436-431 MECHANICS 4

UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION
J.M. KRODKIEWSKI 2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS
0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

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1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 28 28 34 44

Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 66 2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 93 2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 102 2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162 3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CONTENTS

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3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . 3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts 3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 3.3.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 3.5.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . 3.5.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiffness matrix. . . 3.5.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . 3.6 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 168 174 182 214 214 217 225 226 227 228 228 228 229

II

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

237

4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 238 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 238 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 4.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 243 4.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 244 4.4.3 Identification of the physical model parameters . . . . 245 4.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Experimental Investigation. The second part. two the most important. Chapter three. and beams. Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory experiments. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations. students should study it in their own time. Modelling and Analysis. Information included in this chapter. Dynamic balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to the engineering problems. The considerations are limited to the linear system only. is devoted to this solution of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear models. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete mathematical model on a reasonably low level. This chapter forms a base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter In chapter four. Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom Linear System. describes the laboratory work recommended for this course. for engineering applications.1 INTRODUCTION. The first chapter. The Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to produce the inertia and stiffness matrices of the free-free beam. rods. Employment of these matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of examples. Lagrange’s equations and the influence coefficients method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following material. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the natural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom- . The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Discrete Models. illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students during tutorials and in their own time. Part one. as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1. It is divided into two parts. Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems. 5 0. Part one consists of four chapters. Solution to some of them are provided.INTRODUCTION. where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course. Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models. methods of approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented. In the general case of damping the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response is provided. The Newton’s-Euler’s approach. is concerned with the problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as string. However. shafts. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. Vibration of Continuous Systems.

The other demonstrates the balancing techniques. .INTRODUCTION. 6 System.

Part I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 7 .

One of the most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position. This mathematical description can be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic laws may be applied. Such a type of motion is called vibration.8 Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims towards producing its mathematical description. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description that is called mathematical model. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. . These laws can not be directly applied to the real system. Process of solving of the mathematical model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system.

i 2 1 xi t Figure 1 . 1.1. 1.1 Physical model As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended on the rod 2 shown in Fig. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. one has to introduce an infinite number of independent coordinates xi to determine uniquely its motion. These lows can not be directly applied to the real system. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position and then it is released. Therefore. 1. each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory motion. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called mathematical model.Chapter 1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position is called vibration. in general.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem that aims for producing its mathematical description. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply. The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by taking advantage of the known lows of physics.

its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig. In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig. To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1. R 1 x t G Figure 3 The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called restoring force. If the rod is uniform.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 10 DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of freedom According to this definition each real system has an infinite number of degrees of freedom. the restoring force R is a non-linear function of . 3. For example. In a general case. i xi 2 1 x t x Figure 2 Position xi of all the other points of our system depends on x. 2). may results in reduction of this number of degrees of freedom. The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as the independent coordinate (see Fig. The following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only. only one coordinate is sufficient to determine uniquely the whole system. in many cases. one has to produce its free body diagram. if one assume that the rod 2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid. Adaptation of certain assumptions. 2.

1) The first term represents the system elasticity and the second one reflects the system’s ability for dissipation of energy. For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. 5. k is called stiffness and c is called coefficient of damping. x)). the non-linear relationship. Such cases usually are refer to as linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system. shown in Fig. ˙ R R a) b) 0 x 0 . 4a) and b) respectively. . 4 can be linearized.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 11 the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity x of the body 1 (R = R(x. The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization is acceptable form the engineering point of view. The physical model that reflects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear system. x) ≈ kx + cx ˙ ˙ (1. R=R(x. Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. x Figure 4 If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity of the system equilibrium position. ˙ ˙ The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the velocity x is shown in Fig.

massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion) Figure 5 1. In this section principle of producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown. . Let us consider system shown in Fig. This mathematical description is referred to as the mathematical model. has been explained in the previous section. E massless spring of stifness k (linear motion) massless beam area A. second moment of area J and Young modulus E k massless spring of stifness k (angular motion) ϕ massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion) c c ϕ .2 Mathematical model To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description that approximates its dynamic behavior.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM x rigid block of mass m (linear motion) m m. The creation of the physical model. This mathematical model can be obtained by application of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model. J.I rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I (angular motion) 12 ϕ particle of of mass m m k A.1. 6.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 13 k c x k xs m mg Figure 6 Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. 6. In this chapter we are assuming that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig. these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. -k\x\=-kx k c x k xs m mg x>0 k\x\=-kx x<0 Figure 7 In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |FR | = k |x| If x > 0. This increment is called restoring force. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kxs ) is equal to zero. the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. This require introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. If the system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig. the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x.2) . Hence FR = +k |x| = −kx Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by term FR = −kx (1. Hence FR = −k |x| = −kx If x < 0. Therefore. there is an increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block. 7) by a distance x. To develop the mathematical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations.

3) k c x m Fex (t) Figure 9 The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition rules and add these forces together with the external force Fex (t) (see Fig. A very similar to the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented in the equation of motion by the following term ˙ FD = −cx (1. Hence. x>0 mg .4) . This interaction ˙ force is called damping force and its absolute value is |FD | = c |x| . -c\x\=-cx . +c\x\=-cx .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 14 k c x k xs .5) (1. the equation of motion of the block of mass m is m¨ = −kx − cx + Fex (t) x ˙ Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ n where (1. x<0 m Figure 8 Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interaction force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig. 9). . 8). .

is called natural frequency of the undamped system ς .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 15 k Fex (t) c .is called damping factor or damping ratio f (t) . ωn = r .5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration of the one-degree-of-freedom system.6) m m m ωn .is called unit external excitation The equation 1. f (t) = (1. 2ςωn = .

3 Problems Problem 1 y A k2 m k1 c Figure 10 The block of mass m (see Fig. the spring of stiffness k2 and the damper of damping coefficient c. It is supported by the spring of stiffness k1 . . 10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis. Produce the equation of motion of the block. The upper end of the spring k2 moves along the inertial axis y and its motion is governed by the following equation yA = a sin ωt were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency.1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 16 1.

Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion ˙ m¨ = −k2 x − k1 x + k2 y − cx x Its standard form is ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ω2 = n k1 + k2 m 2ςωn = c m q= k2 a m (1.9) (1.7) .8) (1. 11.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 17 Solution y A k2 m k1 c x Figure 11 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.

. Produce the formula for the period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 18 Problem 2 r 1 2 R Figure 12 The cylinder 1 (see Fig. 12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid of density d. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R.

10 one can get that ¶ µ 2 2 ¶ µ Rr r2 2 x x dgπr = πdg ∆H = x + 2 R − r2 R2 − r 2 According to the Newton’s law we have m¨ = −dgπ x µ R2 r 2 R2 − r 2 ¶ x (1.15) (1.11) (1. the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by ∆H = (x + z) dgπr2 Since the volume V1 must be equal to the volume V2 we have ¡ ¢ V1 = πr2 x = V2 = π R2 − r2 z Therefore (1.13) (1.17) .14) The standard form of this equation of motion is x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n µ 2 2 ¶ dg Rr = π m R2 − r 2 The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is s s mπ (R2 − r2 ) 2 2π 2π m (R2 − r2 ) Tn = = = ωn Rr πdg Rr dg ω2 n where (1.10) (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 19 Solution x r V2 G z V1 x R Figure 13 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.12) r2 x z= 2 R − r2 Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1. 13. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance x.16) (1.

The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by the shear modulus G. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coefficient c. Produce equation of motion of the disk . 14) is supported by an elastic shaft of diameter D and length L.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 20 Problem 3 R c G D L m 1 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m and radius R (see Fig.

20) (1.19) 2 1 (1.18) .18 yields ˙ I ϕ + cR2 ϕ + ¨ or ˙ ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ n where ω2 = n πD4 G 32LI 2ςωn = cR2 I (1.the moment of inertia of the disk 2 4 ks = T = TTL = JG = πD G the stiffness of the rod ϕ L 32L JG Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 21 Solution R ϕ G D c L m Figure 15 Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation ˙ I ϕ = −ks ϕ − cR2 ϕ ¨ where I = mR .21) πD4 G ϕ=0 32L (1.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 22 Problem 4 O k l b 1 c a m Figure 16 The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig. Produce the equation of motion of the plate. The spring of stiffness k keeps it in the horizontal position. 16) can rotate about the horizontal axis O. The damping coefficient c reflects dissipation of energy of the system. .

24) Hence or ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ n where ω2 = n 6kl2 mb2 2ςω n = 6c m (1. 17) is govern by the generalized Newton’s equation Iϕ = M ¨ (1.27) mb2 ϕ + kl2 ϕ + cb2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ 6 (1.25) .26) (1.23) The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the damper c is M = −kl2 ϕ − cb2 ϕ ˙ (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 23 Solution O k l b 1 ϕ c a m Figure 17 Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig.22) The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is I= mb2 6 (1.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 24 Problem 5 m M E. . the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus E. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coefficient c. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω. Produce the equation of motion of the system. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of length l.I ωt c l µ Figure 18 The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. Its unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.

It can oscillate about the horizontal axis O.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 25 Problem 6 k d D l L Figure 19 The wheel shown in the Fig. The right hand end of the damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following equation y = a sin ωt Produce the equation of motion of the system 0 A c y . The wheel is supported by the spring of stiffness k and the damper of the damping coefficient c. 19 is made of the material of a density .

Produce the formula for the period of oscillation of the pendulum. 20. .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 26 Problem 7 2 L r 1 Figure 20 The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form the pendulum shown in the Fig.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 27 Problem 8 O k l b 1 a m c Figure 21 The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig. The damping coefficient c reflects dissipation of energy of the system. Produce the formula for the natural frequency of the system. The spring of stiffness k keeps it in the horizontal position. . 21) of mass m can rotate about the horizontal axis O.

28 is classified as linear homogeneous ordinary differential equation of second order. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero. it is assumed that the resultant of all external forces f (t) is equal to zero. These solutions can be obtained by means of the following procedure. Introduction of these initial conditions .32) (1.29 is a linear combination of its two particular linearly independent solutions.28 governs the free motion of the undamped system. Hence.29) Hence.2.30) Introduction of the solution 1.28) The equation 1.1 Free vibration DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this system.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.30.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 28 1. Hence. The particular solution can be predicted in the form 1.29 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + ω 2 = 0 (1. x = Cs sin ω n t + Cc cos ω n t (1.30 into the equation 1. In this section. in this case. To get an unique solution it is necessary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered. the equation 1.31) n This characteristic equation has two roots λ1 = +iω n and λ2 = −iω n (1. according to the above definition. let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x0 and was forced to move with the initial velocity v0 . the mathematical model that is analyzed in this section takes form x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ ˙ n (1. x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Free vibration of an undamped system The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1.33) Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free vibration of the undamped system. x = eλt (1.34) The two constants Cs and Cc should be chosen to fulfill the initial conditions which reflect the way the free vibrations were initiated. the independent particular solution are x1 = sin ωn t and x2 = cos ωn t (1.

in the case considered is periodic. the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the system is v0 sin ω n t + x0 cos ω n t = x = ωn = C sin(ω n t + α) (1.34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect to the unknown constants Cs and Cc .5 C 0 α -0.37) For ω n = 1[1/s].34.5 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -1 -1. we have sin(ω n (t + Tn ) + α) = sin(ωn t + α + 2π) (1. since the sine function has a period equal to 2π. 22 The free motion. α = arctan ! (1.35) According to 1. x[m] 1 vo xo 0. According to this definition. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig.38) .5 Tn Figure 22 DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion. Cc = x0 Cs ω n = v0 (1.36) where C= s µ v0 ωn ¶2 Ã x0 v0 ωn (x0 )2 + .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 29 into the equation 1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 30 Hence.46) (1. the period of the undamped free vibrations is Tn = Free vibration of a damped system If the damping ratio is not equal to zero.40 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + 2ςωn λ + ω 2 = 0 n The characteristic equation has two roots p p −2ςω n ± (2ςωn )2 − 4ω 2 n = −ςωn ± ωn ς 2 − 1 λ1.45) (1.2 = 2 (1.41) (1. the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration.43) λ1. the equation of the free motion is ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Introduction of the equation 1.40) 2π ωn (1.39) (1. p (1.47) (1.2 = −ςω n ± iω n 1 − ς 2 = −ςω n ± iω d where ωd = ωn The particular solutions are p 1 − ς2 (1. Three cases are possible Case one .30 into 1.42) The particular solution depend on category of the above roots.48) .underdamped vibration If ς < 1.44) x1 = e−ςωn t sin ωd t and x2 = e−ςωn t cos ω d t and their linear combination is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are Cs = Cc v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.

48 into 1.5 -1 Td -1. v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = ωn (1.5 Figure 23 second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration.49) where sµ C= ¶2 v0 + ςω n x0 ωd + (x0 )2 . 23) between every p 1 − ς2 x[m] vo xo 1 t 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 31 Introduction of the expressions 1.1 the free motion is shown in Fig.51) DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and x(t + Td ) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping and will be denoted by δ. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = . .50) For ω n = 1[1/s].5 Td x(t+ Td ) x(t) 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0.49 that Td = 2π ωd (1. α = arctan x0 ω d . It is easy to see from the expression 1. 23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time Td (see Fig.46 produces the free motion in the following form x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.

52) 1 − ς2 This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping ratio ς.critically damped vibration If ς = 1.53) 4π 2 + δ 2 The other parameter ωn that exists in the mathematical model 1.2 = −ςωn The particular solutions are x1 = e−ςωn t and their linear combination is x = Cs e−ςωn t + Cc te−ςωn t For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs = x0 Cc = v0 + x0 ωn (1. The critical damping offers for the system the possibly faster return to its equilibrium position. According to the formula 1. Indeed δ = ln Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) x (t) = ln −ςωn (t+T ) = d sin(ω (t + T ) + α) x (t + Td ) Ce d d Ce−ςωn t sin(ωd t + α) 2πςω n 2πςωn = ln −ςωn t −ςωn T = ςω n Td = = √ = d sin(ω t + 2π + α) Ce e ωd ωn 1 − ς 2 d 2πς = √ (1.54) ωn = √ 1 − ς2 Td 1 − ς 2 Case two .55) Introduction of the expressions 1.51 ωd 2π = √ (1.57 produces expression for the free motion in the following form (1. .57) and x2 = te−ςωn t (1. δ ς=p (1.40 can be easily identified by measuring the period of the free motion Td .60) x = e−ςωn t (x0 + t(v0 + x0 ω n )) For ω n = 1[1/s].56) (1.58) (1. the free motion is shown in Fig. the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration λ1.59 into 1.44 and 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 32 It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. 24. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 1.59) x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.

64) the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs Cc √ v + ω0 + x0 (+ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 √ v − ω0 + x0 (−ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 (1.62) For the following initial conditions ³ ´ √ √ 2 2 x = e−ωn t Cs eωn ς −1)t + Cc e−ωn ς −1)t x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often referred to as the overdamped vibration.5 -1 -1.63) (1.2 = −ςω n ± ω n ς 2 − 1 = ωn (−ς ± ς 2 − 1) (1.5 Figure 24 Case three .65) For ω n = 1[1/s]. 25 .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 33 x[m] vo xo 1 0. p p λ1. the free motion is shown in Fig.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0.overdamped vibration If ς > 1.61) x1 = e−ωn (ς+ and their linear combination is √ ς 2 −1)t The particular solutions are and x2 = e−ωn (ς− √ ς 2 −1)t (1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 5.

69) r (1. Such a case is referred to as the harmonic excitation. the initial conditions and the exciting force. f (t) = (1.5 -1 -1.2. The mathematical model. x = xg + xp (1.2 Forced vibration In a general case motion of a vibrating system is due to both. f (t) = q sin ωt (1.67) m m m The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation xp .66) To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. 2ςωn = . is the linear non-homogeneous differential equation of second order.70) . let as assume that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function. according to the previous consideration.5 Figure 25 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 34 x[m] vo x o 1 0.68) ωn = The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous section and for the underdamped vibration it is xg = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ ˙ n where k Fex (t) c .

The function 1.72 yields xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= or p q A2 + A2 = p s c (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4(ςωn )2 ω 2 n A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 35 In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the excitation frequency.70 into equation 1.75) 2 ¯ (ω n − ω ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω2 )2 + 4(ςω n )2 ω2 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ n Introduction of the expressions 1.71) where As and Ac are constant.72) (1.79) .69 and 1.75 into the predicted solution 1.77) (1. implementing it in equation 1. Introduction of the expression 1.68 one can obtain the general solution of the equation of motion 1.66 yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt (1.73) n This relationship is fulfilled for any instant of time if (ω 2 − ω 2 )As − 2ςω n ωAc = q n 2ςωn ωAs + (ω2 − ω2 )Ac = 0 n (1.72 is the particular solution if and only if it fulfils the equation 1.71 for any instant of time.71 in the following form x = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.74) Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant As and Ac ¯ ¯ ¯ q −2ςω n ω ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ (ω 2 − ω 2 )q n n ¯= 2 As = ¯ 2 2 )2 + 4(ςω )2 ω 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω n ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ωn − ω ) ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) q ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω 0 ¯ −2(ςωn )ωq ¯= 2 Ac = ¯ 2 (1. Therefore.78) ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 Introducing 1.76) ϕ = arctan Ac 2(ςω n )ω = − arctan 2 As ωn − ω2 (1.76 into the 1.71 one can get ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 (ωn − ω2 )As − 2ςωn ωAc sin ωt+ 2ςω n ωAs + (ω 2 − ω 2 )Ac cos ωt = q sin ωt (1.

Hence.77. for the following numerical data ς = 0. decays to zero (curve a in Fig. Motion approximated by the equation 1.1.81 (Co. the transient state changes into the steady state represented by the second term in equation 1.81) Introduction of the solution of the equations 1.2 -0. ω n = 1[1/s]. First term represents an x[m] 1 0.2 0 -0. For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.82) x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.4 -0. due to the existing damping.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations.80) one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the parameters C and α x0 = Co sin αo + A sin ϕ v0 = −Co ςω n sin αo + Co ω d cos αo + Aω cos ϕ (1.83) This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1. A = 0. ω = 2[1/s].82) This solution. 1. x = Co e−ςωn t sin(ω d t + αo ) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. Motion represented by this term. αo = 1[rd].82 (curve b in Fig.The solution 1. yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced vibration of the system considered. . 1.83 is usually referred to as the system forced vibration. ϕ = 0. after an usually short time.165205[m].ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 36 The constants C and α should be chosen to fullfil the required initial conditions.82 is assembled out of two terms.8 0.6 c b a A t[s] 20 40 60 transient state of the forced vibration steady state of the forced vibration Figure 26 oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ωd .126835[rd] is shown in Fig.4 0. 26 (curve c). αo ) to the general solution.6 0. It does not depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration. Co = 1[m].

The possibly simplest case of vibration cased by this type of excitation is shown in Fig.83) are harmonic.70) and the (steady state) forced vibration x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. a) m µ ω 2 sin ω t x mµ ω 2 b) x m µ ω 2 sin ω t µ ωt m M k M c R Figure 28 One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia forces produced by moving elements. Therefore. from engineering point of view play secondary role. Because the transient state. 28. Forced response due to rotating elements .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 37 Both. 27). in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered only.force transmitted to foundation. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor . the exciting force f (t) = q sin ωt (1. The rotor of an electrical motor rotates with the constant angular velocity ω.One x q A qsin(ω t ) Asin(ω t+ ϕ ) ϕ ωt Figure 27 can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. they can be represented by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. Therefore ϕ is called phase of the forced vibration.

85) (1. Let us model vibration of the system. Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the mathematical model we have M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ωn = k c 2ςωn = M M Hence.88 A The ratio m µ . 29. The damping properties are approximated by the damping coefficient c. Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as M ω a function of the ratio ωn for different damping factor ς is shown in Fig.If the frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency ωn . The phenomenon at which amplitude of the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance. taking into consideration 1.89) (1.86) (1.90) or.88) (1. then the rotor produces the centrifugal force F = mµω 2 Its component along the vertical axis x is Fx = mµω2 sin ωt (1. Its maximum depends on the damping ratio and appears for ω > ω n . the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing. For ω = ωn . the steady state forced vibration are x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where according to 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 38 and m is its mass. phase of the forced vibration is equal to 90o . If the frequency of m excitation tends towards infinity. is called the magnification factor.84) The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiffness k. the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to M µ. The physical model of the problem described is shown in Fig. 28b). If the frequency of excitation A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.91) . regardless the damping involved.87) mµω 2 M r q= (1. This phenomenon is called phase resonance.77 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 m ω µ( ωn )2 M q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 39 6 4 A m µ M 2 1 ζ=0 ζ=0.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.25 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.0 ζ=1.5 ζ=1.5 Figure 29 .1 ζ =0.5 0 1 ω ωn ζ=0 2 3 1 0 -45 2 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0.

92) The amplitude of the reaction is p √ |R| = A k 2 + c2 ω2 = AM ω4 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 = n n q 2 ( ω )2 1 + 4ς ωn = mµω 2 q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 |R| ω The amplification ratio mµω2 of the reaction as a function of the ratio ωn is shown in Fig.4ω n the force transmitted to foundation 6 ζ=0 ζ=0. Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M. The force transmitted to the foundation R. Forced response due to the kinematic excitation . according to the physical model shown in Fig. the phase tends to 180o .5 ζ=1. 31b). Hence the response of the system tends to be in the anti-phase with the excitation.For the frequency of excitation ω < 1. 30.4ω n this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero when the frequency of excitation approaches infinity.vibration isolation The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig. For ω > 1.1 ζ =0. 28b) is √ R(t) = kx + cx = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cAω cos(ωt + ϕ) = A k2 + c2 ω 2 sin(ωt + ϕ + δ) ˙ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 40 tends to infinity.5 4 R mµ ω 2 2 1 0 0 1 1.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=1. This physical .4 ω 2 n ω 3 Figure 30 is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ωn .

39 is ω= 2πv L (1.94) and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows y = a sin ωt The equation of motion of the bus is M x = −kx − cx + ky + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ Introduction of 1. If the surface can be approximated by the sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant velocity v.93) Hence.97) (1. according to 1.98) (1. The stiffness k of the spring and the damping coefficient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers.95 yields M x + cx + kx = ka sin ωt + caω cos ωt ¨ ˙ or ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = ω2 a sin ωt + 2ςω n ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt + α) ¨ n n where q= aω 2 n r ω 1 + 4ς 2 ( )2 ωn (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 41 a) b) x M y v G k L a R y B c Figure 31 model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the surface of the road shown in Fig. the frequency of excitation.96) (1. The block of mass M stands for the body of the bus.95) . 31a). the period of the harmonic excitation is T = L v (1.

83 x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1. 1. .101) is called vibration isolation.92) or the amplitude A (e. 32. 1.98 gives q ω a 1 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.4ωn it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the amplitude of the kinematic excitation The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is R = kx + cx − ky − cy = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cωA cos(ωt + ϕ) − ka sin ωt − cωa cos ωt ˙ ˙ = |R| sin(ωt + γ) (1.100) Introduction of equation 1.101) ω The magnifying factor A and the phase ϕ as a function of ωn is shown in Fig. a For ω < 1.102) Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e.g..99) ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 42 Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1.g.

25 ζ=0.5 ζ =0.1 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.5 0 0 1 1 0 -45 ω ωn 2 2 3 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0 ζ=1.5 ζ=1.0 ζ=0.5 Figure 32 .0 ζ=1.1 ζ=1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 43 6 4 A a 2 ζ=0 ζ=0.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 44 1.2. . The distance between the highest and the lowest floor is H = 30m. To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the basement in the case the rope 3 is broken.3 Problems Free vibrations Problem 9 1 H 2 k c Figure 33 The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig. 33 operates between floors of a building. Calculate the stiffness k and the damping coefficient c of the shock-absorber which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s2 . The average mass of the carriage is m = 500kg. the shock absorber 2 is to be installed.

104) (1. Equation of motion of the lift is m¨ = mg x (1.106) . x H mg x k c Figure 34 Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero.105) (1. the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes.103) By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get g x = A + Bt + t2 2 Introduction of the following initial conditions ˙ x |t=0 = 0 x |t=0 = 0 yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion g x = t2 2 Hence.107) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 45 Solution In the worst case scenario. the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is s 2H to = g Since v = x = gt ˙ (1.

112) ωn The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical (ς = 1).113) . there exists one double root and the general solution of the homogeneous equation is yg = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t (1.109) c k .111) m m It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation is g yp = 2 (1.110) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 46 To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at the instant of impact (see Fig. In this case.108) vo = x |t=to = 2Hg H x y k y mg c Figure 35 uncompressed. 2ςωn = (1. 35).Since at the instant of impact the spring k is the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is p ˙ (1. the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is m¨ + cy + ky = mg y ˙ or in the standardized form ˙ y + 2ςωn y + ω2 y = g ¨ n where ωn = r (1.

