# 436-431 MECHANICS 4

UNIT 2

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

J.M. KRODKIEWSKI 2008

THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS Copyright C 2008 by J.M. Krodkiewski

The University of Melbourne Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

CONTENTS

0.1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

I

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

7

1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 1.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . 1.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM 1.2.1 Free vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 1.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 12 16 28 28 34 44

Forced vibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS 66 2.1 MODELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2.1.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM . . . . . 93 2.2.1 General case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 2.2.2 Modal analysis - case of small damping . . . . . . . . . . 102 2.2.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions - Dissipation function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2.2.4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.1 Balancing of rotors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 2.3.2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS 162 3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.1 Modelling of strings, rods and shafts . . . . . . . . . . . 162 3.1.2 Modelling of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CONTENTS

4

3.2 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS . . . . . 3.2.1 Free vibration of strings, rods and shafts 3.2.2 Free vibrations of beams . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS 3.3.1 Rigid Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Finite Elements Method. . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS 3.5.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix. . . . 3.5.2 Condensation of the damping matrix. . . 3.5.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. . . 3.5.4 Condensation of the external forces. . . . 3.6 PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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168 168 174 182 214 214 217 225 226 227 228 228 228 229

II

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

237

4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM 238 4.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION . . . . . 238 4.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.1 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 4.2.2 Mathematical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 4.4 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters . . 243 4.4.2 Measurements of the transfer functions . . . . . . . . . . 244 4.4.3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters . . . . 245 4.5 WORKSHEET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

It is divided into two parts. Each chapter is supplied with several engineering problems.1
INTRODUCTION. is concerned with the problems of vibration associated with one-dimensional continuous systems such as string. In the general case of damping the process of looking for the natural frequencies and the system forced response is provided. Mechanical Vibration of One-Degree-Of-Freedom Linear System. as a part of the second year subject Mechanics 1. Information included in this chapter. Employment of these matrices to the solution of the engineering problems is demonstrated on a number of examples. Solution to the other problems should be produced by students during tutorials and in their own time. students should study it in their own time. describes the laboratory work recommended for this course. Experimental Investigation. where already conveyed to the students and are not to be lectured during this course.
The purpose of this text is to provide the students with the theoretical background and engineering applications of the theory of vibrations of mechanical systems. Approximation of the Continuous Systems by Discrete Models. Application of the modal analysis to the case of the small structural damping results in solution of the initial problem and the forced response. shafts. Part two gives the theoretical background and description of the laboratory experiments. rods. two the most important. is devoted to this solution of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the linear models. Solution to some of them are provided.INTRODUCTION. The Rigid Element Method and the Final Element Method are explained and utilized to produce the inertia and stiﬀness matrices of the free-free beam. illustrates modelling and analysis of these engineering problems that can be approximated by means of the one degree of freedom system. since this knowledge is essential for a proper understanding of the following material. Vibration of Continuous Systems. Part one consists of four chapters. and beams. The presented condensation techniques allow to keep size of the discrete mathematical model on a reasonably low level. The considerations are limited to the linear system only. The second part. Modelling and Analysis. Dynamic balancing of the rotating elements and the passive control of vibrations by means of the dynamic absorber of vibrations illustrate application of the theory presented to the engineering problems. However. Lagrange’s equations and the inﬂuence coeﬃcients method are utilized for the purpose of creation of the mathematical model. Chapter two is devoted to modeling and analysis of these mechanical systems that can be approximated by means of the Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom models. This chapter forms a base for development of discretization methods presented in the next chapter In chapter four. The Newton’s-Euler’s approach. for engineering applications. The ﬁrst chapter. One of them is devoted to the experimental determination of the natural modes and the corresponding natural frequencies of a Multi-Degree-Of-Freedom-
. methods of approximation of the continuous systems by the discrete models are presented. Chapter three.
5
0. The natural frequencies and the natural modes are used for the exact solutions of the free and forced vibrations. Part one.

INTRODUCTION.
.
6
System. The other demonstrates the balancing techniques.

Part I MODELLING AND ANALYSIS
7
.

