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Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 606451335 email:barmeir at gmail.com
Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick BarMeir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.3.0.3 December 5, 2010)
‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”
from The Metalogicon by John in 1159
CONTENTS
Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer BarMeir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv li li 1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 21 22 23 30 34 43 43 51 51 53 53 54 54 54 55 57 61 62 63 63 64 67 67 67 69 69 73 77
1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.6 Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Fluid Density . . . . . . . 1.6.2 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.7 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.7.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .
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2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . .
CONTENTS 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density . 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density . . 4.4.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System . . . . . . . . . . Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Forces on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 81 85 87 88 88 90 92 95 95 104 111 120 132 133
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
I
Integral Analysis
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141 141 142 143 145 145 152 154 160 163 169 169 169 170 171 171 172 176 179 180 187 188 191
5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .
6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . 193 193 205 206 207 207 209 209 210 210 212
7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform
II
Diﬀerential Analysis
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215 215 216 219 221 226 226 227 228 232 242 242 246 256 261 261 261 262 263 264 265 269 270 273 274 276 277 278 280
8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) . . . . . . . 8.7.1 Interfacial Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii 281 283 284 291 293 293 294 296 298 304 304 305 307 310 312 315 317 319 319 320 321
A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A.1 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . . . . . . . A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3.1 Firstorder equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index 323 Subjects Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
viii CONTENTS .
. . . .14 1. .3 3. . . . .13 1. . . . . .4 Diagram to explain ﬂuid mechanics branches . . Two liquid layers under pressure . . . . Forces in Contact angle . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . ix . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis . . . . . . . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii . . . . . . . . . .22 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 21 25 30 31 33 34 34 36 39 39 52 53 54 55 . . . . . . . . .6 1. . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress . . . . . . .17 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 1. . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . .12 1. . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . .19 1. . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . .2 1. . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . Capilary rise between two plates . . . Description of liquid surface . . .8 1. . . . .15 1. . .1 1. .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . The raising height as a function of the radius . . . . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . .16 1. . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of inertia. . . . . . . .20 1. . . . . . .21 1. . . . . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature Rotating disc in a steady state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass tube inserted into mercury .10 1. . . . . .18 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . .
The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 3. . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . .14 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane . . . . .21 4. . . Schematic to explain the angular angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body . . . . . . . .8 3.25 4.x 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inverted manometer . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O” . . . . Description of parabola . . . . . .19 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 62 67 70 70 71 72 74 75 76 77 80 83 85 88 89 90 90 91 92 95 96 97 99 100 103 104 105 106 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 . .12 3. . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. .18 4. . . . A schematic to explain the atmospheric pressure measurement The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart . . . . . . . . . .20 4. . . .12 4. . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . .27 4. . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . .30 4. . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4. . . . .23 4. . . . . . . .9 3.8 4. . . . . . . . . . .7 3.6 3. . .31 4. . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . .3 4. . . . .16 4. . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 4. . . . . . . . . . . .moment of inertia and center of area Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular .26 4. The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 4. . . . . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular shape Dam . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area . . . . .10 4. . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis . . . . . . . .32 4. . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . Tank and the eﬀects diﬀerent liquids . . . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . .33 4. . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure lines in a static constant density ﬂuid . .17 4. .24 4. . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure under a compressible liquid phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description . . . . . . . The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . Inclined manometer . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . .15 4. . Earth layers not to scale . . . . . . . . . .34 LIST OF FIGURES The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure . . .9 4. . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . .5 4. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .43 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability Description of depression to explain the instability . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 5. . . . . . . . 196 Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity . . . . .2 7. Boat for example 5. . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet .44 4. . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic . . . . . . . . . . . .47 4. . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . .39 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . .37 4. . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . .3 5. Piston control volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . . . . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.48 4. . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long .6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . .12 6. . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . .1 7. . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . .9 6. . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body . . 197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4.46 4. . .9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body . . . .4 5.45 4. . . . . . . . .35 4. . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 . . .10 6. . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis . . . .3 Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 4. . . .11 5.49 4.8 6. . . .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 4. xi 113 121 121 122 125 125 126 127 128 130 131 133 134 135 136 137 141 142 143 144 147 150 155 160 161 162 163 164 170 173 175 177 178 179 182 183 187 189 192 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 7. .40 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. . . . . . .50 5. . Stability of two triangles put tougher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . .7 8. .19 8. . . . . . . .9 9. . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . A. .1 Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . .18 8. . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow. . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . . . . .13 8. . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape .14 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . .20 9. . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . . Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . . . . 206 The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume . . . . . . Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood in vertical pipe.4 8. . .17 8. . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid ﬂow due to gravity . .11 9. . .8 8. . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . Linear strain of the element . . . . . . . .16 8. General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . .xii 7. . . . . . . . .9 8. Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . .12 9. . . . . . . . .2 The right hand rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map.4 9. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 8. . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . . . . . . . 293 A. . . . . Image of countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . 294 A. . .13 9. . . . .16 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 LIST OF FIGURES Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . .3 Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . . . 216 218 220 221 229 230 232 234 235 237 237 237 238 243 245 246 246 248 249 252 254 256 263 265 266 266 267 268 269 279 280 281 282 282 283 284 284 290 8.6 9. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . .
. . .5 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . .6 A. .4 A. . . . . xiii 301 302 303 321 . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES A. . . . . . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . . . .
xiv LIST OF FIGURES .
. . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . 304 xv . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 13 14 15 23 35 41 42 48 65 66 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. .1 1. . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . xlii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. .
xvi LIST OF TABLES .
9).43). page 44 Internal Energy per unit mass. see equation (2. page 170 Units length. see equation (1. see equation (4.7).17). see equation (6. page 45 subscribe for control volume. page 169 Martinelli parameter.1). page 104 The acceleration of object or system.22).0).1). see equation (9. page 277 The area of surface. page 142 Speciﬁc pressure heat. see equation (4. see equation (6. see equation (2. page 171 The velocity taken with the direction.17). Ti0 . see equation (2. page 47 Internal energy. see equation (2. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature. page 44 xvii . see equation (2.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.6). see equation (1. page 67 Body force.38). page 47 The shear stress Tenser. see equation (5.136)..0).26). page 47 Speciﬁc volume heat. see equation (2. see equation (6. page 187 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (6. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum. see equation (2. page 43 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c.23).11).3).v. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means.
see equation (4. see equation (2.42).3). see equation (2. see equation (3. page 97 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass.17). page 46 Speciﬁc enthalpy. page 44 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. page 86 general Body force. see equation (2. page 46 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. see equation (4. see equation (2. page 63 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.6). see equation (2. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (7. page 44 Work per unit mass. see equation (2. page 44 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (1.14). page 69 Subscribe says.40). page 47 Fluid thermal conductivity.2). see equation (2. see equation (2.6).1. page 48 Entropy of the system.18). page 67 Enthalpy.2).xviii Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i.27).0).17). page 142 . page 44 the coordinate in z direction. see equation (5. see equation (2.4). see equation (4. see equation (1. see equation (2. see equation (1.24).13).104). page 46 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats.18). page 194 Angular momentum. see equation (2. page 64 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 44 The gravitation constant. page 12 Torque.17). see equation (3.2).67).0). page 44 Speciﬁc gas constant. page 12 velocity . see equation (4.
3.1 Nov 12.2 Nov 19. additional examples in mass conservation chapter.3. 2010 (3.3 M 358 pages) Build the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process Steven from www. Addition of several examples.0.The Book Change Log Version 0. Brought the mass conservation chapter to code.artofproblemsolving.3 M 362 pages) Further improved the script for the chapter log ﬁle for latex (macro) process.3. Version 0. 2010 (3. This addition was to go the compressible book and will migrate to there when the book will brought up to code.0. xix . 2010 (3. Addition of several examples with respect speed of sound with variation density under bulk modulus. Add discussion change of bulk modulus of mixture.0.com. Version 0.3 Dec 5. Improve English in several chapters.3 M 378 pages) Add additional discussion about bulk modulus of geological system.
3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow.3. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation.xx LIST OF TABLES Add discussion change of density on buck modulus calculations as example as integral equation.9 Sep 20.0 Oct 24. Add several examples on surface tension. Minimal discussion of converting integral equation to diﬀerential equations.2. Add example. Version 0.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter.0. Add discussion about inclined manometer Improve many ﬁgures and equations in Static chapter. Improve English in several chapters.2.3 M 354 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Static chapter. Improve English in static and mostly in diﬀerential analysis chapter. 2010 (3. 2010 (3. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).9. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations. Improvement of properties chapter. 2010 (3.1 Oct 11. Version 0. Add example of falling liquid gravity as driving force in presence of shear stress. Version 0. .
artofproblemsolving.4 March 01. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www. 2009 (2.2.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released. 2010 (2.9 Dec 01. English corrections. 2010 (2.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0. English corrections.LIST OF TABLES xxi Version 0. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. 2010 (2.3 Jan 01.com. Add example about the the third component of the velocity. .artofproblemsolving.2.6 March 10. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.artofproblemsolving. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter. Corrections to Static Chapter.com. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. Version 0.com. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.1.2.
5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation.8. Add an example to mechanics chapter.1 Sep 17. Thanks to Eliezer BarMeir Version 0.8. Add some examples to static chapter.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. 2009 (2.1.1.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. . 2008 (2. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.5 Nov 01. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. 2009 (2. 2009 (2. Version 0.1.1. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books. English corrections.8 Aug 6. Two open questions were released. Version 0. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.xxii LIST OF TABLES Add the open question concept.8a July 5. Version 0. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperaturevelocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene).
Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter.1.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters.1. Version 0. Version 0.LIST OF TABLES xxiii Version 0. 2008 Version 0. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter. 2008 (1.4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.5 Jun 5.1. Version 0. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid.6 Jun 30. . The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet). 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.1a April 23. 2008 (1.5a Jun 11. (thanks to Tousher). Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter. Version 0. Minor corrections for all three chapters.1. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene).1a April 23. The mechanics chapter was released. 2008 (1. 2008 (1.1 May 8.
xxiv LIST OF TABLES .
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) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. date. contact info. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Dec.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. Minor contributions (typo corrections. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. etc. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. time. 2009 xxxiii .” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. etc.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work.
Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass.net . describing how you contributed to the book. Dan H. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Eliezer BarMeir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Contact at: my email@provider. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example.
38) by Michal Zadrozny. Tousher Yang April 2008. January 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. (Nov 2010) .CREDITS xxxv Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. review of statics and thermo chapters. Gupta. Corretion to equation (2.
xxxvi LIST OF TABLES .
it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Now. All the models have practical applicability. As the change in the view occurred. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models.G. In his early part of his professional life. BarMeir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. BarMeir was the last student of the late Dr. Moreover. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD972333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. Currently. and Canada. xxxvii . Eckert.D.E.About This Author Genick BarMeir holds a Ph. R. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. In the area of compressible ﬂow. British industry. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP970489 and PB980007. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. For example. the author’s models were used in numerical works. in GM. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . books and software. Spain. Dr. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. BarMeir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers.
. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner.xxxviii LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. A past project of his was building a four stories house. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. The author lives with his wife and three children. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. practically from scratch. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. BarMeir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. BarMeir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. the author just know to learn quickly. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”.
The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand.org/wiki/Main Page).law.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). xxxix . said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. However. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. As R. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. Kook. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. There is always someone who can add to the book.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). On one hand. is a new idea3 . As individuals we have to obey the law. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. the creation of the POTTO Project.wikipedia. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders.harvard. like an open source. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. one should increase wisdom. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. one of this author’s sages. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation. Hence.
For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises.ex. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. In a way.ac. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted.” American Scientist. For example. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed.uk/bugclub/raiders. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. While one can be as creative as possible. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. Nigel R. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. one also begins to better understand the material. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics.. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. 77:139. In these cases. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. Thus. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself.xl LIST OF TABLES related problems. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. 1989 (see for information http://www. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. The social function can have at least two components. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. It is not just for experts to contribute. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . Thus. For some authors. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. For some contributors/authors. For others. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). Whatever the reasons. The answer varies from individual to individual.html) . the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence.
some errors are possible and expected. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). Farassat. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. graphs and etc. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. Gas Dynamics Calculator (PottoGDC). This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. Unlike a regular book. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. .” In this process. while in other cases only the gate keeper. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. For example. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. It is hoped that the books will be errorfree. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. Additionally. But more than that.000 copies a month. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. Thus. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. In addition. NASA Langley Research Center. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). Thus. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving.CREDITS xli process. etc. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. Even if not complete. These data (tables. Nevertheless.
xlii Table 1.0 0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion.0.3 0.0 0. but it has roots in the way science progresses. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.1 0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.01 TelAviv’notes 0.0. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status.0.1 0. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.) are already presented. and special cases. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage.0.4. a process in which books .0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0.0. Books under development in Potto project.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.0 0. etc. advanced topics. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept. ﬁgures. However. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0 0.0.0. and all of the examples and data (tables.8.0.1.2 0.0. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).
There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. The text processes.e. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. Abiword. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. But more A than that. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. such as OpenOﬃce. because of the open nature of this project. .. and perhaps troﬀ. i. many of whom volunteered to help. A new version is created every several years. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project.CREDITS xliii have a new version every a few years. Again. 6 Originally authored by Dr. and Microsoft Word software. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. especially LTEX. Further. which include the actual writing of the text. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. who passed way some years ago. Schlichting. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals. writing examples. only LTEX. However. Word processors. are not appropriate for these projects. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. creating diagrams and ﬁgures.
xliv LIST OF TABLES .
The number of downloads of this book results from this quality. aerospace engineering. in this version. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xlv . While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book. 2008 pages 189 size 2. Version 0.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. 2008 pages 151 size 1. Even in this early development stage. This author was bothered by this explanation. so much energy). This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea.1. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. it is very satisfying for the author.Prologue For This Book Version 0. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. and civil engineering. and electrical engineering. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. chemical engineering. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. Now. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance.8 August 6. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies.1 April 22. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. In fact.
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previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret’s book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible ﬂow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn’t know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong”; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld, ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).
How This Book Was Written
This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. In writing this book, it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The approach adapted in this book is practical, and more hands–on approach. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. So, issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. Otherwise, this book avoids this kind of issues. The structure of Hansen, Streeter and Wylie, and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.” Later, multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. Of course, this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). The graphics were done by TGIF, the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The spell checking was done by ispell, and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell, a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick BarMeir, and is copyleft by him.
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Preface
"In the beginning, the POTTO project was and void; and emptiness was upon the face and files. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. And the Author there be words, and there were words." 8 . without form, of the bits moved upon said, Let
This book, Basics of Fluid Mechanics, describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus, physics, etc. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. For example, if you need information about, say, statics’ equations, you can read just chapter (4). I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. However, this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook, and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are, rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped.9 Reading everything will, naturally, increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. Like all volunteer work, there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. Moreover, due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations, the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. Nevertheless, I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. This book contains many worked examples, which can be very useful for many. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book, marked with a Mata mark. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future.
the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is only to explain his power. the present, the book is not well organized. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress.
9 At 8 To
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Furthermore, I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. Incorrect language, errors, ideas for new areas to cover, rewritten sections, more fundamental material, more mathematics (or less mathematics); I am interested in it all. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. If you want to be involved in the editing, graphic design, or proofreading, please drop me a line. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail.com”. Naturally, this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). This material never went through a close content review. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. In practice, this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . Several people have helped me with this book, directly or indirectly. I would like to especially thank to my adviser, Dr. E. R. G. Eckert, whose work was the inspiration for this book. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices, ideas, and assistance. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. There are also notes in the margin, but those are solely for the author’s purposes, ignore them please. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing, editing, graphic ability, LTEX knowledge, and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. If you have Internet email access, you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail.com”.
10 Dr. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well, literature review is always good, isn’t it?). Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction, it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. However, other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated.
To Do List and Road Map
This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Nevertheless, there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. At this stage, many chapters are missing. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. These omissions, mistakes, approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this
Meta
sample this part.
Meta End
You are always welcome to add a new material: problem, question, illustration or photo of experiment. Material can be further illuminate. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand.
Properties
The chapter isn’t in development stage yet.
Open Channel Flow
The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?
Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces, motions, and statical conditions in continuous material. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension, ﬂuid statics, ﬂow in enclose bodies, or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise), ﬂow stability, etc. In fact, almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. Furthermore, the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time.). For example, glass appears as a solid material, but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp, the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics)
1
http://ekkinc. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems.2 CHAPTER 1.1.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . air with dust particle). engineers in software company (EKK Inc. Moreover. Or. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. For example. 1.
After his initial work. Before dealing with the boundaries. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be . with the exception Archimedes (250 B.) on the principles of buoyancy.1. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (14521519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. to be followed by stability. there isn’t a clear winner. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces.C. Yet. Thus. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. etc.2. and D’Alembert. Naturally. Later.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. Bernoulli family. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. As in thermodynamics. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. Euler. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. and continue with Empirical Analysis. At some point. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. When cities increased to a larger size. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. Newton. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. For example. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. For example. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. 1. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. turbulence. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. aqueducts were constructed. Torricelli. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. conﬂicts with the reality. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply.
The experimentalists. Rayleigh. considerable contribution were made by Euler. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. La Grange. mainly in pipes and open channels area. Dupuit. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. Hydraulics. resistance by Darcy. von Karman. Thus. Helmhoitz. people cannot relinquish control. Bhuckingham. Rose. Rankine. for example. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. after World War Two. On the theoretical side. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. Ganguillet. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Gas Dynamics. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). But. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. Prandtl and his students Blasius. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. Therefore. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. The NavierStokes equations. there are many . Weisbach. as in thermodynamics. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. Taylor. the way how it was calculated changed. and Aeronautics. were Brahms. d’Aubisson. Kirchhoﬀ. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. and Manning. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. On the “experimental” side. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. Fabre. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). Thus. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. and Kelvin. and Poisseuille. and many others. Chezy. At the end of the twenty century. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Fanning. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. Stanton. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. In the middle of the nineteen century. However. and the KuttaJoukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Meyer. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. This problem led to two consequences.4 CHAPTER 1. Hagen. Coulomb. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Bossut. Dubuat.
if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. The pressure component in the area . Hence. which is force per area has a new meaning. So. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. the pressure has three components. e. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). and it is referred to the direction of the area. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). Inc). The area is measured in [m2 ].3. In this book. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. the emphasis is on the physics. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. The second quantity discussed here is the area. In the best scenario. But below the critical point. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an additional meaning. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. the discussion on the mathematical meaning will be presented (later version).3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. In gaseous phase. under certain limits.1). The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. Later. Thus. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy.g it has a direction. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. then the change of volume is at best 5%. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. The traditional quantity. This diﬀerence can be. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. Thus. The unit used to measure is [N]. 1. no shear stress is applied.1. For example. EKK. for most practical purposes considered. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. It must be remember that force is a vector. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. these programs are as good as the input provided. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. For the discussion here. For example. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume.
ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. 1. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. 1. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. When this assumption is broken. h is the distance between the plates. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. Thus. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1.2) Where A is the area. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. U0x F However. In solid mechanics. the F denotes the force. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. isn’t it?). INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. it was shown that when the force per area increases. . the density remains constant. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. (1. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area.6 CHAPTER 1. Diﬀerent from solid. In this discussion. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. then. 1. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density).4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. F. (1. Figure 1. thus the small distance analysis is applicable.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size.3. After certain sample size.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken.2.3). that is. the velocity of the plate increases also. the density is deﬁned as Fig. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). h) (1. here it will be treated as a separate issue. From solid mechanics study.
5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. the regular approximation provides Fig.9) with equation (1. 1.4) (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length. In steady state.4) and (1. δt is d = U δt (1. d = U δt = h δβ (1.4.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.11) .9) Combining equation (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.5) From equations (1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.7) From Figure 1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1. Hence.4.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1.1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.3) (1.8) From equation (1.
Assume steady state conditions. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerin.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.45[N ] h 0.6)) F = 1 × 1. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equidistant from each other and steady state is achieved instantly. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0.1 [m]. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Materials which obey equation (1.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.01 End Solution Example 1.1[m] diameters with height of 0.5 m/sec. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids.8 CHAPTER 1. Thus. Example 1. In fact. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. the following can be written (see equation (1. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity.069 × 0. Equation (1. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. The property of viscosity.5 A µU ∼ = 53.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transferred into the y direction. Solution . The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus.2[m] and 0. water etc.
1. and it resists the ﬂow.4 ¡ M= ∼ . the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules.13 h 0. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. In liquids. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0.1 × 12/60 = 0. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids families.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. in gases. The same way as in example (1. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. Thus. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory.5. Thus. the Fig.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1.1).5 Viscosity 1. while in the dU liquids.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. However. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow.5. In gases. thus. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. tic pl do ne Ne ic eu ct ei pe ps R re ho wt on ia n rP hi as lip po ff di la ta nt . This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature.5.986 0. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.1. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics.
6.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Fig. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn .13) are constant. both materials are only a function of the temperature. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. Figure 1. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. 1. Well above the critical point. On the liquid side below the critical point. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. K) in equation (1.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.5). When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. From the physical point of view. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. 1. 1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate.10 CHAPTER 1. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear.5. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . Not all the materials obey this relationship.7.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. There is a large class of materials which shows a nonlinear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.
The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms).7.e06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if τyx  > τ0 (1. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. Mindess and J.. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second.0008 0. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1.0002 5. cosity is deﬁned as 0. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.0006 0. This fact explains Fig.000015 0. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.0024 0. eds. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials. When n. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress.000025 0. for most practical purposes. For example. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice.1.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. 1 C. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus. VISCOSITY 11 always positive. The kinematic vis. Materials Science of Concrete VI. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. [m2 /sec].3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. Ferraris.0012 0.002 0. Skalny.0026 0.0004 0. is above one.8.14) dUx =0 dy if τyx  < τ0 (1. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. 215241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 . When n is below one. However. de Larrard and N.5). S. 1. 1.0016 0. the liquid is dilettante. In the simple case.e05 0.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids.0014 0. Martys. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1. F. However.0028 0.5.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature.0022 0.5. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required.0018 0.of the temperature.003 0.
the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.710−5 . End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement. Use the data provide in Table 1.00001827 × × 0.8 and Fig.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature. For many gases.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature.5.001 0.07 + 120 µ = 0.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.555 × 524. have expressions that provide an estimate. For isothermal ﬂow. T T0 3 2 (1.9.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1. 1.002 0.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%. 2008 0.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth . Water viscosity as a func1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.1 Example 1.07 3 2 ∼ 2. .12 CHAPTER 1.1. Solution Applying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.9.
67 518.93 540.2.1. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.00001720 0.5.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table 1.0000146 0.67 528.0000076 0.1.00001480 0.0002018 0. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000203 0.99 526. Viscosity of selected gases. .07 527.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.0001781 0.0000109 0.67 524.00001827 0.05 528.00000982 0.0000876 0. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.0001254 Table 1.
069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table 1.000946 0.084 0.000647 0.072 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.001194 0.14 CHAPTER 1.3.54 1. Viscosity of selected liquids.150.986 520 0. .05 0.6 0.001547 0.098 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.01915 0.000245 0.200 0.