282 · 500 = 9160N/m n (1.118) Double differentiation of the function 1. m (1.125) .120) n g ωn both constants E and D are positive.117) = 1 − e−ωn t + vo − ω2 ωn n where D= g ω2 n E = vo − g ωn (1.116) (1.117 yields acceleration during the impact ¡ ¢ y = −Dω2 − 2Eωn e−ωn t + Eω 2 te−ωn t ¨ (1.122) This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration aa = 200ms−2 .118.28s−1 2 2Hg 2 2 · 30 · 10 k . 2vo ωn − g < aa It follows q aa + g 200 + 10 ωn < √ = √ = 4. Hence vo > If (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 47 Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of yp and yg is g y = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t + 2 (1.114) ωn This equation has to fullfil the following initial conditions y |t=0 = 0 y |t=0 = vo ˙ Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1.119) n n By inspection of the function 1.121) amax = Dω 2 + 2Eω n = g + 2vo ω n − 2g = 2vo ω n − g n (1.115) and results in the following equation of motion µ ¶ ¶ µ g g g −ω n t y = − 2 e te−ωn t + 2 + vo − ωn ωn ωn ¶ µ ¡ ¢ ¢ g ¡ g te−ωn t = D 1 − e−ωn t + Ete−ωn t (1. one can see that the maximum of the deceleration occurs for time t = 0.124) Since ω n = the stiffness of the shock-absorber is k = ω 2 m = 4.123) (1.113 yields C1 = − g ω2 n C2 = vo − g ωn (1. Hence the maximum of deceleration is ¯ ¯ amax = y |t=0 = ¯−Dω2 − 2Eωn ¯ ¨ (1.

its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a function of time is shown in Fig.121 is fullfil.5 > = ωn 4.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m p √ g 10 = 2. Indeed vo = (1.4m/s 2Hg = 2 · 30 · 10 = 24. 36 .126) Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 48 and the damping coefficient c = 2ςω n m = 2 · 1 · 4.28 (1.127) The displacement of the lift.

5 0.75 1 time [s] -50 a [m/s 2] -100 -150 -200 Figure 36 .5 0.5 0.25 0.5 2 1.25 0.25 0.75 1 time [s] 25 20 15 velocity v [m/s] 10 5 0 -5 0.5 displacement y [m] 1 0.75 1 time [s] 50 acceleration 0 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 49 2.5 0 0 0.

Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical T W R L Ml Figure 38 oscillations in x direction. 39. In this figure the equivalent mass. Origin of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system rests in its equilibrium position. and c. 38. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M1 = 1000kg as shown in Fig. k. 38b). Calculate the parameters m. k.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 50 Problem 10 The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig. stiffness and damping coefficient are denoted by m. 37a) To a) T b) k c x W R m Figure 37 analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. k and c respectively. the following experiment was carried out. . To identify the unknown parameters m. and c.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 51 0.003 0.003 1 2 time [s] 3 4 Figure 39 Answer m = 7000kg. k = 3000000Nm−1 .001 -0.002 0.002 -0.001 x[m] 0 -0. c = 15000N sm−1 .

Assuming that the rope T W R M Figure 41 R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after the block will lose contact with the floor.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 52 Problem 11 a) T b) k c x m W R Figure 40 The winch W shown in Fig. 41). . 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of freedom of mass m stiffness k and the damping coefficient c. The winch is lifting the block of mass M with the constant velocity vo (see Fig.

130) The equation 1.128) If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded winch is at its equilibrium.132) k If Mg < cvo then xs = ts = 0. If Mg > cvo T = cvo + kvo t f or 0 < t < ts (1. ¨ x = −vo and x = −vo t.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 53 Solution Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost In the first stage of lifting the block M.129) In the above equation x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity vo ). ts = Mg − cvo kvo (1. Hence ˙ −T = c(−vo ) + k(−vo t) (1. 42) are as following m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M xb = T − Mg ¨ Since the rope R is not extendible.134) . The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg.130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value Mg. the equation of motion of the winch is m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ (1. 0 < T 0 Mg (1. For t > 0. the instantaneous length of the rope L is L = Lo − vo t (1.130 allows the time of separation ts to be obtained.135) (1. it stays motionlessly at the floor whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the constant velocity vo .131) At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the following formula Mg − cvo xs = −vo ts = − (1.133) Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the floor is lost Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0. Therefore the equation 1. the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig.

140) . Hence q ω 2 A = q. q=− (1.141) m+M m+M m+M The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a constant magnitude A.142) n ωn ωn = r (1. A= 2 (1.137) (1. 2ςωn = .136) m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M x = T − Mg ¨ (1. Taking into account that L = x − xb we have Introduction of the equation 1.137 into 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 54 k c x m x T xb L T Mg Figure 42 Where Lo stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the instance t = 0).138) The standardized form is as following Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch to be formulated (m + M)¨ + cx + kx = −Mg x ˙ (1.134 yields xb = x − L = x − Lo + vo t (1.139) x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = q ¨ ˙ n where k Mg c .

138 T = M x + Mg ¨ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 55 The general solution of the mathematical model 1.140 is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ωd t + Cc cos ωd t) + A where ωd = ωn p 1 − ς2 (1.43 The tension is x xs O t A xmax Td Figure 43 determined by the equation 1.146) µ ¶ −vo + ςω n (xs − A) sin ωd t + (xs − A) cos ωd t + A ωd (1.145) Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.144) This solution has to fulfill the following initial conditions f or t = 0 x = xs x = −vo ˙ (1.143) (1.143 yields the following expressions for the constants Cs and Cc Cs = Hence.147) The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig.148) . x=e −ςω n t −vo + ςωn (xs − A) ωd Cc = xs − A (1.

147 yields the wanted tension as a function of time ¡ ¢ T = Mg + Me−ςωn t Cs (ςωn )2 + 2Cc ςω n ω d − Cs ω 2 sin ω d t d ¡ ¢ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 56 Double differentiation of the function 1.149) +Me−ςωn t Cc (ςω n )2 − 2Cs ςω n ωd + Cc ω 2 cos ω d t d .

I m M ωt c B l Figure 44 A µ The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. 44) is mounted on the massless beam of length l. rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 57 Forced vibration Problem 12 E. . Shaft of the motor. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E. of mass m. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the points A and B. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coefficient c.

In the above formula A stands for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor.I m M x mµω 2 ωt c B µ l A Figure 45 Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig.152 x = A sin (ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.154) (1.150) 48EI l3 (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 58 Solution E.155) represents the forced vibrations of the system. . 45 results in the following differential equations of motion. M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ where k stands for the stiffness of the beam EI. k= Its standardized form is x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c 2ςω n = M m+M The particular solution of the equation 1.151) (1.153) (1. The interaction force at the point A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily chosen position x (see Fig 46).152) mµω2 M r q= (1.

from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point B is RB = −cx = −cωA sin (ωt + ϕ) ˙ . Hence. the reaction at the point A is RA = −0.156) x cx x D c B cx Figure 47 To move the point D (see Fig.5kx = −0.5k x The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 59 x E.5k x l Figure 46 0. ˙ ˙ Hence.I kx D x A 0. 47) with the velocity x the force cx is required.5kA sin (ωt + ϕ) (1.

.157) where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute displacement of the seismic weight 3. The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiffness k and the damper 5 of the damping coefficient c.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 60 Problem 13 z 5 x 3 z=x-y 4 y 2 1 Figure 48 Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating object 1. Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a harmonic motion y = a sin ωt (1.158) derive the formula for the amplification coefficient κ of the amplitude of vibration of amplitude of z the object 1 of this transducer ( κ = amplitude of y ) as a function of the non-dimensional ω frequency ωn .This transducer records the displacement z =x−y (1.

162 is xp = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) where r 4ς 2 ³ ω ωn (1.161) (1. the record of the .164) A = sµ ³ ´2 ¶2 ³ ´2 ω ω 1 − ωn + 4ς 2 ωn Hence the record of the transducer is ´2 +1 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ³ ´2 ω 1 − ωn (1.163) r (1.160) (1. 48 is m¨ + cx + kx = cy + ky x ˙ ˙ Its standardize form is x + 2ςω n x + ω2 x = aqc cos ωt + aqs sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c c k 2ςω n = qc = ω qs = m m m m Simplification of the right side of the above equation yields x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = aq sin (ωt + α) ¨ ˙ n where p 2 2 q = qc + qs = ω 2 n s 4ς 2 µ ω ωn ¶2 +1 α = arctan qc ω = arctan 2ς qs ωn (1.76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1.If the coefficient of amplification κ is equal to one.168) κ= ampy The diagram presented in Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 61 Solution The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig.166) The amplitude of this record is q p ampz = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a)2 + (aA sin (α + ϕ))2 = a A2 + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.159) (1. the coefficient of amplification is ampz p 2 = A + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.49 shows this amplification coefficient κ as a function ω of the ratio ωn .167) Therefore.162) According to equation 1.165) z = x − y = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) − a sin ωt = = aA cos (α + ϕ) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt − a sin ωt = = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt (1.

25.25 ζ=0.1 ζ=0. if the frequency ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ωn of the transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0.5 4 κ 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 ω/ ω n 4 5 Figure 49 .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 62 amplitude of vibration (ampz ) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object (ampy = a). 6 5 ζ=0. as one can see from the diagram 49. It almost happends.

It can be considered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG . The motion of the lower end of the spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows x = X cos ωt where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for the frequency of these oscillations. It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiffness k and the damper of the damping coefficient c. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C . the expression for the interaction force at the point A 4. the differential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in the standard form 2. Produce: 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 63 Problem 14 α O A a b d c G B k C x Figure 50 The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused by the motion of the point C 3. 50.

Answer: 17 IA = 12 mL2 + 2maH2 − 3mLa 3.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 64 Problem 15 C Y c B k a α 1 2 G A xG L L/2 L/2 Figure 51 Two uniform rods (1 and 2). 51. At the point B it is supported by a spring of stiffness k and a damper of damping coefficient c. were joined together to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. The point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by the following function Y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. The differential equation of motion of the pendulum Answer: α + 2ζω n α + ω2 α = q cos ωt ¨ ˙ n . each of length L and mass m. The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through the point A. The expression for the position xG of the center of gravity G of the pendulum Answer: xG = 3 L − a 4 2. The pendulum performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A.

ω 2 = 2mgxIG +ka q = Aωca n IA IA A 4. The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum Answer: q ω2 n Aα = 2 2 ω ω 2 1−( ω ) +4ζ 2 ( ω ) n n 5. ω 2ζ ω n D = c(Aω cos ωt − aAα cos(ωt + ϕ)) ϕ = − arctan ω 2 1−( ω ) n . The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed motion .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 2 2 65 where: 2ζω n = ca .

to describe motion of such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced.1. Hence. the real elements can be represented by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless elements representing the elastic and damping properties. according to the previously introduce definition. xj . with acceptable accuracy. In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless xj mj xi k ij mi y i(t) ki ci c ij Figure 1 elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities respectively. It follows that to determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce infinite number of coordinates. the number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to infinity. Usually. But in many vibration problems. These coordinates (xi . This process is called discretization and the final result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom system.1 MODELLING 2.1 Physical model Fig. 1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. 2. therefore each of the particle the real element is made of can moves independently.Chapter 2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist. yi (t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates .

To figure these forces out let us move the mass mi out of its equilibrium position by the displacement xi .is the external excitation matrix x. Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model To develop the equations of motion of the system described.is the damping matrix k.2 Mathematical model It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of freedom linear system has the following form m¨+cx+kx=F(t) x ˙ where m .is the inertia matrix c . In the following sections a few of them are presented. 2. . 1). and xj are independent and their number determines the number of degree of freedom of the system. as it was mention earlier. one may utilize the Newton’s or Euler’s equations. The configuration a) shown in the figure below is achieved.is the stiffness matrix F . The coordinate yi (t) is not independent (is an explicit function of time) whereas the coordinates xi . For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero. Origin of each coordinate coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at its equilibrium position. ¨ mi xi = F (2.1) If the system stays at its equilibrium position.MODELLING 67 (not shown in the Fig. the force F must contains forces due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. Therefore. the resultant of all static forces is equal zero.is the displacement matrix There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated.1. Since in case considered the body of mass mi performs a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used.

The last three configurations (d. one can add all this forces together to obtain ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi + kij xj + ki yi (t) − ci xi − cij xi + cij xj (2. Both of them are caused by ˙ ˙ positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis xi . The forces caused by motion along the axis xj (configuration e)) and axis yi ( configuration f )) results in the term +cij xj .2) Due to this displacement there are two forces ki xi and kij xi acting on the considered mass mi . As a result of these consideration we are getting set of differential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of freedom. Due to motion of the system along the coordinate xi with velocity xi two additional forces are created ˙ by the dampers ci and cij.4) To accomplished the mathematical model. Similar consideration carried out for the displacements along the axis xj (configuration b)) and axis yi ( configuration c)) results in the term +kij xj .3) mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi ¨ +kij xj +ki yi (t) −ci xi − cij xi ˙ ˙ +cij xj ˙ After standardization we have the final form of equation of motion of the mass mi . Therefore they have to be taken with the sign ’-’.MODELLING 68 a) xi 6= 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj -kijxi kij cij xi mi xi -ki xi yi (t) k ci i b) xi = 0 xj 6= 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj xj mj cij mi yi (t) k i ci c) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi 6= 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj xi +kiyi yi (t) ki yi kij mi ci cij d) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi 6= 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj m j -cijxi k ij xi -ci xi yi (t) k i m i ci cij xi e) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj 6= 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj +cijxj k ij xi mi yi (t) k i ci xj cij f) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi 6= 0 ˙ xj mj xi kij mi yi (t) k i yj ci cij +kijxj kij xi +0 (2. ¨ ˙ ˙ mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) (2. and f ) allow to take these forces into account. Up to now it has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement xi causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis xi . e. and +ki yi (t) respectively. one has to carry out similar consideration for each mass involved in the system. and 0 ˙ respectively. Since the system is linear. . they are −ci xi and −cij xi .

is the system kinetic energy function V . 3) is 1 (2.The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through its centre of gravity Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig. 2.. .mass of the rigid body vi .5) where mi .M (2. Hence ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎞ I ωix X 1 £ ¤ Iix 0 0 2 ⎝ mi vi + 1 ω ix ω iy ω iz ⎣ 0 Iiy 0 ⎦ ⎣ ω iy ⎦⎠ T = (2.MODELLING 69 Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s equations d ∂ ∂ ∂V ( T) − T+ = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm where T .components of the absolute angular velocity of the body Iix . ω iy... 2 is Vi = mi grGiZ (2.6) 2 2 i=1 0 0 Iiz ω iz m = 1.absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body ωix.7) i Gi Z O X rG i rGiZ Y Figure 2 Potential energy for the spring s of stiffness ks and uncompressed length ls (see Fig. Iiz .stands for the potential energy function Qm . Iiy . ω iz.is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate qm The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the kinetic energy of the individual rigid bodies the system is made of. .8) Vs = ks (|rA − rB | − ls )2 2 .

4...qm . . should be included in the generalized force Qm ..0..qm .. It must be remembered that the Lagrange’s equations yield. .0)+ ˙ ˙ ˙ PM ∂f o PM ∂f o o o o o + m=1 ∂qm (q1 . ...qm . . 0..... ...MODELLING 70 A rA Z O X Figure 3 s B rB Y Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is V = I X i=1 Vi + S X s=1 Vs (2...0) ∆qm + m=1 ∂ q˙m (q1 .qM . in general case..11) Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . 1 the kinetic energy function is 1 1 T = mi x2 + mj x2 + · · ·· ˙i ˙j 2 2 (2. ..qM . q1 . Therefore.... a non-linear mathematical model. before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis..9) In a general case the damping forces should be classified as non-conservative ones and.. 0. elongation of the springs ki and kij are respectively ∆li = xi − yi ∆lij = xj − xi (2.qM ) = f (q1 .. . ... .qM . .. the linearization process must be carried out. 0.qM ... .. as such... .10) In the case of the system shown in Fig... .qm .0. The following formula allows for any nonlinear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium o o o position q1 . .qm .. .. If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig.qM o o o f (q1 . .0) ∆qm ˙ (2.qm .0.. . .12) .

13) Again. if the potential energy due to the static deflections is not included in the function 2.15) (2. The function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its partial derivative produces the damping forces.13 too. . Therefore the above function does not include the potential energy due to the static deflection of the springs. very often. since the lower end of the damper is motionless. produce resultant equal to zero. the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized force Qm . dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . The stiffness k is replaced by the damping coefficient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the generalized velocities. They. Hence.M (2. in the considered case. It should be noted that the above potential energy function represents increment of the potential energy of the springs due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deflections can not be produced from this potential energy function. the potential energy function is 1 1 V = ki (xi − yi )2 + kij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· 2 2 (2. If the potential energy due to the static deflections is included in the function 2.13 either.. together with the gravity forces.14) .MODELLING 71 xj mj x i k ij mi y i (t) k i ci c ij xj k ij xi mj c ij mi xj xi ci yi y i (t) ki Figure 4 Therefore.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must not be included in the function 2. for convenience.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must be included in the function 2. the damping function is 1 1 D = ci (xi )2 + cij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form ∂ ∂V ∂D d ∂ ( T) − T+ + = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm ∂ qm ˙ m = 1. Hence. 2. a damping function (dissipation function) D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces.. The damping function is created by analogy to the creation of the potential energy function. Generally.. But.

13 and 2. is.19) These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form x = δF (2. Let xij be the displacement of the system along the coordinate xi caused by the force Fj . 2.11.15 yields the equation of the motion of the mass mi .. mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) ¨ ˙ ˙ The influence coefficient method (2.20) ...14 into equation 2..MODELLING 72 Introduction of the equations 2. according to the superposition principle. xi = I X j=1 δ ij Fj i = 1.17) If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates xi along which the system is allowed to move. . DEFINITION: The ratio δ ij = is called the influence coefficient It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure δij = δ ji (2. 2. the displacement along the i − th coordinate. 5.I (2. Let us apply to this system a static force Fj along the coordinate xj .18) xij Fj (2.16) Fj mj xj xi x ij mi Figure 5 Let us consider the flexible structure shown in Fig. Let us assume that the masses mi and mj can move along the coordinate xi and xj respectively..

application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of its motion in the following form mi xi + ¨ I X j=1 kij xj = 0 (2.21) (2.25) .MODELLING 73 The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x. F = δ −1 x The inverse matrix δ −1 is called stiffness matrix and will be denoted by k..xj .23) If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the vector x (x1 .22) kij xj (2. .24) Hence.xJ ) the force that acts on the particle mi is fi = −Fi = − I X j=1 kij xj (2. k = δ −1 Hence according to equation 2.. ...21 is Fi = I X j=1 (2..

1. . length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig. 6 Develop equations of motion of this system.3 Problems Problem 16 2 1 R l Figure 6 The disk 1 of radius R. and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of radius r.MODELLING 74 2.

7 is governed by Newton’s equations m¨ = Fd y I ϕy = Md ¨ (2.MODELLING 75 Solution.27) y= 3EJ 2EJ If the beam is loaded with force Ms (see Fig.forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam The interaction forces Fd and Md can be expressed as a function of the displacements y and ϕy by means of the influence coefficient method. 8).28) y= 2EJ EJ .26) In the above mathematical model I = 1 mR2 .moment of inertia of the disk about axis x 4 Fd . the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l2 l3 Fs Fs ϕy = (2. 8). the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l l2 Ms . Md . Ms ϕy = (2. 2 Fs Ms y z ϕy l y Figure 8 If the beam is loaded with force Fs (see Fig. 2 1 R Md F d y ϕy z l Figure 7 The motion of the disk shown in Fig.

MODELLING 76 Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕy are y = ϕy or in matrix form ∙ y ϕy ¸ l3 Fs + 3EJ l2 = Fs + 2EJ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ l2 Ms 2EJ l Ms EJ ¸∙ Fs Ms ¸ (2.32) Since. k= .31) 4 The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements J= ∙ Fs Ms ¸ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ where ¸−1 ∙ y ϕy ¸ = ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸∙ y ϕy ¸ (2. x= (2.33) (2.34) (2.29) (2. according to the second Newton’s law ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Fd Fs =− Md Ms the equation of motion takes the following form ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ y ¨ k11 k12 y m 0 =− ϕy ¨ ϕy 0 I k21 k22 Hence.30) π r4 (2.36) .35) . the final mathematical model of the system considered is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸ ∙ y ϕy ¸ (2.

and as shown in Fig. Produce equations of motion of the system. . 9.MODELLING 77 Problem 17 G k1 l1 l2 k2 Figure 9 A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k1 .

k= ∙ k1 + k2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 2 2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 k1 l1 + k2 l2 ¸ .38) .40) (2. Let us then introduce the two coordinates y and ϕ as shown in Fig. M G O y1 =y.37) Hence.ϕ l1 y k1 l1 F y Figure 10 The system has two degree of freedom. The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along coordinates y and ϕ are F = = M = = −y1 k1 − y2 k2 = −(y − ϕl1 )k1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 −[(k1 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] +y1 k1 l1 − y2 k2 l2 = +(y − ϕl1 )k1 l1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 l2 2 2 −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ l2 ϕ y2=y+ϕ l 2 k2 (2.39) (2. the generalized Newton’s equations yield m¨ = F = −[(k11 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] y 2 2 I ϕ = M = −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ ¨ The matrix form of the system equations of motion is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ . x= ∙ y ϕ ¸ (2.MODELLING 78 Solution. 10.

Use Lagrange’s approach to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position. 11). can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiffness k.MODELLING 79 Problem 18 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 11 The link 1 of a mass m1 . This body is hinged to the link 1 at the point A. All motion is in the vertical plane. shown in Fig. 5 . The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body. I = 2 m2 r2 – moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity.

According to Fig .41) The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball vG can be obtained by differentiation of its absolute position vector.12.41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ.45) The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy due to gravitation. T = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 (x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 ) + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 = ˙ ˙˙ ˙ (m1 + m2 )x2 + m2 Rxϕ cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ2 2 2 (2. 2. 1 1 1 2 T = T1 + T2 = m1 x2 + m2 vG + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 (2.44) Introduction of Eq. 1 V = 2 kx2 − m2 gR cos ϕ (2. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T1 and the link 2 T2 . this position vector is rG = i(x + R sin ϕ) + j( − R cos ϕ) (2. 12. 2.43) (2.46) 2 .42) Hence vG = rG = i(x + Rϕ cos ϕ) + j(Rϕ sin ϕ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The required squared magnitude of this velocity is 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vG = (x + Rϕ cos ϕ)2 + (Rϕ sin ϕ)2 = x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 (2.MODELLING 80 Solution y 1 x k o k 3 2 rG r R x ϕ Figure 12 G The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x and ϕ are shown in Fig.44 into Eq.

57) (2. cos ϕ ∼ 1.55) . Taking this into ˙ = = = account the linearized equations of motion are x ϕ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ + m2 gRϕ = 0 Their matrix form is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I ¸ . according to Eq. the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form µ ¶ d ∂T ∂V ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ x ˙ ∂x ∂x µ ¶ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 (2. we have the following equations of motion x ϕ ˙ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ + m2 gR sin ϕ = 0 (2.56) (2. 2.49) (2. x= ∙ x ϕ ¸ (2.47.50) (2. k= ∙ 2k 0 0 m2 gR ¸ .48) (2.MODELLING 81 In the case considered.54) For small magnitudes of x and ϕ. sinϕ ∼ ϕ.52) (2.53) ∂T = −m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ ˙˙ ∂ϕ ∂V = m2 gR sin ϕ ∂ϕ Hence. ϕ2 ∼ 0.47) dt ∂ ϕ ˙ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are µ ¶ d d ∂T ˙ ˙ = ((m1 + m2 )x + m2 Rϕ cos ϕ) = dt ∂ x ˙ dt x ϕ ˙ = (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ ∂T =0 ∂x ∂V = 2kx ∂x d dt µ ∂T ∂ϕ ˙ ¶ = ¢ d ¡ ˙ ˙ m2 Rx cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ = dt ϕ x ˙˙ = (m2 R2 + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ (2.51) (2.

all of stiffness k.MODELLING 82 Problem 19 k q A2 k 2 l k A1 q 1 k l Figure 13 Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum. in such way that its vertical position (q1 = 0 and q2 = 0) is its stable equilibrium position. The pendulum is supported by four springs. Produce equation of small vibrations of the pendulum about this equilibrium position. each of mass m and length l. 13. .

Derive equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system.MODELLING 83 Problem 20 1 3 4 2 l3 GJ o EI R l4 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m1 and radius R shown in Fig. The left hand end of the massless and flexible beam 4 is rigidly attached to the disk 1. is fasten to the massless and flexible shaft 3. . At its right hand side the particle 2 of m2 is placed. 14.

The shafts are assumed to be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is denoted by l. I2 .MODELLING 84 Problem 21 k R R k I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 15 A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. Derive the differential equations for the torsional vibrations of the system. and I3 . The disks have moments of inertia I1 . and G respectively. The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiffness k. . J. 15.

16 the physical model of a gear box is presented. The shafts the gears are mounted on are massless.MODELLING 85 Problem 22 D1 D2 I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 16 In Fig. Derive equations for the torsional vibrations of the gear box. .