These laws can not be directly applied to the real system. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description that is called mathematical model. Process of solving of the mathematical model is called analysis and yields solution to the problem considered. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the engineering problems to such extend that the physic laws may be applied.
. Such a type of motion is called vibration.8
Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problems that aims towards producing its mathematical description. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. This part deals with study of linear vibrations of mechanical system. This mathematical description can be obtained by taking advantage of the known laws of physics. One of the most frequently encounter in engineering type of motion is the oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position.

1 Physical model As an example of vibration let us consider the vertical motion of the body 1 suspended on the rod 2 shown in Fig. These lows can not be directly applied to the real system. 1. one has to introduce an inﬁnite number of independent coordinates xi to determine uniquely its motion.
i 2 1
xi t
Figure 1
.Chapter 1 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS
DEFINITION: Any oscillatory motion of a mechanical system about its equilibrium position is called vibration.1 MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
DEFINITION: Modelling is the part of solution of an engineering problem that aims for producing its mathematical description. Therefore. Application of the physics law to the physical model yields the wanted mathematical description which is called mathematical model. Therefore it is necessary to introduce many assumptions that simplify the problem to such an extend that the physic laws may by apply. in general. The mathematical description of the engineering problem one can obtain by taking advantage of the known lows of physics. If the body is forced out from its equilibrium position and then it is released. 1. This part of modelling is called creation of the physical model. 1.1. each point of the system performs an independent oscillatory motion.

To produce the equation of the vibration of the body 1. in many cases. 2.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
10
DEFINITION: The number of independent coordinates one has to use to determine the position of a mechanical system is called number of degrees of freedom According to this deﬁnition each real system has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. The following analysis will be restricted to system with one degree of freedom only. one has to produce its free body diagram. In the case considered the free body diagram is shown in Fig. 3. The displacement x of the rigid body 1 can be chosen as the independent coordinate (see Fig. only one coordinate is suﬃcient to determine uniquely the whole system.
R 1
x t
G
Figure 3 The gravity force is denoted by G whereas the force R represents so called restoring force. if one assume that the rod 2 is massless and the body 1 is rigid. Adaptation of certain assumptions. 2). If the rod is uniform. its instantaneous position as a function of x is shown in Fig. the restoring force R is a non-linear function of
. For example. may results in reduction of this number of degrees of freedom.
i xi 2 1 x t x
Figure 2 Position xi of all the other points of our system depends on x. In a general case.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
11
the displacement x and the instantaneous velocity x of the body 1 (R = R(x. ˙ ˙ The relationship between the restoring force R and the elongation x as well as the velocity x is shown in Fig. R=R(x. 4a) and b) respectively. x)). x) ≈ kx + cx ˙ ˙ (1.1) The ﬁrst term represents the system elasticity and the second one reﬂects the system’s ability for dissipation of energy. x
Figure 4 If it is possible to limit the consideration to vibration within a small vicinity of the system equilibrium position.
. Result of this part of modelling is called physical model. ˙
R R
a)
b)
0
x
0
. k is called stiﬀness and c is called coeﬃcient of damping. The physical model that reﬂects all the above mention assumption is called one-degree-of-freedom linear system. Such cases usually are refer to as linear vibration and the system considered is call linear system. The future analysis will be limited to cases for which such a linearization is acceptable form the engineering point of view. 5. 4 can be linearized. For presentation of the physical model we use symbols shown in the Fig. the non-linear relationship. shown in Fig.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
x rigid block of mass m (linear motion) m m. E
massless spring of stifness k (linear motion)
massless beam area A.
massless damper of damping coefficient c (angular motion)
Figure 5 1. This mathematical model can be obtained by application of the known physic lows to the adopted physical model. Let us consider system shown in Fig.
. second moment of area J
and Young modulus E
k massless spring of stifness k (angular motion)
ϕ
massless damper of damping coefficient c (linear motion)
c
c
ϕ
. In this section principle of producing of the mathematical model for the one-degree-of-freedom system is shown. The creation of the physical model. This mathematical description is referred to as the mathematical model. J.2 Mathematical model To analyze motion of a system it is necessary to develop a mathematical description that approximates its dynamic behavior. 6. has been explained in the previous section.1.I rigid body of mass m and moment of inertia I (angular motion)
12
ϕ
particle of of mass m m
k A.

