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mechanical vibration book|Views: 1,348|Likes: 69

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01/04/2014

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*4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system.
*

The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions

of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes

of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution

x = Xcos*ωt
*

(4.11)

into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system

m¨x+kx = F

(4.12)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector

X*.
*

*¡*−*ω*2

m+k*¢*X = 0

(4.13)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and

the corresponding natural modes.

±*ω*1*,* ±*ω*2*,* ±*ω*3

(4.14)

Ξ=[Ξ1*,*Ξ2*,*Ξ2]

(4.15)

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105

*4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer*

functions

If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form

c =*µ*m+*κ*k

(4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates

η =Ξ−1

*x* (see section* normal coordinates - modal damping* page 105)

¨*ηn* + 2*ξnωn*˙*ηn* +*ω*2

*nηn* =Ξ*T
*

*n*F(*t*)*, n* = 1*,*2*,*3

(4.17)

*ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL
*

242

The response of the system along the coordinate* xp* due to the harmonic excitation

*Fqeiωt
*

along the coordinate* xq*, according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is

*xp* =* eiωt N
*

*Xn*=1

Ξ*pn*Ξ*qnFq
*

*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2 + 2*ςnωnωi
*

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate* xp* as the second derivative with respect

to time, is

¨*xp* =−*ω*2

*eiωt N
*

*Xn*=1

Ξ*pn*Ξ*qnFq
*

*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2 + 2*ςnωnωi
*

(4.19)

It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate* xp* and* xq*, according to

2.144 is

*Rpq*(*iω*) = ¨*xp
*

*Fqeiωt* =−*ω*2* xp
*

*Fqeiωt* =

= −*ω*2* N
*

*Xn*=1

*µ* Ξ*pn*Ξ*qn*(*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2

)

(*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2

)2

+ 4*ς*2

*nω*2

*nω*2 + −2Ξ*pn*Ξ*qnςnωnωi
*

(*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2

)2

+ 4*ς*2

*nω*2

*nω*2

*¶ q* = 1*,*2*,*3

(4.20)

The modal damping ratios* ς*1*, ς*2 and*ς*3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed byﬁtting

the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer

5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the

acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination

of the transfer functions is given in the section* Experimental determination of the
transfer functions* (page 100).

the transfer functions

The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from

the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section

*Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions* (page

107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function.

First of all let us notice that

*if ω*∼=* ωn Rpq*(*iωn*)∼=−*ω*2

*µ*Ξ*pn*Ξ*qn*(*ω*2

*n*−*ω*2

)

4*ς*2

*nω*2

*nω*2 + −Ξ*pn*Ξ*qni
*

2*ςnωnω
*

*¶ q* = 1*,*2*,*3 (4.21)

Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for* ω* =* ωn,* its absolute

value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part.

|*Rpq*(*iωn*)|∼=

*¯¯¯¯*Ξ*pn*Ξ*qn
*2

*¯¯¯¯ q* = 1*,*2*,*3

(4.22)

and phase* ϕ* for* ω* =* ωn
*

*ϕ* = arctan Im(*Rpq*(*iωn*))

Re(*Rpq*(*iωn*)) = arctan∞= ±90*o
*

(4.23)

*EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
*

243

Hence, the frequencies* ω* corresponding to the phase ±90*o
*

are the wanted natural

frequencies* ωn.
*

Because* ςn* and Ξ*pn* are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the

transfer functions for* ω* =* ωn* represents the modes Ξ1*n,* Ξ2*n,* Ξ3*n* associated with the

*n*−*th* natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the

corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

*0
*

*0.00005
*

*0.0001
*

*0.00015
*

*0.0002
*

*0.00025
*

*1500
*

*1600
*

*1700
*

*1800
*

*frequency rad/s
*

*transfer functions m/N * *(modulus)
*

*R(1,1)
*

*R(1,2)
*

*R(1,3)
*

*-4
*

*-3
*

*-2
*

*-1
*

*0
*

*1
*

*2
*

*3
*

*4
*

*1500
*

*1600
*

*1700
*

*1800
*

*frequency rad/s
*

*transfer functions m/N (phase)
*

*R(1,1)
*

*R(1,2)
*

*R(1,3)
*

π/2

−π/2

*natural frequency
*

*natural mode
*

*1
*

*2
*

Figure 4

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