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4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system.

The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions
of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes
of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution

x = Xcosωt

(4.11)

into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system

m¨x+kx = F

(4.12)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector

X.

¡ω2

m+k¢X = 0

(4.13)
Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and
the corresponding natural modes.

±ω1, ±ω2, ±ω3

(4.14)

Ξ=[Ξ1,Ξ2,Ξ2]

(4.15)

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105

4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer
functions

If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form

c =µm+κk

(4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates

η =Ξ−1

x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105)

¨ηn + 2ξnωn˙ηn +ω2

nηnT

nF(t), n = 1,2,3

(4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation
Fqeiωt

along the coordinate xq, according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is

xp = eiωt N

Xn=1

ΞpnΞqnFq

ω2

nω2 + 2ςnωnωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect
to time, is

¨xp =−ω2

eiωt N

Xn=1

ΞpnΞqnFq

ω2

nω2 + 2ςnωnωi

(4.19)

It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq, according to
2.144 is

Rpq() = ¨xp

Fqeiωt =−ω2 xp

Fqeiωt =

= −ω2 N

Xn=1

µ ΞpnΞqn(ω2

nω2

)

(ω2

nω2

)2

+ 4ς2

2

2 + −2ΞpnΞqnςnωnωi

(ω2

nω2

)2

+ 4ς2

2

2

¶ q = 1,2,3

(4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς1, ς2 andς3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed byﬁtting
the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer
5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the
acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination
of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the
transfer functions
(page 100).
4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from
the transfer functions

The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from
the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section
Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page
107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function.
First of all let us notice that

if ω∼= ωn Rpq(iωn)∼=−ω2

µΞpnΞqn(ω2

nω2

)

4ς2

2

2 + −ΞpnΞqni

2ςnωnω

¶ q = 1,2,3 (4.21)
Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ωn, its absolute
value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part.

|Rpq(iωn)|∼=

¯¯¯¯ΞpnΞqn
2ςn

¯¯¯¯ q = 1,2,3

(4.22)

and phase ϕ for ω = ωn

ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq(iωn))

Re(Rpq(iωn)) = arctan∞= ±90o

(4.23)

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o

are the wanted natural

frequencies ωn.

Because ςn and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the
transfer functions for ω = ωn represents the modes Ξ1n, Ξ2n, Ξ3n associated with the
nth natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the
corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

0

0.00005

0.0001

0.00015

0.0002

0.00025

1500

1600

1700

1800

transfer functions m/N (modulus)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

1500

1600

1700

1800

transfer functions m/N (phase)

R(1,1)

R(1,2)

R(1,3)

π/2

−π/2

natural frequency

natural mode

1

2

Figure 4

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