7) by a distance x. there is an increment in the interaction force between the spring and the block. Hence FR = −k |x| = −kx If x < 0. This increment is called restoring force. If the system is out of the equilibrium position (see Fig. the restoring force has the same direction as axis x. In this chapter we are assuming that the origin of the absolute system of coordinates coincides with the centre of gravity of the body while the body stays at its equilibrium position as shown in Fig.2)
. Hence FR = +k |x| = −kx Therefore the restoring force always can be represented in the equation of motion by term FR = −kx (1. To develop the mathematical model we take advantage of Newton’s generalized equations. This require introduction of the absolute system of coordinates. The resultant force of all static forces (in the example considered gravity force mg and interaction force due to the static elongation of spring kxs ) is equal to zero.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
13
k
c
x k xs
m mg
Figure 6 Let as assume that the system is in an equilibrium. these forces do not have to be included in the Newton’s equations. 6.
-k\x\=-kx k c x k xs m mg x>0 k\x\=-kx x<0
Figure 7 In our case the magnitude of the restoring force is |FR | = k |x| If x > 0. Therefore. the restoring force is opposite to the positive direction of axis x.

x<0
m
Figure 8 Creating the equation of motion one has to take into consideration the interaction force between the damper and the block considered (see Fig.5) (1. . This interaction ˙ force is called damping force and its absolute value is |FD | = c |x| .3)
k
c
x
m Fex (t)
Figure 9 The assumption that the system is linear allows to apply the superposition rules and add these forces together with the external force Fex (t) (see Fig. 9). A very similar to the above consideration leads to conclusion that the damping force can be represented in the equation of motion by the following term ˙ FD = −cx (1. the equation of motion of the block of mass m is m¨ = −kx − cx + Fex (t) x ˙ Transformation of the above equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ n where (1. x>0 mg
. -c\x\=-cx .4)
. +c\x\=-cx . Hence. 8). .MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
14
k
c
x k xs
.

is called damping factor or damping ratio f (t) . f (t) = (1. ωn =
r
. 2ςωn = .is called natural frequency of the undamped system ς .is called unit external excitation The equation 1.5 is known as the mathematical model of the linear vibration of the one-degree-of-freedom system.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
15
k Fex (t) c .6) m m m ωn .

3 Problems Problem 1
y A k2 m k1 c
Figure 10 The block of mass m (see Fig. It is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k1 . The upper end of the spring k2 moves along the inertial axis y and its motion is governed by the following equation yA = a sin ωt were a is the amplitude of motion and ω is its angular frequency.
. 10)is restricted to move along the vertical axis. Produce the equation of motion of the block. the spring of stiﬀness k2 and the damper of damping coeﬃcient c.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
16
1.1.

8) (1.9) (1. 11. Application of the Newton’s low results in the following equation of motion ˙ m¨ = −k2 x − k1 x + k2 y − cx x Its standard form is ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ω2 = n k1 + k2 m 2ςωn = c m q= k2 a m (1.7)
.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
17
Solution
y A k2 m k1 c x
Figure 11 Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the block 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.

12) of mass m and radius r is plunged into a liquid of density d. The cylindric container 2 has a radius R.
.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
18
Problem 2
r
1
2
R
Figure 12 The cylinder 1 (see Fig. Produce the formula for the period of the vertical oscillation of the cylinder.

11) (1. 13.10)
(1.12)
r2 x z= 2 R − r2 Introducing the above relationship into the formula 1.16)
(1.17)
.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
19
Solution
x
r V2 G z V1 x R
Figure 13
Let us introduce the inertial axis x in such a way that its origin coincides with the centre of gravity of the cylinder 1 when the system is in its equilibrium position (see Fig.10 one can get that ¶ µ 2 2 ¶ µ Rr r2 2 x x dgπr = πdg ∆H = x + 2 R − r2 R2 − r 2 According to the Newton’s law we have m¨ = −dgπ x µ R2 r 2 R2 − r 2 ¶ x
(1.15) (1.14)
The standard form of this equation of motion is x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n µ 2 2 ¶ dg Rr = π m R2 − r 2 The period of the free oscillation of the cylinder is s s mπ (R2 − r2 ) 2 2π 2π m (R2 − r2 ) Tn = = = ωn Rr πdg Rr dg ω2 n where (1. If the cylinder is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance x. the hydrostatic force acting on the cylinder is reduced by ∆H = (x + z) dgπr2 Since the volume V1 must be equal to the volume V2 we have ¡ ¢ V1 = πr2 x = V2 = π R2 − r2 z Therefore (1.13)
(1.