5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.944 131.C.4 305. Washington D. The lines of constant relative pressure. In this graph.4 190.5 151 289.5.016 4.8 132 304.5 2. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).07 16. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications.97 44.3 28. The lower pressure is.003 20. 258. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.9 15 Table 1. Figure 1. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.358525 48.54 15.1.4.3 5. Vol. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.096 K Pc [Bar] 12. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. Tr .2 154.01 32. In Figure 1.5 1.83865 46.04 Tc [K] 33. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).0 15. cation (mushy zone). Even when there is a solidiﬁ. this graph also shows the trends.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. 19. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.00 30. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.7685 36.865925 50. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. Furthermore.289945 27.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.4 or similar information. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. May 1995 p. Atomic Energy Commission AECD3646 U.256425 48.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.0 18.7 647. The second way.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.S.26 44. 1. Government Printing Oﬃce. if one point is well documented. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. for practical purpose.0 0.10.4 49.636 58.9696 2.6 26.Fig.47 2. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.40685 22. Furthermore. then the critical . ∼ 1[bar].0 21.8823 73.183 39.3 19. other points can be estimated.
only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1.16 viscosity is obtained as CHAPTER 1. Even for homogeneous mixture.4 50.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1. when none is available.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.18) The third way.11 obtain the reduced viscosity.35[Bar] Tc = 154.41 154. . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS given µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. Example 1. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].15 ∼ 2.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. For most 3 Kyama.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.11 (1. 2 1956. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. In this book.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.35 373. Rev.2 = 21. 26 No. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Makita.
the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.2 Pr=0. cases. and µi is the viscosity of component i.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. 2008 Fig. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. The subscript i should be used for the j index. xi is the mole fraction of component i. . 1. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components.5.11.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1.1. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture.22) Here. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 twophase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.
µ 0. O2 and 80% nitrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight.18 6 CHAPTER 1. x 0. Example 1.2 Tr=1. 2008 Fig. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Tr=0.12.1 Tr=1.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.8 Viscosity.00001754 .4 Tr=1.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.0000203 0. 28. M 32.2 0.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixture (air) made of 20% oxygen. Mole Fraction. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. 1.
The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.0000203 0.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.8 × 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0. m2 Figure 1.157 .8 × 1.2 × 0.0 + 0.1. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.0 1. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.0 19 µmix ∼ 0.2 × 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.001 kN . the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. µ0 = 0. This equation (1.25) .996 1.875 1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0000182 .0000181 0. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress.5.00105 N sec . End Solution In very low pressure. An example for values for this formula.0 µi /µj 1.143 0.0 1.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.0000073 kN .996 + 0. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.0 1.0024 0. m2 m2 and τs = 0.0 Φij 1.0215 N sec . the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.0024 0.8 × 1. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.86 1.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. in theory.2 × 1.
a) .4 revolution per second. Solution The shear stress at the surface is estimated for steady state by τ =µ U dU = 3 × 10−5 × = 30 U dx 1 × 10−6 (1.VI. Control volume around the inner cylinder shows that moment is a function of the area and shear stress. Estimate the liquid viscosity used between the cylinders. hence. The velocity at the inner cylinders surface is Ui = r ω = 0. The oil force a distance between the block and the inclined surface of 1 × 10−6 [m] thick.1 × 1[rad/second] = 0.20 and CHAPTER 1.a) The velocity at the outer cylinder surface is zero. The velocity gradient may be assumed to be linear.26) Example 1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS n µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. The viscosity of the oil is 3 × 10−5 [m2 /sec]. What is the speed of the block at steady state? Assuming a linear velocity proﬁle in the oil and that the whole oil is under steady state.VI.1 [m] rotates concentrically within a ﬁxed cylinder of 0. dU ∼ 0. It is given that a moment of 1 [N × m] is required to maintain an angular velocity of 31.7: A square block weighing 1. The shear stress calculations can be estimated as a linear between the two concentric cylinders.1[m/s] (1.2 = dr End Solution dU dr (1.c) Example 1.VII.1 The used moment is dU M =µ = 100 ×2 × 0.b) = 100sec−1 = dr 0.1 [m2 ] slides down an incline surface with an angle of 20◦ C.1 − 0 (1.1 × π × 0.2 [m].0 [kN] with a side surfaces area of 0.101 [m] radius and the cylinders length is 0. Solution The moment or the torque is transmitted through the liquid to the outer cylinder.6: An inside cylinder with a radius of 0. The surface is covered with oil ﬁlm.101 − 0.VI.
b) The results of the integration is F = π µ ω R4 δ (1.a) T = 0 2 r τ dA = 2 0 2µr ωr 2 π r dr δ (1.VIII.6.6 Fluid Properties The ﬂuids have many properties which are similar to solid. The shear stress can be assumed to be linear. r and expression has to be developed for it. The gap is given and equal to δ and the rotation speed is ω.c) End Solution 1. Solution δ Fig. The edge eﬀects can be neglected. FLUID PROPERTIES The total ﬁction force is then f = τ A = 0.13.VII. 1. In this cases the shear stress is a function of the radius.VIII.1. . U = 3 U The gravity force that act against the friction is equal to the friction hence Fg = m g sin 20◦ = 3 U =⇒ U = m g sin 20◦ = 3 21 (1.8: Develop an expression for estimate of the torque required to rotate a disc in a narrow gap. The shear stress can be estimated as U ωr τ ∼µ =µ = δ δ This shear stress can be integrated for the entire area as R R (1.1 × 30. Rotating disc in a steady state. In addition the diﬀerential area also increases and is a function of r.VIII. The rest of the properties lumped into this section.b) (1.VII. A discussion of viscosity and surface tension should be part of this section but because special importance these topics have a separate sections.c) End Solution Example 1.
b) where E denotes the modulus of elasticity for the water 2.IX.c) E − ∆P E (1.d) or expanding the cubical equation and neglecting high power terms of α. E (1 + α∆ T ) − E = P2 − P1 =⇒ P2 ∼ P1 + (3 α + · · · )E P1 = 3 × 8 10−6 × 100 × 2.IX.15 109 = End Solution 3 (1.e) . State your assumptions. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1.15 109 (N/m2 ) The water mass in the tank remain constant m1 = m2 −→ ρ1 V1 = ρ2 V2 . it is assumed that the expansion due to pressure increase is negligible. The tank volume change under the assumptions the tank walls remain straight is thermal expansion V2 = V1 (1 + α∆ T ) 3 (1.IX.6.9: A steel tank ﬁlled with water undergoes heating from 27◦ C to 127◦ C. As approximation the relationship between the pressure and density in the liquid phase as ρ2 = ρ1 1 E = P2 − P1 E − ∆P 1− E (1. Examples to described usage of property are provided. ρ2 V1 E = = ρ1 V2 E − ∆P or using equation (1. Due to the change temperature the tank (the steel) undergoes linear expansion of 8 10−6 per ◦ C.IX.a) The more accurate calculations require looking into the steam tables. For this example.IX.22 CHAPTER 1. The change of density is reversed of the change of volume.1 Fluid Density The density is a property that is simple to analyzed and understand. Example 1. Solution The expansion of the steel tank will be due to two contributions: one from the thermal Expansion and two pressure increase in the tank.IX.a) (1 + α∆ T ) = 3 (1. The initial pressure can be assumed to atmospheric.
Bulk modulus is usually obtained from experimental or theoretical or semi theoretical (theory with experimental work) to ﬁt energy–volume data.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.28 2.06 1.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.3 [Mpa] nf 7. FLUID PROPERTIES 23 1.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.3 4. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).97 2.034.152. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2. The .5 0.228. Most (theoretical) studies are obtained by uniformly changing the unit cells in global energy variations especially for isotropic systems ( where the molecules has a structure with cubic symmetries). Table 1.6.49 [MPa] 6.00 [MPa] Est 78.32 1.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.80 1.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.5.1. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.34 1.6.20 1. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.79 K na 647.52 26.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.74 [MPa] 4.10 1.5 [Bar] 172.49 0.109 [MPa] na 22.5 2. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.2 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.5.62 1.09 1.064 [MPa] In the literature.096 K Pc 57. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.60 1.
34) T Equation (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.35) The last equation (1.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.32) On constant pressure lines. This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T. dP = 0.33) follows that ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v dv dT =− P =const v (1. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant.33) From equation (1. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1. and therefore equation (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.24 CHAPTER 1. In contrast. These deﬁnitions are related to each other. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. .
The new pressure is P1 .a) air (or gas) Oil (liquid 1) h1 Water (liquid 2) h2 Fig.00035 End Solution Example 1.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution Example 1.11: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent. FLUID PROPERTIES 25 Example 1. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C. State your assumptions.XII.b) ∆P ∆V /V (1. Estimate the change of the heights of the liquids depicted in the Figure 1.1. Solution The volume change in a liquid is BT ∼ = Hence the change for the any liquid is ∆h = ∆P h ∆P = A BT /V BT (1. Initially the pressure in the tank is P0 . 1. .01 = 2. The area of the tank is A and liquid A height is h1 and liquid B height is h2 . Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.14.12: Two layers of two diﬀerent liquids are contained in a very solid tank.15 109 .035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar]. Two liquid layers under pressure.10: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0.14. The liquids are compressed due to the pressure increases. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2.6.XII.
In the second method assume that the density is a function of the pressure. In one method assume that the density is remain constant until the bottom.XIII.b) with equation (1.e) to 1− 4 Under g BT x ρ(x)dx = 0 ρ0 ρ(x) (1.XIII.XIII.XIII.XIII. In some place the ocean deep is many kilometers (the deepest places is more than 10 kilometers).d) ρ(x)dx 0 (1.e) is an integral equation which is discussed in the appendix4 .26 CHAPTER 1. It is convenient to change further equation (1.e) Equation (1.XII.c) Combining equation (1. Solution For the the ﬁrst method the density is BT ∼ = ∆P ∆P =⇒ ∆V = V ∆V /V BT (1.f) construction .XIII.c) yields m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx 0 V −V BT Equation can be rearranged to be m ρ(x) = x g ρ(x)dx V 1− BT 0 =⇒ ρ(x) = ρ0 g 1− BT x (1. ∆h1+2 = ∆P h1 h2 + BT 1 BT 2 (1.12.b) V −V BT In the Chapter on static it will be shown that the change pressure is x ∆P = g 0 ρ(x)dx (1.XIII. . calculate the density change in the bottom of 10 kilometers using two methods. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The total change when the hydrostatic pressure is ignored.13: The hydrostatic pressure was neglected in example 1.c) End Solution Example 1.XIII.XIII.XIII.a) The density at the surface is ρ = m/V and the density at point x from the surface the density is m m ρ(x) = =⇒ ρ(x) = ∆P V − ∆V (1. For this example.
i) or rearranged as ρ= (1.XIII.e) is ρ0 BT ρ0 =⇒ ρ= g (1.l) BT ρ0 BT =⇒ c = 2 g (c) 2 g ρ0 (1. the density at the bottom using equation (1.XIII.m) BT − g ρ0 x 1− g ρ0 x BT End Solution Advance material can be skipped Example 1.XIII. Assume that no variation of the temperatuere. That is the density is function of the depth.6.j) The integration constant can be found by the fact that the density at the x = 0 is ρ0 ρ0 = Hence the solution is ρ = ρ0 ρ0 BT 2 g ρ 0 x + BT (1.14: Water in deep sea undergoes compresion due to hydrostic pressure.g) (1. the salinity can be complity ignored.XIII.XIII. For the purpose of this excerss.XIII.1. FLUID PROPERTIES 27 The integral equation (1.XIII.XIII.XIV. it was shown in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” by this author that the speed of sound is c= BT ρ (1.h) The solution is (1. For constant bulk modulus.f) can be converted to diﬀerential equation when the two sides under diﬀerentiation g ρ0 d ρ(x) ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ(x)2 dx or g ρ(x)3 d ρ(x) + =0 BT ρ0 dx ρ0 BT =x+c 2 g ρ2 ρ0 BT 2 g (x + c) (1.XIII.a) Calculate the time it take for a sound wave to propogate from the surface to a depth D penpendicular the surface. .k) In the “constant” density approach.
d) BT − g ρ 0 x 0 ρ0 The solution of equation (1. When more than one liquid are exposed to pressure the value of these two (or more liquids) can have to be added .XIV. x.g) 1.b) The time the sound travel a small intervel distance.6. In this short section a discussion about the bulk modulus averaged is presented. dx is dτ = dx BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1. The speed of sound at any depth point.XIV.1 Bulk Modulus of Mixtures In the discussion above it was assumed that the liquid is pure.28 Solution CHAPTER 1.d) is t= √ ρ0 2 BT − 2 BT − D (1.2.f) (1.XIV.XIV.XIV. However.e) The time to travel according to the standard procedure is √ D ρ0 D = √ t= BT BT ρ0 The ratio between the corrected estimated to the standard caclulation is √ √ √ ρ0 2 B T − 2 B T − D √ correction ratio = D ρ0 √ BT End Solution (1. the desnitsy is diﬀerent for evry point since the density varies and the desnity is a function of the depth. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The equation for the sound speed is taken here as correct for very local point.c) The time takes for the sound the travel the whole distance is the integration of inﬁnitesimal time D dx t= (1.XIV. is c= BT = ρ0 B T BT − g ρ0 x BT − g ρ0 x ρ0 (1.XIV.
42) In that case the equation for mixture can be written as v (1. V = x1 V + x1 V + · · · + xi V (1.39) Where x1 . Hence.36) The total change is compromised by the change of individual liquids or phases if two materials are present. Thus. another approach with taking into account the energyvolume is needed.38) (1.40) Rearranging equation (1.37) results in ∂V = V1 ∂P V2 ∂P Vi ∂P ∼ V1 ∆P V2 ∆P Vi ∆P + + ··· + + + ··· + = BT 1 BT 2 BT i BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.43) End Advance material . The deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is given by equation (1.27) or (1. the total change is ∂V = ∂V1 + ∂V2 + · · · ∂Vi ∼ ∆V1 + ∆V2 + · · · ∆Vi = Substituting equation (1.36) into equation (1. In case the total change isn’t.41) suggested an averaged new bulk modulus BT mix = (1.40) yields v ∂P ∼ ∆P = =v ∂v ∆v 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i 1 x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∂P = BT mix ∂v (1. in special mixture. x2 and xi are the fraction volume such as xi = Vi /V .1.6.41) Equation (1. Even in some cases of emulsion (a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the ﬁrst will not mix) the total change is the summation of the individuals change.39) can be written as ∂V = V ∂P x2 xi x1 + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i ∼ V ∆P = x1 x2 xi + + ··· + BT 1 BT 2 BT i (1.37) Under the main assumption in this model the total volume is comprised of the individual volume hence. FLUID PROPERTIES 29 in special way. using this identity and the fact that the pressure is change for all the phase uniformly equation (1.28) and can be written (where the partial derivative can looks as delta ∆ as ∂V = V ∂P ∼ V ∆P = BT BT (1.
44) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. surface tension. Thus. the equation (1. Surface tension control volume analysis describing principals radii. Thus. Furthermore. The second with two equal radii. 1. There is a common misconception for the source of the surface tension. In the vertical direction. the horizontal forces R2 dℓ1 cancel each other because symx metry. In many (physics. The forces in Fig. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size.45) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius.30 CHAPTER 1. the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1.45) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1.7 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the liquid at the free surface edge.46) . This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s second law (see example ?). dℓ2 The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . The surface tension is force per length and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. When the surface tension R1 is constant. The relationship between the surface tension and the pres2dβ1 sure on the two sides of the sury face is based on geometry.45) Equation (1. Con2dβ2 sider a small element of surface.44) For a very small area. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 1. Surface tension is also responsible for the creation of the drops and bubbles. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoined phases or materials. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces.15. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β). It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to many drops (atomization).
XV. if the inside and the outside diameters are considerable diﬀerent the results is F = σ2 π sin 55◦ C (Do − Do ) (1. F = σ2 π cos 55◦ C (Di + Do ) (1.c) b & g ρ h π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W ∼0 (1.15: A glass tube is inserted into bath of mercury.47) Where R is the radius of the sphere. [N/m] Solution The mercury as free body that several forces act on it. The inner diameter is 0. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. Glass tube inserted into mercury.16).45) is reduced to ∆P = 2σ R (1.a) This force is upward and the horizontal force almost canceled.b) The balance of the forces on the meniscus show under the magniﬁed glass are A b & P π r2 = σ 2 π r + & W or ∼0 (1. Estimate the force due to the surface P = ρhg tension (tube is depicted in Figure 0.02[m] σ 1. It was observed that contact angle between the glass and mercury is 55◦ C.1.48) Example 1.XV. Estimate the depression size.5 Fig.7.XV.16.025[m] contact angle is the same for the inside and outside part of the tube. SURFACE TENSION 31 Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.d) . However. inner and outer.021[m]. It can be assume that the h 0. 1. As55◦ sume that the surface tension for this combination of material is 0.02[m] and 55◦ the outer diameter is 0.XV. A soap bubble is made of two layers.
The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.e) End Solution Example 1. r. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . that is the work is done on the system.49) The minimum work will be for a reversible process. It can be noticed that the work is negative. The reversible process requires very slow compression.47) for reversible process. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.XV. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1.32 Or after simpliﬁcation CHAPTER 1. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . End Solution Example 1. which contains n bubbles with equal radii.17: .50) Where. It is worth noting that for very slow process.16: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv rf r0 w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 2σ gρr h= (1.
Solution In Figure 1. The balance between gravity and surface tension is σ 2 π (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) = ρ g h π(ro )2 − π(ri )2 Which can be simpliﬁed as h= 2 σ (ri cos θi + ro cos θo ) ρ g ((ro )2 − (ri )2 ) (1. Solution The diﬀerence lie in the fact that “missing”cylinder add additional force and reduce the amount of liquid that has to raise.17.05 = 0.51) (1.17 exhibits the liquid under the current study. Notice that previously a rise for circular tube was developed which diﬀerent from simple one dimensional case.18: Develop expression for rise of the liquid due to surface tension in concentric cylinders. 1.51) resutls in h= 2 × 0.1.001 × 9.XVIII. The distance between the two plates is and the and surface tension is σ. The question when the curveture should be ansered in the Dimentional analysis and for simpliﬁcation this eﬀect is neglected.8 × ×1000 End Solution 2σ ρg (1.52) Example 1. Cumpute the value for sufrace tension of 0. 33 ℓ h Fig.XVIII. the contol volume is taken just above the liquid and the air part is neglected.a) .17. Assume that the contact angle is 0circ (the maximum possible force).b) (1.7. The net forces in the vertical direction (positive upwords) per unit length are 2σ cos 0◦ = g h ρ =⇒ h = Inserting the values into equation (1. It can be noted that the pressure and above are the same with the exception of the curveture on the upper part. The vertical forces acting on the body are the gravity. SURFACE TENSION Calcualte the rise of liquid between two dimentional parallel plates shown in Figure 1. the pressure above and below and surface tension. Capilary rise between two plates.001[m]. the density 1000[kg/m3 ] and distance between the plates of 0.05[N/m]. Thus.
and gas can be ignored.53) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. This contact point occurs due to free surface S L reaching a solid boundary.18.b) can be simpliﬁed 2σ h= (1.53) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS The maximum is obtained when cos θi = cos θo = 1. It must be noted that the solid boundary isn’t straight. Description of wetting and ular phenomenon. conG sider the point where three phases became in contact. The contact angle is determined by NonWetting whether the surface tension between the gas Wetting fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface fluid tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry.XVIII. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and Fig. Thus. 1. equation (1. thus.54) (1. liquid. In Figure 1.55) (1.19.7.18.53). The surface tension forces must be balanced. Thus.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle.34 CHAPTER 1. a contact angle is created to balance it.54) into equation (1. structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that the masses of the solid. . the solid reaction force must be zero. The surface tension is a molec. 1.XVIII. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1. Forces in Contact angle. For example. the solid phase. thus depend on the locale non–wetting ﬂuids. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.c) ρ g (ro − ri ) End Solution 1.Fig.
The contact angle for air.83 π/3. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”. E.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. Heat Transfer. ASME. distilled water with selected materials to demonstrate the inconsistency. J.I. I.1. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii.74 π/4. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. Y. Table 1.19).83 π/4.6. chemical component Steel Steel.N.T. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. 4 Arefeva E..4 π/3. pages 14651470. V. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. This statement is correct in most cases. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. and Ostrovsky. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.7 π/4.Nickel Nickel Nickel ChromeNickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. and Rohsenow W.372.7 π/6 to π/4. 1117 1(7) In Russian. gas medium and the solid surface. For example.5 π/3.517. vol 1 pp 365 . when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. So.I. E.76 to π/3.7. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is nonwetting. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble dynamics in saturated water. 9.. M. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). 3 Tolubinsky. On the other hand. Siegel. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. No 12. . 1975 2 Bergles A.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4. however.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R.74 to π/3. Pages 509 . SURFACE TENSION 35 The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting.. Vol. Aladev O. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. G.
and Dhir. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. In Figure 1.. 1. Eng. and Dhir.” J.46) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields 0 0 0 g h(x). is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 (1.57) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. J. ρ = σ R(x) (1. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4).20.20). 659669 To explain the contour of the surface. 6 Basu. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. K.20. 56. V.. Vol. Prog.. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. Equation (1. h = h(x). INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 5 Labuntsov D. V.. 124.” Chem. 7 Gaetner. Symp. (1993). is the atmospheric pressure.36 CHAPTER 1. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. K. pp. To solve the shape of the liquid surface.46) is applicable to it.20 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. and Westwater. N. x+dx. C. Ser. R.57) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. No 1. Warrier.56) The radius of any continuous function. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. The pressure. H. .. Description of liquid surface. A.. 8 Wang.. F. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension. Energetika I transport. W. papes 717 728. R.. Heat Transfer 115. the Figure 1. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . on the gas side. G. Appalling equation (1.
60) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 3/2 (1. An try) and the derivative at hx alternative presentation of equation (1.61) into ¨ ˙ identities h 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.7. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.64) . constant = −1 .58) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as 1D Surface Due to Surface Tension ghρ σ dh 1+ dx 2 3/2 2 3/2 37 (1.63) At inﬁnity. Using dummy variable and the ˙ = ξ and hence.62) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1.57) into equation (1.56) yields g h(x) ρ = σ ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1.58) is ghρ = ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 Integrating equation (1.59) ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (symme˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.58) − d2 h =0 dx2 (1.1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.61) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is referred to as Laplace’s capillarity constant. The diﬀerential dh is h.62) After the integration equation (1.60) dh (1. SURFACE TENSION Substituting equation (1.
Equation (1. .67) = dx −1 (1. 1. Furthermore. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Equation (1.1 Capillarity The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume).68) Equation (1. otherwise it will not be there.1. 5 This p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .69) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.66) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1.70) Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the gas density and r is the radius of tube.65) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp −1 (1.7. Shamefully. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is h= 2 σ cos β g ∆ρ r (1.64) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation5 .38 CHAPTER 1.68) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp  (1. This book is introductory. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?.64) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 (1.