MODELLING

86

Problem 23
X

B l l l O 2 4 6 7

C

l

l

A

α l
Y 1 5 3

Figure 17 Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6. The spring 7 has a stiffness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3 can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m. Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium position.

MODELLING

87

Problem 24
l 4 m l 4 m l 4 m l 4

T

Figure 18 Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig. 18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of motion of the beads

MODELLING

88

Problem 25

m l q
1

R q

2

Figure 19 On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended (see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING

89

Problem 26

I1 i

I2

I1

i

I2

c

R

k ks1 m ks2

Figure 20 Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional stiffness ks1 and ks2 as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end of the shaft ks2 the rotor of the moment of inertia I2 is attached. The left hand end of the shaft ks1 is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I1 . The rope is modelled as a massless spring of the stiffness k. At its end the block of mass m is fastened. The damper of the damping coefficient c represents the damping properties of the system. Produce the differential equation of motion of the system.

Since the gear of the gear ratio as well as the shafts of stiffness ks1 and ks2 are massless the coordinates that specify the position of the of the gear α1 and α2 are not independent.63) Introducing 2. They are a function of the independent coordinates.62) (2.66) (2. ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the independant coordinates.62 one can obtain (2.65) .61) (2.58) r2 α1 Application of the Newton’s law to the individual bodies yields equations of motion in the following form.59) (2.64) (2.58 into the equations 2. Let r1 α2 i= = (2.61 and 2.60) (2. m¨ x ¨ I1 ϕ1 0¨ 1 α 0¨ 2 α ¨ I2 ϕ2 = = = = = −kx + Rkϕ1 +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 α1 ˙ −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + F r1 −ks2 α2 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 α2 0 = −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + iF r2 0 = −ks2 iα1 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 Solving the above equations for α1 we have α1 = ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.MODELLING 90 Solution i F c R I2 I1 i I2 r2 r1 α2 F ϕ2 ϕ α1 1 k ks1 m ks2 x Figure 21 In Fig. 21 x.

0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦.68) iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 ⎡ . according to 2.58 α2 = iα1 = iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.67 into 2.63 one can get the equations of motion in the following form m¨ = −kx + Rkϕ1 x I1 ϕ1 = +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 ¨ ˙ ϕ2 = −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 ¨ After standardization we have m¨ + c˙ + kz = 0 z z where ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m 0 0 c = ⎣ 0 cR2 m = ⎣ 0 I1 0 ⎦ . 0 0 I2 i2 0 0 ⎡ k −kR 0 ⎢ −kR kR2 + ks1 ks2 i2 − ks1 ks2 i2 k = ⎣ ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 0 − ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎦.60 and 2.67) Introducing 2.66 and 2.69) ⎤ x z = ⎣ ϕ1 ⎦ ϕ2 i ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2. (2.MODELLING 91 Hence.

the expression for period of these oscillations.MODELLING 92 Problem 27 Z 4R 3π z C G α R O X x Figure 22 The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the Lagrange’s equations) Answer: ¡ ¡ ¢¢ 16 8 4 IG + mR2 1 + 9π2 − 3π α + mgR(1 − 3π )α = 0 ¨ ¡ 4 R ¢2 where IG = 1 mR2 − m 3 π 2 2. 50 is free to roll over the horizontal plane XY without slipping. Produce 1. The instantaneous angular position of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α. Answer: 2π T = mgR(1− 4 ) 3π 16 8 (IG +mR2 (1+ 9π2 − 3π )) .

matrix of stiffness F(t).vector of the generalized coordinates 2.).matrix of inertia c . flatter of plane wings etc.vector of the external excitation x. Produce the differential equations of motion.matrix of damping k . its general solution is always equal to the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation xp .72) (2. the second moments of area J and the shear modulus G.71) (2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathematical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where m . Such a situation takes place. The dynamic properties of the shafts are determined by their lenghts l.2. x = xg + xp The homogeneous equation m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.70 is linear.1 General case In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not necessary have to be symmetrical.70) . Since the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 93 Problem 28 I1 l 1 J1 G1 l 2 J2 G2 l 3 J3 G3 I2 l 4 J4 G4 Figure 23 The two disks of moments of inertia I1 and I2 are join together by means of the massless shafts as is shown in Fig. if the mechanical structure interacts with fluid or air (oil bearings. for example. 2. 51.

81) . 2. [A − 1r] z0 = 0 (2.72 yields the following set of the differential equations of first order.70 represents the vibrations caused by the excitation force F(t). Therefore.79 is called eigenvalue problem and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z0 is called eigenvector problem.77) Introduction of Eq.N (2. Introduction of Eq. It is often refered to as the forced vibrations.76) Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2.N (2.77 into Eq. x = y ˙ y = −m−1 kx − m−1 cy ˙ The above equations can be rewritten as follows z = Az ˙ where z= ∙ x y ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ (2.78) The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2.80 are zn1 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) cos ωn t − Im(z0n ) sin ω n t) zn2 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) sin ω n t + Im(z0n ) cos ω n t) n = 1.80) The equations 2. The roots rn are usually complex and conjugated.77.73) be the vector of the generalized velocities... rn = hn ± iω n n = 1. Let y=x ˙ (2. The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2. z = z0 ert (2. its general solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system. 2. The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2...74) . Free vibrations .75) (2..73 into Eq..79) Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered..natural frequencies.72 to so called state-space coordinates. Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available computer programs. 2.75 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the vector z0 ..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 94 corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present. 2. |[A − 1r]| = 0 (2.stability of the equilibrium position To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2.78 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant is equal to 0. A= (2.

zN 2 ] C (2.3 0. z = [z11 ..70.8 T n = 2 π /ω n Figure 24 constant magnitudes C is called initial problem. For the further analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form k F k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) o (2. In the general case. .6 0.4 1.1 0. The equation 2.85) o o . 24 for the positive and negative magnitude of hn .1 1.9 1 1.. z21 . this problem is difficult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures. The system with N degree of freedom possesses N natural frequencies.82 indicates that the free motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2.2 1.6 t T n = 2 π /ω n -0..4 0. The roots 2.6 z 1 z h>0 0.81 is given in Fig. the imaginary parts of roots rn represent the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of decay of the free vibrations.1 1.8 0.5 1.80 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be determined. let us introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2.zn1 .80 respectively.7 0..5 0. m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.2 0 h<0 t -0.5 1..4 0. z31 .transfer functions The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.. If at least one root of the equation 2. ..81 allow to formulate the general solution that approximates the system free vibrations..81.3 1.zN1 .4 0.. If all roots rn of the equation 2.4 1.7 0..80 have negative real parts then the equilibrium position of the system considered is stable.83) Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends.6 -0..80 has positive real part then the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 95 In the above expressions Re(z0n ) and Im(z0n ) stand for the real and imaginary part of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z0n associated with the nth root of the set 2. z32.3 0.The problem of searching for the vector of the 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0.84) To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2..82) As one can see from the formulae 2.6 0.81.2 0.3 1.1 0.83.9 1 1.8 0. Forced vibrations . k k f k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) + iFo sin(ωt + ϕk ) (2. zn2.8 0.84 the imaginary part.5 0.2 0. The particular solutions 2.2 -0. A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2.6 0. z22.4 0. z12.2 1.

2. fo is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external excitation. 2. 25.88) .87) Now. According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as Im f k F 0 k k ϕ0 ωt ω F cos( t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k k Re k ϕ0 F k ω t F 0 k ω t Figure 25 follows k k k f k = Fo ei(ωt+ϕo ) = Fo eiϕo eiωt = fo eiωt k k (2. Introduction of Eq.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 96 The relationship between the complex excitation f k and the real excitation is shown in Fig. 2.86) k Here.88 (2.83 yields m¨ + cx + kx = fo eiωt x ˙ xc = aeiωt (2.86 into Eq. the particular solution of Eq.87 can be predicted in the complex form 2.

2. Example of three elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig.87 produces set of the algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the unknown vector a.93) (2. This findings are presented in Fig.88.96) It is easy to see from 2.88 into Eq.90. The first two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase. . according to 2. and its phase β k is equal to the phase between the complex amplitudes ak and the vector eiωt .92) Motion of the system considered along the coordinate xk . according to Eq.91) Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part of the solution 2.95) −ω m + iωc + k It is easy to see that the element Rpq (iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates xp caused by the unit excitation 1eiωt along the coordinate xq . 26. It transfers. ¢ ¡ 2 (2.89) −ω m + iωc + k a = fo ¢− 1 ¡ fo a = −ω2 m + iωc + k (2. x = Re(a) cos ωt − Im(a) sin ωt (2.91. 2.91 that the amplitude of the forced vibration xk is equal to the o absolute value of the complex amplitude ak .90) Therefore. according to 2.94) will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. 2.92 is xk = xk cos(ωt + β k ) o where xk = o p Re(ak )2 + Im(ak )2 β k = arc tan Im(ak ) Re(ak ) (2. xc = aeiωt = R(iω)fo eiωt (2. The complex matrix ¢− 1 ¡ 2 (2. 27. the vector of the complex excitation fo eiωt into the vector of the complex displacement xc = aeiωt .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 97 Its solution is Introduction of Eq. the response of the system xc due to the complex force f is xc = (Re(a) + i Im(a))(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 98 Im f F 0 k k ϕ0 k a x0 k k k β0 ωt k F cos(ω t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k Re x0 cos( ω t+ β 0 ) k k ϕ0 k β0 k F k k ω t F 0 x0 k k x ω t Figure 26 .

2) R(1.0002 0.003 0.0035 0.003 -0.1) R(1.002 -0.0025 0.1) R(1.0006 0.002 0.002 0.001 0 -0.2) R(1.001 0.3) (phase) 1500 frequency rad/s Figure 27 .3) transfer function m/N (imaginary part) 0.1) R(1.0001 -0.3) transfer function m/N (modulus) 0.0001 0 -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 99 transfer functions m/N (real parts) 0.3) transfer functions m/N 4 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 R(1.0015 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.004 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.0002 -0.0005 0 0 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.2) R(1.001 -0.1) R(1.003 0.0003 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.2) R(1.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 100 Experimental determination of the transfer functions Fq xq xp xp F(t) q Fq ( iω ) t Fourier R (iω ) i pq ω x( iω ) p x(t) p t x( iω ) p ___ Fq ( iω ) transformation ω ω Figure 28 In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate xp and the coordinate xq (see Fig. Fourier transformation applied to these functions Z +∞ Fq (iω) = e−iωt Fq (t)dt −∞ Z +∞ e−iωt xp (t)dt (2.98) .97) xp (iω) = −∞ yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain xp (iω) and Fq (iω). The amplitude of the complex functions xp (iω) and Fq (iω) q Re(xp (iω))2 + Im(xp (iω))2 |xp (iω)| = q |Fq (iω)| = Re(Fq (iω))2 + Im(Fq (iω))2 (2. 28) let us apply force Fq (t) along the coordinate xq and record it simultaneously with the system response xp (t) along the coordinate xp .

N ) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions Rpq (iω)....N. is q=N xp (iω) = X q=1 Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) q = 1.103) .N (2..101) Since the system considered is by assumption linear. Rpq (iω) = xp (iω) Fq (iω) (2..100) The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate xp caused by the harmonic excitation Fq along the coordinate xq ..... ϕxp = arctan ϕF q Im(xp (iω)) Re(xp (iω)) Im(Fq (iω)) = arctan Re(Fq (iω)) (2..99) These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function Rpq (iω) to be computed. q = 1. The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae. according to the superposition principle.The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form x(iω) = Rpq (iω)F(iω) p = 1.N (2. the response along the coordinate xp caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates xq .102) Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved in the modelling (p = 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 101 represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the frequency ω... xp (iω) = Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) (2.

If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to zero..110) As one can see from Eq. . the parameter ω can take any of the following values ±ω1 . 2.2..104) Free vibration of the undamped system .106.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 102 2.109) The above characteristic equation. the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero ¯ ¯ 2 ¯−ω m + k¯ = 0 (2. ±ω2 .108) (2. Its follows that if Xn is a solution of Eq. Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the system degree of freedom. it is said that the system performs free vibrations.2 Modal analysis . ± ω N (2. c and k are square and symmetrical. 2.case of small damping In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m. is solution of the Eq.108 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has infinite number of solution Xn . Hence. The vector Xn represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural ..107) (−ω 2 m + k)X cos ωt = 0 and the differential equation 2.106 into 2. .. They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations. According to the above definition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.108. has N positive roots with respect to the parameter ω2 . ±ω3 . ± ω n . The number of different natural frequencies is therefore equal to the number of degree of freedom. For each of the possible natural frequencies ωn the system of equations 2. Indeed.106) is a particular solution of the equation 2.. 2. the vector Cn Xn (2.eigenvalue and eigenvector problem If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is m¨ + kx = 0 x It is easy to see that x = X cos ωt (2. They are called natural frequencies.111) where Cn is arbitrarily chosen constant.108 too. 2.105) In turn.105.. (−ω2 m + k)X = 0 (2.. for any physical system.105 is fulfilled for any instant of time if the following set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulfilled. these parameters have the physical meaning only for positive values. introduction of Eq.105 yields (2.

X3n . There are N such particular solutions. The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigenvalue problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector problem.114 are linearly independent. In similar manner one can prove that xn = Xn sin ω n t (2.105 has been accomplished. For example. Since the solutions ?? and 2. It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically with the frequency ω n .112) If the system is deflected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the x3n = X 3n cosω n t x X 1n X 2n X 3n X 4n t Tn Figure 29 initial velocity equal to zero.114) is a particular solution too. if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig. 29) the vector Xn contains four numbers Xn = [X1n . X4n ]T (2.115) The 2N constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions. X2n .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 103 frequency ω n . There are four such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system. Now. one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution xn = Xn cos ω n t (2.105 xn = N X (Sn Xn sin ω n t + Cn Xn cos ωn t) n=1 (2. Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue and the natural modes as eigenvectors.113) of the equation 2. . it will oscillate with the frequency ω n . their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2.

120 and 2.121) 1 1 T Xn )m( Xn ) = 1 λn λn (2.116) Primultiplying the first equation by XT and the second equation by XT one can get m n (2. the product XT mXn does not have to be equal to n n n zero.117) Now.118) (2. According to 2. Let this product be equal to λ2 n XT mXn = λ2 n n Division of the above equation by λ2 yields n ( But according to 2.122) is eigenvector too. Hence.122.108. n m XT mXm = 0 for n 6= m n (2.120) If n = m. Each eigenvector has to fulfill the Eq.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 104 Properties of the natural modes.124 one can conclude that ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn mΞm = 1 if n = m (2.124) n Taking into account Eq’s 2.117 by -1 and then adding them together we are getting (2.119) (ω 2 − ω2 )XT mXm = 0 n m n Since for n 6= m (ω2 − ω2 ) 6= 0. . 2. −ω 2 mXn +kXn = 0 n −ω2 mXm +kXm = 0 m −ω 2 XT mXn +XT kXn = 0 m n m T 2 T −ω m Xn mXm +Xn kXm = 0 Since matrices m and k are symmetrical XT kXn = XT kXm m n and XT mXn = XT mXm m n (2.111 1 X λn n (2.123) The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξn is called normalization and the eigenvector Ξn is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode. Let us denot it by Ξn Ξn = 1 Xn λn (2. primultiplying the first equation of set 2. since (ω 2 − ω 2 ) = 0.125) It is said that eigenvectors Ξn and Ξm that fulfill the above conditions are orthogonal with respect to the inertia matrix m. ΞT mΞn = 1 (2.

104) is assumed as the following combination of the matrix of inertia m and stiffness k with the unknown coefficients µ and κ... in turn. 0 ⎥ n ⎥ . ⎦ 0 .. 0 (2.129) 0 . Ξ2 . . The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural damping. . . 2 ω =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ .130) This coefficients are to be determined experimentally.131) . the second of the equations 2. ω2 .127) Owning to the above orthogonality condition.. . ⎥ ⎥ (2.117 yields ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn kΞm = (2. ω2 N Normal coordinates . . The modal modes Ξn can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known as the modal matrix Ξ . . Ξ = [Ξ1 . In many cases. particularly if the system considered is furnished with special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers. . 0 . the structural damping can be omitted. 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ . 0 . Vibrations of any mechanical structures are coupled with deflections of the elastic elements.Ξn . cause friction between the particles the elements are made of.ΞN ] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2. ...128) containing the squared natural frequencies ω 2 n ⎤ 0 . But in case of absence of such devices.. 0 . . The structural damping is extremely difficult or simply impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods.modal damping Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. the structural damping has to be taken into account.. In such cases the matrix of damping c (see Eq. . 2.126) ω 2 if n = m n It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields ΞT mΞ = 1 ΞT kΞ = ω2 where ω 2 is a square diagonal matrix ⎡ 2 ω1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 105 It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of stiffness. c =µm+κk (2. 0 ω2 . These deflections. It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation x = Ξη (2.

131 yields motion of the system along the physical coordinates x.139) Hence .136 takes form ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ . .128 we are getting set of independent equations 1¨ + γ η + ω 2 η = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2. ⎥ ⎢ (2.133) Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by ΞT we obtain ΞT mΞ¨ + ΞT (µm+κk)Ξη + ΞT kΞη = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2.136..136 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation along coordinate xq .the unit matrix ω2 and γ = (µ1+κω 2 ) .46) can be written as follows η n = e−ς n ωn t (Csn sin ωdn t + Ccn cos ω dn t) + η pn (2.132) results in its decoupling. 0 η n + 2ς n ω n η n + ω2 η n = Ξqn Fq eiωt ¨ ˙ n n = 1.135) n where 1 .137) p where ω dn = ω n 1 − ς 2 and η pn stands for the particular solution of the nonn homogeneous equation 2. Response to the harmonic excitation . In this case the right hand side of the equation 2.diagonal matrices n n Hence.transfer functions Let us solve the Eq.132 yields mΞ¨ + cΞη + kΞη = F(t) η ˙ (2. each equation of the above set has the following form η n + 2ς n ωn η n + ω2 η n = ΞT F(t) n = 1. 2.137 into equation 2.131 into 2.N ¨ ˙ n n (2. Indeed. 2..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 106 to the mathematical model m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.136) The coefficients ς n = (µ+κω 2 )/2ω n are often referred to as the modal damping ratio. . introduction of the transformation 2.. Introduction of the solutions 2. Problem of determination of this particular solution is considered in the next section.138) ΞT F(t) = ΞT ⎢ Fq eiωt ⎥ = Ξqn Fq eiωt n n ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ . 2. 1. n Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and according to the discussion carried out in the first chapter (page 30.. Eq.134) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2.N (2.

..N (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n (2.N (2... They allow the natural frequencies. is equal to ±90o ϕn = arctan Im (Rpq (iω n )) = ± arctan ∞ = ±90o Re (Rpq (iω n )) (2.. The phase ϕ.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 107 Therefore ηn = Since Ξqn Fq eiωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ωn n n x = Ξη n = 1.142) transfer function between coordinate p and the others X Ξpn Ξqn xp = iωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi Fq e ω n n n=1 n N q = 1.145 that the real part of the transfer function Rpq (iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural frequency ω n .. .. 2. .. .. It can be seen from the equation 2.140) (2..N (2. 2.145) Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions The transfer functions Rpq (iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experiment (see page 100)... The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function.. .. 2. since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n . . 2. 2..N (2.147) This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined...144) q = 1. From the same equation it is apparent that the imaginary parts corresponding to ω ∼ ωn and measured for differ= ent q = 1........ Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions determine the system natural frequencies.146) Alternatively..... 2.N. natural modes and the modal damping to be identified.143) = if ω ∼ ωn = Rpq (iω) = Fqxp = eiωt PN ³ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 −ω2 ) n n=1 (ω 2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 n n n PN + Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n Rpq (iω) ∼ + = 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 2ς n ω n ω n n Ξpn Ξqn ((ω 2 −ω2 )−2ς n ωn ωi) n = n=1 (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n ´n n −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ω n ωi q = 1..N (2. but for the same p yield the natural modes with accuracy to the ω2 constant magnitude C = − 2ς npnn Ξ Ξnq = C Im(Rpq (iω n )) q = 1..141) response along coordinate xp xp = e iωt N X ω2 n=1 n Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi (2.. . ..

. .1) R(1.2) R(1. its modulus is equal to the absolute value of imaginary part. 30 transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0..00015 0.148) Ξqn ¯ |Rpq (iω)| = ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω 2 n Ξnq = C |Rpq (iω)| q = 1.0002 0.2) R(1.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s 2 1 3 R(1.3) 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1.00025 0....ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 108 Hence Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn ¯ (2.149) (2.150) where Signe of the idividual elements Ξnq of the mode n is deremined by signe of the corresponding phase ϕn = ±90o An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer functions is shown in Fig.1) R(1.0001 0.N (2. .. 2.3) natural mode ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω2 ¯ n¯ ¯ C=¯ Ξpn ¯ transfer functions m/N (phase) π/2 natural frequency −π/2 Figure 30 The demonstated in this chapter approach for solution of the vibration problems is referred to as modal analysis.

. . If T is the kinetic energy function..... mmn ....xN } ˙ ˙ ˙ mnm xm (2.xN } ˙ = ˙ ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎪ .2...mnN } xn ⎪ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎪ .. the potential energy function and the dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where the matrices m... Kinetic energy function Let us consider function 1 T = xT mx x = {x1 .........152) (2.......Dissipation function In this section the kinetic energy function..153) ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ....0} + {x1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN ¨ ⎫⎞⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ = ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪⎠⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ m1n ..151) Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ... according to Lagrange’s equations should be ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ...xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 (2. c and k are symmetric and positive definite matrices... 0.....3 Kinetic and potential energy functions ... ......xn ....................ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 109 2. ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T − dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎛ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . . ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ mNm xm ˙ m=1 !! Ã Ãm=N m=N X X d 1 = mnm xm + ˙ mmn xm ˙ dt 2 m=1 m=1 If this function is positive definite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only if all variables xn are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive ˙ definite matrix..... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ d ⎜1 ⎜ m=N ⎜ ⎜{0.......152 fulfills the requirement 2. ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = T = xn ˙ {x1 ......155) ....... ⎪ ⎪ ¶ µ ⎨ ⎬ d ∂T ∂T ¨ (2......154. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 mNm xm = n=N m=N 1X X mnm xn xm ˙ ˙ 2 n=1 m=1 Let us prove that the function 2.1.....154) − = {mn1 . mNn (2.mnn ... .....xn ..xn .

X ¨ = mnm xm = {mn1 . ....160) ..knN } xn ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ ∂V 1⎜ m=N ⎜{0...... 0..mnn ...... x2 ...knn ....xN } = k x ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn 2⎜ ⎪ ......... ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 kNm xm = If V is the potential energy function... 1 V = xT kx x = {x1 ..... ...159..157) 2 Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .......xN } knm xm (2. m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ¨ Potential energy function Let us consider function (2.........xn .xN }T (2..xn .....0} + {x1 .......158) k x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ... it must be positive definite and according to Lagrange’s equations should fulfills the following relationship ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . kN n ⎫⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟ ⎟= ⎪⎟ ⎪⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ n=N m=N 1X X knm xn xm 2 n=1 m=1 (2...... ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ∂V (2.................159) = {kn1 ... .. ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ........... kmn ...... ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ kNm xm m=1 ! Ãm=N m=N X X 1 = knm xm + kmn xm 2 m=1 m=1 k1n ...152 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix m is symmetric and positive definite....xn ..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 110 Since mnm = mmn ! ! Ã m=N Ãm=N ¶ µ d X d ∂T ∂T d 1 X − 2 = mnm xm = ˙ mnm xm ˙ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn dt 2 m=1 dt m=1 ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ m=N ⎨ .1..........mnN } xn ¨ ⎪ ⎪ . ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = V = xn {x1 ... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN Let us prove that the function 2......156) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now we may conclude that the function 2.157 fulfills the requirement 2.........

.. ... ∂D ˙ = {cn1 ... in a general case.161) Now we may conclude that the function 2... Dissipation function It is easy to notice.... . m=N m=N ⎨ X X ∂V 1 = 2 knm xm = knm xm = {kn1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 111 Since knm = kmn ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..cnN } xn ⎪ ∂ xn ˙ ⎪ ..157 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix k is symmetric and positive definite.cnn ..162) (2. ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ˙ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2....... such a damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − + + = Qn (2.knN } xn ⎪ ∂xn 2 m=1 ⎪ ..164) dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ∂xn ∂ xn ˙ The function D is called dissipation function..xn .... ... It must be noted that the dissipation function does not represent the dissipation energy... are not conservative and have to be included in the generalized force Qn . m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2...... ...163) It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive definite...... having in mind the previous consideration.. that the function 1 D = xT cx x = {x1 ..knn ...... The damping forces.xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 fulfills the following relationship ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ...

