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UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI 2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS

0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

7

1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 28 28 34 44

Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 66 2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 93 2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 102 2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162 3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CONTENTS

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3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . 3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts 3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 3.3.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 3.5.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . 3.5.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. . . 3.5.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . 3.6 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 168 174 182 214 214 217 225 226 227 228 228 228 229

II

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

237

4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 238 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 238 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 4.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 243 4.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 244 4.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters . . . . 245 4.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

1 INTRODUCTION. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students during tutorials and in their own time. Lagrange’s equations and the inﬂuence coeﬃcients method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models. Experimental Investigation. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete mathematical model on a reasonably low level. rods.INTRODUCTION. Solution to some of them are provided. since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following material. Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems. 5 0. methods of approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. Part one consists of four chapters. This chapter forms a base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter In chapter four. is concerned with the problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as string. The Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to produce the inertia and stiﬀness matrices of the free-free beam. In the general case of damping the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response is provided. The Newton’s-Euler’s approach. The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. Dynamic balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to the engineering problems. The considerations are limited to the linear system only. Information included in this chapter. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the natural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom- . Chapter three. for engineering applications. Modelling and Analysis. Employment of these matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of examples. Vibration of Continuous Systems. The ﬁrst chapter. Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory experiments. describes the laboratory work recommended for this course. It is divided into two parts. shafts. However. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations. Part one. Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Discrete Models. students should study it in their own time. two the most important. where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course. The second part. is devoted to this solution of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear models. Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom Linear System. and beams. illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1.

. The other demonstrates the balancing techniques. 6 System.INTRODUCTION.

Part I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS 7 .

This mathematical description can be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system. These laws can not be directly applied to the real system. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. Such a type of motion is called vibration. Process of solving of the mathematical model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. One of the most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description that is called mathematical model. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic laws may be applied. .8 Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims towards producing its mathematical description.

each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory motion. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply. 1. one has to introduce an inﬁnite number of independent coordinates xi to determine uniquely its motion.1 Physical model As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended on the rod 2 shown in Fig.Chapter 1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position is called vibration. 1. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. These lows can not be directly applied to the real system.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem that aims for producing its mathematical description. in general. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called mathematical model. The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by taking advantage of the known lows of physics. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position and then it is released. 1. Therefore. i 2 1 xi t Figure 1 .1.

The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as the independent coordinate (see Fig. in many cases. In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig. To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1. only one coordinate is suﬃcient to determine uniquely the whole system. The following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only. the restoring force R is a non-linear function of . may results in reduction of this number of degrees of freedom. 2). its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig. i xi 2 1 x t x Figure 2 Position xi of all the other points of our system depends on x.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 10 DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of freedom According to this deﬁnition each real system has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. R 1 x t G Figure 3 The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called restoring force. 3. 2. if one assume that the rod 2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid. Adaptation of certain assumptions. For example. one has to produce its free body diagram. If the rod is uniform. In a general case.

5.1) The ﬁrst term represents the system elasticity and the second one reﬂects the system’s ability for dissipation of energy. ˙ ˙ The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the velocity x is shown in Fig. 4a) and b) respectively. 4 can be linearized. x)). k is called stiﬀness and c is called coeﬃcient of damping. Such cases usually are refer to as linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 11 the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity x of the body 1 (R = R(x. shown in Fig. the non-linear relationship. R=R(x. x Figure 4 If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity of the system equilibrium position. ˙ R R a) b) 0 x 0 . . The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization is acceptable form the engineering point of view. For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. The physical model that reﬂects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear system. Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. x) ≈ kx + cx ˙ ˙ (1.

1. has been explained in the previous section. massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion) Figure 5 1. This mathematical description is referred to as the mathematical model. This mathematical model can be obtained by application of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model. 6. second moment of area J and Young modulus E k massless spring of stifness k (angular motion) ϕ massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion) c c ϕ . .I rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I (angular motion) 12 ϕ particle of of mass m m k A. J.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM x rigid block of mass m (linear motion) m m. E massless spring of stifness k (linear motion) massless beam area A.2 Mathematical model To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description that approximates its dynamic behavior. Let us consider system shown in Fig. The creation of the physical model. In this section principle of producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown.

6. the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. Hence FR = −k |x| = −kx If x < 0. This require introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. To develop the mathematical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations. This increment is called restoring force. these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. Therefore. Hence FR = +k |x| = −kx Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by term FR = −kx (1.2) . If the system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 13 k c x k xs m mg Figure 6 Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x. 7) by a distance x. In this chapter we are assuming that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig. -k\x\=-kx k c x k xs m mg x>0 k\x\=-kx x<0 Figure 7 In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |FR | = k |x| If x > 0. there is an increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kxs ) is equal to zero.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 14 k c x k xs . This interaction ˙ force is called damping force and its absolute value is |FD | = c |x| . 8). -c\x\=-cx .3) k c x m Fex (t) Figure 9 The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition rules and add these forces together with the external force Fex (t) (see Fig. +c\x\=-cx . . . x<0 m Figure 8 Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interaction force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig. Hence. x>0 mg . 9). the equation of motion of the block of mass m is m¨ = −kx − cx + Fex (t) x ˙ Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ n where (1.5) (1. A very similar to the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented in the equation of motion by the following term ˙ FD = −cx (1.4) .

5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration of the one-degree-of-freedom system. f (t) = (1.6) m m m ωn . 2ςωn = .is called unit external excitation The equation 1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 15 k Fex (t) c .is called damping factor or damping ratio f (t) . ωn = r .is called natural frequency of the undamped system ς .

the spring of stiﬀness k2 and the damper of damping coeﬃcient c. 10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis.3 Problems Problem 1 y A k2 m k1 c Figure 10 The block of mass m (see Fig.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 16 1.1. It is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k1 . The upper end of the spring k2 moves along the inertial axis y and its motion is governed by the following equation yA = a sin ωt were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency. Produce the equation of motion of the block. .

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 17 Solution y A k2 m k1 c x Figure 11 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.7) . 11.8) (1. Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion ˙ m¨ = −k2 x − k1 x + k2 y − cx x Its standard form is ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ω2 = n k1 + k2 m 2ςωn = c m q= k2 a m (1.9) (1.

Produce the formula for the period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 18 Problem 2 r 1 2 R Figure 12 The cylinder 1 (see Fig. 12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid of density d. .

10 one can get that ¶ µ 2 2 ¶ µ Rr r2 2 x x dgπr = πdg ∆H = x + 2 R − r2 R2 − r 2 According to the Newton’s law we have m¨ = −dgπ x µ R2 r 2 R2 − r 2 ¶ x (1.12) r2 x z= 2 R − r2 Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1.10) (1.11) (1. the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by ∆H = (x + z) dgπr2 Since the volume V1 must be equal to the volume V2 we have ¡ ¢ V1 = πr2 x = V2 = π R2 − r2 z Therefore (1.13) (1. 13.16) (1.15) (1.14) The standard form of this equation of motion is x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n µ 2 2 ¶ dg Rr = π m R2 − r 2 The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is s s mπ (R2 − r2 ) 2 2π 2π m (R2 − r2 ) Tn = = = ωn Rr πdg Rr dg ω2 n where (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 19 Solution x r V2 G z V1 x R Figure 13 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance x.17) .

14) is supported by an elastic shaft of diameter D and length L. The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by the shear modulus G. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coeﬃcient c.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 20 Problem 3 R c G D L m 1 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m and radius R (see Fig. Produce equation of motion of the disk .

20) (1.the moment of inertia of the disk 2 4 ks = T = TTL = JG = πD G the stiﬀness of the rod ϕ L 32L JG Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.21) πD4 G ϕ=0 32L (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 21 Solution R ϕ G D c L m Figure 15 Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation ˙ I ϕ = −ks ϕ − cR2 ϕ ¨ where I = mR .18) .18 yields ˙ I ϕ + cR2 ϕ + ¨ or ˙ ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ n where ω2 = n πD4 G 32LI 2ςωn = cR2 I (1.19) 2 1 (1.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 22 Problem 4 O k l b 1 c a m Figure 16 The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. Produce the equation of motion of the plate. 16) can rotate about the horizontal axis O. . The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position.

23) The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the damper c is M = −kl2 ϕ − cb2 ϕ ˙ (1.25) .27) mb2 ϕ + kl2 ϕ + cb2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ 6 (1.24) Hence or ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ n where ω2 = n 6kl2 mb2 2ςω n = 6c m (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 23 Solution O k l b 1 ϕ c a m Figure 17 Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig.22) The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is I= mb2 6 (1.26) (1. 17) is govern by the generalized Newton’s equation Iϕ = M ¨ (1.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 24 Problem 5 m M E. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of length l. Its unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus E. Produce the equation of motion of the system. .I ωt c l µ Figure 18 The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c.

The wheel is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 25 Problem 6 k d D l L Figure 19 The wheel shown in the Fig. 19 is made of the material of a density . It can oscillate about the horizontal axis O. The right hand end of the damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following equation y = a sin ωt Produce the equation of motion of the system 0 A c y .

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 26 Problem 7 2 L r 1 Figure 20 The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form the pendulum shown in the Fig. Produce the formula for the period of oscillation of the pendulum. 20. .

. 21) of mass m can rotate about the horizontal axis O. Produce the formula for the natural frequency of the system.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 27 Problem 8 O k l b 1 a m c Figure 21 The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system.

x = Cs sin ω n t + Cc cos ω n t (1.33) Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free vibration of the undamped system.1 Free vibration DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this system. These solutions can be obtained by means of the following procedure. it is assumed that the resultant of all external forces f (t) is equal to zero. in this case.29) Hence. To get an unique solution it is necessary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered.28) The equation 1. the mathematical model that is analyzed in this section takes form x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ ˙ n (1.30) Introduction of the solution 1. Hence. the independent particular solution are x1 = sin ωn t and x2 = cos ωn t (1.28 is classiﬁed as linear homogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equation of second order.30 into the equation 1.32) (1. Introduction of these initial conditions . In this section.29 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + ω 2 = 0 (1.31) n This characteristic equation has two roots λ1 = +iω n and λ2 = −iω n (1. according to the above deﬁnition. The particular solution can be predicted in the form 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1. let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x0 and was forced to move with the initial velocity v0 . Hence.30.34) The two constants Cs and Cc should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions which reﬂect the way the free vibrations were initiated.29 is a linear combination of its two particular linearly independent solutions.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 28 1. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero.28 governs the free motion of the undamped system. x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Free vibration of an undamped system The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1. the equation 1. x = eλt (1.2.

34. since the sine function has a period equal to 2π.5 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -1 -1.35) According to 1. According to this deﬁnition.34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect to the unknown constants Cs and Cc .36) where C= s µ v0 ωn ¶2 Ã x0 v0 ωn (x0 )2 + . 22 The free motion. x[m] 1 vo xo 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 29 into the equation 1. in the case considered is periodic. the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the system is v0 sin ω n t + x0 cos ω n t = x = ωn = C sin(ω n t + α) (1.37) For ω n = 1[1/s].5 C 0 α -0.38) . x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig. we have sin(ω n (t + Tn ) + α) = sin(ωn t + α + 2π) (1.5 Tn Figure 22 DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion. Cc = x0 Cs ω n = v0 (1. α = arctan ! (1.

44) x1 = e−ςωn t sin ωd t and x2 = e−ςωn t cos ω d t and their linear combination is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are Cs = Cc v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.43) λ1.42) The particular solution depend on category of the above roots.30 into 1. the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration.41) (1.45) (1.2 = −ςω n ± iω n 1 − ς 2 = −ςω n ± iω d where ωd = ωn The particular solutions are p 1 − ς2 (1. the equation of the free motion is ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Introduction of the equation 1.46) (1.40) 2π ωn (1.47) (1.39) (1. p (1.2 = 2 (1.underdamped vibration If ς < 1. the period of the undamped free vibrations is Tn = Free vibration of a damped system If the damping ratio is not equal to zero.48) .40 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + 2ςωn λ + ω 2 = 0 n The characteristic equation has two roots p p −2ςω n ± (2ςωn )2 − 4ω 2 n = −ςωn ± ωn ς 2 − 1 λ1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 30 Hence. Three cases are possible Case one .

v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = ωn (1. α = arctan x0 ω d .49) where sµ C= ¶2 v0 + ςω n x0 ωd + (x0 )2 . It is easy to see from the expression 1.1 the free motion is shown in Fig.5 -1 Td -1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 31 Introduction of the expressions 1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = .49 that Td = 2π ωd (1.48 into 1.50) For ω n = 1[1/s].5 Td x(t+ Td ) x(t) 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. 23) between every p 1 − ς2 x[m] vo xo 1 t 0. .51) DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and x(t + Td ) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping and will be denoted by δ.5 Figure 23 second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration. 23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time Td (see Fig.46 produces the free motion in the following form x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.

δ ς=p (1.52) 1 − ς2 This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping ratio ς.60) x = e−ςωn t (x0 + t(v0 + x0 ω n )) For ω n = 1[1/s].53) 4π 2 + δ 2 The other parameter ωn that exists in the mathematical model 1.57) and x2 = te−ςωn t (1. the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration λ1.54) ωn = √ 1 − ς2 Td 1 − ς 2 Case two .55) Introduction of the expressions 1.58) (1. The critical damping oﬀers for the system the possibly faster return to its equilibrium position.59) x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.40 can be easily identiﬁed by measuring the period of the free motion Td .critically damped vibration If ς = 1.57 produces expression for the free motion in the following form (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 32 It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 1. . the free motion is shown in Fig.51 ωd 2π = √ (1. Indeed δ = ln Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) x (t) = ln −ςωn (t+T ) = d sin(ω (t + T ) + α) x (t + Td ) Ce d d Ce−ςωn t sin(ωd t + α) 2πςω n 2πςωn = ln −ςωn t −ςωn T = ςω n Td = = √ = d sin(ω t + 2π + α) Ce e ωd ωn 1 − ς 2 d 2πς = √ (1.44 and 1.59 into 1.2 = −ςωn The particular solutions are x1 = e−ςωn t and their linear combination is x = Cs e−ςωn t + Cc te−ςωn t For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs = x0 Cc = v0 + x0 ωn (1.56) (1. According to the formula 1. 24.

65) For ω n = 1[1/s]. the free motion is shown in Fig. 25 . x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 5.2 = −ςω n ± ω n ς 2 − 1 = ωn (−ς ± ς 2 − 1) (1.5 Figure 24 Case three .5 -1 -1.overdamped vibration If ς > 1. p p λ1.62) For the following initial conditions ³ ´ √ √ 2 2 x = e−ωn t Cs eωn ς −1)t + Cc e−ωn ς −1)t x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1.64) the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs Cc √ v + ω0 + x0 (+ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 √ v − ω0 + x0 (−ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 (1.61) x1 = e−ωn (ς+ and their linear combination is √ ς 2 −1)t The particular solutions are and x2 = e−ωn (ς− √ ς 2 −1)t (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 33 x[m] vo xo 1 0.63) (1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often referred to as the overdamped vibration.

2ςωn = .67) m m m The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation xp . let as assume that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function. Such a case is referred to as the harmonic excitation.2 Forced vibration In a general case motion of a vibrating system is due to both. x = xg + xp (1. is the linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation of second order.5 Figure 25 1.5 -1 -1. the initial conditions and the exciting force.66) To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation.70) . The mathematical model.2. x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ ˙ n where k Fex (t) c .69) r (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 34 x[m] vo x o 1 0. f (t) = (1. according to the previous consideration.68) ωn = The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous section and for the underdamped vibration it is xg = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s] -0. f (t) = q sin ωt (1.

79) .71) where As and Ac are constant.68 one can obtain the general solution of the equation of motion 1.69 and 1.75) 2 ¯ (ω n − ω ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω2 )2 + 4(ςω n )2 ω2 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ n Introduction of the expressions 1. implementing it in equation 1. Therefore.75 into the predicted solution 1.71 for any instant of time.71 one can get ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 (ωn − ω2 )As − 2ςωn ωAc sin ωt+ 2ςω n ωAs + (ω 2 − ω 2 )Ac cos ωt = q sin ωt (1. The function 1.71 in the following form x = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.72) (1.66 yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 35 In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the excitation frequency.72 yields xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= or p q A2 + A2 = p s c (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4(ςωn )2 ω 2 n A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.72 is the particular solution if and only if it fulﬁls the equation 1.76 into the 1.73) n This relationship is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if (ω 2 − ω 2 )As − 2ςω n ωAc = q n 2ςωn ωAs + (ω2 − ω2 )Ac = 0 n (1. Introduction of the expression 1.70 into equation 1.76) ϕ = arctan Ac 2(ςω n )ω = − arctan 2 As ωn − ω2 (1.78) ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 Introducing 1.74) Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant As and Ac ¯ ¯ ¯ q −2ςω n ω ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ (ω 2 − ω 2 )q n n ¯= 2 As = ¯ 2 2 )2 + 4(ςω )2 ω 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω n ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ωn − ω ) ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) q ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω 0 ¯ −2(ςωn )ωq ¯= 2 Ac = ¯ 2 (1.77) (1.

Co = 1[m].83) This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1. ω = 2[1/s].80) one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the parameters C and α x0 = Co sin αo + A sin ϕ v0 = −Co ςω n sin αo + Co ω d cos αo + Aω cos ϕ (1. x = Co e−ςωn t sin(ω d t + αo ) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. after an usually short time. yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced vibration of the system considered. A = 0. Motion approximated by the equation 1.2 0 -0. due to the existing damping.6 c b a A t[s] 20 40 60 transient state of the forced vibration steady state of the forced vibration Figure 26 oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ωd . the transient state changes into the steady state represented by the second term in equation 1. αo = 1[rd]. 26 (curve c). 1. .82 (curve b in Fig. 1.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations.8 0. For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. Hence.82 is assembled out of two terms. It does not depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration.81 (Co.6 0.4 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 36 The constants C and α should be chosen to fullﬁl the required initial conditions.165205[m].81) Introduction of the solution of the equations 1.83 is usually referred to as the system forced vibration. Motion represented by this term. decays to zero (curve a in Fig.2 -0.The solution 1. ϕ = 0.82) x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.82) This solution.4 -0. for the following numerical data ς = 0. ω n = 1[1/s].1. αo ) to the general solution. First term represents an x[m] 1 0.77.126835[rd] is shown in Fig.

Therefore ϕ is called phase of the forced vibration. Therefore.83) are harmonic. in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered only. Forced response due to rotating elements . they can be represented by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. The rotor of an electrical motor rotates with the constant angular velocity ω. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor . 27). a) m µ ω 2 sin ω t x mµ ω 2 b) x m µ ω 2 sin ω t µ ωt m M k M c R Figure 28 One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia forces produced by moving elements.One x q A qsin(ω t ) Asin(ω t+ ϕ ) ϕ ωt Figure 27 can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. from engineering point of view play secondary role. 28.70) and the (steady state) forced vibration x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. Because the transient state. The possibly simplest case of vibration cased by this type of excitation is shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 37 Both. the exciting force f (t) = q sin ωt (1.force transmitted to foundation.

85) (1. Let us model vibration of the system. The physical model of the problem described is shown in Fig. If the frequency of m excitation tends towards inﬁnity. 29. For ω = ωn .89) (1. This phenomenon is called phase resonance.77 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 m ω µ( ωn )2 M q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1. regardless the damping involved. is called the magniﬁcation factor. 28b). The damping properties are approximated by the damping coeﬃcient c.90) or.91) . the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to M µ.If the frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency ωn . Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as M ω a function of the ratio ωn for diﬀerent damping factor ς is shown in Fig. Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the mathematical model we have M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ωn = k c 2ςωn = M M Hence. Its maximum depends on the damping ratio and appears for ω > ω n .88 A The ratio m µ . phase of the forced vibration is equal to 90o . If the frequency of excitation A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.86) (1.84) The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiﬀness k.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 38 and m is its mass.88) (1. taking into consideration 1. then the rotor produces the centrifugal force F = mµω 2 Its component along the vertical axis x is Fx = mµω2 sin ωt (1. the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing. the steady state forced vibration are x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where according to 1.87) mµω 2 M r q= (1. The phenomenon at which amplitude of the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance.

25 ζ=0.5 Figure 29 .1 ζ =0.5 0 1 ω ωn ζ=0 2 3 1 0 -45 2 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0.1 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 39 6 4 A m µ M 2 1 ζ=0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.5 ζ=1.0 ζ=1.0 ζ=1.

1 ζ =0. 30.0 ζ=1. according to the physical model shown in Fig. Forced response due to the kinematic excitation .5 4 R mµ ω 2 2 1 0 0 1 1. For ω > 1.For the frequency of excitation ω < 1. the phase tends to 180o . Hence the response of the system tends to be in the anti-phase with the excitation.4ω n the force transmitted to foundation 6 ζ=0 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 40 tends to inﬁnity.92) The amplitude of the reaction is p √ |R| = A k 2 + c2 ω2 = AM ω4 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 = n n q 2 ( ω )2 1 + 4ς ωn = mµω 2 q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 |R| ω The ampliﬁcation ratio mµω2 of the reaction as a function of the ratio ωn is shown in Fig.5 ζ=1. 31b). Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M.4 ω 2 n ω 3 Figure 30 is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ωn .25 ζ=0.vibration isolation The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig. 28b) is √ R(t) = kx + cx = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cAω cos(ωt + ϕ) = A k2 + c2 ω 2 sin(ωt + ϕ + δ) ˙ (1. This physical .4ω n this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero when the frequency of excitation approaches inﬁnity. The force transmitted to the foundation R.

95 yields M x + cx + kx = ka sin ωt + caω cos ωt ¨ ˙ or ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = ω2 a sin ωt + 2ςω n ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt + α) ¨ n n where q= aω 2 n r ω 1 + 4ς 2 ( )2 ωn (1. The stiﬀness k of the spring and the damping coeﬃcient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers.97) (1.98) (1.39 is ω= 2πv L (1.94) and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows y = a sin ωt The equation of motion of the bus is M x = −kx − cx + ky + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ Introduction of 1.93) Hence. the period of the harmonic excitation is T = L v (1. If the surface can be approximated by the sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant velocity v. 31a). The block of mass M stands for the body of the bus. the frequency of excitation.95) .96) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 41 a) b) x M y v G k L a R y B c Figure 31 model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the surface of the road shown in Fig. according to 1.

.83 x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n (1.98 gives q ω a 1 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.102) Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e. a For ω < 1..g.92) or the amplitude A (e.100) Introduction of equation 1. 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 42 Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1.101) is called vibration isolation.4ωn it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the amplitude of the kinematic excitation The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is R = kx + cx − ky − cy = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cωA cos(ωt + ϕ) − ka sin ωt − cωa cos ωt ˙ ˙ = |R| sin(ωt + γ) (1. 32.g.101) ω The magnifying factor A and the phase ϕ as a function of ωn is shown in Fig. 1.99) ϕ = − arctan ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.

25 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 43 6 4 A a 2 ζ=0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.1 ζ=1.5 Figure 32 .1 ζ =0.5 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.5 0 0 1 1 0 -45 ω ωn 2 2 3 3 ϕ -90 -135 -180 ζ=0 ζ=1.0 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.

33 operates between ﬂoors of a building. The distance between the highest and the lowest ﬂoor is H = 30m. Calculate the stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c of the shock-absorber which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s2 . To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the basement in the case the rope 3 is broken.3 Problems Free vibrations Problem 9 1 H 2 k c Figure 33 The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig. the shock absorber 2 is to be installed.2. The average mass of the carriage is m = 500kg.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 44 1. .

Equation of motion of the lift is m¨ = mg x (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 45 Solution In the worst case scenario.106) . the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes.105) (1. x H mg x k c Figure 34 Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero.107) (1.103) By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get g x = A + Bt + t2 2 Introduction of the following initial conditions ˙ x |t=0 = 0 x |t=0 = 0 yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion g x = t2 2 Hence. the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is s 2H to = g Since v = x = gt ˙ (1.104) (1.

109) c k .108) vo = x |t=to = 2Hg H x y k y mg c Figure 35 uncompressed.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 46 To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at the instant of impact (see Fig.Since at the instant of impact the spring k is the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is p ˙ (1. 35). In this case.110) (1.113) . the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is m¨ + cy + ky = mg y ˙ or in the standardized form ˙ y + 2ςωn y + ω2 y = g ¨ n where ωn = r (1. there exists one double root and the general solution of the homogeneous equation is yg = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t (1.111) m m It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation is g yp = 2 (1.112) ωn The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical (ς = 1). 2ςωn = (1.