4 0. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. h is similar to equation (1.7.1.21.3 0.22 exhibits the height as a function of Capilary Height the radius of the tube.0 Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.71).71) with a minus sign.21 as blue line. 1. for ex.71) indicates that the function of the radius. In that case equation (1.8 Height [cm] 0. actual However. The actual dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 15 [mm]. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are presented in Figure 1. The actual height is shown in the red line. .22.4 2.70) becomes working range hmax = 2σ g ∆ρ r { 0.0 0.1 2.6 0.2 1. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. 1. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1. 1. Furthermore.8 2. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. The raising height as a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.” The depression height. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. 2008 6 Actually.59) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. The height based on equation (1. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is available see Table 1. SURFACE TENSION h 39 But this simplistic equation is unusable and Theory useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.7. there are information about the contact angle. In conclusion.0 0.2 1. For a small tube radius. in reality there is no readily information for 0 R contact angle6 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1.70) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.5 1.22.2 0. Equation (1.6.7 Radii [cm] May 29. function of the radii. However.Fig. The raising height as a tremely small radii equation (1. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle. equation (1. However.6 (1.71) Figure 1.21. high height which indicates a negative pressure.9 1. On the other hand. For large radii equation (1. This angle is obtained when a Fig.71) is shown in Figure 1. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.71) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.59) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical sphere (small gravity eﬀect).
21: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.04 × 0. F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C.0728 = ∼ 2.02 cm. D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0. Neglect the weight of the ring. Therefore.0[N/m2 ] r 0.0728 ∼ . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Example 1.0728 ∼ ∼ 728. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000 End Solution Example 1.001 [m]. the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. End Solution Example 1. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0. However.0002 End Solution Example 1.19: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ].40 CHAPTER 1. Estimate the surface tension? Solution . the pressure diﬀerence between the inside and outside droplet is 1[kPa].0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.20: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.22: A small liquid drop is surrounded with the air and has a diameter of 0. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C.47). Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown.
6 5.40 32. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20◦ C when not mentioned.6 25.1211 0.10 22.1117 n/a 0.1160 0.048.0832 0. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Surface Tension 27.2049 0.067 .12 425465.0890 0.10 32.15 43.1484 0.0966 0.1484 0.50 41.0 0.50 24.50 36.50 28.1177 0.00 45.95 36.8 32.90 43.1118 n/a n/a 0.70 26.1037 0.1308 0.1.1160 0.20 24.20 43.10 29.1191 0.20 ∼ 21 64.7.0598 n/a 0.1291 0.30 23.12 33.4 28.30 43.0 22.70 38.20 47.1295 0.60 27.0842 n/a 0.0920 0.88 39.70 58.95 34.1085 0.1066 0.0 mN m T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C  correction mN mK n/a 0.1094 0. SURFACE TENSION To be continue End Solution 41 Table 1.1159 0.1063 0.1011 n/a 0.7.60 22.3 22.0773 0.1120 0.
0777 0.80 30.0972 0.7.1514 0. INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS Table 1.1372 0.50 23.00 41.1104 . The surface tension for selected materials (continue) chemical component Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water oXylene mXylene Surface Tension mN m T 25◦ C  correction mN mK 12.60 n/a 5469 28.1101 0.00 36.1100 n/a n/a 0.1189 n/a 0.42 CHAPTER 1.90 0.0935 0.85 11.10 28.0902 0.70 38.91 14.1172 0.4 27 72.
1) This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). 2. In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation. In this deﬁnition. that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed. Two. it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2. 43 .CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics In this chapter.1 Basic Deﬁnitions The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. So. Work In mechanics. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. The dimensions of this material can be changed. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.
Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems. The statement describing the law is the following. etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. is the internal energy per unit mass. and electrical energy. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2. .6) 2 (2. The kinetic energy is K. potential energy (gravity). There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy. A common body force is the gravity. the conservation is applied to all systems. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2. chemical potential.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.5) where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. = mU 2 2 (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. Eu . The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property.2) The system energy is a state property. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration).E. work. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Our system can receive energy.44 CHAPTER 2.3) Interesting results of equation (2. For such body force.4) Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2. The “new” internal energy. etc. m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum.
the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass.12) The last integral can go though several states.1. If there is no lost.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS 45 Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points.8) For the case were the body force.2. the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2. the integral is independent of the path.11) The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. Hence. δQ =0 T (2. it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation.7) In the same manner. Bf . is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.9) (2. D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative.10) The time derivative operator. choosing any point in time will make it correct.13) . These states are independent of the path the system goes through.
46 CHAPTER 2. h.21) ρ .15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2.19) (2. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties.16) into (2. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic.17) (2.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2.15) (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. the enthalpy of the system. isn’t correct.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2.18) For isentropic process.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. For reversible process equation (2.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . Thus.20) (2. Furthermore. Thus. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process. The equation (2.18) the (2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process. it still remail valid for all situations.16) (2. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as. equation (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property.
Normally the relationship of temperature. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.25) Application of Avogadro’s law. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.24) For solid.1. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.26) . 47 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.3145 kj kmol K (2. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. pressure. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. k.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.2.
28700 0.5482 5.183 28.29680 0.0035 0.400 1.667 1.044 1.51835 0.409 1.230 31.7354 0.07279 0.04 20.20813 0.6179 0. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.29) (2.0416 1.2518 3.0849 1.0413 1.48 CHAPTER 2.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.07703 4.6618 1.400 1.097 18.01 28.1. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.25983 0.091 1.8418 1.016 16.400 1.2091 2.999 44.29683 0.4909 1.18855 0.0299 1.5203 1.1926 14.126 1.237 1.01 30.667 1.054 4.7662 1.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.7113 0.2537 1.5734 0. Table 2.003 2.124 44.186 1.667 1.970 39.4108 1.27650 0.12418 0.18892 0.28) .6385 0.9216 1.29637 2.1156 10.07 28.6529 0.8723 0.14304 0.48152 1.289 1.4897 1.948 58.013 114.7165 0.393 1.7445 1.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.3122 1.327 From equation (2.7448 1.41195 0.299 1.6794 1.7164 0.1.
” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases. k value ranges from unity to about 1.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.36) (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2.30) Utilizing equation (2. of Classical thermodynamics. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 49 (2. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.1).38) .667.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.32) (2. ∆s = 0.1.
This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.50 CHAPTER 2.39) . The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.
It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. R .CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth.2) Example 3. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics). The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. t in a location.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. 3. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed.1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 51 .1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components.
dow. (3.I.b) and (3.a).d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.I.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.1.c) b= and equation (3. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.I.I.f) (3.c) can be solved explicitly. and time.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3. 3.I.b) and (3. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. Isolating t from (3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3. To simplify the calculations.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. Calculate what is the veFig.I. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.I.I. t and three equations. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.I. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window.I.a) and substituting into equations (3. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. .11 .c) These nonlinear equations (3.I. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ. U .I. For given velocity. at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.I.I.e) into (3.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.52 CHAPTER 3. θ. There there are three unknowns.I.
The density. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass).Fig. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. y or z.3. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. center of the mass and two. Also. In other words. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept.2.2. moment of inertia. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass.2. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. the x mass. etc. the body will not rotate. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions.2. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi .1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. In same is calculated. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. In x coordinate. 3. ﬁrst. 3. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. Here. .2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. CENTER OF MASS 53 3. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. m is the total mass of the object. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry.4) where xi is the direction of either. x. Thus. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. Note.3) z Here. rho) as a function of the location.
7) If the density is constant then equation (3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. ρ and the thickness. 3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability.54 CHAPTER 3. the body was a three dimensional shape.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. equation (3.8) . Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent. ρ.5) Fig. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. are constant and can be canceled. Furthermore.3.3 which has density.3. 3. Thus. Thin body center of mass/area The density.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. t. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. 3.2. Thus equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. schematic.
3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. . rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3. 3.4.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3.10) 3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia. The schematic that explains the sum (3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.3.13) y’ C z Thus. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.2 3.2.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.3.15) mation of moment of inertia. equation (3.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig. MOMENT OF INERTIA 55 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.
16) 3. 3.17) equation (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero.5 and therefore.2.3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.56 CHAPTER 3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.22) .19) Hence. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.5. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3.
MOMENT OF INERTIA h 57 Equation (3. r0 . The moment of inertia can then move the center of area.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. dr r 3.3.6.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.3. 3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.7 around x coordinate. .3. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. For example. as shown in Figure 3.6.7. Fig. 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. End Solution Fig.
3. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. A square element for the calculations of inertia of twodimensional to three– dimensional deviations.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.9. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 .Fig. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. The results are present in Figure 3. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio twodimensional to three–dimensional.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3.24) to write as t/2 Fig.8. b has no eﬀect on the error. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption. February 28. 2 This .26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. 3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box. Ad. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.9.58 CHAPTER 3.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.
a) The second integration ( no need to use (3.10 is a r2 d Izz dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. Hint. y = αx2 .3. b/α. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one. Hint. Rectangular Moment of inertia. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia.11. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. calculate the area ﬁrst. Solution dx dy y r x 59 2b 2a Fig.11.10. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area).V.V. 3. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.V.3. 3.c) Example 3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 . Use this area to calculate moment of inertia. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular.20). MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3. depicted in Figure 3.
. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. Assume that base is a and the height is h. Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.7. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.60 CHAPTER 3.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. The center of every 2 element is at.12.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. Triangle for example 3.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3.6). 3.
MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 61 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.3. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.31) A . The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. the product of inertia is commonly used.3. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem. End Solution a3 h 2 3.30) expanding equation (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.28) For example. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.
REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3. .34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. 3.35) System which creates equation (3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero. Example 3.62 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.35) referred as principle system.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.3. End Solution 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.13. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. Product of inertia for triangle.
The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one. ˙ 3. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. The same as in the dynamic class. F= ρ rdV V (3. Coriolis.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. it can be treated as the regular derivative.4. dm. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A.38) The velocity. stresses). Angular. Yet. the system acceleration called the internal forces. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time. Two. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. thus. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . r × ω. ω×(r × ω). 2 (Ur × ω).36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body.3.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 63 3. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3.41) . which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3.
42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.5.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.42) where Tτ is the torque. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.64 CHAPTER 3.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. The force can be written.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. 3.43) m It can be noticed (well. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. .44) To understand these equations a bit better. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. (3. in the same fashion. consider a particle moving in x–y plane. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.
5. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 65 Table 3. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .1.
REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table 3.66 CHAPTER 3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .2.
dy.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. a = 0. y. 4. gG (x. a as shown in Figure 4. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel Equation (4.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. Furthermore.1. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. Fig. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). 4. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. with acceleration. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. Later.g. several assumptions must be made. where n is the steepest 67 . There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC.1) erated system under body forces. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4.1. However. that pressure can increase and later decrease.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or quasi rest. z). In these derivations.
the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ i+ j+ k ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.6) Hence. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero F= total surface F+ body F (4. Even though. As before. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. If the pressure. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation.5) where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. it has a direction). the dot product of the following is i · gradP = i · P = ∂P ∂x (4. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in dF = − ∂P ∂x dydx ˆ i (4. now. For example. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or Pressure Gradient gradP = P = ρ geﬀ (4.68 CHAPTER 4.4) In general.7) . was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley).8) (4. P . This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction.2) In the same fashion. the pressure is treated. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. the dot product results in in · gradP = in · P = ∂P ∂n (4.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient (see for more explanation in the Mathematics Appendix).3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.
12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4. P .3.11) (4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.14) 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated. and temperature. it will be used.11) and therefore P (x.9) Utilizing equation (4. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations. Traditionally. For example. y) = constant (4. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .4. pressure. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 69 Some refer to equation (4.3.9) and substituting it into equation (4. 4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density. There are ﬁelds where x or y are designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. However.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. y.12) (4. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) (4.10) and constant in equation (4. ρ. . 4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and Pressure Change ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. First.
The diﬀerence in the .4 are in equilibration. Example 4.15) In the literature. The reason that a a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid.3. 4.2 describes the constant ρgh pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. 4. A schematic to explain the measure to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid of the atmospheric pressure. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and Fig. Pressure lines in a static ﬂuid with a constant density. the right hand side of the equation (4. Figure 4.70 CHAPTER 4. It is evident from equation (4.14) becomes Pressure relationship P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.1: Two chambers tank depicted in Figure 4.2. that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4. If the air mass at chamber A is 1 Kg while the mass at chamber B is unknown.
Assume that for accelerated cart.I. Denoting X = mB /mA results in h 2 ρ g m A VA 1 =1− =⇒ X = X RT End Solution 1 h2 ρ g mA VA 1− RT (4. The liquid in the two chambers is water.I.2: .a) (4.3. You can assume ideal gas for the air h1 and the water is incompressible substance with density of 1000[kg/m2 ]. Calculate the air mass in chamber B.4. 4. (4. Solution The equation of state for the chamber A is RT PA VA The equation of state for the second chamber is mA = mB = The water volume is Vtotal = h1 A + (h1 + h2 )A = (2 h1 + h2 ) A (4.I. Example 4.I.c) The pressure diﬀerence between the liquid interface is estimated negligible the air density as PA − PB = ∆P = h2 ρ g (4.4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 liquid heights between the two chambers is 2[m].I.b) h2 ρ g mA VA RT RT 1 = − = h2 ρ g =⇒ 1 − mB VB mA VA m B VB RT mA VA In equation the only unknown is the ratio of mB /mA since everything else is known.I.d) combining equations (4.a).I.f) The following question is a very nice qualitative question of understanding this concept. The eﬀective gravity is height of the tank is 4[m].e) RT P B VB (4. The area of each chamber is h3 h2 1[m2 ]. the chamber are at the same temperature of 27◦ C.I.b) results in (4. The total Fig.
hH − hL h1 + h2 = − h2 h2 or hH − hL = h1 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.II.c) The only way the hL to be higher of hH is if the heavy liquid is on the top if the stability allow it.II. FLUIDS STATICS h1 hL h2 hH Fig.b) h2 h2 hr 21 ρ2 It can be noticed that hH = h1 + h − 2 hence. the lighter liquid is on the top the heavier liquid the the top tube is the same as the surface.16) End Solution Example 4. Calculate the error for a give ratio between the fuel density to the water. The diﬀerence is hH − hL hH ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 = − (4.3: The eﬀect of the water in the car tank is more than the possibility that water freeze in fuel lines. The water also can change measurement of fuel gage. Tank and the eﬀects different liquids.d) ρ1 h 1 + ρ2 h 2 h 2 ρ2 = h1 h2 1− ρ1 ρ2 (4.II. the lower tube will raise only to (notice that g is canceled) hL = ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ρ2 (4. Which piezometric tube will be higher? why? and how much higher? What is the pressure at the bottom of the tank? Solution CHAPTER 4. . The pressure at the bottom is P = Patmos + g (ρ1 h1 + ρ2 h2 ) (4. Part of the tank height is ﬁlled with the water at the bottom (due to the larger density).5.II. However.5 (the light liquid is on the top of the heavy liquid).72 A tank with opening at the top to the atmosphere contains two immiscible liquids one heavy and one light as depicted in Figure 4. The way the interpretation of an automobile fuel gage is proportional to the pressure at the bottom of the fuel tank. For the case. The common instinct is to ﬁnd that the lower tube will contain the higher liquids.a) Since ρ1 > ρ1 the mathematics dictate that the height of the second is lower. 4.
The description of the height is given in Figure 4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state. Example 4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.III. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is 0.4: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Solution 73 The ratio of the fuel density to water density is ς = ρf /ρw and the ratio of the total height to the water height is x = hw /htotal Thus the pressure at the bottom when the tank is full with only fuel Pf ull = ρf htotal g (4. Equation (4.a) But when water is present the pressure will be the same at Pf ull = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g htotal and if the two are equal at $ $ htotal ¡ ρf $$ g = (ρw x + φ ρf ) g $$ ¡ htotal (4. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity.III.III.2 4.3. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. The high of the Mercury is 0. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube. φ= ρf − x ρ w ρf End Solution (4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9.3. Hence.b) where φ in this case the ratio of the full height (on the fake) to the total height.17) .d) 4.4. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).82[m/sec].3.III.000179264[kPa].c) (4.3.3.2.85[kg/m3 ]. Hence.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor (4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. The mercury density is 13545.
01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h 1 + h 2 Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. The ratio of the Fig. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . For smaller width. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part. Locate the liquids surfaces. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . Pa = 13545. Thus. Gas The pressure. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube.82 × 0.6.85 × 9.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. L.39[P a] ∼ 1. P valve 2 1 Example 4. h . The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. End Solution The main reason the mercury is used because of its large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. FLUIDS STATICS The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.76 ∼ 101095. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other.74 CHAPTER 4.5: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. 4. U tube is L.
The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. In steady state.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 75 4.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement that can be ρ1 ρ1 extended to measure the pressure of the gas chambers. Figure 4.2. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.Fig. In the previous technique. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.7 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. 4. This way. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. The densities of the two sides are very close to each other. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that . imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube).18) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured. 4. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid).2. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4.3.4. thus the height become large. This technique utilizes the opposite range.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.3. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height.6). This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to ρ1 be measured (see Figure 4. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading.7.19) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides.
21) equation (4.21) A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. Due to surface tension. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. Here. The equation (4. Thus. FLUIDS STATICS two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. This method is an attempt to increase the accuracy by “extending” length visible of the tube. (4.24) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4. Additional parameter.21). Inclined manometer. ρ2 . With the equation for height (4. caused air entrapment especially in rapid change of the pressure or height. But this ratio can be inserted easily into the derivations. 3 This author’s personal experience while working in a ship that use this manometer which is signiﬁcantly inaccurate (ﬁrst thing to be replaced on the ship). In this method.23) A2 A1 (4. if the volumes in two containers are equal then h2 A2 (4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .25) If there is a insigniﬁcant change in volume (the area ratio between tube and inclined leg is signiﬁcant). 4.8). A2 /A1 << 1. the tube leg is inclined relatively to gravity (depicted in Figure 4. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. in writing equation (4. then equation (4.76 CHAPTER 4. For example. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. Additionally.23) becomes h2 = (4. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.18) is then Poutside P1 dy θ dℓ P1 − Poutside = ρ g d Fig. the volume ratio. a location can be calibrated on the inclined leg as zero3 .19) the gas density was neglected. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause a signiﬁcant complications. . will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal.8. Inclined Manometer One of the old methods of pressure measurement is the inclined manometer.19) becomes −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4.24) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density.22) For the small value of the area ratio.20) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known.
29) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in g dz dP =− P RT (4. The pressure line are the same for both legs on line ZZ. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.27) becomes P2 − P1 = (ρ1 − ρ) g h (4. 4. liquids and other.3. Thus equation (4. For the similar density of ρ1 = ρ2 and for a = b equation (4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).30) . Thus.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. right leg left leg 77 Z Z h P2 − ρ2 (b + h) g = P1 − ρ1 a − ρ h) g Rearranging equation (4.11) becomes gP ∂P =− ∂z RT (4. 4.3. This idea is similar to “magniﬁed” manometer but in reversed.28) As in the previous “magniﬁed” manometer if the density diﬀerence is very small the height become very sensitive to the change of pressure.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases.9). density and location. Schematic of inverted manometer. In the gas phase.26) 1 a b 2 (4. As ﬁrst approximation. 4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.9.3.26) leads to P2 − P1 = ρ2 (b + h) g − ρ1 a g − ρ h g (4. it can be written as the pressure on left is equal to pressure on the right legs (see Figure 4.4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Inverted Utube manometer The diﬀerence in the pressure of two diﬀerent liquids is measured by this manometer.27) Fig.3.
These deviations have a limited practical purpose.35) (4. In general. In these cases.36) Without going through the mathematics. Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue.34) Equation (4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2.32) and (4.31) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h.33). can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.32) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be correction factor h2 P ρ0 g h − + ··· =1+ 6 P0 P0 2 (4.31) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4. a numerical integration must be carried out. 4 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. However.32) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.39).78 CHAPTER 4.30) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4.33) (4. . the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. the value of the compressibility factor. Z. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .34) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use4 . Equation (4.
40) in equation (4.39) can be represented in a more convenient form as Density variation ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. So. with units of length. Utilizing equation (4.40) Equation (4.4.42) has units of length. Fortunately. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.3. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4.37) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure 79 The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = BT g ρ0 (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.38) The integration of equation (4.3.39) Equation (4. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. here.42) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.37) The variables for equation (4. The integration constant.38) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).40) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.41) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.41) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1.43) . For these cases.28).3.
2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form Density in Liquids g ρ0 z BT e −1 z g ρ0 = BT (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. However.6: 5 This author is not aware of the “equation of state” solution or the integral solution. please pass this information to this author.10. the solution is presented as P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4.13 is more general which provided a simple solution5 . pressure (P − P0 ) + Example 4. The solution is presented in equation (4. 4.44) and is plotted in Figure 4.44) March 11.45) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. Sometimes.45) Fig. P/BT is small (<< 1). The solution becomes BT g ρ0 CHAPTER 4. . Additionally.XIII. In Example 1.13 ratio of the density was expressed by equations (1. the integral equation uses the fact that the pressure is function of location.l) while here the ratio is expressed by diﬀerent equations. FLUIDS STATICS e P −P0 BT P −P0 BT −1 =z (4.46) An approximation of equation (4.” The method described in the Example 1.47) BT P − P0 BT P − P0 + + ··· 2 BT 6 BT It can be noticed that equation (4. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. is a typical length of the problem. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric corrections 2 3 = z g ρ0 (4. The comparison between the two methods will be presented. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). BT /g ρ0 . If you know of any of these solutions or similar.13 use the integral equation without using any “equation of state. The equation of state suggests that ∂P = g ρ0 f (P ) dz while the integral equation is ∆P = g ρ dz where no assumption is made on the relationship between the pressure and density.80 This constant. The diﬀerence between the two equations is the fact that Example 1.47) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.10. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).
3.4. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to Temp variations T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. . Here. For h = 0. just ignore it. the temperature in the atmostphere is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.51) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.52) Deﬁning a new variable6 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. Hence. For example.3. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter. please. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4.50) with (4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.51) (4.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Due To Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.49) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.50) Separating the variables in equation (4. For the atmosphere.48) where h here referred to height or distance. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 81 4.53) 6 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students. Using these deﬁnitions results in dP g dξ = P RCx ξ (4.4 4. If you feel that it is too simple.3.4.).
FLUIDS STATICS After the integration of equation (4.57) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). However. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.57) are not properly represented without the characteristic height. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter7 . h.57) Equation (4. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance.55) represents only the pressure ratio. inﬂuences at only large values of height.55) It can be noticed that equation (4. Equation (4. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.e. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio.55) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas. (4.56) and (4. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.G. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 (4.56) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. Cx .. It has to be noted that these equations (4. Equation (4..50).52) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. .55) and (4. I am grateful to my adviser E.R.82 CHAPTER 4.. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights.55) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.56) Equation (4.. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − − . For engineering purposes. The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio.54) Or in a more convenient form as Pressure in Atmosphere P = P0 g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 (4. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. negative direction). The simplest assumption to combine these 7 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science.