Given are: l1 = 1m E1 = 0. the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.4 Problems Problem 29 l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m2 l2 2 m1 c Figure 31 The point A of the system shown in Fig.2 · 1012 N/m2 J2 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m2 = 20kg k = 10000N/m c = 100Ns/m A1 = 0.165) y = A1 sin(f1 t) + A2 sin(f2 t) where A1 and A2 are amplitudes of this motion and f1 and f2 are the corresponding frequencies. the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion 5.2. the natural frequencies 3.01m f1 = 30rad/s A2 = 0.2 · 1012 N/m2 J1 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m1 = 10kg l2 = 2m E2 = 0. 31 moves according to the following equation (2.01m f2 = 35rad/s . the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y 4. Produce 1. .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 112 2. the differential equations of motion 2.

F(t) = ∙ ¸ 0 cy ˙ (2.166) Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ∙ y1 ˙ y1 ¨ 0 k + k1 y1 0 −k m1 (2. k= ∙ k + k1 −k −k k + k2 ¸ . 32 allows to develop its mathematical model. the excitation cy is ˙ cy = cA1 f1 cos(f1 t) + cA2 f2 cos(f2 t) = a1 cos(f1 t) + a2 cos(f2 t) ˙ where a1 = cA1 f1 .168) Taking into consideration Eq.169) (2. The differential equations of motion l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m1 y m2 1 l2 2 c y2 Figure 32 Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown in Fig. 2.170) (2. ¨ m1 y1 = −k1 y1 − ky1 + ky2 m2 y2 = −k2 y2 − ky2 + ky1 − cy2 + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ (2. c= ∙ 0 0 0 c ¸ . 2.170 into the equation of motion 2. a2 = cA2 f2 Introduction of Eq.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 113 Solution 1.165.171) .167) + + = c cy ˙ −k k + k2 m2 y2 ¨ y2 ˙ y2 or shorter m¨ + cy + ky = F(t) y ˙ where m= ∙ m1 0 0 m2 ¸ .168 yields m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) + F2 (t) y ˙ (2.

Free motion .2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 6000N/m 3 l1 13 (2. 483i ω 2 = −0. 8259 ± 45. The substitution w=y ˙ results in the following set of equations z = Az ˙ where ∙ y w ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ 0 ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎣ −1600. 734i (2. F2 (t) = ∙ 0 a2 cos(f2 t) ¸ (2.171 to the state-space coordinates. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free vibrations.178) 0 ⎦ −5 (2.175) 2.the natural frequencies To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. F2 (t) = 30 cos(30t) 35 cos(35t) ∙ 48E2 J2 48 · 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 114 where F1 (t) = For the given numerical data the stiffness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment of the mass 1 is k1 = 3E1 J1 3 · 0. k= 0 ¸ 100 ∙ −10000 22000 ¸ 0 0 .176) z= .0 500 ⎡ 0 0 1000 −1100 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ (2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 12000N/m 3 l2 23 (2. 6741 ± 24. A= Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots ω 1 = −1.172) The stiffness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is k2 = Hence ¸ 10 0 m= .173) ∙ 0 a1 cos(f1 t) ¸ . .174) (2. 0 20 ∙ F1 (t) = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 0 16000 −10000 c= .177) (2.179) For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural frequency of the damped system.

9755 × 10−2 ⎢ 1. 46561 z11 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) cos ω1 t − Im(z01 ) sin ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 9162 × 10 −. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ (2. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 4508 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 90847 −2 −5. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 734t + 6. 40969 ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 24.181) The two first rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates y1 and y2 respectively. 483t) y211 = e−0. 9162 × 10 −. 40969 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 1. 90847 −2 −5. 26033 . Im z01 = ⎢ −1. 37705 . 049 × 10−3 1. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 3213 × 10 = e−1. 4508 × 10−2 sin 24. 3213 × 10 = e−1.180) Re z02 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . 477 × 10 ⎥ (2. 9755 × 10−2 cos 45. the particular solutions are Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors. 6741t (−1. 26033 . associated with the particular solution z11 (y111 ) and z21 (y211 ) y111 = e−1. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 483t + ⎢ −1. 049 × 10−3 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 115 According to 2. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 6392 × 10−2 −1. 46561 z22 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) sin ω 2 t + Im(z02 ) cos ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 37705 . 35302 −. Im z02 = ⎢ 1. 483t − ⎢ −1. 734t + ⎢ 1. 049 × 10−3 −3 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 35302 −. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t + 1. 6392 × 10−2 cos 24. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 35302 −. . Example of the motion along the coordinate y1 . 9162 × 10 −. 7637 × 10 ⎥ sin 24. 477 × 10−3 ⎜⎢ −1. 26033 . 9755 × 10−2 −3 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 9755 × 10−2 −6. 38263 −. 46561 ⎤ ⎞ z12 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) sin ω 1 t + Im(z01 ) cos ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 3213 × 10 ⎥ Re z01 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ −1. 049 × 10−3 sin 45.182) are presented in Fig 33. The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 4508 × 10−2 −1. 37705 . 38263 −. 38263 −. 40969 z21 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) cos ω2 t − Im(z02 ) sin ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 8259t (1. 734t) (2. 477 × 10 = e−0. 90847 −2 −5. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ .81. 734t − ⎢ = e−0. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 45.

01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.02 y211[m] 0.02 Figure 33 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 116 y111[m] 0.01 0 -0.01 0 -0.01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.

which represents the forced vibration.02 Figure 34 The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig. motion of the point A is y = 0.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0.185 m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) y ˙ and y2 is the particular solution of the equation 2.5 1 1.01 0.186) (2.186 m¨ + cy + ky = F2 (t) y ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 117 3.01 · sin(35 · t) y[m] (2.189) .185 let us introduce the complex excitation ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 0 0 0 c = = eif1 t = F1 (t) = a1 eif1 t a1 a1 cos(f1 t) + ia1 sin(f1 t) ∙ ¸ 0 if1 t ei30t (2. is y = y1 + y2 (2. 34 The particular solution y.184) where y1 is the particular solution of the equation 2.185) To produce the particular solution of the equation 2.187) = F10 e = 30 Hence the equation of motion takes form m¨ + cy + ky = F10 eif1 t y ˙ Its particular solution is c c y1 = y10 eif1 t (2.183) 0. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation According to the given data.5 t[s] -0. according to the superposition rule.188) (2.01 0 -0.

688 × 10−3 − 7. 183 × 10−3 − 1. 41 × 10−4 sin 35t ∙ (2. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t Similarly.192) .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 118 where c 2 y10 = (−f1 m+if1 c + k)−1 F10 = ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ µ 16000 −10000 0 0 10 0 0 2 + + 30i = = −30 −10000 22000 0 100 0 20 30 ∙ ¸ −.190) −2.00 112i = (2. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t = −1. 84 × 10−4 i The motion of the system. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t −2. 4196 × 10−4 i ¸ i35t ¶ (2. as the real part of 2. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t = ¸ ∙ −. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t + −1. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is y = y1 + y2 ¸ −.193) This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 7855 × 10−4 i (2. 1546 × 10−3 − 3.191) = −1. µ∙ −3.00 384 cos 30t + . 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t ∙ ¸ −3. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1.00 38 cos 30t + . 7855 × 10−4 i −1. 6 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 112i i30t y1 = Re e −2.00 112 sin 30t = −2. 8 × 10−4 sin 30t − 1. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 688 × 10−3 − 7. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7.189 is ¶ µ∙ ¸ −. one can obtained motion due to the excitation F2 (t) c 2 y20 = (−f2 m+if2 c + k)−1 F20 = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ µ 10 0 0 0 16000 −10000 0 2 + 35i + = = −35 0 20 0 100 −10000 22000 35 ¸ ∙ −3.193.00 384 cos 30t + .00 384 − . 1 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 183 × 10−3 − 1. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1.00 384 − . computed according to the equation 2.00 11 sin 30t − 3. 4196 × 10−4 i Hence y2 = Re e ¸ ∙ −3.00 112 sin 30t + = −2. 35 and 36 respectively. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 84 × 10−4 i ∙ ¸ −. is shown in Fig.

005 0 -0.005 0 -0.5 t[s] -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 119 y1[m] 0.005 0.5 1 1.01 Figure 35 y2[m] 0.01 Figure 36 .005 0.5 t[s] -0.5 1 1.

the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m2 is ˙ v = y − y2 ˙ ˙ (2.183 and 2. m2 y2 Therefore.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 120 4.196) Diagram of this force is presented in Fig.183.01 · sin 35t) + d − dt (−2.193 we have d FA = 100( dt (0. 503 cos 35t − 8.01 · sin 30t + 0. let us consider the damper c shown in Fig. 064 sin 30t − 4.38 . . The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion y2 c y A y Figure 37 To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according to the assumed motion 2. 648 cos 30t + 34. 4 · 10−4 sin 35t)) = = 27. it is necessary to apply at the point A the following force ˙ ˙ (2. 1 · 10−3 cos 35t + 1. according to the equation 2. to realize this motion. 37. If the point A moves with the velocity y and in the same time the mass m2 moves with the ˙ velocity y2 . 1405 sin 35t[N] (2.195) FA = c (y − y2 ) Hence. 8 · 10−4 sin 30t+ −1.194) . 6 · 10−3 cos 30t + 7.

200) .199) Hence ¡ ¢ RB =6000 −.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 y1 = = 6000y1 3 l1 13 The motion along the coordinate y1 is determined by the function 2.173 3E1 J1 3 · 0. 39 RB = P MB = P l1 (2.00 38 cos 30t+.00 38 cos 30t + .198) y1 = −.197) where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y1 . P l 1 J1 E 1 B MB RB y1 Figure 39 According to Fig. 15×10−3 cos 35t+3.193 P = k1 y1 = (2.00 11 sin 30t−3.5 t[s] Figure 38 5. This relationship is determined by the formula 2. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t (2. 78×10−4 sin 35t (2.00 38 cos 30t+.5 1 1. 78×10−4 sin 35t ¡ ¢ MB =6000·1· −. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 121 FA[N] 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 0.00 11 sin 30t−3. 15×10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 11 sin 30t − 3.

For the following data: m1 = 2 kg m2 = 1 kg R = 0. m= m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I . the differential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates 4. 40. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiffness k. shown in Fig. All motion is in the vertical plane.05 m k = 1000 N/m a = 0.01 m Produce: 1. k= 2k 0 0 m2 gR . the normalized natural modes 3. the natural frequencies of the system 2.201) . ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ (2. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and rigid rod 4.1 m r = . 41) have been formulated in page 81 to be m¨ + kx = 0 x where 2 I = m2 r2 5 (2. the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig.202) At the instant t = 0. in terms of the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig. the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to the given initial conditions. x= x ϕ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 122 Problem 30 The link 1 of a mass m1 . 42 and released with the initial velocity equal to zero. The equation of motion.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 123 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 40 y 1 x k o k x 3 2 r R ϕ G Figure 41 y 1 a k o k x 3 2 r R Figure 42 .

Therefore.0) = 90. 1ω n −.208) 1 Φ1 = − 3.0ω2 + 1000. X2 = 1 Φ2 = ¡ ¢ 1 −3.0 0 1000 0 = k = 0 1. 091 3 −9.0 −.0 −.yields the second mode. the inertia matrix and the stuffiness matrix are 2 · 1 · 0.0913 These two numbers form the first mode of vibrations corresponding to the first natural frequency ω 1 .0 . 1ω 2 X 0 n n = (2.991 2 .0 11ω n + 1. 0913 ω2 = 22. Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is.0 0 1 · 10 · 0.0 23ω4 − 14. Hence for the given numerical data we are getting ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −3.0X1 − .0 11ωn + 1. carried out for the natural frequency ω2 = 22. 1 · 22. 1 . The natural frequencies and the natural modes According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball. 091 3 ω1 = 9.0 = 0 (2.0 · 9.0 ¯ Its roots: yield the wanted natural frequencies £ 22.0ω2 + 1000.205. one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e.0X1 ω2 + 1000.1 1 · 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 124 Solution 1. 936 [s−1 ] ¤ (2.001 kgm2 I = 5 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 3.0 Φ 0 This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to zero. 1ω2 Φ1 = 0 1 1 (2.001 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1000. 1ω2 n n ¯ = .9362 + 1000. 1ωn −.205 become linearly dependent. (2.0 = −10.205) 2 2 −.203) = m = .209) .052 = 0.12 + 0.092 + 1000.206) ¯ 2 2 n n ¯ −.207) For ω n = ω1 = 9.g.936 X1 = 1 −3. 936 9.204) where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode.1 According to 2.99 2 .0 · 22. 936 −22.Similar consideration. 0913 the equations 2.1 (2. 936. 1 · 9. 1 2 + 1 1 · 0. ¯∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ −3.108 (page 102) one can write the following set of equations (−ω 2 m + k)X = 0 n (2.0ω 2 + 1000.0 11 1 · 0. X1 = 1) and the other may be produced from the first equation of the set 2.

5872 = . 5296 1. one can create the modal matrix X = [X1 .99 √ λ1 = 112.0 11 . 1306 = 1.991 (2.0 . ¸ ∙ 9. 1 1 1 90.0 . ΞT mΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 9. 27 = 10.0 11 −10. 1 .211) (2. Normalization of the natural modes According to 2.121 the normalization factor is XT mXn = λ2 n n Hence λ2 1 = £ ¸∙ ¸ 3. 1 . 68507 Ξ= 8. 4375 × 10−2 Ξ1 = = (2. 1 9.991 2. 5296 8.215) These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ. 1306 λ2 = 1 −10. X2 = X1 = 90.213) Division of the eigenvector X1 by the factor λ1 yields the normalized mode Ξ1 . 68507 Ξ2 = = −7. 5872 −7. 99 = 112. 4375 × 10−2 . 4597 −10. 4375 × 10−2 .99 −10. Indeed. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1 0 (2. 596 ¤ ∙ (2. 596 90.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 125 Now. 4597 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 .212) (2. 4375 × 10−2 8.214) 8. ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1 1 . 27 .991 √ λ2 = 2. 5872 10. X2 ] = ∙ 1 1 90.0 11 90. 1 . 5872 −7.217) = 0 1 . 1 1 2 = 2.216) The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia matrix and the stiffness matrix.99 Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained ∙ ¸∙ ¸ £ ¤ 3.991 ¸ (2.210) In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X1 and X2 .991 . 68507 −7. 68507 3.99 −10. 5296 (2.0 .

091)2 0 η+ ¨ η=0 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 126 and ΞT kΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. 647 0 (9. The differential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates Introducing the substitution 2.142 .01142 = (2. 5872 −7.225) 1.3024 −1. 4375 × 10−2 8. the equations of motion are of the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ 1 0 (9.4313 × 10−2 0 0 η 02 Φo ∙ ¸ . 5296 8. It can be obtained by transforming the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates. 935) 2 3.01 η 01 −1 −1 = = Ξ =Ξ 1. 935)2 η 2 = 0 ¨ (2. 5296 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 2 ¸ 82. These initial conditions must be formulated along the normal coordinates. 68507 −7. ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ∙ 1.219) (2.1 .221) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions. 68507 1000 0 9.218) 2 0 526. 4375 × 10−2 .36 is v01 sin ω 1 t + η 01 cos ω 1 t η1 = ω1 v02 η2 = sin ω 2 t + η 02 cos ω 2 t (2.222) 0 1 0 (22.223) The general solution of the above set of the differential equations.224) ω2 Where η 01 and η 02 stand for the initial position whereas v01 and v02 stand for the initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates.1039 Xo a 0.201 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by ΞT we are getting the differential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η. 02 0 ω2 0 (22.220) into 2.3024 × 10−2 . according to 1. 091)2 ω1 0 0 = = = (2. 091)2 η 1 = 0 ¨ η 2 + (22. 935)2 or η 1 + (9.131 x = Ξη that in the case considered has the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ η1 X = Ξη = Ξ Φ η2 (2. 5872 = 0 1 · 10 · 0. (ΞT mΞ)¨ +(ΞT kΞ)η = 0 η (2.

0778 × 10−3 cos 9. 091t − 9. using the relationship 2. 8066 × 10−2 cos 9.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 127 Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2.1 0.2 0.15 0.05 -0. 935t (2.091t η 2 = η 02 cos ω 2 t = 1.005 0 0.5 1 1.227) 4.05 0 -0.226) (2. 9224 × 10−3 cos 22. 68507 .5 t[s] Figure 44 .935t Φ 8.224 results in motion of the system along the normal coordinates η 1 = η 01 cos ω 1 t = .228) = 9.01142 cos 9. 43 and 44 0. 091t + 8.091t X = Ξη = = 1.219.5 1 1.005 -0.15 Φ [rad] 0.3024 × 10−2 cos 22. 4375 × 10−2 . 5872 −7.1 -0. The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates.935t ∙ v01 v02 ¸ = ∙ 0 0 ¸ (2. one has to transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones. 935t This motion is presented in Fig.5 t[s] -0. Hence. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1. we are getting ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ 9. 8066 × 10−2 cos 22.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.01 X[m] 0.01142 cos 9.01 Figure 43 0.

Derive an expression for the fixing moment and the fixing force at the point D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B. I A k C c E. 45. .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 128 Problem 31 L A 1 F=F cosω t o B M. Its end D is fixed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C. is supported by means of the spring of stiffness k and the damper of the damping coefficient c as shown in Fig.J D 3 l Figure 45 2 The rigid beam 1 of mass M. length L and the moment of inertia about its point of rotation IA . The beam 2 is massless and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic properties.

Produce 1. IO1 .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ ∙ 0 ¸ 0 X2 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 129 Problem 32 1 O1 s1 k1 c s2 k2 A m1 I O1 G1 G2 b m 2 I O2 O2 a 2 F cosω 1 t 1 k F cosω 2 t 2 Figure 46 The two rods. Answer: RA = Φ2 ak2 .the lower element of the matrix X . IO2 .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ cos ω 2 t −F2 b 3. These rods are connected to each other by means of springs of the stiffness k. Vibrations of the system are excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F1 . K= . are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig. k1 . the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods Answer: X = X1 + X2 ¸ ∙ F1 b cos ω 1 t X1 . F= −F2 b 0 ϕ2 2. F2 and frequencies ω1 and ω2 . C= . 46. k2 and as well as the damper of the damping coefficient c. and m2 . The centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G1 and G2 respectively. the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A. the differential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx¸= F ∙ x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −kb2 ca2 −ca2 k1 a2 + kb2 + m1 gs1 Io1 0 . M= 2 2 ca∙ −kb2 k2 a2 + kb2 + m2 gs2 ¸−ca ¸ ∙ 0 ¸ Io2 ∙ ϕ1 F1 b 0 cos ω 1 t + cos ω2 t x= . 1 and 2. Φ2 . Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively m1 .

The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. It can be approximated by a particle of the mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and a. The damping coefficient of the damper between the beam and the block is denoted by c2 and the stiffness of the supporting spring in denoted by k2 . Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ IA + M(h2 + a2 ) 0 c1 b2 + c2 a2 −c2 a k1 b 0 M= .IA c1 C A B c2 2 m2 k1 1 ω h µ k2 D Figure 47 The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. K= . To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2 of mass m2 was attached. Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m1 and IA respectively. The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. Its mass is equal to m and its unbalance is µ. the differential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard matrix form. Produce 1. 47) is hinged at the point A and is supported at the point C by means of the spring of stiffness k1 and the damper of the damping coefficient c1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 130 Problem 33 b 3 a m M G m1. C= . 0 m2 −c2 a 0 k2 c2 ∙ √ ¸ ∙ ¸ α mµω 2 h2 + a2 . F= cos ωt x= x 0 .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 131 α .the angular displacement of the beam1. x .the linear displacement of the block 2 2. . Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

132

Problem 34

l A G k

l

F C

l D

α

B

β
k

Figure 48 Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG are hinged together to form a bridge that is shown in Fig. 48. This bridge is supported by means of two springs each of the stiffness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form F = Fo cos ωt Produce: 1. the differential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard form Answer: M¨ + Kx = F ¸ x ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 1 0 α 0 −1 2 2 3 6 ml ; K = kl ; x = ; F= M= cos ωt 2 0 1 β Fo l −1 3 6 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system Answer: |K − 1ω n | = 0 3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 A −1 2 X = [−ω M + K] cos ωt = Fo l B 4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge B and the ground Answer: R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

133

Problem 35

1

L

m1,IA x k m k1 B c

ϕ
2

A

y

Figure 49 Figure. 49 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by IA and its mass by m1 . The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by the spring of stiffness k and damper of the damping coefficient c. Mass of the wheels 2 are denoted by m and the stiffness of its tire is k1 . Motion of the trolley is excited by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following function. y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. the differential equation of motion of the system 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system 3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system 4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

134

Problem 36
y A c3 m3 k3 3

2 4

r m2,I2

k2 k1 m1

1

c1 B

Figure 50 In Fig. 50 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are rigid and their masses are respectively m1 and m3 respectively. The rigid pulley 2 has radius r, mass m2 and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I2 . The elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiffness k1 and k2 . The point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation. y = a cos ωt Produce: 1. the differential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

135

⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Answer: ⎡ 0 0 m1 c1 0 0 M = ⎣ 0 m2 + m3 0 ⎦ ; C = ⎣ 0 c3 0 ⎦ 0 I2 0⎤ 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎡ −k1 −k1 r k1 x1 0 K = ⎣ −k1 k1 + k2 + k3 k1 r − k2 r ⎦ F = ⎣ ak3 ⎦ cos ωt; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ −k1 r k1 r − k2 r (k1 + k2 ) r2 0 ϕ x1 - the linear displacement of the block 1 x2 - the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3 ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: The particular solution xp of the equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ The first element xp1 of the matrix xp represents displacement of the block 1 3. the expression for the interaction force at point B. Answer RB = c1 xp1 ˙

There is a torque T3 applied to the disk I3 . k2 and k3 respectively. and I3 are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that the torsional stiffness are k1 . the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1. . The disks of moment of inertia I1 . It can be approximated by the following function T3 = T cos ωt Produce: 1. The shaft k1 is connected to the shaft k2 by means of the gear of ratio i = D1 /D2 . I2 . the differential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system 3. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 136 Problem 37 I1 I2 I3 D2 D1 T3 k1 k2 Figure 51 k3 Figure 51 shows the physical model of a compressor.

229) (2.230) D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 iϕ11 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 (2. In the above equations not all variables are independent.232) . ϕ22 = iϕ11 Hence the equations can be rewritten as follows I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ (2.231) According to the third Newton’s law we have F12 = F21 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 137 Solution ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ22 F21 F12 T3 I1 ϕ2 ϕ22 I2 ϕ3 I3 D2 T3 D1 ϕ11 ϕ1 ϕ1 ϕ11 k1 k2 k3 Figure 52 To produce the equations of motion of the system one may split it into five rigid bodies (Newton approach) and write the following set of equations I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 ϕ22 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 ϕ22 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 where F12 F21 stand for the interaction forces between the rear D1 and D2 .

239) T cos ωt ⎡ ⎤ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 138 Hence the second and third equation yields F12 = 2 2 (k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 ) = (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) = F21 D1 D2 k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 = (2.233 allows the angular displacement ϕ11 to be expressed in terms of the displacements ϕ1 and ϕ2 . ϕ11 = k1 ik2 ϕ + ϕ 2 1 k1 + k2 i k1 + k2 i2 2 (2.234) Introduction of this relationship into the first.237) (2.236) k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 The above set of equations can be now presented in the matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ where ⎡ 1 I i2 1 where (2. C = 0. second and fifth equation of the set 2.233) D1 (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) D2 The equation 2.238) M =⎣ I2 The same results one can get by means of the Lagrange’s equations ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ −ke 0 ke iϕ1 ⎦ . x = ⎣ ϕ2 ⎦ I3 0 −k3 k3 ϕ3 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎦ 0 F =⎣ (2. K = ⎣ −ke ke + k3 −k3 ⎦ .235) (2.231 one can get ¨ I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + I2 ϕ2 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 or µ ¶ 1 ϕ I1 (i¨ 1 ) = −ke (iϕ1 ) + ke ϕ2 i2 I2 ϕ2 = −ke ϕ2 − k3 ϕ2 + ke (iϕ1 ) + k3 ϕ3 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ke = 2 k1 ik1 k2 ϕ1 + ϕ k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 2 k1 k2 i i2 k2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + ϕ1 + ϕ + k3 ϕ3 k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 (2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 139 The kinetic energy function and the potential energy function of the system considered are 1 1 1 T = I1 ϕ2 + I2 ϕ2 + I3 ϕ2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 V 1 k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 1 = k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 = d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ3 ˙ ∂T ∂ϕ1 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − ϕ22 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 = 2 2 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − iϕ11 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 2 2 Hence = I1 ϕ1 ¨ = I2 ϕ2 ¨ = I3 ϕ3 ¨ = 0.240) . ∂T = 0. ∂ϕ2 ∂T =0 ∂ϕ3 ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂V 1 ∂ϕ11 1 ∂ϕ11 = = − 1 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) −i k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 = i2 ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 ¶ ¶ µ µ 1 1 1 ∂ϕ11 ∂V ∂ϕ11 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) 1 − i + k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (−1) = k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) = ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 = −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 ∂V 1 = k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (1) = ∂ϕ3 2 = −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 The virtual work produced by the impressed forces acting on the system is δW = (0) ϕ1 + (0) ϕ2 + (T3 ) ϕ3 Introduction of the above expressions into the following Lagrange’s equations ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = Q1 dt ∂ ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q2 dt ∂ ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q3 dt ∂ ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ˙ (2.