2vo ωn − g < aa It follows q aa + g 200 + 10 ωn < √ = √ = 4.117 yields acceleration during the impact ¡ ¢ y = −Dω2 − 2Eωn e−ωn t + Eω 2 te−ωn t ¨ (1. one can see that the maximum of the deceleration occurs for time t = 0.121) amax = Dω 2 + 2Eω n = g + 2vo ω n − 2g = 2vo ω n − g n (1.117) = 1 − e−ωn t + vo − ω2 ωn n where D= g ω2 n E = vo − g ωn (1.28s−1 2 2Hg 2 2 · 30 · 10 k . m (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 47 Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of yp and yg is g y = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t + 2 (1.123) (1.119) n n By inspection of the function 1.125) .114) ωn This equation has to fullﬁl the following initial conditions y |t=0 = 0 y |t=0 = vo ˙ Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1. Hence vo > If (1.115) and results in the following equation of motion µ ¶ ¶ µ g g g −ω n t y = − 2 e te−ωn t + 2 + vo − ωn ωn ωn ¶ µ ¡ ¢ ¢ g ¡ g te−ωn t = D 1 − e−ωn t + Ete−ωn t (1.122) This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration aa = 200ms−2 .113 yields C1 = − g ω2 n C2 = vo − g ωn (1. Hence the maximum of deceleration is ¯ ¯ amax = y |t=0 = ¯−Dω2 − 2Eωn ¯ ¨ (1.124) Since ω n = the stiﬀness of the shock-absorber is k = ω 2 m = 4.118) Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.282 · 500 = 9160N/m n (1.116) (1.120) n g ωn both constants E and D are positive.118.

Indeed vo = (1. 36 .121 is fullﬁl.5 > = ωn 4.127) The displacement of the lift.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 48 and the damping coeﬃcient c = 2ςω n m = 2 · 1 · 4. its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a function of time is shown in Fig.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m p √ g 10 = 2.28 (1.4m/s 2Hg = 2 · 30 · 10 = 24.126) Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1.

5 0.25 0.75 1 time [s] 25 20 15 velocity v [m/s] 10 5 0 -5 0.75 1 time [s] -50 a [m/s 2] -100 -150 -200 Figure 36 .5 displacement y [m] 1 0.5 2 1.25 0.75 1 time [s] 50 acceleration 0 0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 49 2.25 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.

k. Calculate the parameters m. 37a) To a) T b) k c x W R m Figure 37 analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. the following experiment was carried out. 38. To identify the unknown parameters m. Origin of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system rests in its equilibrium position. stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient are denoted by m. and c. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M1 = 1000kg as shown in Fig. . k. In this ﬁgure the equivalent mass. 39. 38b). and c. Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical T W R L Ml Figure 38 oscillations in x direction. k and c respectively.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 50 Problem 10 The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig.

001 -0.003 0.002 0.001 x[m] 0 -0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 51 0.003 1 2 time [s] 3 4 Figure 39 Answer m = 7000kg. c = 15000N sm−1 .002 -0. k = 3000000Nm−1 .

. 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of freedom of mass m stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c. The winch is lifting the block of mass M with the constant velocity vo (see Fig.Assuming that the rope T W R M Figure 41 R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after the block will lose contact with the ﬂoor.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 52 Problem 11 a) T b) k c x m W R Figure 40 The winch W shown in Fig. 41).

129) In the above equation x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity vo ).130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value Mg.133) Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the ﬂoor is lost Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0. The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg. the equation of motion of the winch is m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ (1. Therefore the equation 1. it stays motionlessly at the ﬂoor whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the constant velocity vo .130 allows the time of separation ts to be obtained.132) k If Mg < cvo then xs = ts = 0.135) (1. the instantaneous length of the rope L is L = Lo − vo t (1. 0 < T 0 Mg (1.131) At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the following formula Mg − cvo xs = −vo ts = − (1. For t > 0.134) . If Mg > cvo T = cvo + kvo t f or 0 < t < ts (1. ts = Mg − cvo kvo (1. Hence ˙ −T = c(−vo ) + k(−vo t) (1.128) If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded winch is at its equilibrium.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 53 Solution Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost In the ﬁrst stage of lifting the block M. the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig. ¨ x = −vo and x = −vo t.130) The equation 1. 42) are as following m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M xb = T − Mg ¨ Since the rope R is not extendible.

140) . A= 2 (1.138) The standardized form is as following Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch to be formulated (m + M)¨ + cx + kx = −Mg x ˙ (1. 2ςωn = .139) x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = q ¨ ˙ n where k Mg c .137 into 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 54 k c x m x T xb L T Mg Figure 42 Where Lo stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the instance t = 0). q=− (1.134 yields xb = x − L = x − Lo + vo t (1.137) (1.142) n ωn ωn = r (1. Hence q ω 2 A = q. Taking into account that L = x − xb we have Introduction of the equation 1.136) m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M x = T − Mg ¨ (1.141) m+M m+M m+M The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a constant magnitude A.

143) (1. x=e −ςω n t −vo + ςωn (xs − A) ωd Cc = xs − A (1.140 is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ωd t + Cc cos ωd t) + A where ωd = ωn p 1 − ς2 (1.143 yields the following expressions for the constants Cs and Cc Cs = Hence.147) The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig.146) µ ¶ −vo + ςω n (xs − A) sin ωd t + (xs − A) cos ωd t + A ωd (1.148) .145) Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.138 T = M x + Mg ¨ (1.43 The tension is x xs O t A xmax Td Figure 43 determined by the equation 1.144) This solution has to fulﬁll the following initial conditions f or t = 0 x = xs x = −vo ˙ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 55 The general solution of the mathematical model 1.

149) +Me−ςωn t Cc (ςω n )2 − 2Cs ςω n ωd + Cc ω 2 cos ω d t d .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 56 Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.147 yields the wanted tension as a function of time ¡ ¢ T = Mg + Me−ςωn t Cs (ςωn )2 + 2Cc ςω n ω d − Cs ω 2 sin ω d t d ¡ ¢ (1.

44) is mounted on the massless beam of length l. rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.I m M ωt c B l Figure 44 A µ The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. of mass m. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the points A and B. . Shaft of the motor. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 57 Forced vibration Problem 12 E.

151) (1.150) 48EI l3 (1. In the above formula A stands for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor.152) mµω2 M r q= (1. The interaction force at the point A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily chosen position x (see Fig 46).154) (1.155) represents the forced vibrations of the system. k= Its standardized form is x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c 2ςω n = M m+M The particular solution of the equation 1.152 x = A sin (ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2 (1.I m M x mµω 2 ωt c B µ l A Figure 45 Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig. 45 results in the following diﬀerential equations of motion. M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ where k stands for the stiﬀness of the beam EI. .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 58 Solution E.153) (1.

5kA sin (ωt + ϕ) (1. the reaction at the point A is RA = −0.5k x The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx.5kx = −0.5k x l Figure 46 0. 47) with the velocity x the force cx is required.156) x cx x D c B cx Figure 47 To move the point D (see Fig.I kx D x A 0. ˙ ˙ Hence. Hence.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 59 x E. from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point B is RB = −cx = −cωA sin (ωt + ϕ) ˙ .

.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 60 Problem 13 z 5 x 3 z=x-y 4 y 2 1 Figure 48 Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer.157) where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute displacement of the seismic weight 3. Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a harmonic motion y = a sin ωt (1. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating object 1.158) derive the formula for the ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ of the amplitude of vibration of amplitude of z the object 1 of this transducer ( κ = amplitude of y ) as a function of the non-dimensional ω frequency ωn . The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiﬀness k and the damper 5 of the damping coeﬃcient c.This transducer records the displacement z =x−y (1.

163) r (1.160) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 61 Solution The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig.165) z = x − y = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) − a sin ωt = = aA cos (α + ϕ) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt − a sin ωt = = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt (1.162 is xp = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) where r 4ς 2 ³ ω ωn (1.168) κ= ampy The diagram presented in Fig.159) (1. the record of the . 48 is m¨ + cx + kx = cy + ky x ˙ ˙ Its standardize form is x + 2ςω n x + ω2 x = aqc cos ωt + aqs sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c c k 2ςω n = qc = ω qs = m m m m Simpliﬁcation of the right side of the above equation yields x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = aq sin (ωt + α) ¨ ˙ n where p 2 2 q = qc + qs = ω 2 n s 4ς 2 µ ω ωn ¶2 +1 α = arctan qc ω = arctan 2ς qs ωn (1.76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1. the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation is ampz p 2 = A + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.162) According to equation 1.164) A = sµ ³ ´2 ¶2 ³ ´2 ω ω 1 − ωn + 4ς 2 ωn Hence the record of the transducer is ´2 +1 ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ³ ´2 ω 1 − ωn (1.49 shows this ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ as a function ω of the ratio ωn .If the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation κ is equal to one.166) The amplitude of this record is q p ampz = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a)2 + (aA sin (α + ϕ))2 = a A2 + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.167) Therefore.161) (1.

if the frequency ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ωn of the transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0.25. as one can see from the diagram 49.5 4 κ 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 ω/ ω n 4 5 Figure 49 .1 ζ=0. 6 5 ζ=0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 62 amplitude of vibration (ampz ) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object (ampy = a). It almost happends.25 ζ=0.

the diﬀerential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in the standard form 2. It can be considered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG . It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. the expression for the interaction force at the point A 4. Produce: 1. The motion of the lower end of the spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows x = X cos ωt where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for the frequency of these oscillations.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 63 Problem 14 α O A a b d c G B k C x Figure 50 The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. 50. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C . the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused by the motion of the point C 3.

At the point B it is supported by a spring of stiﬀness k and a damper of damping coeﬃcient c. The expression for the position xG of the center of gravity G of the pendulum Answer: xG = 3 L − a 4 2. each of length L and mass m. 51. The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through the point A.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 64 Problem 15 C Y c B k a α 1 2 G A xG L L/2 L/2 Figure 51 Two uniform rods (1 and 2). The diﬀerential equation of motion of the pendulum Answer: α + 2ζω n α + ω2 α = q cos ωt ¨ ˙ n . Answer: 17 IA = 12 mL2 + 2maH2 − 3mLa 3. were joined together to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. The point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by the following function Y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. The pendulum performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A.

The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed motion . ω 2ζ ω n D = c(Aω cos ωt − aAα cos(ωt + ϕ)) ϕ = − arctan ω 2 1−( ω ) n . ω 2 = 2mgxIG +ka q = Aωca n IA IA A 4. The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum Answer: q ω2 n Aα = 2 2 ω ω 2 1−( ω ) +4ζ 2 ( ω ) n n 5.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 2 2 65 where: 2ζω n = ca .

Chapter 2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist. But in many vibration problems. the real elements can be represented by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless elements representing the elastic and damping properties. Hence. 2. 1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. the number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to inﬁnity. yi (t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates . In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless xj mj xi k ij mi y i(t) ki ci c ij Figure 1 elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities respectively. with acceptable accuracy. xj . It follows that to determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce inﬁnite number of coordinates.1 Physical model Fig. to describe motion of such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced. This process is called discretization and the ﬁnal result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom system. according to the previously introduce deﬁnition. therefore each of the particle the real element is made of can moves independently. These coordinates (xi . Usually.1 MODELLING 2.1.

2 Mathematical model It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of freedom linear system has the following form m¨+cx+kx=F(t) x ˙ where m .is the inertia matrix c . Since in case considered the body of mass mi performs a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used. the resultant of all static forces is equal zero. as it was mention earlier.1. and xj are independent and their number determines the number of degree of freedom of the system. For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero. The conﬁguration a) shown in the ﬁgure below is achieved.is the displacement matrix There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated. Therefore. To ﬁgure these forces out let us move the mass mi out of its equilibrium position by the displacement xi .is the damping matrix k. ¨ mi xi = F (2. one may utilize the Newton’s or Euler’s equations. . In the following sections a few of them are presented. 1). 2. Origin of each coordinate coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at its equilibrium position.MODELLING 67 (not shown in the Fig.1) If the system stays at its equilibrium position.is the stiﬀness matrix F .is the external excitation matrix x. the force F must contains forces due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. The coordinate yi (t) is not independent (is an explicit function of time) whereas the coordinates xi . Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model To develop the equations of motion of the system described.

they are −ci xi and −cij xi . e. ¨ ˙ ˙ mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) (2. and 0 ˙ respectively. one can add all this forces together to obtain ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi + kij xj + ki yi (t) − ci xi − cij xi + cij xj (2. The last three conﬁgurations (d. Up to now it has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force. Since the system is linear. Due to motion of the system along the coordinate xi with velocity xi two additional forces are created ˙ by the dampers ci and cij. . and +ki yi (t) respectively. Both of them are caused by ˙ ˙ positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis xi .4) To accomplished the mathematical model.3) mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi ¨ +kij xj +ki yi (t) −ci xi − cij xi ˙ ˙ +cij xj ˙ After standardization we have the ﬁnal form of equation of motion of the mass mi . one has to carry out similar consideration for each mass involved in the system. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement xi causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis xi .MODELLING 68 a) xi 6= 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj -kijxi kij cij xi mi xi -ki xi yi (t) k ci i b) xi = 0 xj 6= 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj xj mj cij mi yi (t) k i ci c) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi 6= 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj xi +kiyi yi (t) ki yi kij mi ci cij d) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi 6= 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj m j -cijxi k ij xi -ci xi yi (t) k i m i ci cij xi e) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj 6= 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙ xj mj +cijxj k ij xi mi yi (t) k i ci xj cij f) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi 6= 0 ˙ xj mj xi kij mi yi (t) k i yj ci cij +kijxj kij xi +0 (2. As a result of these consideration we are getting set of diﬀerential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of freedom. Therefore they have to be taken with the sign ’-’.2) Due to this displacement there are two forces ki xi and kij xi acting on the considered mass mi . The forces caused by motion along the axis xj (conﬁguration e)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration f )) results in the term +cij xj . Similar consideration carried out for the displacements along the axis xj (conﬁguration b)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration c)) results in the term +kij xj . and f ) allow to take these forces into account.

Iiy ..absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body ωix. 2.MODELLING 69 Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s equations d ∂ ∂ ∂V ( T) − T+ = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm where T . ω iy. .The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through its centre of gravity Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig.6) 2 2 i=1 0 0 Iiz ω iz m = 1. .M (2.components of the absolute angular velocity of the body Iix ..5) where mi .mass of the rigid body vi .8) Vs = ks (|rA − rB | − ls )2 2 . 3) is 1 (2.. ω iz. Iiz .stands for the potential energy function Qm . Hence ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎞ I ωix X 1 £ ¤ Iix 0 0 2 ⎝ mi vi + 1 ω ix ω iy ω iz ⎣ 0 Iiy 0 ⎦ ⎣ ω iy ⎦⎠ T = (2.7) i Gi Z O X rG i rGiZ Y Figure 2 Potential energy for the spring s of stiﬀness ks and uncompressed length ls (see Fig.is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate qm The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the kinetic energy of the individual rigid bodies the system is made of. 2 is Vi = mi grGiZ (2.is the system kinetic energy function V .

.qm .0) ∆qm + m=1 ∂ q˙m (q1 .MODELLING 70 A rA Z O X Figure 3 s B rB Y Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is V = I X i=1 Vi + S X s=1 Vs (2. .qM . .. 0. q1 ..qM o o o f (q1 .qM .0. . . . . The following formula allows for any nonlinear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium o o o position q1 . 0...... . Therefore... . .11) Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi .qm ... in general case..0. 1 the kinetic energy function is 1 1 T = mi x2 + mj x2 + · · ·· ˙i ˙j 2 2 (2.qm .. It must be remembered that the Lagrange’s equations yield. . ..9) In a general case the damping forces should be classiﬁed as non-conservative ones and.qm .....0) ∆qm ˙ (2. . before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis.qM ) = f (q1 .0)+ ˙ ˙ ˙ PM ∂f o PM ∂f o o o o o + m=1 ∂qm (q1 .... as such. elongation of the springs ki and kij are respectively ∆li = xi − yi ∆lij = xj − xi (2... .. 0. .... .qm . 4.. ..qM .10) In the case of the system shown in Fig. should be included in the generalized force Qm .12) ..qm ... the linearization process must be carried out. . ... a non-linear mathematical model.qM . If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig.0..

13 either. a damping function (dissipation function) D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces. .15) (2. the potential energy function is 1 1 V = ki (xi − yi )2 + kij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· 2 2 (2.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must not be included in the function 2.14) . Generally. Therefore the above function does not include the potential energy due to the static deﬂection of the springs. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deﬂections can not be produced from this potential energy function.. dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . The damping function is created by analogy to the creation of the potential energy function.. for convenience. if the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is not included in the function 2.MODELLING 71 xj mj x i k ij mi y i (t) k i ci c ij xj k ij xi mj c ij mi xj xi ci yi y i (t) ki Figure 4 Therefore. It should be noted that the above potential energy function represents increment of the potential energy of the springs due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position. 2. since the lower end of the damper is motionless. Hence. together with the gravity forces.13) Again. in the considered case. They. very often.. Hence. But.M (2. The stiﬀness k is replaced by the damping coeﬃcient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the generalized velocities. the damping function is 1 1 D = ci (xi )2 + cij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form ∂ ∂V ∂D d ∂ ( T) − T+ + = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm ∂ qm ˙ m = 1.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must be included in the function 2. The function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its partial derivative produces the damping forces. produce resultant equal to zero. the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized force Qm . If the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is included in the function 2.13 too.

17) If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates xi along which the system is allowed to move.MODELLING 72 Introduction of the equations 2.20) .16) Fj mj xj xi x ij mi Figure 5 Let us consider the ﬂexible structure shown in Fig.14 into equation 2.11. Let us apply to this system a static force Fj along the coordinate xj . 5..18) xij Fj (2... the displacement along the i − th coordinate. according to the superposition principle.15 yields the equation of the motion of the mass mi . Let us assume that the masses mi and mj can move along the coordinate xi and xj respectively.. xi = I X j=1 δ ij Fj i = 1. Let xij be the displacement of the system along the coordinate xi caused by the force Fj .19) These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form x = δF (2.I (2. 2. mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) ¨ ˙ ˙ The inﬂuence coeﬃcient method (2. . DEFINITION: The ratio δ ij = is called the inﬂuence coeﬃcient It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure δij = δ ji (2. is..13 and 2. 2.

.23) If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the vector x (x1 ..22) kij xj (2. F = δ −1 x The inverse matrix δ −1 is called stiﬀness matrix and will be denoted by k.xJ ) the force that acts on the particle mi is fi = −Fi = − I X j=1 kij xj (2.24) Hence. k = δ −1 Hence according to equation 2.25) ...21) (2.. .MODELLING 73 The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x.21 is Fi = I X j=1 (2. . application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of its motion in the following form mi xi + ¨ I X j=1 kij xj = 0 (2.xj .

MODELLING 74 2.1. 6 Develop equations of motion of this system. .3 Problems Problem 16 2 1 R l Figure 6 The disk 1 of radius R. length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig. and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of radius r.

MODELLING 75 Solution. Ms ϕy = (2. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l2 l3 Fs Fs ϕy = (2.28) y= 2EJ EJ . 2 1 R Md F d y ϕy z l Figure 7 The motion of the disk shown in Fig. 7 is governed by Newton’s equations m¨ = Fd y I ϕy = Md ¨ (2.27) y= 3EJ 2EJ If the beam is loaded with force Ms (see Fig.26) In the above mathematical model I = 1 mR2 .forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam The interaction forces Fd and Md can be expressed as a function of the displacements y and ϕy by means of the inﬂuence coeﬃcient method. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l l2 Ms . 8). 8). 2 Fs Ms y z ϕy l y Figure 8 If the beam is loaded with force Fs (see Fig. Md .moment of inertia of the disk about axis x 4 Fd .

x= (2.31) 4 The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements J= ∙ Fs Ms ¸ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ where ¸−1 ∙ y ϕy ¸ = ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸∙ y ϕy ¸ (2. k= .33) (2.36) .35) .34) (2. the ﬁnal mathematical model of the system considered is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸ ∙ y ϕy ¸ (2.MODELLING 76 Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕy are y = ϕy or in matrix form ∙ y ϕy ¸ l3 Fs + 3EJ l2 = Fs + 2EJ = ∙ l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ l2 Ms 2EJ l Ms EJ ¸∙ Fs Ms ¸ (2.29) (2. according to the second Newton’s law ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Fd Fs =− Md Ms the equation of motion takes the following form ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ y ¨ k11 k12 y m 0 =− ϕy ¨ ϕy 0 I k21 k22 Hence.30) π r4 (2.32) Since.

Produce equations of motion of the system. .MODELLING 77 Problem 17 G k1 l1 l2 k2 Figure 9 A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k1 . 9. and as shown in Fig.

M G O y1 =y.40) (2. Let us then introduce the two coordinates y and ϕ as shown in Fig. k= ∙ k1 + k2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 2 2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 k1 l1 + k2 l2 ¸ .MODELLING 78 Solution.ϕ l1 y k1 l1 F y Figure 10 The system has two degree of freedom. 10.39) (2. the generalized Newton’s equations yield m¨ = F = −[(k11 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] y 2 2 I ϕ = M = −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ ¨ The matrix form of the system equations of motion is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ . x= ∙ y ϕ ¸ (2.38) .37) Hence. The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along coordinates y and ϕ are F = = M = = −y1 k1 − y2 k2 = −(y − ϕl1 )k1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 −[(k1 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] +y1 k1 l1 − y2 k2 l2 = +(y − ϕl1 )k1 l1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 l2 2 2 −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ l2 ϕ y2=y+ϕ l 2 k2 (2.

can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. I = 2 m2 r2 – moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity. 5 . Use Lagrange’s approach to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position. All motion is in the vertical plane.MODELLING 79 Problem 18 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 11 The link 1 of a mass m1 . This body is hinged to the link 1 at the point A. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body. 11). shown in Fig.

41) The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball vG can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of its absolute position vector.44 into Eq.42) Hence vG = rG = i(x + Rϕ cos ϕ) + j(Rϕ sin ϕ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The required squared magnitude of this velocity is 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vG = (x + Rϕ cos ϕ)2 + (Rϕ sin ϕ)2 = x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 (2. According to Fig . 2. 12. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T1 and the link 2 T2 . 2.44) Introduction of Eq. T = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 (x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 ) + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 = ˙ ˙˙ ˙ (m1 + m2 )x2 + m2 Rxϕ cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ2 2 2 (2. 1 1 1 2 T = T1 + T2 = m1 x2 + m2 vG + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 (2.43) (2.45) The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy due to gravitation.MODELLING 80 Solution y 1 x k o k 3 2 rG r R x ϕ Figure 12 G The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x and ϕ are shown in Fig.12. this position vector is rG = i(x + R sin ϕ) + j( − R cos ϕ) (2.46) 2 .41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ. 1 V = 2 kx2 − m2 gR cos ϕ (2.

2.55) .50) (2.47) dt ∂ ϕ ˙ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are µ ¶ d d ∂T ˙ ˙ = ((m1 + m2 )x + m2 Rϕ cos ϕ) = dt ∂ x ˙ dt x ϕ ˙ = (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ ∂T =0 ∂x ∂V = 2kx ∂x d dt µ ∂T ∂ϕ ˙ ¶ = ¢ d ¡ ˙ ˙ m2 Rx cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ = dt ϕ x ˙˙ = (m2 R2 + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ (2. sinϕ ∼ ϕ.MODELLING 81 In the case considered. according to Eq.49) (2.52) (2. the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form µ ¶ d ∂T ∂V ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ x ˙ ∂x ∂x µ ¶ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 (2. we have the following equations of motion x ϕ ˙ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ + m2 gR sin ϕ = 0 (2. x= ∙ x ϕ ¸ (2. Taking this into ˙ = = = account the linearized equations of motion are x ϕ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ + m2 gRϕ = 0 Their matrix form is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I ¸ . k= ∙ 2k 0 0 m2 gR ¸ .56) (2. cos ϕ ∼ 1.54) For small magnitudes of x and ϕ.51) (2.57) (2.47.48) (2.53) ∂T = −m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ ˙˙ ∂ϕ ∂V = m2 gR sin ϕ ∂ϕ Hence. ϕ2 ∼ 0.

all of stiﬀness k. each of mass m and length l. in such way that its vertical position (q1 = 0 and q2 = 0) is its stable equilibrium position.MODELLING 82 Problem 19 k q A2 k 2 l k A1 q 1 k l Figure 13 Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. 13. Produce equation of small vibrations of the pendulum about this equilibrium position. are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum. . The pendulum is supported by four springs.

14. Derive equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system. The left hand end of the massless and ﬂexible beam 4 is rigidly attached to the disk 1. is fasten to the massless and ﬂexible shaft 3. .MODELLING 83 Problem 20 1 3 4 2 l3 GJ o EI R l4 Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m1 and radius R shown in Fig. At its right hand side the particle 2 of m2 is placed.

MODELLING 84 Problem 21 k R R k I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 15 A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. The disks have moments of inertia I1 . . I2 . J. The shafts are assumed to be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is denoted by l. 15. The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiﬀness k. Derive the diﬀerential equations for the torsional vibrations of the system. and G respectively. and I3 .

MODELLING 85 Problem 22 D1 D2 I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3 Figure 16 In Fig. The shafts the gears are mounted on are massless. . Derive equations for the torsional vibrations of the gear box. 16 the physical model of a gear box is presented.

MODELLING

86

Problem 23

X

B l l l O 2 4 6 7

C

l

l

A

α l

Y 1 5 3

Figure 17 Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6. The spring 7 has a stiﬀness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3 can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m. Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium position.