55) is stable and if so under what conditions.3. Under equilibrium. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). . Thus. two main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further. Suppose that h for some reason. 4. h. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).4.4. If ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. equation (2. That is. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4.3.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. In reality. higher heights). a small slab of material moves from a layer at height.11) What could happen? There are Fig.11. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. That is. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. Clearly. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. the pressure process is about thousands times faster than the thermal process.58) Advance material can be skipped 4. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. However. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable).25). The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx 83 ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4.
62) in Taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − ..62) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is.62) Expanding equation (4.61) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.56) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as g ρ Cx gρ > − Pk P T (4.63) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4.55) but can be approximated by equation (4.84 CHAPTER 4.60) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.64) The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. The process.65) . Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. From a mathematical point of view.. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.58) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4.63) provides the conditions to determine the stability.59) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1− 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.64) and (4.59) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. FLUIDS STATICS The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.
equation (4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. it is said that situation is neutral. the discussion is separated into two diﬀerent on density and pressure. 4.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. around this value additional analysis is needed 8 . The source of the gravity force in gas is another body.11) has two r P b ρb terms on the right hand side. Thus. g. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. The body force was assumed rb g ∝ r2 until now to be constant.3. the density. 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 85 After rearrangement of the inequality (4. At ﬁrst glance.65) and using the ideal gas identity. The varying gravity eﬀects Thus. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. ρ and the body force. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . 4. while the gravity force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. Thus.66) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change.5.3.1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics. it transformed to Cx (k − 1) g ρ > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. Again.4. issues. Equation (4. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n.will not be introduced here. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. .3.12. Fig.11) can be used 8 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. However.
The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4.69) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .70) can be expanded in Taylor series as standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) (4. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. equation (4. Thus. 4. As before. equation (4.3.67) where G denotes the general gravity constant. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. numerical integration is a possible solution.68) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. ρb Pb 2 RT 2 rb (R T ) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).70) Equation (4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.68) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. FLUIDS STATICS (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4.73) Equation (4. This equation conﬁrms .71) = = 1− − + .5..72) With the same process as before for ideal gas case. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .86 CHAPTER 4. one can obtain P ρ = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.. The integration of equation (4.70) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. Z.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility. is employed.68) is transformed into P Pb dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.
.. ρb Pb 2 Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4. if applicable. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.76) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.000 [m].3. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are Pressure Spherical Coordinates 1 d r2 dP + 4 π Gρ = 0 r2 dr ρ dr Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ (4.5.3.3. 4.6 Liquid Phase While for most practical purposes.40) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. As before Taylor series for equation (4.78) . it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. 4.74) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.70) is standard correction f actor ρ P 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) G (r − rb ) = = 1− − + .75) is e P −P0 BT G r2 (4.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. If the liquid “equation of state” (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 87 that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.77) • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.75) e P0 −P BT = Constant − BT g ρ0 r (4.4.
The change of the acceleration from the right to left is . in a two dimensional system. This question is one of the traditional question of the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. Example 4.88 CHAPTER 4. Thus. body forces were considered as onedimensional. what happened to the liquid surface? What is the relative angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution 27.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example.80) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. the previous derivations can be easily extended. 4. When the acceleration is changing from the right to the left. FLUIDS STATICS 4.81) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order. 4.7: A tank ﬁlled with liquid is accelerated at a constant acceleration. Equation (4. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations.13.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.1 a 5 m sec g geﬀ Fig.4. In general. The eﬀective angle is obtained by adding vectors.79) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is gef f  = g 2 + a2 (4. However. The solution is obtained by ﬁnding the eﬀective angle body force. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one. As before. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. for the eﬀective gravity (4.
End Solution (b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart.8: A cart partially ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4. α < β.812 = 11.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. Thus.Fig. 4.83) (4. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface.14. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 89 like subtracting vector (addition negative vector).84) (c) . This angle/direction can be found using the following a 5 tan−1 β = tan−1 = ∼ 27. A cart slide on inclined plane. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces.4.82) ) F (a β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicu. lar to the slope. If there is no resistance. Calculate the shape of the surface.01◦ g 9. is now tan α = net g − Fm g cosβ Fnet m (4.14. If there is a resistance. what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is gef f  = 52 + 9.4.
4. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.17.16. the ﬁrst case deals with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity.9: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. Example 4. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4. The center of rotation is a distance.87) Fig. Solution .4.9 is provided. So. example 4. That eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape.85) z r unit mass ω2 r g geﬀ center of circulation Equation (4. For simpliﬁcation reasons. 4. L from the “left” hand side. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4. Schematic to explain the angular angle.86) (4. The constant pressure will be along Angular Acceleration System ω 2 r2 (4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density Fig.15. CHAPTER 4. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 .90 In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero.88) P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + 2g To illustrate this point. FLUIDS STATICS ce fa th wi t ic fr n io r su α a β g sin β − Fnet m β g geﬀ 4.86) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.
4. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other.9 is rotating with upper part height of . FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center ns ta su re lin e 91 pr es S ω L co xL Fig. equation (4.17. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.17 shows the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. Thus. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. End Solution Example 4. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. At what rotating nt . What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account.4. 4. The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same.87) represent the pressure line.9. End Solution Example 4. It is ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption).11: In the U tube in example 4. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry.10: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt .
92 CHAPTER 4.4.18. If this assumption is accepted. there might be an additional eﬀects which aﬀecting the situation but these eﬀects are not the concern of this discussion. In one extreme is the equator which the rotation play the most signiﬁcant role. It is common in geology to assume that the Earth is made of several layers.3 Fluid Statics in Geological System This author would like to express his gratitude to Ralph Menikoff for suggesting this topic. the interest is the calculate the pressure at bottom of the liquid phase. The assumption states that the Earth is made from the following layers: solid inner core. For the purpose of this book. Two diﬀerent extremes can recognized in ﬂuids between the outer core to the crust. inspired from image made by user Surachit .9 explaination is provided to understand how to use the bulk modulus and the eﬀect of rotation. Earth layers not to scale. 4. In reality. what happen the rotation approach very large value? Advance material can be skipped 4. and two layers in the liquid phase with a thin crust. it will be used to do some estimates. outer core. FLUIDS STATICS velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center. In geological system such as the Earth provide cases to be used for the ﬂuid static to estimating pressure. This Fig. 9 The image was drawn by Shoshana BarMeir.
Hence. r.90) it is assumed that BT is a function of pressure and the pressure is a function of the location.96) 1 1 − 2 ρ0 2 ρ =G 1 1 − R0 r (4.89) Using equation to express the pressure diﬀerence (see Example 1.4. The approximate deﬁnition of the bulk modulus is BT = ρ ∆P ρ ∆P =⇒ ∆ρ = ∆ρ BT (4. Thus.93) ρ0 dρ = − ρ3 r R0 G dr r2 (4.4.45) or in approximation of equation (1.28).XIII.92) Equation (4.95) . If the bulk modulus is assumed constant (for simplicity) governing equation can be constructed starting with equation (1. The solution of this equation obtained by diﬀerentiation as ρ0 d ρ G + 2ρ = 0 ρ2 dr r Under variables separation the equation changes to ρ ρ0 (4.91) ρ(r) = r 1 1− g(r)ρ(r)dr B T R0 The governing equation can be written using the famous relation for the gravity as ρ0 1 =1− ρ(r) BT r R0 G ρ(r)dr r2 (4. for simplicity the bulk modulus is assumed to be constant. Again. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 93 In the other extreme north–south does not play any eﬀect since the radius is relatively very small. the pressure at the bottom of the liquid layer can be estimated using the equation (4.90) In equation (4. In this case it also can be noticed that g is a function of r.13 for details explanation) as ρ(r) = 1− R0 r ρ0 g(r)ρ(r) dr BT (r) (4.94) The solution of equation (4. ρ0 (4. In that case.j).92) is a relatively simple (Fredholm) integral equation.94) is ρ0 2 or ρ= 1 1 2G − 2 ρ0 ρ0 1 1 − R0 r (4. the bulk modulus can be written as a function of the radius.
FLUIDS STATICS The pressure can be calculated since the density is found as r 1 G ∆P = 1 2G 1 1 BT − − 2 ρ0 ρ0 R 0 r . It can be noticed that the rotation acts in the opposite direction to the gravity.R0 The integral can evaluated numerically or analytically as ρ0 log ∆P = − (2 ρ0 G + r) R0 − 2 r ρ0 G r ρ0 2 R0 2G dr r2 (4. In real liquid. The pressure diﬀerence is r ∆P = R0 ρ G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. The conclusion is that the pressure at the “equator” is substantially lower than the pressure in the north or the south “poles” of the solid core.99) Thus the approximated density ratio can be written as 1 ρ0 =1− ρ BT r ρ R0 G − ω r2 r2 dr (4. The rotation aﬀects the density since the pressure changes. In the range between the two extreme.94 CHAPTER 4. mathematical complications caused by the coupling creates additionally diﬃculty. the ﬂow is much more complicated because it is not stationary but have cells in which the liquid ﬂows around.98) The other issue that related to this topic is.97) − ρ0 log (ρ0 ) G (4.102) Where the pressure is obtained by integration as previously was done. the eﬀect of rotation is reduced because the radius is reduced.102) ρ0 1 = 2 ρ2 BT −G ω r3 − r 3 (4.100) Taking derivative of the two sides results in − ρ0 1 = ρ3 BT G − ω r2 r2 dr = 0 (4. The pressure diﬀerence is due to the large radius. End Advance material .101) Integrating equation (4. Nevertheless. Thus. The integral in equation (4. this analysis gives some indication on the pressure and density in the core.92) has to include the rotation eﬀects. What is the pressure at the equator when the rotation is taken into account.
M= 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ) The integral can be simpliﬁed as b M = g a ρ sin β 0 ( + ξ)2 dξ (4.4. Calculate the minimum forces. F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position.12: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is dF "0" β = 50◦ h AA ξ ℓ = 5[m] ξ AA a[m] dξ dM = P a dξ ( + ξ) dA F2 F1 b[m] The pressure. how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. This section deals with these calculations.5. straight surfaces and curved surfaces.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes.103) The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 . These calculations are divided into two categories.19. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.19. Example 4. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. a simple case will be examined. Initially. Later.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations.5. 4. 4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 95 4. P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is b Fig. Rectangular area under pressure.
The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated.20. Several rep. it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.104) . The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. β ξ ξ ℓ0 dξ ℓ1 ξ Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.Fig.103) and also a center of area. the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6 End Solution "O" 3 b l 2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3 The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler.96 CHAPTER 4. Additional equation is needed. Schematic of submerged area to resented areas for which moment of inertia explain the center forces and moments. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3.20. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. First. which is b Ftotal = 0 g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ The total force integration provides b Ftotal = g ρ a sin β 0 ( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2 Additionally. FLUIDS STATICS This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. It is the total force. the force is h(ξ) 1 F = A P dA = (Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg 0 (ξ + 0 ) sin β dA (4. Looking at the above calculations. 4.
107) ξ1 ξ1 ξ sin β F2 My = ξ0 (Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA (4.106) "O" y ξ0 β a F1 b My = ξ0 P (ξ)ξdA (4.4. Ix x .104) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β 0 xc A 1 (4.105) A+ 0 ξdA In a ﬁnal form as Total Force in Inclined Surface Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( 0 + xc )] The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is ξ1 (4.5. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.109) The moment of inertia.12 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate.109) can be written in more compact form as Total Moment in Inclined Surface My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx x (4. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.110) can be combined the moment and .104) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 97 In this case. the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The general forces acting on submerged area.21.21 which has two forces that balance the body. 4. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. Equations (4. Equation (4.108) Fig. is about the axis through point “O” into the page.110) Example 4.106) and (4. The integral in equation (4. Ix ξ1 Or separating the parts as xc A ξ1 x My = Patmos ξ0 ξdA +g ρ sin β ξ0 ξ 2 dA (4.
111) (4. Thus. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix x x 0 + xc )] (4.118) y .106). and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. Additionally.98 CHAPTER 4. in non–symmetrical area there are two diﬀerent moments and therefor three forces are required. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.110) and the total force is given by (4. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.112) ρ sin β − Patmos gb xc + 0 ρ sin β + g (b − a) Patmos g b A−.115) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.114) In the solution. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. FLUIDS STATICS force acting on the general area.115) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. Ix x ρ sin β (4.117) The compact form can be written as Moment in Inclined Surface Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix (4.113) ρ sin β − ρ sin β − Patmos ga xc + 0 ρ sin β + Patmos g aA g (b − a) (4. the forces can be negative or positive. additional equation is required.115) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4.22). However.116) The integral in equation (4.
two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.23.4. Example to illustrate the Fig.22. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36. ξ (4.118) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniy dA form density. 4. (4. There are many combix nations of problems (e. The general forces acting on non symuse of these equations is provided.106). The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.5.119) (4.121) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.110) and (4. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 .106). FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 99 The product of inertia was presented y These equations in Chapter 3.110) and (4.13: Calculate the forces which required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4. metrical straight area. (4.23) for triangle 1 and 2).g. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My The moment around y axis is F1 1 (4.120) + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4. Example 4. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is 3 − and its width b and thus. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4.118).
5.” Thus.1.123) . the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4. F2 ab 3 =− F3 ab 3 − 72 „„ « « 24 1 48 0 Patmos a −24 + a . FLUIDS STATICS ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x Fig. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.118).110) and equation (4. The general forces acting on a non symmetrical straight area. 72 „„ « „ « « 15 12 12 2 a− a 1 + 0 27− a 1 + a 0 g ρ sin β „„ 24 a 72 « 48 1 +24 + a 72 End Solution 1 −14 a)− 0 « « 12 2 −27 + a 0 g ρ sin β = + « 0 Patmos 4. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.122) In the same way. 2 a b2 2 1 +2 a b 0 +a 2 + 0 +a Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = b2 24 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .1 Pressure Center In the literature. 4. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.100 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x CHAPTER 4. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a.23.
126) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero. In fact.4.129) Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA 10 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. Consider straight/ﬂat body that is under liquid with a varying density10 . but constant in segments. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. . the density was assumed to be constant.125) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. the reasonable average can be used.128) As before for single density. If density can be represented by average density.5. 11 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.127) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably11 . the integral has be carried out. In cases where density is non–continuous. the following can be written x c A1 xc A2 1 2 xc n An (4.1. the force that is acting on the body is GeogologicalFtotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4.124) according to equation (3.5. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections. It also means that the density can be a noncontinuous function. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 101 To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. Thus. However. 4.
134) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.14: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. h2 = 2[m]. ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. .133) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as Total Static Moment n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.102 CHAPTER 4. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].75[m]. a2 = 1. The forces distances are a1 = 1. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.5[m].132) If the atmospheric pressure enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that Total Static Moment n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4. The moment around axis y.131) After similar separation of the total integral. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ]. Moreover. FLUIDS STATICS Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as Total Static Force n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. and b1 = 4.5[m].and h4 = 4[m].130) where the density. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . Example 4. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. h3 = 3[m].24.
Fig. The geometries of each areas are „ xc 1 = xc 2 = xc 3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 «3 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc 3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.24.forces. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES Solution ρ1 y "O" 103 β h1 a2 Since there are only two unh4 knowns.5. only two equations are needed. 4. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4. Equation (4. stead of using the regular atmo.133) can be used by modifying it.133) and (4. as it can be noticed that in. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difρ4 ference to be zero). the following equations are obtained Thus.130). which are (4.4.133) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos . spheric pressure the new “atmospheric” pressure can be used as ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” rectangular.
2 Forces on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. if the y component of the force is needed.25.5.137)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y.9497 A1 = 2. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as . the pressure is treated as a scalar function. The forces on curved area. [m2 ]. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.535 Ix x 1 = 14. So.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.79[N ] and F2 = 958923. At this stage.215 Ix x 2 = 44.2892 xc2 = 3. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A y dAz x Fig. FLUIDS STATICS ρi+1 Ix x i F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution provided isn’t in the complete long form since it will makes things messy.137) From this analysis (equation (4. for example. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.136) The result of the integral is a vector. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.104 2 g sin β P3 i=1 CHAPTER 4.5355 xc3 = 4.135) z dAy dAx dA Here. P n dA ˆ (4. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.292 Ix x 3 = 86. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].92[N ] End Solution 4. dA. outward as positive.535 A3 = 3.696 A2 = 3. 4.
The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. Equation (4.140) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx Fz Fy (4.138) The same can be said for the x direction. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 105 Fy = A P dAy (4.139) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. 4.26.15: . Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). The force in the z direction is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. Figure 4. Thus. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body.142) body. Fig. Example 4. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). Inside the slot. However.5.4. For example.26 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous.141) and the angle in the other plane. “y z” is tan θzy = (4. the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot.139) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.
27)). The gravity is 9. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dam is b = 4[m]. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x direction A θ Ax Ay Fig.). Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. why? Fig. Calculations of forces on a circular shape dam. Ax (see Figure 4. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m].106 Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4.28. direct and indirect. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . Solution The force in the x direction is CHAPTER 4.27.143) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). 4.28) as Ax xc A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Aarc = r θ r2 2 Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ 2 2 Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are different. 4. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ results in The Fx = integration ρ g b r2 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Alternative way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . The diﬀerential area that will be used is.
65174 ∼ 0.1 and 3. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.2.28) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes.29. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation.5. The force in the y direction is the area times width.4.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.0[N ] 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1).65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL12 ). 4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 107 The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as Fx = 1000 × 9.29) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. it is just a demonstration! .348[m] 12 Well. The arc center (see Figure 4. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 − Fy = − b g ρ ∼ 22375. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 − 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 θ 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.
2 ∼ 7792.348 × 22375.” or M= 0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 θ0 The vertical force can be obtained by Fv = 0 P dAv .30.108 The moment is CHAPTER 4.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191. 4.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) r cosθ0 Ixx 5 r cos θ0 36 = + xp = xc + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc 3 The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399. Moment on arc element around Point “O. FLUIDS STATICS Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment it is done as following θ0 O dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin and element moment is θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 π 2 dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is θ0 cos dF θ/2 M= 0 dM θ0 Fig.
31 . The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series.16: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. and the direct approach second.31) in this case is P h dA dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 The size of the diﬀerential area is the square root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces.31. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst. The element force (see Figure 4. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces.5. Example 4. From mathematics. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. Solution o y= b n i=1 ai x i dA dy y x dx Fig. The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. It is much simpler now to use the second method. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES or θ0 P dAv 109 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ g r2 ρ 2 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here.31). The function of the dam shape is n y = i=1 ai xi and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). Polynomial shape dam description for the moment around point “O” and force calculations. Fv = End Solution To demonstrate this point further. In fact.4. It can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 . there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. 4. and thus.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth.
The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx To make this example less abstract. To evaluate the moment.110 CHAPTER 4. 4. consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . In this case.32). expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle.32. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m5 ]. For example. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 is measured in meters. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). The distance is = (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 . in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 dy dx ℓ dF b θ y = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 x x The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n 0= i=1 ai x − b i Fig. FLUIDS STATICS O y The right side can be evaluated for any given function.
trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work.6 Buoyancy and Stability h r One of the oldest known scientiﬁc rea search on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carried by Archimedes. ture the essence. more advance mathematics will be used.6. This omission saves considerable time. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. he was able to cap. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed 0 0 13 This topic was the author’s high school name.4. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2 x6 ρ g dx = ρ g 5 b6 7 7 In going over these calculations. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. It was taught by people like these. Here. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. 150 years ago and more. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan The total moment is √ 6 b 111 b − 2 x6 −1 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have a analytical solution. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. To understand this issue. ship builders who knew how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles behind it. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. However. 4.Fig. . the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding13 . because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. While Archimedes did not know much about integrals. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out.33. End Solution 4. Archimedes princib ple is related to question of density and volume. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. In fact.
34. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4.147) Rearranging equation (4.150) . h0 as shown in Figure 4. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. In illustration of this concept. 4. any shape is made of many small rectangles.146) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4.144) to F = ρg (4. FLUIDS STATICS in liquid and center in a depth of.146) r θ The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. Thus. The solution of equation (4. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. Rearranging equation (4. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. For any two rectangle bodies. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. those will cancel each other.33. (4. However. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. All the horizontal forces are canceled.144) represents a depth (into the page). on the vertical direction.112 CHAPTER 4. While the horizontal force is Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4.145) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid.34) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ 2π (4. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides.149) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards.146) F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. The force per area (see Figure 4.148) Fig. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. On the other hand. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume.148) is F = −π r2 ρ g 2π The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.33. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2). On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2).
as a Fig. t. calculate the pressure inside the container. ﬂoating body. ρl . ρw in liquid with denisty. The container diameter is w.4. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). In the case where thickness is half the maximum.35 . the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand.35. h1 t w hin h Example 4. h1 has to be zero. shown in Figure 4. Note that for the maximum thickness.17: To what depth will a long log with radius. ρl .6. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. ρs liquid density. the height. Assume that ρl > ρw . T1 for the body to ﬂoat. and density. 4.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. Since there are no better examples. these examples are a must. a length. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). Thus. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 113 Example 4. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. r. Express the maximum wall thickness. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V . Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid.18: A cylindrical body. You can provide that the angle or the depth.
the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End Advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected.114 CHAPTER 4. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + − + ··· ρl g Patmos Patmos 2 Patmos 3 This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. FLUIDS STATICS Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. it can be inserted into the above equation. Thus.19: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. hin = Example 4. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g . Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. the air.
The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to h Patmos hin + h1 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously.6.4. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. Thus. which is ρl g hin + Patmos = π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 Patmos R T1 g . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs 115 The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − “ ” √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. The thickness is known. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w2 hi Thickness Below The Maximum For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic.
Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. The body’s density is α ρl . it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. h0 and left at rest. Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that has the same force. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1).116 CHAPTER 4. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.20: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 2 hα g(1 − α) √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. End Solution Example 4.21: In some situations. FLUIDS STATICS Example 4. Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus.
There are situations where density is a function of the depth. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. the body can be separated into two: one in ﬁrst liquid and one in the second liquid. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. Body with density between the two liquids. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ . The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 Example 4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY sphere.22: In the introduction to this section.6. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. Develop the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. In the same vein. The element force is dAx h 2 dA 117 dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. Solution In the discussion to this section. What will be the location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂoating between the two liquids.4. it was shown that net force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid.
23: A hollow sphere is made of steel (ρs /ρw ∼ 7. Thus. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into ρc h = (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). FLUIDS STATICS Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. However. they have to accounted for. develop an equation for the depth of the sphere. the calculations can be carried out under the assumption of sharp change. A is canceled on both sides.a) . The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is ρ(x) = ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) Thus the equilibration will be achieved. x1 . x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl For linear relationship the following results can be obtained.118 CHAPTER 4. Solution The weight of displaced water has to be equal to the weight of the sphere ρs g ¡ 4 π R3 = ρw g ¡ 3 4 π R3 4 π (R − t) − 3 3 3 (4.8) with a t wall thickness. For the thickness below this critical value.XXIII. End Solution Example 4. After rearrangement it became α= ρc − ρh ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. if the body is smaller compare to the zone of variation. What is the = thickness if the sphere is neutrally buoyant? Assume that the radius of the sphere is R.