242) 2 i i stands for so called reduced displacement.239.241) They are identical with the equation 2. k1r = 2 (2. 53 ϕ1r= iϕ1 I1r=I1 / i2 k1r=k1 / i D2 2 ϕ2 I2 ϕ3 I3 T3 D1 I1 ϕ1 k1 k2 k3 Figure 53 In this figure I1 k1 .244) .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 140 yields the wanted equations of motion of the system considered ¨ I1 ϕ1 + ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 = 0 ¨ I2 ϕ2 + −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 or ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 µ (2. reduced moment of inertia and reduced stiffness. It is easy to see that precisely the same equations possesses the system presented in Fig. I1r = 1 1 1 1 1 = + = k1 + ke k1r k2 k2 i2 It is ke = k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 (2.243) (2. The equivalent stiffness of the shaft assembled of the shaft k2 and k1r can be produced from the following equation ϕ1r = iϕ1 .

53 are as follows µ ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ (2.245) ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 . the equations of motion of the system presented in Fig.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 141 Hence.

These bodies possess masses m1 and m2 and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers of gravity (G1. Vibrations of the pendulum about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the body 1.??. the differential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 142 Problem 38 M=Mocosωt O c1 l q1 G1 1 Y A a b c2 c k c q1 q2 k 2 B G2 X Figure 54 Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig. Produce: 1. The system has two degrees of freedom and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q1 and q2 . G2) are I1 and I2 respectively.

C= . F= 0 2ca2 m2 gc2 m2 gc2 + 2kb2 0 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum 3. ¸ ¸ ∙ Answer: ∙ IG1 + m1 c2 + IG2 + m2 (l + c2 )2 IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) q1 1 . . x= IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) IG2 m2 c2 ¸ ∙ q2 ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 ∙ m1 gc1 + m2 g(l + c2 ) 0 0 Mo m2 gc2 K= . the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the point B.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 143 Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations. M= .

The differential equation of small oscillations of the system shown in Fig.1 and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ . The block D can translate along the inertial axis x only. The rotor R of the ventilator V possesses a mass m R and rotates with a constant angular velocity Ω.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 144 Problem 39 B X Gr V X R Ω α kv cv kd kv cd l cv e a b d D x Figure 55 The assembly of the ventilator V and its base B (see Fig. Its centre of gravity G r is located by the distances a and b. Produce: 1. It is made of the block D of mass m d . This rotor is unbalanced and its centre of gravity is off from its axis of rotation by µ. This assembly is free to rotate about the horizontal axis X-X and is kept in the horizontal position by means of two springs each of stiffness k v and two dampers each of the damping coefficient c v . the spring of stiffness k d and the damper of the damping coefficient c d . The angular displacement α defines the instantaneous position of this assembly. This assembly is furnished with the dynamic absorber of vibrations. 55) can be considered as a rigid body. Its moment of inertia about the axis X-X is I X .

The expression for the force transmitted to foundation by the damper c v . −c l −kd l c kd ∙ d √ ¸ ∙ ¸ d α mR µΩ2 a2 + b2 . The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system along the coordinates x and α 3. K= . M= 0 m ¸ ∙ ¸ 2cv e2 + cd l2 −cd l 2kv d2 + kd l2 −kd l C= . F= cos Ωt x= x 0 2. Ix 0 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 145 ¸ ∙ Answer. ∙ .

The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system. . The system performs small oscillation in the vertical plane XY .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 146 Problem 40 Y 5 A Y 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 2 α B 4 X Figure 56 The uniform rod 1 of mass m and length l shown in Fig. The differential equation of small oscillations of the and present it in the following matrix form. 56 is hinged at the point A to the support 5. Produce: 1. The blocks mass is m2 and m3 respectively. The expression for the driving force that must be applied to the point A in order to assure the assumed motion Y (t). It possesses three degrees of freedom and the three independent coordinates are denoted by y2 and y3 . The support 5 moves along the horizontal axis Y according to the following function Y = a cos ωt The lower end of the rod is connected to the blocks 2 and 3 by means of two springs 4 each of stiffness k. 3. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2.

the kinetic energy of the rod is ¶ µ 1 1 l l 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T1 = m (Y + α cos α) + (− α sin α) + IG1 α2 2 2 2 2 (2. d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = 0 dt ∂ α ∂α ˙ ∂α ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y2 ∂y2 ∂y2 ˙ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y3 ∂y3 ∂y3 ˙ (2.247) Its first derivative provide us with the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity.249) . rG1 = J(Y + l l sin α) + I( cos α) 2 2 (2. let us develop the position vector of its centre of gravity G1 .248) (2. l l ˙ ˙ ˙ rG1 = J(Y + α cos α) + I(− α sin α) ˙ 2 2 Hence.246) To produce the kinetic energy function T associated with the the rod 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 147 Solution Y 5 A rG1 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 Y 2 α B 4 X Figure 57 Motion of the system is governed by the Lagrange equations.

the total potential energy is 1 1 l V = Vs + Vg = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 − mg cos α (2. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig.252) . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F cos ωt x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 mgl + k2 l2 + k3 l2 −k2 l −k3 l IG + 1 ml2 0 4 2 0 m2 0 ⎦ .251) ˙ ˙ ˙2 ˙2 2 2 8 2 2 2 The potential energy of the springs 4 is 1 1 Vs = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 2 2 The potential energy due to gravitation is l Vg = −mgrG1Y = −mg cos α 2 Hence. C = 0.253) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 148 Since the kinetic energy of the blocks 2 and 3 is as follows 1 T2 = m2 y2 ˙2 2 1 T3 = m3 y3 ˙2 2 (2. 58 (2.246 one can get the required equation in the following matrix form. K = ⎣ −k2 l k2 0 ⎦ M = ⎣ 0 k3 0 0 m3 −k3 l ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎡ ¨ α + 2 mlaω2 − a (k2 l + k3 l) − 2 mY − (k2 l + k3 l) Y ⎦ .256) F = k2 Y k3 a y3 k3 Y ⎡ To verify the above equations of motion let us employ the Newton-Euler method for modeling of the system considered.250) the total kinetic energy of the whole system is 1 ˙ 1 1 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ T = T1 +T2 +T3 = mY 2 + mlY α cos α+ ml2 α2 + IG1 α2 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 (2.251 and 2.254) 2 2 2 Introducing the expressions 2.255) (2.254 into equations 2. x = ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎦=⎣ ⎣ k2 a (2.

247.261) (2.257) The second equation can be used for determination of the unknown interaction force RAY .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 149 Y RAX 5 A RAY Y 1 l 3 G1 y3 y2 G1 2 α B R3Y 4 R3Y R2Y R2Y X Figure 58 For the rod one can produce the following two equations 1 ¨ IG α = − RAY l + 2 maG1Y = RAY + R2Y 1 1 R2Y l + R3Y l 2 2 + R3Y (2. It can be obtained by differentiation of the absolute velocity vector 2. (2.262) .257 gives 1 ¨ IG α = − lmaG1Y + R2Y l + R3Y l 2 (2.259) In the latest equation aG1Y stands for the component Y of the absolute acceleration of the centre of gravity G1 . l l l l ¨ ¨G1 = J(Y + α cos α − α2 sin α) + I(− α sin α − α2 cos α) r ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 2 2 2 2 Hence After linearization l l ¨ ¨ ˙ aG1Y = Y + α cos α − α2 sin α 2 2 l ¨ aG1Y = Y + α ¨ 2 (2.258) RAY = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y Introduction of the above expression into the first equation of 2.260) (2.

268) ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y They are identical with 2.262 into 2.255.265) (2. It can be predicted as x = A cos ωt Introducing it into the equation of motion we have (−ω 2 M + K)A = F The wanted vector of the amplitudes of the system forced vibrations is ⎤ ⎡ Aα A =(−ω2 M + K)−1 F = ⎣ Ay2 ⎦ Ay3 (2.269) (2.270) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 150 Introduction of 2. R3Y = k3 (y3 − Y − αl) (2.264 we have ¨ m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y Hence.263) The interaction forces between the rod and the springs are can be expressed as follows R2Y = k2 (y2 − Y − αl).266) (2.263 one can obtain 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 The Newton’s law if apply to the blocks 2 and 3 yields m2 y2 = −R2Y ¨ m3 y3 = −R3Y ¨ Since the interaction forces are defined by 2.264) Introducing them into equation 2.267) The amplitudes of the forced vibration could be obtained from the particular solution of the above equation.271) (2. the governing equations are 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ (2.272) .259 results in the following equation l 1 ¨ IG α = − lm(Y + α) + R2Y l + R3Y l ¨ ¨ 2 2 (2. M¨ + Kx = F cos ωt x (2.

258 = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y ¶ µ l ¨ ¨ = m Y + α − k2 (y2 − Y − αl) − k3 (y3 − Y − αl) 2 µ ¶ l 2 2 = m −aω − Aα ω cos ωt + (2. Its follows that due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force Ui (see Fig.1 Balancing of rotors Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis A − A (see Fig.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 151 Now.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 2. 59). They are distributed along. line B − B. due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing. the centres of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of rotation. 59). Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces Ui1 and Ui2 acting in .3. RAY 2. 1 U1 2 ω B A m1 U2 ϕ1 ωt F2 Ui1 m2 ϕ2 ωt B A Ui2 Ui x2 F1 x1 Figure 59 In a general case.273) 2 −k (A − a − Aα l) cos ωt − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt ¶ ¶ µ 2 µ y2 l 2 = m −a − Aα ω − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt 2 = |RAY | cos ωt ¯ ¡ ¯ ¢ l where |RAY | = ¯m −a − 2 Aα ω2 − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l)¯ is the amplitude of the interaction force. usually unknown. the interaction force RAY can be produced as an explicit function of time from 2.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 152 two arbitrarily chosen planes. The second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section. The process of searching for magnitude of the unbalance forces U1 and U2 and their phases ϕ1 and ϕ2 is called balancing. 60. one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of mass m1 and m2 attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F1 and F2 balance the resultant forces U1 and U2 . therefore their resultants U1 and U2 are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too. 1 2 x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 x4 4 4 ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt ωt U 1o U1 x2 t U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a4 a 4o β3 a 3o a3 x3 β3 β4 ωt x3 ωt Figure 60 Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig. the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U1 and U2 in two arbitrarily chosen plane. 60 by nubers 1 and 2. The balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Hence. These two arbitrarily chosen planes. According to the above discussion. are .denoted in Fig. if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body.

β 2 ) to be measured. U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . shown in Fig. These planes. Test (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (1) m (1) U o (1) U (1) ϕ (1) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (1) 4o a (1) 4 (1) β4 β3 (1) (1) a 3o a3 x3 (1) ωt ωt Figure 61 . these plane should offer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached. 60 by numbers 3 and 4. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸∙ a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 = (2. For long rotors. These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine. Let us arrange for these vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes.275) If the transfer functions Ri. are called measurement planes. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 (2. The transducer 5. ϕ2 ) and the phases of the recorded displacements (β 1 . allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ1 .274) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 where a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary. which is called key phasor. Furthermore. a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . In order to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required.96 offers the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U1 and U2 and the measured displacements a3 and a4 . marked in Fig. creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. The equation 2. for example. there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. this relation would allow the unknow magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined. Let a3 and a4 be the complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates x3 and x4 with help of the two transducers 3 and 4.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 153 called balancing plane.j (iω) would be known. This mark. 60 by N. the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible.

The amplitude of this force U (2) is (2) Uo = m(2) µ(2) ω2 (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 154 An additionl trial weight of mass m(1) (see Fig 61) is attached in the balancing plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(1) and the know distance µ(1) . (1) (1) (1) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . The amplitude of this force U (1) is (1) Uo = m(1) µ(1) ω2 (2. There is the following relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions. (1) U (1) = Uo eiϕ (2. The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (2) . Test (2) (1) (1) (1) a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .276) The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes (1) (1) (1) (1) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 U1 + U (1) = (2. The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (1) . There is the following .278) (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (2) m (2) Uo (2) U (2) ϕ (2) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (2) 4o a (2) 4 (2) β4 β3 (2) (2) a 3o a3 x3 (2) ωt ωt Figure 62 An additional trial weight of mass m(2) (see Fig 62) is attached in the balancing plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(2) and the know distance µ(2) .279) The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes (2) (2) (2) (2) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained.277) (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 .

2.285) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4o eiβ 4 U2o eiϕ2 .283) Now.274 ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2. To achieve that let us subtract the equations 2.274 from 2.274 from 2.280 one can get a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R32 (iω) = 3 (2) = 3o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R42 (iω) = 4 (2) = 4o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2. " # ∙ ¸ ∙ (1) ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 − a3 U = (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) 0 a4 − a4 " # ∙ ¸ (1) a3 − a3 R31 (iω)U (1) = (1) R41 (iω)U (1) a4 − a4 a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R31 (iω) = 3 (1) = 3o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R41 (iω) = 4 (1) = 4o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2.274.280 allow the unknown transfer functions and the wanted unbalances U1 and U2 to be computed.277 # ∙ Ã" ¸ µ∙ ¸! ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶ (1) a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 a3 U1 + U (1) − = − (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 U2 a4 a4 = a4o eiβ 4 .280) (2) (2) U (2) = Uo eiϕ (2. the wanted complex imbalances U1 and U2 in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed from the equation 2.277 and 2.282) Similarly.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 155 relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions. ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3o eiβ 3 U1o eiϕ1 = = (2.281) The formulated equations 2. (2) (2) (2) (2. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (2) U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 + U (2) a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . (2) (2) (2) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .284) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 where a3 and a4 represent the know response of the system without the additional weights. if one subtracts equations 2.

287) x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 4 x4 4 m1 r1 β1 ϕ1 U1o U1 m2 r2 β2 U2o ωt x1 ωt ωt x2 ϕ2 U2 Figure 63 . to balance the rotor. should be place at angular position (see Fig. 63) β 1 = 180o + ϕ1 β 2 = 180o + ϕ2 1 2 (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 156 The amplitudes U1o and U2o determine the weights m1 and m2 that should be attached in the balancing planes m1 = m2 U1 r1 ω 2 U2 = r2 ω 2 (2.286) These weights.

292) A=¯ 2 ω n − ω2 ¯ ¯ 3002 − ω 2 ¯ Its values. as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig.0000 2ω 2 ¯ ¯ q ¯=¯ ¯ ¯ (2.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig.288) ωn = M 100 Hence.3.00 2 kgm . a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x mr µ ω 2 b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M M Figure 64 Let us assume that the system has the following parameters: M = 100 kg . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ . 64b).002 2 ω = ω = . Vibration of this ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor. Its physical model is shown in Fig. 65 .distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity u = mr µ = 20 · .imbalance of the rotor The natural frequency of the system is r r K 9000000 = = 300 (2.mass of rotor of the ventilator K = 9000000 N/m .total mass of the ventilator mr = 20 kg . 64a).290) x + ω 2 x = q cos ωt ¨ n u 2 0.289) (2. The following mathematical model M x + Kx = mr µω2 cos ωt ¨ (2.0001 m .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 157 2.0000 2ω 2 q= (2. within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be approximated by system with one degree of freedom.stiffness of the supporting beam ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed µ = .291) M 100 allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted.0001 = .

results in the following mathematical model.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[ 1/s] Figure 65 As it can be seen from this diagram. the ventilator develops large vibration in vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during the run up.Euler’s method. M x + (K + k)x − ky + cx − cy = uω2 cosωt ¨ ˙ ˙ m¨ − kx + ky − cx + cy = 0 y ˙ ˙ (2. One of a possible way of reducing these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in fig 66 a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M k y k c m m y M c Figure 66 It comprises block of mass m.293) . Application of the Newton’s . elastic element of stiffness k and damper of the damping coefficient c.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 158 0. Such a solution is not acceptable.

¸ ∙ A1 = A= A2 ¯µ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¶−1 ∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ 100 0 0 0 11. as a function of the angular speed of its rotor is presented in Fig. 67: Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulfill the following relationship r k = ω = 314 (2.296) and than introduces it into the equation 2.300 k = mω 2 = 25 · 3142 = 2. 46 0 ¯ ¯ (2. 46 0.297 one obtains the formula for the amplitude of the forced vibration ¯ ¯ (2. 4649 × 106 N/m Introduction of this data into equation 2. 46 2. c= .295) uω 2 cos ωt + iuω 2 sin ωt uω e uω 2 iωt = = = e 0 0 0 Introducing notations ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ M 0 +c −c m= . q= .301) .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 159 Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ uω 2 cos ωt x K + k −k x ˙ +c −c x ¨ M 0 = + + y −k +k y ˙ −c +c y ¨ 0 m 0 (2.300) m To show it let us assume m = 25 kg and compute the value of the stiffness k from the formula 2. representing vibrations of the ventilator. 0 m −c +c The above equations takes form m¨ + cx + kx = qeiωt x ˙ If one predicts the particular solution as x = Aeiωt (2.298) (2. x= (2.5 −2.294) To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ M 0 x ¨ +c −c x ˙ K + k −k x + + = 0 m y ¨ −c +c ˙ ∙ ¸ ∙y 2 iωt −k ∙ +k ¸ y ¸ (2.299 and the zero damping results in the following response A1 and A2 of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively.297) ∙ K + k −k −k +k ¸ ∙ uω2 0 ¸ ∙ x y ¸ k= .299) A = ¯(−ω2 m+iωc + k)−1 q¯ Amplitude A1 .002 · ω2 ¯ ¯ + iω + 106 ¯ −ω2 ¯ 0 25 0 0 −2.

00004 m. This case is shown in the last raw of the table 1. 46 0 (2. The best results of attenuation of vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other. It can be noticed.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 160 0. Application of the absorber of vibrations offers a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s. that by increasing the damping coefficient c one can lower amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency. To improve the dynamic response. . If the damping tends to infinity. The relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one degree of freedom.302) The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for different values of the damping coefficient c. The amplitude is less than 0.302 are collected in the Table 1. 46 2 3 6 10 + + iω 10 = −ω c c 0 25 −2. Damping coefficient lager then 5000 results in increment of the amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. computed according to the formula 2. 46 2. let us analyze the influence of the damping coefficient c. ∙ ¸ A1 = A2 ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸ ∙ ¶−1 ∙ ∙ µ c c 100 0 0.002 · ω2 11.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] Figure 67 One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314 rad/s is equal to zero.5 −2. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of ω = 240 rad/s.

46 × 106 c = 1000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2.75 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] .0001 m = 25 k = 1. 46 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s ] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c = 2500 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2. Table 1 0.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 161 . 46 × 106 c=0 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.

t) ∂z ∂ y(z.2) dm ∂t2 ∂z ∂z ∂z 2 . t) ∂y(z.t) dz ∂z ∂ z2 2 y Figure 1 Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3.t) + ∂ y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.1) The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig.Chapter 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3.1. rods and shafts Modelling of stings f(z.t) z dz T A(z). 1 A(z) stands for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density. Its position is determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3. 1). According to the second Newton’s law µ ¶ ∂y(z. 1. t) +T + = −T dz + f (z. Motion of the string is caused by the unit vertical load f (z.t) T y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t)dz (3. It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to small motion of the string around its equilibrium position.1 Modelling of strings. Let us consider element dz of the sting. ρ (z) T z ∂ y(z. In the Fig. t) that in a general case can be a function of time t and the position z.

t) ∂ 2 y(z. A q(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Modelling of rods T .4) If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y(z.t) dz ∂z z Figure 2 .1 into Eq. t) dz − T dz = f (z.3) If one divide this equation by A(z) (z)dz it takes form ∂ 2 y(z.t) + ∂ F(z. t) = f (z.t) z F(z.t) z dz dz E(z).2 and its simplification yields A(z) (z) ∂ 2 y(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 163 Introduction of Eq. t) − = 2 2 ∂t A(z) (z) ∂z A(z) (z) (3. t) − λ2 = q(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.t) F(z.t) F(z. 3. t) A (3.5) (3. 3. A(z).6) f(z. ρ (z) F(z.t) F(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) + ∂ F(z.t) dz ∂z y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) T f (z.

Let us consider the highlighted in Fig. t)dz = −F (z. t) ∂z (3.9) (3. t) ∂ A(z) (z) A(z)E(z) = f (z. t) 2 ∂ y(z. can be a function of position z and time t. Motion of the rod is excited by the axial force f (z. t) ∂y(z. dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. t) + F (z. t) ∂y(z. t) that.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 164 Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces. 3. t) dz + f (z.7) The axial force F (z. t) = f (z. Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z). Let as consider a rod of the cross-section A(z).13) . E. t)dz − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z Since mass of the element is dm = A(z) (z)dz the equation of motion of the element is µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.12) where λ2 = E . q(z. t). t) −λ = q(z. t) A (3.8) Upon introducing the above expression into Eq. Its instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z.11) (3.t) dz ∂z dz = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z.7 one may obtain µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law F (z. t) − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If the rod is uniform ( A. in a general case.10) (3. t) + ∂t2 ∂z (3. are constant) one can get 2 ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂F (z. t) ∂ dm A(z)E(z) dz = f (z. 2 element dz. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. Application of the second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields.

ρ (z) ϕ (z. t). the density (z). t) = −T (z. Its moment of inertia ∂z about the axis z is Z Z 2 dI = r dA (z)dz = (z)dz r2 dA = J(z) (z)dz (3. t) + dz + τ (z.t) + ∂ (z. t).t) dz ∂z z Figure 3 Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques.t) z T(z.t) dz ∂z ϕ (z. Due to the moment τ (z. t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig.t) z dz T(z. Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. t) ∂T (z. The shaft has the shear modulus G(z). The angular position at the distance z + dz is by the total differential ∂ϕ(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. 3).t) + ∂ T(z.t) τ (z.14) A A Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation dI ∂ 2 ϕ(z.t) ϕ ϕ (z. J(z). Let us assume that the torque τ (z. A(z).MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 165 Modelling of shafts G(z).t) ϕ (z. the shaft performs the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section at z is ϕ(z.15) .t) dz greater. t) + T (z. the cross-section area A(z) and the second moment of area J(z).

t) and the deflection ϕ(z.22) Simplification of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then one with respect to dz.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 166 After introduction of Eq. The beam performs vibrations due to the external distributed unit load f (z. 4. t) T (z. density (z) and the Young’s modulus E(z). t) + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z (3. sum of the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂V (z. t). t) = +V (z. t) ∂V (z. t) − M(z. t) −λ = q(z.16 we are getting µ ¶ ∂ϕ(z. 2 ∂ 2 ϕ(z.1.2 Modelling of beams Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or moments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam). ∂M(z.24) . t) ∂ϕ(z.18) (3.17) (3. yields the relationship between the bending moment M and the shearing force V. t) + dz = 0 V (z.16) − ∂t2 ∂z If we introduce the relationship between the torque T (z. (z) and G(z) are constant. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3.20) 3. t) = τ (z. t) (3. q(z.21) If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz. t) = τ (z.23) V (z. t) dz dz + M(z. t) (3. t) 2 ∂ ϕ(z. 3. The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is dm ∂ 2 y(z. Let us consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z). t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted in Fig. the equation of motion takes form. t) ∂T (z. t) − V (z. t) ∂ ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) − G(z)J(z) J(z) (z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If J(z). t) = ∂z Since mass of the element dz is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3. t) J(z) (z) = τ (z. t) dz ∂M(z.19) where λ2 = G .14 and an elementary simplification the equation 3. t) + V (z. t) J (3. 3. t) − dz + f (z.15 takes form ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t)dz dz = ∂z G(z)J(z) into Eq. cross-section A(z).

26) V(z. t) + 2 E(z)J(z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z 2 M(z.26 into equation 3.t) + ∂ V(z. t) ∂2 A(z) (z) = f (z. t).t) z f(z. t) ∂ 4 y(z. J.t)dz M(z.t) y(z. t) ∂z 2 Introduction of equation 3. t) and the bending moment M(z. t) = f (z.t) dz ∂z M(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. t) A(z) (z) + = f (z.t) M(z. t) ∂M 2 (z.t)+ ∂ ∂z E(z). A(z).t) G V(z. t) + λ2 = q(z.25) ∂t2 ∂z 2 The mechanics of solids offers the following relationship between the deflection of the beam y(z. t) A (3. motion of the ∂ 2 y(z. A q(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 4 where λ2 = EJ .J(z). t) (3. t) = E(z)J(z) If the following parameters of the beam A.27) are constant. ∂ 2 y(z.t) dz/2 z y Figure 4 and taking into account Eq. 3. E and beam is governed by the following equation (3. one can get the equation of motion in the following form ∂ 2 y(z.25 yields µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.ρ (z) dz (3.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 167 f(z.28) (3.29) .23.

