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UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI 2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS

0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

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1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 28 28 34 44

Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 66 2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 93 2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 102 2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162 3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CONTENTS

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3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . 3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts 3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 3.3.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 3.5.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . 3.5.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. . . 3.5.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . 3.6 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 168 174 182 214 214 217 225 226 227 228 228 228 229

II

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

237

4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 238 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 238 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 4.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 243 4.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 244 4.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters . . . . 245 4.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

The second part. Vibration of Continuous Systems. The Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to produce the inertia and stiﬀness matrices of the free-free beam. as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1. The Newton’s-Euler’s approach. and beams. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students during tutorials and in their own time. Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models. Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Discrete Models. In the general case of damping the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response is provided. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. Employment of these matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of examples.1 INTRODUCTION. Modelling and Analysis. Chapter three. illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. methods of approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented. shafts. rods. Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom Linear System. Information included in this chapter. Part one consists of four chapters. Lagrange’s equations and the inﬂuence coeﬃcients method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. The ﬁrst chapter. is devoted to this solution of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear models. two the most important. Solution to some of them are provided. Experimental Investigation. for engineering applications. describes the laboratory work recommended for this course. is concerned with the problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as string. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete mathematical model on a reasonably low level. Part one.INTRODUCTION. where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course. since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following material. The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems. students should study it in their own time. The considerations are limited to the linear system only. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the natural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom- . Dynamic balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to the engineering problems. 5 0. It is divided into two parts. However. This chapter forms a base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter In chapter four. Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory experiments.

.INTRODUCTION. 6 System. The other demonstrates the balancing techniques.

Part I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 7 .

This mathematical description can be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic laws may be applied. . These laws can not be directly applied to the real system.8 Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims towards producing its mathematical description. Process of solving of the mathematical model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. One of the most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system. Such a type of motion is called vibration. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description that is called mathematical model. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model.

one has to introduce an inﬁnite number of independent coordinates xi to determine uniquely its motion. 1. i 2 1 xi t Figure 1 . 1.1 Physical model As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended on the rod 2 shown in Fig. 1. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position and then it is released. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory motion. These lows can not be directly applied to the real system.Chapter 1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position is called vibration. The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by taking advantage of the known lows of physics. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called mathematical model. Therefore.1. in general.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem that aims for producing its mathematical description.

2). The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as the independent coordinate (see Fig. R 1 x t G Figure 3 The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called restoring force. 2. 3. may results in reduction of this number of degrees of freedom. For example. If the rod is uniform.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 10 DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of freedom According to this deﬁnition each real system has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. Adaptation of certain assumptions. To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1. In a general case. if one assume that the rod 2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid. the restoring force R is a non-linear function of . In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig. one has to produce its free body diagram. in many cases. only one coordinate is suﬃcient to determine uniquely the whole system. The following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only. i xi 2 1 x t x Figure 2 Position xi of all the other points of our system depends on x. its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig.

shown in Fig. 4 can be linearized. k is called stiﬀness and c is called coeﬃcient of damping. 5.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 11 the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity x of the body 1 (R = R(x. x)). x) ≈ kx + cx ˙ ˙ (1. 4a) and b) respectively. The physical model that reﬂects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear system. ˙ R R a) b) 0 x 0 . For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. x Figure 4 If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity of the system equilibrium position. The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization is acceptable form the engineering point of view. R=R(x. the non-linear relationship.1) The ﬁrst term represents the system elasticity and the second one reﬂects the system’s ability for dissipation of energy. Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. ˙ ˙ The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the velocity x is shown in Fig. Such cases usually are refer to as linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system. .

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM x rigid block of mass m (linear motion) m m. This mathematical description is referred to as the mathematical model.I rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I (angular motion) 12 ϕ particle of of mass m m k A. Let us consider system shown in Fig. E massless spring of stifness k (linear motion) massless beam area A. J. second moment of area J and Young modulus E k massless spring of stifness k (angular motion) ϕ massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion) c c ϕ . The creation of the physical model.1. 6. has been explained in the previous section. massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion) Figure 5 1. . In this section principle of producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown. This mathematical model can be obtained by application of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model.2 Mathematical model To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description that approximates its dynamic behavior.

In this chapter we are assuming that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig. This increment is called restoring force.2) . This require introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. 6. there is an increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block. To develop the mathematical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations. Hence FR = +k |x| = −kx Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by term FR = −kx (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 13 k c x k xs m mg Figure 6 Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. If the system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig. Therefore. these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. Hence FR = −k |x| = −kx If x < 0. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kxs ) is equal to zero. -k\x\=-kx k c x k xs m mg x>0 k\x\=-kx x<0 Figure 7 In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |FR | = k |x| If x > 0. the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x. 7) by a distance x.

5) (1. 9). . -c\x\=-cx .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 14 k c x k xs . 8). +c\x\=-cx . . This interaction ˙ force is called damping force and its absolute value is |FD | = c |x| . Hence. the equation of motion of the block of mass m is m¨ = −kx − cx + Fex (t) x ˙ Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ n where (1. x<0 m Figure 8 Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interaction force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig. x>0 mg .4) . A very similar to the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented in the equation of motion by the following term ˙ FD = −cx (1.3) k c x m Fex (t) Figure 9 The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition rules and add these forces together with the external force Fex (t) (see Fig.

is called natural frequency of the undamped system ς .is called unit external excitation The equation 1. f (t) = (1. ωn = r . 2ςωn = .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 15 k Fex (t) c .is called damping factor or damping ratio f (t) .5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration of the one-degree-of-freedom system.6) m m m ωn .

It is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k1 .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 16 1. . 10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis.1. the spring of stiﬀness k2 and the damper of damping coeﬃcient c. Produce the equation of motion of the block.3 Problems Problem 1 y A k2 m k1 c Figure 10 The block of mass m (see Fig. The upper end of the spring k2 moves along the inertial axis y and its motion is governed by the following equation yA = a sin ωt were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency.

9) (1. 11. Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion ˙ m¨ = −k2 x − k1 x + k2 y − cx x Its standard form is ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ω2 = n k1 + k2 m 2ςωn = c m q= k2 a m (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 17 Solution y A k2 m k1 c x Figure 11 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.8) (1.7) .

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 18 Problem 2 r 1 2 R Figure 12 The cylinder 1 (see Fig. Produce the formula for the period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R. . 12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid of density d.

11) (1. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance x.14) The standard form of this equation of motion is x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n µ 2 2 ¶ dg Rr = π m R2 − r 2 The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is s s mπ (R2 − r2 ) 2 2π 2π m (R2 − r2 ) Tn = = = ωn Rr πdg Rr dg ω2 n where (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 19 Solution x r V2 G z V1 x R Figure 13 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig. the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by ∆H = (x + z) dgπr2 Since the volume V1 must be equal to the volume V2 we have ¡ ¢ V1 = πr2 x = V2 = π R2 − r2 z Therefore (1.17) .15) (1.16) (1.10) (1.10 one can get that ¶ µ 2 2 ¶ µ Rr r2 2 x x dgπr = πdg ∆H = x + 2 R − r2 R2 − r 2 According to the Newton’s law we have m¨ = −dgπ x µ R2 r 2 R2 − r 2 ¶ x (1. 13.13) (1.12) r2 x z= 2 R − r2 Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1.

14) is supported by an elastic shaft of diameter D and length L. The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by the shear modulus G. Produce equation of motion of the disk .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 20 Problem 3 R c G D L m 1 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m and radius R (see Fig. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coeﬃcient c.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 21 Solution R ϕ G D c L m Figure 15 Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation ˙ I ϕ = −ks ϕ − cR2 ϕ ¨ where I = mR .the moment of inertia of the disk 2 4 ks = T = TTL = JG = πD G the stiﬀness of the rod ϕ L 32L JG Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.19) 2 1 (1.20) (1.18) .21) πD4 G ϕ=0 32L (1.18 yields ˙ I ϕ + cR2 ϕ + ¨ or ˙ ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ n where ω2 = n πD4 G 32LI 2ςωn = cR2 I (1.

The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. Produce the equation of motion of the plate.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 22 Problem 4 O k l b 1 c a m Figure 16 The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. . 16) can rotate about the horizontal axis O.

22) The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is I= mb2 6 (1. 17) is govern by the generalized Newton’s equation Iϕ = M ¨ (1.27) mb2 ϕ + kl2 ϕ + cb2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ 6 (1.23) The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the damper c is M = −kl2 ϕ − cb2 ϕ ˙ (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 23 Solution O k l b 1 ϕ c a m Figure 17 Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig.24) Hence or ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ n where ω2 = n 6kl2 mb2 2ςω n = 6c m (1.25) .26) (1.

the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus E. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of length l.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 24 Problem 5 m M E. . Produce the equation of motion of the system. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω. Its unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c.I ωt c l µ Figure 18 The electric motor of mass M (see Fig.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 25 Problem 6 k d D l L Figure 19 The wheel shown in the Fig. It can oscillate about the horizontal axis O. The wheel is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. The right hand end of the damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following equation y = a sin ωt Produce the equation of motion of the system 0 A c y . 19 is made of the material of a density .

.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 26 Problem 7 2 L r 1 Figure 20 The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form the pendulum shown in the Fig. 20. Produce the formula for the period of oscillation of the pendulum.

. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 27 Problem 8 O k l b 1 a m c Figure 21 The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. 21) of mass m can rotate about the horizontal axis O. Produce the formula for the natural frequency of the system.

2. x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Free vibration of an undamped system The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1. in this case.29 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + ω 2 = 0 (1.33) Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free vibration of the undamped system. Hence.31) n This characteristic equation has two roots λ1 = +iω n and λ2 = −iω n (1.30) Introduction of the solution 1. These solutions can be obtained by means of the following procedure.28 is classiﬁed as linear homogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equation of second order. Introduction of these initial conditions . x = Cs sin ω n t + Cc cos ω n t (1. x = eλt (1. let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x0 and was forced to move with the initial velocity v0 .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 28 1. The particular solution can be predicted in the form 1. To get an unique solution it is necessary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered. In this section. the mathematical model that is analyzed in this section takes form x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ ˙ n (1.1 Free vibration DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this system.30 into the equation 1.34) The two constants Cs and Cc should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions which reﬂect the way the free vibrations were initiated.30. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero. Hence.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.28 governs the free motion of the undamped system.29 is a linear combination of its two particular linearly independent solutions.32) (1. the independent particular solution are x1 = sin ωn t and x2 = cos ωn t (1.28) The equation 1.29) Hence. it is assumed that the resultant of all external forces f (t) is equal to zero. the equation 1. according to the above deﬁnition.

Cc = x0 Cs ω n = v0 (1. 22 The free motion. we have sin(ω n (t + Tn ) + α) = sin(ωn t + α + 2π) (1. the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the system is v0 sin ω n t + x0 cos ω n t = x = ωn = C sin(ω n t + α) (1.5 C 0 α -0. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig. According to this deﬁnition. x[m] 1 vo xo 0.5 Tn Figure 22 DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion.34.5 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -1 -1.36) where C= s µ v0 ωn ¶2 Ã x0 v0 ωn (x0 )2 + .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 29 into the equation 1. in the case considered is periodic.38) . since the sine function has a period equal to 2π.34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect to the unknown constants Cs and Cc . α = arctan ! (1.35) According to 1.37) For ω n = 1[1/s].

the equation of the free motion is ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Introduction of the equation 1.2 = 2 (1.39) (1.41) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 30 Hence.30 into 1.42) The particular solution depend on category of the above roots. the period of the undamped free vibrations is Tn = Free vibration of a damped system If the damping ratio is not equal to zero. the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration. Three cases are possible Case one .40) 2π ωn (1.40 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + 2ςωn λ + ω 2 = 0 n The characteristic equation has two roots p p −2ςω n ± (2ςωn )2 − 4ω 2 n = −ςωn ± ωn ς 2 − 1 λ1.47) (1. p (1.43) λ1.46) (1.48) .2 = −ςω n ± iω n 1 − ς 2 = −ςω n ± iω d where ωd = ωn The particular solutions are p 1 − ς2 (1.underdamped vibration If ς < 1.44) x1 = e−ςωn t sin ωd t and x2 = e−ςωn t cos ω d t and their linear combination is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are Cs = Cc v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.45) (1.

50) For ω n = 1[1/s]. v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = ωn (1.49 that Td = 2π ωd (1.5 Td x(t+ Td ) x(t) 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0.48 into 1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = . It is easy to see from the expression 1. . α = arctan x0 ω d .1 the free motion is shown in Fig. 23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time Td (see Fig.49) where sµ C= ¶2 v0 + ςω n x0 ωd + (x0 )2 .5 -1 Td -1. 23) between every p 1 − ς2 x[m] vo xo 1 t 0.46 produces the free motion in the following form x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.51) DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and x(t + Td ) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping and will be denoted by δ.5 Figure 23 second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 31 Introduction of the expressions 1.

44 and 1.55) Introduction of the expressions 1.52) 1 − ς2 This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping ratio ς. the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration λ1.57 produces expression for the free motion in the following form (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 32 It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. . 24. the free motion is shown in Fig.54) ωn = √ 1 − ς2 Td 1 − ς 2 Case two .53) 4π 2 + δ 2 The other parameter ωn that exists in the mathematical model 1.58) (1.40 can be easily identiﬁed by measuring the period of the free motion Td . x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 1.51 ωd 2π = √ (1. The critical damping oﬀers for the system the possibly faster return to its equilibrium position.critically damped vibration If ς = 1.59 into 1. According to the formula 1.60) x = e−ςωn t (x0 + t(v0 + x0 ω n )) For ω n = 1[1/s].57) and x2 = te−ςωn t (1.56) (1. Indeed δ = ln Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) x (t) = ln −ςωn (t+T ) = d sin(ω (t + T ) + α) x (t + Td ) Ce d d Ce−ςωn t sin(ωd t + α) 2πςω n 2πςωn = ln −ςωn t −ςωn T = ςω n Td = = √ = d sin(ω t + 2π + α) Ce e ωd ωn 1 − ς 2 d 2πς = √ (1.59) x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. δ ς=p (1.2 = −ςωn The particular solutions are x1 = e−ςωn t and their linear combination is x = Cs e−ςωn t + Cc te−ςωn t For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs = x0 Cc = v0 + x0 ωn (1.

61) x1 = e−ωn (ς+ and their linear combination is √ ς 2 −1)t The particular solutions are and x2 = e−ωn (ς− √ ς 2 −1)t (1. p p λ1.2 = −ςω n ± ω n ς 2 − 1 = ωn (−ς ± ς 2 − 1) (1.5 Figure 24 Case three .62) For the following initial conditions ³ ´ √ √ 2 2 x = e−ωn t Cs eωn ς −1)t + Cc e−ωn ς −1)t x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. the free motion is shown in Fig.64) the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs Cc √ v + ω0 + x0 (+ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 √ v − ω0 + x0 (−ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 (1.overdamped vibration If ς > 1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0.65) For ω n = 1[1/s]. the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often referred to as the overdamped vibration.5 -1 -1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 33 x[m] vo xo 1 0. 25 .63) (1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 5.

according to the previous consideration. f (t) = q sin ωt (1.68) ωn = The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous section and for the underdamped vibration it is xg = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1. x = xg + xp (1. 2ςωn = . the initial conditions and the exciting force.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 34 x[m] vo x o 1 0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. is the linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation of second order. Such a case is referred to as the harmonic excitation. let as assume that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function. The mathematical model. x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ ˙ n where k Fex (t) c .69) r (1.66) To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.2. f (t) = (1.5 -1 -1.67) m m m The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation xp .2 Forced vibration In a general case motion of a vibrating system is due to both.70) .5 Figure 25 1.

75) 2 ¯ (ω n − ω ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω2 )2 + 4(ςω n )2 ω2 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ n Introduction of the expressions 1. Introduction of the expression 1.73) n This relationship is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if (ω 2 − ω 2 )As − 2ςω n ωAc = q n 2ςωn ωAs + (ω2 − ω2 )Ac = 0 n (1.71 in the following form x = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.69 and 1.72 is the particular solution if and only if it fulﬁls the equation 1.66 yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 35 In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the excitation frequency.71 for any instant of time.71 one can get ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 (ωn − ω2 )As − 2ςωn ωAc sin ωt+ 2ςω n ωAs + (ω 2 − ω 2 )Ac cos ωt = q sin ωt (1.71) where As and Ac are constant.72) (1.74) Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant As and Ac ¯ ¯ ¯ q −2ςω n ω ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ (ω 2 − ω 2 )q n n ¯= 2 As = ¯ 2 2 )2 + 4(ςω )2 ω 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω n ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ωn − ω ) ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) q ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω 0 ¯ −2(ςωn )ωq ¯= 2 Ac = ¯ 2 (1.79) .76) ϕ = arctan Ac 2(ςω n )ω = − arctan 2 As ωn − ω2 (1.76 into the 1. Therefore.77) (1.78) ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 Introducing 1. The function 1.75 into the predicted solution 1. implementing it in equation 1.72 yields xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= or p q A2 + A2 = p s c (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4(ςωn )2 ω 2 n A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.68 one can obtain the general solution of the equation of motion 1.70 into equation 1.

1. 26 (curve c). Co = 1[m].83 is usually referred to as the system forced vibration.82 (curve b in Fig. yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced vibration of the system considered.1.81 (Co. αo = 1[rd].6 0.82 is assembled out of two terms. . the transient state changes into the steady state represented by the second term in equation 1. It does not depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration. due to the existing damping.4 -0.6 c b a A t[s] 20 40 60 transient state of the forced vibration steady state of the forced vibration Figure 26 oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ωd .2 -0. decays to zero (curve a in Fig. after an usually short time.126835[rd] is shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 36 The constants C and α should be chosen to fullﬁl the required initial conditions. Hence.82) This solution.8 0.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations. ω n = 1[1/s]. Motion represented by this term.77. First term represents an x[m] 1 0.The solution 1.83) This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1.2 0 -0. αo ) to the general solution.4 0.82) x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.80) one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the parameters C and α x0 = Co sin αo + A sin ϕ v0 = −Co ςω n sin αo + Co ω d cos αo + Aω cos ϕ (1. ω = 2[1/s].81) Introduction of the solution of the equations 1. ϕ = 0.165205[m]. Motion approximated by the equation 1. 1. x = Co e−ςωn t sin(ω d t + αo ) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. A = 0. for the following numerical data ς = 0. For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.

28.One x q A qsin(ω t ) Asin(ω t+ ϕ ) ϕ ωt Figure 27 can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. Therefore. a) m µ ω 2 sin ω t x mµ ω 2 b) x m µ ω 2 sin ω t µ ωt m M k M c R Figure 28 One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia forces produced by moving elements.83) are harmonic.force transmitted to foundation. 27).70) and the (steady state) forced vibration x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. the exciting force f (t) = q sin ωt (1. Therefore ϕ is called phase of the forced vibration. from engineering point of view play secondary role.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 37 Both. The possibly simplest case of vibration cased by this type of excitation is shown in Fig. in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered only. they can be represented by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. Forced response due to rotating elements . Because the transient state. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor . The rotor of an electrical motor rotates with the constant angular velocity ω.

89) (1. 29. is called the magniﬁcation factor.88) (1.If the frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency ωn . This phenomenon is called phase resonance. The phenomenon at which amplitude of the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance. Its maximum depends on the damping ratio and appears for ω > ω n .91) .77 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 m ω µ( ωn )2 M q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.90) or.88 A The ratio m µ . If the frequency of excitation A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1. For ω = ωn . Let us model vibration of the system. Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the mathematical model we have M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ωn = k c 2ςωn = M M Hence.85) (1.87) mµω 2 M r q= (1. regardless the damping involved. taking into consideration 1.86) (1. The physical model of the problem described is shown in Fig. the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to M µ.84) The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiﬀness k. 28b). Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as M ω a function of the ratio ωn for diﬀerent damping factor ς is shown in Fig. the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing. If the frequency of m excitation tends towards inﬁnity. The damping properties are approximated by the damping coeﬃcient c.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 38 and m is its mass. then the rotor produces the centrifugal force F = mµω 2 Its component along the vertical axis x is Fx = mµω2 sin ωt (1. the steady state forced vibration are x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where according to 1. phase of the forced vibration is equal to 90o .

25 ζ=0.1 ζ =0.5 0 1 ω ωn ζ=0 2 3 1 0 -45 2 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 39 6 4 A m µ M 2 1 ζ=0 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.5 ζ=1.5 ζ=1.5 Figure 29 .0 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.

28b) is √ R(t) = kx + cx = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cAω cos(ωt + ϕ) = A k2 + c2 ω 2 sin(ωt + ϕ + δ) ˙ (1. the phase tends to 180o . This physical . The force transmitted to the foundation R. 31b).5 4 R mµ ω 2 2 1 0 0 1 1.4ω n the force transmitted to foundation 6 ζ=0 ζ=0.1 ζ =0.5 ζ=1. Hence the response of the system tends to be in the anti-phase with the excitation.4 ω 2 n ω 3 Figure 30 is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ωn .For the frequency of excitation ω < 1. Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 40 tends to inﬁnity. 30.25 ζ=0.92) The amplitude of the reaction is p √ |R| = A k 2 + c2 ω2 = AM ω4 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 = n n q 2 ( ω )2 1 + 4ς ωn = mµω 2 q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 |R| ω The ampliﬁcation ratio mµω2 of the reaction as a function of the ratio ωn is shown in Fig.0 ζ=1.vibration isolation The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig. For ω > 1. according to the physical model shown in Fig.4ω n this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero when the frequency of excitation approaches inﬁnity. Forced response due to the kinematic excitation .

95 yields M x + cx + kx = ka sin ωt + caω cos ωt ¨ ˙ or ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = ω2 a sin ωt + 2ςω n ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt + α) ¨ n n where q= aω 2 n r ω 1 + 4ς 2 ( )2 ωn (1. according to 1. 31a).ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 41 a) b) x M y v G k L a R y B c Figure 31 model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the surface of the road shown in Fig. The stiﬀness k of the spring and the damping coeﬃcient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers.93) Hence. If the surface can be approximated by the sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant velocity v. the frequency of excitation.39 is ω= 2πv L (1.97) (1. the period of the harmonic excitation is T = L v (1.94) and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows y = a sin ωt The equation of motion of the bus is M x = −kx − cx + ky + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ Introduction of 1. The block of mass M stands for the body of the bus.98) (1.96) (1.95) .

1. .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 42 Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1.g. 32.g.101) is called vibration isolation.83 x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.98 gives q ω a 1 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.4ωn it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the amplitude of the kinematic excitation The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is R = kx + cx − ky − cy = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cωA cos(ωt + ϕ) − ka sin ωt − cωa cos ωt ˙ ˙ = |R| sin(ωt + γ) (1.100) Introduction of equation 1..101) ω The magnifying factor A and the phase ϕ as a function of ωn is shown in Fig.102) Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e. 1.92) or the amplitude A (e.99) ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1. a For ω < 1.

1 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.0 ζ=1.1 ζ=1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 43 6 4 A a 2 ζ=0 ζ=0.5 0 0 1 1 0 -45 ω ωn 2 2 3 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0 ζ=1.5 Figure 32 .25 ζ=0.5 ζ =0.

. 33 operates between ﬂoors of a building. The distance between the highest and the lowest ﬂoor is H = 30m.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 44 1. Calculate the stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c of the shock-absorber which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s2 .3 Problems Free vibrations Problem 9 1 H 2 k c Figure 33 The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig. To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the basement in the case the rope 3 is broken. The average mass of the carriage is m = 500kg. the shock absorber 2 is to be installed.2.