XXIII.XXIII.f) = 3 3 or ρw R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 = 3 t R 2 − 3 t2 R + t3 (4. The depth that sphere will be located depends on the ratio of t/R which similar analysis to the above.d) Where h is the sphere height above the water.XXIII.XXIII. The volume of a sphere cap (segment) is given by Vcap = π h2 (3R − h) 3 (4.g) is −f R (4 R3 2 + −f R (4 R3 2 − f R) fR − 2 R 2 3 h= − 1 3 R2 − f R) − fR − 2 R 2 3 1 3 (4.6.e) When Vwater denotes the volume of the sphere in the water.XXIII. The volume in the water is Vwater = 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h3 4 π R3 π h2 (3R − h) − = 3 3 3 (4.4.XXIII.XXIII.XXIII.h) .XXIII. The last solution is the solution that was needed.b) Equation (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY after simpliﬁcation equation (4. the weight displaced by the sphere has to be same as the sphere weight.XXIII.a) becomes ρs R 3 = 3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ρw 119 (4. Thus the Archimedes law is ρw 4 π R 3 − 3 R h 2 + h 3 ρs 4 π 3 t R 2 − 3 t 2 R + t 3 (4.b) is third order polynomial equation which it’s solution (see the appendix) is t1 t2 t3 = = = √ 3 − 2i √ 3i 2 3 − 1 2 1 2 ρs 3 R − R3 ρw ρs 3 R − R3 ρw 1 3 +R 1 3 − +R (4. For a given ratio of t/R.g) ρs The solution of (4.c) R ρs −1+1 ρw The ﬁrst two solutions are imaginary thus not valid for the physical world.
25: In example 4.a) d = f −1 ρ Va ρw (4. assume that the body is of a solid material. other geometrical parameters) The Archimedes balance on the body is ρ Va = ρ w Vw (4. the relationship between the depth and the displaced liquid volume of the sphere. the depth is d= 3 d √ 3 3 2 = π d3 9 (4.24: One of the common questions in buoyancy is the weight with variable cross section and ﬁx load.1 Stability .XXV. Solution First the function has to built for d (depth). Find the reverse function.XXV.XXIV. For simplicity. Here it is assumed that this relationship can be written as Vw = f (d.c) End Solution Example 4. FLUIDS STATICS ρw (3 t R2 − 3 t2 R + t3 ) There are two more solutions which ρs contains the imaginary component.b) End Solution 4.24 a general solution was provided.XXIV. End Solution Example 4. Solution It is assumed that the volume can be written as a function of the depth.e.b) (4. a wood wedge of wood with a ﬁx weight/load. πd Vw = Thus.a) 9 π ρw ρ Va (4. wedge) will be located.120 Where −f R = R3 − CHAPTER 4.6. As it was shown in the previous example. For example. The general question is at what the depth of the object (i.XXIV. These solutions are rejected. f −1 for cone with 30◦ when the tip is in the bottom.
However. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. the cubic results in returning to the original position. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. be ﬂoating.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. .37). HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. That is. gravity center This arrangement has mass centroid Full close to the middle of the sphere. for example) is inserted into water. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. it is referred to as the neutral stable. the body is in situation like in 4. So. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4.6. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics.4. the immersed part of the body center changes to a new location. 4. When the body is tilted at a small angle. the body is “stable” in some points more than others in their vicinity. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line.36c. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . in any of these six positions.36b).37. In fact. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position.38. β. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Empty buoyancy center 121 Figure 4. B’ as shown in Figure 4.36. If this arrangement is inserted into liquid and will Fig. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. A wooden cubic (made of pine.36 shows a body made of hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. 4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential.36c . the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. Tilting the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. Small amount of tilting of Fig. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. These points are raised from the buoyant force analysis. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation.36c. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. c a b The buoyant center is below the middle of the balloon.
BB is the distance between points B and point B’. FLUIDS STATICS β M ∆F GM δF δF ∆F G dA B B’ Fig. when the body is not symmetrical.122 CHAPTER 4.38. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location.). This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.152) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4. and. 4. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. W referred to the weight of the body.153) 14 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. . It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.38.38 as ∆F . should to be calculated. B’. For small angle. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. when given a tilted position. β. shown in Figure 4. B. So the perpendicular distance. move to a new buoyant center. The body. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces creats. BB . the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4.151) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). However. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used.38 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change14 so the total immersed section is constant. BB W = M (4.
4.153) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. For middle range. M. Looking at Figure 4. The ratio of the cone density to liquid density is α. the cone is unstable. The distance.26: A solid cone ﬂoats in a heavier liquid (that is ρl /ρc > 1).a) Where D is the total height and d is the height of the submerged cone.158) Example 4. The distance BG 3 BG = D/4 − d/4 (4.157) It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.155) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) β→0 g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ sin β ∼1 β (4. At this condition.1. the cone has zero depth.154) The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point.154) with (4. For a very light cone ρc /ρl ∼ 0. 1 > ρc /ρl > 0 there could be a range where the cone is stable.6.156) lim (4. BB can be written from equation (4. Analyze this situation. Solution The ﬂoating cone volume is depent on d as π d r2 and the center of gravity is D/4.XXVI. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4.155) And combining equations (4. The angle of the cone is θ.38. The moment of inertia of the cone is circle shown in Table 3. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4.153) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. The relationship between the radius the depth is r = d tan θ (4.b) .XXVI. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 123 The integral in the right side of equation (4.
e) into (4.XXVI.27: A solid block of wood of uniform density.f) 0= − − =⇒ = 3 −1 4 ρs 192 4 ρs 48 ρc Since ρl > ρc this never happened. L. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.XXVI. End Solution To understand these principles consider the following examples. FLUIDS STATICS Ixx π (d tan θ) 64 GM = 2 − π d (d tan θ) ρs 3 ρl Vbody 4 BG D d − 4 4 (4.1 and is Ixx = La .158) requires that several quantities should be expressed.124 CHAPTER 4.XXVI.d) yield the solution when GM = 0 ρl d3 ρc ρl d tan2 θ d ρl ρl tan2 θ (4. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.d) The relationship between D and d is determined by the density ratio ( as displaced volume is equal to cone weight)15 ρl d3 = ρc D3 =⇒ D = d 3 ρl ρc (4. The distance BG is obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl V 15 Only the dimension is compared.c) Equation (4.XXVI.XXVI. why? . Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width. Example 4. Show that the block’s length. Where L is the length into the 12 page.e) Substituting equation (4. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.c) can be simpliﬁed as GM = ρl d tan2 θ − ρs 192 D d − 4 4 (4.XXVI. Solution Equation (4.XXVI.
2 1.4 0.3 1.8 0.5 α = 0.3 0.7 0.1 BG = GM h h ρs 1 h − h = 2 ρl 2 2 1− ρs ρl (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 125 h h1 L a Fig. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.1 1.4 α = 0.2 1.2 α = 0.3 1.6 0.9 1.7 α = 0.1 1.5 α = 0.2 0.9 Ixx 0.0 α = 0.5 0.8 2. 4.6 0.0 0.6 1.37) h1 2.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 0. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.39.0 1.161) End Solution . − 1 (1 − α) (4.4 α = 0.159) 2.0 a h April 16.40. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable anymore as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4. Stability of Square Block 3.6.8 1.0 1.160) 2 where α is the density ratio. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.2 0. L.2 Thus.0 L a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 3 ρs 1− ρl 0.4. 4.5 0.5 0.4 1.
This is not a hypothetical question. 2008 α shape (cubic) (see above (4.0 0. Principle Main Axises Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. For example.7 0.0 distance BG is the same as for the square April 16. Thus. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.126 CHAPTER 4. the fuel is .5 drical shape equivalent to equation (4.5 moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.5 0.0 can be expressed. In cylin1.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. the equation is Fig. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises.4 0. but rather practical. For stability analysis.2 0.41. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. The maximum height reverse as a g GM = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 function of density ratio. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 a h ∼ 0. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height.6 0. For cylinder (circle) the 0.5 above where the ratio of the height to the 2. Thus.161) 1.0 circle above analysis is that there is a point 2. The 0. there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia.8 0. FLUIDS STATICS Stability of Solid Blocks One of the interesting point for the square 3.3 0.1 0. In commercial ships. 4. With the exception of the circular shape.159)).41.0 body width is not stable anymore. And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α This kind of analysis can be carried for diﬀerent shapes and the results are shown for these two shapes in Figure 4.9 1. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular body shape.0 0. For each of these axises. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur.
Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. tougher. 4. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) is attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a h3 2 a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.42. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig.42. Example 4. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody . Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ.28: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible.4. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triangle (see explanation in example (3.6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 127 stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. So.158) have to be found. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water).
it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. Exact analysis requires taking into the GM . When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the .128 Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 CHAPTER 4. and/or liquid) B does not occur in the same speed as the B′ body itself or the displaced outside liquid. the slow reaction of the load.Fig. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. a ship that carries Gc wheat grains where the cargo is not propG G′ erly secured to the ship. For practical purposes. 4.43). A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. Moreover. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. Sometimes.43. furniture. For example. The movement of the load (grains. FLUIDS STATICS = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 . alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships).1. The eﬀects of liquid movement on nored. is enough to be ig. here.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liquid or have a load which changes the M mass location during tilting of the ﬂoating body. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. However.6. account these shifting mass speeds. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. After the above manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4. in this analysis. for stability analysis.43.
G Gc = GG sin β (4. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxx B (4. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ ¡ For more than one tank.163) Equation (4. This quantity.165) A new point can be deﬁned as Gc .164) Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixxb i Vb i (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 129 outside. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line from G . The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is Ixx B g ρl¨βIxx B = G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B g VB ¨B VB ρl¨ ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.166) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4.163) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry.168) .162) Note that IxxB isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. At the same time. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. G1 G1 .6. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body.4. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n (4.167) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid.
2 Metacentric Height.172) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. θ.130 CHAPTER 4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body.171) results in GM a ctual = GM new T mtotal −h mship mship (4.169) Where.173) (4. GM . design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. .6. The engineer could Fig.171) If the change in the GM can be neglected. equation (4. of the ship. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. GM . The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight.172) with equation (4.1. 4.170) (4. is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. This control of the stability. GM . The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.44. Wtotal . The moment of inertial of the combine two G tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. 4. FLUIDS STATICS One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liqd T uid is done by substituting a single h tank with several tanks. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia.171) provides the solution. T a distance. Moving the weight. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. The angle.
When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. However.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies 131 The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lays between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. 4. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies.4. 4. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs. Thus.6. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. There are two situations that can occur. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles.45). When the ﬂoating object is immersed into two layers. the mass centroid must be below than buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition.1. . However. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. Fig.6.45. Generally. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). is when b = 3 a. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. it must be taken into account.45. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body.6. For the case of b < 3 a the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly. This analysis is out of the scope of this book (for now). The center of the moment is needed to be found.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body). BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 4. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or unsymmetrical body. After the tilting.1.
5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies CHAPTER 4. Thus.174) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. In this section.176) In general. the liquid is not in motion.132 4. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies.175) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. If the ﬂoating body is used to transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smoother. etc. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase.177) V ρs GM Ibody (4.6. End Solution . The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4. FLUIDS STATICS This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring).2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. Thus. However. the common explanation is wrong. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4.29: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. Example 4. coating. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. in this case.6. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. the body should be accelerate.1. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. 4. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body.
heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. ρL . In poor designs or other situations. some of heavy liquid moves down.4. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. or water over air(gas–liquid). it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. This condition is determined by competing . the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. For example in die casting. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. For example. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. For example a heavy ﬂuid density. I. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. ρG . Example 4. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. This instability deals with a dense. Thus. This situation has engineering implications in several industries.3. However.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. This analysis asks the question of what happen when a small amount of liquid from the above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. the needle cannot be held by the liquid.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. above lower ﬂuid with lower density. Taylor. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface.30: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 133 Fig. 4. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid).7.46. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. After certain diameter. For perfectly straight interface.3. If the surface will be disturbed.
equation (1. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. x. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions.57).47. the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. Thus. The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. 4. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. and the buoyancy forces.46) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. In that case.179) According to equation (1. Any continues function can be expanded in series of cosines. the surface density.47). Thus. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. the situation is Fig. Thus.180) (4.57) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS forces.178) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. On the other hand. example of a cosine function will be examined. Thus. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero.178) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 (4.182) .134 CHAPTER 4.181) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax (4. if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.
The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. the error is not signiﬁcant. they are not part of the control volume. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder. At the cylinder bottom. In reality. For the depression.181) and (4.182) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 135 (4. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it.183) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.185) Fbottom ∼ π r2 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. Description of depression to explain against the gravity force which make the the instability. 4. Additionally when the depression occurs. cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4.48. the force is the integral around the depression.186) . If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. This acts Fig. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4.48. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. the force at the bottom is σ σ Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 πr 4 (4. At the top. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it. the force is ρ g h × A.21) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. To analyze it. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY Comparing equations (4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.7. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.48. Thus.48. At the bottom.4. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4.184) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.
it can be written that the minimum radius is rmin tube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4.191) . the speciﬁc radius is limited.49). θ = π/2.189) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. As shown in Figure 4. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. At that case. The cross section of the interface.” The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container.188) (4.48.190) Fig. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. FLUIDS STATICS The force that hold this column is the surface tension. 4.136 CHAPTER 4.49. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. For the cylindrical geometry. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.187) The maximum surface tension is when the angle. Thus. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.
the depression is larger for square area. this angle is never can be obtained. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. For example. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics).191) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . End Solution Z L3 L2 L1 Fig. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density.4 2400 × 9. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. 4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 137 The actual radius will be much larger.31: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].49. In equation (4.4. In Figure 4.190) can be used. However. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate.7. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. Example 4. .81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4.191.50. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. σ r∼ 8 π 0.
Use the ideal gas model. FLUIDS STATICS Open Question by April 15.32: A canister shown in Figure 4. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases.138 CHAPTER 4.50 has three layers of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. what is the diﬀerence? . You can assume that the process is isothermal. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. ω. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave.S. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Is there any diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. Is there any diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 4.
Part I Integral Analysis 139 .
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Ad. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. This method applied and used in very few cases. L. 141 .CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. This name is in honored J. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. 5.1. Even though this system looks reasonable. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. These differential equations will be used in Fig. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis.motion. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass.
The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. 5. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. momentum. At the same time.1. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. entropy etc. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure 5. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is nondeformable con. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure 5.2. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. non–deformable and deformable. mass. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”.1 represent the system.142 CHAPTER 5. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). MASS CONSERVATION ditionally.piston with in and out ﬂow. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”.1. 5. trol volume. After a certain time. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. . The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. energy. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. The green lines in Figure 5.2. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. Fig. the control volume is a system. The red dotted lines are the control volume. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations.
+ ma − mc (5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. according Figure 5.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.v.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.5.3).3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero.v. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. CONTINUITY EQUATION 143 5.1) The system mass after some time.1. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. the mass conservation will be discussed.3. In this chapter. Thus.v. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.3). 5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. (5. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc.3. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.v.7) . The interface of the control volume can move. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time. is made of msys = mc.
5. X dx L Fig.4.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.10) Equation (5. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. Substituting equation (5. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d ma d mb − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. due to temperature variation and other reasons. t) = 1− cos .8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.v.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. In the same manner.8) and (5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. Example 5. ρ0 L t0 .7) are similar and can be combined.1.3) results in Continuity d dt ρs dV = − c. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system. Scv ρ Urn dA (5. (5.1: The density changes in a pipe.v.9) into equation (5.144 CHAPTER 5.
Using equation (5. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a nondeformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.10). 5. End Solution 5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. the derivative in equation (5.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence.v.v.4 length is L and its area is A.11) is simpler than equation (5. .2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. ρ0 c.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.v. (5. r and angle. and the mass in the conduit as function of time. L. CONTINUITY EQUATION 145 The conduit shown in Figure 5.11) Equation (5.3.10) become conservation of the volume.v. Vc.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5.10). L t0 which results in A Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.3. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d d x 2 t ρdV = π R2 ρ0 1 − cos dx dt c. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.c. dt c.v.3. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.v. t. and time.5. Continuity with Fixed b.
v.v.2 illustrates this point.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.12) Steady State Continuity Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. Urn dA (5.v. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero.v.v.3.2. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.v.146 5. Sc.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. Example 5. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.2. Hence. 5. Physically.5.7 Ap . This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc.v. c. (5. Example 5. Ubn dA (5. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant.3. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the . Steady State Continuity Deformable Ubn dA = Sc.15) The meaning of the equation (5. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.1 CHAPTER 5. Sc.
Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c.v. Second. Third. c.v.2. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. CONTINUITY EQUATION 147 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket.v. First.5. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. However. In this analysis.3. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. liquid boundary in bucket. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. (Uj + Ub ) dA . this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. several assumptions must be made. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with some inﬂuence of momentum equation). ﬂow in = c. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. In reality.v. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic.5. Fourth. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. the air eﬀects are negligible. 5.
II.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.II. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density.7 Ap It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. e.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. Urn dA The entrance is ﬁxed.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly.g.II. c. Substituting the ﬁrst equation.a) and (5.148 CHAPTER 5.II.II.b) The above two equations (5.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0. mi . Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else . When examining solution there are two limits. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA = c. Uj .v.7 Ap Ub (5. End Solution Example 5. the second control volume around the jet is used as the following ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub (5. MASS CONSERVATION The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5. the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity.c) The solution of equation (5. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution.a) into (5.II. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0. the side. (5.v.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface).a) To ﬁnd the jet velocity.II. thus the relative velocity.
The right side of equation (5. The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ Sc.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ Sc. Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2 The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr .3.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 149 Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving. Sc.5. (Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ Sc. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate .16) .v. Substituting into the general equation yields A ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence. The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2 It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.3 One–Dimensional Control Volume Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow.3.v.2. (Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena.v. End Solution 5. This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1 dV ρ(x) A(x) dx V (x) (5.
h as function of the time. What happen if the h0 = 0? .4. 5. min h Fig. Example 5.20) The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.18) For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5. MASS CONSERVATION When the density can be considered constant equation (5. For the ﬁrst case. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters.16) is reduced to U2 dA − A2 A1 U1 dA = d dt A(x)dx (5. continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5. Height of the liquid for example 5. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height.16). Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . determine the height.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA = A2 A1 ρ1 U1 dA (5.150 CHAPTER 5.6.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a.17) For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.19) For incompressible ﬂow (constant density). First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h.
For case one the right hand side term in equation (5. the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. the height will increase.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution homogeneous solution b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. If the reverse case appeared. For second case.16) is ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL . It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate.3. b t − ρ1L e e h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t +c e b1 t ρL With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1 e − ρ1L b t + 1− h0 b1 mi e b1 t ρL 0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter).16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5. However. negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. Essentially. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution 151 The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank.5. the governing equation (5.
152 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader.24) diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is 1 2 3 4 d [G(x2 . 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. y) − f (x1 . (18421912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 .21) This theorem named after Reynolds. y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 . the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. y) dx = x1 (y) x1 (y) dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 . speciﬁc enthalpy.22) Initially. Nevertheless. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV = sys d dt f ρdV + c. To make the previous derivation clearer.v f ρ Urn dA (5. Osborne. y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y 1 These 2 This (5. y) − − (x1 . . y) = f (α. y) − G(x1 . This is engineering book and thus.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. y) = ∂G ∂x (5. the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy x2 (y) x2 (y) f (x. y) dα (5. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. The ideas are the similar but extended some what.archive.25) papers can be read online at http://www. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following x G(x. End Solution 5. c.v. it will be provided. if there will be a demand for such.23) is f (x. y) ∂y dy dy (5.23) Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . For its derivative of equation (5.
5.31) The change with time of the accumulative property.v. The same can be said for the other side.28) For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx sys (5.30) Fout = f2 ρ Urn (5.26) The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5. The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. F . (5. F . is then F1 dx1 dt Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out. Urn = U1 − Ub . the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 . is then F2 dx2 dt (5.27) The same can be said for the third term (3). F . Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV sys (5. F . between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA c. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential).29) If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system.32) .4. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in. The intensive property. y) dx ∂y (5. y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable) x2 (y) x1 (y) ∂ f (x.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 . F . f is investigated or the accumulative property. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM 153 The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5. with time. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided.
MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. Thus.v. Since the time variable. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. (5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . Additionally.V. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. t.154 CHAPTER 5. After magical mixing. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used.c) End Solution .v sys D DT f ρ Urn dA Sc. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).V.33) 5.V. Example 5. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations.a) The integration of the equation (5. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. Reynolds Transport d f ρdV = f ρ dV + dt c.b) The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Uave = (5. the velocity became uniform.a) is Umax π R2 = Uave π R2 6 Umax 6 (5.V.13).
Boundary Layer control mass. and upper.5. In this case. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. Example 5.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 155 U0 ge Ed of B n ou yL dr er ay L Fig. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. right.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. the left. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface.7. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. The above integrals on the . No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). 5.7. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem.5.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed.
13) is used.02kg/m3 AU 0. and 8 hours.1 kg/sec = = 1. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. However sometime. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. Example 5. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5. The tank is 3/4 fulls. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. Thus.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec. 7 hours.156 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec.1 ) 5. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.
Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc.v boundary velocity + Sc. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus.v. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. End Solution Example 5. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 157 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled.5.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. assume that the process is isothermal.5. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. For simplicity.v. Thus. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume.
Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.v. .10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. mi .v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.158 CHAPTER 5. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5.v Vc. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process.
Sc. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. .v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 159 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc.5.5.v.v.v.10. ρUrn dA Vc. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.
The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA + A A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.34) V 5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Example 5. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book.160 CHAPTER 5. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume.8.S. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5. . However. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. However. MASS CONSERVATION End Solution Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow.11: Solve example 5. The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components.8. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem? 5. under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem. 5. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. There is no general way to provide these quantities. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 .
Substituting into (5. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions.9.5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is − A Ue Ae Ubn ρ dA + A Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.35) In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5. Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x.37) Fig.38) Ax − Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward.36) It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0 A 161 (5. Control volume and system before and after the motion. Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5. 5. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume.39) Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. 6 The point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A Ayz (5. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.9 under the blow line. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction. It can be notice that the velocity.6. .37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0 Ayz (5.
Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted.10.b) Fig. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. sin(2α) r2 2 (5. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r π 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h End Solution (5.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity. α provides the averaged velocity. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle.162 CHAPTER 5.d) Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as Ux = U dS S (5. MASS CONSERVATION Example 5.a) Ue Ae This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.XII.12: Calculate the velocity.XII.XII.XII. 5.XII.XII. Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5. Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The value dS is r cos α.h) (5.13: .XII. Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII.e) (5.i) Example 5.XII.f) 1 α − .g) Where here S represent some length. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r 2 Ax− Y(x) (r − x) x α y r (5.
5. equation (5. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Example 5. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity. Thus. Thus. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. 5.XIII. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images.b) 5. What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.XIII.a) (5. every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. Solution X(y) x 163 y r (r − x) Ay − Ue Ae Fig.40) 1 2r π/2 0 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (5.11.12.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h End Solution Ayz (5. Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). y velocity for a circular shape The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons.14: .7.