The elastic properties of the shaft are determined by the shear modulus G. The disk can oscillate about the vertical axis and the damping is modelled by the linear damper of a damping coeﬃcient c. Produce equation of motion of the disk
. 14) is supported by an elastic shaft of diameter D and length L.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
20
Problem 3
R c G D L m 1
Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m and radius R (see Fig.

18)
.the moment of inertia of the disk 2 4 ks = T = TTL = JG = πD G the stiﬀness of the rod ϕ L 32L JG Introduction of the above expressions into the equation 1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
21
Solution
R ϕ G D
c
L m
Figure 15 Motion of the disk is governed by the generalized Newton’s equation ˙ I ϕ = −ks ϕ − cR2 ϕ ¨ where I = mR .20) (1.19)
2
1
(1.21) πD4 G ϕ=0 32L (1.18 yields ˙ I ϕ + cR2 ϕ + ¨ or ˙ ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ n where ω2 = n πD4 G 32LI 2ςωn = cR2 I (1.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
22
Problem 4
O k l b 1 c
a
m
Figure 16 The thin and uniform plate 1 of mass m (see Fig. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position.
. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. 16) can rotate about the horizontal axis O. Produce the equation of motion of the plate.

25)
.26) (1.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
23
Solution
O k l b 1
ϕ
c
a
m
Figure 17 Motion of the plate along the coordinate ϕ (see Fig.27) mb2 ϕ + kl2 ϕ + cb2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ 6 (1.22) The moment of inertia of the plate 1 about its axis of rotation is I= mb2 6 (1.24) Hence or ϕ + 2ςω n ϕ + ω 2 ϕ = 0 ¨ ˙ n where ω2 = n 6kl2 mb2 2ςω n = 6c m (1.23)
The moment which act on the plate due to the interaction with the spring k and the damper c is M = −kl2 ϕ − cb2 ϕ ˙ (1. 17) is govern by the generalized Newton’s equation Iϕ = M ¨ (1.

Its unbalance (the distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and the Young modulus E.
. The shaft of the motor has a mass m and rotates with the angular velocity ω. 18)is mounted on the massless beam of length l.I
ωt
c l
µ
Figure 18
The electric motor of mass M (see Fig.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
24
Problem 5
m M
E. Produce the equation of motion of the system. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c.

The right hand end of the damper moves along the horizontal axis y and its motion is given by the following equation y = a sin ωt Produce the equation of motion of the system
0 A c y
. 19 is made of the material of a density . The wheel is supported by the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
25
Problem 6
k d D l L
Figure 19 The wheel shown in the Fig. It can oscillate about the horizontal axis O.

MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
26
Problem 7
2 L r
1
Figure 20 The cylinder 1 of mass m is attached to the rigid and massless rod 2 to form the pendulum shown in the Fig. Produce the formula for the period of oscillation of the pendulum.
. 20.

. The spring of stiﬀness k keeps it in the horizontal position. 21) of mass m can rotate about the horizontal axis O. The damping coeﬃcient c reﬂects dissipation of energy of the system. Produce the formula for the natural frequency of the system.MODELLING OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
27
Problem 8
O k l b 1 a m c
Figure 21 The thin and uniform plate 1 (see Fig.