Equation of motion of the lift is m¨ = mg x (1.103) By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get g x = A + Bt + t2 2 Introduction of the following initial conditions ˙ x |t=0 = 0 x |t=0 = 0 yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion g x = t2 2 Hence. the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes. x H mg x k c Figure 34 Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero.107) (1.106) .104) (1. the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is s 2H to = g Since v = x = gt ˙ (1.105) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 45 Solution In the worst case scenario.

the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is m¨ + cy + ky = mg y ˙ or in the standardized form ˙ y + 2ςωn y + ω2 y = g ¨ n where ωn = r (1. 35). In this case.110) (1.109) c k .108) vo = x |t=to = 2Hg H x y k y mg c Figure 35 uncompressed.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 46 To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at the instant of impact (see Fig. there exists one double root and the general solution of the homogeneous equation is yg = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t (1. 2ςωn = (1.Since at the instant of impact the spring k is the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is p ˙ (1.112) ωn The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical (ς = 1).113) .111) m m It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation is g yp = 2 (1.

m (1.120) n g ωn both constants E and D are positive.113 yields C1 = − g ω2 n C2 = vo − g ωn (1.118) Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1. 2vo ωn − g < aa It follows q aa + g 200 + 10 ωn < √ = √ = 4.282 · 500 = 9160N/m n (1. one can see that the maximum of the deceleration occurs for time t = 0.121) amax = Dω 2 + 2Eω n = g + 2vo ω n − 2g = 2vo ω n − g n (1.118. Hence vo > If (1.114) ωn This equation has to fullﬁl the following initial conditions y |t=0 = 0 y |t=0 = vo ˙ Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1.125) .28s−1 2 2Hg 2 2 · 30 · 10 k .117) = 1 − e−ωn t + vo − ω2 ωn n where D= g ω2 n E = vo − g ωn (1.119) n n By inspection of the function 1.123) (1.122) This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration aa = 200ms−2 . Hence the maximum of deceleration is ¯ ¯ amax = y |t=0 = ¯−Dω2 − 2Eωn ¯ ¨ (1.115) and results in the following equation of motion µ ¶ ¶ µ g g g −ω n t y = − 2 e te−ωn t + 2 + vo − ωn ωn ωn ¶ µ ¡ ¢ ¢ g ¡ g te−ωn t = D 1 − e−ωn t + Ete−ωn t (1.116) (1.124) Since ω n = the stiﬀness of the shock-absorber is k = ω 2 m = 4.117 yields acceleration during the impact ¡ ¢ y = −Dω2 − 2Eωn e−ωn t + Eω 2 te−ωn t ¨ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 47 Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of yp and yg is g y = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t + 2 (1.

its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a function of time is shown in Fig.28 (1. 36 .127) The displacement of the lift.126) Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1.121 is fullﬁl.5 > = ωn 4.4m/s 2Hg = 2 · 30 · 10 = 24.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m p √ g 10 = 2.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 48 and the damping coeﬃcient c = 2ςω n m = 2 · 1 · 4. Indeed vo = (1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 49 2.5 0 0 0.25 0.5 displacement y [m] 1 0.5 0.25 0.75 1 time [s] 50 acceleration 0 0.25 0.75 1 time [s] 25 20 15 velocity v [m/s] 10 5 0 -5 0.5 0.5 2 1.5 0.75 1 time [s] -50 a [m/s 2] -100 -150 -200 Figure 36 .

the following experiment was carried out. 39. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig. and c. Origin of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system rests in its equilibrium position. k. stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient are denoted by m. and c. k and c respectively. In this ﬁgure the equivalent mass. Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical T W R L Ml Figure 38 oscillations in x direction.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 50 Problem 10 The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig. 38. k. . Calculate the parameters m. 38b). 37a) To a) T b) k c x W R m Figure 37 analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M1 = 1000kg as shown in Fig. To identify the unknown parameters m.

k = 3000000Nm−1 .003 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 51 0.002 -0. c = 15000N sm−1 .001 -0.001 x[m] 0 -0.003 1 2 time [s] 3 4 Figure 39 Answer m = 7000kg.002 0.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 52 Problem 11 a) T b) k c x m W R Figure 40 The winch W shown in Fig. 41).Assuming that the rope T W R M Figure 41 R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after the block will lose contact with the ﬂoor. . The winch is lifting the block of mass M with the constant velocity vo (see Fig. 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of freedom of mass m stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c.

the instantaneous length of the rope L is L = Lo − vo t (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 53 Solution Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost In the ﬁrst stage of lifting the block M. 42) are as following m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M xb = T − Mg ¨ Since the rope R is not extendible.134) .130) The equation 1.130 allows the time of separation ts to be obtained.131) At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the following formula Mg − cvo xs = −vo ts = − (1.130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value Mg. the equation of motion of the winch is m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ (1. ts = Mg − cvo kvo (1.129) In the above equation x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity vo ). If Mg > cvo T = cvo + kvo t f or 0 < t < ts (1.128) If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded winch is at its equilibrium. ¨ x = −vo and x = −vo t.133) Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the ﬂoor is lost Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0. 0 < T 0 Mg (1. Hence ˙ −T = c(−vo ) + k(−vo t) (1.132) k If Mg < cvo then xs = ts = 0. For t > 0. Therefore the equation 1.135) (1. The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg. it stays motionlessly at the ﬂoor whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the constant velocity vo . the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig.

137) (1. Taking into account that L = x − xb we have Introduction of the equation 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 54 k c x m x T xb L T Mg Figure 42 Where Lo stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the instance t = 0).141) m+M m+M m+M The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a constant magnitude A.136) m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M x = T − Mg ¨ (1. 2ςωn = . Hence q ω 2 A = q.134 yields xb = x − L = x − Lo + vo t (1. A= 2 (1.142) n ωn ωn = r (1.139) x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = q ¨ ˙ n where k Mg c .137 into 1. q=− (1.138) The standardized form is as following Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch to be formulated (m + M)¨ + cx + kx = −Mg x ˙ (1.140) .

143 yields the following expressions for the constants Cs and Cc Cs = Hence.143) (1.147) The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig. x=e −ςω n t −vo + ςωn (xs − A) ωd Cc = xs − A (1.144) This solution has to fulﬁll the following initial conditions f or t = 0 x = xs x = −vo ˙ (1.148) .140 is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ωd t + Cc cos ωd t) + A where ωd = ωn p 1 − ς2 (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 55 The general solution of the mathematical model 1.146) µ ¶ −vo + ςω n (xs − A) sin ωd t + (xs − A) cos ωd t + A ωd (1.145) Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.43 The tension is x xs O t A xmax Td Figure 43 determined by the equation 1.138 T = M x + Mg ¨ (1.

149) +Me−ςωn t Cc (ςω n )2 − 2Cs ςω n ωd + Cc ω 2 cos ω d t d .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 56 Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.147 yields the wanted tension as a function of time ¡ ¢ T = Mg + Me−ςωn t Cs (ςωn )2 + 2Cc ςω n ω d − Cs ω 2 sin ω d t d ¡ ¢ (1.

rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.I m M ωt c B l Figure 44 A µ The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the points A and B. Shaft of the motor. 44) is mounted on the massless beam of length l.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 57 Forced vibration Problem 12 E. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E. of mass m. . The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c.

The interaction force at the point A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily chosen position x (see Fig 46). M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ where k stands for the stiﬀness of the beam EI. .155) represents the forced vibrations of the system.154) (1.153) (1. k= Its standardized form is x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c 2ςω n = M m+M The particular solution of the equation 1.151) (1.150) 48EI l3 (1. 45 results in the following diﬀerential equations of motion.152 x = A sin (ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1. In the above formula A stands for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 58 Solution E.I m M x mµω 2 ωt c B µ l A Figure 45 Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig.152) mµω2 M r q= (1.

from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point B is RB = −cx = −cωA sin (ωt + ϕ) ˙ .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 59 x E.5kA sin (ωt + ϕ) (1. Hence.156) x cx x D c B cx Figure 47 To move the point D (see Fig. ˙ ˙ Hence.I kx D x A 0. 47) with the velocity x the force cx is required. the reaction at the point A is RA = −0.5kx = −0.5k x l Figure 46 0.5k x The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx.

. Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a harmonic motion y = a sin ωt (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 60 Problem 13 z 5 x 3 z=x-y 4 y 2 1 Figure 48 Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer.158) derive the formula for the ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ of the amplitude of vibration of amplitude of z the object 1 of this transducer ( κ = amplitude of y ) as a function of the non-dimensional ω frequency ωn .157) where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute displacement of the seismic weight 3.This transducer records the displacement z =x−y (1. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating object 1. The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiﬀness k and the damper 5 of the damping coeﬃcient c.

160) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 61 Solution The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig.159) (1. 48 is m¨ + cx + kx = cy + ky x ˙ ˙ Its standardize form is x + 2ςω n x + ω2 x = aqc cos ωt + aqs sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c c k 2ςω n = qc = ω qs = m m m m Simpliﬁcation of the right side of the above equation yields x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = aq sin (ωt + α) ¨ ˙ n where p 2 2 q = qc + qs = ω 2 n s 4ς 2 µ ω ωn ¶2 +1 α = arctan qc ω = arctan 2ς qs ωn (1.49 shows this ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ as a function ω of the ratio ωn .165) z = x − y = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) − a sin ωt = = aA cos (α + ϕ) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt − a sin ωt = = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt (1.166) The amplitude of this record is q p ampz = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a)2 + (aA sin (α + ϕ))2 = a A2 + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.164) A = sµ ³ ´2 ¶2 ³ ´2 ω ω 1 − ωn + 4ς 2 ωn Hence the record of the transducer is ´2 +1 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ³ ´2 ω 1 − ωn (1.If the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation κ is equal to one.167) Therefore. the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation is ampz p 2 = A + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.163) r (1.162) According to equation 1.161) (1.168) κ= ampy The diagram presented in Fig. the record of the .76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1.162 is xp = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) where r 4ς 2 ³ ω ωn (1.

as one can see from the diagram 49. if the frequency ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ωn of the transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0.5 4 κ 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 ω/ ω n 4 5 Figure 49 .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 62 amplitude of vibration (ampz ) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object (ampy = a).25 ζ=0.1 ζ=0.25. 6 5 ζ=0. It almost happends.

Produce: 1. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C . the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused by the motion of the point C 3.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 63 Problem 14 α O A a b d c G B k C x Figure 50 The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in the standard form 2. It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. the expression for the interaction force at the point A 4. It can be considered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG . The motion of the lower end of the spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows x = X cos ωt where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for the frequency of these oscillations. 50.

At the point B it is supported by a spring of stiﬀness k and a damper of damping coeﬃcient c. 51. each of length L and mass m. The diﬀerential equation of motion of the pendulum Answer: α + 2ζω n α + ω2 α = q cos ωt ¨ ˙ n . were joined together to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. The point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by the following function Y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. Answer: 17 IA = 12 mL2 + 2maH2 − 3mLa 3.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 64 Problem 15 C Y c B k a α 1 2 G A xG L L/2 L/2 Figure 51 Two uniform rods (1 and 2). The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through the point A. The pendulum performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A. The expression for the position xG of the center of gravity G of the pendulum Answer: xG = 3 L − a 4 2.

ω 2ζ ω n D = c(Aω cos ωt − aAα cos(ωt + ϕ)) ϕ = − arctan ω 2 1−( ω ) n . ω 2 = 2mgxIG +ka q = Aωca n IA IA A 4.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 2 2 65 where: 2ζω n = ca . The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum Answer: q ω2 n Aα = 2 2 ω ω 2 1−( ω ) +4ζ 2 ( ω ) n n 5. The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed motion .

1 MODELLING 2. But in many vibration problems. It follows that to determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce inﬁnite number of coordinates.1 Physical model Fig. These coordinates (xi . yi (t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates .1. 2. Hence. In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless xj mj xi k ij mi y i(t) ki ci c ij Figure 1 elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities respectively. 1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system.Chapter 2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist. according to the previously introduce deﬁnition. to describe motion of such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced. This process is called discretization and the ﬁnal result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom system. xj . the real elements can be represented by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless elements representing the elastic and damping properties. the number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to inﬁnity. Usually. therefore each of the particle the real element is made of can moves independently. with acceptable accuracy.

is the displacement matrix There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated.2 Mathematical model It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of freedom linear system has the following form m¨+cx+kx=F(t) x ˙ where m . To ﬁgure these forces out let us move the mass mi out of its equilibrium position by the displacement xi .MODELLING 67 (not shown in the Fig. the force F must contains forces due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. 1). one may utilize the Newton’s or Euler’s equations.is the stiﬀness matrix F . as it was mention earlier. the resultant of all static forces is equal zero.1.is the external excitation matrix x. 2.1) If the system stays at its equilibrium position. .is the damping matrix k. The conﬁguration a) shown in the ﬁgure below is achieved. The coordinate yi (t) is not independent (is an explicit function of time) whereas the coordinates xi . Since in case considered the body of mass mi performs a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used. ¨ mi xi = F (2. Origin of each coordinate coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at its equilibrium position. Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model To develop the equations of motion of the system described.is the inertia matrix c . Therefore. For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero. In the following sections a few of them are presented. and xj are independent and their number determines the number of degree of freedom of the system.

one has to carry out similar consideration for each mass involved in the system. e. Therefore they have to be taken with the sign ’-’. and +ki yi (t) respectively. and 0 ˙ respectively.4) To accomplished the mathematical model. Due to motion of the system along the coordinate xi with velocity xi two additional forces are created ˙ by the dampers ci and cij. Similar consideration carried out for the displacements along the axis xj (conﬁguration b)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration c)) results in the term +kij xj . The last three conﬁgurations (d. and f ) allow to take these forces into account. As a result of these consideration we are getting set of diﬀerential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of freedom. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement xi causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis xi . Since the system is linear. Up to now it has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force.2) Due to this displacement there are two forces ki xi and kij xi acting on the considered mass mi . .MODELLING 68 a) xi 6= 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj -kijxi kij cij xi mi xi -ki xi yi (t) k ci i b) xi = 0 xj 6= 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj xj mj cij mi yi (t) k i ci c) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi 6= 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj xi +kiyi yi (t) ki yi kij mi ci cij d) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi 6= 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj m j -cijxi k ij xi -ci xi yi (t) k i m i ci cij xi e) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj 6= 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj +cijxj k ij xi mi yi (t) k i ci xj cij f) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi 6= 0 ˙ xj mj xi kij mi yi (t) k i yj ci cij +kijxj kij xi +0 (2. Both of them are caused by ˙ ˙ positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis xi . ¨ ˙ ˙ mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) (2. one can add all this forces together to obtain ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi + kij xj + ki yi (t) − ci xi − cij xi + cij xj (2.3) mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi ¨ +kij xj +ki yi (t) −ci xi − cij xi ˙ ˙ +cij xj ˙ After standardization we have the ﬁnal form of equation of motion of the mass mi . The forces caused by motion along the axis xj (conﬁguration e)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration f )) results in the term +cij xj . they are −ci xi and −cij xi .

ω iy. 2 is Vi = mi grGiZ (2.is the system kinetic energy function V . ....7) i Gi Z O X rG i rGiZ Y Figure 2 Potential energy for the spring s of stiﬀness ks and uncompressed length ls (see Fig.MODELLING 69 Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s equations d ∂ ∂ ∂V ( T) − T+ = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm where T .absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body ωix.5) where mi . ω iz. .The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through its centre of gravity Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig.8) Vs = ks (|rA − rB | − ls )2 2 .M (2. Iiy .stands for the potential energy function Qm .6) 2 2 i=1 0 0 Iiz ω iz m = 1. Iiz . 2. 3) is 1 (2.mass of the rigid body vi .components of the absolute angular velocity of the body Iix . Hence ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎞ I ωix X 1 £ ¤ Iix 0 0 2 ⎝ mi vi + 1 ω ix ω iy ω iz ⎣ 0 Iiy 0 ⎦ ⎣ ω iy ⎦⎠ T = (2.is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate qm The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the kinetic energy of the individual rigid bodies the system is made of.

. .0. . . .. the linearization process must be carried out.qm .0) ∆qm + m=1 ∂ q˙m (q1 .qm .qm .. 0... 0.qM .. . ..qM .. . 4.. .qm .10) In the case of the system shown in Fig.. before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis. .. 1 the kinetic energy function is 1 1 T = mi x2 + mj x2 + · · ·· ˙i ˙j 2 2 (2... . ..qM o o o f (q1 ..qm .. elongation of the springs ki and kij are respectively ∆li = xi − yi ∆lij = xj − xi (2.... Therefore..11) Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . a non-linear mathematical model....0) ∆qm ˙ (2.0. q1 ... 0....9) In a general case the damping forces should be classiﬁed as non-conservative ones and.. . .qM ) = f (q1 . should be included in the generalized force Qm ..0)+ ˙ ˙ ˙ PM ∂f o PM ∂f o o o o o + m=1 ∂qm (q1 . in general case. It must be remembered that the Lagrange’s equations yield. If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig.. The following formula allows for any nonlinear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium o o o position q1 .MODELLING 70 A rA Z O X Figure 3 s B rB Y Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is V = I X i=1 Vi + S X s=1 Vs (2.qm .0.qM . . . .qM ..12) . as such. .. ....

15) (2. the potential energy function is 1 1 V = ki (xi − yi )2 + kij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· 2 2 (2. The function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its partial derivative produces the damping forces. the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized force Qm . Generally. a damping function (dissipation function) D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces.MODELLING 71 xj mj x i k ij mi y i (t) k i ci c ij xj k ij xi mj c ij mi xj xi ci yi y i (t) ki Figure 4 Therefore.. for convenience. If the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is included in the function 2. dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi .13 the potential energy due to gravitation must not be included in the function 2. in the considered case. Therefore the above function does not include the potential energy due to the static deﬂection of the springs.. Hence. together with the gravity forces.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must be included in the function 2. the damping function is 1 1 D = ci (xi )2 + cij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form ∂ ∂V ∂D d ∂ ( T) − T+ + = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm ∂ qm ˙ m = 1. produce resultant equal to zero. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deﬂections can not be produced from this potential energy function. since the lower end of the damper is motionless. The stiﬀness k is replaced by the damping coeﬃcient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the generalized velocities. But..13 either.M (2. 2.13 too.14) . Hence.13) Again. The damping function is created by analogy to the creation of the potential energy function. They. It should be noted that the above potential energy function represents increment of the potential energy of the springs due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position. if the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is not included in the function 2. very often. .

mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) ¨ ˙ ˙ The inﬂuence coeﬃcient method (2.20) .15 yields the equation of the motion of the mass mi . is. according to the superposition principle. xi = I X j=1 δ ij Fj i = 1. Let us apply to this system a static force Fj along the coordinate xj .16) Fj mj xj xi x ij mi Figure 5 Let us consider the ﬂexible structure shown in Fig.. the displacement along the i − th coordinate.19) These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form x = δF (2.. DEFINITION: The ratio δ ij = is called the inﬂuence coeﬃcient It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure δij = δ ji (2. Let xij be the displacement of the system along the coordinate xi caused by the force Fj . Let us assume that the masses mi and mj can move along the coordinate xi and xj respectively. 2.18) xij Fj (2.. 2. 5.11.17) If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates xi along which the system is allowed to move.14 into equation 2.MODELLING 72 Introduction of the equations 2.13 and 2... .I (2.

23) If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the vector x (x1 ..21) (2.xj .MODELLING 73 The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x.21 is Fi = I X j=1 (2. k = δ −1 Hence according to equation 2. application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of its motion in the following form mi xi + ¨ I X j=1 kij xj = 0 (2.24) Hence. ... F = δ −1 x The inverse matrix δ −1 is called stiﬀness matrix and will be denoted by k.22) kij xj (2...25) . .xJ ) the force that acts on the particle mi is fi = −Fi = − I X j=1 kij xj (2.

length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig. 6 Develop equations of motion of this system.MODELLING 74 2. .1. and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of radius r.3 Problems Problem 16 2 1 R l Figure 6 The disk 1 of radius R.

8).MODELLING 75 Solution. Ms ϕy = (2.26) In the above mathematical model I = 1 mR2 . 7 is governed by Newton’s equations m¨ = Fd y I ϕy = Md ¨ (2. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l l2 Ms .28) y= 2EJ EJ .moment of inertia of the disk about axis x 4 Fd .27) y= 3EJ 2EJ If the beam is loaded with force Ms (see Fig. Md . 8). 2 Fs Ms y z ϕy l y Figure 8 If the beam is loaded with force Fs (see Fig. 2 1 R Md F d y ϕy z l Figure 7 The motion of the disk shown in Fig. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l2 l3 Fs Fs ϕy = (2.forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam The interaction forces Fd and Md can be expressed as a function of the displacements y and ϕy by means of the inﬂuence coeﬃcient method.

x= (2. according to the second Newton’s law ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Fd Fs =− Md Ms the equation of motion takes the following form ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ y ¨ k11 k12 y m 0 =− ϕy ¨ ϕy 0 I k21 k22 Hence.MODELLING 76 Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕy are y = ϕy or in matrix form ∙ y ϕy ¸ l3 Fs + 3EJ l2 = Fs + 2EJ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ l2 Ms 2EJ l Ms EJ ¸∙ Fs Ms ¸ (2. k= .35) .36) .29) (2.32) Since.33) (2.30) π r4 (2.34) (2. the ﬁnal mathematical model of the system considered is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸ ∙ y ϕy ¸ (2.31) 4 The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements J= ∙ Fs Ms ¸ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ where ¸−1 ∙ y ϕy ¸ = ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸∙ y ϕy ¸ (2.

MODELLING 77 Problem 17 G k1 l1 l2 k2 Figure 9 A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k1 . 9. and as shown in Fig. Produce equations of motion of the system. .

MODELLING 78 Solution. M G O y1 =y. x= ∙ y ϕ ¸ (2.40) (2.38) .39) (2.ϕ l1 y k1 l1 F y Figure 10 The system has two degree of freedom. Let us then introduce the two coordinates y and ϕ as shown in Fig.37) Hence. 10. The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along coordinates y and ϕ are F = = M = = −y1 k1 − y2 k2 = −(y − ϕl1 )k1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 −[(k1 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] +y1 k1 l1 − y2 k2 l2 = +(y − ϕl1 )k1 l1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 l2 2 2 −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ l2 ϕ y2=y+ϕ l 2 k2 (2. the generalized Newton’s equations yield m¨ = F = −[(k11 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] y 2 2 I ϕ = M = −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ ¨ The matrix form of the system equations of motion is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ . k= ∙ k1 + k2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 2 2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 k1 l1 + k2 l2 ¸ .

shown in Fig.MODELLING 79 Problem 18 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 11 The link 1 of a mass m1 . Use Lagrange’s approach to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position. 11). 5 . can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. This body is hinged to the link 1 at the point A. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body. All motion is in the vertical plane. I = 2 m2 r2 – moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity.

1 V = 2 kx2 − m2 gR cos ϕ (2.45) The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy due to gravitation. 1 1 1 2 T = T1 + T2 = m1 x2 + m2 vG + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 (2. 2.46) 2 .44) Introduction of Eq.12. T = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 (x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 ) + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 = ˙ ˙˙ ˙ (m1 + m2 )x2 + m2 Rxϕ cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ2 2 2 (2.43) (2. 2. this position vector is rG = i(x + R sin ϕ) + j( − R cos ϕ) (2. According to Fig .44 into Eq.MODELLING 80 Solution y 1 x k o k 3 2 rG r R x ϕ Figure 12 G The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x and ϕ are shown in Fig.41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ.42) Hence vG = rG = i(x + Rϕ cos ϕ) + j(Rϕ sin ϕ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The required squared magnitude of this velocity is 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vG = (x + Rϕ cos ϕ)2 + (Rϕ sin ϕ)2 = x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 (2. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T1 and the link 2 T2 .41) The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball vG can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of its absolute position vector. 12.

according to Eq.54) For small magnitudes of x and ϕ. cos ϕ ∼ 1.47) dt ∂ ϕ ˙ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are µ ¶ d d ∂T ˙ ˙ = ((m1 + m2 )x + m2 Rϕ cos ϕ) = dt ∂ x ˙ dt x ϕ ˙ = (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ ∂T =0 ∂x ∂V = 2kx ∂x d dt µ ∂T ∂ϕ ˙ ¶ = ¢ d ¡ ˙ ˙ m2 Rx cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ = dt ϕ x ˙˙ = (m2 R2 + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ (2.50) (2.49) (2.51) (2.MODELLING 81 In the case considered.52) (2. ϕ2 ∼ 0. we have the following equations of motion x ϕ ˙ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ + m2 gR sin ϕ = 0 (2.56) (2. the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form µ ¶ d ∂T ∂V ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ x ˙ ∂x ∂x µ ¶ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 (2.48) (2. k= ∙ 2k 0 0 m2 gR ¸ . Taking this into ˙ = = = account the linearized equations of motion are x ϕ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ + m2 gRϕ = 0 Their matrix form is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I ¸ .55) .57) (2. sinϕ ∼ ϕ.53) ∂T = −m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ ˙˙ ∂ϕ ∂V = m2 gR sin ϕ ∂ϕ Hence. x= ∙ x ϕ ¸ (2.47. 2.

.MODELLING 82 Problem 19 k q A2 k 2 l k A1 q 1 k l Figure 13 Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum. Produce equation of small vibrations of the pendulum about this equilibrium position. each of mass m and length l. The pendulum is supported by four springs. all of stiﬀness k. 13. in such way that its vertical position (q1 = 0 and q2 = 0) is its stable equilibrium position.

At its right hand side the particle 2 of m2 is placed. . 14. is fasten to the massless and ﬂexible shaft 3.MODELLING 83 Problem 20 1 3 4 2 l3 GJ o EI R l4 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m1 and radius R shown in Fig. The left hand end of the massless and ﬂexible beam 4 is rigidly attached to the disk 1. Derive equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system.

. The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiﬀness k. The shafts are assumed to be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is denoted by l. Derive the diﬀerential equations for the torsional vibrations of the system.MODELLING 84 Problem 21 k R R k I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 15 A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. J. 15. I2 . The disks have moments of inertia I1 . and I3 . and G respectively.

. Derive equations for the torsional vibrations of the gear box. 16 the physical model of a gear box is presented.MODELLING 85 Problem 22 D1 D2 I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 16 In Fig. The shafts the gears are mounted on are massless.

MODELLING

86

Problem 23

X

B l l l O 2 4 6 7

C

l

l

A

α l

Y 1 5 3

Figure 17 Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6. The spring 7 has a stiﬀness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3 can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m. Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium position.