The general solution. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a function of time t.32 into equation 3. In this case the governing equation ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. y(z. t) − λ2 =0 (3. 3. rods and shafts are described by the same mathematical model.33) for strings for rods (3. its analysis can be discussed simultaneously.31 yields the following ordinary differential equation −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n or Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0 n where βn = The general solution of this equation is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z where β n = ωn r A T r (3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.34) (3.natural frequencies and natural modes Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product of two functions.35) (3. Therefore. vibrations of strings.37) (3.1 Free vibration of strings.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS As could be seen from the previous section.31) ∂t2 ∂z 2 Boundary conditions .32) Introduction of the predicted solution 3.36) ωn λ (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 168 3. the equation 3.38) β n = ωn E . t) − λ2 = q(z. t) = 0. a function of two variables.30) is classified as linear partial differential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coefficients ( λ2 ).30 ∂ 2 y(z. If the external excitation q(z.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation determined by the initial conditions. The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system considered are constant. t) ∂ 2 y(z.2. rods and shafts The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of Eq. 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.

Some of the boundary conditions for strings.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 169 β n = ωn The values for the parameter β n as well as the constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulfill the boundary conditions.39) . rods and shafts are shown in the following table. r G for shafts (3.

1 z l y string for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free rod for for I z = 0 F = AEYn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 z l fixed-free rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 k z l fixed-elasticaly supported rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = −kYn z l fixed-fixed rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free shaft for for I z = 0 T = GJYn = 0 I z = l T = GJYn = 0 z l fixed free shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 I T = GJYn = 0 z l fixed-fixed shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 170 Table 3.

..41 becomes linearly dependant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily.. ..say Sn = 1.47) l The functions Yn (z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding roots ω n are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies.40) Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3.. 2... β n = .. in the case considered is nπ Yn (z) = sin β n z = sin z n = 1. In the case of free vibrations of the shaft.. 2.. 0 = 0 · Sn + 1 · Cn 0 = (sin β n l)Sn + (cos β n l)Cn Its matrix form is ∙ (3.45) l l l Taking advantage of equation 3.∞ (3. in this particular case we have sin β n l = 0 (3. . The above analysis allows to conclude that a continuous system possesses infinite number of the natural frequencies and infinite number of the corresponding natural modes.......46) ωn = β n l For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3.39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be p β n = ωn G s s G nπ G = n = 1. . only positive roots of the above equation has the physical meaning π 2π nπ β1 = ..42) = sin β n l cos β n l 0 Cn This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. If one choose arbitrarily Sn .∞ (3... results in a set of two homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Sn and Cn . Cn has to be equal to 0...36. For this case the boundary conditions are for for z = 0 z = l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 (3. according to the first equation of the set 3. A few first of them are shown in Fig. ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ (3. 5 ..41.43) ¯ sin β n l cos β n l ¯ = 0 Hence..36. Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution.41) ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 1 Sn 0 (3. β2 = . the natural modes determine the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z).ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 171 To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. . 2.∞ (3. n = 1..44) This equation is called characteristic equation and has infinite number of solution. The first mode is called fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural frequency.. .. Since β n and l are always positive. according to 3. let us consider the fixed on both ends shaft (last row of the above Table).

5 0 0.50) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts.52) .49 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiII (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjII (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.48 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.49) Premultiplying the equation 3.2 0.48) (3. Both of them must fulfill the equation 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 172 1 ϕ (z) 0.4 0.51) j 0 0 Substraction of the second equation from the first one yields Z ³¡ ¡ 2 ¢¯l ¡ I ¢¯ ´ ¢ l 2 2 I ¯ − YJ (z)Yi (z) ¯l = 0 ωi − ωj Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ 0 0 (3. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 I ¯ − λ2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ´ ¯l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJI (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 (3.33 −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n Hence −ω 2 Yi (z) − λ2 YiII (z) = 0 i 2 −ω j Yj (z) − λ2 YjII (z) = 0 (3.5 z l=1 -1 Figure 5 Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).8 z 1 -0.6 0.

60) .. t) = Yn (z) cos ωn t n = 1. 3.53) Hence.58) This solution has to fulfill the initial conditions.. 3. This operation results in the following two equations. 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 173 It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to zero ¡ I ¢¯l ¡ ¢¯l Yi (z)Yj (z) ¯0 − YJI (z)Yi (z) ¯0 = YiI (l)Yj (l)−YiI (0)Yj (0)−YJI (l)Yi (l)+YJI (0)Yi (0) = 0 (3.56) Since the equation 3.. General solution of the homogeneous equation According to 3. ∂ y(z. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. It the same manner as it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form the required linearly independent set of solution. t) = ∞ X n=1 Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t + Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3. The initial conditions determine the initial position Y0 (z) and the initial velocity V0 (z) of the system considered for the time t equal to zero.31 is of second order with respect to time. 2. Y0 (z) = V0 (z) = ∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1 Cn Yn (z) Sn ωn Yn (z) (3. t) = Yn (z) sin ωn t n = 1. 0) = Y0 (z) y(z.54) 0 The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition.32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3. to fulfill initial conditions we need second set of linearly independent solution. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.. the general solution of the equation 3.∞ (3.. yn (z.58 into the above initial conditions..57) Hence.31 can be adopted in the following form y(z..∞ (3.31 eventually may be adopted in the following form.. 0) = V0 (z) (3. yn (z.59) ∂t To produce the constant Sn and Cn let us introduce the solution 3. y(z.55) At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce infinite number of such particular solutions.

t) + λ2 = q(z.64.natural frequencies and natural modes Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts.2.54 the wanted constants Sn and Cn are Rl Y0 (z)Yn (z)dz Cn = 0 R l Y 2 (z)dz 0 n Rl 1 0 V0 (z)Yn (z)dz (3.63) ¢l R ¡ ω n l sin nπ z 2 dz 0 l Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3. The general solution.65) ∂t2 ∂z 4 Boundary conditions . t) ∂ 4 y(z. If the external excitation q(z. t) (3.61) 0 3. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. let us multiply the above equations by Ym (z) and then integrate them side by side Z l ∞ X Z l Y0 (z)Ym (z)dz = Cn Yn (z)Ym (z)dz 0 Z l V0 (z)Ym (z)dz = 0 For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae. according to 3. let us predict the solution of the above equation in the form of a product of two functions. t) = 0. t) + λ2 =0 (3. ∂ 2 y(z.64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions.2 Free vibrations of beams For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 4 y(z. One of them is a function of the position z and the other is the function of time t.62) Sn = Rl 2 ωn Yn (z)dz 0 n=1 ∞ X n=1 0 Sn ω n Z l Yn (z)Ym (z)dz (3. Its order with respect to time is 2 and with respect to z is equal to 4. the equation 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 174 To determine the unknown constants Sn and Cn . The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of 3.66) . take form Rl Y (z) sin nπ zdz 0 0 Cn = R l ¡ ¢l2 nπ sin l z dz 0 Rl 1 0 V0 (z) sin nπ zdz Sn = (3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.64) ∂t2 ∂z 4 This equation can be classified as linear partial differential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coefficients ( λ2 ).47. y(z. a function of two variables.

6.70) (3.71) (3. Y2 (z) = e−β n z Y3 (z) = eiβ n z Y1 (z) = e−iβ n z r2 = −β n r3 = iβ n r2 = −iβ n (3.72) (3.68 yields the characteristic equation Alternatively.73) Introduction of this solution into the equation 3.68) (3. 4 Y (z) 1 Y (z) 2 2 Y (z) 3 Y (z) 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 z -2 -4 Figure 6 .67) ω2 Aρ 2 n ω 2 = EJ n λ The standard form of its particular solution is Y (z) = erz r4 = β 4 n Its roots r1 = β n Y1 (z) = eβ n z determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution.74) 2 2 A graphical interpretation of these functions for β n = 1 is given in Fig. one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solutions eβ n z − e−β n z eβ n z + e−β n z = sinh β n z Y2 (z) = = cosh β n z Y1 (z) = 2 2 eiβ n z − e−iβ n z eiβ n z + e−iβ n z Y3 (z) = = sin β n z Y2 (z) = = cos β n z (3.66 into equation 3.65 yields the following ordinary differential equation −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n or where Y IV (z) − β 4 Y (z) = 0 n β4 = n (3.69) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 175 Introduction of the predicted solution 3.

2 O l Y z free-free beam O l Y z for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 Y I (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 Y (l) = 0 Y I (l) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = −kY (0) M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = +kY (l) fixed-free beam O l Y z pined-fixed beam O k l Y k z elasticaly supported beam . as a linear combination of these particular solutions is Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3. Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3. one has to produce four boundary conditions reflecting the conditions at both ends of the beam. Table 3. They involve the function Y (z) and its first three derivatives with respect to z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 176 The general solution of the equation 3.79) The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3.77) II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n (3.68. Since this equation is of fourth order.2.76) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z (3.78) I Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z = Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3. Cn and Dn should be chosen to fulfill boundary conditions. Bn .75) Values for the parameter β n as well as for the constants An .

this root is associated with the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3. it is possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example An ) and the other can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3. Therefore. becomes linearly dependant..85) . If we take advantage of the second. ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 0 β2 0 −β 2 0 An n n 3 ⎢ β3 ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 −β n 0 ⎢ n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β 2 sinh β n l β 2 cosh β n l −β 2 sin β n l −β 2 cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ (3. 7 The first few roots are β 0 l = 0 β 1 l = 4.80) They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal to zero. after simplification. This condition forms the characteristic equation ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 0 −1 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ 0 −1 0 ¯ ¯ (3.84) Introduction of the functions 3. Modes corresponding to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure..81) n n n n 0 Dn β 3 cosh β n l β 3 sinh β n l −β 3 cos β n l β 3 sin β n l n n n n As one can see from the diagram 7.. for for for for z z z z =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 (3. the characteristic equation has double root of zero magnitude.81..ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 177 Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the freefree beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes.82) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ cosh β n l sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l ¯ that. Cn and Dn .85 β 3 l = 11. Solution of this equation.73 β 2 l = 7.81..78 and 3. Bn .83) This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has infinite number of roots. corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig. since its characteristic determinant is zero. third and fourth equation we are getting ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = − ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ An sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn ⎡ (3.79 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants An . Since the beam considered is free-free in space. 8a) and b). (3. within a limited range of the parameter β n l is shown in Fig... takes the following form cosh β n l cos β n l − 1 = 0 (3. These two modes..

73 ⎦ ⎣ sinh 4.90) .0 ⎦ cosh 4.86) For the first non-zero root β 1 l = 4. 3. for An = −1 we have ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn (3.73 the above set of equations yields values for constants B1 .73 − cos 4. according to Eq. 8c).73 − cos 4.0 sinh 4.73 1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 178 20 cosh βn l cosβn l -1=0 10 β0 l 0 β1 l 5 β2 l β3 l 10 15 βn l -10 -20 Figure 7 Hence.69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed. s s EJ (β n l)2 EJ ωn = β 2 = (3. The formula 3. In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic roots. 8d) and e) respectively.73 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.0177 cos 4. the particular solution is y(z.73 − sin 4.66.73z − 1.73z (3.87) Hence. t) = Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.75 is Y1 (z) = −1.89) n Aρ l2 Aρ Eventually. the corresponding mode.73 D1 sinh 4.73 sin 4. Modes for β 2 l = 7.0178 cosh 4.0177 (3.73z + 1. taking into account the predicted solution 3.88) Its graphical representation is shown in Fig.73z + 1.85 and β 3 l = 11 are shown in Fig.017 8 ⎣ C1 ⎦ = ⎣ cosh 4.0 sin 4. C1 and D1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ B1 1 0 −1 0 1.

6 0.2 0.8 1 2 1 Y3 (z) e) 0 -1 -2 0.4 z 0.6 0.8 1 z d) 0 -1 -2 0.2 0.4 z 0.6 0.8 1 Figure 8 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 179 2 Y0 (z) 1 a) 0.8 1 c) 1 Y (z) 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y2 (z) 0.4 0.2 0.4 z 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.8 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y0 (z) z b) 0 -1 -2 2 0.2 0.

....96) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts.73z − 1..93) Y2 (z) = ..92) n=1 Y1 (z) = −1.......94) (3...67 −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n Hence −ω2 Yi (z) + λ2 YiIV (z) = 0 i −ω 2 Yj (z) + λ2 YjIV (z) = 0 j (3.0178 cosh 4.. Both of them must fulfill the equation 3.. The constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulfill the initial conditions..73z (3... is the general solution of the equation 3.0 sinh 4... Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 III ¯ − λ2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ −ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 j 0 0 (3. Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z)..91) where is the linearly independent particular solution too.0177 cos 4..95) Premultiplying the equation 3.0 sin 4.....65. It follows that the following linear combination n=∞ X Yn (z) (Sn sin ωn t + Cn cos ω n t) (3... In the same manner we can show that the function y(z.73z + 1.73z + 1....97) . t) = Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3.94 by Yj (z) and the equation 3. .....95 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiIV (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l −ω 2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjIV (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3....ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 180 where Yn (z) and ωn are uniquely determined and Sn is an arbitrarily chosen constant..

98) Substraction of the second equation from the first one yields ¢Rl ¡ 2 ω i − ω 2 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz+ ´ j ³ ³ ¯l ¯l ´ −λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 ³ ³ ¯l ´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ − λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l = 0 +λ Yj (z)Yi (z) 0 0 (3. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 181 Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again ³ ¯l ´ Rl −ω 2 0 Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + i ³ ¯l ´ Rl −λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 −ω j R 2 l ¯l ´ Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 + 0 ³ ¯l ´ Rl 2 II I −λ Yj (z)Yi (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 ³ (3. .99) The expression ³ ³ ³ ¯l ´ 2 ³ II ¯´ ¯´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ +λ Yi (z)YjI (z)¯l +λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯l −λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l −λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 0 0 0 (3. It is easy to show that for any possible boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero.101) 0 The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations. Hence.100) depends exclusively on boundary conditions.

A1. ρ2. ρ1. . J2 z l1 l2 Figure 9 For the shaft shown in Fig. A2. 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies. J1 G2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 182 3.2.3 Problems Problem 41 G1.

19. t) = Φ2 (z) sin ω n t (3.107) Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies.109) Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields. according to 3. t) 2 ∂ ϕ2 (z.112) λ1 λ2 These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions for for for for z z z z = = = = 0 l1 l1 l1 + l2 Φ1 (0) = 0 Φ1 (l1 ) = Φ2 (l1 ) G1 J1 ΦI (l1 ) = G2 J2 ΦI (l1 ) 1 2 ΦI (l1 + l2 ) = 0 2 (3.106) where λ2 = 2 G2 2 (3.113) The first boundary condition reflects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is fixed.103) G1 1 (3.104) (3.111) ωn ωn β n2 = (3. t) = Φ1 (z) sin ω n t ϕ2 (z. according to 3.34. t) − λ2 =0 1 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. is governed by the following equation ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z. Therefore the particular solution of the above equations must be of the following form ϕ1 (z.102) motion of the system. one may say that within range l1 < z < l1 + l2 motion of the shaft is governed by 2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 (z.108) (3.105) (3.110) (3. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular . ΦII (z) + β 2 Φ1 (z) = 0 1 n1 II Φ2 (z) + β 2 Φ2 (z) = 0 n2 where β n1 = (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 183 Solution For 0 < z < l1 (3. t) ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.

115) (3. ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 ⎢ sin ωn l1 λ1 [A] = ⎢ ⎣ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 0 the non-zero solutions if and only if its char0 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ2 λ2 ωn cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 0 − cos ωn l2 λ2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯= 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ⎤ 0 ⎥ − cos ωn l2 λ2 ⎥ ωn ωn G2 J2 λ2 sin λ2 l1 ⎦ − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 184 displacement and continuity of the torque.110 and 3.117) where ⎡ (3. Since the general solution of equation 3.111are ωn ωn z + Cn1 cos z λ1 λ1 ωn ωn Φ2 (z) = Sn2 sin z + Cn2 cos z λ2 λ2 Φ1 (z) = Sn1 sin the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations Cn1 = 0 Sn1 sin ωn l1 + Cn1 cos ωn l1 − Sn2 sin ωn l2 − Cn2 cos ωn l2 = 0 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 Sn1 G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 − Cn1 G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 + λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 −Sn2 G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 + Cn2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 +Sn2 ωn cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) − Cn2 ωn sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 Its matrix for is ⎤ Sn1 ⎢ C ⎥ [A] ⎢ n1 ⎥ = 0 ⎣ Sn2 ⎦ Cn2 1 0 ωn cos λ1 l1 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 ωn 0 cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ⎡ (3. The last condition says that the torque at the free end is zero.116) (3.118) Solution of this equation for the roots ω n yields the wanted natural frequencies of the shaft. This homogeneous set of equations has acteristic determinant is equal to zero.114) (3.

Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this assembly. shown in Fig. . 10.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 185 Problem 42 1 E.ρ l 2 m z Figure 10 The uniform rod 1 . is connected to the block 2 of mass m.A .

t) m z Figure 11 Equation of motion of the block.121) or.123) (3. 3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.t) y y(l.t) ¯ ∂y(z. 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 186 Solution The equation of motion of the rod. is m ∂ 2 y(l.120) To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted infinitesimal element (see Fig. ( y(0.119.125) . 11).124) z=l Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. t) ¯ ¯ = −AE ∂y(z.119) (3.122) This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = E (3.32) y(z. t) = ¯ 0 ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. taking advantage of the relationship 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. according to Eq. t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=l ∂z ¯z=l y(0. l F(l. t) ∂t2 (3.8 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. according to the Newton’s law.t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯ = −AE ∂z ¯ z=l (3. t) = 0 forms boundary conditions for the equation 3.12. is ∂ 2 y(z. t) = −F (l.

126.131) For the following numerical data l = 1m E = 2.126) The general solution of the equation 3.133) .132) ωn ωn ωn z − AE cos z = 0 λ λ λ (3.0 n f (ωn ) = tan =0 − 5188.7 ωn Its solution f (ω = 0 is shown in Fig.130) Hence.1 × 1011 N/m2 A = 25 × 10−4 m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 q λ = E = 5188. n with boundary conditions ½ Y (0) = 0 mω2 Y (l) − AEY I (l) = 0 n (3. the characteristic equation.127) βn = ωn λ (3.128) Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields ½ Cn = 0 mω2 (Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z) − AE (Sn β n cos β n z − Cn β n sin β n z) = 0 n (3. 12.5kg .129) or ¢ ¡ 2 mω n sin β n z − AEβ n cos β n z Sn = 0 mω 2 sin n or after simplification tan ωn AE l− =0 λ λωn m (3. after taking advantage of 3.126.7m/s ρ mr = A × l × ρ = 19.124 yields the ordinary differential equation Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0.mass of the rod m = 20kg .mass of the block the characteristic equation takes the following form ³ ω ´ 5059. (3. is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z (3. according to 3. is (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 187 into the equation of motion 3.36.119 and the boundary conditions 3.

13. according to the diagram 12 are ω1 = 4400.7 Y2 (z) = sin 17720 z 5188.136) are presented in Fig. ω1 = 33400 s−1 (3.128.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 188 1 f( ω n ) 0. according to 3. are Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z = Sn sin ωn ωn z = Sn sin z λ 5188. ω 2 = 17720.7 (3. 14 and 15 respectively. the system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is r r r k EA 2.1 × 1011 × 25 × 10−4 ω1 = (3.134) The corresponding natural modes.135) For the first three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = sin 4400 z 5188.7 Y3 (z) = sin 33400 z 5188.If we neglect the mass of the rod.5 -1 Figure 12 The first three natural frequencies. .5 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 ωn -0.137) = = = 5123s−1 m lm 20 and the corresponding mode is a straight line.7 (3.

5 0.8 1 -1 Figure 15 .4 z 0.5 0 -0.8 1 -1 Figure 14 1 Y3 (z) 0.5 0 -0.2 0.6 0.8 1 -1 Figure 13 1 Y2 (z) 0.6 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 189 1 Y (z) 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.4 z 0.6 0.4 z 0.

16 O z k l y Figure 16 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 190 Problem 43 Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the fixedelastically supported beam shown in Fig.

the equation of motion of the beam is ∂ 2 y(z. t) ¯ = ky(z.143) z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ∂z ∂z ∂z z=l z=l Yn (z)|z=0 = 0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 = 0 ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = 0 Introduction of the solution 3. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. t)|z=l = E(z)J(z) (3. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero.t)|z=l y dz z z Figure 17 conditions for the element dz which have to be fulfill for any instant of time. Hence.141) The right hand end. with the forces acting on it.139 into the above boundary conditions yields ¯ III α Yn (z)¯z=l − Yn (z)|z=l = 0 (3.138) the above solution has to fulfill boundary conditions. t) ∂ 4 y(z.t)| z=l V(z. t)| V (z. forms the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. is shown in Fig. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.144) .142) ∂z 2 ¯z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ∂M(z.139) (3. t) ¯ ¯ =0 M(z. t) ¯ ¯ = ∂ EJ ∂ y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 191 Solution According to the equation 3. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. Equilibrium O M(z.140) (3. t)|z=l = (3. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3.65. y(z. 17.t)| z=l k l k y(z.

76 to 3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 n (3.149) ⎤ 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0 The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.147) ω 2 = EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3. Cn and Dn .150) sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ ¯ 3 3 3 3 ¯ β α cosh β l β n α sinh β n l −β n α cos β n l β n α sin β n l ¯ n n ¯ ¯ ¯ − sinh β l ¯ − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l n .145) k According to the equations 3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are α= Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.148) The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎢ ⎣ β 3 α cosh β n l β 3 α sinh β n l −β 3 α cos β n l β 3 α sin β n l n n n n − sinh β n l − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ An ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Cn ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Dn (3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 (3. Bn . 3. β4 = n Bn + Dn = 0 An + Cn = 0 2 2 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β n cosh β n l − Cn β n sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l = 0 n An β 3 α cosh β n l + Bn β 3 α sinh β n l − Cn β 3 α cos β n l + Dn β 3 α sin β n l n n n n −(An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l) = 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 192 EJ (3.144 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .146) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z where where (see Eq.

0003m2 3 J = 0.152) .0525 k the characteristic equation takes form ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ sinh β n cosh β n − sin β n ¯ 3 ¯ .1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.151) Solution of this equation for its roots β n is presented in Fig.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 193 For the following data E = 2.147 β4 = n Aρ 2 ω EJ n (3.0525β n sinh β n −.03 × 0.01 = 0.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.0525β 3 cosh β .18 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 β n -100 -200 Figure 18 From this diagram the first three roots are β 1 = 2.01 = 2.888m−1 The relationship 3.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.03×0.0525β 3 sin β n n − cos β n ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.884m−1 β 3 = 7.1×10 10000 = 0.0525β 3 cos β n n n n ¯ ¯ − sinh β n − cosh β n − sin β n 1 0 − cos β n .942m−1 β 2 = 4.

Bn .0 ⎦ .888z − 1.0 sinh 7.942z − .153) For each of these roots the set of equations 3. ⎣ B3 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.884z − 1.02 −1.884z − 1.0 A2 A3 ⎣ B1 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.6s−1 Aρ s β 4 EJ 2 = 357. we are getting the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = . Dn = 1) and the last equation can be crossed out.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 194 offers values for the wanted natural frequencies s β 4 EJ 1 ω1 = = 129.888z − 1.0 ⎦ .0 cosh 4.0 cosh 2.0 ⎦ C1 C2 C3 −.888z (3.155) (3. ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ An ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ Bn ⎥ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 1 0 (3.0 cosh 7.158) The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig.0s−1 ω2 = Aρ (3.149 becomes linearly dependant.02 sinh 4.156) For the first three roots the numerical values of these constants are ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ A1 .0 (3.884z + 1 cos 4. ⎣ B2 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.942z − 1.3s−1 ω2 = Aρ s β 4 EJ 3 = 932.02 sin 4. 19 .883 1.g.883 −1. The three remaining equations allow the constants An .888z + 1 cos 7.883 sinh 2. and Cn to be computed.02 1.0 sin 7.157) Introducing them into the first function of 3.883 sin 2.884z Y3 (z) = 1.154) ⎣ Cn ⎦ 0 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l 1 ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ 1 0 1 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 1 An ⎣ Bn ⎦ = − ⎣ 1 0 Cn sinh β n l cosh β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ An 1 ⎦=⎣ Bn ⎦ + ⎣ 0 − cos β n l Cn ⎤−1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 − cos β n l − sin β n l ⎤ 0 0 ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎦ (3.146 and remembering that Dn = 1.942z Y2 (z) = 1. Hence one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.942z + 1 cos 2.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 195 2 1 Y1 (z) 0.8 1 0 -1 -2 Figure 19 .4 z 0.2 Y2 (z) Y3 (z) 0.6 0.

Answer: GJo ωn 2 kL2 λ cot ωn l + 1 = 0 where λ2 = G λ ρ . G. Jo 1 2 2 z k l L k Figure 20 The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 196 Problem 44 ρ . Its right hand end is supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to two springs each of the stiffness k. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the shaft. 20 is fixed.

21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of the length l.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 197 Problem 45 2 2 ρ . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly. Jo 1 z l Figure 21 Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig. G. The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I. Answer: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ βn αn ¯ ¯ ¯ β n cos β n l − αn sin β n l −β n sin β n l − αn cos β n l ¯ = 0 p Iω2 where β n = ω n G αn = GJn o .