2. the equation 1.30) Introduction of the solution 1. the independent particular solution are x1 = sin ωn t and x2 = cos ωn t (1.28)
The equation 1. In this section.30. let us assume that at the instant t = 0 the system was at the position x0 and was forced to move with the initial velocity v0 .28 governs the free motion of the undamped system.29 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + ω 2 = 0 (1. it is assumed that the resultant of all external forces f (t) is equal to zero. x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Free vibration of an undamped system The general solution of the homogeneous equation 1. in this case. Hence.1 Free vibration DEFINITION: It is said that a system performs free vibration if there are no external forces (forces that are explicitly dependent on time) acting on this system.29)
Hence. x = Cs sin ω n t + Cc cos ω n t (1. according to the above deﬁnition. These solutions can be obtained by means of the following procedure. x = eλt (1.30 into the equation 1. The particular solution can be predicted in the form 1. the mathematical model that is analyzed in this section takes form x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ ˙ n (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
28
1.34)
The two constants Cs and Cc should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions which reﬂect the way the free vibrations were initiated.32) (1. Introduction of these initial conditions
.28 is classiﬁed as linear homogeneous ordinary diﬀerential equation of second order.29 is a linear combination of its two particular linearly independent solutions.31) n This characteristic equation has two roots λ1 = +iω n and λ2 = −iω n (1. If one assume that the damping ratio ς is equal to zero.33)
Their linear combination is the wanted general solution and approximates the free vibration of the undamped system.2
ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
1. To get an unique solution it is necessary to specify the initial position and the initial velocity of the system considered. Hence.

35)
According to 1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 0 the free motion is shown in Fig. Cc = x0 Cs ω n = v0 (1.
x[m]
1
vo xo
0. since the sine function has a period equal to 2π.5
10
20
30
40
50
t[s]
-1
-1. 22 The free motion.34 results in two algebraic equation that are linear with respect to the unknown constants Cs and Cc . the particular solution that represents the free vibration of the system is v0 sin ω n t + x0 cos ω n t = x = ωn = C sin(ω n t + α) (1.37)
For ω n = 1[1/s].38)
.
α = arctan
!
(1. in the case considered is periodic. According to this deﬁnition.5
Tn
Figure 22 DEFINITION: The shortest time after which parameters of motion repeat themselves is called period and the motion is called periodic motion.5
C
0
α
-0. we have sin(ω n (t + Tn ) + α) = sin(ωn t + α + 2π) (1.34.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
29
into the equation 1.36) where C= s µ v0 ωn ¶2 Ã x0
v0 ωn
(x0 )2 +
.

40) 2π ωn (1.2 = −ςω n ± iω n 1 − ς 2 = −ςω n ± iω d where ωd = ωn The particular solutions are p 1 − ς2 (1.42)
The particular solution depend on category of the above roots.40 yields the characteristic equation λ2 + 2ςωn λ + ω 2 = 0 n The characteristic equation has two roots p p −2ςω n ± (2ςωn )2 − 4ω 2 n = −ςωn ± ωn ς 2 − 1 λ1. the characteristic equation has two complex conjugated roots and this case is often referred to as the underdamped vibration.43) λ1. the period of the undamped free vibrations is Tn = Free vibration of a damped system If the damping ratio is not equal to zero.39)
(1.44)
x1 = e−ςωn t sin ωd t and x2 = e−ςωn t cos ω d t and their linear combination is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are Cs = Cc v0 + ςω n x0 ωd = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙
(1.46)
(1. p (1. the equation of the free motion is ˙ x + 2ςωn x + ω2 x = 0 ¨ n Introduction of the equation 1.30 into 1.47)
(1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
30
Hence.2 = 2 (1.48)
.45)
(1. Three cases are possible Case one .41) (1.underdamped vibration If ς < 1.

5
Figure 23 second zero-point is constant and it is called period of the dumped vibration.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
31
Introduction of the expressions 1.48 into 1. It is easy to see from the expression 1.50) For ω n = 1[1/s].1 the free motion is shown in Fig.49 that Td = 2π ωd (1.51)
DEFINITION: Natural logarithm of ratio of two displacements x(t) and x(t + Td ) that are one period apart is called logarithmic decrement of damping and will be denoted by δ.46 produces the free motion in the following form x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1.
. v0 + ςω n x0
ωd = ωn
(1.49) where sµ C= ¶2
v0 + ςω n x0 ωd
+ (x0 )2 . 23) between every
p 1 − ς2
x[m]
vo xo
1
t
0. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = .5
Td
x(t+ Td ) x(t)
0 10 20 30 40 50 t[s]
-0.5
-1
Td
-1. 23In this case the motion is not periodic but the time Td (see Fig.
α = arctan
x0 ω d .