MODELLING

87

Problem 24

l 4 m l 4 m l 4 m l 4

T

Figure 18 Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig. 18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of motion of the beads

MODELLING

88

Problem 25

m l q

1

R q

2

Figure 19 On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended (see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING

89

Problem 26

I1 i

I2

I1

i

I2

c

R

k ks1 m ks2

Figure 20 Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end of the shaft ks2 the rotor of the moment of inertia I2 is attached. The left hand end of the shaft ks1 is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I1 . The rope is modelled as a massless spring of the stiﬀness k. At its end the block of mass m is fastened. The damper of the damping coeﬃcient c represents the damping properties of the system. Produce the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system.

ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the independant coordinates.64) (2.60) (2.59) (2.58) r2 α1 Application of the Newton’s law to the individual bodies yields equations of motion in the following form. Since the gear of the gear ratio as well as the shafts of stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 are massless the coordinates that specify the position of the of the gear α1 and α2 are not independent. They are a function of the independent coordinates.65) . Let r1 α2 i= = (2.MODELLING 90 Solution i F c R I2 I1 i I2 r2 r1 α2 F ϕ2 ϕ α1 1 k ks1 m ks2 x Figure 21 In Fig.58 into the equations 2.61) (2.61 and 2.62) (2.62 one can obtain (2. m¨ x ¨ I1 ϕ1 0¨ 1 α 0¨ 2 α ¨ I2 ϕ2 = = = = = −kx + Rkϕ1 +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 α1 ˙ −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + F r1 −ks2 α2 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 α2 0 = −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + iF r2 0 = −ks2 iα1 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 Solving the above equations for α1 we have α1 = ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.66) (2.63) Introducing 2. 21 x.

according to 2.MODELLING 91 Hence.67 into 2. 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦.58 α2 = iα1 = iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.63 one can get the equations of motion in the following form m¨ = −kx + Rkϕ1 x I1 ϕ1 = +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 ¨ ˙ ϕ2 = −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 ¨ After standardization we have m¨ + c˙ + kz = 0 z z where ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m 0 0 c = ⎣ 0 cR2 m = ⎣ 0 I1 0 ⎦ .69) ⎤ x z = ⎣ ϕ1 ⎦ ϕ2 i ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2. (2.60 and 2.66 and 2.67) Introducing 2.68) iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 ⎡ . 0 0 I2 i2 0 0 ⎡ k −kR 0 ⎢ −kR kR2 + ks1 ks2 i2 − ks1 ks2 i2 k = ⎣ ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 0 − ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎦.

Produce 1. 50 is free to roll over the horizontal plane XY without slipping. Answer: 2π T = mgR(1− 4 ) 3π 16 8 (IG +mR2 (1+ 9π2 − 3π )) . the expression for period of these oscillations.MODELLING 92 Problem 27 Z 4R 3π z C G α R O X x Figure 22 The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the Lagrange’s equations) Answer: ¡ ¡ ¢¢ 16 8 4 IG + mR2 1 + 9π2 − 3π α + mgR(1 − 3π )α = 0 ¨ ¡ 4 R ¢2 where IG = 1 mR2 − m 3 π 2 2. The instantaneous angular position of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α.

70 is linear. for example. x = xg + xp The homogeneous equation m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2. The dynamic properties of the shafts are determined by their lenghts l.vector of the external excitation x.2.71) (2.72) (2. its general solution is always equal to the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation xp . if the mechanical structure interacts with ﬂuid or air (oil bearings. 2. Since the equation 2.1 General case In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not necessary have to be symmetrical.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 93 Problem 28 I1 l 1 J1 G1 l 2 J2 G2 l 3 J3 G3 I2 l 4 J4 G4 Figure 23 The two disks of moments of inertia I1 and I2 are join together by means of the massless shafts as is shown in Fig.matrix of stiﬀness F(t).matrix of inertia c .vector of the generalized coordinates 2. Such a situation takes place. ﬂatter of plane wings etc.matrix of damping k .70) . Produce the diﬀerential equations of motion. 51.). the second moments of area J and the shear modulus G.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathematical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where m .

stability of the equilibrium position To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. [A − 1r] z0 = 0 (2. 2.80) The equations 2.75 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the vector z0 . z = z0 ert (2.natural frequencies.78 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant is equal to 0.76) Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2.80 are zn1 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) cos ωn t − Im(z0n ) sin ω n t) zn2 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) sin ω n t + Im(z0n ) cos ω n t) n = 1. 2. |[A − 1r]| = 0 (2.81) .77) Introduction of Eq. Therefore. Introduction of Eq. Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available computer programs.77.79) Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered. A= (2. its general solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system. The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2.. The roots rn are usually complex and conjugated.73 into Eq...N (2.74) .72 to so called state-space coordinates.73) be the vector of the generalized velocities. The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2.. rn = hn ± iω n n = 1..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 94 corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present..77 into Eq.75) (2.. Free vibrations .72 yields the following set of the diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order.79 is called eigenvalue problem and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z0 is called eigenvector problem. 2..N (2.78) The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2. It is often refered to as the forced vibrations. Let y=x ˙ (2.70 represents the vibrations caused by the excitation force F(t). 2. x = y ˙ y = −m−1 kx − m−1 cy ˙ The above equations can be rewritten as follows z = Az ˙ where z= ∙ x y ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ (2.

.84 the imaginary part.8 0.80 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be determined.4 0.8 0.6 0. zN 2 ] C (2. The particular solutions 2.The problem of searching for the vector of the 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0.4 0.1 1. .5 1.85) o o . The roots 2.. m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.2 0.4 1.82) As one can see from the formulae 2.83) Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 95 In the above expressions Re(z0n ) and Im(z0n ) stand for the real and imaginary part of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z0n associated with the nth root of the set 2. 24 for the positive and negative magnitude of hn .3 0. For the further analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form k F k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) o (2.81 allow to formulate the general solution that approximates the system free vibrations.4 0.81... z = [z11 .7 0.81 is given in Fig.zN1 ..8 T n = 2 π /ω n Figure 24 constant magnitudes C is called initial problem.82 indicates that the free motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2.84) To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2.81.. z12.2 0 h<0 t -0.5 1. z22. If at least one root of the equation 2. z32.5 0.80 has positive real part then the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable. k k f k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) + iFo sin(ωt + ϕk ) (2.7 0. In the general case..70..4 1.. z31 .2 1.5 0.3 0. this problem is diﬃcult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures..6 z 1 z h>0 0. z21 .. A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2. the imaginary parts of roots rn represent the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of decay of the free vibrations.1 1..4 0.2 -0.1 0.9 1 1.3 1.6 t T n = 2 π /ω n -0.6 -0.8 0. let us introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2.6 0.80 respectively.83. The system with N degree of freedom possesses N natural frequencies.. zn2.transfer functions The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.9 1 1.2 1.zn1 . The equation 2.6 0.3 1. If all roots rn of the equation 2.80 have negative real parts then the equilibrium position of the system considered is stable. Forced vibrations ..2 0.1 0.

86 into Eq. 2. According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as Im f k F 0 k k ϕ0 ωt ω F cos( t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k k Re k ϕ0 F k ω t F 0 k ω t Figure 25 follows k k k f k = Fo ei(ωt+ϕo ) = Fo eiϕo eiωt = fo eiωt k k (2. 2.83 yields m¨ + cx + kx = fo eiωt x ˙ xc = aeiωt (2. the particular solution of Eq.88) . 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 96 The relationship between the complex excitation f k and the real excitation is shown in Fig.88 (2.87) Now.86) k Here. Introduction of Eq.87 can be predicted in the complex form 2. 25. fo is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external excitation.

90) Therefore.91) Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part of the solution 2.87 produces set of the algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the unknown vector a. 2.93) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 97 Its solution is Introduction of Eq. The ﬁrst two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase.92 is xk = xk cos(ωt + β k ) o where xk = o p Re(ak )2 + Im(ak )2 β k = arc tan Im(ak ) Re(ak ) (2. 2.94) will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. and its phase β k is equal to the phase between the complex amplitudes ak and the vector eiωt . according to 2. according to Eq. This ﬁndings are presented in Fig. 27. Example of three elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig. .89) −ω m + iωc + k a = fo ¢− 1 ¡ fo a = −ω2 m + iωc + k (2.95) −ω m + iωc + k It is easy to see that the element Rpq (iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates xp caused by the unit excitation 1eiωt along the coordinate xq . xc = aeiωt = R(iω)fo eiωt (2.90.88 into Eq.96) It is easy to see from 2. It transfers.88. The complex matrix ¢− 1 ¡ 2 (2. ¢ ¡ 2 (2. 26.91. x = Re(a) cos ωt − Im(a) sin ωt (2.92) Motion of the system considered along the coordinate xk .91 that the amplitude of the forced vibration xk is equal to the o absolute value of the complex amplitude ak . according to 2. the vector of the complex excitation fo eiωt into the vector of the complex displacement xc = aeiωt . 2. the response of the system xc due to the complex force f is xc = (Re(a) + i Im(a))(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 98 Im f F 0 k k ϕ0 k a x0 k k k β0 ωt k F cos(ω t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k Re x0 cos( ω t+ β 0 ) k k ϕ0 k β0 k F k k ω t F 0 x0 k k x ω t Figure 26 .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 99 transfer functions m/N (real parts) 0.1) R(1.2) R(1.3) transfer function m/N (modulus) 0.0003 0.3) (phase) 1500 frequency rad/s Figure 27 .001 0.002 -0.0004 0.001 -0.002 0.003 0.3) transfer functions m/N 4 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 R(1.0001 -0.002 0.0005 0 0 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.0002 -0.0001 0 -0.0035 0.004 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.2) R(1.0005 0.0025 0.001 0 -0.1) R(1.003 0.3) transfer function m/N (imaginary part) 0.2) R(1.0015 0.2) R(1.0003 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.003 -0.0002 0.0006 0.1) R(1.1) R(1.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 100 Experimental determination of the transfer functions Fq xq xp xp F(t) q Fq ( iω ) t Fourier R (iω ) i pq ω x( iω ) p x(t) p t x( iω ) p ___ Fq ( iω ) transformation ω ω Figure 28 In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate xp and the coordinate xq (see Fig. 28) let us apply force Fq (t) along the coordinate xq and record it simultaneously with the system response xp (t) along the coordinate xp .98) . The amplitude of the complex functions xp (iω) and Fq (iω) q Re(xp (iω))2 + Im(xp (iω))2 |xp (iω)| = q |Fq (iω)| = Re(Fq (iω))2 + Im(Fq (iω))2 (2.97) xp (iω) = −∞ yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain xp (iω) and Fq (iω). Fourier transformation applied to these functions Z +∞ Fq (iω) = e−iωt Fq (t)dt −∞ Z +∞ e−iωt xp (t)dt (2.

Rpq (iω) = xp (iω) Fq (iω) (2.102) Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved in the modelling (p = 1...The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form x(iω) = Rpq (iω)F(iω) p = 1..99) These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function Rpq (iω) to be computed. ϕxp = arctan ϕF q Im(xp (iω)) Re(xp (iω)) Im(Fq (iω)) = arctan Re(Fq (iω)) (2. is q=N xp (iω) = X q=1 Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) q = 1. The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae. the response along the coordinate xp caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates xq ..N (2.103) ...100) The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate xp caused by the harmonic excitation Fq along the coordinate xq .N ) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions Rpq (iω). according to the superposition principle......101) Since the system considered is by assumption linear. q = 1.N (2. xp (iω) = Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) (2.N.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 101 represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the frequency ω..

For each of the possible natural frequencies ωn the system of equations 2.108) (2. has N positive roots with respect to the parameter ω2 .108 too. c and k are square and symmetrical.2 Modal analysis . Hence. 2.106) is a particular solution of the equation 2.105) In turn. .107) (−ω 2 m + k)X cos ωt = 0 and the diﬀerential equation 2. Indeed. ± ω n . ± ω N (2. According to the above deﬁnition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 102 2. the parameter ω can take any of the following values ±ω1 .111) where Cn is arbitrarily chosen constant. 2.109) The above characteristic equation.106 into 2. 2.105.. The number of diﬀerent natural frequencies is therefore equal to the number of degree of freedom. for any physical system.. (−ω2 m + k)X = 0 (2. Its follows that if Xn is a solution of Eq. They are called natural frequencies. the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero ¯ ¯ 2 ¯−ω m + k¯ = 0 (2. 2. introduction of Eq..106.104) Free vibration of the undamped system .. these parameters have the physical meaning only for positive values. ±ω3 . The vector Xn represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural .105 yields (2. the vector Cn Xn (2.110) As one can see from Eq. Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the system degree of freedom.2. it is said that the system performs free vibrations...105 is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if the following set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulﬁlled. . If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to zero.108.108 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has inﬁnite number of solution Xn . ±ω2 .eigenvalue and eigenvector problem If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is m¨ + kx = 0 x It is easy to see that x = X cos ωt (2.case of small damping In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m.. They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations. is solution of the Eq.

There are four such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system. if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig. For example. their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 103 frequency ω n . It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically with the frequency ω n . 29) the vector Xn contains four numbers Xn = [X1n . it will oscillate with the frequency ω n . Now. There are N such particular solutions.105 xn = N X (Sn Xn sin ω n t + Cn Xn cos ωn t) n=1 (2. X4n ]T (2. one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution xn = Xn cos ω n t (2.112) If the system is deﬂected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the x3n = X 3n cosω n t x X 1n X 2n X 3n X 4n t Tn Figure 29 initial velocity equal to zero.114) is a particular solution too. X3n . . In similar manner one can prove that xn = Xn sin ω n t (2.105 has been accomplished. X2n . Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue and the natural modes as eigenvectors.114 are linearly independent.113) of the equation 2. The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigenvalue problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector problem. Since the solutions ?? and 2.115) The 2N constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions.

Let us denot it by Ξn Ξn = 1 Xn λn (2. ΞT mΞn = 1 (2.124 one can conclude that ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn mΞm = 1 if n = m (2.116) Primultiplying the ﬁrst equation by XT and the second equation by XT one can get m n (2. since (ω 2 − ω 2 ) = 0. 2. the product XT mXn does not have to be equal to n n n zero.117 by -1 and then adding them together we are getting (2. Let this product be equal to λ2 n XT mXn = λ2 n n Division of the above equation by λ2 yields n ( But according to 2.125) It is said that eigenvectors Ξn and Ξm that fulﬁll the above conditions are orthogonal with respect to the inertia matrix m. −ω 2 mXn +kXn = 0 n −ω2 mXm +kXm = 0 m −ω 2 XT mXn +XT kXn = 0 m n m T 2 T −ω m Xn mXm +Xn kXm = 0 Since matrices m and k are symmetrical XT kXn = XT kXm m n and XT mXn = XT mXm m n (2.122.121) 1 1 T Xn )m( Xn ) = 1 λn λn (2. Hence.120) If n = m.118) (2.111 1 X λn n (2.119) (ω 2 − ω2 )XT mXm = 0 n m n Since for n 6= m (ω2 − ω2 ) 6= 0.108.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 104 Properties of the natural modes. n m XT mXm = 0 for n 6= m n (2.120 and 2. According to 2.124) n Taking into account Eq’s 2. primultiplying the ﬁrst equation of set 2. . Each eigenvector has to fulﬁll the Eq.122) is eigenvector too.117) Now.123) The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξn is called normalization and the eigenvector Ξn is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode.

. .. It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation x = Ξη (2.... 2 ω =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ .131) . 0 . ω2 N Normal coordinates . .129) 0 . 0 . .104) is assumed as the following combination of the matrix of inertia m and stiﬀness k with the unknown coeﬃcients µ and κ. The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural damping. In many cases.Ξn .117 yields ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn kΞm = (2. .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 105 It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of stiﬀness..126) ω 2 if n = m n It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields ΞT mΞ = 1 ΞT kΞ = ω2 where ω 2 is a square diagonal matrix ⎡ 2 ω1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . The modal modes Ξn can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known as the modal matrix Ξ . 0 ω2 .modal damping Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. . . ω2 .127) Owning to the above orthogonality condition. . 2.. 0 (2. ... in turn. But in case of absence of such devices. cause friction between the particles the elements are made of. 0 ⎥ n ⎥ . These deﬂections. Ξ2 .ΞN ] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2. c =µm+κk (2. . ⎥ ⎥ (2. 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ .130) This coeﬃcients are to be determined experimentally. 0 . the second of the equations 2.128) containing the squared natural frequencies ω 2 n ⎤ 0 . the structural damping has to be taken into account. particularly if the system considered is furnished with special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers.. Vibrations of any mechanical structures are coupled with deﬂections of the elastic elements. Ξ = [Ξ1 . The structural damping is extremely diﬃcult or simply impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods. In such cases the matrix of damping c (see Eq. the structural damping can be omitted. ⎦ 0 .

Introduction of the solutions 2. Response to the harmonic excitation . .131 yields motion of the system along the physical coordinates x. Eq. In this case the right hand side of the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 106 to the mathematical model m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2. 2.135) n where 1 .136) The coeﬃcients ς n = (µ+κω 2 )/2ω n are often referred to as the modal damping ratio.138) ΞT F(t) = ΞT ⎢ Fq eiωt ⎥ = Ξqn Fq eiωt n n ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ .diagonal matrices n n Hence.. Indeed. Problem of determination of this particular solution is considered in the next section.. 0 η n + 2ς n ω n η n + ω2 η n = Ξqn Fq eiωt ¨ ˙ n n = 1.139) Hence .N ¨ ˙ n n (2.the unit matrix ω2 and γ = (µ1+κω 2 ) .136 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation along coordinate xq .132 yields mΞ¨ + cΞη + kΞη = F(t) η ˙ (2. n Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and according to the discussion carried out in the ﬁrst chapter (page 30.133) Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by ΞT we obtain ΞT mΞ¨ + ΞT (µm+κk)Ξη + ΞT kΞη = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2.137) p where ω dn = ω n 1 − ς 2 and η pn stands for the particular solution of the nonn homogeneous equation 2.N (2. each equation of the above set has the following form η n + 2ς n ωn η n + ω2 η n = ΞT F(t) n = 1.136 takes form ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ . 2.46) can be written as follows η n = e−ς n ωn t (Csn sin ωdn t + Ccn cos ω dn t) + η pn (2.128 we are getting set of independent equations 1¨ + γ η + ω 2 η = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2.132) results in its decoupling.137 into equation 2..134) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2. introduction of the transformation 2.136. 2. ⎥ ⎢ (2. 1. ..131 into 2.transfer functions Let us solve the Eq.

..N (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n (2.....N (2. The phase ϕ.N (2.145) Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions The transfer functions Rpq (iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experiment (see page 100). 2.. It can be seen from the equation 2..147) This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined. .. They allow the natural frequencies. but for the same p yield the natural modes with accuracy to the ω2 constant magnitude C = − 2ς npnn Ξ Ξnq = C Im(Rpq (iω n )) q = 1. 2.... .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 107 Therefore ηn = Since Ξqn Fq eiωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ωn n n x = Ξη n = 1. is equal to ±90o ϕn = arctan Im (Rpq (iω n )) = ± arctan ∞ = ±90o Re (Rpq (iω n )) (2.144) q = 1.142) transfer function between coordinate p and the others X Ξpn Ξqn xp = iωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi Fq e ω n n n=1 n N q = 1.. 2.145 that the real part of the transfer function Rpq (iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural frequency ω n . natural modes and the modal damping to be identiﬁed....141) response along coordinate xp xp = e iωt N X ω2 n=1 n Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi (2...N....143) = if ω ∼ ωn = Rpq (iω) = Fqxp = eiωt PN ³ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 −ω2 ) n n=1 (ω 2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 n n n PN + Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n Rpq (iω) ∼ + = 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 2ς n ω n ω n n Ξpn Ξqn ((ω 2 −ω2 )−2ς n ωn ωi) n = n=1 (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n ´n n −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ω n ωi q = 1. The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function.146) Alternatively.. .. ..N (2. ... 2.. 2.... From the same equation it is apparent that the imaginary parts corresponding to ω ∼ ωn and measured for diﬀer= ent q = 1. 2. since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n . .. .N (2..140) (2. Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions determine the system natural frequencies.

. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn ¯ (2.0002 0.150) where Signe of the idividual elements Ξnq of the mode n is deremined by signe of the corresponding phase ϕn = ±90o An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer functions is shown in Fig..2) R(1.. 30 transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.N (2.149) (2...148) Ξqn ¯ |Rpq (iω)| = ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω 2 n Ξnq = C |Rpq (iω)| q = 1.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s 2 1 3 R(1.1) R(1. 2.00015 0..00025 0.3) 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1. .2) R(1. .0001 0.3) natural mode ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω2 ¯ n¯ ¯ C=¯ Ξpn ¯ transfer functions m/N (phase) π/2 natural frequency −π/2 Figure 30 The demonstated in this chapter approach for solution of the vibration problems is referred to as modal analysis.1) R(1. its modulus is equal to the absolute value of imaginary part.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 108 Hence Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n .

...151) Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . c and k are symmetric and positive deﬁnite matrices.xn .......ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 109 2.......xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 (2...mnN } xn ⎪ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎪ ....xN } ˙ ˙ ˙ mnm xm (2...1.. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 mNm xm = n=N m=N 1X X mnm xn xm ˙ ˙ 2 n=1 m=1 Let us prove that the function 2....mnn ..... .. the potential energy function and the dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where the matrices m..152 fulﬁlls the requirement 2.. ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = T = xn ˙ {x1 ................ . . 0.0} + {x1 .....153) ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ . ⎪ ⎪ ¶ µ ⎨ ⎬ d ∂T ∂T ¨ (2.2..xn .......152) (2.154..... mNn (2..3 Kinetic and potential energy functions . ...... mmn ...Dissipation function In this section the kinetic energy function...xN } ˙ = ˙ ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎪ .. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN ¨ ⎫⎞⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ = ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪⎠⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ m1n .... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ d ⎜1 ⎜ m=N ⎜ ⎜{0.xn .... ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ mNm xm ˙ m=1 !! Ã Ãm=N m=N X X d 1 = mnm xm + ˙ mmn xm ˙ dt 2 m=1 m=1 If this function is positive deﬁnite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only if all variables xn are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive ˙ deﬁnite matrix.......... ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T − dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎛ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .. Kinetic energy function Let us consider function 1 T = xT mx x = {x1 . If T is the kinetic energy function......155) ..154) − = {mn1 .......... according to Lagrange’s equations should be ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .

⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..159.......xN }T (2.157 fulﬁlls the requirement 2............... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN Let us prove that the function 2..... .xn ...xN } knm xm (2.... kmn .....1............ 0........152 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix m is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.mnN } xn ¨ ⎪ ⎪ . 1 V = xT kx x = {x1 .xN } = k x ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn 2⎜ ⎪ ..... x2 ....160) ........ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ¨ Potential energy function Let us consider function (2. ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ kNm xm m=1 ! Ãm=N m=N X X 1 = knm xm + kmn xm 2 m=1 m=1 k1n .....159) = {kn1 ..... ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 kNm xm = If V is the potential energy function..157) 2 Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..... it must be positive deﬁnite and according to Lagrange’s equations should fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ......... ..xn .... ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = V = xn {x1 ......158) k x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ... X ¨ = mnm xm = {mn1 ......156) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now we may conclude that the function 2....mnn .. kN n ⎫⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟ ⎟= ⎪⎟ ⎪⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ n=N m=N 1X X knm xn xm 2 n=1 m=1 (2.....ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 110 Since mnm = mmn ! ! Ã m=N Ãm=N ¶ µ d X d ∂T ∂T d 1 X − 2 = mnm xm = ˙ mnm xm ˙ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn dt 2 m=1 dt m=1 ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ m=N ⎨ .....knN } xn ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .......... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ ∂V 1⎜ m=N ⎜{0..0} + {x1 ... ...xn ..knn ..... ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ∂V (2.

...xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ... ∂D ˙ = {cn1 . in a general case.. ........ .. The damping forces..162) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 111 Since knm = kmn ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .157 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix k is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.xn .cnN } xn ⎪ ∂ xn ˙ ⎪ ...... such a damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − + + = Qn (2....... It must be noted that the dissipation function does not represent the dissipation energy. m=N m=N ⎨ X X ∂V 1 = 2 knm xm = knm xm = {kn1 .....cnn ... ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ˙ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2.. are not conservative and have to be included in the generalized force Qn .163) It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive deﬁnite.. Dissipation function It is easy to notice..knn ...164) dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ∂xn ∂ xn ˙ The function D is called dissipation function.. m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2. ..knN } xn ⎪ ∂xn 2 m=1 ⎪ .. that the function 1 D = xT cx x = {x1 . having in mind the previous consideration. ....161) Now we may conclude that the function 2........

the diﬀerential equations of motion 2.01m f1 = 30rad/s A2 = 0. 31 moves according to the following equation (2. the natural frequencies 3.2. the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B. the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion 5.4 Problems Problem 29 l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m2 l2 2 m1 c Figure 31 The point A of the system shown in Fig.2 · 1012 N/m2 J1 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m1 = 10kg l2 = 2m E2 = 0.165) y = A1 sin(f1 t) + A2 sin(f2 t) where A1 and A2 are amplitudes of this motion and f1 and f2 are the corresponding frequencies.2 · 1012 N/m2 J2 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m2 = 20kg k = 10000N/m c = 100Ns/m A1 = 0. the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y 4.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 112 2. Given are: l1 = 1m E1 = 0.01m f2 = 35rad/s . . Produce 1.