12.14 are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat and the pumping rate? Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec] Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant.164 CHAPTER 5. Schematic of the boat for example 5. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.1 [kg/s]. what is the exit velocity? State your assumptions. The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec. Solution In the ﬁrst scenario.15[m] ˙ ˙ (5.05 Urout = 35 = 8. If the mixing device volume is decreasing (as a piston pushing into the chamber) at rate of .002 [m3 /s]. The results of the mixing is a homogeneous mixture.11) is applicable mA + mB = Qmix ρmix =⇒= 0.2 End Solution Example 5. Urin = Aout 0. the total volume ﬂow in is equal to volume ﬂow out as mA ˙ mA ˙ 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus.1 + 0.05 = 1. In same time liquid B enter the mixing device with a diﬀerent speciﬁc density at 0.75m/sec Ain 0.XV. Find the average leaving velocity and density of the mixture leaving through the 2O [cm] diameter pipe. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.a) Thus in this case.15: Liquid A enters a mixing device depicted in at 0. Assume incompressible process.05 ˙ ˙ ˙ QA + QB = Qmix =⇒= + = + ρA ρA 1000 800 . since the ﬂow is incompressible ﬂow. the ﬂow is steady state and equation (5. the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat.05 m2 .05 = 0.10 0. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. what Fig. However.05 [kg/s]. 5. The density of liquid A is 1000[kg/m3 ] and liquid B is 800[kg/m3 ].
So governing equation is (5. and coordinates) since the mass in the control volume (the syringe volume is not constant).012 π (5.15). If the piston is withdrawn at O.000001 [m3 /s]. it can be observed that bioengineering is “cool” today while in 40 years ago is a disgusting ﬁeld. −Qb ρmix in out Ubn A ρb = mA + mB − mmix ˙ ˙ ˙ That is the mixture device is with an uniform density −0. The term that should be added to the governing equation the change of the volume.1 + 0.5.05 − mexit mexit = 1. He gave a speech about how inhuman these engineering students are.XV. This part of the solution is art. The two “instinctive control volumes” are the blood with the air and the the whole volume between the tip and syringe plunger (piston).7[kg/m3 ] = 0.07[kg/m3 ] mA ˙ mB ˙ + ρA ρB 165 (5. The chose of the control volume and coordinate system determine the amount of work. Solution The situation is unsteady state (in the instinctive c. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Thus the mixture density is ρmix = mA + mB ˙ ˙ = 923.16: A syringe apparatus is being use to withdrawn blood7 .XV.c) Umix = In the case that a piston is pushing the exit density could be changed and ﬂuctuated depending on the location of the piston. The ﬁrst choice seem reasonable 7 The author still remember his elementary teacher that was so appalled by the discussion on blood piping which students in an engineering school were doing. However.9974[kg/s] End Solution (5. At that stage air leaks in around the piston at the rate 0. I hope that no one will have teachers like him. Yet.XV.e) Example 5.7.625 ρ ρB = A = [m/s] π 0.b) The averaged velocity is then Qmix Aout mA ˙ mB ˙ + 1.XV.0003 [m].d) (5.01 [m/s]. What is the average velocity of blood into syringe (at the tip)? The syringe radios is 0. .005[m] and the tip radius is 0.v.002[m/ sec] 923. There are several possible control volumes that can be used to solve the problem. if the assumption of well mixed is still holding the exit density should not aﬀected.
At this stage.b) In the case. U1 A1 + U2 A2 = U3 A3 (5. In stationary coordinates two boundaries are moving and thus moving b.c) In the case of coordinates are attached to the blood edge similar equation is obtained. There several coordinate systems that can used. In that case. Later the two stream are mixed.XVI. and two equations. attached to plunger. stationary. MASS CONSERVATION since it provides relationship of the total to speciﬁc material.166 CHAPTER 5.0[m/s] and U2 = 0.a) . In this question the what is the mixed stream averaged velocity with U1 = 4. The air governing equation is blood b. attached to the blood edge. the equation (5. Calculate the mixing averaged velocity. Notice that change of the volume do not enter into the calculations because the density of the air is assumed to be constant. The cross section inside and outside radii ratio is r1 /r2 = 0.c) results in Ub = Uplunger − Ub As = = Atip Uplunger − ρa Qin As ρ b As (5. Ub and Utip .c. there are two unknowns.d) Utip ρa Qin As ρb Atip End Solution Example 5. Solution The situation is steady state and which density of the liquid is irrelevant (because it is the same at the inside and outside). The outside pipe is lower pressure which suck the water (other liquid) into device. In this device.XVII. in/out ˙ Uplunger As ρa − Ub As ρb = ρa Qin (5. the water (or another liquid) is pumped throw the inner pipe at high velocity.XVI.XVI.XVI.a) & & In the air side the same equation can used.XVI.XVI. Using equations (5.2.5[m/s]. control volume is the volume syringe tip to the edge of the blood.17: The apparatus depicted in Figure ?? is referred in the literature sometime as the waterjet pump. the relative plunger velocity is zero while the blood edge boundary velocity is Uplunger − Ub . velocity in/out ˙ (Uplunger − Ub ) As ρb = ρa Qin (5.a) and (5. the choice is coordinates moving with the plunger.15) is applicable and can be written as Utip Atip & = Ub As & ρb ρb (5. The second part of the control volume is the air. For this case.
7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION The velocity is A3 = A1 + A2 and thus U3 = U1 A1 + U2 A2 A1 A1 == U1 + U2 1 − A3 A3 A3 End Solution 167 (5.b) .5.XVII.
168 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION .
2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in n Fi = i=1 D Dt element mass U ρ dV sys (6.1) It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume.1 Introduction to Continuous In the previous chapter.CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation 6.2) The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6. For several bodies (n). the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Newton’s law becomes n n Fi = i=1 i=1 U d(mU )i dt (6.1. This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector.3) 169 .
Sn . hence. the terms on the left hand side. Thus.1.2 External Forces First.v. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. The gravity acts on all the system elements. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. the main body force is the gravity.). Sn dA + c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system.v. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. Sn . is made out of two components. 6. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6. Thus.170 CHAPTER 6.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. or the forces. are the body forces. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure.7) Fig. In this chapter. τ dA (6. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. The forces. excluding the external forces. Again.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. is in the surface direction. 6. have to be discussed.1. and τ are the shear stresses. it can be written as Fs = c. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body.1. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. Where the surface “force”. Here for simplicity. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). . The surface “force”. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume.
c.v. friction (nonﬂuid).1.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. etc. Fext . (6.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c. t = dt c. P cos θx dA + c. t dt c.v. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. In Cartesian coordinate. With external forces equation (6.v.v. supporting solid structures. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. the components are Fx + c.v. c.v. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe.v. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). g · ˆ ρ dV i c.v. ducts. 6. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i).v.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. c. c. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.v.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. c.v.9) The liquid velocity.13) .6.v. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. (6. Thus.v. Equation (6.1. U . MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 171 6.11) ρ U dV + c.v. for example in the x coordinate. ρ U U rn dA (6.v. c.1.v.v.
it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface.15) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. in these situations. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.6. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal.v.5.1. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change. .v. Thus.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.172 CHAPTER 6.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure.v.3.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. a acc ρ dV (6. P dA + c. In this situation.15) 6.v.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6. 6. τ dA = c. Additionally. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.18) Equation (6.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6. equation (6. g ρ dV − c. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. ρ U Urn dA (6.v.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.1.
Neglect the friction. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects. Example 6. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.2). calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.2. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6. 6.1.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus.6.I.a) Substituting equation (6. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.I.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.I. Fig. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6.I. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 173 Example 6.a) into equation (6. Uo θ Ui F Fig b. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .2.
to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6. Fx occurs when cos θ = π.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.174 Solution CHAPTER 6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution. because it is a steady state.II. Equation (6.11) can be reduced. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant.3 with a mass . Hence Fx max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. End Solution Example 6.II.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction.
The exit velocity is uniform but unknown. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6. First. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v.b) c.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0.v.6. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c. =0 c. c. the velocity has to be found.3. ρ U z · U rn dA .III. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement.0001 Equation (6.3. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6.0001[cm2 ].0015 [m3 ]. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0.III. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 175 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c.1. τ z dA = c. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. Hence. τ z dA = (6.v. The entrance area is 0. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0. 6.v. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0.01 [gk/sec].v.v.3. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c. c.v. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.v.v.
Combining all transform equation (6. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. In the Figure 6. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.III. Here.v.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A2 − P A1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.v. This surface is called slip surface. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.v.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.176 CHAPTER 6. . The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A1 − P A2 The last term in equation (6.v. P cos θz dA = c.v. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.4. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. Improvements can be made to this analysis. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction.III.v.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c.III.v.d) 6.III. fan etc. this analysis is used for academic purposes.
Calculate the friction force on the . the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Here. Notice that Example 6.5 is pushed by liquid jet.6.4. Thus.2. In Jet propulsion. a major obstacle in the past. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. in many case more eﬃcient. pressure drops from the calculation. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. Essentially.4: A sled toy shown in Figure 6. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. 6. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6.19) 177 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. the pressure around control volume is the same. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. this direct conversion can be. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. Hence. Furthermore. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. and is. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound.
g ρ dV − c. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity.5. . the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. P dA + c.v. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical. The velocity of the jet is uniform. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig.v. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force.v.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy.v.v. U 0 . The dyjet in a steady state for example 6.178 CHAPTER 6. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c.4. U0 .v. ρ U U rn dV (6. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. 6. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained.v. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c.IV. τ dA = c. namics friction is µd .
IV. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc.b) The substituting (6.IV. 6. End Solution 6.6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized.2. A rocket with a moving control volume. . 179 (6. This method is cumbersome in many cases.v.6. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.IV.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6.10). Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.b) into equation (6. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.2. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity.IV.
The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. c. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. ρUy Urn dA (6. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6. vanishes. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket.v.v.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. g ρ dV + c. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero.v.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. Yet. This change is minimal and for this analysis.v.v.26) .v. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. However.180 CHAPTER 6. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside.2. d dt ρUy dV = Vc. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. the derivative with respect to time. (6. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels.24) Clearly. dU /dt = 0 is not zero.v. the ﬁrst term FR . The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. c. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. However. it can be neglected. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6.
Thus. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. However. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.2. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem.28). As ﬁrst approx˙ imation.28) Before integrating equation (6.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR .6.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6.” .28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.27) Separating the variables equation (6. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. Integrating equation (6. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 181 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR . For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space. the speed (the Reynolds number).5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. For which he noticed this “constant velocity. Thus it is assume that FR = 0.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6.
d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6.12) for two dimensions is used. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.v. Solution Uo FR Fig. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used. Sc.V. Furthermore.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6.7.7.7. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. Equation (6. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.V. Substituting equation (6.e) .V. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy.d) into equation (6. 6.V.182 CHAPTER 6. mt .V.V. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.v. ρdA = 0 (6. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.a) Equation (6. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. linear function of the height. The control volume is shown in Figure 6.V.a) can be transferred to dmc.v. U0 = B h (6.V.V. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere.
.V.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction. Substituting (6. Perhaps surprising.V.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 183 Equation (6.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6.V. Using this function.V.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.f) into (6. is not relevant. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.V. In fact.2.8. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.V. Using a similar control volume2 . The mass con.g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. 6. The tank depth.2. h. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .V. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6.V.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?).5.8.Fig.6.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 .h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6.V. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A.
The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.V.V. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6.v. mc. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels).v. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. a Vc. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters.184 CHAPTER 6. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. Here this eﬀect is neglected. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc. and the resistance due to air is negligible. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively.v.v. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). (6.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. It . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement).32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.v.v. This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average.
V.V. d d Ux Ux + mc.V. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.6.v. However.2.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.V.V. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x). d Ux Ux + mc. From equation (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 185 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.V.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc. Ux Vf Thus.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.v. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.v.V. Ux = mc.v. dt dt dt (6. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.v.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.r) .V.v.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.
There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. For example.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.V.r) and (6. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.v.35) . For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.V. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.v U dV (6.s) into equation (6. For these cases a correction factor can be used.v U = ρ V c.186 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. Here. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.V.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0. For example.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.V.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6. Substituting equations (6. ρ Ux dV (6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.V. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.
36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.39) The angular momentum equation.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. However.9. ρ Ux dV (6.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.6.3. applying equation (6.9 commonly used in industry.Fig. ditionally increase of velocity occur. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6.40) . the following discussion is provided.v 187 U dV = c.v. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. 6. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one. C ρV c. if the density is not constant. 6. Sc.v. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles. To demonstrate this idea.
U2 has two components. Notice that tangential liquid velocity. The height of the impeller is h.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6. The exit liquid velocity. and h.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . Un2 .41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 . Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). Example 6. The thickness of the impeller.42) (6. r.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6.41) results in Um2 (6. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . Ut2 and radial component. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6.188 CHAPTER 6.p. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. The angular velocity is 1200 r.m.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. one the tangential velocity.40[m]. 6.
The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration.10. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity.6.10.2. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank. No resistance to the rocket (can be added). Additionally.VII. The cross section of the liquid is constant. 6. No gas leaves the rocket. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 189 6. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution.3) without a solution. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. forces for example 6.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. Develop exFig. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls). the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket.a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. .4.
The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.VII.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.d) mg R T V0g (6. equation (6. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6.VII.VII.VII.VII.VII.j) .g) (6. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .h) (6.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase). it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.VII.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.VII.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6. Furthermore.VII. Using the above deﬁnition.VII.190 CHAPTER 6.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.VII.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.
What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.4. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. End Solution (6.6.11: .a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 191 (6.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6.VII. Example 6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units.VII.VII. Example 6. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .VII.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6. 6. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.4.m) Example 6. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6.9: In Example 6.
11 . MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. 6.192 Situations CHAPTER 6. Fig.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value.11. consider the unsteady eﬀects.
here it will be derived.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. Moreover. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material).3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . For example. 193 . this law allows to solve problems. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. the above view is wrong when the heat convection.2) (7. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. The ﬂuid. which were assumed in the previous chapters. However. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2.2) is similar to equation (6. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. as all phases and materials.1) Equation (7. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . which is external force. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. For example. is included on the right hand side.
194 CHAPTER 7. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7.1. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out.v. conduction. the radiation is minimal.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. 7. In most problems. 3 There 4 When (7. Hence.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. There are three modes of heat transfer. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. As in the previous chapter.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. the surface forces Fig. . ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. convection4 and radiation. dealing with convection.
10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.7.8) Equation (7.9) the velocity appears twice.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids.11) Equation (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system. In the last term in equation (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.12) .9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume.1.2) for system is kT Asys 195 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.8) for more details).8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.
14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. 7. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. 6 This 5 Later . the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height.15) Equation (7. small. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. h.2. Additionally. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. With these deﬁnitions equation (7.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. the temperature is assumed to constant. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. which was discussed on page 46. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter.15). so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7.196 CHAPTER 7. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy.
1.3.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig.17) Equation (7. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. However. is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. for simplicity.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic.7. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with BarMeir’s instability. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. 7 For the mass conservation analysis.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7. However.20) In this analysis. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. 7. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. this quantity will be used. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7.3. . THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 197 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe. However.
˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier.198 CHAPTER 7. Additionally. Yet.26) The governing equation (7. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. . At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. In this light. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here.R. In this case. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7.15) which is applicable to this case. Ec which is very small. The temperature is constant8 .22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. the internal shear work is assumed negligible. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. Eckert. The pressure terms in equation (7.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . Furthermore.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. E. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. Clearly. this change is a function of Eckert number.G.
Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 199 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume.1.28) V V The second integral (in the r.h. Furthermore.30) Substituting the results of equation (7.33) . The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.s) of equation (7.7.30) into equation (7.
200
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as
2
ρ U dV CF =
V
ρ U 2 dV
V
ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡
V
2
(7.34)
Here, CF is the correction coeﬃcient. Note, the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is
2 2
ρ U dV CF =
V
= ρ U 2 dV
ρ ¡ ρ ¡
U dV
V
= U 2 dV
Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V
(7.35)
V
V
This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . For a pipe geometry, the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7.36)
It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 . The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity, Uave is obtained by using equation (7.32) which yields 1/2. Substituting equation (7.36) into equation (7.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV
V V
=
Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯
2
= dV
3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3
(7.37)
The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. For circular shape, a good guess number is about 1.1. In this case, for simplicity reason, it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case, diﬀerent directions cancel each other out.
11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2
201
V
hA
(7.38)
The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7.39)
Therefore, the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7.40)
Ue =
A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt
(7.41)
Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as
2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz =
(7.42)
2 U ∼ =
(π − 2) r dh 8h dt
2
+
(π − 1) r dh 4h dt
2
+
dh dt
2
(7.43)
f (G)
dh U∼ = dt
(π − 2) r 8h
2
+
(π − 1) r 4h
2
+ 12
(7.44)
It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. However, the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.
13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. However, it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. But in the same vain, some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.
202 The last term is
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
A
Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2
dh A dt Ae
2
Ue ρ Ae
(7.45)
Combining all the terms into equation (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.h.s. results in d U gh + dt 2 2
2
(7.46)
hA +
U gh + 2 2
2
A
dh 1 − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
Ue Ae = 0
(7.47)
Equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .
Advance material can be skipped
Dividing equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.40)
A
Ae A
Ue
d U gh + dt 2 2
2
hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2
2
dh 1 A − dt 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
$ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.48)
Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus
f (G) Ub
U
dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2
2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.49)
Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0 (7.50)
f (G)2 h
15 This
d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2
dh dt
2
+
gh 1 − 2 2
dh dt
2
A Ae
2
=0
(7.51)
part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.
7.1. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
203
End Advance material
Combining the gh terms into one yields
f (G)2 h
d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2
dh dt
2
f (G)2 −
A Ae
2
=0
(7.52)
Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter, Te , as Te = A f (G) Ae
2
(7.53)
This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. Dividing equation (7.52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter, equation (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.54)
The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or

(7.55)
dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G)
= t + k2
(7.56)
The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A
discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.
204
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7.59) (7.58)
This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.61) (7.60)
The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt
2
(7.62)
[1 − Te ] = 0
(7.63)
While equation (7.63) is still non linear equation, the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt
2
=
2gh −1 +
A Ae 2
(7.64)
It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. The initial velocity
17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. Thus for a very short time, the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec. However, if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct.
7.2. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH
205
ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. Equation (7.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae
2 h h0
dh √ = 2gh
t
dt
0
(7.66)
The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √
2
h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh
Ae 2 A
(7.67)
dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then
2gh
A Ae
(7.68)
1−
1−
U∼ =
2gh
(7.69)
Equation (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. Yet, this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7.70)
7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach
Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. In the calculations
18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15, 1608 October 25, 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime.
206
CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION
of the exit velocity of a tank, two such corrections were presented. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. In the case of the tank, the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. In fact, the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. In cases that dissipation play major air air role, the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. H For example, the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. Additionally, the integral methods is Fig. 7.4. Flow in an oscillating manometer. too crude to handle issues of free interface. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind.
7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation
The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work, the problems can be solved. The following sections provides further explanation.
72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7.3.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 207 7. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. Equation (2. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.3. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.74) in 7.7. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7. the pressure is different.3.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation.72) for nondeformable control volume does not vanished.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7.75) . equation (7.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.
79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.81) As before equation (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.84) .82) in (7.208 CHAPTER 7.83) from equation (7.
linear and rotational.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity. = − ref F ·d (7. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. for the gravity force is GM m (7. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. In many cases.7. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far. For example. 7.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest. The only acceptation to the above statement. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.4. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. However. .88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7.86) 7.85) For no shaft work equation (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7.E. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential. r and m are the distance and mass respectively.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 209 (7.
The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7.210 CHAPTER 7. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the . and z = 0.4. The same can be done for the other two coordinates.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. y = 0. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.4. Thus.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7.
θ and z respectively.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values. To understand it better.97) (7. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication.4. Hence. However. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7.103) P Ubn dA .101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7. From physical point of view.98) (7. θ. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7.100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 293 for vector explanation).99) ˆ where r.7. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 211 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7.
4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7. .212 CHAPTER 7.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow.
Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 213 .
.
The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. NavierStokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. the solution is not unique. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book).CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. 215 . The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable.g. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the NavierStokes equations. as he done to many other equations or conditions. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. As usual SimonDenis Poisson independently.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. In diﬀerential analysis. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people.
1. (8. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.1.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8. the complexity of the equations. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Interfacial instability.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow). This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. Sometimes. 8. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. on one hand. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter.3) . Even for simple situations.216 CHAPTER 8. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). Historically.1. The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Interfacial instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. 8.
9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . .3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8. neglecting higher order derivatives. for example.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. in the x coordinate. as depicted in Figure 8. the operation.8) dv (8.2. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. It also can be noticed that.8.2.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )y − (ρ Uy )y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )z − (ρ Uz )z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )x+dx = (ρ Ux )x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )x − (ρ Ux )x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8. MASS CONSERVATION 217 The ﬁrst term in equation (8. The net mass change. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.
14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dzr + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. Hence.g. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.12) Combining equations (8. e. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) + dθ dr dz ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.11)–(8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates. The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. r . the change of r with r.2. the r is “trapped” in the derivative. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8.218 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8. 8. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications.
However. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. Hence. For academic purposes. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume.1. 8.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8.2. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 . this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. At time.14) with the change in the control volume (8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates.8).8).2 page 296). MASS CONSERVATION 219 Combining equation (8. several examples are constructed here.16) The continuity equations (8.16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates.18) Compare to equation (8. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.15) and (8. (8.2. t0 .8. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8. .
f) .I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom. 8.I.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8. as a function of time into the governing equation (8. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).I.I.I. For this question.I.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.I. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8. ρ.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. it is treated as a constant.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8. Substituting the density.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.3.I.1 function of the y coordinate. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.3.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.I.220 CHAPTER 8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.I.
f) as a constant4 . .f) holds for any time and thus.2. End Solution 8. For this example.I. Hence. 8. 4 Since (8.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.I.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8.8. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.I.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.2.2.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8. MASS CONSERVATION 221 Uy is a function of the time but not y.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.I. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature. from the extraction point.II. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8. Equation (8.4.4. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. Example 8. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.
II.II.f) (8. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide.g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems. however it can be considered as steady state. Hence equation (8. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .b).c) Where Ux is the belt velocity.15 .II.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8. On personal note.II. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8.II.1 for the general function T = F (x).222 Solution CHAPTER 8. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8. .b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8.I. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.II.II.II.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8. However.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8.II. See the resembles to equation (8.
Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.c) (8.III.h) ∂y .g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix). Notice the symmetry of the situation.III. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component.III. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component. MASS CONSERVATION 223 Example 8.2.III. For the second part equation (8.III.III.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.b) (8.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.III.III.III. The velocity.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.a) Equation (8. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next. Thus.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state.g) ∂y a Equation (8. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.8.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.III.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.III.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.
Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state. End Solution Example 8.224 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions.a) Mathematically speaking. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8.IV. Hence. Thus. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). In this problem these physical . it can be observed that the velocity contains time component. this kind of presentation is possible. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow.IV.j) (8. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .IV.III.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state. must be compressible ﬂow. if it exist.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.V.III. The private solution is Uy private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.III.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).4: Can the following velocities coexist.i) End Solution Example 8.
b) Substituting equation (8.g) The term e5 α y is always positive.V. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.V.V.2.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.V.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.a) and noticing that the density.V.V.V.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8. The solution of (8. Ux . Hence.V.e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.V. real value. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8. MASS CONSERVATION 225 components are ignored for academic reasons.V. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.b) into equation (8.V.j) . Equation (8.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix.h) Equation (8. must be zero and thus the constant. c3 .f) (8.8.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.V. ρ.d) (8.V. is substituted.V.
