.IV.2.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.A. For this sort equations.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.V.IV.IV.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.3.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.67) g(u) Example A. End Solution 309 (1.V.e) A.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).b) (1.
69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.2.V.V.c) Rearranging equation (1. transformation (like Laplace transform).b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.2. Practically.3.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE. There are additional methods such numerical analysis. and perturbation methods.V.V. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A.68) In a way.310 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.71) (A.d) End Solution A.72) . Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix. A.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A. variable substitutions.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods.
75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.2. where L is Linear operator.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).VI.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.VI.74) Example A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.c) A. .b) (1.A.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1. Thus.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 311 (A. This fact can be used to solve nonhomogeneous equation. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.4.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.b) are −2.VI.VI. and −5.
a) (1.c) (1.VII. Hence. A.VII.78) then the equation (A. u. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.7: Solve the nonhomogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.79) .78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.2.312 APPENDIX A.2.d) A.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.5. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.VII.VII.
VIII.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.A. Example A. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 313 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.VIII.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.2.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.VIII.VIII.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.VIII.b) After the integration equation (1. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.VIII.d) Equation (1. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue. 6 This . The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.VIII.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.
5. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.2.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.85) + c2 (A. d dt u du dt =0 (A.314 APPENDIX A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A. End Solution A.88) .83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.82) where a is constant.86) A.2.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.
IX. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A.IX. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here.IX. the linear thirdorder diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1.c) A. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 315 (A.A.2.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.b) (1. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 . Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. Example A.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A. 1999. Thus.2.90) +u=0 (1.
In the last case where D < 0. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A.95) R+ √ D. if D > 0.98) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. Thus. all the roots are real and unequal.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.316 APPENDIX A.101) .99) (A.92) (A.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. (A. From a mathematical point of view. θ.94) (A. all the roots are real and at least two are identical.93) (A. one root is real and two roots are complex. For the case D = 0. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.
107) (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. The solution of equation (A. Generally. For example. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 317 (A.109) (A.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root. A. For the case of only one real root.2.A. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.106) and equation (A.108) . Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.2.106) are the solutions of (A.107) was discussed earlier.104).104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.105). for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.
X.g. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.b) With the roots of the equation (1.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.X. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.g.g.X.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.a) (1.2 s3.X.318 APPENDIX A.g. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.X. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi .d) . s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.g.
Generally.112) The coeﬃcients axx . . ux = ∂u .) = 0 (A. When the discriminant . the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. For example. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. . when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. Generally. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 319 A. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. the same can be done for a secondorder PDE. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. this characterization is done for for second order.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A.110) To be continue A. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. Equation (A. Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. One example of such equation is heat equation. . However. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). Normally. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it.3.A. axy .2. The general secondorder PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A. Example of such equation is F (ut .112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. ux .
118) Equations (A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.116) Rearranging equation (A. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE.1 Firstorder equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + . ∂x ∂x (A.119) and (A. A.320 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.3.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant... However. . Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct.119) (A. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A. Hence.117) A possible way the equation (A. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.
cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. sin2 α = 4. A. tan(α + β) = 6. and γ. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. respectively 5. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. TRIGONOMETRY 321 A. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. . cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. and c. b. consider the triangle with sides of length a. and opposite angles α.7. The tringle angles sides. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 36. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.A.4. β. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c).
MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .322 APPENDIX A.
215 External forces. 216 Add mass. 184 Arc shape. 228 Correction factor. 194 Conservative force. 85 eﬀective. 142 Density ratio. 193 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 155 bulk modulus. 265. 107 Archimedes. 88 Acceleration. 11 Divergence Theorem. 209 Linear accelerate System. 3. 209 Convection. 11. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 8. 68. 199 Cut–out shapes. 105 Cylindrical Coordinates. 87 Concentrating surfaces raise. 297 Deformable control volume. 207 Euler equations. angular. 279 Flow ﬁrst mode. 199 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 264 GaussOstrogradsky Theorem. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 67. 33 Conduction. 82.SUBJECTS INDEX 323 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 186 Averaged kinetic energy. 23. 210 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 90 Add Force. 209 Rotating Coordinate System. 184. 217 D D’Alembert paradox. 83. 92 Forces Curved surfaces. 193 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 216 Add momentum. 199 Averaged momentum energy. 70. 282 Counter–current ﬂow. 265 Compressibility factor. 207 Steady State. 215 dilettante. 83. 77. 266 Fluid Statics Geological system. 11 Body force. 12 Accelerated system. 82 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 281 Annular ﬂow. 298 Double choking phenomenon. 267 E Energy conservation. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 283 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 262 Flow regimes in one pipe. 113 buoyant force. 73 Average Momentum. 283 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 111. 196 Flow regime map. 194 Convective acceleration. 83–85 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 104 Free expansion. 7. 170 B Bingham’s model. 28 buoyancy. 184. 125 Diﬀerential analysis. 121 C Co–current ﬂow. 173 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 69 Boundary Layer. 252 Flow out tank. 279 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 298 .