MODELLING

87

Problem 24

l 4 m l 4 m l 4 m l 4

T

Figure 18 Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig. 18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of motion of the beads

MODELLING

88

Problem 25

m l q

1

R q

2

Figure 19 On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended (see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING

89

Problem 26

I1 i

I2

I1

i

I2

c

R

k ks1 m ks2

Figure 20 Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end of the shaft ks2 the rotor of the moment of inertia I2 is attached. The left hand end of the shaft ks1 is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I1 . The rope is modelled as a massless spring of the stiﬀness k. At its end the block of mass m is fastened. The damper of the damping coeﬃcient c represents the damping properties of the system. Produce the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system.

62) (2.66) (2.58) r2 α1 Application of the Newton’s law to the individual bodies yields equations of motion in the following form.61 and 2. Since the gear of the gear ratio as well as the shafts of stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 are massless the coordinates that specify the position of the of the gear α1 and α2 are not independent. 21 x.65) . ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the independant coordinates.61) (2.MODELLING 90 Solution i F c R I2 I1 i I2 r2 r1 α2 F ϕ2 ϕ α1 1 k ks1 m ks2 x Figure 21 In Fig. They are a function of the independent coordinates. m¨ x ¨ I1 ϕ1 0¨ 1 α 0¨ 2 α ¨ I2 ϕ2 = = = = = −kx + Rkϕ1 +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 α1 ˙ −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + F r1 −ks2 α2 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 α2 0 = −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + iF r2 0 = −ks2 iα1 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 Solving the above equations for α1 we have α1 = ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.64) (2.59) (2.63) Introducing 2. Let r1 α2 i= = (2.58 into the equations 2.60) (2.62 one can obtain (2.

66 and 2.68) iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 ⎡ . (2.MODELLING 91 Hence.67) Introducing 2.69) ⎤ x z = ⎣ ϕ1 ⎦ ϕ2 i ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2. 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦. 0 0 I2 i2 0 0 ⎡ k −kR 0 ⎢ −kR kR2 + ks1 ks2 i2 − ks1 ks2 i2 k = ⎣ ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 0 − ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎦.60 and 2.63 one can get the equations of motion in the following form m¨ = −kx + Rkϕ1 x I1 ϕ1 = +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 ¨ ˙ ϕ2 = −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 ¨ After standardization we have m¨ + c˙ + kz = 0 z z where ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m 0 0 c = ⎣ 0 cR2 m = ⎣ 0 I1 0 ⎦ . according to 2.58 α2 = iα1 = iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.67 into 2.

the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the Lagrange’s equations) Answer: ¡ ¡ ¢¢ 16 8 4 IG + mR2 1 + 9π2 − 3π α + mgR(1 − 3π )α = 0 ¨ ¡ 4 R ¢2 where IG = 1 mR2 − m 3 π 2 2. Produce 1.MODELLING 92 Problem 27 Z 4R 3π z C G α R O X x Figure 22 The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. the expression for period of these oscillations. The instantaneous angular position of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α. Answer: 2π T = mgR(1− 4 ) 3π 16 8 (IG +mR2 (1+ 9π2 − 3π )) . 50 is free to roll over the horizontal plane XY without slipping.

51. x = xg + xp The homogeneous equation m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.vector of the external excitation x.70 is linear. for example.vector of the generalized coordinates 2. Since the equation 2.matrix of damping k .).matrix of inertia c .72) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 93 Problem 28 I1 l 1 J1 G1 l 2 J2 G2 l 3 J3 G3 I2 l 4 J4 G4 Figure 23 The two disks of moments of inertia I1 and I2 are join together by means of the massless shafts as is shown in Fig.71) (2. its general solution is always equal to the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation xp . The dynamic properties of the shafts are determined by their lenghts l. if the mechanical structure interacts with ﬂuid or air (oil bearings.70) . Produce the diﬀerential equations of motion. ﬂatter of plane wings etc. the second moments of area J and the shear modulus G.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathematical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where m .1 General case In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not necessary have to be symmetrical.2. Such a situation takes place. 2.matrix of stiﬀness F(t).

.72 yields the following set of the diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order.78) The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2.N (2.77) Introduction of Eq. The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2.79 is called eigenvalue problem and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z0 is called eigenvector problem.74) .N (2.natural frequencies.77 into Eq. x = y ˙ y = −m−1 kx − m−1 cy ˙ The above equations can be rewritten as follows z = Az ˙ where z= ∙ x y ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ (2. 2.77.80 are zn1 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) cos ωn t − Im(z0n ) sin ω n t) zn2 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) sin ω n t + Im(z0n ) cos ω n t) n = 1. Free vibrations .. rn = hn ± iω n n = 1.75) (2.stability of the equilibrium position To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. [A − 1r] z0 = 0 (2. |[A − 1r]| = 0 (2.79) Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered.72 to so called state-space coordinates.80) The equations 2. z = z0 ert (2. its general solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system. Let y=x ˙ (2. 2. 2.. It is often refered to as the forced vibrations. The roots rn are usually complex and conjugated. Introduction of Eq.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 94 corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present..70 represents the vibrations caused by the excitation force F(t).. The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2.78 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant is equal to 0..73) be the vector of the generalized velocities. Therefore.81) . Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available computer programs...76) Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2.75 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the vector z0 . A= (2. 2.73 into Eq.

8 0.80 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be determined.zn1 .4 0.81 is given in Fig. zn2.82 indicates that the free motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2..70. Forced vibrations .5 1.84 the imaginary part. The system with N degree of freedom possesses N natural frequencies. zN 2 ] C (2.7 0. z21 .2 1.2 -0.3 0.. The particular solutions 2.. z32. . k k f k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) + iFo sin(ωt + ϕk ) (2.81 allow to formulate the general solution that approximates the system free vibrations.80 has positive real part then the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable.5 0..80 respectively.85) o o . z22.3 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 95 In the above expressions Re(z0n ) and Im(z0n ) stand for the real and imaginary part of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z0n associated with the nth root of the set 2.80 have negative real parts then the equilibrium position of the system considered is stable.9 1 1.3 0.2 0 h<0 t -0. A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2.2 1.6 -0.6 z 1 z h>0 0. The equation 2.4 1. 24 for the positive and negative magnitude of hn .8 0.1 1. m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.8 T n = 2 π /ω n Figure 24 constant magnitudes C is called initial problem.2 0.7 0. the imaginary parts of roots rn represent the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of decay of the free vibrations..transfer functions The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.4 0..zN1 .4 0.3 1. .6 0. In the general case.. z31 ..4 1.6 t T n = 2 π /ω n -0.1 0.82) As one can see from the formulae 2..1 1. let us introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2..84) To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2. The roots 2..83) Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends.6 0..6 0.8 0.The problem of searching for the vector of the 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0. z = [z11 . this problem is diﬃcult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures. If all roots rn of the equation 2.5 1.81. For the further analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form k F k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) o (2.4 0. If at least one root of the equation 2.5 0..83.9 1 1.2 0. z12.81.1 0.

According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as Im f k F 0 k k ϕ0 ωt ω F cos( t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k k Re k ϕ0 F k ω t F 0 k ω t Figure 25 follows k k k f k = Fo ei(ωt+ϕo ) = Fo eiϕo eiωt = fo eiωt k k (2.87) Now.87 can be predicted in the complex form 2.83 yields m¨ + cx + kx = fo eiωt x ˙ xc = aeiωt (2.86 into Eq. 2. 2. 25. Introduction of Eq. fo is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external excitation.88) .86) k Here. 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 96 The relationship between the complex excitation f k and the real excitation is shown in Fig.88 (2. the particular solution of Eq.

91 that the amplitude of the forced vibration xk is equal to the o absolute value of the complex amplitude ak . xc = aeiωt = R(iω)fo eiωt (2.91.88. and its phase β k is equal to the phase between the complex amplitudes ak and the vector eiωt .91) Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part of the solution 2.92) Motion of the system considered along the coordinate xk . This ﬁndings are presented in Fig.93) (2. 27. x = Re(a) cos ωt − Im(a) sin ωt (2.96) It is easy to see from 2. 2. according to 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 97 Its solution is Introduction of Eq. according to 2.87 produces set of the algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the unknown vector a. . the response of the system xc due to the complex force f is xc = (Re(a) + i Im(a))(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2.95) −ω m + iωc + k It is easy to see that the element Rpq (iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates xp caused by the unit excitation 1eiωt along the coordinate xq . It transfers. 26. 2. Example of three elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig. The ﬁrst two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase.89) −ω m + iωc + k a = fo ¢− 1 ¡ fo a = −ω2 m + iωc + k (2. 2. The complex matrix ¢− 1 ¡ 2 (2.92 is xk = xk cos(ωt + β k ) o where xk = o p Re(ak )2 + Im(ak )2 β k = arc tan Im(ak ) Re(ak ) (2.90. the vector of the complex excitation fo eiωt into the vector of the complex displacement xc = aeiωt .94) will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. according to Eq.90) Therefore.88 into Eq. ¢ ¡ 2 (2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 98 Im f F 0 k k ϕ0 k a x0 k k k β0 ωt k F cos(ω t+ ϕ 0 ) 0 k Re x0 cos( ω t+ β 0 ) k k ϕ0 k β0 k F k k ω t F 0 x0 k k x ω t Figure 26 .

004 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.3) transfer functions m/N 4 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 R(1.001 0 -0.0015 0.0025 0.003 0.0001 -0.003 0.001 -0.0005 0 0 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.1) R(1.0005 0.2) R(1.3) transfer function m/N (modulus) 0.0001 0 -0.2) R(1.0004 0.003 -0.0002 -0.002 -0.1) R(1.001 0.2) R(1.0003 0.0006 0.002 0.3) (phase) 1500 frequency rad/s Figure 27 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 99 transfer functions m/N (real parts) 0.0035 0.002 0.1) R(1.0002 0.1) R(1.0003 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.3) transfer function m/N (imaginary part) 0.2) R(1.

28) let us apply force Fq (t) along the coordinate xq and record it simultaneously with the system response xp (t) along the coordinate xp .97) xp (iω) = −∞ yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain xp (iω) and Fq (iω).ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 100 Experimental determination of the transfer functions Fq xq xp xp F(t) q Fq ( iω ) t Fourier R (iω ) i pq ω x( iω ) p x(t) p t x( iω ) p ___ Fq ( iω ) transformation ω ω Figure 28 In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate xp and the coordinate xq (see Fig. Fourier transformation applied to these functions Z +∞ Fq (iω) = e−iωt Fq (t)dt −∞ Z +∞ e−iωt xp (t)dt (2. The amplitude of the complex functions xp (iω) and Fq (iω) q Re(xp (iω))2 + Im(xp (iω))2 |xp (iω)| = q |Fq (iω)| = Re(Fq (iω))2 + Im(Fq (iω))2 (2.98) .

103) .The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form x(iω) = Rpq (iω)F(iω) p = 1.102) Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved in the modelling (p = 1..N.N (2.101) Since the system considered is by assumption linear. according to the superposition principle... Rpq (iω) = xp (iω) Fq (iω) (2.. xp (iω) = Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) (2. q = 1...100) The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate xp caused by the harmonic excitation Fq along the coordinate xq ..N (2..... ϕxp = arctan ϕF q Im(xp (iω)) Re(xp (iω)) Im(Fq (iω)) = arctan Re(Fq (iω)) (2. is q=N xp (iω) = X q=1 Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) q = 1..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 101 represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the frequency ω.N ) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions Rpq (iω).99) These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function Rpq (iω) to be computed. the response along the coordinate xp caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates xq . The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae.

106) is a particular solution of the equation 2. 2.105 is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if the following set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulﬁlled. ±ω3 . c and k are square and symmetrical. ± ω N (2.2.107) (−ω 2 m + k)X cos ωt = 0 and the diﬀerential equation 2. introduction of Eq. According to the above deﬁnition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2. the parameter ω can take any of the following values ±ω1 .108.. Hence. 2. The vector Xn represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural . They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations. If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to zero. Its follows that if Xn is a solution of Eq.104) Free vibration of the undamped system . the vector Cn Xn (2.. these parameters have the physical meaning only for positive values. For each of the possible natural frequencies ωn the system of equations 2. the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero ¯ ¯ 2 ¯−ω m + k¯ = 0 (2. ..108 too.109) The above characteristic equation..106.105.2 Modal analysis . (−ω2 m + k)X = 0 (2. 2.111) where Cn is arbitrarily chosen constant. They are called natural frequencies.105) In turn. it is said that the system performs free vibrations.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 102 2.. . is solution of the Eq.eigenvalue and eigenvector problem If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is m¨ + kx = 0 x It is easy to see that x = X cos ωt (2. for any physical system. ± ω n .105 yields (2.108) (2. The number of diﬀerent natural frequencies is therefore equal to the number of degree of freedom.110) As one can see from Eq... Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the system degree of freedom. has N positive roots with respect to the parameter ω2 . ±ω2 .108 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has inﬁnite number of solution Xn . Indeed.106 into 2.case of small damping In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m. 2.

105 has been accomplished. X2n . In similar manner one can prove that xn = Xn sin ω n t (2.113) of the equation 2.105 xn = N X (Sn Xn sin ω n t + Cn Xn cos ωn t) n=1 (2.115) The 2N constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions. The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigenvalue problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector problem.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 103 frequency ω n .114) is a particular solution too. their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2. if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig. X3n . one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution xn = Xn cos ω n t (2. Now. Since the solutions ?? and 2. X4n ]T (2. There are N such particular solutions. There are four such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system. It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically with the frequency ω n . Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue and the natural modes as eigenvectors.114 are linearly independent. it will oscillate with the frequency ω n . For example. 29) the vector Xn contains four numbers Xn = [X1n .112) If the system is deﬂected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the x3n = X 3n cosω n t x X 1n X 2n X 3n X 4n t Tn Figure 29 initial velocity equal to zero. .

According to 2.111 1 X λn n (2. 2. since (ω 2 − ω 2 ) = 0. Let this product be equal to λ2 n XT mXn = λ2 n n Division of the above equation by λ2 yields n ( But according to 2. ΞT mΞn = 1 (2.125) It is said that eigenvectors Ξn and Ξm that fulﬁll the above conditions are orthogonal with respect to the inertia matrix m.117) Now. Hence.123) The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξn is called normalization and the eigenvector Ξn is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode.108.122.119) (ω 2 − ω2 )XT mXm = 0 n m n Since for n 6= m (ω2 − ω2 ) 6= 0.124) n Taking into account Eq’s 2.120) If n = m. primultiplying the ﬁrst equation of set 2. Each eigenvector has to fulﬁll the Eq.124 one can conclude that ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn mΞm = 1 if n = m (2.120 and 2.118) (2.121) 1 1 T Xn )m( Xn ) = 1 λn λn (2. Let us denot it by Ξn Ξn = 1 Xn λn (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 104 Properties of the natural modes. the product XT mXn does not have to be equal to n n n zero. −ω 2 mXn +kXn = 0 n −ω2 mXm +kXm = 0 m −ω 2 XT mXn +XT kXn = 0 m n m T 2 T −ω m Xn mXm +Xn kXm = 0 Since matrices m and k are symmetrical XT kXn = XT kXm m n and XT mXn = XT mXm m n (2.116) Primultiplying the ﬁrst equation by XT and the second equation by XT one can get m n (2. n m XT mXm = 0 for n 6= m n (2.117 by -1 and then adding them together we are getting (2.122) is eigenvector too. .

104) is assumed as the following combination of the matrix of inertia m and stiﬀness k with the unknown coeﬃcients µ and κ.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 105 It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of stiﬀness. particularly if the system considered is furnished with special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers.117 yields ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn kΞm = (2.131) . Ξ2 . 0 ω2 .. 0 . These deﬂections. . in turn. c =µm+κk (2. 0 . ⎦ 0 . .. cause friction between the particles the elements are made of.. the structural damping has to be taken into account. . 0 ⎥ n ⎥ . 0 .130) This coeﬃcients are to be determined experimentally. . . 2 ω =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ .127) Owning to the above orthogonality condition. ⎥ ⎥ (2. ω2 . Ξ = [Ξ1 . 0 (2. 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ .modal damping Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. But in case of absence of such devices.ΞN ] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2. In such cases the matrix of damping c (see Eq. ...129) 0 ..Ξn ... It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation x = Ξη (2. . .126) ω 2 if n = m n It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields ΞT mΞ = 1 ΞT kΞ = ω2 where ω 2 is a square diagonal matrix ⎡ 2 ω1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . the structural damping can be omitted. The structural damping is extremely diﬃcult or simply impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods. Vibrations of any mechanical structures are coupled with deﬂections of the elastic elements. . ω2 N Normal coordinates . 2. .. The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural damping. In many cases. The modal modes Ξn can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known as the modal matrix Ξ .128) containing the squared natural frequencies ω 2 n ⎤ 0 . the second of the equations 2.

..137) p where ω dn = ω n 1 − ς 2 and η pn stands for the particular solution of the nonn homogeneous equation 2. ⎥ ⎢ (2. introduction of the transformation 2..131 yields motion of the system along the physical coordinates x.134) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2. 2.diagonal matrices n n Hence. 2.136 takes form ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ..132) results in its decoupling.N (2.136.46) can be written as follows η n = e−ς n ωn t (Csn sin ωdn t + Ccn cos ω dn t) + η pn (2. Problem of determination of this particular solution is considered in the next section.the unit matrix ω2 and γ = (µ1+κω 2 ) . Response to the harmonic excitation .133) Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by ΞT we obtain ΞT mΞ¨ + ΞT (µm+κk)Ξη + ΞT kΞη = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2. 0 η n + 2ς n ω n η n + ω2 η n = Ξqn Fq eiωt ¨ ˙ n n = 1.135) n where 1 . Introduction of the solutions 2.N ¨ ˙ n n (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 106 to the mathematical model m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.132 yields mΞ¨ + cΞη + kΞη = F(t) η ˙ (2.136) The coeﬃcients ς n = (µ+κω 2 )/2ω n are often referred to as the modal damping ratio. 2.128 we are getting set of independent equations 1¨ + γ η + ω 2 η = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2. each equation of the above set has the following form η n + 2ς n ωn η n + ω2 η n = ΞT F(t) n = 1.136 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation along coordinate xq .. In this case the right hand side of the equation 2. .131 into 2.137 into equation 2.138) ΞT F(t) = ΞT ⎢ Fq eiωt ⎥ = Ξqn Fq eiωt n n ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ .139) Hence . Indeed. n Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and according to the discussion carried out in the ﬁrst chapter (page 30. Eq.transfer functions Let us solve the Eq. 1.

. since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n . 2. . . Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions determine the system natural frequencies.140) (2..... They allow the natural frequencies..N (2. 2.N (2.141) response along coordinate xp xp = e iωt N X ω2 n=1 n Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi (2. . .. natural modes and the modal damping to be identiﬁed..145 that the real part of the transfer function Rpq (iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural frequency ω n ... The phase ϕ.N... .143) = if ω ∼ ωn = Rpq (iω) = Fqxp = eiωt PN ³ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 −ω2 ) n n=1 (ω 2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 n n n PN + Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n Rpq (iω) ∼ + = 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 2ς n ω n ω n n Ξpn Ξqn ((ω 2 −ω2 )−2ς n ωn ωi) n = n=1 (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n ´n n −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ω n ωi q = 1.. 2.N (2.... It can be seen from the equation 2....N (2.142) transfer function between coordinate p and the others X Ξpn Ξqn xp = iωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi Fq e ω n n n=1 n N q = 1.144) q = 1.146) Alternatively. 2..... The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function.147) This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined...... From the same equation it is apparent that the imaginary parts corresponding to ω ∼ ωn and measured for diﬀer= ent q = 1. .. is equal to ±90o ϕn = arctan Im (Rpq (iω n )) = ± arctan ∞ = ±90o Re (Rpq (iω n )) (2. 2... . 2.N (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 107 Therefore ηn = Since Ξqn Fq eiωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ωn n n x = Ξη n = 1.145) Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions The transfer functions Rpq (iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experiment (see page 100).. but for the same p yield the natural modes with accuracy to the ω2 constant magnitude C = − 2ς npnn Ξ Ξnq = C Im(Rpq (iω n )) q = 1.

.2) R(1.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s 2 1 3 R(1. its modulus is equal to the absolute value of imaginary part.....ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 108 Hence Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n .1) R(1.3) natural mode ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω2 ¯ n¯ ¯ C=¯ Ξpn ¯ transfer functions m/N (phase) π/2 natural frequency −π/2 Figure 30 The demonstated in this chapter approach for solution of the vibration problems is referred to as modal analysis.2) R(1.150) where Signe of the idividual elements Ξnq of the mode n is deremined by signe of the corresponding phase ϕn = ±90o An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer functions is shown in Fig.3) 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1.00015 0.N (2.0002 0.148) Ξqn ¯ |Rpq (iω)| = ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω 2 n Ξnq = C |Rpq (iω)| q = 1.149) (2.00025 0.. 2. .0001 0. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn ¯ (2.. 30 transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.1) R(1.

.mnN } xn ⎪ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎪ .Dissipation function In this section the kinetic energy function. Kinetic energy function Let us consider function 1 T = xT mx x = {x1 ....151) Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..3 Kinetic and potential energy functions ..... mNn (2... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ d ⎜1 ⎜ m=N ⎜ ⎜{0..1. 0.xn ...0} + {x1 ...xN } ˙ = ˙ ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎪ .......... ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 mNm xm = n=N m=N 1X X mnm xn xm ˙ ˙ 2 n=1 m=1 Let us prove that the function 2.... c and k are symmetric and positive deﬁnite matrices.154..... the potential energy function and the dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where the matrices m..153) ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ .....xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 (2........ mmn .......... .152) (2...xn . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN ¨ ⎫⎞⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ = ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪⎠⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ m1n ...xN } ˙ ˙ ˙ mnm xm (2......... ⎪ ⎪ ¶ µ ⎨ ⎬ d ∂T ∂T ¨ (2.... If T is the kinetic energy function.2..155) . . ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T − dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎛ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..xn ...ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 109 2.. according to Lagrange’s equations should be ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .......mnn ...... ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ mNm xm ˙ m=1 !! Ã Ãm=N m=N X X d 1 = mnm xm + ˙ mmn xm ˙ dt 2 m=1 m=1 If this function is positive deﬁnite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only if all variables xn are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive ˙ deﬁnite matrix............154) − = {mn1 ... ....... . ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = T = xn ˙ {x1 .152 fulﬁlls the requirement 2...

..159) = {kn1 .....mnN } xn ¨ ⎪ ⎪ .... m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ¨ Potential energy function Let us consider function (2.. 1 V = xT kx x = {x1 ..158) k x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ .... kmn . ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ∂V (2.. X ¨ = mnm xm = {mn1 .........xN } = k x ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn 2⎜ ⎪ .. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN Let us prove that the function 2...... ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = V = xn {x1 ....knn ... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ ∂V 1⎜ m=N ⎜{0.mnn ...... 0..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 110 Since mnm = mmn ! ! Ã m=N Ãm=N ¶ µ d X d ∂T ∂T d 1 X − 2 = mnm xm = ˙ mnm xm ˙ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn dt 2 m=1 dt m=1 ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ m=N ⎨ . x2 ......159.xN } knm xm (2......160) .. it must be positive deﬁnite and according to Lagrange’s equations should fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . .knN } xn ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..152 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix m is symmetric and positive deﬁnite..........xn ..xN }T (2.....1.157) 2 Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .0} + {x1 .156) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Now we may conclude that the function 2....... ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ kNm xm m=1 ! Ãm=N m=N X X 1 = knm xm + kmn xm 2 m=1 m=1 k1n .xn ...xn ............... ............. ........... kN n ⎫⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟ ⎟= ⎪⎟ ⎪⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ n=N m=N 1X X knm xn xm 2 n=1 m=1 (2. ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..157 fulﬁlls the requirement 2........................ ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 kNm xm = If V is the potential energy function.

.. having in mind the previous consideration..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 111 Since knm = kmn ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ .knN } xn ⎪ ∂xn 2 m=1 ⎪ ..162) (2... ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ˙ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2.xn . ....161) Now we may conclude that the function 2.... that the function 1 D = xT cx x = {x1 ....157 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix k is symmetric and positive deﬁnite......164) dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ∂xn ∂ xn ˙ The function D is called dissipation function.xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ . are not conservative and have to be included in the generalized force Qn . Dissipation function It is easy to notice.... in a general case.... The damping forces...cnN } xn ⎪ ∂ xn ˙ ⎪ . .. It must be noted that the dissipation function does not represent the dissipation energy.. m=N m=N ⎨ X X ∂V 1 = 2 knm xm = knm xm = {kn1 . such a damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − + + = Qn (2.163) It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive deﬁnite...knn . m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2..... ... ........cnn ... ∂D ˙ = {cn1 ....