A. t)|z=l ¯ ∂ y(z.164) Introduction of the solution 3. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. E. Hence.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 198 Problem 46 l. J.162) The right hand end The displacement and the bending moment has to be equal to zero. y(z. t)|z=l = 0 M(z.163) =0 z=l (3. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: p λ = EJ sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 β n = ωn λ Aρ ∂ 2 y(z. t) ¯ ¯ = E(z)J(z) ∂z 2 ¯ 2 (3. the equation of motion of the beam is (3. Hence. y(z.159) the above solution has to fulfill boundary conditions.165) .160 into the above boundary conditions yields Yn (z)|z=0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 Yn (z)|z=l ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.161) (3.160) Solution According to the equation 3.65. ρ z l y Figure 22 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. t) ∂ 4 y(z. 22. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z.

79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3. Cn and Dn .76 to 3.171) A development of the above determinant results in the following equation for the unknown parameter β n l . Bn .169) The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.166) where (see Eq. 3.168) ⎡ ⎤ 0 An ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bn ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Cn ⎦ 0 Dn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.167) 2 EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 199 According to the equations 3.170) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sinh β l cosh β l − sin β l − cos β l ¯ n n n n β n l sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 where: (3. β4 n Bn + Dn An + Cn An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β 2 cosh β n l − Cn β 2 sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l n n n The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l -sin β n l -cos β n l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 ω = n = (3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯=0 (3.165 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .

173) r ωn λ λ= EJ Aρ (3.171 allows the natural frequences to be produced ωn = λβ 2 = λ n (β n l)2 EJ = (β l)2 l2 Aρl2 n (3.172) .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 200 βn = The roots β n l of the equation 3.

E. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 201 Problem 47 1 ρ . A l 2 k z Figure 23 The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. A. J. 23 is supported by means of the massless spring of stiffness k. ρ z l y Figure 24 . E. Problem 48 l.

the boundary conditions for the equation (1) Answer: for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y 00 = 0 0 for z = l (3) Y = 0 (4) Y 000 = 0 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 202 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: cosβl = 0 q EJ where β = 4 Aρω2 . Produce: 1. 24.

This assembly performs the torsional vibration about axis z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = G . The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I z . JO2 Figure 25 The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig. G1. The dynamic properties of the shafts are defined by their density ρ1 and ρ2 . t) ∂ 2 ϕ(z. ∂ 2 ϕ(z. where. Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3. G2. The differential equation of motion of a shaft is. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 203 Problem 49 1 2 3 z ρ1 . λ1 = q G1 . 25 are welded to a motionless wall. ρ1 λ2 = q G2 ρ2 .shear modulus ρ — density Answer: ωn β 1 cot λ1 l+β 2 cot ωn l = 1. their shear modulus G 1 and G 2 and the second polar moment of area J O1 and J O2 respectively. β2 = JO2 ρ2 Iz . JO1 l ρ2 . β 1 = λ2 G ρ JO1 ρ1 Iz .

Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the system described. density ρ and area of its cross-section A is under the constant tension T.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 204 Problem 50 m z 1 a l y T 2 Figure 26 The string 1 shown in Fig. At the position defined by the distance a the element 2 is attached. . This element can be treated as a particle of mass m.26 of length l.

175) (3.t)|z=a T T a l T ∂y1 ( z.t)|z=a=y2(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 205 Solution ∂y2 ( z.179) (3.t) y2(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Similarly. . t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where T Aρ Solutions of the above equations are of the following form λ2 = y1n (z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.180) (3. t ) | z =a ∂z z y Figure 27 Let the differential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0<z<a be ∂ 2 y1 (z. in the region a<z<l the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z.181) where ω n stands for the natural frequency that is common for both parts of the string.174) (3. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. t ) |z = a ∂z y1(z. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z.178) (3.176) (3.177) T Aρ (3. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3.t) y1(z.

t) ¯ ¯ ¯ = −T +T ∂z ¯z=a ∂z ¯z=a = 0 (3.180 and 3.189 and 3.182) (3. t) ¯ ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=a y2n (z. t) |z=l = 0 = y2n (z. t) |z=a ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.178 results in the following set of differential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n where ω2 Aρω 2 n n = 2 T λ The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows β2 = n Y1n (z) = S1n sin β n z + C1n cos β n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β n z + C2n cos β n z Introduction of the solutions 3.184) (3.175 and 3.189) (3.187) (3.181 into the equations 3.195) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.181 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=a = Y2n (z) |z=a ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ −mω 2 Y1n (z)¯z=a = −T Y1n (z)¯ n Y2n (z) |z=l = 0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 206 These solutions must fulfil boundary conditions (z = 0.188) (3. They are y1n (z.191) (3.183) (3. z = l) and compatibility conditions at z = a.196) ¯ 0 ¯ + T Y2n (z)¯ z=a . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β n a cos β n a − sin β n a − cos β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ −mω2 sin β n a + ¯=0 −mω 2 sin β n a + n n ¯ −T β n cos β n a T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ +T β n cos β n a −T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β n l cos β n l ¯ (3. t) |z=0 y1n (z.192) (3.190) z=a Introduction of the solutions 3.186) (3. t) |z=a ¯ ¯ ∂y1 (z.194) 00 (3.180 into the conditions 3.185) Introduction of the solutions 3.193) (3. t) ¯ ∂y2 (z.190 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β n a) S1n + (cos β n a) C1n − (sin β n a) S2n − (cos β n a) C2n = 0 (−mω 2 sin β n a + T β n cos β n a) S1n + (−mω2 sin β n a − T β n sin β n a) C1n + n n − (T β n cos β n a) S2n + (T β n sin β n a) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β n l) S2n + (cos β n l) C2n = 0 (3.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 207 Roots β n of the above equation. with help of the relationship 3.188 allow the natural frequencies to be produced s T ωn = β n Aρ .

Their dynamic properties are determined by the density and the area of their cross-section A.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 208 Problem 51 ρ1. Produce the natural frequencies of the system described and the corresponding natural modes . A2 1 l1 y 2 l2 T z Figure 28 Two strings of length l1 and l2 are loaded with tension T . A1 ρ2.

t) ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ∂y2 (z. z = l1 + l2 ) and compatibility conditions at z = l1 . t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 ¯ ∂y2 (z.201) (3.202) (3. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z.200) (3.204) The third condition we are getting by application of the Newton law to the element of the string associated with z = l1 .198) where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 2 T A2 ρ2 (3.203) These solutions must fulfil boundary conditions (z = 0. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z.205) y2n (z. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 T A1 ρ1 (3. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ dm = −T ∂t2 ¯ ∂z ¯ z=l1 z=l1 y2n (z.197) (3.199) Solutions of the above equations are of the following form y1n (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 . t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) ¯ ¯ +T ∂z ¯z=l1 (3. in the region l1 < z < l1 + l2 the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) ¯ ¯ − ∂z ¯z=l1 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 209 Solution Let the differential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0 < z < l1 be ∂ 2 y1 (z. They are y1n (z. Since dm stands for an infinitesimal mass of this element. t) ¯ ¯ + = 0 ∂z ¯ z=l1 ¯ ∂y1 (z. the above conditions can rewritten as follows y1n (z. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z.

209 and 3.201 results in the following set of differential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n1 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n2 where β2 = 1n ω2 A1 ρ1 ω 2 n n . the equation can be solved for the natural frequencies of the string.203 into the conditions 3.214) .206) (3. The solution is presented for the following set of numerical data.198 and 3.210) ¯ ¯ −Y1n (z)¯ 0 z=l1 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 210 Introduction of the solutions 3.208) The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows Y1n (z) = S1n sin β 1n z + C1n cos β 1n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β 2n z + C2n cos β 2n z Introduction of the solutions 3.208 into the above equation we haveβ 1n = ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ωn cos ωn l1 − ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 0 0 ωn λ2 0 0 ωn − sin λ2 l1 − cos ωn l1 λ2 − ωn cos ωn l1 + ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) λ2 λ2 Now.205 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=l1 = Y2n (z) |z=l1 ¯ 0 ¯ + Y2n (z)¯ = 0 z=l1 (3.210 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n + (cos β 1n l1 ) C1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 1n sin β 1n l1 ) C1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.209) (3.207) (3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β 1n l1 cos β 1n l1 − sin β 2n l1 − cos β 2n l1 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3. = 2 T λ1 β2 = 2n ω2 A2 ρ2 ω 2 n n = 2 T λ2 00 (3.213) ¯ β 1n cos β 1n l1 −β 1n sin β 1n l1 −β 2n cos β 2n l1 +β 2n sin β 2n l1 ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) ¯ Introducing 3.212) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.211) Y2n (z) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 Introduction of the solutions 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯=0 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.203 into the equations 3.

216) The so far unknown constants S1n .)ω n ¯ (3.5 + 1. C2n can be computed from the homogeneous set of linear equations 3. They are ω 1 = 483. ω5 = 2344[rad/s] (3.m. S2n . ω3 = 1437.)ω n cos 253 (.212. ω2 = 920.5 ¡ . λ2 = A2 ρ = 1·105007800 = 253.5 ¢ . A1 = 2 · 10−6 m2 . 29 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡0 ¡1 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 frequency [rad/s] -5 -10 Figure 29 It allows the natural frequencies to be determined.5 1 1 cos 179 ωn − 179 sin 179 ω n −¡ 1 cos 253 ωn ¢ +¡1 sin 253 ωn ¢ ¯ 179 253 253 ¯ 1 1 0 0 sin 253. From the first equation one can see that the constant C1n must be equal to zero C1n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.5 ¢ ¡ .18m/s −6 2·10−6 7800 1 2 ¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¢ ¢ ¡ .5 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 211 l1 = . 1 = 2 = 7800kg/m3 . T = 500N. ω 4 = 1861. l2 = 1.5 sin 179 ω n ¢ cos 179 ω n ¢ − sin 253 ω n ¢ − cos 253 ω n ¢ ¯ ¯=0 ¡ .5 ¡ .5m. (.217) . q q q q T 500 T λ1 = A1 ρ = 179.215) The magnitude of the determinant as a function of the frequency ω n is presented in Fig.03m/s.5 + 1. C1n .5 ¡ . A2 = 1 · 10−6 m2 .

5 ω3 1437 = 253.907·1.5 sin 3.48 S11 = (sin β 11 l1 ) (sin 2.907·1.18 = 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 212 Since the equations is linearly dependent for roots of its characteristic determinant.697 β 21 = ω2 = 253.5) cos 5.5) − cos β 21 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 1.944 sin 8.5−(sin 5.15 sin 5.5 cos 5.697·0. β 13 = ω3 1437 = 179.63·1. one of them must be crossed out and one of the constant can be assumed arbitrarily.907·1. β 12 = ω2 920 920 2 = 179.63·0.18 = 1.5 < z < 1.13·0.03 = λ1 cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) cos β 23 l1 −(sin β 23 l1 ) sin β (l +l ) 8.5 22 1 2 = = 1.907·1.675·0.5 = 0.67 λ2 5.91 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 21 l1 −(sin β 21 l1 ) sin β 21(l 1+l 2) cos 1.907·0.63z + 1 cos 3.63·0.5 = 3. Hence let us crossed out the second equation and assume C2n = 1.5 n=2 ω2 = 920.13z Y22 (z) = S22 sin β 22 z + 1 cos β 22 z = 0.63z f or0.026z for 0 < z < 0.63·1.63·1.907·0.5−(sin 1.675·1.67z f or 0.697z Y21 (z) = S21 sin β 21 z + 1 cos β 21 z = 3. C2n = 1 The set of equations for determination of the remaining constants S1n and S2n is (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n = cos β 2n l1 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) Hence S2n = S1n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) β (l1 +l2 ) cos β 2n l1 − (sin β 2n l1 ) cos β 2n(l1 +l2 ) sin 2n (sin β 1n l1 ) For n = 1.5) − cos β 22 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 3.03 = 2.5) cos 3.5 Y12 (z) = S12 sin β 12 z = 1.5 S21 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 1.5) β 23 = A plot of the natural modes is shown in Fig.63 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 22 l1 −(sin β 22 l1 ) sin β 22(l 1+l 2) cos 3.5 < z < 1.5−(sin 3. 3 the constants S1n and S2n are n=1 ω 1 = 483. β 11 = ω1 483 483 1 = 179.5 21 1 2 = = 3. 2.46Y11 (z) 21 for 0 < z < 0.5 Y23 (z) = S23 sin β 23 z + 1 cos β 23 z = 0.15 S12 = (sin β 12 l1 ) (sin 5.18 = 5.026·0.5 sin 1.03 = 5.5 n=3 ω3 = 1437.67z + 1 cos 5.13 β 22 = ω2 = 253.5 S23 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 5.5 S22 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 3.899 sin 3.5 < z < 1.675·1.675·1.899 22 for 0 < z < 0.773 sin 5. 30 .675·0.5 sin = (sin 8.48 sin 2.944 S13 = (sin β 13 l1 ) − cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 5.5 = 0.63·1.91z for 0.91z + 1 cos 1.5) cos 1.026 23 1 2 = 0.773 23 Y13 (z) = S13 sin β 13 z = 0.46 sin 1.675·1.5 Y11 (z) = S11 sin β 11 z = 3.

5 -2 z [m ] Figure 30 .5 1 1 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 213 n a tu ra l m o d e s 4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 0 .

.218) Similarly..219) Mi li 2EJi and δ ei = Mi 2kMi (3........3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiffness and inertia matrix of free in space beam along coordinates yn and ϕyn (see Fig... 33a) and its model (Fig. 31) associated with an arbitrary chosen number N of points........ Since: δ ri = the bending stiffness is kMi = EJi li (3.3.. Inertia and stiffness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Rigid Element Method.... the beam is divided into a sufficient.......b). These distinguished points n are called nodes.... the actual element (Fig.. N yn ϕy n Figure 31 are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method... 33c and Fig.....DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 214 3..... 32c). Equivalence of both... 32a))The bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of stiffness kMi and kTi respectively (Fig.. Each section is considered rigid and its inertia properties are represented by mass mi and moments of inertia Ii . In this kTi = Ti li GAi and yei = Ti kTi (3..... 3. 33d) yri = li γ ri = yields GAi (3.... for necessary accuracy. n .... number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig .......1 Rigid Elements Method....220) ..221) li The right hand part of the segment li−1 and the left hand part of the subsequent segment li . the equivalence of shearing deflections (yri = yei ) caused by the same shearing force Ti (Fig. 33b) requires equal angular deflection ( δri = δ ei ) caused by the same bending moment Mi ..The most popular approaches for creation of the stiffness and inertia matrices 1 2 . form a section (Fig.... 32.

.. a) li kT i k Mi l i-1 /2 Gi l i/ 2 mi Ii mi Ii k Mi zli z ri z l i+1 m i+1 I i +1 k Mi+1 z ri+1 b) c) k T i -1 ......DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 215 l i-1 ... k Mi-1 z d) y Figure 32 E..Ai Ti y ri Ti Ti ye i a) c) δri δe i 2δe i k Mi Mi Mi b) Ti kT i d) Figure 33 .... li l i+1 ...Ji li Mi Mi li G. k T i+1 ..

.i+1 Ki+1.231 is given in Fig.... ˙ 0 ⎡ y1 ⎢ : ⎢ ⎢ yi−1 ⎢ yb = ⎢ yi ⎢ ⎢ yi+1 ⎢ ⎣ : yN ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. ˙ 0 0 0 . ˙ 0 Mi. ˙ Ki−1..i = 0 Ii 0 .. . Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig.226) (3.N 0 . ˙ 0 Ki.228) ¸ (3.. ˙ 0 0 . ˙ KN.225) (3.222) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ k=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ Ki. .i+1 = −kTi zri ∙ −kTi−1 −kTi−1 zri−1 +kTi−1 zli −kMi−1 + kTi−1 zri−1 zli N =I +1 ¸ ∙ mi 0 Mi.i−1 = ∙ +kTi−1 + kTi Ki.227) ¸ (3.. 0 . .i+1 .i+1 .224) (3..N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.229) (3.i Ki+1. ˙ 0 .. ˙ 0 0 0 . . . . ˙ 0 K1. ˙ Ki−1...i = +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri ∙ −kTi Ki... . ˙˙ . +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri 2 +kMi−1 + kTi−1 zl2i + kTi zri ¸ +kTi zli+1 −kMi + kTi zli+1 zri ¸ ∙ yi yi = ϕyi . .223) (3. . ˙ 0 0 . .231) The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 3...i .DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 216 way a complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis. ˙˙ . ˙˙ . ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity of the rigid elements. ˙˙ .1 .. ˙ 0 0 ..i−1 0 ..The coordinates yi . . ˙ 0 0 .i Ki.. . .1 . ˙ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . ˙ Mi−1. 0 . ˙ 0 0 0 . . 32d) results in the following equations of motion.. ˙ 0 0 0 . ˙ 0 0 Mi+1.. .. .... 34. m¨ + ky = 0 y where: ⎡ M1.i−1 0 0 . ˙˙ . ˙ MN.230) (3.i−1 Ki. .. ˙˙ . ˙˙ . .. ˙˙ .i 0 .

ϕyi should be added to the mathematical model 3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 217 element 1 Oi node 1 element i element N z node i yi ϕ yi node N y Figure 34 Introduction of the external forces If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element.2 Finite Elements Method. the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following form. each of them (e.232.3. (3. the shaft is divided into a number of the uniform and flexible elements. m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y 3. The i − th element is shown in Fig. 36. Inertia and stiffness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Finite Elements Method. 35This equivalent set of forces along the nodal coordinates Fi Mi element i z node i yi ϕ yi Oi ai Fi y Figure 35 yi . Fi ) can be equivalently replaced by the force Fi applied to the node Oi and the moment Mi = ai · Fi as shown in Fig.232) . Introducing notations Fs for the static forces and F(t) for the excitation forces. In a general case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on time (excitation forces).g.

⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡ yi1 C1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ C2 ⎥ = ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ (3. dz ¯z=0 dz ¯z=li The parameters yi1 and yi2 are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕi1 and ϕi2 are called nodal rotations. second moment of area about the neutral axis. and ρi stand for Young modulus. 2. Ai . Ji . 4) must be chosen to fulfill the following boundary conditions ¯ ¯ dy(z) ¯ dy(z) ¯ ¯ ¯ = ϕyi1 y(z)|z=li = yi2 . area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element. The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2.234) The constants of integration Cj (j = 1.236) ⎦ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 6 2 i 1 2 l li 1 0 C4 ϕyi2 2 i Its solution yields the integration constants Cj .DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 218 1 z yi1 E i Ji Ai ρi yi2 ϕyi1 li y 2 ϕyi2 Figure 36 In this figure Ei . 3. Introduction of solution 3.237) 6 3 (2yi1 li . The differential equation of the statically deflected line of the element in the plane yz is d4 y(z) Ei Ji =0 (3.233) dz 4 Integration of the above equation four times yields 1 1 y(z) = C1 z 3 + C2 z 2 + C3 z + C4 6 2 (3. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 0 1 yi1 C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ C2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 2 i 1 2 C4 l li 1 0 ϕyi2 2 i ⎤ + li ϕyi1 − 2yi2 + li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ 2 2 (−3yi1 − 2li ϕyi1 + 3yi2 − li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ li ⎥ ⎦ ϕyi1 yi1 (3.234 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Cj .235) y(z)|z=0 = yi1 . = ϕyi2 (3.

These two matrices are going to be developed from the two following criterions: . the dynamic deflection line is approximated by the static deflection line. It should be noted that this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short. it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated by the following equation.238) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ where: ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 lz + 2 lz ⎪ i ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ∙³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ H1 ⎪ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 lz + lz ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ li i i H2 li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = {H(z)} = ⎪ H3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 lz − 2 lz ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ i ∙ ³i´ H4 li ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − lz + lz li i i ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 {y} = ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2 (3. The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues mathematical model of the element considered ∂ 4 y(z. y(z. t) − ρi =0 ∂z 4 ∂t2 by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates Ei Ji y [mi ] {¨ (t)} + [ki ] {y (t)} = 0.241. If the finite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz. H2 .240) Functions H1 .242) (3. H3 . 3. " "µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # z z z z z y(z) = 1 − 3 yi1 + li ϕyi1 −2 +2 + li li li li li " µ ¶ " µ ¶ µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # 2 2 z z z z yi2 + − li ϕyi2 + 3 −2 + li li li li = {H(z)}T {y} (3.238 the deflected line of the finite element is assembled of terms which are linear with respect to the nodal coordinates.234 one may get it in the following form. (3. H4 (see Eq. t) = {H(z)}T {y (t)} (3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3.243) In the above equations ρi stands for the unit mass of the finite element and [mi ] and [ki ] stands for the inertia and stiffness matrix respectively.239) (3.241) As one can see from the equation 3. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates. As it can be seen from Eq.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 219 After introduction of Eq.239) are known as Hermite cubics or shape functions. 3.237 into the equation of the deflected line 3.

To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the . t) T = ρ dz 2 0 i ∂t µ ¶µ ¶ Z ∂y(z.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 220 1. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the finite element must be equal to the kinetic energy of its discreet physical model. The potential energy of the continues physical model of the finite element must be equal to the potential energy of its discreet physical model. 2.244) It is easy to see that the last row of Eq. 3. t) 1 li ∂y(z. ⎤ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎢ H2 H1 li H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dz = ρi 2 ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ 0 2 2 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 9 13 11 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 11 ⎢ l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = ρi li ⎢ 210 i 9 11 13 13 ⎣ li − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 11 9 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 ⎢ 11 l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = mi ⎢ 210 i 13 9 11 13 ⎣ l − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 i 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ mi (3.245) In the last formula mi stands for mass of the finite element. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the finite element is µ ¶2 Z 1 li ∂y(z.244 represents kinetic energy function of the discreet physical model along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 with the following matrix of inertia. t) ρ = dz 2 0 i ∂t ∂t Z ´³ ´ 1 li ³ = ˙ ρi {y (t)}T {H(z)} {H(z)}T {y (t)} dz ˙ 2 0 ∙ Z li ¸ 1 T T = {y (t)} ρi ˙ {H(z)} {H(z)} dz {y (t)} ˙ 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎢ H2 H1 li 1 H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ˙ = {y (t)}T ⎜ρi ˙ 2 ⎝ ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 H4 H11 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li (3.