252 Polynomial function. 244 Moving surface. 299 Oscillating manometer. 267 . 307 Normal stress. 283 Horizontal ﬂow. 142 Non–Linear Equations. 121 Neutral stable. 133. 77 Isotropic viscosity. 171 index notation. 215 Neutral moment Zero moment. 121. 233 Moving boundary. 86 APPENDIX A. 261 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 228 Lockhart martinelli model. 67. 134. 109 Pressure center. 160 small picture. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Momentum conservation. 152 Limitation of the integral approach. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 108 I Ideal gas. 265 Orthogonal Coordinates. 282 purely viscous ﬂuids. 76 Mass velocity. 228 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 265 Real gas. 242 Non–deformable control volume. 206 L Lapse rate. 8 No–slip condition. 304 Liquid phase. 1. 135 Newtonian ﬂuids. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 123 Micro ﬂuids. 264 Local acceleration. constant of integration. 169 R Radiation. 270 Metacentric point. 276 P Pendulum action. 278 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 268 H Harmonic function. 265 Hydrostatic pressure.324 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 160 Integral equation. 70 Pneumatic conveying. 241 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 243 Moving surface Free surface. 79 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 101 pseudoplastic. 305 Integral analysis big picture. 236 K Kinematic boundary condition. 205 Linear acceleration. 77 Inclined manometer. 244 Multi–phase ﬂow. 216 Inverted manometer. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 100. 194 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 243 kinematic viscosity. 85 Leibniz integral rule. 279 Momentum Conservation. 85. 279 Poiseuille ﬂow. 76 Initial condition. 249 Concentric cylinders. 132 Piezometric pressure. 298 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 88 Linear operations. 85 Real gas. 26 Interfacial instability. 235 N NavierStokes equations. 77 Return path for ﬂow regimes.
264 T Tank emptying parameters. 131 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 240 Segregated equations. 68. 205 Total moment. 277 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 83 Unsteady State Momentum. 119 Stability analysis. 19 Wave Operator. 229 symmetry. 271 Reversal ﬂow. 207 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 121 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 294 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 169 Triangle shape. 297 Westinghouse patent. 243 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 284 Slip velocity. 95 Transition to continuous. 293 Vectors Algebra. 240 thixotropic. 298 Rocket mechanics. 271 . 111 cubic. 152 Divergence Theorem. 104 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 229 substantial derivative. 232 transformation. 271 Quality of dryness. 282 Vertical ﬂow. 180 Liquid holdup. 271 Void Fraction. 12 U Unstable condition. 312 shear stress. 203 Terminal velocity. 280 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 309 Vectors. 271 325 S Scalar function. 230. 179 V Vapor pressure. 6 Slip condition range. 107. 265 Stress tensor. 84. 187 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 271 Wetness fraction. 278 Thermal pressure. 240 Thermodynamical pressure. 283 Stable condition.SUBJECTS INDEX Reynolds Transport Theorem. 265 W Watson’s method. 73 Variables Separation 1st equation. 83. 227 Superﬁcial velocity. 230 Cartesian coordinates. 87 Spherical volume. 83 stability analysis. 114 Turbomachinary. 277 Solid–solid ﬂow. 266 Sutherland’s equation. 264 Spherical coordinates.
I. 4 S Stanton. 4 Gauss. 4 Westinghouse. 262 Meye. 215 e Duckler. 315 C Cichilli. 215 Nikuradse. 4 Blasiu. 262. 152 Rose. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. Carl Friedrich. 133 Reynolds. 4 Martinelli. 298 Poiseuille. 4 Froude. 205 F Fanning. 4 K KuttaJoukowski. 4 Blasius. 298 T Taitle. 133 H Helmholtz.326 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 249 Poisson. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. George Gabriel. 215 Prandtl. Osborne. 4 D Darcy. 4 Nusselt. G. 262 Taylor. 4 de Saint Venant. Claude–Louis. 298 N Navier. 4 V von Karman. 4 . 264 L Leibniz.. 215 G Ganguillet. Hermann von. 253 O Olivier Vallee. 275 P PierreSimon Laplace. Jean Louis. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 4 Stokes. 275 R Rayleigh. Barr´. 152 Lockhart. SimonDenis. 262 M Manning. 4 W Weisbach. 4.