F(t) = ∙ ¸ 0 cy ˙ (2.165. the excitation cy is ˙ cy = cA1 f1 cos(f1 t) + cA2 f2 cos(f2 t) = a1 cos(f1 t) + a2 cos(f2 t) ˙ where a1 = cA1 f1 .170 into the equation of motion 2.167) + + = c cy ˙ −k k + k2 m2 y2 ¨ y2 ˙ y2 or shorter m¨ + cy + ky = F(t) y ˙ where m= ∙ m1 0 0 m2 ¸ .166) Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ∙ y1 ˙ y1 ¨ 0 k + k1 y1 0 −k m1 (2. ¨ m1 y1 = −k1 y1 − ky1 + ky2 m2 y2 = −k2 y2 − ky2 + ky1 − cy2 + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 113 Solution 1.171) .168) Taking into consideration Eq. The diﬀerential equations of motion l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m1 y m2 1 l2 2 c y2 Figure 32 Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown in Fig.170) (2. 2. c= ∙ 0 0 0 c ¸ . a2 = cA2 f2 Introduction of Eq.169) (2. 32 allows to develop its mathematical model.168 yields m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) + F2 (t) y ˙ (2. k= ∙ k + k1 −k −k k + k2 ¸ . 2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 114 where F1 (t) = For the given numerical data the stiﬀness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment of the mass 1 is k1 = 3E1 J1 3 · 0. The substitution w=y ˙ results in the following set of equations z = Az ˙ where ∙ y w ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ 0 ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎣ −1600.171 to the state-space coordinates. 734i (2.176) z= . Free motion .0 500 ⎡ 0 0 1000 −1100 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ (2. F2 (t) = 30 cos(30t) 35 cos(35t) ∙ 48E2 J2 48 · 0.179) For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural frequency of the damped system.178) 0 ⎦ −5 (2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 6000N/m 3 l1 13 (2.172) The stiﬀness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is k2 = Hence ¸ 10 0 m= . 0 20 ∙ F1 (t) = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 0 16000 −10000 c= . . A= Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots ω 1 = −1. 8259 ± 45. k= 0 ¸ 100 ∙ −10000 22000 ¸ 0 0 .175) 2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 12000N/m 3 l2 23 (2.the natural frequencies To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.174) (2. 483i ω 2 = −0.173) ∙ 0 a1 cos(f1 t) ¸ . 6741 ± 24. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free vibrations. F2 (t) = ∙ 0 a2 cos(f2 t) ¸ (2.177) (2.

6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 9755 × 10−2 −3 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 477 × 10−3 ⎜⎢ −1. 734t) (2. the particular solutions are Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors. 9162 × 10 −. 9162 × 10 −. 483t + 1. The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 35302 −. 26033 . 049 × 10−3 1. 38263 −. 35302 −. 734t + 6. 6741t (−1. 6392 × 10−2 −1. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 90847 −2 −5. 46561 z22 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) sin ω 2 t + Im(z02 ) cos ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 46561 ⎤ ⎞ z12 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) sin ω 1 t + Im(z01 ) cos ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 049 × 10−3 1. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. associated with the particular solution z11 (y111 ) and z21 (y211 ) y111 = e−1. 734t − ⎢ = e−0. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 7637 × 10 ⎥ sin 24. 3213 × 10 ⎥ Re z01 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . . 37705 . 40969 ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 24. ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ −1. 049 × 10−3 sin 45. 9755 × 10−2 cos 45. 734t + ⎢ 1. 40969 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 1. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 45.181) The two ﬁrst rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates y1 and y2 respectively. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 40969 z21 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) cos ω2 t − Im(z02 ) sin ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 8259t (1. 4508 × 10−2 −1. Im z02 = ⎢ 1. 37705 . 483t + ⎢ −1. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 37705 . 9755 × 10−2 −6. 46561 z11 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) cos ω1 t − Im(z01 ) sin ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 6392 × 10−2 cos 24. 477 × 10 = e−0. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 26033 . 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 90847 −2 −5.182) are presented in Fig 33. Im z01 = ⎢ −1. 3213 × 10 = e−1. 483t − ⎢ −1. 90847 −2 −5.180) Re z02 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . Example of the motion along the coordinate y1 . 35302 −. 049 × 10−3 −3 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 477 × 10 ⎥ (2. 9755 × 10−2 ⎢ 1. 4508 × 10−2 sin 24. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 3213 × 10 = e−1. 483t) y211 = e−0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 115 According to 2. 9162 × 10 −. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ .81. 4508 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ (2. 26033 . 38263 −. 38263 −.

01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.01 0 -0.02 Figure 33 .01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.01 0 -0.02 y211[m] 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 116 y111[m] 0.

01 0.186) (2.185 m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) y ˙ and y2 is the particular solution of the equation 2.01 0 -0.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0.188) (2. motion of the point A is y = 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 117 3.5 1 1. is y = y1 + y2 (2.01 · sin(35 · t) y[m] (2.02 Figure 34 The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig.5 t[s] -0.184) where y1 is the particular solution of the equation 2.186 m¨ + cy + ky = F2 (t) y ˙ (2. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation According to the given data.185) To produce the particular solution of the equation 2.189) . which represents the forced vibration.185 let us introduce the complex excitation ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 0 0 0 c = = eif1 t = F1 (t) = a1 eif1 t a1 a1 cos(f1 t) + ia1 sin(f1 t) ∙ ¸ 0 if1 t ei30t (2.183) 0.187) = F10 e = 30 Hence the equation of motion takes form m¨ + cy + ky = F10 eif1 t y ˙ Its particular solution is c c y1 = y10 eif1 t (2. according to the superposition rule. 34 The particular solution y.

1546 × 10−3 − 3.193) This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y1 and y2 .190) −2.189 is ¶ µ∙ ¸ −. 7855 × 10−4 i −1.00 112i i30t y1 = Re e −2. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 112 sin 30t = −2.193. as the real part of 2.191) = −1. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t + −1. is shown in Fig. 688 × 10−3 − 7.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 118 where c 2 y10 = (−f1 m+if1 c + k)−1 F10 = ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ µ 16000 −10000 0 0 10 0 0 2 + + 30i = = −30 −10000 22000 0 100 0 20 30 ∙ ¸ −. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is y = y1 + y2 ¸ −.00 11 sin 30t − 3. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t = −1. 6 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 4196 × 10−4 i ¸ i35t ¶ (2.00 38 cos 30t + . 1 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 7855 × 10−4 i (2. 8 × 10−4 sin 30t − 1.00 112i = (2. 4196 × 10−4 i Hence y2 = Re e ¸ ∙ −3. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t = ¸ ∙ −. 688 × 10−3 − 7.00 112 sin 30t + = −2.00 384 cos 30t + . 183 × 10−3 − 1. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t ∙ ¸ −3. 41 × 10−4 sin 35t ∙ (2. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 183 × 10−3 − 1. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t Similarly. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. computed according to the equation 2. 84 × 10−4 i ∙ ¸ −. 84 × 10−4 i The motion of the system. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 35 and 36 respectively. one can obtained motion due to the excitation F2 (t) c 2 y20 = (−f2 m+if2 c + k)−1 F20 = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ µ 10 0 0 0 16000 −10000 0 2 + 35i + = = −35 0 20 0 100 −10000 22000 35 ¸ ∙ −3.192) . µ∙ −3. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t −2.00 384 − .00 384 cos 30t + .00 384 − .

5 1 1.005 0.005 0 -0.01 Figure 36 .005 0.005 0 -0.01 Figure 35 y2[m] 0.5 t[s] -0.5 1 1.5 t[s] -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 119 y1[m] 0.

.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 120 4. let us consider the damper c shown in Fig. m2 y2 Therefore. 648 cos 30t + 34. 8 · 10−4 sin 30t+ −1. 4 · 10−4 sin 35t)) = = 27.01 · sin 35t) + d − dt (−2. it is necessary to apply at the point A the following force ˙ ˙ (2.01 · sin 30t + 0. If the point A moves with the velocity y and in the same time the mass m2 moves with the ˙ velocity y2 .193 we have d FA = 100( dt (0. 064 sin 30t − 4.195) FA = c (y − y2 ) Hence. 503 cos 35t − 8.196) Diagram of this force is presented in Fig. 37.194) . 1405 sin 35t[N] (2. the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m2 is ˙ v = y − y2 ˙ ˙ (2.183 and 2. 6 · 10−3 cos 30t + 7. to realize this motion. according to the equation 2. The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion y2 c y A y Figure 37 To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according to the assumed motion 2.183.38 . 1 · 10−3 cos 35t + 1.

2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 y1 = = 6000y1 3 l1 13 The motion along the coordinate y1 is determined by the function 2. 39 RB = P MB = P l1 (2.5 1 1.5 t[s] Figure 38 5.00 11 sin 30t−3. 78×10−4 sin 35t ¡ ¢ MB =6000·1· −. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.193 P = k1 y1 = (2.00 38 cos 30t+.00 38 cos 30t+.00 11 sin 30t − 3. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t (2. The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B. 15×10−3 cos 35t + 3.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 121 FA[N] 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 0. P l 1 J1 E 1 B MB RB y1 Figure 39 According to Fig.00 11 sin 30t−3. 15×10−3 cos 35t+3.00 38 cos 30t + . This relationship is determined by the formula 2.173 3E1 J1 3 · 0.200) .199) Hence ¡ ¢ RB =6000 −.197) where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y1 . 78×10−4 sin 35t (2.198) y1 = −.

the normalized natural modes 3. 40. the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig. the diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates 4. 42 and released with the initial velocity equal to zero.201) .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 122 Problem 30 The link 1 of a mass m1 . the natural frequencies of the system 2. The equation of motion.01 m Produce: 1. shown in Fig. x= x ϕ . All motion is in the vertical plane. k= 2k 0 0 m2 gR . the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to the given initial conditions.202) At the instant t = 0. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ (2.05 m k = 1000 N/m a = 0. m= m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I . For the following data: m1 = 2 kg m2 = 1 kg R = 0.1 m r = . 41) have been formulated in page 81 to be m¨ + kx = 0 x where 2 I = m2 r2 5 (2. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and rigid rod 4. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. in terms of the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 123 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 40 y 1 x k o k x 3 2 r R ϕ G Figure 41 y 1 a k o k x 3 2 r R Figure 42 .

0913 These two numbers form the ﬁrst mode of vibrations corresponding to the ﬁrst natural frequency ω 1 . 936 −22.12 + 0.0 ¯ Its roots: yield the wanted natural frequencies £ 22.0 −. 1 2 + 1 1 · 0.0 · 22.0 .0X1 − .99 2 .001 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1000. 1ωn −.205) 2 2 −.0ω2 + 1000.0 11ω n + 1. 091 3 ω1 = 9. 1 · 9. 1ω 2 X 0 n n = (2.0 = −10.092 + 1000.0 11 1 · 0. 1ω2 Φ1 = 0 1 1 (2.0 23ω4 − 14.206) ¯ 2 2 n n ¯ −.0) = 90.0 11ωn + 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 124 Solution 1.g. 0913 ω2 = 22.yields the second mode. X1 = 1) and the other may be produced from the ﬁrst equation of the set 2.1 According to 2.0 0 1000 0 = k = 0 1. Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is. 1ω2 n n ¯ = . carried out for the natural frequency ω2 = 22. X2 = 1 Φ2 = ¡ ¢ 1 −3.0 −. 936 9. one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e.0ω 2 + 1000. 091 3 −9.204) where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode.0 0 1 · 10 · 0.203) = m = . 0913 the equations 2. 936 [s−1 ] ¤ (2.108 (page 102) one can write the following set of equations (−ω 2 m + k)X = 0 n (2.991 2 . 1ω n −.209) . Therefore. Hence for the given numerical data we are getting ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −3. 1 · 22. 936.052 = 0.205 become linearly dependent.205.208) 1 Φ1 = − 3.207) For ω n = ω1 = 9.936 X1 = 1 −3. the inertia matrix and the stuﬃness matrix are 2 · 1 · 0.0 Φ 0 This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to zero. The natural frequencies and the natural modes According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball.0 = 0 (2.Similar consideration.0 · 9. 1 .1 (2. (2.9362 + 1000.0ω2 + 1000.0X1 ω2 + 1000.001 kgm2 I = 5 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 3. ¯∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ −3.1 1 · 0.

∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 9. ¸ ∙ 9.99 −10. 596 90. X2 ] = ∙ 1 1 90. 5296 (2. 4597 −10. X2 = X1 = 90. 68507 Ξ= 8.991 (2. 4375 × 10−2 . 5872 −7. 5872 −7. 1 . 1 1 1 90.0 11 −10.99 √ λ1 = 112.991 √ λ2 = 2. 99 = 112.99 −10.991 . 5872 10.217) = 0 1 .215) These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ. 4597 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 . 27 . 1 1 2 = 2.211) (2. 68507 3. 596 ¤ ∙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 125 Now. 4375 × 10−2 Ξ1 = = (2.210) In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X1 and X2 . one can create the modal matrix X = [X1 . 27 = 10. 4375 × 10−2 8.99 Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained ∙ ¸∙ ¸ £ ¤ 3. 1 9.0 . 5296 ¸ ∙ 1 0 (2. 1 . ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1 1 .0 11 . 1 .991 2. 1306 λ2 = 1 −10.0 11 90. 68507 Ξ2 = = −7. 1306 = 1. 68507 −7. 5296 1.0 .216) The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia matrix and the stiﬀness matrix.212) (2. 4375 × 10−2 .0 . 5872 = . ΞT mΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. Indeed.213) Division of the eigenvector X1 by the factor λ1 yields the normalized mode Ξ1 .991 ¸ (2. 5296 8.214) 8. Normalization of the natural modes According to 2.121 the normalization factor is XT mXn = λ2 n n Hence λ2 1 = £ ¸∙ ¸ 3.

1 . It can be obtained by transforming the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates. The diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates Introducing the substitution 2. 5872 −7. 4375 × 10−2 .01142 = (2. 091)2 η 1 = 0 ¨ η 2 + (22.224) ω2 Where η 01 and η 02 stand for the initial position whereas v01 and v02 stand for the initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates. 68507 −7.221) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions.201 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by ΞT we are getting the diﬀerential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η.131 x = Ξη that in the case considered has the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ η1 X = Ξη = Ξ Φ η2 (2. 02 0 ω2 0 (22. 5296 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 2 ¸ 82.4313 × 10−2 0 0 η 02 Φo ∙ ¸ .3024 −1.222) 0 1 0 (22.218) 2 0 526. the equations of motion are of the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ 1 0 (9.142 . These initial conditions must be formulated along the normal coordinates. 5296 8. 091)2 ω1 0 0 = = = (2.223) The general solution of the above set of the diﬀerential equations. 68507 1000 0 9.219) (2. 647 0 (9. 935)2 η 2 = 0 ¨ (2. ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ∙ 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 126 and ΞT kΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. 5872 = 0 1 · 10 · 0.36 is v01 sin ω 1 t + η 01 cos ω 1 t η1 = ω1 v02 η2 = sin ω 2 t + η 02 cos ω 2 t (2. 4375 × 10−2 8. (ΞT mΞ)¨ +(ΞT kΞ)η = 0 η (2.220) into 2.01 η 01 −1 −1 = = Ξ =Ξ 1. 935) 2 3. 935)2 or η 1 + (9. 091)2 0 η+ ¨ η=0 (2.3024 × 10−2 . according to 1.225) 1.1039 Xo a 0.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 127 Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2.01 Figure 43 0.1 -0.01142 cos 9.2 0.224 results in motion of the system along the normal coordinates η 1 = η 01 cos ω 1 t = .05 -0. 935t This motion is presented in Fig. we are getting ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ 9.005 0 0. 5872 −7.05 0 -0.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.005 -0.3024 × 10−2 cos 22. 4375 × 10−2 .219. 935t (2.01142 cos 9. 091t + 8. one has to transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones. 8066 × 10−2 cos 9. 091t − 9.15 0. 43 and 44 0. using the relationship 2. 8066 × 10−2 cos 22.226) (2.091t η 2 = η 02 cos ω 2 t = 1.228) = 9.1 0. The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates. 0778 × 10−3 cos 9.935t ∙ v01 v02 ¸ = ∙ 0 0 ¸ (2.091t X = Ξη = = 1.01 X[m] 0.15 Φ [rad] 0.5 1 1. Hence.935t Φ 8.5 t[s] Figure 44 .5 1 1.227) 4. 9224 × 10−3 cos 22.5 t[s] -0. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1. 68507 .

J D 3 l Figure 45 2 The rigid beam 1 of mass M. length L and the moment of inertia about its point of rotation IA . . I A k C c E. Derive an expression for the ﬁxing moment and the ﬁxing force at the point D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 128 Problem 31 L A 1 F=F cosω t o B M. is supported by means of the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c as shown in Fig. The beam 2 is massless and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic properties. Its end D is ﬁxed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C. 45.

Vibrations of the system are excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F1 .the lower element of the matrix X . and m2 . the diﬀerential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx¸= F ∙ x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −kb2 ca2 −ca2 k1 a2 + kb2 + m1 gs1 Io1 0 . C= .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ ∙ 0 ¸ 0 X2 . the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A. 1 and 2. The centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G1 and G2 respectively. are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 129 Problem 32 1 O1 s1 k1 c s2 k2 A m1 I O1 G1 G2 b m 2 I O2 O2 a 2 F cosω 1 t 1 k F cosω 2 t 2 Figure 46 The two rods. k2 and as well as the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. These rods are connected to each other by means of springs of the stiﬀness k. Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively m1 . K= . Produce 1. k1 . Φ2 . IO2 .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ cos ω 2 t −F2 b 3. IO1 . Answer: RA = Φ2 ak2 . 46. F= −F2 b 0 ϕ2 2. M= 2 2 ca∙ −kb2 k2 a2 + kb2 + m2 gs2 ¸−ca ¸ ∙ 0 ¸ Io2 ∙ ϕ1 F1 b 0 cos ω 1 t + cos ω2 t x= . F2 and frequencies ω1 and ω2 . the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods Answer: X = X1 + X2 ¸ ∙ F1 b cos ω 1 t X1 .

The damping coeﬃcient of the damper between the beam and the block is denoted by c2 and the stiﬀness of the supporting spring in denoted by k2 . Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ IA + M(h2 + a2 ) 0 c1 b2 + c2 a2 −c2 a k1 b 0 M= . Its mass is equal to m and its unbalance is µ. The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2 of mass m2 was attached. Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m1 and IA respectively.IA c1 C A B c2 2 m2 k1 1 ω h µ k2 D Figure 47 The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard matrix form. 47) is hinged at the point A and is supported at the point C by means of the spring of stiﬀness k1 and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c1 . C= . 0 m2 −c2 a 0 k2 c2 ∙ √ ¸ ∙ ¸ α mµω 2 h2 + a2 . Produce 1. The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. F= cos ωt x= x 0 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 130 Problem 33 b 3 a m M G m1. K= . It can be approximated by a particle of the mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and a.

Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.the angular displacement of the beam1. x .the linear displacement of the block 2 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 131 α . .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

132

Problem 34

l A G k

l

F C

l D

α

B

β

k

Figure 48 Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG are hinged together to form a bridge that is shown in Fig. 48. This bridge is supported by means of two springs each of the stiﬀness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form F = Fo cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard form Answer: M¨ + Kx = F ¸ x ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 1 0 α 0 −1 2 2 3 6 ml ; K = kl ; x = ; F= M= cos ωt 2 0 1 β Fo l −1 3 6 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system Answer: |K − 1ω n | = 0 3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 A −1 2 X = [−ω M + K] cos ωt = Fo l B 4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge B and the ground Answer: R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

133

Problem 35

1

L

m1,IA x k m k1 B c

ϕ

2

A

y

Figure 49 Figure. 49 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by IA and its mass by m1 . The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by the spring of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Mass of the wheels 2 are denoted by m and the stiﬀness of its tire is k1 . Motion of the trolley is excited by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following function. y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system 3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system 4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

134

Problem 36

y A c3 m3 k3 3

2 4

r m2,I2

k2 k1 m1

1

c1 B

Figure 50 In Fig. 50 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are rigid and their masses are respectively m1 and m3 respectively. The rigid pulley 2 has radius r, mass m2 and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I2 . The elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiﬀness k1 and k2 . The point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation. y = a cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

135

⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Answer: ⎡ 0 0 m1 c1 0 0 M = ⎣ 0 m2 + m3 0 ⎦ ; C = ⎣ 0 c3 0 ⎦ 0 I2 0⎤ 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎡ −k1 −k1 r k1 x1 0 K = ⎣ −k1 k1 + k2 + k3 k1 r − k2 r ⎦ F = ⎣ ak3 ⎦ cos ωt; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ −k1 r k1 r − k2 r (k1 + k2 ) r2 0 ϕ x1 - the linear displacement of the block 1 x2 - the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3 ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: The particular solution xp of the equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ The ﬁrst element xp1 of the matrix xp represents displacement of the block 1 3. the expression for the interaction force at point B. Answer RB = c1 xp1 ˙

. The shaft k1 is connected to the shaft k2 by means of the gear of ratio i = D1 /D2 . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 136 Problem 37 I1 I2 I3 D2 D1 T3 k1 k2 Figure 51 k3 Figure 51 shows the physical model of a compressor. and I3 are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that the torsional stiﬀness are k1 . the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system 3. the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1. The disks of moment of inertia I1 . I2 . k2 and k3 respectively. There is a torque T3 applied to the disk I3 . It can be approximated by the following function T3 = T cos ωt Produce: 1.

231) According to the third Newton’s law we have F12 = F21 (2. In the above equations not all variables are independent. ϕ22 = iϕ11 Hence the equations can be rewritten as follows I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ (2.229) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 137 Solution ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ22 F21 F12 T3 I1 ϕ2 ϕ22 I2 ϕ3 I3 D2 T3 D1 ϕ11 ϕ1 ϕ1 ϕ11 k1 k2 k3 Figure 52 To produce the equations of motion of the system one may split it into ﬁve rigid bodies (Newton approach) and write the following set of equations I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 ϕ22 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 ϕ22 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 where F12 F21 stand for the interaction forces between the rear D1 and D2 .232) .230) D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 iϕ11 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 (2.

231 one can get ¨ I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + I2 ϕ2 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 or µ ¶ 1 ϕ I1 (i¨ 1 ) = −ke (iϕ1 ) + ke ϕ2 i2 I2 ϕ2 = −ke ϕ2 − k3 ϕ2 + ke (iϕ1 ) + k3 ϕ3 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ke = 2 k1 ik1 k2 ϕ1 + ϕ k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 2 k1 k2 i i2 k2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + ϕ1 + ϕ + k3 ϕ3 k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 (2.235) (2.237) (2.233) D1 (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) D2 The equation 2. C = 0. ϕ11 = k1 ik2 ϕ + ϕ 2 1 k1 + k2 i k1 + k2 i2 2 (2.239) T cos ωt ⎡ ⎤ . second and ﬁfth equation of the set 2. x = ⎣ ϕ2 ⎦ I3 0 −k3 k3 ϕ3 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎦ 0 F =⎣ (2. K = ⎣ −ke ke + k3 −k3 ⎦ .234) Introduction of this relationship into the ﬁrst.236) k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 The above set of equations can be now presented in the matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ where ⎡ 1 I i2 1 where (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 138 Hence the second and third equation yields F12 = 2 2 (k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 ) = (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) = F21 D1 D2 k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 = (2.238) M =⎣ I2 The same results one can get by means of the Lagrange’s equations ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ −ke 0 ke iϕ1 ⎦ .233 allows the angular displacement ϕ11 to be expressed in terms of the displacements ϕ1 and ϕ2 .

∂T = 0.240) . ∂ϕ2 ∂T =0 ∂ϕ3 ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂V 1 ∂ϕ11 1 ∂ϕ11 = = − 1 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) −i k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 = i2 ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 ¶ ¶ µ µ 1 1 1 ∂ϕ11 ∂V ∂ϕ11 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) 1 − i + k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (−1) = k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) = ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 = −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 ∂V 1 = k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (1) = ∂ϕ3 2 = −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 The virtual work produced by the impressed forces acting on the system is δW = (0) ϕ1 + (0) ϕ2 + (T3 ) ϕ3 Introduction of the above expressions into the following Lagrange’s equations ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = Q1 dt ∂ ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q2 dt ∂ ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q3 dt ∂ ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 139 The kinetic energy function and the potential energy function of the system considered are 1 1 1 T = I1 ϕ2 + I2 ϕ2 + I3 ϕ2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 V 1 k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 1 = k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 = d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ3 ˙ ∂T ∂ϕ1 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − ϕ22 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 = 2 2 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − iϕ11 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 2 2 Hence = I1 ϕ1 ¨ = I2 ϕ2 ¨ = I3 ϕ3 ¨ = 0.

k1r = 2 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 140 yields the wanted equations of motion of the system considered ¨ I1 ϕ1 + ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 = 0 ¨ I2 ϕ2 + −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 or ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 µ (2.241) They are identical with the equation 2. I1r = 1 1 1 1 1 = + = k1 + ke k1r k2 k2 i2 It is ke = k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 (2. reduced moment of inertia and reduced stiﬀness. It is easy to see that precisely the same equations possesses the system presented in Fig.243) (2.242) 2 i i stands for so called reduced displacement.244) . 53 ϕ1r= iϕ1 I1r=I1 / i2 k1r=k1 / i D2 2 ϕ2 I2 ϕ3 I3 T3 D1 I1 ϕ1 k1 k2 k3 Figure 53 In this ﬁgure I1 k1 . The equivalent stiﬀness of the shaft assembled of the shaft k2 and k1r can be produced from the following equation ϕ1r = iϕ1 .239.

245) ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 . the equations of motion of the system presented in Fig. 53 are as follows µ ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 141 Hence.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 142 Problem 38 M=Mocosωt O c1 l q1 G1 1 Y A a b c2 c k c q1 q2 k 2 B G2 X Figure 54 Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig. Produce: 1. Vibrations of the pendulum about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the body 1. G2) are I1 and I2 respectively.??. the diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ . The system has two degrees of freedom and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q1 and q2 . These bodies possess masses m1 and m2 and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers of gravity (G1.

M= . the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum 3.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 143 Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations. ¸ ¸ ∙ Answer: ∙ IG1 + m1 c2 + IG2 + m2 (l + c2 )2 IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) q1 1 . x= IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) IG2 m2 c2 ¸ ∙ q2 ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 ∙ m1 gc1 + m2 g(l + c2 ) 0 0 Mo m2 gc2 K= . C= . F= 0 2ca2 m2 gc2 m2 gc2 + 2kb2 0 2. . the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the point B.

1 and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ . It is made of the block D of mass m d . This assembly is furnished with the dynamic absorber of vibrations. Its centre of gravity G r is located by the distances a and b. The block D can translate along the inertial axis x only. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the system shown in Fig. Produce: 1. the spring of stiﬀness k d and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c d . 55) can be considered as a rigid body.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 144 Problem 39 B X Gr V X R Ω α kv cv kd kv cd l cv e a b d D x Figure 55 The assembly of the ventilator V and its base B (see Fig. This assembly is free to rotate about the horizontal axis X-X and is kept in the horizontal position by means of two springs each of stiﬀness k v and two dampers each of the damping coeﬃcient c v . Its moment of inertia about the axis X-X is I X . The rotor R of the ventilator V possesses a mass m R and rotates with a constant angular velocity Ω. This rotor is unbalanced and its centre of gravity is oﬀ from its axis of rotation by µ. The angular displacement α deﬁnes the instantaneous position of this assembly.

∙ . Ix 0 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 145 ¸ ∙ Answer. The expression for the force transmitted to foundation by the damper c v . F= cos Ωt x= x 0 2. −c l −kd l c kd ∙ d √ ¸ ∙ ¸ d α mR µΩ2 a2 + b2 . The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system along the coordinates x and α 3. M= 0 m ¸ ∙ ¸ 2cv e2 + cd l2 −cd l 2kv d2 + kd l2 −kd l C= . K= .

The support 5 moves along the horizontal axis Y according to the following function Y = a cos ωt The lower end of the rod is connected to the blocks 2 and 3 by means of two springs 4 each of stiﬀness k. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the and present it in the following matrix form. The blocks mass is m2 and m3 respectively. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system. . The expression for the driving force that must be applied to the point A in order to assure the assumed motion Y (t).ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 146 Problem 40 Y 5 A Y 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 2 α B 4 X Figure 56 The uniform rod 1 of mass m and length l shown in Fig. Produce: 1. The system performs small oscillation in the vertical plane XY . 56 is hinged at the point A to the support 5. It possesses three degrees of freedom and the three independent coordinates are denoted by y2 and y3 . 3.

let us develop the position vector of its centre of gravity G1 .249) . d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = 0 dt ∂ α ∂α ˙ ∂α ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y2 ∂y2 ∂y2 ˙ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y3 ∂y3 ∂y3 ˙ (2. the kinetic energy of the rod is ¶ µ 1 1 l l 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T1 = m (Y + α cos α) + (− α sin α) + IG1 α2 2 2 2 2 (2.247) Its ﬁrst derivative provide us with the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 147 Solution Y 5 A rG1 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 Y 2 α B 4 X Figure 57 Motion of the system is governed by the Lagrange equations. rG1 = J(Y + l l sin α) + I( cos α) 2 2 (2.246) To produce the kinetic energy function T associated with the the rod 1. l l ˙ ˙ ˙ rG1 = J(Y + α cos α) + I(− α sin α) ˙ 2 2 Hence.248) (2.

251 and 2. x = ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎦=⎣ ⎣ k2 a (2. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F cos ωt x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 mgl + k2 l2 + k3 l2 −k2 l −k3 l IG + 1 ml2 0 4 2 0 m2 0 ⎦ .246 one can get the required equation in the following matrix form. C = 0.254 into equations 2.252) . the total potential energy is 1 1 l V = Vs + Vg = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 − mg cos α (2.255) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 148 Since the kinetic energy of the blocks 2 and 3 is as follows 1 T2 = m2 y2 ˙2 2 1 T3 = m3 y3 ˙2 2 (2. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig. K = ⎣ −k2 l k2 0 ⎦ M = ⎣ 0 k3 0 0 m3 −k3 l ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎡ ¨ α + 2 mlaω2 − a (k2 l + k3 l) − 2 mY − (k2 l + k3 l) Y ⎦ . 58 (2.254) 2 2 2 Introducing the expressions 2.250) the total kinetic energy of the whole system is 1 ˙ 1 1 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ T = T1 +T2 +T3 = mY 2 + mlY α cos α+ ml2 α2 + IG1 α2 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 (2.256) F = k2 Y k3 a y3 k3 Y ⎡ To verify the above equations of motion let us employ the Newton-Euler method for modeling of the system considered.251) ˙ ˙ ˙2 ˙2 2 2 8 2 2 2 The potential energy of the springs 4 is 1 1 Vs = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 2 2 The potential energy due to gravitation is l Vg = −mgrG1Y = −mg cos α 2 Hence.253) (2.

258) RAY = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y Introduction of the above expression into the ﬁrst equation of 2.257 gives 1 ¨ IG α = − lmaG1Y + R2Y l + R3Y l 2 (2.260) (2. (2.259) In the latest equation aG1Y stands for the component Y of the absolute acceleration of the centre of gravity G1 .261) (2.262) .247.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 149 Y RAX 5 A RAY Y 1 l 3 G1 y3 y2 G1 2 α B R3Y 4 R3Y R2Y R2Y X Figure 58 For the rod one can produce the following two equations 1 ¨ IG α = − RAY l + 2 maG1Y = RAY + R2Y 1 1 R2Y l + R3Y l 2 2 + R3Y (2.257) The second equation can be used for determination of the unknown interaction force RAY . It can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of the absolute velocity vector 2. l l l l ¨ ¨G1 = J(Y + α cos α − α2 sin α) + I(− α sin α − α2 cos α) r ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 2 2 2 2 Hence After linearization l l ¨ ¨ ˙ aG1Y = Y + α cos α − α2 sin α 2 2 l ¨ aG1Y = Y + α ¨ 2 (2.

268) ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y They are identical with 2.266) (2. the governing equations are 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ (2.270) (2. It can be predicted as x = A cos ωt Introducing it into the equation of motion we have (−ω 2 M + K)A = F The wanted vector of the amplitudes of the system forced vibrations is ⎤ ⎡ Aα A =(−ω2 M + K)−1 F = ⎣ Ay2 ⎦ Ay3 (2.255.263 one can obtain 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 The Newton’s law if apply to the blocks 2 and 3 yields m2 y2 = −R2Y ¨ m3 y3 = −R3Y ¨ Since the interaction forces are deﬁned by 2.263) The interaction forces between the rod and the springs are can be expressed as follows R2Y = k2 (y2 − Y − αl). R3Y = k3 (y3 − Y − αl) (2.259 results in the following equation l 1 ¨ IG α = − lm(Y + α) + R2Y l + R3Y l ¨ ¨ 2 2 (2.265) (2.271) (2.262 into 2.264 we have ¨ m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y Hence. M¨ + Kx = F cos ωt x (2.269) (2.267) The amplitudes of the forced vibration could be obtained from the particular solution of the above equation.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 150 Introduction of 2.264) Introducing them into equation 2.272) .

usually unknown.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 151 Now. Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces Ui1 and Ui2 acting in . They are distributed along. line B − B. RAY 2. the interaction force RAY can be produced as an explicit function of time from 2. 1 U1 2 ω B A m1 U2 ϕ1 ωt F2 Ui1 m2 ϕ2 ωt B A Ui2 Ui x2 F1 x1 Figure 59 In a general case.3.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 2. due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing. 59). Its follows that due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force Ui (see Fig.273) 2 −k (A − a − Aα l) cos ωt − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt ¶ ¶ µ 2 µ y2 l 2 = m −a − Aα ω − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt 2 = |RAY | cos ωt ¯ ¡ ¯ ¢ l where |RAY | = ¯m −a − 2 Aα ω2 − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l)¯ is the amplitude of the interaction force.1 Balancing of rotors Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis A − A (see Fig.258 = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y ¶ µ l ¨ ¨ = m Y + α − k2 (y2 − Y − αl) − k3 (y3 − Y − αl) 2 µ ¶ l 2 2 = m −aω − Aα ω cos ωt + (2. 59). the centres of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of rotation.

Hence. 1 2 x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 x4 4 4 ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt ωt U 1o U1 x2 t U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a4 a 4o β3 a 3o a3 x3 β3 β4 ωt x3 ωt Figure 60 Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig. The second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section. The process of searching for magnitude of the unbalance forces U1 and U2 and their phases ϕ1 and ϕ2 is called balancing. The balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. These two arbitrarily chosen planes. According to the above discussion. 60 by nubers 1 and 2. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 152 two arbitrarily chosen planes. are . therefore their resultants U1 and U2 are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too. the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U1 and U2 in two arbitrarily chosen plane. one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of mass m1 and m2 attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F1 and F2 balance the resultant forces U1 and U2 . 60.denoted in Fig. if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body.

U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . ϕ2 ) and the phases of the recorded displacements (β 1 . ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸∙ a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 = (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 153 called balancing plane. for example. this relation would allow the unknow magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined. These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine.275) If the transfer functions Ri. Let a3 and a4 be the complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates x3 and x4 with help of the two transducers 3 and 4. Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary. This mark. 60 by N. Furthermore.274) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 where a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . 60 by numbers 3 and 4. a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 (2.96 oﬀers the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U1 and U2 and the measured displacements a3 and a4 . are called measurement planes. The equation 2. For long rotors. there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. The transducer 5. these plane should oﬀer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached. the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible. creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ1 . Let us arrange for these vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes. which is called key phasor.j (iω) would be known. β 2 ) to be measured. shown in Fig. In order to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required. marked in Fig. Test (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (1) m (1) U o (1) U (1) ϕ (1) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (1) 4o a (1) 4 (1) β4 β3 (1) (1) a 3o a3 x3 (1) ωt ωt Figure 61 . These planes.

The amplitude of this force U (1) is (1) Uo = m(1) µ(1) ω2 (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 154 An additionl trial weight of mass m(1) (see Fig 61) is attached in the balancing plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(1) and the know distance µ(1) . (1) (1) (1) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (1) . There is the following . (1) U (1) = Uo eiϕ (2. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .277) (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (2) . Test (2) (1) (1) (1) a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . There is the following relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 U1 + U (1) = (2.279) The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes (2) (2) (2) (2) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained.276) The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes (1) (1) (1) (1) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained. The amplitude of this force U (2) is (2) Uo = m(2) µ(2) ω2 (2.278) (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (2) m (2) Uo (2) U (2) ϕ (2) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (2) 4o a (2) 4 (2) β4 β3 (2) (2) a 3o a3 x3 (2) ωt ωt Figure 62 An additional trial weight of mass m(2) (see Fig 62) is attached in the balancing plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(2) and the know distance µ(2) .

280 one can get a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R32 (iω) = 3 (2) = 3o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R42 (iω) = 4 (2) = 4o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2.274 from 2. " # ∙ ¸ ∙ (1) ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 − a3 U = (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) 0 a4 − a4 " # ∙ ¸ (1) a3 − a3 R31 (iω)U (1) = (1) R41 (iω)U (1) a4 − a4 a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R31 (iω) = 3 (1) = 3o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R41 (iω) = 4 (1) = 4o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2. the wanted complex imbalances U1 and U2 in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed from the equation 2. (2) (2) (2) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3o eiβ 3 U1o eiϕ1 = = (2. To achieve that let us subtract the equations 2.274 from 2. (2) (2) (2) (2.277 and 2.283) Now.282) Similarly. if one subtracts equations 2.284) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 where a3 and a4 represent the know response of the system without the additional weights. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (2) U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 + U (2) a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . 2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 155 relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .277 # ∙ Ã" ¸ µ∙ ¸! ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶ (1) a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 a3 U1 + U (1) − = − (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 U2 a4 a4 = a4o eiβ 4 .274.274 ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2.280) (2) (2) U (2) = Uo eiϕ (2.285) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4o eiβ 4 U2o eiϕ2 .280 allow the unknown transfer functions and the wanted unbalances U1 and U2 to be computed.281) The formulated equations 2.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 156 The amplitudes U1o and U2o determine the weights m1 and m2 that should be attached in the balancing planes m1 = m2 U1 r1 ω 2 U2 = r2 ω 2 (2. should be place at angular position (see Fig.287) x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 4 x4 4 m1 r1 β1 ϕ1 U1o U1 m2 r2 β2 U2o ωt x1 ωt ωt x2 ϕ2 U2 Figure 63 . to balance the rotor. 63) β 1 = 180o + ϕ1 β 2 = 180o + ϕ2 1 2 (2.286) These weights.

a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x mr µ ω 2 b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M M Figure 64 Let us assume that the system has the following parameters: M = 100 kg .3. The following mathematical model M x + Kx = mr µω2 cos ωt ¨ (2.stiﬀness of the supporting beam ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed µ = . 64a).ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 157 2.291) M 100 allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted. 64b).0001 m .289) (2.290) x + ω 2 x = q cos ωt ¨ n u 2 0. 65 .0000 2ω 2 q= (2.0001 = .imbalance of the rotor The natural frequency of the system is r r K 9000000 = = 300 (2.00 2 kgm . Vibration of this ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor.0000 2ω 2 ¯ ¯ q ¯=¯ ¯ ¯ (2.292) A=¯ 2 ω n − ω2 ¯ ¯ 3002 − ω 2 ¯ Its values.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig. within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be approximated by system with one degree of freedom. as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity u = mr µ = 20 · .002 2 ω = ω = . Its physical model is shown in Fig.mass of rotor of the ventilator K = 9000000 N/m .288) ωn = M 100 Hence.total mass of the ventilator mr = 20 kg .

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 158 0. elastic element of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. the ventilator develops large vibration in vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during the run up. results in the following mathematical model. One of a possible way of reducing these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in ﬁg 66 a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M k y k c m m y M c Figure 66 It comprises block of mass m. M x + (K + k)x − ky + cx − cy = uω2 cosωt ¨ ˙ ˙ m¨ − kx + ky − cx + cy = 0 y ˙ ˙ (2.Euler’s method. Application of the Newton’s .293) .0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[ 1/s] Figure 65 As it can be seen from this diagram. Such a solution is not acceptable.

002 · ω2 ¯ ¯ + iω + 106 ¯ −ω2 ¯ 0 25 0 0 −2. 0 m −c +c The above equations takes form m¨ + cx + kx = qeiωt x ˙ If one predicts the particular solution as x = Aeiωt (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 159 Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ uω 2 cos ωt x K + k −k x ˙ +c −c x ¨ M 0 = + + y −k +k y ˙ −c +c y ¨ 0 m 0 (2. 4649 × 106 N/m Introduction of this data into equation 2. representing vibrations of the ventilator.300 k = mω 2 = 25 · 3142 = 2.294) To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ M 0 x ¨ +c −c x ˙ K + k −k x + + = 0 m y ¨ −c +c ˙ ∙ ¸ ∙y 2 iωt −k ∙ +k ¸ y ¸ (2.297) ∙ K + k −k −k +k ¸ ∙ uω2 0 ¸ ∙ x y ¸ k= . x= (2.5 −2.297 one obtains the formula for the amplitude of the forced vibration ¯ ¯ (2. c= .299 and the zero damping results in the following response A1 and A2 of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively. 46 2.300) m To show it let us assume m = 25 kg and compute the value of the stiﬀness k from the formula 2. q= . ¸ ∙ A1 = A= A2 ¯µ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¶−1 ∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ 100 0 0 0 11.296) and than introduces it into the equation 2. 46 0.299) A = ¯(−ω2 m+iωc + k)−1 q¯ Amplitude A1 .298) (2. as a function of the angular speed of its rotor is presented in Fig. 46 0 ¯ ¯ (2.301) .295) uω 2 cos ωt + iuω 2 sin ωt uω e uω 2 iωt = = = e 0 0 0 Introducing notations ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ M 0 +c −c m= . 67: Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulﬁll the following relationship r k = ω = 314 (2.

Damping coeﬃcient lager then 5000 results in increment of the amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. 46 2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 160 0. 46 0 (2. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of ω = 240 rad/s. The amplitude is less than 0.002 · ω2 11. let us analyze the inﬂuence of the damping coeﬃcient c. that by increasing the damping coeﬃcient c one can lower amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency. computed according to the formula 2.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] Figure 67 One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314 rad/s is equal to zero. To improve the dynamic response.5 −2. The relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one degree of freedom. The best results of attenuation of vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other.302 are collected in the Table 1. ∙ ¸ A1 = A2 ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸ ∙ ¶−1 ∙ ∙ µ c c 100 0 0. It can be noticed. 46 2 3 6 10 + + iω 10 = −ω c c 0 25 −2. This case is shown in the last raw of the table 1. If the damping tends to inﬁnity. .302) The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for diﬀerent values of the damping coeﬃcient c.00004 m. Application of the absorber of vibrations oﬀers a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s.

75 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] .0001 m = 25 k = 2.0001 m = 25 k = 2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 161 .0001 m = 25 k = 1. 46 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s ] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c=0 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0. 46 × 106 c = 2500 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c = 1000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0. Table 1 0.

Its position is determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3.t) z dz T A(z). 1). Let us consider element dz of the sting. ρ (z) T z ∂ y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) ∂z ∂ y(z.t) T y(z.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3. It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to small motion of the string around its equilibrium position.t) dz ∂z ∂ z2 2 y Figure 1 Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig.Chapter 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3.t) + ∂ y(z.1. 1 A(z) stands for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density. 1. Motion of the string is caused by the unit vertical load f (z. t)dz (3. t) ∂y(z. According to the second Newton’s law µ ¶ ∂y(z. rods and shafts Modelling of stings f(z.1 Modelling of strings. In the Fig.2) dm ∂t2 ∂z ∂z ∂z 2 . t) that in a general case can be a function of time t and the position z. t) +T + = −T dz + f (z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.1) The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig.

t) = f (z.t) dz ∂z y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) T f (z. ρ (z) F(z.4) If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y(z. t) − λ2 = q(z.5) (3. t) A (3.t) F(z. 3.t) F(z. t) dz − T dz = f (z. t) − = 2 2 ∂t A(z) (z) ∂z A(z) (z) (3.1 into Eq.t) F(z. A(z).t) + ∂ F(z. A q(z.2 and its simpliﬁcation yields A(z) (z) ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) z dz dz E(z).3) If one divide this equation by A(z) (z)dz it takes form ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.t) z F(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 163 Introduction of Eq. 3.t) dz ∂z z Figure 2 .t) + ∂ F(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Modelling of rods T .6) f(z.

E. t) − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If the rod is uniform ( A. t) = f (z.13) . t) ∂y(z.7 one may obtain µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law F (z. t). t)dz − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z Since mass of the element is dm = A(z) (z)dz the equation of motion of the element is µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. dm ∂ 2 y(z. can be a function of position z and time t.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 164 Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces.8) Upon introducing the above expression into Eq. Motion of the rod is excited by the axial force f (z. t) that.9) (3. t) 2 ∂ y(z. in a general case. t) + F (z. Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z).11) (3.t) dz ∂z dz = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. t)dz = −F (z. t) ∂y(z. t) ∂ A(z) (z) A(z)E(z) = f (z. q(z. Application of the second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields.7) The axial force F (z. Let as consider a rod of the cross-section A(z). 3.10) (3. t) ∂z (3. 2 element dz. t) = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. t) ∂ dm A(z)E(z) dz = f (z. are constant) one can get 2 ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂F (z. Let us consider the highlighted in Fig. t) −λ = q(z. t) + ∂t2 ∂z (3. Its instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z. t) dz + f (z. t) A (3.12) where λ2 = E . t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.

ρ (z) ϕ (z. 3). t).t) ϕ (z. the density (z). Its moment of inertia ∂z about the axis z is Z Z 2 dI = r dA (z)dz = (z)dz r2 dA = J(z) (z)dz (3.14) A A Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation dI ∂ 2 ϕ(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 165 Modelling of shafts G(z). t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3.t) dz greater. Let us assume that the torque τ (z.t) z T(z. t) = −T (z. Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. J(z). t). t) + T (z.t) z dz T(z. t) ∂T (z.t) dz ∂z ϕ (z. the cross-section area A(z) and the second moment of area J(z). the shaft performs the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section at z is ϕ(z. t) + dz + τ (z. The angular position at the distance z + dz is by the total diﬀerential ∂ϕ(z.t) + ∂ (z. Due to the moment τ (z.t) τ (z.t) ϕ ϕ (z. The shaft has the shear modulus G(z).t) dz ∂z z Figure 3 Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques. A(z).15) . t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig.t) + ∂ T(z.

yields the relationship between the bending moment M and the shearing force V. t) dz dz + M(z. t) J(z) (z) = τ (z. t) T (z. t) 2 ∂ ϕ(z. 2 ∂ 2 ϕ(z. The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) = +V (z.23) V (z. t) = τ (z. density (z) and the Young’s modulus E(z).19) where λ2 = G . 4. t) ∂V (z. t) ∂ ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) (3. t) − M(z. t) − V (z. t) −λ = q(z. t)dz dz = ∂z G(z)J(z) into Eq. t) − dz + f (z. t) + V (z. Let us consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z).24) . sum of the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂V (z. t) J (3.14 and an elementary simpliﬁcation the equation 3. The beam performs vibrations due to the external distributed unit load f (z.18) (3. cross-section A(z). (z) and G(z) are constant. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3.20) 3. t) dz ∂M(z. t) and the deﬂection ϕ(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted in Fig. ∂M(z.21) If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz.17) (3. 3.2 Modelling of beams Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or moments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam).1. t) = ∂z Since mass of the element dz is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 166 After introduction of Eq.16) − ∂t2 ∂z If we introduce the relationship between the torque T (z. the equation of motion takes form. t) + dz = 0 V (z. t) + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z (3.16 we are getting µ ¶ ∂ϕ(z. t) ∂T (z.22) Simpliﬁcation of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then one with respect to dz. t) − G(z)J(z) J(z) (z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If J(z).15 takes form ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) (3. q(z. t) ∂ϕ(z. t). 3. t) = τ (z.

MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 167 f(z. t) ∂M 2 (z.t) + ∂ V(z. t) = E(z)J(z) If the following parameters of the beam A. t) ∂t2 ∂z 4 where λ2 = EJ .J(z).25 yields µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.26) V(z. t) ∂ 4 y(z. ∂ 2 y(z.25) ∂t2 ∂z 2 The mechanics of solids oﬀers the following relationship between the deﬂection of the beam y(z.t) z f(z.t) y(z. t) A(z) (z) + = f (z. A(z).29) . t) ∂2 A(z) (z) = f (z. one can get the equation of motion in the following form ∂ 2 y(z.28) (3.t) M(z. E and beam is governed by the following equation (3.t) dz ∂z M(z. t) + λ2 = q(z.26 into equation 3.t)dz M(z. J.t) dz/2 z y Figure 4 and taking into account Eq. t) ∂z 2 Introduction of equation 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3.t)+ ∂ ∂z E(z). t) (3. motion of the ∂ 2 y(z. t) + 2 E(z)J(z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z 2 M(z. A q(z.23.27) are constant.ρ (z) dz (3. t) and the bending moment M(z. t). t) = f (z. t) A (3.t) G V(z.