3.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.g.V.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e. z.k) Where the constant.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time.j) by (8. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.226 CHAPTER 8. 8. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. scalar.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (??)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8. . y. vector or tensor.24) into equation (8.V.24) Substituting equation (8. are presented. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. t).V.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.
In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.29) Equation (8. t) j + Uz (x. y. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid. it can be written that U (x.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 227 By the deﬁnition of equation (8.27) 8. t) = Ux (x.3.2 8.3. y.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. y. z.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt  The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8. t) i + Uy (x. t) k (8.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.2. z. z.32) . The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ.31) Equation (8.8. Therefore. y. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid. x.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example.3.
This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state. The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). 8. So it can be written that F τ = f (F .38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.39) .228 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8.34) (8. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. A ) (8. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow.
40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction.5. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8.8. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8. 8. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it.5. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ. However. tetrahedron in the z direction.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8.44) . The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 229 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape.4. similarly for τxz . and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8.
uniform and hence act not through the mass center. can create torque. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it. The shear stress at point x is τxy . for cases that body force. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor. However. The body force can exert torque is Fig. Hence. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant).230 CHAPTER 8.6. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. τyx τ However. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. The areas are related to each other through angles. dx For simplicity and generality.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. 8. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body.5 for moment of inertia. . This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation.
but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not.4. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx y + dτxx dy η y (8. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.49) results y+dy y τxx y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8. For example. End Advance material The net torque in the zdirection around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 231 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 . The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction.49) Substituting (8.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8. It can be ignored.8.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.48) into (8.50) The integral of (8. .51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.
5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig. gravitation forces.7). Equation (6. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations. Later it will be used and generalized.55) 8. Previously it was shown that equation (6. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. However. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. y. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x.11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. this change. y. can be neglected11 . For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. z and the j is any of the other x.232 CHAPTER 8. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. and internal forces. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book.7. 8. z 10 .11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. for almost all practical purposes. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure 8. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. . However.
The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 233 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.59) where i in this case is x. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx x+dx × dy dz − τxx x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8.57) fxy = τyx y+dy × dx dz − τyx y × dx dz (8.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation. y. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates. Hence.58) The same can be written for z direction. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x.64) .8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8. Equation (8. or z.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.61) equation (8.57) and (8.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8.
y. the result is a continuous deformation. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump Fig. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. a. b. At time t. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. Additionally.8. As engineers do in general. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation. 8.8 (by the blue color). the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. The control volume moves to a new location.234 where here CHAPTER 8. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids.65) End Advance material Equations (8. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids. and c. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid).8)). Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. or z.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain.65) or (8. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . In contrast. Furthermore.
is the diagonal component which dealt below. The only missing thing.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. It can be noticed at this stage. However.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 235 volume. . In general equation (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner. at this stage.67) In these derivatives. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8.8. 8.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8.5. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. The deformation of the control volume has several components.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. 12 While 13 The Fig. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally.68) where. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume.9. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above.
236 CHAPTER 8. For example. on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface.73) Equation (8.75) (8. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. b. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8.77) d x= dx . z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.8) in the control volume move to the new locations. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ . The small deformations a . Figure 8.74) (8. y’ ) frame.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. c.9. y.74) from (8. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. y coordinates). √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress.x.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. In addition. τii (where i is either .76) (8. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. The angular strain rate in the (x. To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ .
Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stress. and d y is its linear strain in the ydirection. (8.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8.10(b). The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction.78).5. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change.80) Equation (8. Fig. The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. Thus. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8.77). and (8. Hence. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8.81) . 8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 237 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.79) Here.8.10. in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle.10(b)).
86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.90) .87) and (8.238 CHAPTER 8. (8.87) y’ (8.83) Equation (8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.11.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.85) From equation (8.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.81) with equation (8.82) Combining equation (8.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. 8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.84) From (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8. (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.
71). This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.89) and (8.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.141.8. Cambridge University Press. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. 1967.5. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8.95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ .96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. .94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8.90) results in 2 4 239 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. Batchelor. K. p. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 .91) rearranging equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8.
61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. However. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8.3 . This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P .98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. it does not add any additional information. The dimension of the bulk viscosity. an additional correction will be needed. are similar to the viscosity µ.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0. connection between τxy and the deformation was built. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. Using the coordinates transformation.2. Equation (8.9. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms. it will be provide before version 0.240 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues.99) ·U (8.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. With God help. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity. First.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. λ. this association was established. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation.
105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8. for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equation is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8.102) For the total eﬀect. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance. Thus. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.8.101) To explain equation (8.100) into equation (8. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 . For example. substitute equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 241 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . Clearly for incompressible ﬂow. In material such as water. λ. τxy . λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0. In most cases.5. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8. can be over 100 times larger than µ. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change.101).104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. .
The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated. pressure. In the literature. pressure (at the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area).112) + ρgz 8. the shear tensor will be separated into two categories. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes.108) or in the index notation it is written ρ ∂P ∂ 2U D Ui =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂ 2 Uz − +µ + + ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. . thus equation (8.6.242 For incompressible ﬂow the term ρ CHAPTER 8.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly for x coordinate as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. These conditions can be categorized by the velocity.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8. this condition is referred as the “no slip” condition. or in more general terms as the shear stress conditions (mostly at the interface). A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.106) is reduced to 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. For this discussion. In y coordinate the momentum equation is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂P ∂2v ∂2v ∂2v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.110) + ρgx g Where gx is the the body force in the x direction (i ·g ).
For example.8. t) = 0 (8.12. t pendicular velocity at the interface must be zero. the free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8. The slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist in situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is relatively very small. In another view.113) as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = f (Q.116) Dt This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. y).115) As oppose to a given velocity at particular point. To make sure that all the x material is accounted for in the control volume (does not cross b the free surface) the relative per. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.Fig. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerence in the velocity between the solid (or other material) and the ﬂuid media. the diﬀerence in the velocities vanishes as the scale increases. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. The ”slip” condition is written in similar fashion to equation (8. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df r = 0 on the surface f (r . x. scale. The condition (8.6. when the ﬂow is with a strong velocity ﬂuctuations.113) is given in a vector form. The slip condition cannot be ignored in some regions. Another condition which aﬀects whether the slip condition exist is who rapidly of the velocity change.113) where n is referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area).114) Note. etc) (8. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U t · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. a requiret n ment on the acceleration (velocity) is given in unknown posiflow tion. While this condition (8. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and b.113) can be mathematically represented in direction another way for free surface conditions.117) . 8. The location of the (free) moving boundary can be given as r f (r . BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 243 This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true.
In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition but only approximation (see for the surface theory).120) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. In index notation equation (8. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line.121) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value).244 CHAPTER 8. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. this constant is determined from the volume conservation.119) is written18 as τij nj + σ ni (1) 1 1 + R1 R2 = τij nj (2) (8. In this book. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). In same instances. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. In other cases. There are situations where the transition should be analyzed as a continuous transition between two phases. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location.119) (8. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids.118) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). n · τ (n) = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 σ (8. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness). The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general. Furthermore. Oﬀ course. . A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer.
in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. Kerosene lamp. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 245 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity. material. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example. pulling the side will pull all the material.6. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8.8. Jean. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. For example. 197–217. Anal.13. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. 74 (1980). . Arch.13. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig.123) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value.122) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. 3. Rational Mech. M. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons).57). shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. 8. no.
somewhere downstream the temperature gradient is insigniﬁcant. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. The only (almost) propelling source of the ﬂow is the surface gradient. First. The control volume shown in darker colors. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the direction of the ﬂow. The distance between the plates is .14. example dealing won one phase are present. U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards.246 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. 8. examples with two phase are presented.15). Even in that case.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. Schematic of kerosene lamp. Later. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. In that case. One radius toward the center of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. book. } } } 8. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradient in surface tension is results of temperature gradient. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress.15. the physical condition in Figure 8.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. In this Fig. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. this eﬀect is not discussed. the surface tension gradient remains. However. Example 8. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. However the diameter at the depend on the surface tension. 20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). In the case. . The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (NavierStokes) Examples of an onedimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented.
the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density).7. the mass conservation yields =0 247 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8.126) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8.127) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8.124) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Solution In this example. The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.131) .8.129) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8. Furthermore.128) (8.125) Thus.130) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8.0 0.0 0.75 Ψ = −0.75 green line to 3 the blue line.131) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. 8. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.2 0.8 0.132) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.9 1. dition21 . The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.8 Ux Uℓ 0.25 Ψ = 2.75 Ψ = 1.0 0.7 0.4 0.2 Ψ = −1.75 Ψ = −1.131) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow.16. .0 y ℓ October 4.25 Ψ = 0. Newtonian ﬂuid. In that case.tween 1.25 1. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.135) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.25 Ψ = 1. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig.4 0.5 0.6 0. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con.1 0.134) (8.6 0.3 0.133) (8. Equation (8.131) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.75 Ψ = 0. However.2 0.25 Ψ = −0. The boundaries conditions are 1. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8.248 CHAPTER 8.75 Ψ = 2. the left hand side is equal to constant.
Hence. Thus. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.137) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation.136) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. Fig. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8.8.139) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).17. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. of (only) radius.138) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.7.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. 8.140) . EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) 249 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi o z n dr Fig a. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.
The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.144) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.142) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8.147) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.142) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.250 CHAPTER 8.17a. The applicable equation is still (8.141) Equation (8.145) (8.146) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8.136) since the condition did not change.136) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8. it has several deﬁciencies which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe. However. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.142) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided. While the above analysis provides a solution.137) and (8. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8. However.138) into equation (8.148) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .143) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. Integrating equation (8.
152) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.154) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical.148) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.7. the governing equation (8.149) (8. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8.7: . However. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.7.136) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.153) Equation (8.152) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 251 (8.152) or its solution (8. Example 8.150) Substituting equation (8.151) Equation (8.150) and equation (8.152) is the governing equation only the z direction.8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8. The same result is obtained.154) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero.
For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one dimensional. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional. Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. However. the appropriate version of the Navier–Stokes equation will be used. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no acceleration (convective acceleration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional.VII. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.d) . the velocity isn’t a function of the angle. or z coordinate. 8.VII.VII.a) The PDE above (8.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient. The situation is best suitable to solved in cylindrical coordinates. That is. Solution CHAPTER 8. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig.VII. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions.155) The steady state governing equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8.VII.VII. After the previous example.b) Dividing equation (8.VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8.252 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.c) 0 0 (8.18.7.c) and second integration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8.18.
Comprehensive discussion about this problem can be found this author Master thesis. this analysis is a building bloc for heat and mass transfer understanding24 .VII. This problem study by Nusselt23 which developed the basics equations.j) The next example deals with the gravity as body force in two dimensional ﬂow.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8. Example 8.8.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.VII.d) results in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 253 (8.VII. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm Nusselt born November 25.7.VII.e) Applying the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8. This problem is related to many industrial process and is fundamental in understanding many industrial processes.VII. .f) with the second boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8. 1882 September 1.8: In many situations in nature and many industrial processes liquid ﬂows downstream 23 German mechanical engineer. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Integration of equation (8. Furthermore.VII.VII. 1957 in Munchen 24 Extensive discussion can be found in this author master thesis.
the pressure loss in the gas phase (mostly air) is negligible. the gravity in the x direction is g sin θ while the direction of y the gravity is g cos θ. For this example. For this system. The dominate force is the gravity. Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence for example 8. . pump Solution This problem is satiable to Cartesian coordinates in which x coordinate is pointed in the ﬂow direction and y perpendicular to ﬂow direction (depicted in Figure 8. Calculate the velocity proﬁle.a) − g sin θ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂P ∂ 2 Ux + ρ gx +µ + + ∂x2 ∂x ∂y 2 ∂z 2 The ﬁrst term of the acceleration is zero because the ﬂow is in a steady state. Assume that “scale” is large h enough so that the “no slip” condition prevail at the plate (bottom).19. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS on inclined plate at θ as shown in Figure 8.VIII. For simplicg sin θ ity. assume that the y gas density is zero (located outside the liqx uid domain). Assume that the ﬂow is one Fig. Assume that the ﬂow obtains a steady state after some length (and the acceleration vanished). Hence the pressure at the gas phase is almost constant hence the pressure at the interface in the liquid is constant. The pressure is almost constant along the x coordinate.1 dimensional in the x direction. The governing in the x direction is =f (t) ∂U x ρ + ∂t =0 −0 ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz Ux + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z =0 ∼0 =0 =0 (8. 8.19. The last term of the velocity Laplacian is zero because no velocity in ∂x the z direction. Fully developed ﬂow means that the ﬁrst term of the velocity Laplacian is zero ( ∂Ux ≡ 0). assume that the ﬂow is two dimenθ g cos θ g θ sional. Write the governing equations for this situation. The second and the third terms in the convective acceleration are zero because the velocity at that direction is zero (Uy = Uz = 0).254 CHAPTER 8. The ﬁrst term of the convective acceleration is zero under the assumption of this example ﬂow is fully developed and hence not a function of x (nothing to be “improved”). The surface has no curvature and hence the pressure at liquid side similar to the gas phase and the only change in liquid is in the y direction. As it will be shown later.19).
b) With boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom because the large scale and steady state Ux (y = 0) = 0 (8.j) Where W here is the width into the page of the ﬂow.f) τair 1 g sin θ h + µ ν µ ρ (8.VIII.b) yields ρ ∂Ux = g sin θ y + c1 (8. Integration of equation (8.VIII.VIII.VIII. the governing equation can not be suﬃcient from the mathematical point of view.d) as τair Solving for c1 results in c1 = ∂Ux =µ ∂y y = −ρ g sin θ h +c1 µ h (8.VIII.VIII. equation (8.8.VIII.e) ∂y µ The integration constant can be obtain by applying the condition (8.d) If there is additional requirement.VIII.VIII.VIII. Which results in Q g sin θ 2 h3 τair h = − W ν 3 µ (8.c) The boundary at the interface is simpliﬁed to be ∂Ux ∂y = τair (∼ 0) y=0 (8.g) The second integration applying the second boundary condition yields c2 = 0 results in τair g sin θ 2 y h − y2 − Ux = (8.h) ν µ When the shear stress caused by the air is neglected.VIII.VIII.k) .7. the velocity proﬁle is Ux = The ﬂow rate per unit width is Q = W h g sin θ 2 h y − y2 ν (8.VIII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Thus.a) is reduced to 0=µ ∂ 2 Ux + ρ g sin θ ∂y 2 255 (8.i) Ux dA = A 0 g sin θ τair 2 h y − y2 − ν µ dy (8. such a speciﬁc velocity at the surface.
thus current explanation was developed to explain the wavy phenomenon occurs. The experiments were conducted on a solid concrete laboratory and the ﬂow was in a very stable system. The vanishing shear stress as tio it ) n y y at the interface was the only requirement x w ate was applied. Calculate the minimum shear stress that required to operate the lump (alternatively. No matter how low ﬂow rate was small and big occurred. If the air is considered two r( liq uid governing equations must be solved one ) ah for the air (gas) phase and one for water h (liquid) phase.7. Example 8. For the liquid. solution to the diﬀerential governing equations provides only two constants.8 no requirement was made sa as for the velocity at the interface (the upm e air so ve (g lu loc per boundary). two of the boundary conditions for these equations are the identical and thus the six boundary conditions are really only 4 boundary conditions.20. The phenomenon is explained by the fact that there is somewhere instability which is transferred into the ﬂow. End Solution In the following following example the issue of driving force of the ﬂow through curved interface is examined. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Q 2 W = g sin θ 2 h − τair Ux = h ν 3 µ (8. The ﬂow in the kerosene lamp is depends on the surface tension. 25 The author was hired to do experiments on thin ﬁlm (gravity ﬂow). However. Thus.9: A simpliﬁed ﬂow version the kerosene lump is of liquid moving up on a solid core. Two boundary conditions must be satisﬁed at the interface. there is total of three boundary conditions25 to be satisﬁed. 8. This explanation bothered this author. Flow of liquid in partially ﬁlled duct. .l) Note the shear stress at the interface can be positive or negative and hence can increase or decrease the ﬂow rate and the averaged velocity. The Fig. The ﬂow surface is curved and thus pressure is not equal on both sides of the interface.256 The average velocity is then CHAPTER 8.1 Interfacial Instability In Example 8. the maximum height). the boundary condition of “no slip” at the bottom surface of liquid must be satisﬁed. 8.VIII. These experiments were to study the formation of small and big waves at the interface. Assume that radios of the liquid and solid core are given and the ﬂow is at steady state. The second domain (the gas phase) provides another equation with two constants but again three boundary conditions need to satisﬁed.
the shear stress must be continuous µg ∂Uxg ∂Ux =µ ∂y ∂y (8. .162) results in g sin θ 2 g sin θ 2 h + c1 h + c2 = h + c3 h 2 νg 2ν 26 This (8.161) which leads c4 = 0 Applying equation (8.159) (8.163) µg µ g sin θ h + c1 µg = g sin θ h + c3 µ νg ν Combining boundary conditions equation(8.7.8.158) Assuming “no slip” for the liquid at the bottom boundary as Ux (0) = 0 The boundary condition (8.160) (8.158) results in 0= g sin θ 2 h (1 + a)2 + c1 h (1 + a) + c2 2 νg (8.VIII. the constants c1 and c2 are dimensional which mean that they have physical units (c1 −→ [1/sec] The governing equation in the liquid phase (0 ≥ y ≥ h) is Ux = g sin θ 2 y + c3 y + c4 2ν (8.165) equation results from double integrating of equation (8.157) The gas velocity at the upper interface is vanished thus Ux g [(1 + a) h] = 0 At the interface the “no slip” condition is regularly applied and thus Ux g (h) = Ux (h) Also at the interface (a straight surface).161) The same can be said for boundary condition (8.164) (8.159) with (8.162) (8.b) and subtitling ν = µ/ρ.156) Note.160) yields ρg ρ (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) The governing equation solution26 for the gas phase (h ≥ y ≥ a h) is Ux g = g sin θ 2 y + c1 y + c2 2 νg 257 (8.
162) transformed by some simple rearrangement to be C1 C2 (1 + a) = And equation (8.165) is obtained by computer algebra (see in the code) to be sin θ (g h ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) + a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) (8.165) 1+ νg c1 ρ µ νg c3 = + g h sin θ ρg µg g h sin θ (8.162).170) This presentation provide similarity and it will be shown in the Dimensional analysis chapter better physical understanding of the situation.171) .169) C1 C2 C3 νg 2 νg c1 2 νg c2 2 νg c3 −1= + 2 − ν h g sin θ h g sin θ g h sin θ (8.164) and (8. (8.167) can be written as (1 + a) = C1 + C2 2 (8.167) C1 1 µ 2 µg C3 1+ and equation (8. So equation (8.168) 2 νg h c1 ¡ 2 h£ g sin θ + 2 νg c2 νg 2 νg h c3 ¡ = + 2 sin θ h2 g sin θ ν g h£ (8. Equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Advance material can be skipped The solution of equation (8.164) 1 2 2 2 νg c1 2 c2 νg + g h sin θ g h2 sin θ (8.258 CHAPTER 8.169) Or rearranging equation (8.166) c1 = − c2 = sin θ g h2 ρg (2 ρg ν ρ + 1) − g h2 ν 2 ρg ν sin θ (g h ρg (2 a ρg ν ρ − 1) − a g h ν ) ρg (2 a ν + 2 ν ) End Advance material c3 = When solving this kinds of mathematical problem the engineers reduce it to minimum amount of parameters to reduce the labor involve.
176) C3 = − µg ρ + a2 + 2 a + 2 µ ρg (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIERSTOKES) Further rearranging equation (8.168) ρ C1 µ C3 −1= − ρg 2 µg 2 and equation (8. Combining inﬁnite size domain of one ﬂuid with ﬁnite size on the other one side results in unstable interface.175) − C2 = µg ρ +a µ ρg 2 (8. The requirement of the shear stress in the inﬁnite is zero as well.177) The two diﬀerent ﬂuids28 have ﬂow have a solution as long as the distance is ﬁnite reasonable similar. The point here the understanding issue related to boundary condition not per se solution of the problem. The ratio of the dynamics viscosity can be eliminated from equation (8. mostly the gas. There is no way obtain one dimensional solution for such case and there is a component in the y direction. What happen when the lighter ﬂuid.173) to be µg ρ − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 µ ρg (8. ﬂow at inﬁnite is zero.174) The set of equation can be solved for the any ratio of the density and dynamic viscosity. The boundary conditions of ﬂow with inﬁnite depth is that ﬂow at the interface is zero.172) (8. it will be move to the Dimensional Chapter topic will be covered in dimensional analysis in more extensively.7.8.173) This process that was shown here is referred as non–dimensionalization27 . The solution for the constant is C1 = ρg µg µg − 2 + a2 + 2 a +2 ρ µ µ µg µg −2 +3 + a2 µ µ µg µ µg −1 −2 µ (8.170) νg − 1 = C1 + C2 − C3 ν 259 (8. 28 This 27 Later . is inﬁnite long. This is one of the source of the instability at the interface.
DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .260 CHAPTER 8.
2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. 9. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . For simple models. only the trends and simple calculations are described.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic.D. As result. In fact. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). Initially the models were using simple assumptions. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . Additionally. Here. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. For many engineers. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9. there was a Ph. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. Thus. 261 . This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. is required for many engineering problems. In the past. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics.1 Introduction Traditionally.
(2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multiphase but also. and importance to real world. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. . and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve nondimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. For example. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. 9.262 CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. will know and understand the trends. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. However. Hence. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . double choking phenomenon (hopefully). and more importantly. the concept of ﬂow regimes.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. However. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models.
4. However. or a large acceleration. In fact. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. 9. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. Hence. In our calculation. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant.9. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. Practically for many cases. KIND OF MULTIPHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 263 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials).1. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow.4 Kind of MultiPhase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. .000 in about two and half years. 9. nonetheless it exists. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. For example.
In a four (4) miles long train. The multiphase can be found in nature. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. paint spray. Since there are three phases. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). they can be solid–liquid. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. When the . the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. in nature can be blood ﬂow. Yet. although important. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. There are many more categories. March 29. and river ﬂow.5 Classiﬁcation of LiquidLiquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. for an example. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. Open Channel ﬂow is. 9. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. For example. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. is only an extreme case of liquidgas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. mud ﬂow etc. For the gas. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquidliquid where the density ratio is extremely large. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. However. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. Thus. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. solid propellant rocket. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The liquid–solid. spray casting. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. ﬂuidized bed. In almost all situations. for example.. solid–gas. sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. In the past. Generally. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. Many industrial process also include liquidliquid such as painting. 1887). The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. Jr. For example. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). rain. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. and avalanches. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow.264 CHAPTER 9. and industries. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms.
and what ever between them. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. Additionally. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. 9. up or down. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid).5. 9. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. and annular ﬂow. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. .1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. 9. Thus. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gasliquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES 265 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow.2. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. For example.1.2. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). plug ﬂow. it is referred as counter–current. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases. Yet. For example.9. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9. the cocurrent is the more common.5. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow.5. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. Generally. horizontal. In general.