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 112 2.01m f2 = 35rad/s .2 · 1012 N/m2 J1 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m1 = 10kg l2 = 2m E2 = 0.2. Given are: l1 = 1m E1 = 0. .4 Problems Problem 29 l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m2 l2 2 m1 c Figure 31 The point A of the system shown in Fig. the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion 5. 31 moves according to the following equation (2. the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.2 · 1012 N/m2 J2 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m2 = 20kg k = 10000N/m c = 100Ns/m A1 = 0. the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y 4. Produce 1.01m f1 = 30rad/s A2 = 0.165) y = A1 sin(f1 t) + A2 sin(f2 t) where A1 and A2 are amplitudes of this motion and f1 and f2 are the corresponding frequencies. the natural frequencies 3. the diﬀerential equations of motion 2.

the excitation cy is ˙ cy = cA1 f1 cos(f1 t) + cA2 f2 cos(f2 t) = a1 cos(f1 t) + a2 cos(f2 t) ˙ where a1 = cA1 f1 .170 into the equation of motion 2. The diﬀerential equations of motion l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m1 y m2 1 l2 2 c y2 Figure 32 Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown in Fig.171) . 2.165.167) + + = c cy ˙ −k k + k2 m2 y2 ¨ y2 ˙ y2 or shorter m¨ + cy + ky = F(t) y ˙ where m= ∙ m1 0 0 m2 ¸ .166) Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ∙ y1 ˙ y1 ¨ 0 k + k1 y1 0 −k m1 (2.169) (2. F(t) = ∙ ¸ 0 cy ˙ (2.168 yields m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) + F2 (t) y ˙ (2. c= ∙ 0 0 0 c ¸ .168) Taking into consideration Eq. k= ∙ k + k1 −k −k k + k2 ¸ . a2 = cA2 f2 Introduction of Eq. 2. ¨ m1 y1 = −k1 y1 − ky1 + ky2 m2 y2 = −k2 y2 − ky2 + ky1 − cy2 + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ (2. 32 allows to develop its mathematical model.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 113 Solution 1.170) (2.

The substitution w=y ˙ results in the following set of equations z = Az ˙ where ∙ y w ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ 0 ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎣ −1600. F2 (t) = ∙ 0 a2 cos(f2 t) ¸ (2. F2 (t) = 30 cos(30t) 35 cos(35t) ∙ 48E2 J2 48 · 0.172) The stiﬀness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is k2 = Hence ¸ 10 0 m= .174) (2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 6000N/m 3 l1 13 (2.177) (2. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free vibrations. A= Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots ω 1 = −1.179) For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural frequency of the damped system. .176) z= .178) 0 ⎦ −5 (2.the natural frequencies To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. 6741 ± 24. 734i (2. 483i ω 2 = −0. 8259 ± 45. Free motion .171 to the state-space coordinates. 0 20 ∙ F1 (t) = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 0 16000 −10000 c= .173) ∙ 0 a1 cos(f1 t) ¸ .2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 12000N/m 3 l2 23 (2.175) 2.0 500 ⎡ 0 0 1000 −1100 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ (2. k= 0 ¸ 100 ∙ −10000 22000 ¸ 0 0 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 114 where F1 (t) = For the given numerical data the stiﬀness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment of the mass 1 is k1 = 3E1 J1 3 · 0.

4508 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 6741t (−1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 115 According to 2. 734t + 6. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 734t − ⎢ = e−0. 734t + ⎢ 1. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 90847 −2 −5. 90847 −2 −5.181) The two ﬁrst rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates y1 and y2 respectively. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 049 × 10−3 sin 45. 9755 × 10−2 −6. 26033 . The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 6392 × 10−2 cos 24. 38263 −. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 049 × 10−3 1. Im z02 = ⎢ 1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. associated with the particular solution z11 (y111 ) and z21 (y211 ) y111 = e−1. the particular solutions are Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 734t) (2. 4508 × 10−2 −1. . 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 477 × 10 = e−0. 3213 × 10 = e−1.180) Re z02 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . Example of the motion along the coordinate y1 . 40969 ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 24. 7637 × 10 ⎥ sin 24. 483t) y211 = e−0. 4508 × 10−2 sin 24. 9755 × 10−2 ⎢ 1. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 8259t (1. 477 × 10 ⎥ (2. 37705 .182) are presented in Fig 33. 9755 × 10−2 cos 45. 40969 z21 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) cos ω2 t − Im(z02 ) sin ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 9162 × 10 −. 40969 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 1. 26033 . 26033 . 46561 z11 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) cos ω1 t − Im(z01 ) sin ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 46561 z22 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) sin ω 2 t + Im(z02 ) cos ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 38263 −. 3213 × 10 ⎥ Re z01 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 483t + ⎢ −1. 483t − ⎢ −1.81. 46561 ⎤ ⎞ z12 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) sin ω 1 t + Im(z01 ) cos ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 35302 −. 35302 −. 90847 −2 −5. 37705 . 9162 × 10 −. 477 × 10−3 ⎜⎢ −1. 9162 × 10 −. 9755 × 10−2 −3 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 3213 × 10 = e−1. ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ −1. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 38263 −. 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 6392 × 10−2 −1. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ (2. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 049 × 10−3 1. 049 × 10−3 −3 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 483t + 1. 37705 . Im z01 = ⎢ −1. 35302 −. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1.

02 Figure 33 .02 y211[m] 0.01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.01 0 -0.01 1 2 3 4 t[s] -0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 116 y111[m] 0.01 0 -0.

185 let us introduce the complex excitation ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 0 0 0 c = = eif1 t = F1 (t) = a1 eif1 t a1 a1 cos(f1 t) + ia1 sin(f1 t) ∙ ¸ 0 if1 t ei30t (2.183) 0.188) (2.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0. motion of the point A is y = 0.02 Figure 34 The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig.185 m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) y ˙ and y2 is the particular solution of the equation 2.01 0 -0. 34 The particular solution y.184) where y1 is the particular solution of the equation 2.185) To produce the particular solution of the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 117 3. according to the superposition rule. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation According to the given data.187) = F10 e = 30 Hence the equation of motion takes form m¨ + cy + ky = F10 eif1 t y ˙ Its particular solution is c c y1 = y10 eif1 t (2.5 t[s] -0.5 1 1.189) .186 m¨ + cy + ky = F2 (t) y ˙ (2. is y = y1 + y2 (2.01 · sin(35 · t) y[m] (2.01 0.186) (2. which represents the forced vibration.

00 112i i30t y1 = Re e −2. 688 × 10−3 − 7. 183 × 10−3 − 1. 84 × 10−4 i The motion of the system. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t Similarly. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.191) = −1.192) .00 38 cos 30t + . 84 × 10−4 sin 30t ∙ ¸ −3. computed according to the equation 2. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is y = y1 + y2 ¸ −. one can obtained motion due to the excitation F2 (t) c 2 y20 = (−f2 m+if2 c + k)−1 F20 = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ µ 10 0 0 0 16000 −10000 0 2 + 35i + = = −35 0 20 0 100 −10000 22000 35 ¸ ∙ −3.00 384 − .00 384 cos 30t + . 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 7855 × 10−4 i −1.00 384 − . µ∙ −3.00 112 sin 30t = −2. 4196 × 10−4 i Hence y2 = Re e ¸ ∙ −3.00 112i = (2. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t = ¸ ∙ −. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 4196 × 10−4 i ¸ i35t ¶ (2. 183 × 10−3 − 1.193. 41 × 10−4 sin 35t ∙ (2.189 is ¶ µ∙ ¸ −. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1.00 384 cos 30t + . 84 × 10−4 i ∙ ¸ −. 1 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 7855 × 10−4 i (2. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t −2. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7.193) This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 688 × 10−3 − 7. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 35 and 36 respectively. as the real part of 2. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t = −1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 118 where c 2 y10 = (−f1 m+if1 c + k)−1 F10 = ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ µ 16000 −10000 0 0 10 0 0 2 + + 30i = = −30 −10000 22000 0 100 0 20 30 ∙ ¸ −. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 8 × 10−4 sin 30t − 1. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t + −1. is shown in Fig. 6 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7.00 11 sin 30t − 3.190) −2.00 112 sin 30t + = −2.

005 0 -0.005 0 -0.01 Figure 35 y2[m] 0.005 0.5 t[s] -0.005 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 119 y1[m] 0.01 Figure 36 .5 1 1.5 t[s] -0.5 1 1.

38 .183. let us consider the damper c shown in Fig. 503 cos 35t − 8. 1 · 10−3 cos 35t + 1. it is necessary to apply at the point A the following force ˙ ˙ (2. 37. m2 y2 Therefore.01 · sin 30t + 0.195) FA = c (y − y2 ) Hence. 648 cos 30t + 34. 6 · 10−3 cos 30t + 7. The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion y2 c y A y Figure 37 To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according to the assumed motion 2. 1405 sin 35t[N] (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 120 4.194) . 064 sin 30t − 4.193 we have d FA = 100( dt (0.196) Diagram of this force is presented in Fig. . to realize this motion.01 · sin 35t) + d − dt (−2. 4 · 10−4 sin 35t)) = = 27. according to the equation 2. If the point A moves with the velocity y and in the same time the mass m2 moves with the ˙ velocity y2 . 8 · 10−4 sin 30t+ −1. the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m2 is ˙ v = y − y2 ˙ ˙ (2.183 and 2.

5 1 1. 39 RB = P MB = P l1 (2. 15×10−3 cos 35t+3.00 11 sin 30t−3. 15×10−3 cos 35t + 3.193 P = k1 y1 = (2.00 11 sin 30t−3.00 38 cos 30t + .200) .2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 y1 = = 6000y1 3 l1 13 The motion along the coordinate y1 is determined by the function 2.5 t[s] Figure 38 5.197) where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y1 . 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. P l 1 J1 E 1 B MB RB y1 Figure 39 According to Fig.00 11 sin 30t − 3. 78×10−4 sin 35t (2.198) y1 = −.199) Hence ¡ ¢ RB =6000 −.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 121 FA[N] 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 0. 78×10−4 sin 35t ¡ ¢ MB =6000·1· −.00 38 cos 30t+.00 38 cos 30t+. This relationship is determined by the formula 2. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t (2. The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.173 3E1 J1 3 · 0.

shown in Fig. 41) have been formulated in page 81 to be m¨ + kx = 0 x where 2 I = m2 r2 5 (2. All motion is in the vertical plane. 40.201) . x= x ϕ . the natural frequencies of the system 2. m= m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I . the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to the given initial conditions.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 122 Problem 30 The link 1 of a mass m1 . the diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates 4. the normalized natural modes 3. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ (2.01 m Produce: 1. the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig.202) At the instant t = 0. k= 2k 0 0 m2 gR . The equation of motion.1 m r = . The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and rigid rod 4. in terms of the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig. 42 and released with the initial velocity equal to zero. For the following data: m1 = 2 kg m2 = 1 kg R = 0. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k.05 m k = 1000 N/m a = 0.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 123 1 A k 3 4 2 r k R Figure 40 y 1 x k o k x 3 2 r R ϕ G Figure 41 y 1 a k o k x 3 2 r R Figure 42 .

052 = 0.108 (page 102) one can write the following set of equations (−ω 2 m + k)X = 0 n (2.1 According to 2.205.0ω2 + 1000.0 0 1000 0 = k = 0 1.1 (2. X2 = 1 Φ2 = ¡ ¢ 1 −3.204) where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode.207) For ω n = ω1 = 9.092 + 1000. one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e. The natural frequencies and the natural modes According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball.0 −. (2.9362 + 1000.0 Φ 0 This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to zero.0 11ωn + 1.0 11ω n + 1.g.0 0 1 · 10 · 0. 1ω2 n n ¯ = . X1 = 1) and the other may be produced from the ﬁrst equation of the set 2.0 −. Hence for the given numerical data we are getting ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −3. 091 3 ω1 = 9.0 = 0 (2.205 become linearly dependent. 1ωn −.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 124 Solution 1. 1ω n −. ¯∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ −3. 1 · 9.209) . Therefore.208) 1 Φ1 = − 3.0 11 1 · 0.0 23ω4 − 14. 936 9.001 kgm2 I = 5 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 3.1 1 · 0.0913 These two numbers form the ﬁrst mode of vibrations corresponding to the ﬁrst natural frequency ω 1 . 0913 the equations 2.0 .99 2 .0) = 90.0 · 22.206) ¯ 2 2 n n ¯ −. 1 · 22.yields the second mode. 936 −22.936 X1 = 1 −3.205) 2 2 −. 1ω 2 X 0 n n = (2. 091 3 −9.0X1 − . 1 .0 ¯ Its roots: yield the wanted natural frequencies £ 22.Similar consideration. 1ω2 Φ1 = 0 1 1 (2.991 2 . 1 2 + 1 1 · 0. 936.0 · 9.0ω 2 + 1000.001 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1000.0 = −10. carried out for the natural frequency ω2 = 22.203) = m = . 0913 ω2 = 22. the inertia matrix and the stuﬃness matrix are 2 · 1 · 0. 936 [s−1 ] ¤ (2.0X1 ω2 + 1000. Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is.12 + 0.0ω2 + 1000.

1306 = 1. ΞT mΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9.0 . 1306 λ2 = 1 −10.991 (2.211) (2. X2 ] = ∙ 1 1 90. Normalization of the natural modes According to 2. ¸ ∙ 9. 4597 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 .217) = 0 1 .213) Division of the eigenvector X1 by the factor λ1 yields the normalized mode Ξ1 . 5296 1. 4375 × 10−2 . 68507 3. 1 9. 5872 −7. 5872 −7.210) In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X1 and X2 . 68507 Ξ= 8.0 11 .0 . 4375 × 10−2 8. 5872 10.991 ¸ (2.991 .99 √ λ1 = 112.212) (2. 1 . 27 = 10. 4375 × 10−2 . 4597 −10.216) The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia matrix and the stiﬀness matrix.99 −10. 27 . 68507 Ξ2 = = −7.0 11 90.991 √ λ2 = 2.215) These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1 0 (2. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 9. 4375 × 10−2 Ξ1 = = (2. 99 = 112.99 Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained ∙ ¸∙ ¸ £ ¤ 3. 596 ¤ ∙ (2.991 2.0 11 −10. Indeed.0 . X2 = X1 = 90. 5296 (2. 5296 8. 68507 −7.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 125 Now. 5872 = . one can create the modal matrix X = [X1 .121 the normalization factor is XT mXn = λ2 n n Hence λ2 1 = £ ¸∙ ¸ 3. 596 90. 1 .99 −10.214) 8. 1 1 2 = 2. 1 . 1 1 1 90. ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1 1 .

5872 −7.01 η 01 −1 −1 = = Ξ =Ξ 1. 5296 8. 4375 × 10−2 . 091)2 ω1 0 0 = = = (2. It can be obtained by transforming the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates.3024 −1. 02 0 ω2 0 (22. 935) 2 3.36 is v01 sin ω 1 t + η 01 cos ω 1 t η1 = ω1 v02 η2 = sin ω 2 t + η 02 cos ω 2 t (2. The diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates Introducing the substitution 2. 935)2 η 2 = 0 ¨ (2.131 x = Ξη that in the case considered has the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ η1 X = Ξη = Ξ Φ η2 (2. 647 0 (9.220) into 2.1 . the equations of motion are of the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ 1 0 (9.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 126 and ΞT kΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. according to 1.01142 = (2.224) ω2 Where η 01 and η 02 stand for the initial position whereas v01 and v02 stand for the initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates.223) The general solution of the above set of the diﬀerential equations. ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ∙ 1.201 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by ΞT we are getting the diﬀerential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η.218) 2 0 526. 935)2 or η 1 + (9. 68507 1000 0 9. These initial conditions must be formulated along the normal coordinates. 68507 −7.222) 0 1 0 (22.225) 1.3024 × 10−2 . 5296 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 2 ¸ 82.4313 × 10−2 0 0 η 02 Φo ∙ ¸ . 4375 × 10−2 8.142 . 091)2 η 1 = 0 ¨ η 2 + (22. 091)2 0 η+ ¨ η=0 (2.1039 Xo a 0. (ΞT mΞ)¨ +(ΞT kΞ)η = 0 η (2.219) (2. 5872 = 0 1 · 10 · 0.221) Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions.

The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates. 935t This motion is presented in Fig.219. 091t − 9.1 -0.01 Figure 43 0. Hence.05 0 -0.5 1 1.005 -0. 935t (2.5 t[s] -0. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1.15 0. 5872 −7.5 1 1. 68507 .091t X = Ξη = = 1.224 results in motion of the system along the normal coordinates η 1 = η 01 cos ω 1 t = . using the relationship 2.01142 cos 9.15 Φ [rad] 0. 4375 × 10−2 .1 0.005 0 0. one has to transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones. 9224 × 10−3 cos 22.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 127 Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2.227) 4. 8066 × 10−2 cos 22.05 -0.091t η 2 = η 02 cos ω 2 t = 1.226) (2.935t ∙ v01 v02 ¸ = ∙ 0 0 ¸ (2. 8066 × 10−2 cos 9. 091t + 8. 43 and 44 0.935t Φ 8.5 t[s] Figure 44 . 0778 × 10−3 cos 9.01142 cos 9.228) = 9. we are getting ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ 9.01 X[m] 0.2 0.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.

45.J D 3 l Figure 45 2 The rigid beam 1 of mass M. I A k C c E.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 128 Problem 31 L A 1 F=F cosω t o B M. length L and the moment of inertia about its point of rotation IA . Its end D is ﬁxed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C. The beam 2 is massless and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic properties. Derive an expression for the ﬁxing moment and the ﬁxing force at the point D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B. is supported by means of the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c as shown in Fig. .

IO1 . Produce 1. k1 .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ ∙ 0 ¸ 0 X2 . Answer: RA = Φ2 ak2 . Φ2 . k2 and as well as the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 129 Problem 32 1 O1 s1 k1 c s2 k2 A m1 I O1 G1 G2 b m 2 I O2 O2 a 2 F cosω 1 t 1 k F cosω 2 t 2 Figure 46 The two rods. The centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G1 and G2 respectively. M= 2 2 ca∙ −kb2 k2 a2 + kb2 + m2 gs2 ¸−ca ¸ ∙ 0 ¸ Io2 ∙ ϕ1 F1 b 0 cos ω 1 t + cos ω2 t x= .particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ cos ω 2 t −F2 b 3. C= . and m2 . K= . the diﬀerential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx¸= F ∙ x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −kb2 ca2 −ca2 k1 a2 + kb2 + m1 gs1 Io1 0 . Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively m1 . are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig. the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A. Vibrations of the system are excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F1 . 46. IO2 . the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods Answer: X = X1 + X2 ¸ ∙ F1 b cos ω 1 t X1 . 1 and 2. F2 and frequencies ω1 and ω2 . These rods are connected to each other by means of springs of the stiﬀness k. F= −F2 b 0 ϕ2 2.the lower element of the matrix X .

0 m2 −c2 a 0 k2 c2 ∙ √ ¸ ∙ ¸ α mµω 2 h2 + a2 . The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ IA + M(h2 + a2 ) 0 c1 b2 + c2 a2 −c2 a k1 b 0 M= .IA c1 C A B c2 2 m2 k1 1 ω h µ k2 D Figure 47 The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. It can be approximated by a particle of the mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and a. K= . Its mass is equal to m and its unbalance is µ. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard matrix form. Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m1 and IA respectively. C= . The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. F= cos ωt x= x 0 . 47) is hinged at the point A and is supported at the point C by means of the spring of stiﬀness k1 and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c1 . To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2 of mass m2 was attached. The damping coeﬃcient of the damper between the beam and the block is denoted by c2 and the stiﬀness of the supporting spring in denoted by k2 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 130 Problem 33 b 3 a m M G m1. Produce 1.

x .the linear displacement of the block 2 2. Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.the angular displacement of the beam1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 131 α . .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

132

Problem 34

l A G k

l

F C

l D

α

B

β

k

Figure 48 Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG are hinged together to form a bridge that is shown in Fig. 48. This bridge is supported by means of two springs each of the stiﬀness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form F = Fo cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard form Answer: M¨ + Kx = F ¸ x ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 1 0 α 0 −1 2 2 3 6 ml ; K = kl ; x = ; F= M= cos ωt 2 0 1 β Fo l −1 3 6 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system Answer: |K − 1ω n | = 0 3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 A −1 2 X = [−ω M + K] cos ωt = Fo l B 4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge B and the ground Answer: R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

133

Problem 35

1

L

m1,IA x k m k1 B c

ϕ

2

A

y

Figure 49 Figure. 49 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by IA and its mass by m1 . The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by the spring of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Mass of the wheels 2 are denoted by m and the stiﬀness of its tire is k1 . Motion of the trolley is excited by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following function. y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system 3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system 4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

134

Problem 36

y A c3 m3 k3 3

2 4

r m2,I2

k2 k1 m1

1

c1 B

Figure 50 In Fig. 50 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are rigid and their masses are respectively m1 and m3 respectively. The rigid pulley 2 has radius r, mass m2 and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I2 . The elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiﬀness k1 and k2 . The point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation. y = a cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

135

⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Answer: ⎡ 0 0 m1 c1 0 0 M = ⎣ 0 m2 + m3 0 ⎦ ; C = ⎣ 0 c3 0 ⎦ 0 I2 0⎤ 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎡ −k1 −k1 r k1 x1 0 K = ⎣ −k1 k1 + k2 + k3 k1 r − k2 r ⎦ F = ⎣ ak3 ⎦ cos ωt; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ −k1 r k1 r − k2 r (k1 + k2 ) r2 0 ϕ x1 - the linear displacement of the block 1 x2 - the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3 ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: The particular solution xp of the equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ The ﬁrst element xp1 of the matrix xp represents displacement of the block 1 3. the expression for the interaction force at point B. Answer RB = c1 xp1 ˙

k2 and k3 respectively. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system 3. I2 . the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. It can be approximated by the following function T3 = T cos ωt Produce: 1. . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. There is a torque T3 applied to the disk I3 . the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1. and I3 are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that the torsional stiﬀness are k1 . The disks of moment of inertia I1 . The shaft k1 is connected to the shaft k2 by means of the gear of ratio i = D1 /D2 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 136 Problem 37 I1 I2 I3 D2 D1 T3 k1 k2 Figure 51 k3 Figure 51 shows the physical model of a compressor.

In the above equations not all variables are independent.231) According to the third Newton’s law we have F12 = F21 (2.230) D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 iϕ11 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 137 Solution ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ22 F21 F12 T3 I1 ϕ2 ϕ22 I2 ϕ3 I3 D2 T3 D1 ϕ11 ϕ1 ϕ1 ϕ11 k1 k2 k3 Figure 52 To produce the equations of motion of the system one may split it into ﬁve rigid bodies (Newton approach) and write the following set of equations I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 ϕ22 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 ϕ22 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 where F12 F21 stand for the interaction forces between the rear D1 and D2 . ϕ22 = iϕ11 Hence the equations can be rewritten as follows I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨ (2.232) .229) (2.

234) Introduction of this relationship into the ﬁrst.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 138 Hence the second and third equation yields F12 = 2 2 (k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 ) = (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) = F21 D1 D2 k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 = (2.235) (2. x = ⎣ ϕ2 ⎦ I3 0 −k3 k3 ϕ3 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎦ 0 F =⎣ (2. K = ⎣ −ke ke + k3 −k3 ⎦ . C = 0.233 allows the angular displacement ϕ11 to be expressed in terms of the displacements ϕ1 and ϕ2 .237) (2.239) T cos ωt ⎡ ⎤ .231 one can get ¨ I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + I2 ϕ2 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 or µ ¶ 1 ϕ I1 (i¨ 1 ) = −ke (iϕ1 ) + ke ϕ2 i2 I2 ϕ2 = −ke ϕ2 − k3 ϕ2 + ke (iϕ1 ) + k3 ϕ3 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ke = 2 k1 ik1 k2 ϕ1 + ϕ k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 2 k1 k2 i i2 k2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + ϕ1 + ϕ + k3 ϕ3 k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 (2.236) k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 The above set of equations can be now presented in the matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ where ⎡ 1 I i2 1 where (2.233) D1 (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) D2 The equation 2.238) M =⎣ I2 The same results one can get by means of the Lagrange’s equations ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ −ke 0 ke iϕ1 ⎦ . ϕ11 = k1 ik2 ϕ + ϕ 2 1 k1 + k2 i k1 + k2 i2 2 (2. second and ﬁfth equation of the set 2.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 139 The kinetic energy function and the potential energy function of the system considered are 1 1 1 T = I1 ϕ2 + I2 ϕ2 + I3 ϕ2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 V 1 k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 1 = k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 = d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ3 ˙ ∂T ∂ϕ1 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − ϕ22 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 = 2 2 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − iϕ11 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 2 2 Hence = I1 ϕ1 ¨ = I2 ϕ2 ¨ = I3 ϕ3 ¨ = 0.240) . ∂ϕ2 ∂T =0 ∂ϕ3 ¶ µ ¶ µ ∂V 1 ∂ϕ11 1 ∂ϕ11 = = − 1 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) −i k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 = i2 ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 ¶ ¶ µ µ 1 1 1 ∂ϕ11 ∂V ∂ϕ11 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) 1 − i + k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (−1) = k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) = ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 = −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 ∂V 1 = k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (1) = ∂ϕ3 2 = −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 The virtual work produced by the impressed forces acting on the system is δW = (0) ϕ1 + (0) ϕ2 + (T3 ) ϕ3 Introduction of the above expressions into the following Lagrange’s equations ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = Q1 dt ∂ ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q2 dt ∂ ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q3 dt ∂ ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ˙ (2. ∂T = 0.

k1r = 2 (2.239. I1r = 1 1 1 1 1 = + = k1 + ke k1r k2 k2 i2 It is ke = k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 140 yields the wanted equations of motion of the system considered ¨ I1 ϕ1 + ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 = 0 ¨ I2 ϕ2 + −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 or ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 µ (2. The equivalent stiﬀness of the shaft assembled of the shaft k2 and k1r can be produced from the following equation ϕ1r = iϕ1 . 53 ϕ1r= iϕ1 I1r=I1 / i2 k1r=k1 / i D2 2 ϕ2 I2 ϕ3 I3 T3 D1 I1 ϕ1 k1 k2 k3 Figure 53 In this ﬁgure I1 k1 .244) .243) (2. It is easy to see that precisely the same equations possesses the system presented in Fig.242) 2 i i stands for so called reduced displacement.241) They are identical with the equation 2. reduced moment of inertia and reduced stiﬀness.