2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS As could be seen from the previous section.31) ∂t2 ∂z 2 Boundary conditions .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 168 3.33) for strings for rods (3. t) − λ2 =0 (3. y(z. t) − λ2 = q(z.32 into equation 3. If the external excitation q(z.natural frequencies and natural modes Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product of two functions. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.2. Therefore.35) (3.1 Free vibration of strings.34) (3. rods and shafts are described by the same mathematical model. t) ∂ 2 y(z. The general solution. t) ∂ 2 y(z.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation determined by the initial conditions.31 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n or Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0 n where βn = The general solution of this equation is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z where β n = ωn r A T r (3. 3.37) (3. its analysis can be discussed simultaneously.38) β n = ωn E . t) = 0. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a function of time t. In this case the governing equation ∂ 2 y(z. The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system considered are constant.30 ∂ 2 y(z. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.30) is classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).36) ωn λ (3. rods and shafts The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of Eq. vibrations of strings. 3.32) Introduction of the predicted solution 3. a function of two variables. the equation 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 169 β n = ωn The values for the parameter β n as well as the constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the boundary conditions. Some of the boundary conditions for strings. r G for shafts (3.39) . rods and shafts are shown in the following table.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 170 Table 3.1 z l y string for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free rod for for I z = 0 F = AEYn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-free rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 k z l ﬁxed-elasticaly supported rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = −kYn z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free shaft for for I z = 0 T = GJYn = 0 I z = l T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed free shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 I T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 .

. let us consider the ﬁxed on both ends shaft (last row of the above Table).41 becomes linearly dependant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily.45) l l l Taking advantage of equation 3. β n = .. . The ﬁrst mode is called fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural frequency.. . In the case of free vibrations of the shaft. Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution.say Sn = 1. Since β n and l are always positive. according to 3.. Cn has to be equal to 0. n = 1.. β2 = .36. ..44) This equation is called characteristic equation and has inﬁnite number of solution.41) ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 1 Sn 0 (3.47) l The functions Yn (z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding roots ω n are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies.46) ωn = β n l For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3. 2. .42) = sin β n l cos β n l 0 Cn This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.40) Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3. A few ﬁrst of them are shown in Fig.. .39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be p β n = ωn G s s G nπ G = n = 1... in the case considered is nπ Yn (z) = sin β n z = sin z n = 1..41. in this particular case we have sin β n l = 0 (3.∞ (3..43) ¯ sin β n l cos β n l ¯ = 0 Hence.36..∞ (3. according to the ﬁrst equation of the set 3.. For this case the boundary conditions are for for z = 0 z = l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 (3... results in a set of two homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Sn and Cn . 2.. only positive roots of the above equation has the physical meaning π 2π nπ β1 = . The above analysis allows to conclude that a continuous system possesses inﬁnite number of the natural frequencies and inﬁnite number of the corresponding natural modes. 2..ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 171 To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes.. ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ (3..∞ (3... 0 = 0 · Sn + 1 · Cn 0 = (sin β n l)Sn + (cos β n l)Cn Its matrix form is ∙ (3...... If one choose arbitrarily Sn . the natural modes determine the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z). 5 .

8 z 1 -0.49 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiII (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjII (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3. Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.52) .33 −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n Hence −ω 2 Yi (z) − λ2 YiII (z) = 0 i 2 −ω j Yj (z) − λ2 YjII (z) = 0 (3.49) Premultiplying the equation 3.51) j 0 0 Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields Z ³¡ ¡ 2 ¢¯l ¡ I ¢¯ ´ ¢ l 2 2 I ¯ − YJ (z)Yi (z) ¯l = 0 ωi − ωj Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ 0 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 172 1 ϕ (z) 0.6 0.5 z l=1 -1 Figure 5 Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).50) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts.4 0.48 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.5 0 0.2 0.48) (3. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 I ¯ − λ2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ´ ¯l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJI (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 (3.

32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. to fulﬁll initial conditions we need second set of linearly independent solution. yn (z.57) Hence.∞ (3. It the same manner as it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form the required linearly independent set of solution. This operation results in the following two equations. 2..31 can be adopted in the following form y(z.56) Since the equation 3. Y0 (z) = V0 (z) = ∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1 Cn Yn (z) Sn ωn Yn (z) (3.59) ∂t To produce the constant Sn and Cn let us introduce the solution 3.. the general solution of the equation 3. General solution of the homogeneous equation According to 3.31 eventually may be adopted in the following form. t) = Yn (z) sin ωn t n = 1. 0) = Y0 (z) y(z.58) This solution has to fulﬁll the initial conditions. 2.31 is of second order with respect to time.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 173 It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to zero ¡ I ¢¯l ¡ ¢¯l Yi (z)Yj (z) ¯0 − YJI (z)Yi (z) ¯0 = YiI (l)Yj (l)−YiI (0)Yj (0)−YJI (l)Yi (l)+YJI (0)Yi (0) = 0 (3. The initial conditions determine the initial position Y0 (z) and the initial velocity V0 (z) of the system considered for the time t equal to zero.54) 0 The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition.60) .58 into the above initial conditions. 3. y(z. t) = Yn (z) cos ωn t n = 1. ∂ y(z.. yn (z. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3..55) At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce inﬁnite number of such particular solutions. 0) = V0 (z) (3.∞ (3. 3.. t) = ∞ X n=1 Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t + Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3...53) Hence..

is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.64) ∂t2 ∂z 4 This equation can be classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).63) ¢l R ¡ ω n l sin nπ z 2 dz 0 l Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. t) (3. let us predict the solution of the above equation in the form of a product of two functions.2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 174 To determine the unknown constants Sn and Cn .2 Free vibrations of beams For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be ∂ 2 y(z.61) 0 3. Its order with respect to time is 2 and with respect to z is equal to 4.65) ∂t2 ∂z 4 Boundary conditions . The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of 3. One of them is a function of the position z and the other is the function of time t. t) ∂ 4 y(z.62) Sn = Rl 2 ωn Yn (z)dz 0 n=1 ∞ X n=1 0 Sn ω n Z l Yn (z)Ym (z)dz (3. t) + λ2 =0 (3. the equation 3.64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions. let us multiply the above equations by Ym (z) and then integrate them side by side Z l ∞ X Z l Y0 (z)Ym (z)dz = Cn Yn (z)Ym (z)dz 0 Z l V0 (z)Ym (z)dz = 0 For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae.54 the wanted constants Sn and Cn are Rl Y0 (z)Yn (z)dz Cn = 0 R l Y 2 (z)dz 0 n Rl 1 0 V0 (z)Yn (z)dz (3. t) + λ2 = q(z. The general solution. a function of two variables. If the external excitation q(z.64.47. according to 3. y(z. take form Rl Y (z) sin nπ zdz 0 0 Cn = R l ¡ ¢l2 nπ sin l z dz 0 Rl 1 0 V0 (z) sin nπ zdz Sn = (3.66) . t) ∂ 4 y(z.natural frequencies and natural modes Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts. t) = 0. ∂ 2 y(z.

69) (3.68 yields the characteristic equation Alternatively.72) (3.71) (3.70) (3.73) Introduction of this solution into the equation 3.67) ω2 Aρ 2 n ω 2 = EJ n λ The standard form of its particular solution is Y (z) = erz r4 = β 4 n Its roots r1 = β n Y1 (z) = eβ n z determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution. one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solutions eβ n z − e−β n z eβ n z + e−β n z = sinh β n z Y2 (z) = = cosh β n z Y1 (z) = 2 2 eiβ n z − e−iβ n z eiβ n z + e−iβ n z Y3 (z) = = sin β n z Y2 (z) = = cos β n z (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 175 Introduction of the predicted solution 3. 6.74) 2 2 A graphical interpretation of these functions for β n = 1 is given in Fig.68) (3.66 into equation 3. Y2 (z) = e−β n z Y3 (z) = eiβ n z Y1 (z) = e−iβ n z r2 = −β n r3 = iβ n r2 = −iβ n (3. 4 Y (z) 1 Y (z) 2 2 Y (z) 3 Y (z) 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 z -2 -4 Figure 6 .65 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n or where Y IV (z) − β 4 Y (z) = 0 n β4 = n (3.

They involve the function Y (z) and its ﬁrst three derivatives with respect to z. Cn and Dn should be chosen to fulﬁll boundary conditions.76) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z (3. one has to produce four boundary conditions reﬂecting the conditions at both ends of the beam.78) I Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z = Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.2.75) Values for the parameter β n as well as for the constants An . Bn .79) The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3. Table 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 176 The general solution of the equation 3. Since this equation is of fourth order. as a linear combination of these particular solutions is Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3.2 O l Y z free-free beam O l Y z for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 Y I (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 Y (l) = 0 Y I (l) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = −kY (0) M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = +kY (l) ﬁxed-free beam O l Y z pined-ﬁxed beam O k l Y k z elasticaly supported beam . Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3.68.77) II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n (3.

. Solution of this equation. Cn and Dn ..78 and 3. These two modes..85) ..84) Introduction of the functions 3.81.. Modes corresponding to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure. Bn . ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 0 β2 0 −β 2 0 An n n 3 ⎢ β3 ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 −β n 0 ⎢ n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β 2 sinh β n l β 2 cosh β n l −β 2 sin β n l −β 2 cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ (3. it is possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example An ) and the other can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3.83) This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has inﬁnite number of roots. Since the beam considered is free-free in space. becomes linearly dependant.73 β 2 l = 7. 7 The ﬁrst few roots are β 0 l = 0 β 1 l = 4. this root is associated with the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. Therefore..81.80) They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal to zero. corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig.85 β 3 l = 11. within a limited range of the parameter β n l is shown in Fig. 8a) and b). takes the following form cosh β n l cos β n l − 1 = 0 (3. third and fourth equation we are getting ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = − ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ An sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn ⎡ (3.. since its characteristic determinant is zero. This condition forms the characteristic equation ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 0 −1 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ 0 −1 0 ¯ ¯ (3.. for for for for z z z z =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 (3. For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3.81) n n n n 0 Dn β 3 cosh β n l β 3 sinh β n l −β 3 cos β n l β 3 sin β n l n n n n As one can see from the diagram 7. the characteristic equation has double root of zero magnitude.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 177 Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the freefree beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes. after simpliﬁcation.79 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants An . (3. If we take advantage of the second.82) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ cosh β n l sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l ¯ that.

017 8 ⎣ C1 ⎦ = ⎣ cosh 4.73z − 1.0 ⎦ cosh 4. C1 and D1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ B1 1 0 −1 0 1.0177 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 178 20 cosh βn l cosβn l -1=0 10 β0 l 0 β1 l 5 β2 l β3 l 10 15 βn l -10 -20 Figure 7 Hence. according to Eq.0177 cos 4.73z + 1.73 ⎦ ⎣ sinh 4.73 − cos 4.73z (3.73 ⎦ = ⎣ −1. t) = Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.89) n Aρ l2 Aρ Eventually.0 sin 4.85 and β 3 l = 11 are shown in Fig. for An = −1 we have ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn (3.73 D1 sinh 4.73 sin 4. 3.0 sinh 4. the particular solution is y(z.90) .75 is Y1 (z) = −1.73 1. the corresponding mode. In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic roots.86) For the ﬁrst non-zero root β 1 l = 4.88) Its graphical representation is shown in Fig.73 − cos 4. taking into account the predicted solution 3.73 − sin 4.0178 cosh 4. The formula 3. s s EJ (β n l)2 EJ ωn = β 2 = (3.66. 8d) and e) respectively. 8c).69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed.87) Hence.73 the above set of equations yields values for constants B1 .73z + 1. Modes for β 2 l = 7.

8 1 c) 1 Y (z) 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y2 (z) 0.2 0.2 0.8 1 2 1 Y3 (z) e) 0 -1 -2 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.8 1 Figure 8 .8 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y0 (z) z b) 0 -1 -2 2 0.4 z 0.4 z 0.6 0.4 0.4 z 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 179 2 Y0 (z) 1 a) 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 z d) 0 -1 -2 0.2 0.6 0.

73z + 1.65. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 III ¯ − λ2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ −ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 j 0 0 (3.0 sin 4....96) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 180 where Yn (z) and ωn are uniquely determined and Sn is an arbitrarily chosen constant. Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.95 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiIV (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l −ω 2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjIV (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3....0 sinh 4......67 −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n Hence −ω2 Yi (z) + λ2 YiIV (z) = 0 i −ω 2 Yj (z) + λ2 YjIV (z) = 0 j (3....95) Premultiplying the equation 3.91) where is the linearly independent particular solution too.. ...73z + 1.92) n=1 Y1 (z) = −1. t) = Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3....93) Y2 (z) = . It follows that the following linear combination n=∞ X Yn (z) (Sn sin ωn t + Cn cos ω n t) (3.0177 cos 4. Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).94) (3.73z (3....... The constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions.73z − 1. In the same manner we can show that the function y(z........0178 cosh 4....97) ..... is the general solution of the equation 3.94 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.

101) 0 The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations. It is easy to show that for any possible boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero. Hence. .100) depends exclusively on boundary conditions.99) The expression ³ ³ ³ ¯l ´ 2 ³ II ¯´ ¯´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ +λ Yi (z)YjI (z)¯l +λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯l −λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l −λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 0 0 0 (3.98) Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields ¢Rl ¡ 2 ω i − ω 2 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz+ ´ j ³ ³ ¯l ¯l ´ −λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 ³ ³ ¯l ´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ − λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l = 0 +λ Yj (z)Yi (z) 0 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 181 Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again ³ ¯l ´ Rl −ω 2 0 Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + i ³ ¯l ´ Rl −λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 −ω j R 2 l ¯l ´ Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 + 0 ³ ¯l ´ Rl 2 II I −λ Yj (z)Yi (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 ³ (3. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.

ρ2.3 Problems Problem 41 G1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 182 3. J1 G2. ρ1. A2. J2 z l1 l2 Figure 9 For the shaft shown in Fig. . 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies. A1.2.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 183 Solution For 0 < z < l1 (3. t) ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.106) where λ2 = 2 G2 2 (3. t) = Φ1 (z) sin ω n t ϕ2 (z.111) ωn ωn β n2 = (3. t) − λ2 =0 1 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 1 Similarly. is governed by the following equation ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.104) (3.107) Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies.112) λ1 λ2 These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions for for for for z z z z = = = = 0 l1 l1 l1 + l2 Φ1 (0) = 0 Φ1 (l1 ) = Φ2 (l1 ) G1 J1 ΦI (l1 ) = G2 J2 ΦI (l1 ) 1 2 ΦI (l1 + l2 ) = 0 2 (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.105) (3.109) Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular .108) (3.34. ΦII (z) + β 2 Φ1 (z) = 0 1 n1 II Φ2 (z) + β 2 Φ2 (z) = 0 n2 where β n1 = (3. according to 3.19. t) 2 ∂ ϕ2 (z. according to 3. one may say that within range l1 < z < l1 + l2 motion of the shaft is governed by 2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 (z.103) G1 1 (3.110) (3.102) motion of the system.113) The ﬁrst boundary condition reﬂects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is ﬁxed. Therefore the particular solution of the above equations must be of the following form ϕ1 (z. t) = Φ2 (z) sin ω n t (3.

116) (3.115) (3.111are ωn ωn z + Cn1 cos z λ1 λ1 ωn ωn Φ2 (z) = Sn2 sin z + Cn2 cos z λ2 λ2 Φ1 (z) = Sn1 sin the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations Cn1 = 0 Sn1 sin ωn l1 + Cn1 cos ωn l1 − Sn2 sin ωn l2 − Cn2 cos ωn l2 = 0 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 Sn1 G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 − Cn1 G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 + λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 −Sn2 G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 + Cn2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 +Sn2 ωn cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) − Cn2 ωn sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 Its matrix for is ⎤ Sn1 ⎢ C ⎥ [A] ⎢ n1 ⎥ = 0 ⎣ Sn2 ⎦ Cn2 1 0 ωn cos λ1 l1 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 ωn 0 cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ⎡ (3. ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 ⎢ sin ωn l1 λ1 [A] = ⎢ ⎣ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 0 the non-zero solutions if and only if its char0 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ2 λ2 ωn cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 0 − cos ωn l2 λ2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯= 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ⎤ 0 ⎥ − cos ωn l2 λ2 ⎥ ωn ωn G2 J2 λ2 sin λ2 l1 ⎦ − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 . This homogeneous set of equations has acteristic determinant is equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 184 displacement and continuity of the torque.118) Solution of this equation for the roots ω n yields the wanted natural frequencies of the shaft. Since the general solution of equation 3.110 and 3.117) where ⎡ (3. The last condition says that the torque at the free end is zero.114) (3.

Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this assembly. is connected to the block 2 of mass m. shown in Fig.A . .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 185 Problem 42 1 E. 10.ρ l 2 m z Figure 10 The uniform rod 1 .

t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. t) ¯ ¯ = −AE ∂y(z.123) (3. according to Eq.t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯ = −AE ∂z ¯ z=l (3. taking advantage of the relationship 3. 3.121) or. is m ∂ 2 y(l. ( y(0. 11). 3. t) = −F (l.t) y y(l. l F(l.t) m z Figure 11 Equation of motion of the block.119) (3. t) = ¯ 0 ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. is ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂t2 (3.119.122) This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod (3. t) = 0 forms boundary conditions for the equation 3.12. t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=l ∂z ¯z=l y(0.125) .120) To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted inﬁnitesimal element (see Fig.8 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.t) ¯ ∂y(z.124) z=l Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. according to the Newton’s law.32) y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 186 Solution The equation of motion of the rod. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = E (3.

131) For the following numerical data l = 1m E = 2.133) .127) βn = ωn λ (3.mass of the block the characteristic equation takes the following form ³ ω ´ 5059.mass of the rod m = 20kg . after taking advantage of 3. according to 3. 12.119 and the boundary conditions 3.1 × 1011 N/m2 A = 25 × 10−4 m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 q λ = E = 5188.126) The general solution of the equation 3.132) ωn ωn ωn z − AE cos z = 0 λ λ λ (3.126.0 n f (ωn ) = tan =0 − 5188.126.7m/s ρ mr = A × l × ρ = 19. n with boundary conditions ½ Y (0) = 0 mω2 Y (l) − AEY I (l) = 0 n (3. is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z (3.130) Hence.7 ωn Its solution f (ω = 0 is shown in Fig. the characteristic equation.124 yields the ordinary diﬀerential equation Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0.36. is (3. (3.5kg .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 187 into the equation of motion 3.128) Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields ½ Cn = 0 mω2 (Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z) − AE (Sn β n cos β n z − Cn β n sin β n z) = 0 n (3.129) or ¢ ¡ 2 mω n sin β n z − AEβ n cos β n z Sn = 0 mω 2 sin n or after simpliﬁcation tan ωn AE l− =0 λ λωn m (3.

5 -1 Figure 12 The ﬁrst three natural frequencies. 14 and 15 respectively. according to 3. are Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z = Sn sin ωn ωn z = Sn sin z λ 5188.1 × 1011 × 25 × 10−4 ω1 = (3.5 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 ωn -0. ω 2 = 17720.7 Y2 (z) = sin 17720 z 5188. ω1 = 33400 s−1 (3. . the system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is r r r k EA 2. according to the diagram 12 are ω1 = 4400.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 188 1 f( ω n ) 0.If we neglect the mass of the rod.7 Y3 (z) = sin 33400 z 5188.134) The corresponding natural modes.135) For the ﬁrst three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = sin 4400 z 5188. 13.7 (3.7 (3.128.137) = = = 5123s−1 m lm 20 and the corresponding mode is a straight line.136) are presented in Fig.

2 0.5 0 -0.6 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.8 1 -1 Figure 13 1 Y2 (z) 0.8 1 -1 Figure 15 .8 1 -1 Figure 14 1 Y3 (z) 0.6 0.5 0.5 0 -0.4 z 0.2 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 189 1 Y (z) 1 0.4 z 0.5 0.4 z 0.5 0 -0.

16 O z k l y Figure 16 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 190 Problem 43 Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxedelastically supported beam shown in Fig.

17. Hence.65. t) ¯ ¯ =0 M(z.140) (3. t) ¯ ¯ = ∂ EJ ∂ y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 191 Solution According to the equation 3. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z.142) ∂z 2 ¯z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ∂M(z.141) The right hand end.t)| z=l V(z. t) ¯ = ky(z. t)|z=l = E(z)J(z) (3.144) . the equation of motion of the beam is ∂ 2 y(z.139 into the above boundary conditions yields ¯ III α Yn (z)¯z=l − Yn (z)|z=l = 0 (3. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero.t)|z=l y dz z z Figure 17 conditions for the element dz which have to be fulﬁll for any instant of time. t)| V (z. t) ∂ 4 y(z. y(z. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z.t)| z=l k l k y(z. Equilibrium O M(z.143) z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ∂z ∂z ∂z z=l z=l Yn (z)|z=0 = 0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 = 0 ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = 0 Introduction of the solution 3. is shown in Fig. forms the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.139) (3. with the forces acting on it.138) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. t)|z=l = (3.

150) sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ ¯ 3 3 3 3 ¯ β α cosh β l β n α sinh β n l −β n α cos β n l β n α sin β n l ¯ n n ¯ ¯ ¯ − sinh β l ¯ − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l n .76 to 3.148) The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎢ ⎣ β 3 α cosh β n l β 3 α sinh β n l −β 3 α cos β n l β 3 α sin β n l n n n n − sinh β n l − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ An ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Cn ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Dn (3. Cn and Dn . β4 = n Bn + Dn = 0 An + Cn = 0 2 2 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β n cosh β n l − Cn β n sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l = 0 n An β 3 α cosh β n l + Bn β 3 α sinh β n l − Cn β 3 α cos β n l + Dn β 3 α sin β n l n n n n −(An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l) = 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 192 EJ (3. Bn . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 (3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are α= Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 n (3.146) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z where where (see Eq. 3.145) k According to the equations 3.149) ⎤ 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0 The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.147) ω 2 = EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.144 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .

0525β 3 cos β n n n n ¯ ¯ − sinh β n − cosh β n − sin β n 1 0 − cos β n .151) Solution of this equation for its roots β n is presented in Fig.888m−1 The relationship 3.884m−1 β 3 = 7.0525β 3 cosh β .147 β4 = n Aρ 2 ω EJ n (3.03 × 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 193 For the following data E = 2.18 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 β n -100 -200 Figure 18 From this diagram the ﬁrst three roots are β 1 = 2.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.01 = 2.01 = 0.0525β n sinh β n −.03×0.0003m2 3 J = 0.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.1×10 10000 = 0.152) .942m−1 β 2 = 4.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.0525 k the characteristic equation takes form ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ sinh β n cosh β n − sin β n ¯ 3 ¯ .0525β 3 sin β n n − cos β n ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.

888z + 1 cos 7.0s−1 ω2 = Aρ (3.884z − 1.0 ⎦ .02 1.154) ⎣ Cn ⎦ 0 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l 1 ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ 1 0 1 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 1 An ⎣ Bn ⎦ = − ⎣ 1 0 Cn sinh β n l cosh β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ An 1 ⎦=⎣ Bn ⎦ + ⎣ 0 − cos β n l Cn ⎤−1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 − cos β n l − sin β n l ⎤ 0 0 ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎦ (3.02 sinh 4. ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ An ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ Bn ⎥ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 1 0 (3.884z − 1.158) The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig.883 1.g.884z + 1 cos 4.883 sin 2.884z Y3 (z) = 1.3s−1 ω2 = Aρ s β 4 EJ 3 = 932.942z Y2 (z) = 1.0 cosh 2. 19 .883 −1.888z − 1.149 becomes linearly dependant.157) Introducing them into the ﬁrst function of 3.0 sin 7.02 −1. Dn = 1) and the last equation can be crossed out.0 (3.155) (3.0 ⎦ C1 C2 C3 −.942z − .942z − 1. Bn . ⎣ B3 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.146 and remembering that Dn = 1.0 sinh 7.888z − 1. we are getting the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = .6s−1 Aρ s β 4 EJ 2 = 357.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 194 oﬀers values for the wanted natural frequencies s β 4 EJ 1 ω1 = = 129.02 sin 4.153) For each of these roots the set of equations 3. ⎣ B2 ⎦ = ⎣ −1. The three remaining equations allow the constants An .942z + 1 cos 2.156) For the ﬁrst three roots the numerical values of these constants are ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ A1 .0 ⎦ .0 A2 A3 ⎣ B1 ⎦ = ⎣ −1. and Cn to be computed.883 sinh 2.888z (3.0 cosh 7. Hence one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.0 cosh 4.

2 Y2 (z) Y3 (z) 0.6 0.8 1 0 -1 -2 Figure 19 .4 z 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 195 2 1 Y1 (z) 0.

G. Answer: GJo ωn 2 kL2 λ cot ωn l + 1 = 0 where λ2 = G λ ρ . Its right hand end is supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to two springs each of the stiﬀness k. 20 is ﬁxed. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the shaft.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 196 Problem 44 ρ . Jo 1 2 2 z k l L k Figure 20 The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig.

G.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 197 Problem 45 2 2 ρ . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly. Jo 1 z l Figure 21 Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig. The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I. 21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of the length l. Answer: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ βn αn ¯ ¯ ¯ β n cos β n l − αn sin β n l −β n sin β n l − αn cos β n l ¯ = 0 p Iω2 where β n = ω n G αn = GJn o .