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

221

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the finite element. µ 2 ¶2 Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) V = Ei Ji dz 2 0 ∂z 2 µ 2 ¶µ 2 ¶ Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) ∂ y(z, t) = dz Ei Ji 2 0 ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ! µ ½ 2 ¾¶ ý 2 ¾T Z d H(z) d H(z) 1 li Ei Ji {y (t)}T {y (t)} dz = 2 0 dz 2 dz 2 " ¾½ 2 ¾T # Z li ½ 2 d H(z) d H(z) 1 {y (t)}T Ei Ji dz {y (t)} = 2 dz 2 dz 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 ⎤ ⎞ 00 00 00 00 00 00 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li ⎜ ⎢ H 00 H 00 li (H 00 )2 l2 H 00 H 00 li H 00 H 00 l2 ⎥ ⎟ 1 T ⎜ i 2 2 3 2 4 i ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ⎢ 200 100 = {y (t)} ⎝Ei Ji 00 00 00 00 00 ⎣ H H 2 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 0 3 1 00 00 00 00 2 00 00 00 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li (H4 )2 li (3.246) As one can see from Eq. 3.246, to fulfill the second criterion, the stiffness matrix along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 must be as follows. ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 H1 Z li ⎢ H 00 H 00 li ⎢ 200 100 = Ei Ji ⎣ H H 0 3 1 00 00 H4 H1 li ⎡ 12 6li 2 Ei Ji ⎢ 6li 4li ⎢ = 3 ⎣ −12 −6l li i 2 6li 2li H1 H2 li H1 H3 00 00 00 2 (H2 )2 li H2 H3 li 00 00 00 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 00 00 2 00 00 H4 H2 li H4 H3 li ⎤ −12 6li 2 −6li 2li ⎥ ⎥ 12 −6li ⎦ 2 −6li 4li
00 00 00 00

ki

⎤ 00 00 H1 H4 li 00 00 2 H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎥ dz 00 00 H3 H4 li ⎦ 00 2 (H4 )2 li (3.247)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as mi yi + ki yi = Ryi ¨ (3.248)

The vector Ri represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements. Ryi = £ Ryi1 Rϕyi1 Ryi2 Rϕyi2 ¤T (3.249)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j. ¨ mj yj + kj yj = Ryj (3.250)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

222

where: ⎢ mj = mj ⎢ ⎣ kj ⎡
13 35 11 l 210 j 9 70 13 − 420 lj 11 l 210 j 1 2 l 105 j 13 l 420 j 1 2 − 140 lj 9 70 13 l 420 j 13 35 11 − 210 lj

12 6lj −12 6lj 2 2 ⎢ 6lj Ej Aj ⎢ 4lj −6lj 2lj ⎥ ⎥ = 3 lj ⎣ −12 −6lj 12 −6lj ⎦ 2 2 6lj 2lj −6lj 4lj £ ¤T yj = yj1 ϕyj1 yj2 ϕyj2 £ ¤T Ryi = Ryj1 Rϕyj1 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

⎤ 13 − 420 lj 1 2 − 140 lj ⎥ ⎥ 11 − 210 lj ⎦ 1 2 l 105 j ⎤

(3.251)

(3.252) (3.253)

These two equations of motion (3.248 3.250), associated with the two elements i and j, haveto fulfill the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These conditions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take form ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ yi2 yj1 yij = = (3.254) ϕyi2 ϕyj1 ϕyij and the equilibrium conditions are ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Ryi2 Ryj1 0 + = Rϕyi2 Rϕyj1 0

(3.255)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements. ¨ mij yij + kij yij = Ryij where: ⎡
13 m 35 i 11 lm 210 i i 9 m 70 i 13 − 420 li mi 11 lm 210 i i 1 2 l mi 105 i 13 lm 420 i i 1 2 − 140 li mi

(3.256)

mij

⎢ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

0 0

0 0

⎤ 13 − 420 li mi 0 0 1 2 ⎥ − 140 li mi 0 0 ⎥ 13 11 9 13 (mi + mj ) (−li mi +lj mj ) m − 420 lj mj ⎥ 35 210 70 j ⎥ 11 1 13 1 2 2 2 (−li mi +lj mj ) 105 (li mi +lj mj ) lj mj − 140 lj mj ⎥ 210 420 ⎥ 9 11 13 13 mj lj mj mj − 210 lj mj ⎦ 70 420 35 1 2 13 1 2 11 − 420 lj mj − 140 lj mj − 210 lj mj 105 lj mj (3.257)
9 m 70 i 13 lm 420 i i

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

223
A 6 Eli2 i i 2 EilAi

kij

⎢ ⎢ i i i i ⎢ A A A A A A A A ⎢ −129 Ei3 i −6 Ei2 i 12( Ei3 i + Ej3 j ) 6(− Ei2 i + Ej2 j ) −12 Ej3 j 6 Ej2 j ⎢ li li li lj li lj lj lj = ⎢ E A E A E A E A A A ⎢ 6 Ei2 i 2 EilAi 6(− Eli2 i + j2 j ) 4( EilAi + jl j ) −6 j2 j 2 jl j li lj lj ⎢ i i j j i ⎢ E A E A E A E A ⎢ 0 0 −12 j3 j −6 j2 j 12 j3 j −6 j2 j lj lj lj lj ⎣ Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj 0 0 6 l2 2 l −6 l2 4 l
j j j j

A 12 Eli3 i i A 6 Eli2 i

iA 6 El2 i i 4 EilAi

iA −12 El3 i i iA −6 El2 i

0 0

0 0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(3.258)

yij = Rij =

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz. m¨ + ky = 0 y (3.261)

£

£

yi1 ϕyi1 yij ϕyij yj2 ϕyj2

Ryi1 Rϕyi1 0 0 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

¤T

(3.259) (3.260)

¤T

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 3.259 is given in Fig. 37.The coordinates yi , ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located
element 1 Oi node 1 node i yi ϕyi y node N element i element N-1 z

Figure 37 at the ends of the finite elements. Introduction of the external forces Since the finite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced by a force Fi (see Fig. 38) on the displacement yi is equal to the virtual work produced by a set of forces along the coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 . Hence ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ∂Wi = Fi · yi (ai , t) = {Fi1 , Mi1 , Fi2 , Mi2 } (3.262) ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

224

ai 1 yi1

Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i

z yi2

ϕ yi1
li y
Figure 38 But according to 3.241 ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ li li li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 y(ai , t) = {H(ai )}T {y (t)} = ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai l
li li i

2

ϕyi2

Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ai ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∙ 1 − 3 li + 2 li ¸ ⎧ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎫ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ Fi1 ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ li li li Mi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = Fi · ⎪ Fi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ Mi2 ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai li l l
i i

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields ⎧ ⎫T ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ai ai ai ⎪ li ⎪ ⎪ i1 ⎪ −2 l + l ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ li i i ϕyi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 (3.264) ∂Wi = Fi · ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ li ⎪ ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ − ai + ai li l l
i i

⎫T ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.263)

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.265)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 3.261 m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y (3.266)

where, similarly as before, Fs stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the excitation forces.

... .267) b = ⎣ byi (t) ⎦ . ⎢ ⎥ (3. 39). Let us denote by b vector of such coordinates.BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 225 3. ... The instantaneous position of these supports is determine with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates byi (t) .268) (3.271) (3. ⎡ .272) . y1 ϕy1 . ⎤ . . ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ yb ¨ kbb kbr yb Fb mbb mbr + = mrb mrr yr ¨ krb krr yr Fr Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations ¨ ¨ mbb yb + mbr yr + kbb yb + kbr yr = Fb mrb yb + mrr yr + krb yb + krr yr = Fr ¨ ¨ (3.yN ϕyN Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several supports Bi (see Fig.270) Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft © ªT y = ϕxN .269) yr Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam m¨ + ky = F y is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS O Oi bxi byi x Bi yi Figure 39 ϕx i ϕy z i xi y in such a way that its upper part yb contains coordinates along which the shaft is rigidly supported and its lower part yr contains all the remaining coordinates ∙ ¸ yb y= (3. (3. .

the vector yb in the mathematical model 3. in a general case.272 must be replaced by b.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS (3. due to large number of the uniform sections of the element to be modeld.276) In meny engineering problems. It follows that the size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model m¨ + cy + ky = F y ˙ (3. Hence the above equation can be solved. is a known function of time. ¨ ¨ mbb b + mbr yr + kbb b + kbr yr = Fb ¨ mrb b + mrr yr + krb b + krr yr = Fr ¨ (3.278) y= yr Partitioning of the equations 3. This solution approximate motion of the beam along the remining coordinates yr .274) mrr yr + krr yr = Fr − mrb bb − krs bb The last two terms represent the kinemetic excitation of the beam cause by motion of its supports.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 226 Motion of the beam along the coordinates yb is determined by the boundary conditions 3.273 represents the forces of interaction between the moving beam and its supports. ¸ ∙ ye (3. The vector b.279) mre mrr yr ¨ cre crr yr ˙ kre krr yr Fr . Let us assume. Hence. ¨ ¨ Fb = mbb b + mbr Yr + kbb b + kbr Yr (t) 3. The vector Fb in the first equation of the set 3. that the equation 3. In this section the procedures for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed.275) be a solution of this equation.273) The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as follows ¨ ¨ (3.277 yields ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ mee mer ye ¨ cee cer ye ˙ kee ker ye Fe + + = (3. number of the final elements is large too.267. These interaction forces can be now determined.277 is arranged in such a way that the coordinates which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure ye are located in the upper part of the vector y and these which are to be retained for further consideration yr are located in its lower part. Let yr = Yr (t) (3.277) is too large to enable the necessary analysis of the mathematical model to be carried out.

one may formulate the following criteria of condensation: 1. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be the same.281) (3.279.286) . One of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates ye are obeyed to the static relationship. the kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.5.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 227 Hence. 4. one have to determine the relationship between the coordinates ye and the coordinates yr . 3.280) kre krr yr 0 (3. According to the first criterion.282 yields ´ 1³ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙r ˙ [hyr ]T mee hyr + [hyr ]T mer yr + yr mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ T = 2 ¢ 1¡ T T = yr h mee hyr +yT hT mer yr +yT mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ 2 ¤ ¢ 1¡ T£ T yr h mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr yr ˙ = ˙ (3.284) 2 Introduction of 3.280 one may obtain kee ye +ker yr = 0 Therefore the sought relationship is ye = hyr where h = −k−1 ker ee To eliminate the coordinates ye from the mathematical model 3. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same. 3.285) 2 Hence. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ mee mer 1£ T ye ˙ T ye yr ˙ ˙ T = mre mrr yr ˙ 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 = ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ye mee ye + ye mer yr + yr mre ye + yr mrr yr ˙ (3.282) (3. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation must be the same. upon partitioning equation 3.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ye 0 kee ker = (3.283) Once the relationship is established. Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. the inertia matrix after condensation mc must be equal to mc = hT mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr (3. 2.

4 Condensation of the external forces. they can be transformed as following.5. Taking advantage from definition of potential energy of the system considered ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ kee ker 1£ T ye T ye yr V = kre krr yr 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 T T T ye kee ye + ye ker yr + yr kre ye + yr krr yr (3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.293) (3.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 228 3. Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the kinetic energy. repetition of the above derivation leads to the following definition of the condensed damping matrix cc = hT cee h + hT cer +cre h + crr (3.294) The condensed mathematical model. according to the above consideration.282 into the above equation yields ¡ T ¢ ¡ ¢ δW = (hyr )T Fe +yT Fr = yr hT Fe +yT Fr = yT hT Fe +Fr r r r Hence. hT kee h + hT ker = (−k−1 ker )T kee (−k−1 ker ) + (−k−1 ker )T ker ee ee ee −1 T −1 T = −(−kee ker ) ker + (−kee ker ) ker = 0 Hence.292) (3.290) (3. kc = kre h + krr 3. according to 3.5.283.296) . Indeed.295 (3.282 ye = hyc permits to produce displacement along the ’cut off’ coordinates on the base of solution of the equation 3.287) 3.288) = 2 one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiffness matrix is of the form 3. ¡ ¢ Fc = hT Fe +Fr (3.291) (3.5.3 Condensation of the stiffness matrix. can be adopted as follows ¨ ˙ (3. The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is ¸ ∙ £ T ¤ Fe T T δW = ye yr = ye Fe +yT Fr r Fr Introduction of 3.289) It is easy to show that sum of the first two terms in the above expression is equal to zero.295) mc yc +cc yc +kc yc = Fc where yc = yr The relationship 3.289 kc = hT kee h + hT ker +kre h + krr (3.

6 PROBLEMS Problem 52 Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the fixed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig.01 = 0. O z k l y Figure 40 The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 191 for the following data E = 2.03 × 0.01 = 2.PROBLEMS 229 3.03×0. .5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.1×10 10000 = 0.0003m2 3 J = 0.0525 k Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with 10 finite elements.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0. 40.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.

... y ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ky11 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 . 0 0 . 41... 42)... ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m¨ + ky = − ⎢ .. 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕ1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ...... ϕ11 }T (3.. y y11 z ϕ11 y = {y1 . ϕ1 . ⎥ = ⎢ .. y11 ..... 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 . ⎥ ⎢ ... it was divided into ten finite elements as shown in Fig.297.. ...PROBLEMS 230 Solution To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam.297) The influence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky11 acting along the coordinate y11 (see Fig. 0 ......299) ... ⎥ = −k1 y (3.. the equation of the beam supported by the spring is m¨ + ks y = 0 y This force should be introduced to the ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 . ⎤⎡ ⎤ y1 . 0 right hand side of the equation 3. y2 .. The computed mathematical model is O y1 y2 ϕ1 ϕ2 l y Figure 41 m¨ + ky = 0... . y11 O ϕ11 z l y -ky11 Figure 42 Therefore..... ... . ϕ2 ....298) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ y11 ⎦ k 0 0 0 ϕ11 (3..

..... .. 0 0 (3......304 into 3..... ϕ11 }T (3..... . 43) y1 = {y1 .. ϕ1 }T = {0. ϕ2 . ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ m11 m12 y1 ¨ ks11 ks12 y1 + =0 (3...302) ⎢ ⎢ ks = k + k1 = k+ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 . 0 ⎥ ⎥ .. y11 .... let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordinates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y1 .301 yields ∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ m11 m12 0 ks11 ks12 0 R1 + = y2 ¨ y2 m21 m22 ks21 ks22 0 This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows ¨ m12 y2 + ks12 y2 = R1 ¨ m22 y2 + ks22 y2 = 0 (3.PROBLEMS 231 where To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam.. ϕ1 }T y2 = {y2 . .301) m21 m22 y2 ¨ ks21 ks22 y2 where y1 = {y1 ..303 and 3.300) R M O y1=0 y2 y11 ϕ11 z l y Figure 43 ϕ1=0 ϕ2 -ky11 According to the boundary conditions (see Fig. ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 . .. ..305) ....306) (3. k 0 ⎦ 0 0 ... 0}T and R1 = {R.304) (3.307) (3. . .303) (3. 0 0 0 . M}T Introduction of 3...

It was solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies.PROBLEMS 232 The second equation 3.65 357.4 z 0.6 357.6 0. This results are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig.0 1 2 3 .5 129. O 2 y 1 Y1(z) Y2(z) Y3(z) l k z 0 -1 0. The equation 3.306 allows the vector of the interation forces R1 to be computed.3 933. Results of this computation is shown in Fig.307 is the equation of motion of the supported beam.8 1 -2 Figure 44 Table natural frequenciesof natural frequencies of the descreet system the continuous system [1/sec] [1/sec] 129.2 0. 44) and natural frequencies (second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model ( see problem page 190).4 932. 44 by boxes and in the first column of the Table below.

PROBLEMS 233 Problem 53 The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig. 1 2 3 a3 Z a2 sin ω t X Figure 46 The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate XZ is given by the following equations X1 = 0 X2 = a2 sin ωt X3 = a3 Derive expressions for : 1.310) .308) ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ k11 k12 k13 m14 x1 m11 m12 m13 m14 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎥ m22 m23 m24 ⎥ ⎥ . x2 . x2 . the static deflection curve. x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ m = ⎢ 21 ⎣ k31 k32 k33 k34 ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎣ m31 m32 m33 m34 ⎦ m41 m42 m43 m44 k41 k42 k43 k44 x4 (3. 45 along coordinates x1 . x3 as shown in Fig. k = ⎢ k21 k22 k23 k24 ⎥ . x3 . 2. x4 is as follows m¨ + kx = 0 x (3.309) 1 2 3 4 x1 x2 Figure 45 x3 x4 This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x1 . 46. the interaction forces between the beam and the supports (3.

317 yields ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ¨ £ ¤ x1 ¤ x1 £ ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = − m41 m42 m43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ − k41 k42 k43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ (3.315) x3 R3 ¨ ¨ m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ m21 x1 + m22 x2 + k21 x1 + k22 x2 = 0 (3. R2 =0 (3.310 results in the following equation m¨ + kx = R x where ⎡ ∙ (3.316) (3.308 with respect to the vector of boundary conditions 3.314) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ x1 R1 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ .PROBLEMS 234 Solution Partitioning of the equations 3. R1 = ⎣ R2 ⎦ . m21 = m41 m42 m43 . k12 = ⎣ k24 ⎦ .317) where Introduction of boundary conditions 3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = −k43 a3 ¨ The particular solution of the equation 3. m12 = ⎣ m24 ⎦ .320. ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ (3. m22 = m44 m32 m33 m34 (3. x2 =x4 .321) . k21 = k41 k42 k43 .322) (3.319) or ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt − k43 a3 (3. k22 = k44 k32 k33 k34 (3.310 into the equation 3.321 is x4 = xs k44 xs = −k43 a3 (3.323) (3.312) m21 m22 x2 ¨ k21 k22 x2 R2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ m12 m13 m14 £ ¤ m22 m23 ⎦ .318) ¨ x3 ¨ x3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 x1 ¨ ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω2 sin ωt ⎦ .311) m11 ⎣ m21 m11 = m31 k11 ⎣ k21 k11 = k31 ⎡ or ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ x1 ¨ k11 k12 x1 R1 m11 m12 + = (3.320) The static deflection is due to the time independent term −k43 a3 in the right hand side of the equation 3.313) ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ k14 k12 k13 ¤ £ k22 k23 ⎦ .

PROBLEMS 235 −k43 a3 k44 Its graphical representation is given in Fig.328) (3.327) The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig. 47 xs = (3.329) .325 yields the wanted amplitude of the forced vibration xd . m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ In this equation x1 stands for the given boundary conditions ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ x1 ¨ 0 ¨ . x1= ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦ ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ (3.316. 48 1 2 3 a3 4 xs Z X a2 sinω t Figure 48 xd sinω t This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the system is attached to the base. These forces can computed from equation 3.325) Implementation of the solution 3. the particular solution may be predicted as follows x4 = xd sin ωt (3.324) 1 2 3 a3 4 Z xs X Figure 47 The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X2 = a2 sin ωt) is represented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term.326) (3.326 into the equation 3. xd = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) −ω 2 m44 + k44 (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt ¨ For the above equation.

dt2 (3.330) Hence.331) 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ . the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows ⎤ 0 R1 = m11 ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦+k11 ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦+m12 (−xd ω2 sin ω)+k12 (xs +xd sin ωt) 0 a3 (3. known at this stage.PROBLEMS 236 and x2 represents. motion of the system along the coordinate 4 ¨ ¨ x2 = x4 = xs + xd sin ωt x2 = x4 = d2 (xs + xd sin ωt) = −xd ω 2 sin ωt.

Part II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 237 .

1 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 9 10 12 Figure 1 The vibrating object 2.Chapter 4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. It consists of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3. The rubber tip 8 is used . 3. and 4 (see Fig. The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations of the object. It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured.1) is attached to the base 1. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to be measured in the horizontal direction. The spaces between the blocks 2 are filled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the structural damping.

Both.2. according to these assumptions. EJ FH F dx = z − z2 + A dz 2 2 FH 2 F 3 EJx = z − z + Az + B 4 6 (4.3) . forms a reference system for measuring its vibrations. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis. 4.1 Physical model x3 k3 c3 x2 k2 c2 x1 k1 c1 m1 m2 m3 Figure 2 The base 1.1) Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction only. k2 and k3 of the springs can be analytically assessed. The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are by assumption massless. 3 The differential equation of the deflection of the spring is EJ d2 x FH − Fz = M − Fz = 2 dz 2 (4. x2 and x3 are shown in Fig.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 4. the system can be approximated by three degrees of freedom physical model.2. Magnitudes of the stuffiness k1 .2) (4. the acceleration of the object and the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory of the spectrum analyzer 10. The three independent coordinates x1 . which is considered rigid and motionless. To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig. Hence.MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 239 to smooth and extend the impulse of force.

MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
z x(H) M=FH/2

240

F

w EJ H x F z

t

M=FH/2

Figure 3 Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line. ¶ µ 1 FH 2 F 3 x= (4.4) z − z EJ 4 6 Hence, the deflection of the upper end is ¶ µ 1 1 FH 2 F 3 x(H) = H − H = F H3 EJ 4 6 12EJ Therefore the stiffness of one spring is k= where 12EJ F = x(H) H3 J= (4.6)

(4.5)

wt3 (4.7) 12 Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiffness ki shown in the physical model can be computed according to the following formula. ki = 24Ei Ji Hi3 (4.8)

4.2.2 Mathematical model Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the following set of differential equations m1 x1 + (c1 + c2 )x1 + (−c2 )x2 + (k1 + k2 )x1 + (−k2 )x2 = F1 ¨ ˙ ˙ m2 x2 + (−c2 )x1 + (c2 + c3 )x2 + (−c3 )x3 + (−k2 )x1 + (k2 + k3 )x2 + (−k3 )x3 = F2 ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ m3 x3 + (−c3 )x2 + c3 x3 + (−k3 )x2 + k3 x3 = F3 ¨ ˙ ˙

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

241

These equations can be rewritten as following m¨ + cx + kx = F x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m1 0 c1 + c2 −c2 m = ⎣ 0 m2 0 ⎦ ; c = ⎣ −c2 c2 + c3 −c3 ⎦ 0 0 m3 0 −c3 c3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ −k2 0 k1 + k2 x1 F1 k2 + k3 −k3 ⎦ ; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ ; F = ⎣ F2 ⎦ k = ⎣ −k2 0 −k3 k3 x3 F3 ⎡ (4.9)

(4.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiffness can be assessed from the dimensions of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution x = X cos ωt into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system m¨ + kx = F x (4.12) (4.11)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. ±ω1 , ±ω 2 , ±ω 3 (4.14) (4.15)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector X. ¡ 2 ¢ −ω m + k X = 0 (4.13)

Ξ = [Ξ1 , Ξ2 , Ξ2 ]

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form c =µm+κk (4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates η = Ξ−1 x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105) η n + 2ξ n ω n η n + ω 2 η n = ΞT F(t), ¨ ˙ n n n = 1, 2, 3 (4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation Fq eiωt along the coordinate xq , according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is xp = e
iωt N X

ω2 n=1 n

Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect to time, is N X Ξpn Ξqn Fq 2 iωt (4.19) xp = −ω e ¨ 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ω n n n=1 n It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq , according to 2.144 is Rpq (iω) = xp xp ¨ = −ω 2 = iωt Fq e Fq eiωt ¶ N X µ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 − ω2 ) −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ωn ωi n 2 = −ω + (ω 2 − ω2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n n n n n=1

q = 1, 2, 3 (4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς 1 , ς 2 and ς 3 are unknown and are to be identified by fitting the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100). 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page 107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function. First of all let us notice that µ ¶ Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n 2 if ω ∼ ωn Rpq (iω n ) ∼ −ω q = 1, 2, 3 (4.21) + = = 4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 2ς n ωn ω n n Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n , its absolute value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn Ξqn ¯ ¯ q = 1, 2, 3 (4.22) |Rpq (iω n )| ∼ ¯ =¯ 2ς n ¯ ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq (iωn )) = arctan ∞ = ±90o Re(Rpq (iω n )) (4.23)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω n

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o are the wanted natural frequencies ω n . Because ς n and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the transfer functions for ω = ω n represents the modes Ξ1n , Ξ2n , Ξ3n associated with the n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4
transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3) natural frequency natural mode 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3)

transfer functions m/N (phase)

π/2

−π/2

frequency rad/s 2 1

Figure 4

4.4

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters The physical model is determined by the following parameters m1 , m2 m3 - masses of the blocks k1 , k2 k3 - stiffness of the springs c1 , c2 c3 - damping coefficients

. ς 2 and ς 3 (see equation 4.m to be measured during the laboratory session The damping coefficients ci are difficult to be assessed.. 1...... As the equipment used is delicate and expensive.01 ς 2 = 0..25) The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse. The following set of data is required E = 0.........2 Measurements of the transfer functions According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100) to produce the transfer function Rpq (iω) you have to measure response of the system along the coordinate xp due to impulse along the coordinate xq . 1) is permanently attached to the mass m3 and the impulse can be applied along the coordinates x1 .m to be measured during the laboratory session H3 = .......... The spectrum analyzer must show the ’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied.....17).. x2 or x3 .... Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damping is much smaller then the critical one....... R31 (iω) R32 (iω) R33 (iω) (4.m to be measured during the laboratory session t = . one has to observe the following...01 4.. the laboratory installation permits the following transfer functions to be obtained......670kg m2 = 0.. .....24) allows the stiffness ki to be computed.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 244 The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are m1 = 0......595kg The formula 4..595kg m3 = 0.. as the first approximation of the damping. Since the transducer 5 (Fig.... These impulses should be applied to the middle of the block...4.... let us adopt the following damping ratios ς 1 = 0.....7 and 4....8 24EJ wt3 ki = .. always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used 2....... when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not excessive Harder impact does not produce better results.... To obtain a reliable result... Alternatively the damping properties of the system can be uniquely defined by means of the three modal damping ratios ς 1 ....21 × 1012 N/m2 w = ...m to be measured during the laboratory session H2 = .... Hence..... 10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function...01 ς 2 = 0...m to be measured during the laboratory session H1 = .. J= Hi3 12 (4.. ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping..

.3 Identification of the physical model parameters In a general case.4.26) Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). the identification of a physical model parameters from the transfer functions bases on a very complicated curve fitting procedures. ξ 3 (4. w. we are going to use the trial and error method. ξ 2 . Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function). We assume that the following parameters m1 . H2 . H1 . E were assessed with a sufficient accuracy. Uncertain are t.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 245 4. H3 . to fit the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one. In this experiment. Work on one (say R33 (iω) transfer function only. ξ 1 .27) (4. m3 . m2 .

.......... response coordinate 3........ 2.01 t = .WORKSHEET 246 4.595kg H3 = . ∗ program designed by Dr.. Save the initial data...m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0..5 WORKSHEET 1......m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0...m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0......... Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R33 (iω) Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’ Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’...... Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).. Chalko ........... ξ 2 .m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0. Initial parameters of physical model Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0. Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right)...... By varying t.... Identification of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ i You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R33 (iω). Set excitation coordinate 3..01 w = .. ξ 1 ...m of mode 3 springs ∗ Run program ’Prac3 ’ and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data.......01 E = 0......670kg H1 = .. ξ 3 in the input data... try to fit the analytical data into the experimental one..21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0.....595kg H2 = .. execute it and apply 10 times impulse along the coordinates 3 Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured transfer function Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions 3. T........

................. 3 ......m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0........595kg H3 = ......01 E = 0..m of mode 3 springs Save the identified parameters...21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0. R32 (iω)...................... Conclusions ..............m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0...m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.................... Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R33 (iω) 4...m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0..595kg H2 = .. ............. R33 (iω) determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below natural frequency analytical experimental natural frequency natural frequency 1 ........ .670kg H1 = ..................................01 t = ........ 6.. Experimental and analytical transfer functions R31 (iω) and R32 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R31 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R32 (iω) 5.................................... 2 ........ Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies and modes Plot the natural modes From plots of the experimental transfer functions R31 (iω)..... ..........WORKSHEET 247 Record the identified parameters in the following table Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.......01 w = ...................

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