53 are as follows µ ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 141 Hence.245) ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 . the equations of motion of the system presented in Fig.

Produce: 1. The system has two degrees of freedom and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q1 and q2 . These bodies possess masses m1 and m2 and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers of gravity (G1.??. Vibrations of the pendulum about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the body 1. the diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 142 Problem 38 M=Mocosωt O c1 l q1 G1 1 Y A a b c2 c k c q1 q2 k 2 B G2 X Figure 54 Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig. G2) are I1 and I2 respectively.

M= . F= 0 2ca2 m2 gc2 m2 gc2 + 2kb2 0 2. the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the point B. x= IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) IG2 m2 c2 ¸ ∙ q2 ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 ∙ m1 gc1 + m2 g(l + c2 ) 0 0 Mo m2 gc2 K= . C= . .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 143 Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations. ¸ ¸ ∙ Answer: ∙ IG1 + m1 c2 + IG2 + m2 (l + c2 )2 IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) q1 1 . the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum 3.

The rotor R of the ventilator V possesses a mass m R and rotates with a constant angular velocity Ω. This assembly is furnished with the dynamic absorber of vibrations. Produce: 1.1 and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ . This rotor is unbalanced and its centre of gravity is oﬀ from its axis of rotation by µ. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the system shown in Fig. Its moment of inertia about the axis X-X is I X .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 144 Problem 39 B X Gr V X R Ω α kv cv kd kv cd l cv e a b d D x Figure 55 The assembly of the ventilator V and its base B (see Fig. 55) can be considered as a rigid body. The block D can translate along the inertial axis x only. the spring of stiﬀness k d and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c d . It is made of the block D of mass m d . This assembly is free to rotate about the horizontal axis X-X and is kept in the horizontal position by means of two springs each of stiﬀness k v and two dampers each of the damping coeﬃcient c v . The angular displacement α deﬁnes the instantaneous position of this assembly. Its centre of gravity G r is located by the distances a and b.

The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system along the coordinates x and α 3.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 145 ¸ ∙ Answer. M= 0 m ¸ ∙ ¸ 2cv e2 + cd l2 −cd l 2kv d2 + kd l2 −kd l C= . F= cos Ωt x= x 0 2. ∙ . The expression for the force transmitted to foundation by the damper c v . Ix 0 . K= . −c l −kd l c kd ∙ d √ ¸ ∙ ¸ d α mR µΩ2 a2 + b2 .

The expression for the driving force that must be applied to the point A in order to assure the assumed motion Y (t). 3. 56 is hinged at the point A to the support 5.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 146 Problem 40 Y 5 A Y 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 2 α B 4 X Figure 56 The uniform rod 1 of mass m and length l shown in Fig. . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The support 5 moves along the horizontal axis Y according to the following function Y = a cos ωt The lower end of the rod is connected to the blocks 2 and 3 by means of two springs 4 each of stiﬀness k. Produce: 1. The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the and present it in the following matrix form. It possesses three degrees of freedom and the three independent coordinates are denoted by y2 and y3 . The blocks mass is m2 and m3 respectively. The system performs small oscillation in the vertical plane XY .

249) . l l ˙ ˙ ˙ rG1 = J(Y + α cos α) + I(− α sin α) ˙ 2 2 Hence.248) (2. the kinetic energy of the rod is ¶ µ 1 1 l l 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T1 = m (Y + α cos α) + (− α sin α) + IG1 α2 2 2 2 2 (2. d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = 0 dt ∂ α ∂α ˙ ∂α ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y2 ∂y2 ∂y2 ˙ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y3 ∂y3 ∂y3 ˙ (2. rG1 = J(Y + l l sin α) + I( cos α) 2 2 (2.246) To produce the kinetic energy function T associated with the the rod 1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 147 Solution Y 5 A rG1 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 Y 2 α B 4 X Figure 57 Motion of the system is governed by the Lagrange equations. let us develop the position vector of its centre of gravity G1 .247) Its ﬁrst derivative provide us with the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity.

251) ˙ ˙ ˙2 ˙2 2 2 8 2 2 2 The potential energy of the springs 4 is 1 1 Vs = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 2 2 The potential energy due to gravitation is l Vg = −mgrG1Y = −mg cos α 2 Hence. K = ⎣ −k2 l k2 0 ⎦ M = ⎣ 0 k3 0 0 m3 −k3 l ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎡ ¨ α + 2 mlaω2 − a (k2 l + k3 l) − 2 mY − (k2 l + k3 l) Y ⎦ .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 148 Since the kinetic energy of the blocks 2 and 3 is as follows 1 T2 = m2 y2 ˙2 2 1 T3 = m3 y3 ˙2 2 (2. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F cos ωt x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 mgl + k2 l2 + k3 l2 −k2 l −k3 l IG + 1 ml2 0 4 2 0 m2 0 ⎦ .252) .253) (2.250) the total kinetic energy of the whole system is 1 ˙ 1 1 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ T = T1 +T2 +T3 = mY 2 + mlY α cos α+ ml2 α2 + IG1 α2 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 (2. C = 0.254) 2 2 2 Introducing the expressions 2.254 into equations 2.256) F = k2 Y k3 a y3 k3 Y ⎡ To verify the above equations of motion let us employ the Newton-Euler method for modeling of the system considered.251 and 2. x = ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎦=⎣ ⎣ k2 a (2. the total potential energy is 1 1 l V = Vs + Vg = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 − mg cos α (2. 58 (2.255) (2. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig.246 one can get the required equation in the following matrix form.

It can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of the absolute velocity vector 2.262) . l l l l ¨ ¨G1 = J(Y + α cos α − α2 sin α) + I(− α sin α − α2 cos α) r ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 2 2 2 2 Hence After linearization l l ¨ ¨ ˙ aG1Y = Y + α cos α − α2 sin α 2 2 l ¨ aG1Y = Y + α ¨ 2 (2. (2.259) In the latest equation aG1Y stands for the component Y of the absolute acceleration of the centre of gravity G1 .257) The second equation can be used for determination of the unknown interaction force RAY .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 149 Y RAX 5 A RAY Y 1 l 3 G1 y3 y2 G1 2 α B R3Y 4 R3Y R2Y R2Y X Figure 58 For the rod one can produce the following two equations 1 ¨ IG α = − RAY l + 2 maG1Y = RAY + R2Y 1 1 R2Y l + R3Y l 2 2 + R3Y (2.247.257 gives 1 ¨ IG α = − lmaG1Y + R2Y l + R3Y l 2 (2.258) RAY = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y Introduction of the above expression into the ﬁrst equation of 2.260) (2.261) (2.

268) ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y They are identical with 2.255. R3Y = k3 (y3 − Y − αl) (2.272) .269) (2.263 one can obtain 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 The Newton’s law if apply to the blocks 2 and 3 yields m2 y2 = −R2Y ¨ m3 y3 = −R3Y ¨ Since the interaction forces are deﬁned by 2.264 we have ¨ m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y Hence.266) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 150 Introduction of 2.265) (2.263) The interaction forces between the rod and the springs are can be expressed as follows R2Y = k2 (y2 − Y − αl).270) (2.259 results in the following equation l 1 ¨ IG α = − lm(Y + α) + R2Y l + R3Y l ¨ ¨ 2 2 (2.271) (2. M¨ + Kx = F cos ωt x (2. It can be predicted as x = A cos ωt Introducing it into the equation of motion we have (−ω 2 M + K)A = F The wanted vector of the amplitudes of the system forced vibrations is ⎤ ⎡ Aα A =(−ω2 M + K)−1 F = ⎣ Ay2 ⎦ Ay3 (2.264) Introducing them into equation 2.262 into 2. the governing equations are 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ (2.267) The amplitudes of the forced vibration could be obtained from the particular solution of the above equation.

1 U1 2 ω B A m1 U2 ϕ1 ωt F2 Ui1 m2 ϕ2 ωt B A Ui2 Ui x2 F1 x1 Figure 59 In a general case. RAY 2. 59). due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing.3.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 2. the centres of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of rotation. Its follows that due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force Ui (see Fig.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 151 Now. Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces Ui1 and Ui2 acting in . the interaction force RAY can be produced as an explicit function of time from 2.1 Balancing of rotors Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis A − A (see Fig.258 = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y ¶ µ l ¨ ¨ = m Y + α − k2 (y2 − Y − αl) − k3 (y3 − Y − αl) 2 µ ¶ l 2 2 = m −aω − Aα ω cos ωt + (2.273) 2 −k (A − a − Aα l) cos ωt − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt ¶ ¶ µ 2 µ y2 l 2 = m −a − Aα ω − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt 2 = |RAY | cos ωt ¯ ¡ ¯ ¢ l where |RAY | = ¯m −a − 2 Aα ω2 − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l)¯ is the amplitude of the interaction force. They are distributed along. 59). line B − B. usually unknown.

therefore their resultants U1 and U2 are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too. 1 2 x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 x4 4 4 ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt ωt U 1o U1 x2 t U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a4 a 4o β3 a 3o a3 x3 β3 β4 ωt x3 ωt Figure 60 Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig. These two arbitrarily chosen planes. one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of mass m1 and m2 attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F1 and F2 balance the resultant forces U1 and U2 . The process of searching for magnitude of the unbalance forces U1 and U2 and their phases ϕ1 and ϕ2 is called balancing. 60.denoted in Fig. The balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. Hence. The second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 152 two arbitrarily chosen planes. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body. According to the above discussion. the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U1 and U2 in two arbitrarily chosen plane. are . 60 by nubers 1 and 2.

ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 153 called balancing plane.274) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 where a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . shown in Fig. The transducer 5. for example. Test (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (1) m (1) U o (1) U (1) ϕ (1) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (1) 4o a (1) 4 (1) β4 β3 (1) (1) a 3o a3 x3 (1) ωt ωt Figure 61 .275) If the transfer functions Ri. Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary.j (iω) would be known. For long rotors. the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible. These planes. a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . In order to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required. 60 by N. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸∙ a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 = (2. which is called key phasor. These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine.96 oﬀers the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U1 and U2 and the measured displacements a3 and a4 . U2 = U2o eiϕ2 (2. these plane should oﬀer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached. The equation 2. there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. marked in Fig. Let a3 and a4 be the complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates x3 and x4 with help of the two transducers 3 and 4. U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . Let us arrange for these vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes. β 2 ) to be measured. ϕ2 ) and the phases of the recorded displacements (β 1 . creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. This mark. Furthermore. are called measurement planes. 60 by numbers 3 and 4. allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ1 . this relation would allow the unknow magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined.

# ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 U1 + U (1) = (2. The amplitude of this force U (1) is (1) Uo = m(1) µ(1) ω2 (2. (1) U (1) = Uo eiϕ (2. There is the following relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 154 An additionl trial weight of mass m(1) (see Fig 61) is attached in the balancing plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(1) and the know distance µ(1) .279) The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes (2) (2) (2) (2) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained. (1) (1) (1) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . There is the following . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (2) . The amplitude of this force U (2) is (2) Uo = m(2) µ(2) ω2 (2. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .277) (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 .278) (1) 3 1 2 4 µ (2) m (2) Uo (2) U (2) ϕ (2) ωt x1 ϕ1 ωt U 1o U1 x2 U2o ωt ϕ2 U2 a (2) 4o a (2) 4 (2) β4 β3 (2) (2) a 3o a3 x3 (2) ωt ωt Figure 62 An additional trial weight of mass m(2) (see Fig 62) is attached in the balancing plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(2) and the know distance µ(2) . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (1) . Test (2) (1) (1) (1) a4 = a4o eiβ 4 .276) The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes (1) (1) (1) (1) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained.

274 from 2. " # ∙ ¸ ∙ (1) ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 − a3 U = (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) 0 a4 − a4 " # ∙ ¸ (1) a3 − a3 R31 (iω)U (1) = (1) R41 (iω)U (1) a4 − a4 a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R31 (iω) = 3 (1) = 3o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R41 (iω) = 4 (1) = 4o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (2. the wanted complex imbalances U1 and U2 in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed from the equation 2. To achieve that let us subtract the equations 2.283) Now.280 one can get a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R32 (iω) = 3 (2) = 3o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R42 (iω) = 4 (2) = 4o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2.277 # ∙ Ã" ¸ µ∙ ¸! ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶ (1) a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 a3 U1 + U (1) − = − (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 U2 a4 a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3o eiβ 3 U1o eiϕ1 = = (2. (2) (2) (2) U1 = U1o eiϕ1 .274.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 155 relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.277 and 2.282) Similarly. 2.280) (2) (2) U (2) = Uo eiϕ (2.285) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4o eiβ 4 U2o eiϕ2 .274 ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2.284) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 where a3 and a4 represent the know response of the system without the additional weights. (2) (2) (2) (2.274 from 2. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (2) U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 + U (2) a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . if one subtracts equations 2.280 allow the unknown transfer functions and the wanted unbalances U1 and U2 to be computed.281) The formulated equations 2. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .

287) x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2 x2 4 x4 4 m1 r1 β1 ϕ1 U1o U1 m2 r2 β2 U2o ωt x1 ωt ωt x2 ϕ2 U2 Figure 63 .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 156 The amplitudes U1o and U2o determine the weights m1 and m2 that should be attached in the balancing planes m1 = m2 U1 r1 ω 2 U2 = r2 ω 2 (2.286) These weights. 63) β 1 = 180o + ϕ1 β 2 = 180o + ϕ2 1 2 (2. should be place at angular position (see Fig. to balance the rotor.

3.0001 m . a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x mr µ ω 2 b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M M Figure 64 Let us assume that the system has the following parameters: M = 100 kg . 64a). 65 . within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be approximated by system with one degree of freedom.00 2 kgm .0000 2ω 2 ¯ ¯ q ¯=¯ ¯ ¯ (2.imbalance of the rotor The natural frequency of the system is r r K 9000000 = = 300 (2.mass of rotor of the ventilator K = 9000000 N/m .0001 = .stiﬀness of the supporting beam ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed µ = . The following mathematical model M x + Kx = mr µω2 cos ωt ¨ (2. Vibration of this ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor.distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity u = mr µ = 20 · .291) M 100 allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted.289) (2. 64b).total mass of the ventilator mr = 20 kg .292) A=¯ 2 ω n − ω2 ¯ ¯ 3002 − ω 2 ¯ Its values. as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .288) ωn = M 100 Hence. Its physical model is shown in Fig.290) x + ω 2 x = q cos ωt ¨ n u 2 0.0000 2ω 2 q= (2.002 2 ω = ω = .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 157 2.

293) .Euler’s method.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 158 0. M x + (K + k)x − ky + cx − cy = uω2 cosωt ¨ ˙ ˙ m¨ − kx + ky − cx + cy = 0 y ˙ ˙ (2.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[ 1/s] Figure 65 As it can be seen from this diagram. Such a solution is not acceptable. Application of the Newton’s . One of a possible way of reducing these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in ﬁg 66 a) mr µ ω 2 cosω t x b) x µ ωt mr µ ω 2 mr µ ω 2 cosω t K mr M k y k c m m y M c Figure 66 It comprises block of mass m. the ventilator develops large vibration in vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during the run up. results in the following mathematical model. elastic element of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.

294) To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ M 0 x ¨ +c −c x ˙ K + k −k x + + = 0 m y ¨ −c +c ˙ ∙ ¸ ∙y 2 iωt −k ∙ +k ¸ y ¸ (2.296) and than introduces it into the equation 2.297 one obtains the formula for the amplitude of the forced vibration ¯ ¯ (2.298) (2. 67: Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulﬁll the following relationship r k = ω = 314 (2.300) m To show it let us assume m = 25 kg and compute the value of the stiﬀness k from the formula 2. ¸ ∙ A1 = A= A2 ¯µ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¶−1 ∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ 100 0 0 0 11.299) A = ¯(−ω2 m+iωc + k)−1 q¯ Amplitude A1 .295) uω 2 cos ωt + iuω 2 sin ωt uω e uω 2 iωt = = = e 0 0 0 Introducing notations ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ M 0 +c −c m= . 4649 × 106 N/m Introduction of this data into equation 2. representing vibrations of the ventilator. x= (2. c= . 46 0.299 and the zero damping results in the following response A1 and A2 of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively.002 · ω2 ¯ ¯ + iω + 106 ¯ −ω2 ¯ 0 25 0 0 −2. 46 0 ¯ ¯ (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 159 Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ uω 2 cos ωt x K + k −k x ˙ +c −c x ¨ M 0 = + + y −k +k y ˙ −c +c y ¨ 0 m 0 (2. 46 2.5 −2. q= .297) ∙ K + k −k −k +k ¸ ∙ uω2 0 ¸ ∙ x y ¸ k= .301) . 0 m −c +c The above equations takes form m¨ + cx + kx = qeiωt x ˙ If one predicts the particular solution as x = Aeiωt (2.300 k = mω 2 = 25 · 3142 = 2. as a function of the angular speed of its rotor is presented in Fig.

46 2. computed according to the formula 2. The relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one degree of freedom. 46 0 (2.00004 m. This case is shown in the last raw of the table 1. . ∙ ¸ A1 = A2 ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸ ∙ ¶−1 ∙ ∙ µ c c 100 0 0.302) The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for diﬀerent values of the damping coeﬃcient c. If the damping tends to inﬁnity. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of ω = 240 rad/s. To improve the dynamic response. Damping coeﬃcient lager then 5000 results in increment of the amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. The amplitude is less than 0. that by increasing the damping coeﬃcient c one can lower amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 160 0. 46 2 3 6 10 + + iω 10 = −ω c c 0 25 −2. Application of the absorber of vibrations oﬀers a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s.002 · ω2 11. let us analyze the inﬂuence of the damping coeﬃcient c.302 are collected in the Table 1. The best results of attenuation of vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other. It can be noticed.5 −2.0001 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] Figure 67 One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314 rad/s is equal to zero.

0001 m = 25 k = 2.75 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] . Table 1 0. 46 × 106 c = 2500 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 1.0001 m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c = 5000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s ] 0. 46 × 106 c=0 A1[m] 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 161 . 46 × 106 c = 1000 A1[m] 0 0 100 200 300 400 ω[1/s] 0.0001 m = 25 k = 2.0001 m = 25 k = 2.

Its position is determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3.Chapter 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3.t) dz ∂z ∂ z2 2 y Figure 1 Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig.t) + ∂ y(z.1.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 3. t) ∂y(z. t)dz (3. According to the second Newton’s law µ ¶ ∂y(z.t) T y(z. ρ (z) T z ∂ y(z. rods and shafts Modelling of stings f(z.1) The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig. 1. 1 A(z) stands for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density. t) that in a general case can be a function of time t and the position z.1 Modelling of strings.t) z dz T A(z). 1). It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to small motion of the string around its equilibrium position.2) dm ∂t2 ∂z ∂z ∂z 2 . Let us consider element dz of the sting. t) +T + = −T dz + f (z. Motion of the string is caused by the unit vertical load f (z. In the Fig. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) ∂z ∂ y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.

t) − = 2 2 ∂t A(z) (z) ∂z A(z) (z) (3. t) = f (z. t) A (3.t) z F(z. ρ (z) F(z. 3.t) F(z.5) (3.4) If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y(z.2 and its simpliﬁcation yields A(z) (z) ∂ 2 y(z.t) F(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) + ∂ F(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) dz ∂z z Figure 2 .3) If one divide this equation by A(z) (z)dz it takes form ∂ 2 y(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. A(z). t) T f (z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) F(z.t) dz ∂z y(z. A q(z.1 into Eq.6) f(z. 3. t) dz − T dz = f (z. t) − λ2 = q(z.t) z dz dz E(z). t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Modelling of rods T .MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 163 Introduction of Eq.t) + ∂ F(z.

t) that. t) ∂ A(z) (z) A(z)E(z) = f (z. t) ∂z (3. 3. t)dz = −F (z. t) ∂ dm A(z)E(z) dz = f (z. t) = f (z.7 one may obtain µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.11) (3. t) = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. are constant) one can get 2 ∂ 2 y(z. q(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. Let as consider a rod of the cross-section A(z). Its instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z. dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) + F (z. Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z). t) A (3. can be a function of position z and time t. t) − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If the rod is uniform ( A. t)dz − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z Since mass of the element is dm = A(z) (z)dz the equation of motion of the element is µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t). t) ∂y(z.t) dz ∂z dz = A(z)E(z) ∂y(z. E.7) The axial force F (z. t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law F (z. t) + ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) −λ = q(z.9) (3. t) ∂y(z.13) . Application of the second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields. t) 2 ∂ y(z. t) dz + f (z. t) ∂F (z.10) (3. Let us consider the highlighted in Fig.12) where λ2 = E . Motion of the rod is excited by the axial force f (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 164 Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces.8) Upon introducing the above expression into Eq. 2 element dz. in a general case.

t) z dz T(z.t) τ (z. the shaft performs the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section at z is ϕ(z. t) + dz + τ (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 165 Modelling of shafts G(z).t) ϕ ϕ (z. Its moment of inertia ∂z about the axis z is Z Z 2 dI = r dA (z)dz = (z)dz r2 dA = J(z) (z)dz (3.t) + ∂ (z.t) + ∂ T(z. ρ (z) ϕ (z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) = −T (z. t) ∂T (z. t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig. the density (z).14) A A Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation dI ∂ 2 ϕ(z. 3). the cross-section area A(z) and the second moment of area J(z).t) dz ∂z z Figure 3 Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques. t).t) ϕ (z. The shaft has the shear modulus G(z).t) dz ∂z ϕ (z.t) dz greater. Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. A(z). The angular position at the distance z + dz is by the total diﬀerential ∂ϕ(z. J(z). t).15) . Due to the moment τ (z. Let us assume that the torque τ (z.t) z T(z. t) + T (z.

t) = τ (z. (z) and G(z) are constant. 3. The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) 2 ∂ ϕ(z. the equation of motion takes form. t) = τ (z. t) T (z. t) + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z (3. t) J(z) (z) = τ (z. t).1. density (z) and the Young’s modulus E(z). t) − V (z. ∂M(z.2 Modelling of beams Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or moments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam). The beam performs vibrations due to the external distributed unit load f (z. 4. t) + V (z.19) where λ2 = G .14 and an elementary simpliﬁcation the equation 3. t) ∂T (z.16) − ∂t2 ∂z If we introduce the relationship between the torque T (z. t) −λ = q(z.17) (3. t) = ∂z Since mass of the element dz is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3.21) If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz.22) Simpliﬁcation of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then one with respect to dz. t) ∂ ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) ∂V (z.20) 3. q(z. t) dz dz + M(z. yields the relationship between the bending moment M and the shearing force V. 3.24) . The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted in Fig.18) (3. t) − G(z)J(z) J(z) (z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If J(z). t) − dz + f (z. t)dz dz = ∂z G(z)J(z) into Eq.16 we are getting µ ¶ ∂ϕ(z. Let us consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z). sum of the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂V (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 166 After introduction of Eq. t) and the deﬂection ϕ(z. 2 ∂ 2 ϕ(z.15 takes form ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) ∂ϕ(z. t) + dz = 0 V (z.23) V (z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) (3. t) (3. cross-section A(z). t) dz ∂M(z. t) − M(z. t) = +V (z. t) J (3.

t) + ∂ V(z. 3.26) V(z. t) = f (z.t) M(z.t) dz ∂z M(z.26 into equation 3.t) z f(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 4 where λ2 = EJ .t) y(z.t) G V(z. t) A(z) (z) + = f (z.27) are constant.ρ (z) dz (3.t)dz M(z. J. t) ∂ 4 y(z. t) A (3.t) dz/2 z y Figure 4 and taking into account Eq.t)+ ∂ ∂z E(z). motion of the ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 167 f(z.29) .J(z). A(z). E and beam is governed by the following equation (3. t) + 2 E(z)J(z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z 2 M(z. t) ∂M 2 (z. t) and the bending moment M(z. t) + λ2 = q(z. t).25) ∂t2 ∂z 2 The mechanics of solids oﬀers the following relationship between the deﬂection of the beam y(z.25 yields µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. one can get the equation of motion in the following form ∂ 2 y(z. A q(z. t) = E(z)J(z) If the following parameters of the beam A. ∂ 2 y(z.23. t) ∂z 2 Introduction of equation 3. t) ∂2 A(z) (z) = f (z. t) (3.28) (3.

the equation 3. its analysis can be discussed simultaneously. a function of two variables. rods and shafts are described by the same mathematical model.36) ωn λ (3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. Therefore.2. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. In this case the governing equation ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a function of time t.natural frequencies and natural modes Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product of two functions.37) (3. t) − λ2 = q(z.38) β n = ωn E . rods and shafts The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of Eq. 3.32) Introduction of the predicted solution 3.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation determined by the initial conditions. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. vibrations of strings.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS As could be seen from the previous section. 3.1 Free vibration of strings. The general solution. y(z.33) for strings for rods (3. The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system considered are constant.30) is classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 168 3. If the external excitation q(z.32 into equation 3.30 ∂ 2 y(z.31) ∂t2 ∂z 2 Boundary conditions . t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. t) = 0. t) − λ2 =0 (3.31 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n or Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0 n where βn = The general solution of this equation is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z where β n = ωn r A T r (3.34) (3.35) (3.