According to the formula 1.59 into 1. the free motion is shown in Fig.58) (1.51 ωd 2π = √ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
32
It will be shown that the logaritmic decrement is constant. the characteristic equation has two real and equal one to each other roots and this case is often referred to as the critically damped vibration λ1. 24. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 1.57 produces expression for the free motion in the following form (1.60) x = e−ςωn t (x0 + t(v0 + x0 ω n )) For ω n = 1[1/s].53) 4π 2 + δ 2 The other parameter ωn that exists in the mathematical model 1.54) ωn = √ 1 − ς2 Td 1 − ς 2 Case two .55)
Introduction of the expressions 1. Indeed δ = ln Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) x (t) = ln −ςωn (t+T ) = d sin(ω (t + T ) + α) x (t + Td ) Ce d d Ce−ςωn t sin(ωd t + α) 2πςω n 2πςωn = ln −ςωn t −ςωn T = ςω n Td = = √ = d sin(ω t + 2π + α) Ce e ωd ωn 1 − ς 2 d 2πς = √ (1.57) and x2 = te−ςωn t (1.40 can be easily identiﬁed by measuring the period of the free motion Td .critically damped vibration If ς = 1. δ ς=p (1.
.2 = −ςωn The particular solutions are x1 = e−ςωn t and their linear combination is x = Cs e−ςωn t + Cc te−ςωn t For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs = x0 Cc = v0 + x0 ωn (1.56) (1.44 and 1.52) 1 − ς2
This formula is frequently used for the experimental determination of the damping ratio ς.59) x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. The critical damping oﬀers for the system the possibly faster return to its equilibrium position.

64)
the two constants Cs and Cc are as follow Cs Cc √ v + ω0 + x0 (+ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1 √ v − ω0 + x0 (−ς + ς 2 − 1) n √ = 2 ς2 − 1
(1.61) x1 = e−ωn (ς+ and their linear combination is
√ ς 2 −1)t
The particular solutions are
and x2 = e−ωn (ς−
√ ς 2 −1)t
(1. the characteristic equation has two real roots and this case is often referred to as the overdamped vibration.63)
(1. x0 = 1[m] v0 = 1[m/s] and ς = 5.65)
For ω n = 1[1/s]. 25
. the free motion is shown in Fig.5
-1
-1.2 = −ςω n ± ω n ς 2 − 1 = ωn (−ς ± ς 2 − 1) (1.5
Figure 24 Case three .overdamped vibration If ς > 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
33
x[m]
vo xo
1
0. p p λ1.62)
For the following initial conditions
³ ´ √ √ 2 2 x = e−ωn t Cs eωn ς −1)t + Cc e−ωn ς −1)t x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙
(1.5
0
10
20
30
40
50
t[s]
-0.

67) m m m The general solution of this mathematical model is a superposition of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation xp .5
0
10
20
30
40
50
t[s]
-0.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
34
x[m]
vo x o
1
0.5
Figure 25 1.69) r (1. The mathematical model. according to the previous consideration. f (t) = (1. is the linear non-homogeneous diﬀerential equation of second order. x = xg + xp (1.68) ωn = The general solution of the homogeneous equation has been produced in the previous section and for the underdamped vibration it is xg = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ω d t + Cc cos ω d t) = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) (1. 2ςωn = . let as assume that the excitation can be approximated by a harmonic function.2. the initial conditions and the exciting force.2 Forced vibration In a general case motion of a vibrating system is due to both.66)
To produce the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = f (t) ¨ ˙ n where k Fex (t) c .5
-1
-1.70)
. Such a case is referred to as the harmonic excitation. f (t) = q sin ωt (1.