160) Solution According to the equation 3. t) ¯ ¯ = E(z)J(z) ∂z 2 ¯ 2 (3. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. E.159) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: p λ = EJ sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 β n = ωn λ Aρ ∂ 2 y(z. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. t)|z=l ¯ ∂ y(z. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. A. t)|z=l = 0 M(z.162) The right hand end The displacement and the bending moment has to be equal to zero. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z.163) =0 z=l (3.160 into the above boundary conditions yields Yn (z)|z=0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 Yn (z)|z=l ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.65. y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 198 Problem 46 l. 22. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. the equation of motion of the beam is (3.164) Introduction of the solution 3. Hence. t) ∂ 4 y(z.165) .161) (3. Hence. y(z. ρ z l y Figure 22 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. J.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 199 According to the equations 3. Cn and Dn .167) 2 EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.166) where (see Eq.168) ⎡ ⎤ 0 An ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bn ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Cn ⎦ 0 Dn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. 3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 ω = n = (3. Bn . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯=0 (3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.169) The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.170) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sinh β l cosh β l − sin β l − cos β l ¯ n n n n β n l sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 where: (3.76 to 3. β4 n Bn + Dn An + Cn An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β 2 cosh β n l − Cn β 2 sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l n n n The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l -sin β n l -cos β n l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.171) A development of the above determinant results in the following equation for the unknown parameter β n l .165 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .

173) r ωn λ λ= EJ Aρ (3.172) .171 allows the natural frequences to be produced ωn = λβ 2 = λ n (β n l)2 EJ = (β l)2 l2 Aρl2 n (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 200 βn = The roots β n l of the equation 3.

ρ z l y Figure 24 . E.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 201 Problem 47 1 ρ . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies. A l 2 k z Figure 23 The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. A. 23 is supported by means of the massless spring of stiﬀness k. Problem 48 l. E. J.

24. the boundary conditions for the equation (1) Answer: for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y 00 = 0 0 for z = l (3) Y = 0 (4) Y 000 = 0 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 202 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: cosβl = 0 q EJ where β = 4 Aρω2 . Produce: 1.

ρ1 λ2 = q G2 ρ2 . β 1 = λ2 G ρ JO1 ρ1 Iz . their shear modulus G 1 and G 2 and the second polar moment of area J O1 and J O2 respectively. Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = G . JO2 Figure 25 The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig. where. t) ∂ 2 ϕ(z. G2. G1. The dynamic properties of the shafts are deﬁned by their density ρ1 and ρ2 . λ1 = q G1 . β2 = JO2 ρ2 Iz .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 203 Problem 49 1 2 3 z ρ1 .shear modulus ρ — density Answer: ωn β 1 cot λ1 l+β 2 cot ωn l = 1. The diﬀerential equation of motion of a shaft is. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described. 25 are welded to a motionless wall. ∂ 2 ϕ(z. This assembly performs the torsional vibration about axis z. JO1 l ρ2 . The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I z .

26 of length l. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the system described. . At the position deﬁned by the distance a the element 2 is attached. This element can be treated as a particle of mass m.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 204 Problem 50 m z 1 a l y T 2 Figure 26 The string 1 shown in Fig. density ρ and area of its cross-section A is under the constant tension T.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 205 Solution ∂y2 ( z.178) (3.176) (3. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z.t)|z=a T T a l T ∂y1 ( z.t)|z=a=y2(z.179) (3. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.t) y1(z. t ) |z = a ∂z y1(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Similarly.t) y2(z.177) T Aρ (3. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3. in the region a<z<l the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z.180) (3. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z. t ) | z =a ∂z z y Figure 27 Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0<z<a be ∂ 2 y1 (z.174) (3.175) (3.181) where ω n stands for the natural frequency that is common for both parts of the string. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where T Aρ Solutions of the above equations are of the following form λ2 = y1n (z. .

180 and 3. t) |z=a ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.189 and 3.190 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β n a) S1n + (cos β n a) C1n − (sin β n a) S2n − (cos β n a) C2n = 0 (−mω 2 sin β n a + T β n cos β n a) S1n + (−mω2 sin β n a − T β n sin β n a) C1n + n n − (T β n cos β n a) S2n + (T β n sin β n a) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β n l) S2n + (cos β n l) C2n = 0 (3.180 into the conditions 3.193) (3.194) 00 (3. t) ¯ ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=a y2n (z.187) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 206 These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0.188) (3.189) (3.181 into the equations 3.190) z=a Introduction of the solutions 3. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ = −T +T ∂z ¯z=a ∂z ¯z=a = 0 (3.196) ¯ 0 ¯ + T Y2n (z)¯ z=a .195) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. t) |z=0 y1n (z.181 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=a = Y2n (z) |z=a ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ −mω 2 Y1n (z)¯z=a = −T Y1n (z)¯ n Y2n (z) |z=l = 0 (3.178 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n where ω2 Aρω 2 n n = 2 T λ The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows β2 = n Y1n (z) = S1n sin β n z + C1n cos β n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β n z + C2n cos β n z Introduction of the solutions 3.184) (3.183) (3. t) ¯ ∂y2 (z. z = l) and compatibility conditions at z = a. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β n a cos β n a − sin β n a − cos β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ −mω2 sin β n a + ¯=0 −mω 2 sin β n a + n n ¯ −T β n cos β n a T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ +T β n cos β n a −T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β n l cos β n l ¯ (3. They are y1n (z.182) (3.186) (3.192) (3.191) (3. t) |z=l = 0 = y2n (z. t) |z=a ¯ ¯ ∂y1 (z.185) Introduction of the solutions 3.175 and 3.

188 allow the natural frequencies to be produced s T ωn = β n Aρ .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 207 Roots β n of the above equation. with help of the relationship 3.

A1 ρ2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 208 Problem 51 ρ1. Produce the natural frequencies of the system described and the corresponding natural modes . Their dynamic properties are determined by the density and the area of their cross-section A. A2 1 l1 y 2 l2 T z Figure 28 Two strings of length l1 and l2 are loaded with tension T .

201) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 209 Solution Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0 < z < l1 be ∂ 2 y1 (z. the above conditions can rewritten as follows y1n (z.203) These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z.197) (3. t) ¯ ¯ + = 0 ∂z ¯ z=l1 ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. Since dm stands for an inﬁnitesimal mass of this element. z = l1 + l2 ) and compatibility conditions at z = l1 .202) (3.199) Solutions of the above equations are of the following form y1n (z. t) ¯ ¯ +T ∂z ¯z=l1 (3. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ dm = −T ∂t2 ¯ ∂z ¯ z=l1 z=l1 y2n (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z. They are y1n (z.198) where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z.204) The third condition we are getting by application of the Newton law to the element of the string associated with z = l1 . t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 T A1 ρ1 (3.200) (3. in the region l1 < z < l1 + l2 the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 . t) ¯ ¯ − ∂z ¯z=l1 (3. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z.205) y2n (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ∂y2 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 ¯ ∂y2 (z. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 2 T A2 ρ2 (3.

203 into the conditions 3.209 and 3.207) (3.208) The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows Y1n (z) = S1n sin β 1n z + C1n cos β 1n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β 2n z + C2n cos β 2n z Introduction of the solutions 3.198 and 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β 1n l1 cos β 1n l1 − sin β 2n l1 − cos β 2n l1 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.201 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n1 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n2 where β2 = 1n ω2 A1 ρ1 ω 2 n n .203 into the equations 3. the equation can be solved for the natural frequencies of the string.209) (3.213) ¯ β 1n cos β 1n l1 −β 1n sin β 1n l1 −β 2n cos β 2n l1 +β 2n sin β 2n l1 ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) ¯ Introducing 3. The solution is presented for the following set of numerical data.206) (3.210 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n + (cos β 1n l1 ) C1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 1n sin β 1n l1 ) C1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.205 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=l1 = Y2n (z) |z=l1 ¯ 0 ¯ + Y2n (z)¯ = 0 z=l1 (3.208 into the above equation we haveβ 1n = ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ωn cos ωn l1 − ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 0 0 ωn λ2 0 0 ωn − sin λ2 l1 − cos ωn l1 λ2 − ωn cos ωn l1 + ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) λ2 λ2 Now. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯=0 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.214) .210) ¯ ¯ −Y1n (z)¯ 0 z=l1 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 210 Introduction of the solutions 3. = 2 T λ1 β2 = 2n ω2 A2 ρ2 ω 2 n n = 2 T λ2 00 (3.211) Y2n (z) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 Introduction of the solutions 3.212) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.

18m/s −6 2·10−6 7800 1 2 ¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¢ ¢ ¡ .5m. ω 4 = 1861.5 1 1 cos 179 ωn − 179 sin 179 ω n −¡ 1 cos 253 ωn ¢ +¡1 sin 253 ωn ¢ ¯ 179 253 253 ¯ 1 1 0 0 sin 253.5 ¡ .)ω n ¯ (3.5 ¡ . A2 = 1 · 10−6 m2 . l2 = 1. They are ω 1 = 483. q q q q T 500 T λ1 = A1 ρ = 179.5 ¢ . C1n .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 211 l1 = .03m/s. 1 = 2 = 7800kg/m3 .217) .)ω n cos 253 (.215) The magnitude of the determinant as a function of the frequency ω n is presented in Fig. ω2 = 920.m.5 sin 179 ω n ¢ cos 179 ω n ¢ − sin 253 ω n ¢ − cos 253 ω n ¢ ¯ ¯=0 ¡ . C2n can be computed from the homogeneous set of linear equations 3. S2n .5 ¡ .5 + 1. 29 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡0 ¡1 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 frequency [rad/s] -5 -10 Figure 29 It allows the natural frequencies to be determined. ω5 = 2344[rad/s] (3. A1 = 2 · 10−6 m2 .5 ¢ ¡ . (.5 + 1.216) The so far unknown constants S1n . T = 500N. ω3 = 1437. λ2 = A2 ρ = 1·105007800 = 253.5 .212. From the ﬁrst equation one can see that the constant C1n must be equal to zero C1n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.

5 = 0.5 = 0.13 β 22 = ω2 = 253.899 22 for 0 < z < 0.03 = 2.5−(sin 3.03 = λ1 cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) cos β 23 l1 −(sin β 23 l1 ) sin β (l +l ) 8.15 S12 = (sin β 12 l1 ) (sin 5.697·0. C2n = 1 The set of equations for determination of the remaining constants S1n and S2n is (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n = cos β 2n l1 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) Hence S2n = S1n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) β (l1 +l2 ) cos β 2n l1 − (sin β 2n l1 ) cos β 2n(l1 +l2 ) sin 2n (sin β 1n l1 ) For n = 1.944 sin 8.48 sin 2.675·1. one of them must be crossed out and one of the constant can be assumed arbitrarily.63z f or0.5 sin 3.67z f or 0.907·1.63 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 22 l1 −(sin β 22 l1 ) sin β 22(l 1+l 2) cos 3. 30 .63·0.675·1.907·1.5 < z < 1.5 21 1 2 = = 3.697 β 21 = ω2 = 253.5−(sin 1.675·1.5 < z < 1.026·0.5 < z < 1.46Y11 (z) 21 for 0 < z < 0.18 = 1.5 sin 1.13·0.63·1. β 13 = ω3 1437 = 179.5 n=3 ω3 = 1437.5 Y12 (z) = S12 sin β 12 z = 1.91 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 21 l1 −(sin β 21 l1 ) sin β 21(l 1+l 2) cos 1.5) − cos β 21 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 1.773 23 Y13 (z) = S13 sin β 13 z = 0.5 cos 5.46 sin 1.675·1.63·1.907·1.697z Y21 (z) = S21 sin β 21 z + 1 cos β 21 z = 3.48 S11 = (sin β 11 l1 ) (sin 2.5) − cos β 22 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 3.5 = 3.5 Y23 (z) = S23 sin β 23 z + 1 cos β 23 z = 0. Hence let us crossed out the second equation and assume C2n = 1.63·1.5 sin = (sin 8. 3 the constants S1n and S2n are n=1 ω 1 = 483.5) cos 3.773 sin 5. β 11 = ω1 483 483 1 = 179.5) cos 1.18 = 3.91z for 0.67 λ2 5.5) cos 5.907·1.026 23 1 2 = 0.5 22 1 2 = = 1. β 12 = ω2 920 920 2 = 179.907·0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 212 Since the equations is linearly dependent for roots of its characteristic determinant.67z + 1 cos 5.03 = 5.5) β 23 = A plot of the natural modes is shown in Fig.63·1.5 S23 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 5.63·0.5−(sin 5.91z + 1 cos 1.5 S22 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 3.13z Y22 (z) = S22 sin β 22 z + 1 cos β 22 z = 0.675·0.899 sin 3.5 Y11 (z) = S11 sin β 11 z = 3.675·0.907·0. 2.63z + 1 cos 3.18 = 5.944 S13 = (sin β 13 l1 ) − cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 5.5 n=2 ω2 = 920.5 S21 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 1.026z for 0 < z < 0.5 ω3 1437 = 253.15 sin 5.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 213 n a tu ra l m o d e s 4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 0 .5 1 1 .5 -2 z [m ] Figure 30 .

.3... the beam is divided into a suﬃcient.. 31) associated with an arbitrary chosen number N of points. the equivalence of shearing deﬂections (yri = yei ) caused by the same shearing force Ti (Fig...... 32....b)...219) Mi li 2EJi and δ ei = Mi 2kMi (3..220) . 33a) and its model (Fig.....The most popular approaches for creation of the stiﬀness and inertia matrices 1 2 ... 33b) requires equal angular deﬂection ( δri = δ ei ) caused by the same bending moment Mi . Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Rigid Element Method. 32a))The bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of stiﬀness kMi and kTi respectively (Fig... N yn ϕy n Figure 31 are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method.. Each section is considered rigid and its inertia properties are represented by mass mi and moments of inertia Ii . 32c)..1 Rigid Elements Method.. Since: δ ri = the bending stiﬀness is kMi = EJi li (3.. for necessary accuracy........ number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig ..221) li The right hand part of the segment li−1 and the left hand part of the subsequent segment li . form a section (Fig. In this kTi = Ti li GAi and yei = Ti kTi (3...DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 214 3..........218) Similarly. n ...... 3....3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiﬀness and inertia matrix of free in space beam along coordinates yn and ϕyn (see Fig... 33c and Fig.. the actual element (Fig............. Equivalence of both. 33d) yri = li γ ri = yields GAi (3. These distinguished points n are called nodes.

Ai Ti y ri Ti Ti ye i a) c) δri δe i 2δe i k Mi Mi Mi b) Ti kT i d) Figure 33 .... k T i+1 .... a) li kT i k Mi l i-1 /2 Gi l i/ 2 mi Ii mi Ii k Mi zli z ri z l i+1 m i+1 I i +1 k Mi+1 z ri+1 b) c) k T i -1 ........ li l i+1 ..DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 215 l i-1 . k Mi-1 z d) y Figure 32 E..Ji li Mi Mi li G..

˙ Mi−1... ˙ 0 K1. ˙ 0 0 0 .223) (3.i . ˙˙ . .. .226) (3. . ..DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 216 way a complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis. . ˙˙ ... ˙˙ .The coordinates yi . .222) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ k=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ Ki.i = 0 Ii 0 . .. ˙ MN.i−1 = ∙ +kTi−1 + kTi Ki.i Ki+1. ..i = +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri ∙ −kTi Ki.i+1 ..i+1 = −kTi zri ∙ −kTi−1 −kTi−1 zri−1 +kTi−1 zli −kMi−1 + kTi−1 zri−1 zli N =I +1 ¸ ∙ mi 0 Mi.i Ki... ˙ 0 0 .i−1 Ki. . 0 .. ...224) (3.. ˙ KN. Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig.i+1 . ˙˙ ... .N 0 . 34..1 ... ˙ 0 ⎡ y1 ⎢ : ⎢ ⎢ yi−1 ⎢ yb = ⎢ yi ⎢ ⎢ yi+1 ⎢ ⎣ : yN ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.225) (3.. ˙ 0 0 . ˙˙ .. ˙ 0 0 .227) ¸ (3.i 0 . +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri 2 +kMi−1 + kTi−1 zl2i + kTi zri ¸ +kTi zli+1 −kMi + kTi zli+1 zri ¸ ∙ yi yi = ϕyi . 32d) results in the following equations of motion. m¨ + ky = 0 y where: ⎡ M1. ˙ 0 . ˙˙ . ˙ 0 0 0 . . ˙ Ki−1.. .. ˙ 0 0 .1 .i−1 0 . ˙ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .230) (3.229) (3.231) The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 3. ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity of the rigid elements. ˙˙ .228) ¸ (3. ˙ 0 Mi. . ˙ 0 0 Mi+1. ˙ Ki−1. . ˙˙ . ˙ 0 0 0 .i−1 0 0 ..N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. .. 0 . . .231 is given in Fig. ˙ 0 Ki. ˙ 0 0 0 ..i+1 Ki+1..

ϕyi should be added to the mathematical model 3.232) . In a general case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on time (excitation forces). each of them (e. 35This equivalent set of forces along the nodal coordinates Fi Mi element i z node i yi ϕ yi Oi ai Fi y Figure 35 yi . Fi ) can be equivalently replaced by the force Fi applied to the node Oi and the moment Mi = ai · Fi as shown in Fig. The i − th element is shown in Fig. Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Finite Elements Method. the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following form. m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y 3. 36.3.g. Introducing notations Fs for the static forces and F(t) for the excitation forces.232.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 217 element 1 Oi node 1 element i element N z node i yi ϕ yi node N y Figure 34 Introduction of the external forces If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element.2 Finite Elements Method. (3. the shaft is divided into a number of the uniform and ﬂexible elements.

Introduction of solution 3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 218 1 z yi1 E i Ji Ai ρi yi2 ϕyi1 li y 2 ϕyi2 Figure 36 In this ﬁgure Ei . Ji . The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2.234 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Cj .234) The constants of integration Cj (j = 1. and ρi stand for Young modulus. 3.237) 6 3 (2yi1 li . The diﬀerential equation of the statically deﬂected line of the element in the plane yz is d4 y(z) Ei Ji =0 (3.233) dz 4 Integration of the above equation four times yields 1 1 y(z) = C1 z 3 + C2 z 2 + C3 z + C4 6 2 (3. second moment of area about the neutral axis. 2. = ϕyi2 (3. Ai .235) y(z)|z=0 = yi1 . ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡ yi1 C1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ C2 ⎥ = ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ (3. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 0 1 yi1 C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ C2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 2 i 1 2 C4 l li 1 0 ϕyi2 2 i ⎤ + li ϕyi1 − 2yi2 + li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ 2 2 (−3yi1 − 2li ϕyi1 + 3yi2 − li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ li ⎥ ⎦ ϕyi1 yi1 (3.236) ⎦ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 6 2 i 1 2 l li 1 0 C4 ϕyi2 2 i Its solution yields the integration constants Cj . 4) must be chosen to fulﬁll the following boundary conditions ¯ ¯ dy(z) ¯ dy(z) ¯ ¯ ¯ = ϕyi1 y(z)|z=li = yi2 . dz ¯z=0 dz ¯z=li The parameters yi1 and yi2 are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕi1 and ϕi2 are called nodal rotations. area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element.

241. These two matrices are going to be developed from the two following criterions: . H4 (see Eq. H3 .239) (3. H2 . y(z. 3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 219 After introduction of Eq.243) In the above equations ρi stands for the unit mass of the ﬁnite element and [mi ] and [ki ] stands for the inertia and stiﬀness matrix respectively. 3.242) (3. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates. the dynamic deﬂection line is approximated by the static deﬂection line.237 into the equation of the deﬂected line 3. " "µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # z z z z z y(z) = 1 − 3 yi1 + li ϕyi1 −2 +2 + li li li li li " µ ¶ " µ ¶ µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # 2 2 z z z z yi2 + − li ϕyi2 + 3 −2 + li li li li = {H(z)}T {y} (3.234 one may get it in the following form. it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated by the following equation. As it can be seen from Eq. t) ∂ 2 y(z. If the ﬁnite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz. t) − ρi =0 ∂z 4 ∂t2 by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates Ei Ji y [mi ] {¨ (t)} + [ki ] {y (t)} = 0. (3.239) are known as Hermite cubics or shape functions.238) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ where: ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 lz + 2 lz ⎪ i ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ∙³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ H1 ⎪ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 lz + lz ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ li i i H2 li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = {H(z)} = ⎪ H3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 lz − 2 lz ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ i ∙ ³i´ H4 li ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − lz + lz li i i ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 {y} = ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2 (3.241) As one can see from the equation 3.240) Functions H1 . The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues mathematical model of the element considered ∂ 4 y(z. 3. It should be noted that this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short. t) = {H(z)}T {y (t)} (3.238 the deﬂected line of the ﬁnite element is assembled of terms which are linear with respect to the nodal coordinates.

2. t) ρ = dz 2 0 i ∂t ∂t Z ´³ ´ 1 li ³ = ˙ ρi {y (t)}T {H(z)} {H(z)}T {y (t)} dz ˙ 2 0 ∙ Z li ¸ 1 T T = {y (t)} ρi ˙ {H(z)} {H(z)} dz {y (t)} ˙ 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎢ H2 H1 li 1 H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ˙ = {y (t)}T ⎜ρi ˙ 2 ⎝ ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 H4 H11 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li (3. The potential energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the potential energy of its discreet physical model. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element is µ ¶2 Z 1 li ∂y(z.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 220 1.245) In the last formula mi stands for mass of the ﬁnite element. 3. t) T = ρ dz 2 0 i ∂t µ ¶µ ¶ Z ∂y(z. ⎤ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎢ H2 H1 li H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dz = ρi 2 ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ 0 2 2 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 9 13 11 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 11 ⎢ l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = ρi li ⎢ 210 i 9 11 13 13 ⎣ li − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 11 9 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 ⎢ 11 l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = mi ⎢ 210 i 13 9 11 13 ⎣ l − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 i 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ mi (3. To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the . The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the kinetic energy of its discreet physical model.244) It is easy to see that the last row of Eq.244 represents kinetic energy function of the discreet physical model along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 with the following matrix of inertia. t) 1 li ∂y(z.