Some of the boundary conditions for strings. rods and shafts are shown in the following table.39) . r G for shafts (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 169 β n = ωn The values for the parameter β n as well as the constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the boundary conditions.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 170 Table 3.1 z l y string for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free rod for for I z = 0 F = AEYn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-free rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0 k z l ﬁxed-elasticaly supported rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = −kYn z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0 z l free-free shaft for for I z = 0 T = GJYn = 0 I z = l T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed free shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 I T = GJYn = 0 z l ﬁxed-ﬁxed shaft for for z=0 z=l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 .

.... β2 = .36.. Cn has to be equal to 0. . . 0 = 0 · Sn + 1 · Cn 0 = (sin β n l)Sn + (cos β n l)Cn Its matrix form is ∙ (3.41 becomes linearly dependant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily...... ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ (3.40) Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3. 5 ..39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be p β n = ωn G s s G nπ G = n = 1.. . results in a set of two homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Sn and Cn .. only positive roots of the above equation has the physical meaning π 2π nπ β1 = . If one choose arbitrarily Sn .44) This equation is called characteristic equation and has inﬁnite number of solution.45) l l l Taking advantage of equation 3. The ﬁrst mode is called fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural frequency.∞ (3.. For this case the boundary conditions are for for z = 0 z = l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 (3. in the case considered is nπ Yn (z) = sin β n z = sin z n = 1.. ...47) l The functions Yn (z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding roots ω n are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 171 To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes.42) = sin β n l cos β n l 0 Cn This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. A few ﬁrst of them are shown in Fig. The above analysis allows to conclude that a continuous system possesses inﬁnite number of the natural frequencies and inﬁnite number of the corresponding natural modes. 2.43) ¯ sin β n l cos β n l ¯ = 0 Hence.. according to the ﬁrst equation of the set 3..41. 2..46) ωn = β n l For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3. according to 3..41) ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 1 Sn 0 (3... In the case of free vibrations of the shaft...say Sn = 1.36. the natural modes determine the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z). 2. let us consider the ﬁxed on both ends shaft (last row of the above Table). Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution.. n = 1. Since β n and l are always positive. β n = .∞ (3. .∞ (3. in this particular case we have sin β n l = 0 (3.

5 0 0.52) .50) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts. Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.5 z l=1 -1 Figure 5 Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).49 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiII (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjII (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.48) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 172 1 ϕ (z) 0. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 I ¯ − λ2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ´ ¯l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJI (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 (3.48 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.4 0.6 0.49) Premultiplying the equation 3.8 z 1 -0.51) j 0 0 Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields Z ³¡ ¡ 2 ¢¯l ¡ I ¢¯ ´ ¢ l 2 2 I ¯ − YJ (z)Yi (z) ¯l = 0 ωi − ωj Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ 0 0 (3.33 −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n Hence −ω 2 Yi (z) − λ2 YiII (z) = 0 i 2 −ω j Yj (z) − λ2 YjII (z) = 0 (3.2 0.

56) Since the equation 3.. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3. yn (z.60) ..58) This solution has to fulﬁll the initial conditions. t) = Yn (z) cos ωn t n = 1..55) At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce inﬁnite number of such particular solutions.∞ (3. It the same manner as it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form the required linearly independent set of solution.. General solution of the homogeneous equation According to 3. t) = Yn (z) sin ωn t n = 1.∞ (3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. Y0 (z) = V0 (z) = ∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1 Cn Yn (z) Sn ωn Yn (z) (3. 0) = Y0 (z) y(z.. 2.53) Hence. yn (z...32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3. This operation results in the following two equations..58 into the above initial conditions.31 eventually may be adopted in the following form. t) = ∞ X n=1 Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t + Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3. 3.31 is of second order with respect to time. The initial conditions determine the initial position Y0 (z) and the initial velocity V0 (z) of the system considered for the time t equal to zero. y(z.54) 0 The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition. the general solution of the equation 3.31 can be adopted in the following form y(z. ∂ y(z.59) ∂t To produce the constant Sn and Cn let us introduce the solution 3. 3.57) Hence. 2. 0) = V0 (z) (3. to fulﬁll initial conditions we need second set of linearly independent solution.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 173 It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to zero ¡ I ¢¯l ¡ ¢¯l Yi (z)Yj (z) ¯0 − YJI (z)Yi (z) ¯0 = YiI (l)Yj (l)−YiI (0)Yj (0)−YJI (l)Yi (l)+YJI (0)Yi (0) = 0 (3.

Its order with respect to time is 2 and with respect to z is equal to 4.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 174 To determine the unknown constants Sn and Cn . t) (3. t) + λ2 = q(z. t) = 0. ∂ 2 y(z.2 Free vibrations of beams For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be ∂ 2 y(z. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. t) + λ2 =0 (3. let us multiply the above equations by Ym (z) and then integrate them side by side Z l ∞ X Z l Y0 (z)Ym (z)dz = Cn Yn (z)Ym (z)dz 0 Z l V0 (z)Ym (z)dz = 0 For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae. If the external excitation q(z. the equation 3.64.54 the wanted constants Sn and Cn are Rl Y0 (z)Yn (z)dz Cn = 0 R l Y 2 (z)dz 0 n Rl 1 0 V0 (z)Yn (z)dz (3. a function of two variables.natural frequencies and natural modes Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts. t) ∂ 4 y(z.62) Sn = Rl 2 ωn Yn (z)dz 0 n=1 ∞ X n=1 0 Sn ω n Z l Yn (z)Ym (z)dz (3.47.65) ∂t2 ∂z 4 Boundary conditions .64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions. let us predict the solution of the above equation in the form of a product of two functions.66) . take form Rl Y (z) sin nπ zdz 0 0 Cn = R l ¡ ¢l2 nπ sin l z dz 0 Rl 1 0 V0 (z) sin nπ zdz Sn = (3. t) ∂ 4 y(z.61) 0 3. according to 3.64) ∂t2 ∂z 4 This equation can be classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ). One of them is a function of the position z and the other is the function of time t.63) ¢l R ¡ ω n l sin nπ z 2 dz 0 l Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3. y(z. The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of 3. The general solution.2. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.

68) (3. one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solutions eβ n z − e−β n z eβ n z + e−β n z = sinh β n z Y2 (z) = = cosh β n z Y1 (z) = 2 2 eiβ n z − e−iβ n z eiβ n z + e−iβ n z Y3 (z) = = sin β n z Y2 (z) = = cos β n z (3.74) 2 2 A graphical interpretation of these functions for β n = 1 is given in Fig.72) (3.73) Introduction of this solution into the equation 3.67) ω2 Aρ 2 n ω 2 = EJ n λ The standard form of its particular solution is Y (z) = erz r4 = β 4 n Its roots r1 = β n Y1 (z) = eβ n z determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution. 4 Y (z) 1 Y (z) 2 2 Y (z) 3 Y (z) 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 z -2 -4 Figure 6 .68 yields the characteristic equation Alternatively. Y2 (z) = e−β n z Y3 (z) = eiβ n z Y1 (z) = e−iβ n z r2 = −β n r3 = iβ n r2 = −iβ n (3.65 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n or where Y IV (z) − β 4 Y (z) = 0 n β4 = n (3.71) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 175 Introduction of the predicted solution 3. 6.69) (3.66 into equation 3.70) (3.

Cn and Dn should be chosen to fulﬁll boundary conditions. They involve the function Y (z) and its ﬁrst three derivatives with respect to z. Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3. Bn .2 O l Y z free-free beam O l Y z for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 Y I (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 Y (l) = 0 Y I (l) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = −kY (0) M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = +kY (l) ﬁxed-free beam O l Y z pined-ﬁxed beam O k l Y k z elasticaly supported beam . as a linear combination of these particular solutions is Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3. Since this equation is of fourth order.2.75) Values for the parameter β n as well as for the constants An . Table 3.78) I Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z = Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.76) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z (3.79) The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3.77) II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n (3. one has to produce four boundary conditions reﬂecting the conditions at both ends of the beam.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 176 The general solution of the equation 3.68.

82) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ cosh β n l sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l ¯ that.. corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig.85) . (3.78 and 3. Bn . for for for for z z z z =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 (3.. third and fourth equation we are getting ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = − ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ An sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn ⎡ (3.80) They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal to zero. These two modes.81. If we take advantage of the second. takes the following form cosh β n l cos β n l − 1 = 0 (3.81.. it is possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example An ) and the other can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3.79 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants An .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 177 Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the freefree beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes. Cn and Dn . For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3. this root is associated with the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. becomes linearly dependant.85 β 3 l = 11. after simpliﬁcation. since its characteristic determinant is zero. 7 The ﬁrst few roots are β 0 l = 0 β 1 l = 4... Therefore. This condition forms the characteristic equation ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 0 −1 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ 0 −1 0 ¯ ¯ (3... within a limited range of the parameter β n l is shown in Fig. Modes corresponding to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure.84) Introduction of the functions 3. 8a) and b). Since the beam considered is free-free in space. Solution of this equation.73 β 2 l = 7..83) This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has inﬁnite number of roots. the characteristic equation has double root of zero magnitude.81) n n n n 0 Dn β 3 cosh β n l β 3 sinh β n l −β 3 cos β n l β 3 sin β n l n n n n As one can see from the diagram 7. ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 0 β2 0 −β 2 0 An n n 3 ⎢ β3 ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 −β n 0 ⎢ n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β 2 sinh β n l β 2 cosh β n l −β 2 sin β n l −β 2 cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ (3.

the corresponding mode. Modes for β 2 l = 7.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 178 20 cosh βn l cosβn l -1=0 10 β0 l 0 β1 l 5 β2 l β3 l 10 15 βn l -10 -20 Figure 7 Hence.73 − sin 4. s s EJ (β n l)2 EJ ωn = β 2 = (3.73z − 1. 8d) and e) respectively.90) .0177 cos 4.73 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.73z + 1. the particular solution is y(z.73 sin 4.73z + 1. according to Eq.88) Its graphical representation is shown in Fig.85 and β 3 l = 11 are shown in Fig.86) For the ﬁrst non-zero root β 1 l = 4.75 is Y1 (z) = −1.87) Hence. taking into account the predicted solution 3.73z (3.73 the above set of equations yields values for constants B1 .89) n Aρ l2 Aρ Eventually. for An = −1 we have ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn (3.73 D1 sinh 4.66.73 1.0 sin 4.0 sinh 4.0 ⎦ cosh 4.017 8 ⎣ C1 ⎦ = ⎣ cosh 4.69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed. t) = Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. The formula 3.73 − cos 4.73 − cos 4. C1 and D1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ B1 1 0 −1 0 1.0178 cosh 4. 8c). 3.73 ⎦ ⎣ sinh 4.0177 (3. In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic roots.

4 z 0.8 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y0 (z) z b) 0 -1 -2 2 0.2 0.2 0.4 z 0.8 1 2 1 Y3 (z) e) 0 -1 -2 0.6 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 179 2 Y0 (z) 1 a) 0.2 0.6 0.4 z 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 z d) 0 -1 -2 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.8 1 c) 1 Y (z) 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y2 (z) 0.8 1 Figure 8 .

..95) Premultiplying the equation 3..92) n=1 Y1 (z) = −1..73z − 1.. It follows that the following linear combination n=∞ X Yn (z) (Sn sin ωn t + Cn cos ω n t) (3...96) j 0 0 The second integrals can be integrated by parts... ...... Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3..73z (3....73z + 1... In the same manner we can show that the function y(z..73z + 1.. t) = Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3..0177 cos 4.95 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiIV (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l −ω 2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjIV (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3..91) where is the linearly independent particular solution too.. The constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions.94) (3.65.. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 III ¯ − λ2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ −ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 j 0 0 (3.93) Y2 (z) = ........97) .0 sinh 4...0178 cosh 4..94 by Yj (z) and the equation 3..ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 180 where Yn (z) and ωn are uniquely determined and Sn is an arbitrarily chosen constant.. Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).67 −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n Hence −ω2 Yi (z) + λ2 YiIV (z) = 0 i −ω 2 Yj (z) + λ2 YjIV (z) = 0 j (3.. is the general solution of the equation 3..0 sin 4.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 181 Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again ³ ¯l ´ Rl −ω 2 0 Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + i ³ ¯l ´ Rl −λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 −ω j R 2 l ¯l ´ Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 + 0 ³ ¯l ´ Rl 2 II I −λ Yj (z)Yi (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 ³ (3.100) depends exclusively on boundary conditions. Hence. It is easy to show that for any possible boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero.101) 0 The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations. .98) Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields ¢Rl ¡ 2 ω i − ω 2 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz+ ´ j ³ ³ ¯l ¯l ´ −λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 ³ ³ ¯l ´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ − λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l = 0 +λ Yj (z)Yi (z) 0 0 (3. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.99) The expression ³ ³ ³ ¯l ´ 2 ³ II ¯´ ¯´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ +λ Yi (z)YjI (z)¯l +λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯l −λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l −λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 0 0 0 (3.

3 Problems Problem 41 G1.2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 182 3. 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies. ρ1. J2 z l1 l2 Figure 9 For the shaft shown in Fig. . J1 G2. ρ2. A2. A1.

111) ωn ωn β n2 = (3. t) = Φ2 (z) sin ω n t (3. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular .34. one may say that within range l1 < z < l1 + l2 motion of the shaft is governed by 2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 (z.106) where λ2 = 2 G2 2 (3. t) 2 ∂ ϕ2 (z.104) (3.19.103) G1 1 (3. ΦII (z) + β 2 Φ1 (z) = 0 1 n1 II Φ2 (z) + β 2 Φ2 (z) = 0 n2 where β n1 = (3. t) − λ2 =0 1 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 1 Similarly.102) motion of the system.108) (3. Therefore the particular solution of the above equations must be of the following form ϕ1 (z. according to 3.105) (3. t) ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.112) λ1 λ2 These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions for for for for z z z z = = = = 0 l1 l1 l1 + l2 Φ1 (0) = 0 Φ1 (l1 ) = Φ2 (l1 ) G1 J1 ΦI (l1 ) = G2 J2 ΦI (l1 ) 1 2 ΦI (l1 + l2 ) = 0 2 (3. is governed by the following equation ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 183 Solution For 0 < z < l1 (3.113) The ﬁrst boundary condition reﬂects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is ﬁxed.109) Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3. according to 3.110) (3.107) Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies. t) = Φ1 (z) sin ω n t ϕ2 (z.

Since the general solution of equation 3. This homogeneous set of equations has acteristic determinant is equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 184 displacement and continuity of the torque.118) Solution of this equation for the roots ω n yields the wanted natural frequencies of the shaft. The last condition says that the torque at the free end is zero.117) where ⎡ (3.114) (3. ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ 0 0 0 ⎢ sin ωn l1 λ1 [A] = ⎢ ⎣ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 0 the non-zero solutions if and only if its char0 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ2 λ2 ωn cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 0 − cos ωn l2 λ2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯= 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ⎤ 0 ⎥ − cos ωn l2 λ2 ⎥ ωn ωn G2 J2 λ2 sin λ2 l1 ⎦ − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 .115) (3.116) (3.111are ωn ωn z + Cn1 cos z λ1 λ1 ωn ωn Φ2 (z) = Sn2 sin z + Cn2 cos z λ2 λ2 Φ1 (z) = Sn1 sin the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations Cn1 = 0 Sn1 sin ωn l1 + Cn1 cos ωn l1 − Sn2 sin ωn l2 − Cn2 cos ωn l2 = 0 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 Sn1 G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 − Cn1 G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 + λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 −Sn2 G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 + Cn2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 +Sn2 ωn cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) − Cn2 ωn sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 Its matrix for is ⎤ Sn1 ⎢ C ⎥ [A] ⎢ n1 ⎥ = 0 ⎣ Sn2 ⎦ Cn2 1 0 ωn cos λ1 l1 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 ωn 0 cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ⎡ (3.110 and 3.

shown in Fig. Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this assembly. . is connected to the block 2 of mass m.ρ l 2 m z Figure 10 The uniform rod 1 . 10.A .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 185 Problem 42 1 E.

t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯ = −AE ∂z ¯ z=l (3.125) .32) y(z. t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=l ∂z ¯z=l y(0. 3.119) (3.t) y y(l. ( y(0. t) = −F (l.120) To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted inﬁnitesimal element (see Fig. is m ∂ 2 y(l. according to the Newton’s law. t) = ¯ 0 ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.12.119. l F(l.123) (3. according to Eq. is ∂ 2 y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 186 Solution The equation of motion of the rod. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = E (3.t) m z Figure 11 Equation of motion of the block.124) z=l Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. t) ∂t2 (3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. taking advantage of the relationship 3.121) or. 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) ¯ ∂y(z.8 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y(z.122) This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod (3. 11). t) = 0 forms boundary conditions for the equation 3. t) ¯ ¯ = −AE ∂y(z.

127) βn = ωn λ (3. is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z (3.126.133) . after taking advantage of 3.129) or ¢ ¡ 2 mω n sin β n z − AEβ n cos β n z Sn = 0 mω 2 sin n or after simpliﬁcation tan ωn AE l− =0 λ λωn m (3. according to 3.132) ωn ωn ωn z − AE cos z = 0 λ λ λ (3.5kg .130) Hence.119 and the boundary conditions 3.126.0 n f (ωn ) = tan =0 − 5188.124 yields the ordinary diﬀerential equation Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0. n with boundary conditions ½ Y (0) = 0 mω2 Y (l) − AEY I (l) = 0 n (3. the characteristic equation.128) Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields ½ Cn = 0 mω2 (Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z) − AE (Sn β n cos β n z − Cn β n sin β n z) = 0 n (3. is (3.mass of the rod m = 20kg . (3.131) For the following numerical data l = 1m E = 2.126) The general solution of the equation 3.mass of the block the characteristic equation takes the following form ³ ω ´ 5059.7 ωn Its solution f (ω = 0 is shown in Fig.1 × 1011 N/m2 A = 25 × 10−4 m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 q λ = E = 5188.36. 12.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 187 into the equation of motion 3.7m/s ρ mr = A × l × ρ = 19.

7 Y2 (z) = sin 17720 z 5188.137) = = = 5123s−1 m lm 20 and the corresponding mode is a straight line. 14 and 15 respectively. 13. according to the diagram 12 are ω1 = 4400.134) The corresponding natural modes.136) are presented in Fig.1 × 1011 × 25 × 10−4 ω1 = (3. .135) For the ﬁrst three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = sin 4400 z 5188. ω 2 = 17720.If we neglect the mass of the rod.128.7 Y3 (z) = sin 33400 z 5188.7 (3.5 -1 Figure 12 The ﬁrst three natural frequencies. are Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z = Sn sin ωn ωn z = Sn sin z λ 5188.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 188 1 f( ω n ) 0.7 (3.5 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 ωn -0. according to 3. the system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is r r r k EA 2. ω1 = 33400 s−1 (3.

6 0.5 0 -0.8 1 -1 Figure 13 1 Y2 (z) 0.4 z 0.8 1 -1 Figure 14 1 Y3 (z) 0.2 0.4 z 0.5 0 -0.5 0.5 0 -0.5 0.8 1 -1 Figure 15 .6 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 189 1 Y (z) 1 0.2 0.4 z 0.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 190 Problem 43 Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxedelastically supported beam shown in Fig. 16 O z k l y Figure 16 .

141) The right hand end.142) ∂z 2 ¯z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ∂M(z. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. forms the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. t) ¯ = ky(z. t) ¯ ¯ = ∂ EJ ∂ y(z.65. t) ¯ ¯ =0 M(z. Hence. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. Equilibrium O M(z. is shown in Fig. 17. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. t)|z=l = (3.t)|z=l y dz z z Figure 17 conditions for the element dz which have to be fulﬁll for any instant of time. t) ∂ 4 y(z.139 into the above boundary conditions yields ¯ III α Yn (z)¯z=l − Yn (z)|z=l = 0 (3. with the forces acting on it. t)|z=l = E(z)J(z) (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 191 Solution According to the equation 3.140) (3. the equation of motion of the beam is ∂ 2 y(z. t)| V (z.143) z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ∂z ∂z ∂z z=l z=l Yn (z)|z=0 = 0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 = 0 ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = 0 Introduction of the solution 3.138) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions.t)| z=l k l k y(z.139) (3.144) . t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.t)| z=l V(z. y(z.

146) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z where where (see Eq.76 to 3.149) ⎤ 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0 The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 192 EJ (3.147) ω 2 = EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are α= Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.150) sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ ¯ 3 3 3 3 ¯ β α cosh β l β n α sinh β n l −β n α cos β n l β n α sin β n l ¯ n n ¯ ¯ ¯ − sinh β l ¯ − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l n .69) ω2 Aρ 2 n (3. Cn and Dn . β4 = n Bn + Dn = 0 An + Cn = 0 2 2 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β n cosh β n l − Cn β n sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l = 0 n An β 3 α cosh β n l + Bn β 3 α sinh β n l − Cn β 3 α cos β n l + Dn β 3 α sin β n l n n n n −(An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l) = 0 (3.144 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .145) k According to the equations 3. Bn . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 (3. 3.148) The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎢ ⎣ β 3 α cosh β n l β 3 α sinh β n l −β 3 α cos β n l β 3 α sin β n l n n n n − sinh β n l − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ An ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Cn ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Dn (3.

884m−1 β 3 = 7.152) .03 × 0.18 200 100 0 2 4 6 8 β n -100 -200 Figure 18 From this diagram the ﬁrst three roots are β 1 = 2.0525β 3 cos β n n n n ¯ ¯ − sinh β n − cosh β n − sin β n 1 0 − cos β n .03×0.0525β 3 cosh β .1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.0525β n sinh β n −.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 193 For the following data E = 2.0003m2 3 J = 0.0525β 3 sin β n n − cos β n ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.0525 k the characteristic equation takes form ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ sinh β n cosh β n − sin β n ¯ 3 ¯ .5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.147 β4 = n Aρ 2 ω EJ n (3.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.01 = 0.151) Solution of this equation for its roots β n is presented in Fig.942m−1 β 2 = 4.01 = 2.888m−1 The relationship 3.1×10 10000 = 0.

⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ An ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ Bn ⎥ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 1 0 (3.02 sinh 4. we are getting the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = . Hence one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 194 oﬀers values for the wanted natural frequencies s β 4 EJ 1 ω1 = = 129.883 −1.888z − 1.0 ⎦ C1 C2 C3 −.883 1. The three remaining equations allow the constants An .0 sinh 7.888z (3.158) The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig. and Cn to be computed.02 −1.153) For each of these roots the set of equations 3.155) (3.0s−1 ω2 = Aρ (3.0 A2 A3 ⎣ B1 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.146 and remembering that Dn = 1.0 (3.3s−1 ω2 = Aρ s β 4 EJ 3 = 932.884z − 1.888z + 1 cos 7.02 1.149 becomes linearly dependant.883 sin 2.0 cosh 4.0 cosh 7.942z − . Dn = 1) and the last equation can be crossed out.0 cosh 2.02 sin 4.883 sinh 2.884z − 1.888z − 1.884z + 1 cos 4.157) Introducing them into the ﬁrst function of 3. ⎣ B2 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.0 ⎦ .0 ⎦ .154) ⎣ Cn ⎦ 0 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l 1 ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ 1 0 1 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 1 An ⎣ Bn ⎦ = − ⎣ 1 0 Cn sinh β n l cosh β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ An 1 ⎦=⎣ Bn ⎦ + ⎣ 0 − cos β n l Cn ⎤−1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 − cos β n l − sin β n l ⎤ 0 0 ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎦ (3.942z + 1 cos 2.942z − 1. Bn .156) For the ﬁrst three roots the numerical values of these constants are ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ A1 .0 sin 7. 19 .884z Y3 (z) = 1.g. ⎣ B3 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.942z Y2 (z) = 1.6s−1 Aρ s β 4 EJ 2 = 357.

8 1 0 -1 -2 Figure 19 .2 Y2 (z) Y3 (z) 0.4 z 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 195 2 1 Y1 (z) 0.6 0.

G. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the shaft. Jo 1 2 2 z k l L k Figure 20 The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig. 20 is ﬁxed. Its right hand end is supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to two springs each of the stiﬀness k.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 196 Problem 44 ρ . Answer: GJo ωn 2 kL2 λ cot ωn l + 1 = 0 where λ2 = G λ ρ .