66 yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n In this case it is easy to predict mode of the particular solution xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt (1.71 for any instant of time.71 in the following form x = Ce−ςωn t sin(ω d t + α) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.68 one can obtain the general solution of the equation of motion 1.76 into the 1. The function 1.69 and 1.71)
where As and Ac are constant.79)
.70 into equation 1.73) n This relationship is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if (ω 2 − ω 2 )As − 2ςω n ωAc = q n 2ςωn ωAs + (ω2 − ω2 )Ac = 0 n
(1.78)
ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2
Introducing 1.75 into the predicted solution 1. implementing it in equation 1. Introduction of the expression 1.76)
ϕ = arctan
Ac 2(ςω n )ω = − arctan 2 As ωn − ω2 (1.72 yields xp = As sin ωt + Ac cos ωt = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= or p q A2 + A2 = p s c (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4(ςωn )2 ω 2 n A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
q ω2 n
(1.72 is the particular solution if and only if it fulﬁls the equation 1. Therefore.72) (1.75) 2 ¯ (ω n − ω ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω2 )2 + 4(ςω n )2 ω2 ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ n Introduction of the expressions 1.77) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
35
In the above equation q represents the amplitude of the unit excitation and ω is the excitation frequency.74)
Solution of the above equations yields the expression for the constant As and Ac ¯ ¯ ¯ q −2ςω n ω ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 (ω2 − ω2 ) ¯ (ω 2 − ω 2 )q n n ¯= 2 As = ¯ 2 2 )2 + 4(ςω )2 ω 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) −2ςω n ω ¯ (ωn − ω n ¯ ¯ 2 2 ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω (ωn − ω ) ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ (ω n − ω 2 ) q ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2ςω n ω 0 ¯ −2(ςωn )ωq ¯= 2 Ac = ¯ 2 (1.71 one can get ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 (ωn − ω2 )As − 2ςωn ωAc sin ωt+ 2ςω n ωAs + (ω 2 − ω 2 )Ac cos ωt = q sin ωt (1.

2 0 -0.126835[rd] is shown in Fig.2 -0. First term represents an
x[m]
1 0. decays to zero (curve a in Fig. A = 0.1. Motion approximated by the equation 1. Hence. ω n = 1[1/s].
.6 0.81)
Introduction of the solution of the equations 1.82 (curve b in Fig. due to the existing damping.81 (Co.4 -0.The solution 1.80)
one can get the following set of the algebraic equations for determination of the parameters C and α x0 = Co sin αo + A sin ϕ v0 = −Co ςω n sin αo + Co ω d cos αo + Aω cos ϕ
(1.82 is assembled out of two terms. 1. αo ) to the general solution. αo = 1[rd].ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
36
The constants C and α should be chosen to fullﬁl the required initial conditions. ϕ = 0. 1. x = Co e−ςωn t sin(ω d t + αo ) + A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1. Co = 1[m].82) x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.83 is usually referred to as the system forced vibration.77. Motion represented by this term.8 0.83)
This harmonic term has amplitude A determined by the formula 1. 26 (curve c). For the following initial conditions x |t=0 = x0 x |t=0 = v0 ˙ (1. for the following numerical data ς = 0.6
c
b
a A
t[s]
20 40 60
transient state of the forced vibration
steady state of the forced vibration
Figure 26 oscillations with frequency equal to the natural frequency of the damped system ωd . after an usually short time. the transient state changes into the steady state represented by the second term in equation 1.4 0.165205[m]. yields particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation that represents the forced vibration of the system considered.82)
This solution. It does not depend on the initial conditions and is called amplitude of the forced vibration.82) and determines time of the transient state of the forced vibrations. ω = 2[1/s].

28.83) are harmonic. from engineering point of view play secondary role.One
x q A qsin(ω t ) Asin(ω t+ ϕ )
ϕ ωt
Figure 27 can see from the above interpretation that the angular displacement ϕ is the phase between the exciting force and the displacement it causes. the exciting force f (t) = q sin ωt (1.70) and the (steady state) forced vibration x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) (1.force transmitted to foundation. Therefore. If µ represents the static imbalance of the rotor
. Because the transient state. Therefore ϕ is called phase of the forced vibration. The possibly simplest case of vibration cased by this type of excitation is shown in Fig.
a)
m µ ω 2 sin ω t x mµ ω
2
b)
x m µ ω 2 sin ω t
µ ωt
m M k
M c
R
Figure 28 One of many possible excitation of vibrations is excitation caused by inertia forces produced by moving elements.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
37
Both. they can be represented by means of two vectors ’rotating’ with the same angular velocity ω (see Fig. in the following sections the steady state forced vibration will be considered only. The rotor of an electrical motor rotates with the constant angular velocity ω. 27). Forced response due to rotating elements .