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

221

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element. µ 2 ¶2 Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) V = Ei Ji dz 2 0 ∂z 2 µ 2 ¶µ 2 ¶ Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) ∂ y(z, t) = dz Ei Ji 2 0 ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ! µ ½ 2 ¾¶ Ã½ 2 ¾T Z d H(z) d H(z) 1 li Ei Ji {y (t)}T {y (t)} dz = 2 0 dz 2 dz 2 " ¾½ 2 ¾T # Z li ½ 2 d H(z) d H(z) 1 {y (t)}T Ei Ji dz {y (t)} = 2 dz 2 dz 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 ⎤ ⎞ 00 00 00 00 00 00 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li ⎜ ⎢ H 00 H 00 li (H 00 )2 l2 H 00 H 00 li H 00 H 00 l2 ⎥ ⎟ 1 T ⎜ i 2 2 3 2 4 i ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ⎢ 200 100 = {y (t)} ⎝Ei Ji 00 00 00 00 00 ⎣ H H 2 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 0 3 1 00 00 00 00 2 00 00 00 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li (H4 )2 li (3.246) As one can see from Eq. 3.246, to fulﬁll the second criterion, the stiﬀness matrix along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 must be as follows. ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 H1 Z li ⎢ H 00 H 00 li ⎢ 200 100 = Ei Ji ⎣ H H 0 3 1 00 00 H4 H1 li ⎡ 12 6li 2 Ei Ji ⎢ 6li 4li ⎢ = 3 ⎣ −12 −6l li i 2 6li 2li H1 H2 li H1 H3 00 00 00 2 (H2 )2 li H2 H3 li 00 00 00 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 00 00 2 00 00 H4 H2 li H4 H3 li ⎤ −12 6li 2 −6li 2li ⎥ ⎥ 12 −6li ⎦ 2 −6li 4li

00 00 00 00

ki

⎤ 00 00 H1 H4 li 00 00 2 H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎥ dz 00 00 H3 H4 li ⎦ 00 2 (H4 )2 li (3.247)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as mi yi + ki yi = Ryi ¨ (3.248)

The vector Ri represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements. Ryi = £ Ryi1 Rϕyi1 Ryi2 Rϕyi2 ¤T (3.249)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j. ¨ mj yj + kj yj = Ryj (3.250)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

222

where: ⎢ mj = mj ⎢ ⎣ kj ⎡

13 35 11 l 210 j 9 70 13 − 420 lj 11 l 210 j 1 2 l 105 j 13 l 420 j 1 2 − 140 lj 9 70 13 l 420 j 13 35 11 − 210 lj

12 6lj −12 6lj 2 2 ⎢ 6lj Ej Aj ⎢ 4lj −6lj 2lj ⎥ ⎥ = 3 lj ⎣ −12 −6lj 12 −6lj ⎦ 2 2 6lj 2lj −6lj 4lj £ ¤T yj = yj1 ϕyj1 yj2 ϕyj2 £ ¤T Ryi = Ryj1 Rϕyj1 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

⎡

⎤ 13 − 420 lj 1 2 − 140 lj ⎥ ⎥ 11 − 210 lj ⎦ 1 2 l 105 j ⎤

(3.251)

(3.252) (3.253)

These two equations of motion (3.248 3.250), associated with the two elements i and j, haveto fulﬁll the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These conditions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take form ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ yi2 yj1 yij = = (3.254) ϕyi2 ϕyj1 ϕyij and the equilibrium conditions are ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Ryi2 Ryj1 0 + = Rϕyi2 Rϕyj1 0

(3.255)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements. ¨ mij yij + kij yij = Ryij where: ⎡

13 m 35 i 11 lm 210 i i 9 m 70 i 13 − 420 li mi 11 lm 210 i i 1 2 l mi 105 i 13 lm 420 i i 1 2 − 140 li mi

(3.256)

mij

⎢ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

0 0

0 0

⎤ 13 − 420 li mi 0 0 1 2 ⎥ − 140 li mi 0 0 ⎥ 13 11 9 13 (mi + mj ) (−li mi +lj mj ) m − 420 lj mj ⎥ 35 210 70 j ⎥ 11 1 13 1 2 2 2 (−li mi +lj mj ) 105 (li mi +lj mj ) lj mj − 140 lj mj ⎥ 210 420 ⎥ 9 11 13 13 mj lj mj mj − 210 lj mj ⎦ 70 420 35 1 2 13 1 2 11 − 420 lj mj − 140 lj mj − 210 lj mj 105 lj mj (3.257)

9 m 70 i 13 lm 420 i i

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

223

A 6 Eli2 i i 2 EilAi

kij

⎢ ⎢ i i i i ⎢ A A A A A A A A ⎢ −129 Ei3 i −6 Ei2 i 12( Ei3 i + Ej3 j ) 6(− Ei2 i + Ej2 j ) −12 Ej3 j 6 Ej2 j ⎢ li li li lj li lj lj lj = ⎢ E A E A E A E A A A ⎢ 6 Ei2 i 2 EilAi 6(− Eli2 i + j2 j ) 4( EilAi + jl j ) −6 j2 j 2 jl j li lj lj ⎢ i i j j i ⎢ E A E A E A E A ⎢ 0 0 −12 j3 j −6 j2 j 12 j3 j −6 j2 j lj lj lj lj ⎣ Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj 0 0 6 l2 2 l −6 l2 4 l

j j j j

⎡

A 12 Eli3 i i A 6 Eli2 i

iA 6 El2 i i 4 EilAi

iA −12 El3 i i iA −6 El2 i

0 0

0 0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(3.258)

yij = Rij =

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz. m¨ + ky = 0 y (3.261)

£

£

yi1 ϕyi1 yij ϕyij yj2 ϕyj2

Ryi1 Rϕyi1 0 0 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

¤T

(3.259) (3.260)

¤T

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 3.259 is given in Fig. 37.The coordinates yi , ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located

element 1 Oi node 1 node i yi ϕyi y node N element i element N-1 z

Figure 37 at the ends of the ﬁnite elements. Introduction of the external forces Since the ﬁnite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced by a force Fi (see Fig. 38) on the displacement yi is equal to the virtual work produced by a set of forces along the coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 . Hence ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ∂Wi = Fi · yi (ai , t) = {Fi1 , Mi1 , Fi2 , Mi2 } (3.262) ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

224

ai 1 yi1

Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i

z yi2

ϕ yi1

li y

Figure 38 But according to 3.241 ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ li li li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 y(ai , t) = {H(ai )}T {y (t)} = ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai l

li li i

2

ϕyi2

**Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ai ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∙ 1 − 3 li + 2 li ¸ ⎧ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎫ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ Fi1 ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ li li li Mi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = Fi · ⎪ Fi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ Mi2 ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai li l l
**

i i

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields ⎧ ⎫T ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ai ai ai ⎪ li ⎪ ⎪ i1 ⎪ −2 l + l ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ li i i ϕyi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 (3.264) ∂Wi = Fi · ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ li ⎪ ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ − ai + ai li l l

i i

⎫T ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.263)

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.265)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 3.261 m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y (3.266)

where, similarly as before, Fs stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the excitation forces.

. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ yb ¨ kbb kbr yb Fb mbb mbr + = mrb mrr yr ¨ krb krr yr Fr Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations ¨ ¨ mbb yb + mbr yr + kbb yb + kbr yr = Fb mrb yb + mrr yr + krb yb + krr yr = Fr ¨ ¨ (3. ⎤ .. The instantaneous position of these supports is determine with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates byi (t) .4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS O Oi bxi byi x Bi yi Figure 39 ϕx i ϕy z i xi y in such a way that its upper part yb contains coordinates along which the shaft is rigidly supported and its lower part yr contains all the remaining coordinates ∙ ¸ yb y= (3.270) Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft © ªT y = ϕxN .. y1 ϕy1 . . 39).BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 225 3.. .268) (3. ⎡ ..272) . .267) b = ⎣ byi (t) ⎦ . .271) (3. (3.269) yr Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam m¨ + ky = F y is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates. Let us denote by b vector of such coordinates. ⎢ ⎥ (3.yN ϕyN Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several supports Bi (see Fig.

273) The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as follows ¨ ¨ (3. Let us assume. ¸ ∙ ye (3.267. This solution approximate motion of the beam along the remining coordinates yr . It follows that the size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model m¨ + cy + ky = F y ˙ (3.277) is too large to enable the necessary analysis of the mathematical model to be carried out.275) be a solution of this equation. ¨ ¨ mbb b + mbr yr + kbb b + kbr yr = Fb ¨ mrb b + mrr yr + krb b + krr yr = Fr ¨ (3.278) y= yr Partitioning of the equations 3. is a known function of time.273 represents the forces of interaction between the moving beam and its supports. number of the ﬁnal elements is large too.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS (3.274) mrr yr + krr yr = Fr − mrb bb − krs bb The last two terms represent the kinemetic excitation of the beam cause by motion of its supports.279) mre mrr yr ¨ cre crr yr ˙ kre krr yr Fr .276) In meny engineering problems. the vector yb in the mathematical model 3. due to large number of the uniform sections of the element to be modeld. Let yr = Yr (t) (3. in a general case. ¨ ¨ Fb = mbb b + mbr Yr + kbb b + kbr Yr (t) 3.277 is arranged in such a way that the coordinates which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure ye are located in the upper part of the vector y and these which are to be retained for further consideration yr are located in its lower part.277 yields ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ mee mer ye ¨ cee cer ye ˙ kee ker ye Fe + + = (3.272 must be replaced by b. Hence. The vector b. These interaction forces can be now determined. Hence the above equation can be solved. The vector Fb in the ﬁrst equation of the set 3.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 226 Motion of the beam along the coordinates yb is determined by the boundary conditions 3. In this section the procedures for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed. that the equation 3.

One of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates ye are obeyed to the static relationship. 2. upon partitioning equation 3. the kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.285) 2 Hence.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 227 Hence. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ye 0 kee ker = (3. one have to determine the relationship between the coordinates ye and the coordinates yr . Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. According to the ﬁrst criterion. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be the same.279. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ mee mer 1£ T ye ˙ T ye yr ˙ ˙ T = mre mrr yr ˙ 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 = ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ye mee ye + ye mer yr + yr mre ye + yr mrr yr ˙ (3.280) kre krr yr 0 (3. 3. one may formulate the following criteria of condensation: 1.282 yields ´ 1³ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙r ˙ [hyr ]T mee hyr + [hyr ]T mer yr + yr mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ T = 2 ¢ 1¡ T T = yr h mee hyr +yT hT mer yr +yT mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ 2 ¤ ¢ 1¡ T£ T yr h mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr yr ˙ = ˙ (3.280 one may obtain kee ye +ker yr = 0 Therefore the sought relationship is ye = hyr where h = −k−1 ker ee To eliminate the coordinates ye from the mathematical model 3.284) 2 Introduction of 3.286) .281) (3. the inertia matrix after condensation mc must be equal to mc = hT mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr (3. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation must be the same.5.283) Once the relationship is established. 4. 3.282) (3.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same.

295 (3.5.282 into the above equation yields ¡ T ¢ ¡ ¢ δW = (hyr )T Fe +yT Fr = yr hT Fe +yT Fr = yT hT Fe +Fr r r r Hence.282 ye = hyc permits to produce displacement along the ’cut oﬀ’ coordinates on the base of solution of the equation 3. kc = kre h + krr 3. according to 3. they can be transformed as following.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 228 3.287) 3. The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is ¸ ∙ £ T ¤ Fe T T δW = ye yr = ye Fe +yT Fr r Fr Introduction of 3. Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the kinetic energy. Indeed.4 Condensation of the external forces. hT kee h + hT ker = (−k−1 ker )T kee (−k−1 ker ) + (−k−1 ker )T ker ee ee ee −1 T −1 T = −(−kee ker ) ker + (−kee ker ) ker = 0 Hence.289) It is easy to show that sum of the ﬁrst two terms in the above expression is equal to zero.288) = 2 one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiﬀness matrix is of the form 3.5.292) (3.295) mc yc +cc yc +kc yc = Fc where yc = yr The relationship 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix.290) (3.283. repetition of the above derivation leads to the following deﬁnition of the condensed damping matrix cc = hT cee h + hT cer +cre h + crr (3. according to the above consideration. Taking advantage from deﬁnition of potential energy of the system considered ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ kee ker 1£ T ye T ye yr V = kre krr yr 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 T T T ye kee ye + ye ker yr + yr kre ye + yr krr yr (3. ¡ ¢ Fc = hT Fe +Fr (3. can be adopted as follows ¨ ˙ (3.293) (3.291) (3.296) .294) The condensed mathematical model.289 kc = hT kee h + hT ker +kre h + krr (3.

5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.01 = 2.03 × 0.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0. . O z k l y Figure 40 The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 191 for the following data E = 2.03×0.1×10 10000 = 0.6 PROBLEMS Problem 52 Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig.PROBLEMS 229 3.0525 k Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with 10 ﬁnite elements. 40.01 = 0.0003m2 3 J = 0.

. . ⎥ = −k1 y (3. 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m¨ + ky = − ⎢ .. the equation of the beam supported by the spring is m¨ + ks y = 0 y This force should be introduced to the ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 .....PROBLEMS 230 Solution To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam. 42).........297) The inﬂuence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky11 acting along the coordinate y11 (see Fig. y ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ky11 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 .. ..299) . ⎥ ⎢ . 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕ1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ .297. 41... it was divided into ten ﬁnite elements as shown in Fig. y11 O ϕ11 z l y -ky11 Figure 42 Therefore.. ϕ2 .... 0 0 ........ ϕ1 ..... . ⎤⎡ ⎤ y1 .. y11 ... y2 .. .. 0 right hand side of the equation 3... ⎥ = ⎢ . The computed mathematical model is O y1 y2 ϕ1 ϕ2 l y Figure 41 m¨ + ky = 0.. ϕ11 }T (3..298) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ y11 ⎦ k 0 0 0 ϕ11 (3. y y11 z ϕ11 y = {y1 . 0 ....

.304) (3. 0}T and R1 = {R.. .. let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordinates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y1 .303 and 3.. 43) y1 = {y1 .. ϕ1 }T y2 = {y2 ... .......... 0 ⎥ ⎥ .307) (3.300) R M O y1=0 y2 y11 ϕ11 z l y Figure 43 ϕ1=0 ϕ2 -ky11 According to the boundary conditions (see Fig.301 yields ∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ m11 m12 0 ks11 ks12 0 R1 + = y2 ¨ y2 m21 m22 ks21 ks22 0 This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows ¨ m12 y2 + ks12 y2 = R1 ¨ m22 y2 + ks22 y2 = 0 (3. . ϕ2 . .306) (3. 0 0 0 ... .303) (3....302) ⎢ ⎢ ks = k + k1 = k+ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 . ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ m11 m12 y1 ¨ ks11 ks12 y1 + =0 (3. ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 ... 0 0 (3.. ϕ11 }T (3.304 into 3.. .. y11 ...305) . ...PROBLEMS 231 where To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam. M}T Introduction of 3. k 0 ⎦ 0 0 . ϕ1 }T = {0......301) m21 m22 y2 ¨ ks21 ks22 y2 where y1 = {y1 ...

This results are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig. 44 by boxes and in the ﬁrst column of the Table below.4 932. Results of this computation is shown in Fig.0 1 2 3 .PROBLEMS 232 The second equation 3.4 z 0. The equation 3.2 0.307 is the equation of motion of the supported beam.65 357.5 129.8 1 -2 Figure 44 Table natural frequenciesof natural frequencies of the descreet system the continuous system [1/sec] [1/sec] 129.3 933. O 2 y 1 Y1(z) Y2(z) Y3(z) l k z 0 -1 0.306 allows the vector of the interation forces R1 to be computed.6 357. 44) and natural frequencies (second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model ( see problem page 190).6 0. It was solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies.

308) ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ k11 k12 k13 m14 x1 m11 m12 m13 m14 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎥ m22 m23 m24 ⎥ ⎥ . x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ m = ⎢ 21 ⎣ k31 k32 k33 k34 ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎣ m31 m32 m33 m34 ⎦ m41 m42 m43 m44 k41 k42 k43 k44 x4 (3. 46. x2 . 1 2 3 a3 Z a2 sin ω t X Figure 46 The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate XZ is given by the following equations X1 = 0 X2 = a2 sin ωt X3 = a3 Derive expressions for : 1.PROBLEMS 233 Problem 53 The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig. the static deﬂection curve. the interaction forces between the beam and the supports (3. k = ⎢ k21 k22 k23 k24 ⎥ .309) 1 2 3 4 x1 x2 Figure 45 x3 x4 This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x1 . x3 . x3 as shown in Fig. x4 is as follows m¨ + kx = 0 x (3. 2. 45 along coordinates x1 . x2 .310) .

310 results in the following equation m¨ + kx = R x where ⎡ ∙ (3.317 yields ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ¨ £ ¤ x1 ¤ x1 £ ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = − m41 m42 m43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ − k41 k42 k43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ (3.320) The static deﬂection is due to the time independent term −k43 a3 in the right hand side of the equation 3.PROBLEMS 234 Solution Partitioning of the equations 3. k21 = k41 k42 k43 . x2 =x4 .312) m21 m22 x2 ¨ k21 k22 x2 R2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ m12 m13 m14 £ ¤ m22 m23 ⎦ .314) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ x1 R1 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ .322) (3. ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ (3. R2 =0 (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = −k43 a3 ¨ The particular solution of the equation 3. m21 = m41 m42 m43 .311) m11 ⎣ m21 m11 = m31 k11 ⎣ k21 k11 = k31 ⎡ or ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ x1 ¨ k11 k12 x1 R1 m11 m12 + = (3.317) where Introduction of boundary conditions 3. m22 = m44 m32 m33 m34 (3. R1 = ⎣ R2 ⎦ .319) or ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt − k43 a3 (3. k22 = k44 k32 k33 k34 (3.310 into the equation 3. k12 = ⎣ k24 ⎦ .321 is x4 = xs k44 xs = −k43 a3 (3.323) (3.320.313) ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ k14 k12 k13 ¤ £ k22 k23 ⎦ .318) ¨ x3 ¨ x3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 x1 ¨ ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω2 sin ωt ⎦ .321) .316) (3. m12 = ⎣ m24 ⎦ .308 with respect to the vector of boundary conditions 3.315) x3 R3 ¨ ¨ m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ m21 x1 + m22 x2 + k21 x1 + k22 x2 = 0 (3.

329) .325 yields the wanted amplitude of the forced vibration xd . 48 1 2 3 a3 4 xs Z X a2 sinω t Figure 48 xd sinω t This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the system is attached to the base. m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ In this equation x1 stands for the given boundary conditions ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ x1 ¨ 0 ¨ . m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt ¨ For the above equation.326 into the equation 3.324) 1 2 3 a3 4 Z xs X Figure 47 The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X2 = a2 sin ωt) is represented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term.328) (3. These forces can computed from equation 3. x1= ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦ ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ (3.325) Implementation of the solution 3. xd = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) −ω 2 m44 + k44 (3. the particular solution may be predicted as follows x4 = xd sin ωt (3.327) The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig.PROBLEMS 235 −k43 a3 k44 Its graphical representation is given in Fig.316. 47 xs = (3.326) (3.

dt2 (3.330) Hence. the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows ⎤ 0 R1 = m11 ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦+k11 ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦+m12 (−xd ω2 sin ω)+k12 (xs +xd sin ωt) 0 a3 (3. motion of the system along the coordinate 4 ¨ ¨ x2 = x4 = xs + xd sin ωt x2 = x4 = d2 (xs + xd sin ωt) = −xd ω 2 sin ωt. known at this stage.PROBLEMS 236 and x2 represents.331) 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ .

Part II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 237 .

The rubber tip 8 is used . It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured. 3. It consists of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3. The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations of the object. The spaces between the blocks 2 are ﬁlled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the structural damping.1 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 9 10 12 Figure 1 The vibrating object 2. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to be measured in the horizontal direction.1) is attached to the base 1. and 4 (see Fig.Chapter 4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4.

2) (4. x2 and x3 are shown in Fig. 3 The diﬀerential equation of the deﬂection of the spring is EJ d2 x FH − Fz = M − Fz = 2 dz 2 (4. Both.1 Physical model x3 k3 c3 x2 k2 c2 x1 k1 c1 m1 m2 m3 Figure 2 The base 1. To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig. the system can be approximated by three degrees of freedom physical model.2. The three independent coordinates x1 .3) . according to these assumptions. which is considered rigid and motionless. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction only. forms a reference system for measuring its vibrations. 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 4. the acceleration of the object and the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory of the spectrum analyzer 10. Magnitudes of the stuﬃness k1 .1) Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line.MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 239 to smooth and extend the impulse of force. EJ FH F dx = z − z2 + A dz 2 2 FH 2 F 3 EJx = z − z + Az + B 4 6 (4.2. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis. The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are by assumption massless. Hence. k2 and k3 of the springs can be analytically assessed.

**MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
**

z x(H) M=FH/2

240

F

w EJ H x F z

t

M=FH/2

Figure 3 Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line. ¶ µ 1 FH 2 F 3 x= (4.4) z − z EJ 4 6 Hence, the deﬂection of the upper end is ¶ µ 1 1 FH 2 F 3 x(H) = H − H = F H3 EJ 4 6 12EJ Therefore the stiﬀness of one spring is k= where 12EJ F = x(H) H3 J= (4.6)

(4.5)

wt3 (4.7) 12 Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiﬀness ki shown in the physical model can be computed according to the following formula. ki = 24Ei Ji Hi3 (4.8)

4.2.2 Mathematical model Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the following set of diﬀerential equations m1 x1 + (c1 + c2 )x1 + (−c2 )x2 + (k1 + k2 )x1 + (−k2 )x2 = F1 ¨ ˙ ˙ m2 x2 + (−c2 )x1 + (c2 + c3 )x2 + (−c3 )x3 + (−k2 )x1 + (k2 + k3 )x2 + (−k3 )x3 = F2 ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ m3 x3 + (−c3 )x2 + c3 x3 + (−k3 )x2 + k3 x3 = F3 ¨ ˙ ˙

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

241

These equations can be rewritten as following m¨ + cx + kx = F x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m1 0 c1 + c2 −c2 m = ⎣ 0 m2 0 ⎦ ; c = ⎣ −c2 c2 + c3 −c3 ⎦ 0 0 m3 0 −c3 c3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ −k2 0 k1 + k2 x1 F1 k2 + k3 −k3 ⎦ ; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ ; F = ⎣ F2 ⎦ k = ⎣ −k2 0 −k3 k3 x3 F3 ⎡ (4.9)

(4.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution x = X cos ωt into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system m¨ + kx = F x (4.12) (4.11)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. ±ω1 , ±ω 2 , ±ω 3 (4.14) (4.15)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector X. ¡ 2 ¢ −ω m + k X = 0 (4.13)

Ξ = [Ξ1 , Ξ2 , Ξ2 ]

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form c =µm+κk (4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates η = Ξ−1 x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105) η n + 2ξ n ω n η n + ω 2 η n = ΞT F(t), ¨ ˙ n n n = 1, 2, 3 (4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation Fq eiωt along the coordinate xq , according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is xp = e

iωt N X

ω2 n=1 n

Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect to time, is N X Ξpn Ξqn Fq 2 iωt (4.19) xp = −ω e ¨ 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ω n n n=1 n It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq , according to 2.144 is Rpq (iω) = xp xp ¨ = −ω 2 = iωt Fq e Fq eiωt ¶ N X µ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 − ω2 ) −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ωn ωi n 2 = −ω + (ω 2 − ω2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n n n n n=1

q = 1, 2, 3 (4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς 1 , ς 2 and ς 3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed by ﬁtting the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100). 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page 107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function. First of all let us notice that µ ¶ Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n 2 if ω ∼ ωn Rpq (iω n ) ∼ −ω q = 1, 2, 3 (4.21) + = = 4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 2ς n ωn ω n n Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n , its absolute value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn Ξqn ¯ ¯ q = 1, 2, 3 (4.22) |Rpq (iω n )| ∼ ¯ =¯ 2ς n ¯ ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq (iωn )) = arctan ∞ = ±90o Re(Rpq (iω n )) (4.23)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω n

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o are the wanted natural frequencies ω n . Because ς n and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the transfer functions for ω = ω n represents the modes Ξ1n , Ξ2n , Ξ3n associated with the n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3) natural frequency natural mode 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3)

transfer functions m/N (phase)

π/2

−π/2

frequency rad/s 2 1

Figure 4

4.4

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters The physical model is determined by the following parameters m1 , m2 m3 - masses of the blocks k1 , k2 k3 - stiﬀness of the springs c1 , c2 c3 - damping coeﬃcients

. R31 (iω) R32 (iω) R33 (iω) (4.m to be measured during the laboratory session t = .....m to be measured during the laboratory session H2 = .. the laboratory installation permits the following transfer functions to be obtained....01 ς 2 = 0..4. Hence.8 24EJ wt3 ki = . when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not excessive Harder impact does not produce better results... one has to observe the following........670kg m2 = 0..... Alternatively the damping properties of the system can be uniquely deﬁned by means of the three modal damping ratios ς 1 ... always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used 2..... let us adopt the following damping ratios ς 1 = 0... The spectrum analyzer must show the ’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied....24) allows the stiﬀness ki to be computed...7 and 4..01 4. Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damping is much smaller then the critical one.. ς 2 and ς 3 (see equation 4... . J= Hi3 12 (4....01 ς 2 = 0..m to be measured during the laboratory session H1 = ...EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 244 The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are m1 = 0..2 Measurements of the transfer functions According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100) to produce the transfer function Rpq (iω) you have to measure response of the system along the coordinate xp due to impulse along the coordinate xq ... as the ﬁrst approximation of the damping... x2 or x3 ......... 10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function...595kg m3 = 0.17)............ These impulses should be applied to the middle of the block..........21 × 1012 N/m2 w = .... To obtain a reliable result......m to be measured during the laboratory session H3 = ...... 1.. 1) is permanently attached to the mass m3 and the impulse can be applied along the coordinates x1 .25) The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse.m to be measured during the laboratory session The damping coeﬃcients ci are diﬃcult to be assessed.. As the equipment used is delicate and expensive...595kg The formula 4... Since the transducer 5 (Fig. The following set of data is required E = 0. ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping......

Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 245 4. to ﬁt the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one. H2 . w. the identiﬁcation of a physical model parameters from the transfer functions bases on a very complicated curve ﬁtting procedures. m2 .3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters In a general case. We assume that the following parameters m1 .27) (4. m3 . E were assessed with a suﬃcient accuracy. ξ 2 . H3 . Uncertain are t.4. H1 . In this experiment. . we are going to use the trial and error method. ξ 1 . ξ 3 (4. Work on one (say R33 (iω) transfer function only.26) Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right).

... Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R33 (iω) Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’ Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’.. execute it and apply 10 times impulse along the coordinates 3 Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured transfer function Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions 3.... ξ 3 in the input data.. By varying t.. try to ﬁt the analytical data into the experimental one. ξ 2 ..01 w = .......21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0......670kg H1 = .. Set excitation coordinate 3. Save the initial data........595kg H2 = ..... Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).m of mode 3 springs ∗ Run program ’Prac3 ’ and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data....m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0..m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0. Identiﬁcation of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ i You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R33 (iω)..... 2... Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right)..5 WORKSHEET 1.m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0.......... Initial parameters of physical model Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.. ∗ program designed by Dr...... Chalko .........01 t = ..WORKSHEET 246 4..01 E = 0.. ξ 1 ..595kg H3 = .. T. response coordinate 3..m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0...................

.......................... R33 (iω) determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below natural frequency analytical experimental natural frequency natural frequency 1 ...... Experimental and analytical transfer functions R31 (iω) and R32 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R31 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R32 (iω) 5............ ................ 6.595kg H3 = .......21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0.m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.....670kg H1 = ........... 2 .m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0...... 3 .... R32 (iω)..................... .WORKSHEET 247 Record the identiﬁed parameters in the following table Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0........... Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies and modes Plot the natural modes From plots of the experimental transfer functions R31 (iω)..............m of mode 3 springs Save the identiﬁed parameters.... Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R33 (iω) 4.......m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0.............01 t = .......................... Conclusions ............................m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.01 E = 0..........01 w = ..595kg H2 = ................ ..........

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