The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I. G.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 197 Problem 45 2 2 ρ . 21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of the length l. Answer: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ βn αn ¯ ¯ ¯ β n cos β n l − αn sin β n l −β n sin β n l − αn cos β n l ¯ = 0 p Iω2 where β n = ω n G αn = GJn o . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly. Jo 1 z l Figure 21 Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig.

t)|z=l ¯ ∂ y(z. the equation of motion of the beam is (3.159) the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. A. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3.162) The right hand end The displacement and the bending moment has to be equal to zero. Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: p λ = EJ sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 β n = ωn λ Aρ ∂ 2 y(z. ρ z l y Figure 22 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. t)|z=l = 0 M(z.165) . t) ∂ 4 y(z. Hence. E. y(z.164) Introduction of the solution 3. t) ¯ ¯ = E(z)J(z) ∂z 2 ¯ 2 (3.65. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z.161) (3.160) Solution According to the equation 3. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. J. y(z.163) =0 z=l (3.160 into the above boundary conditions yields Yn (z)|z=0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 Yn (z)|z=l ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3. 22. Hence. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 198 Problem 46 l.

170) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sinh β l cosh β l − sin β l − cos β l ¯ n n n n β n l sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 where: (3. 3.76 to 3.168) ⎡ ⎤ 0 An ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bn ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Cn ⎦ 0 Dn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.166) where (see Eq.171) A development of the above determinant results in the following equation for the unknown parameter β n l .165 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .169) The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯=0 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 199 According to the equations 3. Cn and Dn . β4 n Bn + Dn An + Cn An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β 2 cosh β n l − Cn β 2 sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l n n n The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l -sin β n l -cos β n l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.167) 2 EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 ω = n = (3. Bn .79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.

172) .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 200 βn = The roots β n l of the equation 3.171 allows the natural frequences to be produced ωn = λβ 2 = λ n (β n l)2 EJ = (β l)2 l2 Aρl2 n (3.173) r ωn λ λ= EJ Aρ (3.

E. ρ z l y Figure 24 . Produce the equation for the natural frequencies. J.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 201 Problem 47 1 ρ . 23 is supported by means of the massless spring of stiﬀness k. A l 2 k z Figure 23 The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. A. Problem 48 l. E.

Produce: 1. 24.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 202 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. the boundary conditions for the equation (1) Answer: for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y 00 = 0 0 for z = l (3) Y = 0 (4) Y 000 = 0 2. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: cosβl = 0 q EJ where β = 4 Aρω2 .

λ1 = q G1 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 203 Problem 49 1 2 3 z ρ1 . This assembly performs the torsional vibration about axis z. ∂ 2 ϕ(z. The dynamic properties of the shafts are deﬁned by their density ρ1 and ρ2 . ρ1 λ2 = q G2 ρ2 . β2 = JO2 ρ2 Iz . β 1 = λ2 G ρ JO1 ρ1 Iz . The diﬀerential equation of motion of a shaft is. G1. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described. The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I z . JO2 Figure 25 The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig. where. t) ∂ 2 ϕ(z. their shear modulus G 1 and G 2 and the second polar moment of area J O1 and J O2 respectively. JO1 l ρ2 .shear modulus ρ — density Answer: ωn β 1 cot λ1 l+β 2 cot ωn l = 1. Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3. G2. 25 are welded to a motionless wall. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = G .

26 of length l. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the system described. This element can be treated as a particle of mass m.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 204 Problem 50 m z 1 a l y T 2 Figure 26 The string 1 shown in Fig. density ρ and area of its cross-section A is under the constant tension T. At the position deﬁned by the distance a the element 2 is attached. .

in the region a<z<l the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z.178) (3.t) y2(z.t)|z=a T T a l T ∂y1 ( z. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3.181) where ω n stands for the natural frequency that is common for both parts of the string.176) (3. t ) | z =a ∂z z y Figure 27 Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0<z<a be ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.177) T Aρ (3. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z.t) y1(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where T Aρ Solutions of the above equations are of the following form λ2 = y1n (z. t ) |z = a ∂z y1(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 205 Solution ∂y2 ( z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Similarly. .180) (3.175) (3.174) (3.179) (3.t)|z=a=y2(z.

188) (3.178 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n where ω2 Aρω 2 n n = 2 T λ The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows β2 = n Y1n (z) = S1n sin β n z + C1n cos β n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β n z + C2n cos β n z Introduction of the solutions 3.195) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.184) (3.193) (3.190) z=a Introduction of the solutions 3.191) (3.181 into the equations 3.180 into the conditions 3.181 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=a = Y2n (z) |z=a ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ −mω 2 Y1n (z)¯z=a = −T Y1n (z)¯ n Y2n (z) |z=l = 0 (3.194) 00 (3.189) (3. They are y1n (z. t) |z=a ¯ ¯ ∂y1 (z.185) Introduction of the solutions 3.180 and 3. t) |z=0 y1n (z.189 and 3.175 and 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 206 These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0.187) (3. t) |z=l = 0 = y2n (z.182) (3. t) ¯ ∂y2 (z. t) |z=a ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.190 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β n a) S1n + (cos β n a) C1n − (sin β n a) S2n − (cos β n a) C2n = 0 (−mω 2 sin β n a + T β n cos β n a) S1n + (−mω2 sin β n a − T β n sin β n a) C1n + n n − (T β n cos β n a) S2n + (T β n sin β n a) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β n l) S2n + (cos β n l) C2n = 0 (3.192) (3. t) ¯ ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=a y2n (z.186) (3. z = l) and compatibility conditions at z = a. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ = −T +T ∂z ¯z=a ∂z ¯z=a = 0 (3.196) ¯ 0 ¯ + T Y2n (z)¯ z=a . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β n a cos β n a − sin β n a − cos β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ −mω2 sin β n a + ¯=0 −mω 2 sin β n a + n n ¯ −T β n cos β n a T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ +T β n cos β n a −T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β n l cos β n l ¯ (3.183) (3.

188 allow the natural frequencies to be produced s T ωn = β n Aρ .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 207 Roots β n of the above equation. with help of the relationship 3.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 208 Problem 51 ρ1. A2 1 l1 y 2 l2 T z Figure 28 Two strings of length l1 and l2 are loaded with tension T . A1 ρ2. Produce the natural frequencies of the system described and the corresponding natural modes . Their dynamic properties are determined by the density and the area of their cross-section A.

204) The third condition we are getting by application of the Newton law to the element of the string associated with z = l1 . They are y1n (z.203) These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0.197) (3. Since dm stands for an inﬁnitesimal mass of this element. t) ¯ ¯ − ∂z ¯z=l1 (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 209 Solution Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0 < z < l1 be ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ dm = −T ∂t2 ¯ ∂z ¯ z=l1 z=l1 y2n (z. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) ¯ ¯ + = 0 ∂z ¯ z=l1 ¯ ∂y1 (z.202) (3. t) ¯ ¯ +T ∂z ¯z=l1 (3.200) (3. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ∂y2 (z. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 T A1 ρ1 (3. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.201) (3. the above conditions can rewritten as follows y1n (z. z = l1 + l2 ) and compatibility conditions at z = l1 . t) ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 .205) y2n (z. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z.199) Solutions of the above equations are of the following form y1n (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 2 T A2 ρ2 (3.198) where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 ¯ ∂y2 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z. in the region l1 < z < l1 + l2 the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z.

212) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.209 and 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯=0 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.198 and 3.207) (3.210) ¯ ¯ −Y1n (z)¯ 0 z=l1 (3.214) .203 into the conditions 3. the equation can be solved for the natural frequencies of the string.205 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=l1 = Y2n (z) |z=l1 ¯ 0 ¯ + Y2n (z)¯ = 0 z=l1 (3.211) Y2n (z) |z=l1 +l2 = 0 Introduction of the solutions 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 210 Introduction of the solutions 3.210 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n + (cos β 1n l1 ) C1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 1n sin β 1n l1 ) C1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.201 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n1 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n2 where β2 = 1n ω2 A1 ρ1 ω 2 n n . The solution is presented for the following set of numerical data. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β 1n l1 cos β 1n l1 − sin β 2n l1 − cos β 2n l1 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.208 into the above equation we haveβ 1n = ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ωn cos ωn l1 − ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 0 0 ωn λ2 0 0 ωn − sin λ2 l1 − cos ωn l1 λ2 − ωn cos ωn l1 + ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) λ2 λ2 Now.213) ¯ β 1n cos β 1n l1 −β 1n sin β 1n l1 −β 2n cos β 2n l1 +β 2n sin β 2n l1 ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) ¯ Introducing 3.209) (3.208) The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows Y1n (z) = S1n sin β 1n z + C1n cos β 1n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β 2n z + C2n cos β 2n z Introduction of the solutions 3.206) (3.203 into the equations 3. = 2 T λ1 β2 = 2n ω2 A2 ρ2 ω 2 n n = 2 T λ2 00 (3.

A1 = 2 · 10−6 m2 .5 ¢ ¡ . q q q q T 500 T λ1 = A1 ρ = 179.5 ¡ .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 211 l1 = . ω5 = 2344[rad/s] (3.5 + 1.5m. 1 = 2 = 7800kg/m3 .5 sin 179 ω n ¢ cos 179 ω n ¢ − sin 253 ω n ¢ − cos 253 ω n ¢ ¯ ¯=0 ¡ . ω 4 = 1861.215) The magnitude of the determinant as a function of the frequency ω n is presented in Fig.18m/s −6 2·10−6 7800 1 2 ¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¢ ¢ ¡ .m. ω3 = 1437.5 ¢ .216) The so far unknown constants S1n .5 + 1.217) . C1n . 29 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡0 ¡1 10 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 frequency [rad/s] -5 -10 Figure 29 It allows the natural frequencies to be determined. From the ﬁrst equation one can see that the constant C1n must be equal to zero C1n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.5 1 1 cos 179 ωn − 179 sin 179 ω n −¡ 1 cos 253 ωn ¢ +¡1 sin 253 ωn ¢ ¯ 179 253 253 ¯ 1 1 0 0 sin 253.5 . ω2 = 920.212.)ω n ¯ (3. S2n .03m/s. They are ω 1 = 483. C2n can be computed from the homogeneous set of linear equations 3. λ2 = A2 ρ = 1·105007800 = 253.)ω n cos 253 (. A2 = 1 · 10−6 m2 .5 ¡ . (.5 ¡ . T = 500N. l2 = 1.

5) cos 3.026z for 0 < z < 0.026 23 1 2 = 0. Hence let us crossed out the second equation and assume C2n = 1.67z + 1 cos 5.697 β 21 = ω2 = 253.03 = 2.5 Y12 (z) = S12 sin β 12 z = 1.18 = 1. β 13 = ω3 1437 = 179.91 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 21 l1 −(sin β 21 l1 ) sin β 21(l 1+l 2) cos 1.907·1.46 sin 1.5 21 1 2 = = 3.697·0.5 Y11 (z) = S11 sin β 11 z = 3.63·1.697z Y21 (z) = S21 sin β 21 z + 1 cos β 21 z = 3.63z + 1 cos 3.18 = 5.5−(sin 3.5 22 1 2 = = 1.907·0.67z f or 0.907·1.5 S22 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 3. 30 .5 sin 1.5 S23 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 5.026·0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 212 Since the equations is linearly dependent for roots of its characteristic determinant.03 = 5.63·1.91z + 1 cos 1.5 sin 3.63 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 22 l1 −(sin β 22 l1 ) sin β 22(l 1+l 2) cos 3. 2.5) cos 5.5−(sin 1.13·0.5 = 3.5 cos 5.18 = 3. 3 the constants S1n and S2n are n=1 ω 1 = 483.675·1.5 < z < 1.13 β 22 = ω2 = 253. C2n = 1 The set of equations for determination of the remaining constants S1n and S2n is (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n = cos β 2n l1 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) Hence S2n = S1n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) β (l1 +l2 ) cos β 2n l1 − (sin β 2n l1 ) cos β 2n(l1 +l2 ) sin 2n (sin β 1n l1 ) For n = 1.63·0.5) − cos β 21 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 1.5 S21 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 1.63·1.907·1.5 Y23 (z) = S23 sin β 23 z + 1 cos β 23 z = 0.773 23 Y13 (z) = S13 sin β 13 z = 0.5 n=3 ω3 = 1437.15 S12 = (sin β 12 l1 ) (sin 5.5−(sin 5.899 22 for 0 < z < 0.46Y11 (z) 21 for 0 < z < 0.5 < z < 1.67 λ2 5.63·0.5) − cos β 22 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 3.5 = 0.675·0.907·1.773 sin 5.5 n=2 ω2 = 920.5) β 23 = A plot of the natural modes is shown in Fig. β 12 = ω2 920 920 2 = 179.944 S13 = (sin β 13 l1 ) − cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 5.63·1.13z Y22 (z) = S22 sin β 22 z + 1 cos β 22 z = 0.15 sin 5.48 sin 2.5 ω3 1437 = 253.5 sin = (sin 8. one of them must be crossed out and one of the constant can be assumed arbitrarily.48 S11 = (sin β 11 l1 ) (sin 2.5) cos 1.675·1.899 sin 3.91z for 0.675·1. β 11 = ω1 483 483 1 = 179.5 = 0.63z f or0.03 = λ1 cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) cos β 23 l1 −(sin β 23 l1 ) sin β (l +l ) 8.675·0.675·1.944 sin 8.5 < z < 1.907·0.

5 -2 z [m ] Figure 30 .5 1 1 .ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 213 n a tu ra l m o d e s 4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 0 .

form a section (Fig.....221) li The right hand part of the segment li−1 and the left hand part of the subsequent segment li .. 33a) and its model (Fig. 32.. 33d) yri = li γ ri = yields GAi (3..... Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Rigid Element Method...220) .3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiﬀness and inertia matrix of free in space beam along coordinates yn and ϕyn (see Fig..... 32a))The bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of stiﬀness kMi and kTi respectively (Fig...b)........ the actual element (Fig.... N yn ϕy n Figure 31 are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method... In this kTi = Ti li GAi and yei = Ti kTi (3..... the beam is divided into a suﬃcient.The most popular approaches for creation of the stiﬀness and inertia matrices 1 2 ...3. These distinguished points n are called nodes...... n .DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 214 3.219) Mi li 2EJi and δ ei = Mi 2kMi (3..... Equivalence of both... Since: δ ri = the bending stiﬀness is kMi = EJi li (3...218) Similarly.. for necessary accuracy. 33b) requires equal angular deﬂection ( δri = δ ei ) caused by the same bending moment Mi .... the equivalence of shearing deﬂections (yri = yei ) caused by the same shearing force Ti (Fig. 33c and Fig. Each section is considered rigid and its inertia properties are represented by mass mi and moments of inertia Ii .... number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig .... 32c). 31) associated with an arbitrary chosen number N of points.1 Rigid Elements Method... 3.........

Ai Ti y ri Ti Ti ye i a) c) δri δe i 2δe i k Mi Mi Mi b) Ti kT i d) Figure 33 ..DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 215 l i-1 ..... a) li kT i k Mi l i-1 /2 Gi l i/ 2 mi Ii mi Ii k Mi zli z ri z l i+1 m i+1 I i +1 k Mi+1 z ri+1 b) c) k T i -1 . k T i+1 ....... li l i+1 .. k Mi-1 z d) y Figure 32 E....Ji li Mi Mi li G..

˙ 0 K1. ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity of the rigid elements.231) The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 3.. . Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig. ˙ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . ˙ 0 ..i 0 . 0 .. . .N 0 . ˙˙ . ..i+1 Ki+1. ˙ MN. ˙˙ .. ˙˙ .224) (3. ˙ 0 0 . ˙ 0 ⎡ y1 ⎢ : ⎢ ⎢ yi−1 ⎢ yb = ⎢ yi ⎢ ⎢ yi+1 ⎢ ⎣ : yN ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.223) (3. ˙ 0 0 .. ˙˙ ...i+1 . ˙˙ . . ˙ 0 0 0 . ˙ Ki−1.1 . ˙ 0 Mi.225) (3. ˙˙ ... ˙ 0 0 Mi+1. ..i−1 Ki.. .. ˙ Mi−1. .i = 0 Ii 0 .. ˙˙ ...228) ¸ (3..N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3. . ..The coordinates yi . +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri 2 +kMi−1 + kTi−1 zl2i + kTi zri ¸ +kTi zli+1 −kMi + kTi zli+1 zri ¸ ∙ yi yi = ϕyi . . ˙ 0 0 . ˙ KN..i−1 0 0 . 0 .i Ki+1..i+1 ..i+1 = −kTi zri ∙ −kTi−1 −kTi−1 zri−1 +kTi−1 zli −kMi−1 + kTi−1 zri−1 zli N =I +1 ¸ ∙ mi 0 Mi. ˙ 0 0 0 . 32d) results in the following equations of motion. ˙˙ .. .222) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ k=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ Ki. . .1 ...i = +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri ∙ −kTi Ki... 34.i−1 = ∙ +kTi−1 + kTi Ki.229) (3. . ˙ 0 0 .DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 216 way a complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis.231 is given in Fig. ˙ 0 Ki.. ˙ Ki−1. . . . ˙ 0 0 0 .i Ki.i−1 0 .226) (3.227) ¸ (3.230) (3. ˙ 0 0 0 .. m¨ + ky = 0 y where: ⎡ M1.i .

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 217 element 1 Oi node 1 element i element N z node i yi ϕ yi node N y Figure 34 Introduction of the external forces If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element. m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y 3.3. Introducing notations Fs for the static forces and F(t) for the excitation forces.232. Fi ) can be equivalently replaced by the force Fi applied to the node Oi and the moment Mi = ai · Fi as shown in Fig.2 Finite Elements Method. the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following form. each of them (e.g. The i − th element is shown in Fig. Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Finite Elements Method. 36.232) . the shaft is divided into a number of the uniform and ﬂexible elements. ϕyi should be added to the mathematical model 3. (3. In a general case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on time (excitation forces). 35This equivalent set of forces along the nodal coordinates Fi Mi element i z node i yi ϕ yi Oi ai Fi y Figure 35 yi .

Ji . second moment of area about the neutral axis.236) ⎦ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 6 2 i 1 2 l li 1 0 C4 ϕyi2 2 i Its solution yields the integration constants Cj . 2.234) The constants of integration Cj (j = 1. dz ¯z=0 dz ¯z=li The parameters yi1 and yi2 are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕi1 and ϕi2 are called nodal rotations. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 0 1 yi1 C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ C2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 2 i 1 2 C4 l li 1 0 ϕyi2 2 i ⎤ + li ϕyi1 − 2yi2 + li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ 2 2 (−3yi1 − 2li ϕyi1 + 3yi2 − li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ li ⎥ ⎦ ϕyi1 yi1 (3.237) 6 3 (2yi1 li . area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element.235) y(z)|z=0 = yi1 . = ϕyi2 (3. The diﬀerential equation of the statically deﬂected line of the element in the plane yz is d4 y(z) Ei Ji =0 (3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 218 1 z yi1 E i Ji Ai ρi yi2 ϕyi1 li y 2 ϕyi2 Figure 36 In this ﬁgure Ei . 3. Ai .233) dz 4 Integration of the above equation four times yields 1 1 y(z) = C1 z 3 + C2 z 2 + C3 z + C4 6 2 (3.234 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Cj . 4) must be chosen to fulﬁll the following boundary conditions ¯ ¯ dy(z) ¯ dy(z) ¯ ¯ ¯ = ϕyi1 y(z)|z=li = yi2 . Introduction of solution 3. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡ yi1 C1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ C2 ⎥ = ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ (3. The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2. and ρi stand for Young modulus.

238 the deﬂected line of the ﬁnite element is assembled of terms which are linear with respect to the nodal coordinates.239) are known as Hermite cubics or shape functions. It should be noted that this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 219 After introduction of Eq. t) = {H(z)}T {y (t)} (3.240) Functions H1 . (3.242) (3. H2 .238) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ where: ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 lz + 2 lz ⎪ i ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ∙³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ H1 ⎪ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 lz + lz ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ li i i H2 li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = {H(z)} = ⎪ H3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 lz − 2 lz ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ i ∙ ³i´ H4 li ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − lz + lz li i i ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 {y} = ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2 (3.237 into the equation of the deﬂected line 3. H3 . t) − ρi =0 ∂z 4 ∂t2 by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates Ei Ji y [mi ] {¨ (t)} + [ki ] {y (t)} = 0.239) (3. 3.241) As one can see from the equation 3. As it can be seen from Eq. These two matrices are going to be developed from the two following criterions: . it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated by the following equation.243) In the above equations ρi stands for the unit mass of the ﬁnite element and [mi ] and [ki ] stands for the inertia and stiﬀness matrix respectively. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates. 3. " "µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # z z z z z y(z) = 1 − 3 yi1 + li ϕyi1 −2 +2 + li li li li li " µ ¶ " µ ¶ µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # 2 2 z z z z yi2 + − li ϕyi2 + 3 −2 + li li li li = {H(z)}T {y} (3. y(z.241. 3.234 one may get it in the following form. t) ∂ 2 y(z. H4 (see Eq. If the ﬁnite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz. The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues mathematical model of the element considered ∂ 4 y(z. the dynamic deﬂection line is approximated by the static deﬂection line.

3. 2. t) T = ρ dz 2 0 i ∂t µ ¶µ ¶ Z ∂y(z.245) In the last formula mi stands for mass of the ﬁnite element. ⎤ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎢ H2 H1 li H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dz = ρi 2 ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ 0 2 2 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 9 13 11 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 11 ⎢ l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = ρi li ⎢ 210 i 9 11 13 13 ⎣ li − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 11 9 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 ⎢ 11 l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = mi ⎢ 210 i 13 9 11 13 ⎣ l − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 i 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ mi (3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 220 1. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element is µ ¶2 Z 1 li ∂y(z. To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the . The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the kinetic energy of its discreet physical model. The potential energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the potential energy of its discreet physical model. t) ρ = dz 2 0 i ∂t ∂t Z ´³ ´ 1 li ³ = ˙ ρi {y (t)}T {H(z)} {H(z)}T {y (t)} dz ˙ 2 0 ∙ Z li ¸ 1 T T = {y (t)} ρi ˙ {H(z)} {H(z)} dz {y (t)} ˙ 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎢ H2 H1 li 1 H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ˙ = {y (t)}T ⎜ρi ˙ 2 ⎝ ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 H4 H11 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li (3.244 represents kinetic energy function of the discreet physical model along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 with the following matrix of inertia. t) 1 li ∂y(z.244) It is easy to see that the last row of Eq.