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As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity), the friction between the phases increase. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9.3). The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension, and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. In fact, all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. Fig. 9.3. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. liquid ﬂow rate. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small, then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance, for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. At some point, when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases, the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. At this stage, the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9.4). The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. Thus, the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure, choking occurs relatively Fig. 9.4. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. Thus, the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if
6 The 7 Well,
liquid level is higher. all the ﬂow is wavy, thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition.
9.5. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUIDLIQUID FLOW REGIMES
267
this category is accepted). After a certain distance, the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. Hence, as in compressible ﬂow, liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds, the return path is not move the exact same way. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime. For example, ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. However, there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. Qualitatively, the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. Besides the length, other parameters can aﬀect the “near.”
Dispersed Bubble
Liquid Superficial Velocity
Elongated Bubble
Slug Flow Annular Flow
Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity
Fig. 9.5. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes.
The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9.5. As many things in multiphase, this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions, e.g. in normal gravitation, weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity), etc. 9.5.1.2 Vertical Flow
The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities, with the gravity or against it. In engineering application, the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. The buoyancy
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CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
Bubble Flow
Slug or Plug Flow
Churn Flow
Annular Flow
Dispersed Flow
Fig. 9.6. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity.
is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. For the ﬂow against gravity, the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Thus, there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity, the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. Thus, the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. When many bubbles collide, they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9.6). Notice, the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”; the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way, see Figure 9.6. After additional increase of “super slug” , all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. Again, it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure.
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9.5.1.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity
269
The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. In cases where the surface tension is very important. Pulsing For example, out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. 9.7. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. the vertical conﬁguration. As the gas ﬂow increases, the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further, all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas, the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid, there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. Here, it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9.7). In the literature, Figure 9.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude ,Reynolds, and Weber numbers. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity, this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side, the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. After the ﬂow has settled, the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. However, the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. While this author is not aware of an actual model, it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations.
Liquid Flow Rate
9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions
Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system, both will be united in this discussion. However, for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid, respectively. The liquid–liquid (also
270
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW
gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length, over its cross section, and with time. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow, some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a onedimensional ﬂow. This method is the most common and important to analyze twophase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. Perhaps, the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube.
9.6.1
Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions
The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.1)
It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.2)
Where A is the entire area of the tube. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9.4) mL ˙ A (9.3)
It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9.5)
For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density), the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9.7)
9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS
271
Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.8)
In a similar fashion, the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9.9)
This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.10)
It must be noted that Liquid holdup, LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. Thus, a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9.11)
Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9.13)
Where Um is the averaged velocity. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. Thus, the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.14)
Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. Also, it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.
272
CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1), the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.15)
This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus, for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9.16)
Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. Substituting equations (9.1) and (9.7) into equation (9.16) results in
mG ˙ mL ˙
ρaverage =
˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL
QG QL
(9.17)
Equation (9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become
+ (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then
X ρG
ρaverage =
1
(9.18)
vaverage =
1 ρaverage
=
X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL
(9.19)
The relationship between X and α is
AG
X=
mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α
AL
If the slip is one SLP = 1, thus equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.21)
HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 273 9. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. Now. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). this assumption has to be broken.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. the simplest is to used it for approximation.23) Example 9.24) or modifying equation (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9. The average velocity (see also equation (9. In fact. Thus.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9.26) . Furthermore. Initially.1: Under what conditions equation (9.9. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it.7.
079 and n = 0.7. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. These losses are nonlinear and depend on each other.25). acceleration must occur. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. and body force(gravitation).7. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.25. In fact. since there isn’t anything better. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. 9. from equation (9.1. .30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ. for small distances (dx) and some situations.274 CHAPTER 9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). this dependency can be neglected. For example. Yet. However. In that case. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. acceleration.
9. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9. For the last point. . HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 275 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. dρL / dx = 0. 9.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.37) a There are several special cases. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. dA/ dx = 0.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero.7. dX/ dx = 0.1. Equation (9. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. For example.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.7.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9. the friction loss can be estimated.
7. Taitle . The density in equation (9. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. 8 This method was considered a military secret. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.276 9.1. Thus.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.7.1.7. private communication with Y.40) 9. there are two parameters as shown below. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 . 9.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density).4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points. φG = dP dx dP dx (9.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase..
The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles.45) For the gas phase. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. 2. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point.” Therefor. . cubic. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. 3. To insert the Diagram. 9. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquidliquid system.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 277 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. In solid–liquid. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. distribution. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.8. Thus.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9.9. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. For example. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. in this discussion. and geometry. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. etc).
A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces. However.52) . The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. All these possibilities are diﬀerent.49) Equation (9. The drag coeﬃcient. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. Re.8. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9. possibility. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles.48) Inserting equating (9. the Newton’s Law region.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. CD ∞ . The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).50) For larger Reynolds numbers. it can be approximated for several regimes.48) into equation (9. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases.44 (9. there are two sets of similar characteristics. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9.51) 24 Re (9.278 CHAPTER 9. However.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. 9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9. When the liquid velocity is very small. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3.
Consequently. the particle will sink into the liquid.9). As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . In that case. For particles. the case of liquid. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles).53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. For small gas/liquid velocity. in many cases the middle region is applicable. Thus. For the case of gas. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. Thus. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape.8. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. If the velocity is larger. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. 9. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. the particle will drift with the liquid. Yet. the function f (α) is not a linear function. Thus. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. USavarge .9. So far the discussion was about single particle. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 279 In most cases of solidliquid system. When the velocity is lower. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity.8. For the ﬁrst region.
this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. the length of conduit is very limited. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density.9. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . Thus. Nevertheless. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). Furthermore. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon).280 CHAPTER 9. The ﬂow patterns in solidliquid ﬂow. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. 9. In the gas phase. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. 9. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed.8. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). However. Hence. Hence. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force.
The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. 9. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. Liquid Body Foreces . In short tube. However. But in most cases. However. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit.9. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime.54) 6 8 From equation 9. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. Hence. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. The countercurrent ﬂow occurs.10. In most cases. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 281 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. For example. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. 9. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. For example. Otherwise. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. be ﬁnite. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow.9. for example. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. opening a can of milk or juice. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. some of the particles enter into the liquid core.54.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquidgas systems). Annular Extented Flow In that case. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. Thus. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. UL /US → 0. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent.
The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture).12). In this ﬂow regime. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. water solution. Initially. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. Fig. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Figure 9. If there are two holes. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. 9. Then. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. due to the gravity. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. . in some cases. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. Picture of Countercurrent ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations.). This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored. the pressure in the can increase. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid.282 CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. 9.11.12. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. The container is made of two compartments. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. For example.
COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 283 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. In horizontal tubes. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency.9. Flood in vertical pipe. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow.9. ﬂow with gravity or against it. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. However. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. When the driving (body) force is very small. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue).9. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). no counter–current ﬂow possible. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. . The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). The analysis is provided. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. 9. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes.7).7) page 133) it can be considered stable for small diameters. Probably. 9. At this point.13. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. In many situations.
15. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. In some situations.15. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. However. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility.14. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. 9. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi G = τi L . Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. is unknown. Thus. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. Thus. coexist. QL . both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. 9. 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow.14. When there is no water (in liquid phase). . A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. wavy interface. mass transfer. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. Fig.Fig. etc11 .13. Additionally. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state.9. The liquid ﬂow rate. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9.284 CHAPTER 9. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9.
58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9. C1 . the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.55) The integration constant. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9. On the liquid side.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9.9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 285 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of countercurrent ﬂow.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.59) (9.58) (9. [U (x = 0) = 0].55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9. Thus. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .56) (9. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.9.).61) (9.63) .60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.62) Uy = (9. Hence.
70) .65) The solution for equation (9.286 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.69). Integration equation (9. But. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. h.65) is x@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity.15). also.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL . The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.69) is equated to zero. This point can be obtained when equation (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9. There are three solutions for equation (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9.
76) noticing that equation (9.9.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 287 This critical shear stress. Here. . the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.67)).71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. for simplicity reasons. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book). reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. For simplicity. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction.9.73) Again. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.72) Simplifying equation (9. For this shear stress.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical interf ace = τL @wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. the linear equation is used. Thus. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. equation (9. for a given ﬁlm thickness. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL @wall = (9.
The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. in that case.288 CHAPTER 9. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).64) when (x = h). Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9. (9.84) The velocity in Equation (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.78) into equation (9. However.82) With the integration constants evaluated. of the equal velocities.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9.79) (9.80) (a) (b) or (9. cause this assumption to be not physical.81) At the other boundary condition. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. .77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.83) (9.79)(a).C. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. equation (9.
It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.9.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . The shear stress at the interface must be equal. Then if the interface becomes wavy.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG @x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.9. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.86) (9. condition (9. if no special eﬀects occurs.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. the two conditions can co–exist.87) (9.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG @wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 289 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface. The wall shear stress is τG @wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9.79)(b). The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances.
94) Simplifying equation (9. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger. the total balance is needed. 9. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. However.290 CHAPTER 9. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. However. Figure 9.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9.16.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw L Lτw G surface can be neglected. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry.95) . The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.96) (9.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. Fig.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated.
The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy. this analysis equation (9. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. In that case.9. .10. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. 9. The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 291 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.
MULTI–PHASE FLOW .292 CHAPTER 9.
APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented.). The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. A. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers.dinates system. Vector in Cartesian coor . The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. Furthermore. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. Thus.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar.1. Hence without additional reading. nates depicted in Figure A.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material. the 293 Fig. A. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance.
MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. U . and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = U  · V  sin (∠(U . The right hand rule. V )) n (A. Then the following can be said U U V 1. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication.2. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. h2 . V )) (A. multiplication of U × V results in W . There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. A.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. U ·V = U V U U  · V  cos (∠(U .3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4. The following are vectors.4). V .294 unit vector is APPENDIX A.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars.1. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations. A. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. U + V = V + U 3. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig.5) . The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 .
In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin).6) (A. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system). For example.1. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule.A. is that these combinations have physical meaning.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. The reason that these current combinations. or vector with the angle. . VECTORS 295 where θ is the angle between U and V . etc.7) (A. However. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A.10) (A. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division.
The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. divergence. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors.z). such as. and z directions.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. the curl. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. For example. For example. respectively.1. A. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. y. the gradient. j. Many of the operations of vector world. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function.296 APPENDIX A. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. i.13) .y. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. In multivariate calculus. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions.
y. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. VECTORS 297 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A.A.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. in honor of PierreSimon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827).18) . in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. y. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x. y. z) = Nx (x.16) Note that the result is a vector. z)ˆ + Ny (x.15) (A. y. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. N .1. z)ˆ + Nz (x.
edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. The basic of these relationships is explored. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. x2 . x3 .21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . A. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. This results reduces equation. x2 .20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. x2 .html . Thus. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. 1862). · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . 1801 – January 1.fullerton. For example. x3 . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem.1. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. Special case of equation (A.298 APPENDIX A. y. the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume.19) In GaussOstrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. x3 . · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . normally for steady state. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A.
Elliptic . As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero.A. A. it can done for the cross product. Parabolic coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. velocity. the chain role is applicable. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 299 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). Cylindrical coordinates.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates.25) (A. Ellipsoidal coordinates. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates.24) (A.3. Similarly. Spherical coordinates.1. Yet.1. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. and acceleration.
http://wwwhistory. Bicyclide coordinates and Capcyclide coordinates. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. and z. Flatdisk cyclide coordinates. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is. in most cases. Flatring cyclide coordinates. The coordinate θ is angle. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations.stand. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. The new concept here is the length factor. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. θ. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. Cylindrical Coordinate System. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. Historically. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. Julian (1952).html. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. θ.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars.ac. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point.29) 3 Coolidge. In Fig. A.mcs. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. in this case.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. Bispherical coordinates. r. . the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r.300 APPENDIX A. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A.3. Toroidal coordinates.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. → and z.3.
0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π. sound wave propagax tion etc. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure A.4. A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. boom explosion.30) (A. The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.A.31) (A. Spherical Coordinate System. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.1. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 301 (A. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig.37) .32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r threedimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.4.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.
there is dispute what with unit vectors. the unit vectors are: r. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. The general Orthogonal is r.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. and z . θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. However.5.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. As in almost all cases. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance.2.42) . For example in cylindrical coordinates. θ. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. A. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.3.302 APPENDIX A.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A.
44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. A.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 303 (A. .6.A. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. 2 φ= + + Fig.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.1.
. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. second derivative etc4 .g. ODE are categorized into linear and nonlinear equations.304 APPENDIX A. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. ﬁrst derivative.47) 4 Note that mathematically.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 . Note that the derivatives are integers e. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference.1. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. However. The most general form is f u.2. du . A. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table A.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect.t dt =0 (A. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions.
48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A. Example A.2. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.e) . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A. u) dt 305 (A. (1. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.48) can be written as F (t.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .48) A.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1. u) = X(t) U (u). The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.I.c) Equation (1.2.I.I.I.d) (1.b) (1.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.I.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).I.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.A.
Thus equation (A.2.58) (A.55) (A.2.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.306 A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A.1 APPENDIX A.52) (A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.53). This family is part of a linear equations. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next. .
60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation. .2.A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.III. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .2.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 307 Example A.62) Example A.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.3 Non–Linear Equations NonLinear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.
308 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.b) Using the deﬁnition (1. v) − v (A. The solution is then ln t = dv +c f (1.III. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1. t) = f (a u.2.III.IV. v) dt (A.3.63) for any real positive a.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.III. a t) dt (A.III.b) equation (1.III.d) (1. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.65) Example A. For this case.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.a) .c) (1.63) into t dv + v = f (1.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .III.III.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.
a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.c) (1.IV.e) A.b) .b) (1.IV. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1.IV.IV.IV. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).2. End Solution 309 (1.3.IV.V.V. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.d) (1.2.67) g(u) Example A.A.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A. In fact. For this sort equations.
310 APPENDIX A.3. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.V. and perturbation methods. transformation (like Laplace transform).d) End Solution A.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix. A.2.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.68) In a way.72) . Practically.71) (A.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.V. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.V. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.V.c) Rearranging equation (1. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.2. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients. variable substitutions.
ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 311 (A.A.VI.a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.2. Thus. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions. .75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0.VI. where L is Linear operator.c) A.74) Example A.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A. and −5.4.b) are −2.b) (1.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero. This fact can be used to solve nonhomogeneous equation.2.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).VI. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.VI.
7: Solve the nonhomogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.2.VII.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation. Hence. u. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.VII.VII.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1.a) (1.2. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations). ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.5.VII.d) A. A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.79) .78) then the equation (A.c) (1.312 APPENDIX A.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.
c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.d) Equation (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 313 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.VIII.VIII.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue.VIII.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.a) becomes u du = sin d (1. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.VIII.VIII. Example A.2.A. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII.VIII.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.b) After the integration equation (1. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems. 6 This . This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .
86) A. End Solution A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A.85) + c2 (A.82) where a is constant. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.88) .2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.2. d dt u du dt =0 (A.2.314 APPENDIX A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.5.
IX. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation.A.IX. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here. Example A.90) +u=0 (1.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1.IX. the linear thirdorder diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.b) (1.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .c) A. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The . Thus. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 315 (A.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. 1999.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.2.2.
all the roots are real and at least two are identical. For the case D = 0. Thus. all the roots are real and unequal. In the last case where D < 0. (A.92) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.99) (A. θ.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A.95) R+ √ D.316 APPENDIX A.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.101) .93) (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.98) (A. if D > 0. From a mathematical point of view.94) (A. one root is real and two roots are complex.
106) are the solutions of (A.2. Generally.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A.104).103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 317 (A. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. The solution of equation (A.2. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.A. For the case of only one real root. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A. A.108) . for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.106) and equation (A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.105).109) (A.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.107) (A. For example.107) was discussed earlier.
10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.X.g.X. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.X.a) (1.X.b) With the roots of the equation (1.g.d) . sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.g.X.g. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi .2 s3.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1.g. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.318 APPENDIX A.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.
ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. Normally.112) The coeﬃcients axx . Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. . ux = ∂u . The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 319 A.112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. The general secondorder PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.) = 0 (A.3. One example of such equation is heat equation. However.2. .8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A.110) To be continue A. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation.A. Equation (A. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. For example.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. . The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. Example of such equation is F (ut . axy . As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. When the discriminant . The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. this characterization is done for for second order.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy .3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. ux . Generally. the same can be done for a secondorder PDE. Generally.
114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations. Hence.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant.3. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book. ∂x ∂x (A.119) (A. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow..118) Equations (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.320 APPENDIX A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow.119) and (A.. However.1 Firstorder equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + . The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.117) A possible way the equation (A.116) Rearranging equation (A.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A. .
sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.4.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. sin2 α = 4. respectively 5. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. β. A. and c. b. TRIGONOMETRY 321 A.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. tan(α + β) = 6. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . consider the triangle with sides of length a.7.A. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. and γ. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 36. . The tringle angles sides. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. and opposite angles α. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1.
322 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .
266 Fluid Statics Geological system. 87 Concentrating surfaces raise. 216 Add mass. 215 External forces. 207 Euler equations. 11. 209 Rotating Coordinate System. 210 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 83–85 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 215 dilettante. 170 B Bingham’s model. 12 Accelerated system. 23. 85 eﬀective. 196 Flow regime map. 33 Conduction. 297 Deformable control volume. 88 Acceleration. 82 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 209 Linear accelerate System. 298 . 216 Add momentum. 184 Arc shape. 107 Archimedes. 125 Diﬀerential analysis. 105 Cylindrical Coordinates. 194 Convective acceleration. 8. 199 Averaged momentum energy. 83. 283 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 155 bulk modulus. 11 Body force. 252 Flow out tank. 67. 282 Counter–current ﬂow.SUBJECTS INDEX 323 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 111. 68. 70. 82. 283 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 184. 199 Cut–out shapes. 24 Bulk modulus of mixtures. 199 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 90 Add Force. 121 C Co–current ﬂow. 11 Divergence Theorem. 104 Free expansion. 28 buoyancy. 265. 207 Steady State. 193 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 173 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 77. 92 Forces Curved surfaces. 217 D D’Alembert paradox. 3. 262 Flow regimes in one pipe. 186 Averaged kinetic energy. 193 Energy Equation Accelerated System. angular. 279 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 73 Average Momentum. 228 Correction factor. 69 Boundary Layer. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 264 GaussOstrogradsky Theorem. 194 Conservative force. 265 Compressibility factor. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 184. 267 E Energy conservation. 279 Flow ﬁrst mode. 142 Density ratio. 209 Convection. 83. 298 Double choking phenomenon. 113 buoyant force. 7. 281 Annular ﬂow.
11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 235 N NavierStokes equations. 244 Multi–phase ﬂow. 261 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 76 Initial condition. 133. 86 APPENDIX A. 307 Normal stress. 279 Poiseuille ﬂow. 160 small picture. 134. 242 Non–deformable control volume. 267 . 85 Leibniz integral rule. 228 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 283 Horizontal ﬂow. 77 Inclined manometer. 282 purely viscous ﬂuids. 109 Pressure center. 249 Concentric cylinders. 244 Moving surface. 278 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 215 Neutral moment Zero moment. 305 Integral analysis big picture. 121 Neutral stable. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Momentum conservation. 205 Linear acceleration. 243 kinematic viscosity. 77 Isotropic viscosity. 233 Moving boundary. 264 Local acceleration. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 8 No–slip condition. 171 index notation. 216 Inverted manometer. 298 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 236 K Kinematic boundary condition. 276 P Pendulum action. 1. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 123 Micro ﬂuids. 194 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 252 Polynomial function. 67. 160 Integral equation. 142 Non–Linear Equations. 85. 76 Mass velocity. 85 Real gas. 206 L Lapse rate. 79 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 243 Moving surface Free surface.324 Gravity varying Ideal gas. 101 pseudoplastic. 241 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 279 Momentum Conservation. 26 Interfacial instability. 265 Real gas. 270 Metacentric point. 228 Lockhart martinelli model. 268 H Harmonic function. 70 Pneumatic conveying. 100. 265 Orthogonal Coordinates. 121. 304 Liquid phase. 299 Oscillating manometer. 135 Newtonian ﬂuids. 169 R Radiation. 132 Piezometric pressure. 265 Hydrostatic pressure. 108 I Ideal gas. 152 Limitation of the integral approach. 88 Linear operations. constant of integration. 77 Return path for ﬂow regimes.
265 Stress tensor. 83. 19 Wave Operator. 264 Spherical coordinates. 282 Vertical ﬂow. 309 Vectors. 121 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 278 Thermal pressure.SUBJECTS INDEX Reynolds Transport Theorem. 12 U Unstable condition. 277 Solid–solid ﬂow. 277 Solid–liquid ﬂow. 169 Triangle shape. 203 Terminal velocity. 230 Cartesian coordinates. 68. 312 shear stress. 280 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 114 Turbomachinary. 95 Transition to continuous. 107. 131 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 179 V Vapor pressure. 240 Thermodynamical pressure. 229 symmetry. 230. 284 Slip velocity. 264 T Tank emptying parameters. 266 Sutherland’s equation. 187 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 73 Variables Separation 1st equation. 84. 232 transformation. 283 Stable condition. 297 Westinghouse patent. 227 Superﬁcial velocity. 271 325 S Scalar function. 229 substantial derivative. 271 . 87 Spherical volume. 293 Vectors Algebra. 298 Rocket mechanics. 111 cubic. 152 Divergence Theorem. 180 Liquid holdup. 294 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 119 Stability analysis. 207 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 205 Total moment. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 83 stability analysis. 265 W Watson’s method. 271 Wetness fraction. 240 thixotropic. 6 Slip condition range. 104 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 271 Void Fraction. 240 Segregated equations. 243 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 271 Quality of dryness. 83 Unsteady State Momentum. 271 Reversal ﬂow.
298 Poiseuille. 4 W Weisbach. Claude–Louis. 262 Taylor. 4 S Stanton. 298 T Taitle. 4 V von Karman. 275 P PierreSimon Laplace. 4 . 4 Nusselt. Jean Louis. 133 Reynolds. 253 O Olivier Vallee. 205 F Fanning. 264 L Leibniz. 152 Lockhart. Hermann von. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 4 Stokes. Ernst Kraft Wilhelm. 4 Martinelli. 215 e Duckler. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 4 D Darcy. George Gabriel.. 4 K KuttaJoukowski. 215 G Ganguillet. 298 N Navier. 215 Prandtl. 262.I. 4 Blasiu. Osborne. 262 Meye. 249 Poisson. Carl Friedrich. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 152 Rose. 4 Westinghouse. 4 de Saint Venant. 315 C Cichilli. 275 R Rayleigh. G. 4 Gauss.326 APPENDIX A. 4 Froude. SimonDenis. 215 Nikuradse. 4 Blasius. 133 H Helmholtz. Barr´. 262 M Manning. 4.
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