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

221

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element. µ 2 ¶2 Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) V = Ei Ji dz 2 0 ∂z 2 µ 2 ¶µ 2 ¶ Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) ∂ y(z, t) = dz Ei Ji 2 0 ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ! µ ½ 2 ¾¶ Ã½ 2 ¾T Z d H(z) d H(z) 1 li Ei Ji {y (t)}T {y (t)} dz = 2 0 dz 2 dz 2 " ¾½ 2 ¾T # Z li ½ 2 d H(z) d H(z) 1 {y (t)}T Ei Ji dz {y (t)} = 2 dz 2 dz 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 ⎤ ⎞ 00 00 00 00 00 00 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li ⎜ ⎢ H 00 H 00 li (H 00 )2 l2 H 00 H 00 li H 00 H 00 l2 ⎥ ⎟ 1 T ⎜ i 2 2 3 2 4 i ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ⎢ 200 100 = {y (t)} ⎝Ei Ji 00 00 00 00 00 ⎣ H H 2 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 0 3 1 00 00 00 00 2 00 00 00 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li (H4 )2 li (3.246) As one can see from Eq. 3.246, to fulﬁll the second criterion, the stiﬀness matrix along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 must be as follows. ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 H1 Z li ⎢ H 00 H 00 li ⎢ 200 100 = Ei Ji ⎣ H H 0 3 1 00 00 H4 H1 li ⎡ 12 6li 2 Ei Ji ⎢ 6li 4li ⎢ = 3 ⎣ −12 −6l li i 2 6li 2li H1 H2 li H1 H3 00 00 00 2 (H2 )2 li H2 H3 li 00 00 00 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 00 00 2 00 00 H4 H2 li H4 H3 li ⎤ −12 6li 2 −6li 2li ⎥ ⎥ 12 −6li ⎦ 2 −6li 4li

00 00 00 00

ki

⎤ 00 00 H1 H4 li 00 00 2 H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎥ dz 00 00 H3 H4 li ⎦ 00 2 (H4 )2 li (3.247)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as mi yi + ki yi = Ryi ¨ (3.248)

The vector Ri represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements. Ryi = £ Ryi1 Rϕyi1 Ryi2 Rϕyi2 ¤T (3.249)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j. ¨ mj yj + kj yj = Ryj (3.250)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

222

where: ⎢ mj = mj ⎢ ⎣ kj ⎡

13 35 11 l 210 j 9 70 13 − 420 lj 11 l 210 j 1 2 l 105 j 13 l 420 j 1 2 − 140 lj 9 70 13 l 420 j 13 35 11 − 210 lj

12 6lj −12 6lj 2 2 ⎢ 6lj Ej Aj ⎢ 4lj −6lj 2lj ⎥ ⎥ = 3 lj ⎣ −12 −6lj 12 −6lj ⎦ 2 2 6lj 2lj −6lj 4lj £ ¤T yj = yj1 ϕyj1 yj2 ϕyj2 £ ¤T Ryi = Ryj1 Rϕyj1 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

⎡

⎤ 13 − 420 lj 1 2 − 140 lj ⎥ ⎥ 11 − 210 lj ⎦ 1 2 l 105 j ⎤

(3.251)

(3.252) (3.253)

These two equations of motion (3.248 3.250), associated with the two elements i and j, haveto fulﬁll the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These conditions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take form ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ yi2 yj1 yij = = (3.254) ϕyi2 ϕyj1 ϕyij and the equilibrium conditions are ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Ryi2 Ryj1 0 + = Rϕyi2 Rϕyj1 0

(3.255)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements. ¨ mij yij + kij yij = Ryij where: ⎡

13 m 35 i 11 lm 210 i i 9 m 70 i 13 − 420 li mi 11 lm 210 i i 1 2 l mi 105 i 13 lm 420 i i 1 2 − 140 li mi

(3.256)

mij

⎢ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

0 0

0 0

⎤ 13 − 420 li mi 0 0 1 2 ⎥ − 140 li mi 0 0 ⎥ 13 11 9 13 (mi + mj ) (−li mi +lj mj ) m − 420 lj mj ⎥ 35 210 70 j ⎥ 11 1 13 1 2 2 2 (−li mi +lj mj ) 105 (li mi +lj mj ) lj mj − 140 lj mj ⎥ 210 420 ⎥ 9 11 13 13 mj lj mj mj − 210 lj mj ⎦ 70 420 35 1 2 13 1 2 11 − 420 lj mj − 140 lj mj − 210 lj mj 105 lj mj (3.257)

9 m 70 i 13 lm 420 i i

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

223

A 6 Eli2 i i 2 EilAi

kij

⎢ ⎢ i i i i ⎢ A A A A A A A A ⎢ −129 Ei3 i −6 Ei2 i 12( Ei3 i + Ej3 j ) 6(− Ei2 i + Ej2 j ) −12 Ej3 j 6 Ej2 j ⎢ li li li lj li lj lj lj = ⎢ E A E A E A E A A A ⎢ 6 Ei2 i 2 EilAi 6(− Eli2 i + j2 j ) 4( EilAi + jl j ) −6 j2 j 2 jl j li lj lj ⎢ i i j j i ⎢ E A E A E A E A ⎢ 0 0 −12 j3 j −6 j2 j 12 j3 j −6 j2 j lj lj lj lj ⎣ Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj 0 0 6 l2 2 l −6 l2 4 l

j j j j

⎡

A 12 Eli3 i i A 6 Eli2 i

iA 6 El2 i i 4 EilAi

iA −12 El3 i i iA −6 El2 i

0 0

0 0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(3.258)

yij = Rij =

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz. m¨ + ky = 0 y (3.261)

£

£

yi1 ϕyi1 yij ϕyij yj2 ϕyj2

Ryi1 Rϕyi1 0 0 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

¤T

(3.259) (3.260)

¤T

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 3.259 is given in Fig. 37.The coordinates yi , ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located

element 1 Oi node 1 node i yi ϕyi y node N element i element N-1 z

Figure 37 at the ends of the ﬁnite elements. Introduction of the external forces Since the ﬁnite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced by a force Fi (see Fig. 38) on the displacement yi is equal to the virtual work produced by a set of forces along the coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 . Hence ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ∂Wi = Fi · yi (ai , t) = {Fi1 , Mi1 , Fi2 , Mi2 } (3.262) ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

224

ai 1 yi1

Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i

z yi2

ϕ yi1

li y

Figure 38 But according to 3.241 ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ li li li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 y(ai , t) = {H(ai )}T {y (t)} = ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai l

li li i

2

ϕyi2

**Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ai ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∙ 1 − 3 li + 2 li ¸ ⎧ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎫ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ Fi1 ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ li li li Mi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = Fi · ⎪ Fi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ Mi2 ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai li l l
**

i i

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields ⎧ ⎫T ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ai ai ai ⎪ li ⎪ ⎪ i1 ⎪ −2 l + l ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ li i i ϕyi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 (3.264) ∂Wi = Fi · ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ li ⎪ ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ − ai + ai li l l

i i

⎫T ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.263)

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.265)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 3.261 m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y (3.266)

where, similarly as before, Fs stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the excitation forces.

y1 ϕy1 ..4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS O Oi bxi byi x Bi yi Figure 39 ϕx i ϕy z i xi y in such a way that its upper part yb contains coordinates along which the shaft is rigidly supported and its lower part yr contains all the remaining coordinates ∙ ¸ yb y= (3. (3. .268) (3.272) .. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ yb ¨ kbb kbr yb Fb mbb mbr + = mrb mrr yr ¨ krb krr yr Fr Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations ¨ ¨ mbb yb + mbr yr + kbb yb + kbr yr = Fb mrb yb + mrr yr + krb yb + krr yr = Fr ¨ ¨ (3. The instantaneous position of these supports is determine with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates byi (t) .270) Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft © ªT y = ϕxN .BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 225 3. .271) (3.. ⎡ . .. . Let us denote by b vector of such coordinates.267) b = ⎣ byi (t) ⎦ .269) yr Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam m¨ + ky = F y is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates. 39). ⎢ ⎥ (3.yN ϕyN Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several supports Bi (see Fig. ⎤ ..

The vector Fb in the ﬁrst equation of the set 3.277) is too large to enable the necessary analysis of the mathematical model to be carried out. The vector b.278) y= yr Partitioning of the equations 3. Hence the above equation can be solved.277 yields ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ mee mer ye ¨ cee cer ye ˙ kee ker ye Fe + + = (3. ¨ ¨ mbb b + mbr yr + kbb b + kbr yr = Fb ¨ mrb b + mrr yr + krb b + krr yr = Fr ¨ (3. the vector yb in the mathematical model 3.273) The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as follows ¨ ¨ (3. Hence.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS (3.277 is arranged in such a way that the coordinates which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure ye are located in the upper part of the vector y and these which are to be retained for further consideration yr are located in its lower part.276) In meny engineering problems. number of the ﬁnal elements is large too.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 226 Motion of the beam along the coordinates yb is determined by the boundary conditions 3.267.274) mrr yr + krr yr = Fr − mrb bb − krs bb The last two terms represent the kinemetic excitation of the beam cause by motion of its supports.272 must be replaced by b. in a general case. These interaction forces can be now determined. In this section the procedures for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed.279) mre mrr yr ¨ cre crr yr ˙ kre krr yr Fr .273 represents the forces of interaction between the moving beam and its supports.275) be a solution of this equation. due to large number of the uniform sections of the element to be modeld. It follows that the size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model m¨ + cy + ky = F y ˙ (3. This solution approximate motion of the beam along the remining coordinates yr . that the equation 3. ¨ ¨ Fb = mbb b + mbr Yr + kbb b + kbr Yr (t) 3. Let yr = Yr (t) (3. ¸ ∙ ye (3. Let us assume. is a known function of time.

279.284) 2 Introduction of 3. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be the same. 3.5. 3. According to the ﬁrst criterion.283) Once the relationship is established. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.282) (3. 4.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 227 Hence.286) .280) kre krr yr 0 (3. if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same.280 one may obtain kee ye +ker yr = 0 Therefore the sought relationship is ye = hyr where h = −k−1 ker ee To eliminate the coordinates ye from the mathematical model 3.282 yields ´ 1³ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙r ˙ [hyr ]T mee hyr + [hyr ]T mer yr + yr mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ T = 2 ¢ 1¡ T T = yr h mee hyr +yT hT mer yr +yT mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ 2 ¤ ¢ 1¡ T£ T yr h mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr yr ˙ = ˙ (3. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation must be the same.281) (3. One of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates ye are obeyed to the static relationship. the inertia matrix after condensation mc must be equal to mc = hT mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr (3. one may formulate the following criteria of condensation: 1. the kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix.285) 2 Hence. 2. upon partitioning equation 3. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ye 0 kee ker = (3. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ mee mer 1£ T ye ˙ T ye yr ˙ ˙ T = mre mrr yr ˙ 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 = ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ye mee ye + ye mer yr + yr mre ye + yr mrr yr ˙ (3. one have to determine the relationship between the coordinates ye and the coordinates yr .

5. hT kee h + hT ker = (−k−1 ker )T kee (−k−1 ker ) + (−k−1 ker )T ker ee ee ee −1 T −1 T = −(−kee ker ) ker + (−kee ker ) ker = 0 Hence.291) (3.282 into the above equation yields ¡ T ¢ ¡ ¢ δW = (hyr )T Fe +yT Fr = yr hT Fe +yT Fr = yT hT Fe +Fr r r r Hence.295 (3. Indeed.289 kc = hT kee h + hT ker +kre h + krr (3.5. they can be transformed as following. The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is ¸ ∙ £ T ¤ Fe T T δW = ye yr = ye Fe +yT Fr r Fr Introduction of 3. according to the above consideration.294) The condensed mathematical model.287) 3.290) (3.292) (3. according to 3.283.295) mc yc +cc yc +kc yc = Fc where yc = yr The relationship 3.293) (3.288) = 2 one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiﬀness matrix is of the form 3. kc = kre h + krr 3.289) It is easy to show that sum of the ﬁrst two terms in the above expression is equal to zero.4 Condensation of the external forces. Taking advantage from deﬁnition of potential energy of the system considered ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ kee ker 1£ T ye T ye yr V = kre krr yr 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 T T T ye kee ye + ye ker yr + yr kre ye + yr krr yr (3. ¡ ¢ Fc = hT Fe +Fr (3. can be adopted as follows ¨ ˙ (3.5.282 ye = hyc permits to produce displacement along the ’cut oﬀ’ coordinates on the base of solution of the equation 3.296) . repetition of the above derivation leads to the following deﬁnition of the condensed damping matrix cc = hT cee h + hT cer +cre h + crr (3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 228 3. Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the kinetic energy.

5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.6 PROBLEMS Problem 52 Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig. 40.03×0.1×10 10000 = 0.03 × 0.PROBLEMS 229 3. O z k l y Figure 40 The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 191 for the following data E = 2.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.0003m2 3 J = 0. .01 = 0.0525 k Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with 10 ﬁnite elements.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.01 = 2.

.... The computed mathematical model is O y1 y2 ϕ1 ϕ2 l y Figure 41 m¨ + ky = 0. ...297... ϕ2 . 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕ1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ .. 41. it was divided into ten ﬁnite elements as shown in Fig............ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 . 0 . ⎥ ⎢ .. ⎥ = −k1 y (3. 42).299) ....... ϕ11 }T (3.. ϕ1 ....298) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ y11 ⎦ k 0 0 0 ϕ11 (3.. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m¨ + ky = − ⎢ .. y y11 z ϕ11 y = {y1 .... ⎤⎡ ⎤ y1 . ...297) The inﬂuence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky11 acting along the coordinate y11 (see Fig. y ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ky11 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 . . ⎥ = ⎢ . 0 right hand side of the equation 3. the equation of the beam supported by the spring is m¨ + ks y = 0 y This force should be introduced to the ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 . y11 O ϕ11 z l y -ky11 Figure 42 Therefore. .. y11 .. 0 0 .....PROBLEMS 230 Solution To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam. y2 ..

.304) (3. 0}T and R1 = {R. k 0 ⎦ 0 0 . 0 ⎥ ⎥ .......300) R M O y1=0 y2 y11 ϕ11 z l y Figure 43 ϕ1=0 ϕ2 -ky11 According to the boundary conditions (see Fig. . .. let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordinates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y1 .... ϕ1 }T y2 = {y2 .306) (3... ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 .303 and 3. M}T Introduction of 3....301) m21 m22 y2 ¨ ks21 ks22 y2 where y1 = {y1 .. ϕ1 }T = {0.303) (3..301 yields ∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ m11 m12 0 ks11 ks12 0 R1 + = y2 ¨ y2 m21 m22 ks21 ks22 0 This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows ¨ m12 y2 + ks12 y2 = R1 ¨ m22 y2 + ks22 y2 = 0 (3...... 0 0 (3. 43) y1 = {y1 ... .. ... y11 . ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ m11 m12 y1 ¨ ks11 ks12 y1 + =0 (3..302) ⎢ ⎢ ks = k + k1 = k+ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ... .PROBLEMS 231 where To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam.304 into 3. ϕ2 .307) (3..305) . .. ϕ11 }T (3.. 0 0 0 . ....

O 2 y 1 Y1(z) Y2(z) Y3(z) l k z 0 -1 0.4 932.5 129.3 933.6 0.307 is the equation of motion of the supported beam.306 allows the vector of the interation forces R1 to be computed.PROBLEMS 232 The second equation 3.0 1 2 3 . It was solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies. 44 by boxes and in the ﬁrst column of the Table below.8 1 -2 Figure 44 Table natural frequenciesof natural frequencies of the descreet system the continuous system [1/sec] [1/sec] 129. 44) and natural frequencies (second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model ( see problem page 190). Results of this computation is shown in Fig.4 z 0. The equation 3. This results are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig.2 0.65 357.6 357.

309) 1 2 3 4 x1 x2 Figure 45 x3 x4 This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x1 . the interaction forces between the beam and the supports (3.310) . 2. x4 is as follows m¨ + kx = 0 x (3. x2 . 45 along coordinates x1 . 46.PROBLEMS 233 Problem 53 The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig. 1 2 3 a3 Z a2 sin ω t X Figure 46 The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate XZ is given by the following equations X1 = 0 X2 = a2 sin ωt X3 = a3 Derive expressions for : 1. the static deﬂection curve. k = ⎢ k21 k22 k23 k24 ⎥ . x3 .308) ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ k11 k12 k13 m14 x1 m11 m12 m13 m14 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎥ m22 m23 m24 ⎥ ⎥ . x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ m = ⎢ 21 ⎣ k31 k32 k33 k34 ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎣ m31 m32 m33 m34 ⎦ m41 m42 m43 m44 k41 k42 k43 k44 x4 (3. x2 . x3 as shown in Fig.

¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ (3. m21 = m41 m42 m43 . k21 = k41 k42 k43 . k22 = k44 k32 k33 k34 (3.312) m21 m22 x2 ¨ k21 k22 x2 R2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ m12 m13 m14 £ ¤ m22 m23 ⎦ .320) The static deﬂection is due to the time independent term −k43 a3 in the right hand side of the equation 3.323) (3.315) x3 R3 ¨ ¨ m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ m21 x1 + m22 x2 + k21 x1 + k22 x2 = 0 (3. m12 = ⎣ m24 ⎦ .311) m11 ⎣ m21 m11 = m31 k11 ⎣ k21 k11 = k31 ⎡ or ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ x1 ¨ k11 k12 x1 R1 m11 m12 + = (3.319) or ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt − k43 a3 (3.308 with respect to the vector of boundary conditions 3.PROBLEMS 234 Solution Partitioning of the equations 3. m22 = m44 m32 m33 m34 (3.321 is x4 = xs k44 xs = −k43 a3 (3.310 into the equation 3.320.322) (3.321) . R1 = ⎣ R2 ⎦ . x2 =x4 .317 yields ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ¨ £ ¤ x1 ¤ x1 £ ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = − m41 m42 m43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ − k41 k42 k43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ (3.310 results in the following equation m¨ + kx = R x where ⎡ ∙ (3.316) (3.314) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ x1 R1 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ .313) ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ k14 k12 k13 ¤ £ k22 k23 ⎦ .317) where Introduction of boundary conditions 3.318) ¨ x3 ¨ x3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 x1 ¨ ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω2 sin ωt ⎦ . k12 = ⎣ k24 ⎦ . m44 x4 + k44 x4 = −k43 a3 ¨ The particular solution of the equation 3. R2 =0 (3.

326 into the equation 3. 48 1 2 3 a3 4 xs Z X a2 sinω t Figure 48 xd sinω t This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the system is attached to the base.329) . xd = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) −ω 2 m44 + k44 (3.326) (3.327) The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig. These forces can computed from equation 3.325) Implementation of the solution 3. 47 xs = (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt ¨ For the above equation.316.325 yields the wanted amplitude of the forced vibration xd .PROBLEMS 235 −k43 a3 k44 Its graphical representation is given in Fig. x1= ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦ ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ (3.328) (3.324) 1 2 3 a3 4 Z xs X Figure 47 The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X2 = a2 sin ωt) is represented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term. m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ In this equation x1 stands for the given boundary conditions ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ x1 ¨ 0 ¨ . the particular solution may be predicted as follows x4 = xd sin ωt (3.

dt2 (3. the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows ⎤ 0 R1 = m11 ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦+k11 ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦+m12 (−xd ω2 sin ω)+k12 (xs +xd sin ωt) 0 a3 (3. motion of the system along the coordinate 4 ¨ ¨ x2 = x4 = xs + xd sin ωt x2 = x4 = d2 (xs + xd sin ωt) = −xd ω 2 sin ωt.330) Hence.PROBLEMS 236 and x2 represents. known at this stage.331) 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ .

Part II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 237 .

3. It consists of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3.Chapter 4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 4. and 4 (see Fig. It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured. The spaces between the blocks 2 are ﬁlled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the structural damping. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to be measured in the horizontal direction.1) is attached to the base 1.1 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION 2 4 5 3 6 7 8 9 10 12 Figure 1 The vibrating object 2. The rubber tip 8 is used . The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations of the object.

The three independent coordinates x1 . The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are by assumption massless. which is considered rigid and motionless. 3 The diﬀerential equation of the deﬂection of the spring is EJ d2 x FH − Fz = M − Fz = 2 dz 2 (4. Both. Hence. EJ FH F dx = z − z2 + A dz 2 2 FH 2 F 3 EJx = z − z + Az + B 4 6 (4. Magnitudes of the stuﬃness k1 . the acceleration of the object and the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory of the spectrum analyzer 10.2. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction only.3) .1 Physical model x3 k3 c3 x2 k2 c2 x1 k1 c1 m1 m2 m3 Figure 2 The base 1. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis. To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig.2. 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 4.2) (4. forms a reference system for measuring its vibrations.MODELLING OF THE OBJECT 239 to smooth and extend the impulse of force. x2 and x3 are shown in Fig. the system can be approximated by three degrees of freedom physical model.1) Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line. k2 and k3 of the springs can be analytically assessed. according to these assumptions.

**MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
**

z x(H) M=FH/2

240

F

w EJ H x F z

t

M=FH/2

Figure 3 Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line. ¶ µ 1 FH 2 F 3 x= (4.4) z − z EJ 4 6 Hence, the deﬂection of the upper end is ¶ µ 1 1 FH 2 F 3 x(H) = H − H = F H3 EJ 4 6 12EJ Therefore the stiﬀness of one spring is k= where 12EJ F = x(H) H3 J= (4.6)

(4.5)

wt3 (4.7) 12 Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiﬀness ki shown in the physical model can be computed according to the following formula. ki = 24Ei Ji Hi3 (4.8)

4.2.2 Mathematical model Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the following set of diﬀerential equations m1 x1 + (c1 + c2 )x1 + (−c2 )x2 + (k1 + k2 )x1 + (−k2 )x2 = F1 ¨ ˙ ˙ m2 x2 + (−c2 )x1 + (c2 + c3 )x2 + (−c3 )x3 + (−k2 )x1 + (k2 + k3 )x2 + (−k3 )x3 = F2 ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ m3 x3 + (−c3 )x2 + c3 x3 + (−k3 )x2 + k3 x3 = F3 ¨ ˙ ˙

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

241

These equations can be rewritten as following m¨ + cx + kx = F x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m1 0 c1 + c2 −c2 m = ⎣ 0 m2 0 ⎦ ; c = ⎣ −c2 c2 + c3 −c3 ⎦ 0 0 m3 0 −c3 c3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ −k2 0 k1 + k2 x1 F1 k2 + k3 −k3 ⎦ ; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ ; F = ⎣ F2 ⎦ k = ⎣ −k2 0 −k3 k3 x3 F3 ⎡ (4.9)

(4.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution x = X cos ωt into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system m¨ + kx = F x (4.12) (4.11)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. ±ω1 , ±ω 2 , ±ω 3 (4.14) (4.15)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector X. ¡ 2 ¢ −ω m + k X = 0 (4.13)

Ξ = [Ξ1 , Ξ2 , Ξ2 ]

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form c =µm+κk (4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates η = Ξ−1 x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105) η n + 2ξ n ω n η n + ω 2 η n = ΞT F(t), ¨ ˙ n n n = 1, 2, 3 (4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation Fq eiωt along the coordinate xq , according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is xp = e

iωt N X

ω2 n=1 n

Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect to time, is N X Ξpn Ξqn Fq 2 iωt (4.19) xp = −ω e ¨ 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ω n n n=1 n It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq , according to 2.144 is Rpq (iω) = xp xp ¨ = −ω 2 = iωt Fq e Fq eiωt ¶ N X µ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 − ω2 ) −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ωn ωi n 2 = −ω + (ω 2 − ω2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n n n n n=1

q = 1, 2, 3 (4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς 1 , ς 2 and ς 3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed by ﬁtting the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100). 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page 107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function. First of all let us notice that µ ¶ Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n 2 if ω ∼ ωn Rpq (iω n ) ∼ −ω q = 1, 2, 3 (4.21) + = = 4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 2ς n ωn ω n n Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n , its absolute value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn Ξqn ¯ ¯ q = 1, 2, 3 (4.22) |Rpq (iω n )| ∼ ¯ =¯ 2ς n ¯ ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq (iωn )) = arctan ∞ = ±90o Re(Rpq (iω n )) (4.23)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω n

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o are the wanted natural frequencies ω n . Because ς n and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the transfer functions for ω = ω n represents the modes Ξ1n , Ξ2n , Ξ3n associated with the n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3) natural frequency natural mode 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3)

transfer functions m/N (phase)

π/2

−π/2

frequency rad/s 2 1

Figure 4

4.4

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters The physical model is determined by the following parameters m1 , m2 m3 - masses of the blocks k1 , k2 k3 - stiﬀness of the springs c1 , c2 c3 - damping coeﬃcients

.. As the equipment used is delicate and expensive. These impulses should be applied to the middle of the block......670kg m2 = 0...4.8 24EJ wt3 ki = . 10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function...m to be measured during the laboratory session The damping coeﬃcients ci are diﬃcult to be assessed.... Since the transducer 5 (Fig....... Hence..01 ς 2 = 0.. when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not excessive Harder impact does not produce better results...595kg The formula 4..........m to be measured during the laboratory session H2 = .. To obtain a reliable result.17)...........m to be measured during the laboratory session H3 = ....... ς 2 and ς 3 (see equation 4...595kg m3 = 0.. always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used 2. Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damping is much smaller then the critical one.... the laboratory installation permits the following transfer functions to be obtained......24) allows the stiﬀness ki to be computed... R31 (iω) R32 (iω) R33 (iω) (4..7 and 4..... let us adopt the following damping ratios ς 1 = 0...01 4.25) The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse.....2 Measurements of the transfer functions According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100) to produce the transfer function Rpq (iω) you have to measure response of the system along the coordinate xp due to impulse along the coordinate xq .........EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 244 The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are m1 = 0.. x2 or x3 .. as the ﬁrst approximation of the damping.. J= Hi3 12 (4. Alternatively the damping properties of the system can be uniquely deﬁned by means of the three modal damping ratios ς 1 .m to be measured during the laboratory session H1 = .. 1.. 1) is permanently attached to the mass m3 and the impulse can be applied along the coordinates x1 .. The spectrum analyzer must show the ’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied.... . ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping....m to be measured during the laboratory session t = ..21 × 1012 N/m2 w = ... one has to observe the following...... The following set of data is required E = 0....01 ς 2 = 0.

In this experiment. ξ 1 . ξ 2 . Work on one (say R33 (iω) transfer function only. Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function). . to ﬁt the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one. Uncertain are t. ξ 3 (4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters In a general case. the identiﬁcation of a physical model parameters from the transfer functions bases on a very complicated curve ﬁtting procedures. m3 .4. H3 . E were assessed with a suﬃcient accuracy.27) (4. H2 .EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION 245 4. w.26) Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). we are going to use the trial and error method. m2 . H1 . We assume that the following parameters m1 .

...01 t = . Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function)...670kg H1 = . ξ 1 ............... Chalko . Set excitation coordinate 3...5 WORKSHEET 1. ξ 2 . ξ 3 in the input data.... Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right). ∗ program designed by Dr..............595kg H3 = .. try to ﬁt the analytical data into the experimental one......... execute it and apply 10 times impulse along the coordinates 3 Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured transfer function Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions 3.m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0..595kg H2 = ...m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0......m of mode 3 springs ∗ Run program ’Prac3 ’ and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data.....m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0...... response coordinate 3..WORKSHEET 246 4....... Identiﬁcation of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ i You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R33 (iω).m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0........... 2. By varying t. Initial parameters of physical model Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.. T.....01 w = ...01 E = 0.. Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R33 (iω) Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’ Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’. Save the initial data..21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0...

m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.................... ..595kg H2 = .......m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0................21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0........................... Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R33 (iω) 4...... .....WORKSHEET 247 Record the identiﬁed parameters in the following table Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0......01 w = ......... 2 .............m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0............ ............595kg H3 = ................................01 E = 0............. Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies and modes Plot the natural modes From plots of the experimental transfer functions R31 (iω)...01 t = ........... 6..m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0...m of mode 3 springs Save the identiﬁed parameters....670kg H1 = ...... R32 (iω)................. R33 (iω) determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below natural frequency analytical experimental natural frequency natural frequency 1 . 3 .................... Experimental and analytical transfer functions R31 (iω) and R32 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R31 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R32 (iω) 5.... Conclusions .........

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