For ω = ωn . The damping properties are approximated by the damping coeﬃcient c.77 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
m ω µ( ωn )2 M q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2
(1.If the frequency of excitation changes from zero to the value equal to the natural frequency ωn . regardless the damping involved. the steady state forced vibration are x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where according to 1. 28b). If the frequency of excitation
A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2
(1. the amplitude of the forced vibration is growing.91)
. Let us model vibration of the system. taking into consideration 1.85) (1. Its maximum depends on the damping ratio and appears for ω > ω n . is called the magniﬁcation factor.87) mµω 2 M
r
q=
(1. 29. This phenomenon is called phase resonance. Taking advantage of the earlier described method of formulation the mathematical model we have M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ Transformation of this equation into the standard form yields ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n where ωn = k c 2ςωn = M M Hence.86)
(1. The physical model of the problem described is shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
38
and m is its mass. If the frequency of m excitation tends towards inﬁnity.89)
(1.90)
or. then the rotor produces the centrifugal force F = mµω 2 Its component along the vertical axis x is Fx = mµω2 sin ωt (1.88
A The ratio m µ . Its magnitude and the phase ϕ as M ω a function of the ratio ωn for diﬀerent damping factor ς is shown in Fig. phase of the forced vibration is equal to 90o .88)
(1. The phenomenon at which amplitude of the forced vibration is maximum is called amplitude resonance.84)
The motor of mass M is supported by means of a beam of the stiﬀness k. the amplitude of the forced vibration tends to M µ.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
39
6
4
A m µ M
2 1
ζ=0 ζ=0.1 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.5
Figure 29
.5
0 1
ω ωn
ζ=0
2
3
1 0 -45
2
3
ϕ
-90 -135 -180
ζ=0.0 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.5
ζ=1.5 ζ=1.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.

30. The force transmitted to the foundation R. This physical
.25 ζ=0.5
4 R mµ ω
2
2 1
0 0 1
1. Forced response due to the kinematic excitation .92) The amplitude of the reaction is p √ |R| = A k 2 + c2 ω2 = AM ω4 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 = n n q 2 ( ω )2 1 + 4ς ωn = mµω 2 q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
|R| ω The ampliﬁcation ratio mµω2 of the reaction as a function of the ratio ωn is shown in Fig.1 ζ =0.vibration isolation The physical model of a system with the kinematic excitation is shown in Fig. For ω > 1.For the frequency of excitation ω < 1.4ω n this reaction is smaller then the excitation force and tends to zero when the frequency of excitation approaches inﬁnity.4ω n the force transmitted to foundation
6 ζ=0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1. Hence the response of the system tends to be in the anti-phase with the excitation. Motion of the point B along the axis y causes vibration of the block M. according to the physical model shown in Fig. the phase tends to 180o .0 ζ=1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
40
tends to inﬁnity. 31b).4 ω 2 n
ω
3
Figure 30 is greater then the centrifugal force itself with its maximum close to frequency ωn . 28b) is √ R(t) = kx + cx = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cAω cos(ωt + ϕ) = A k2 + c2 ω 2 sin(ωt + ϕ + δ) ˙ (1.

97) (1. The block of mass M stands for the body of the bus. the period of the harmonic excitation is T = L v (1. 31a).39 is ω= 2πv L (1. the frequency of excitation.98) (1.94)
and the motion of the point B along the axis y can approximated as follows y = a sin ωt The equation of motion of the bus is M x = −kx − cx + ky + cy ¨ ˙ ˙ Introduction of 1.95 yields M x + cx + kx = ka sin ωt + caω cos ωt ¨ ˙ or ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = ω2 a sin ωt + 2ςω n ωa cos ωt = q sin(ωt + α) ¨ n n where q= aω 2 n r ω 1 + 4ς 2 ( )2 ωn (1. according to 1.96) (1. The stiﬀness k of the spring and the damping coeﬃcient c represent the dynamic properties of the bus shock-absorbers. If the surface can be approximated by the sine-wave of the amplitude a and length L and the bus is travelling with the constant velocity v.93)
Hence.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
41
a)
b)
x M
y
v G k L a R y B c
Figure 31 model can be used to analyze vibration of a bus caused by the roughness of the surface of the road shown in Fig.95)
.

a For ω < 1.101) is called vibration isolation.g. 32. 1.99)
ϕ = − arctan
ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2
(1.g.100)
Introduction of equation 1..4ωn it is possible to arrange for the bus to have vibration smaller than the amplitude of the kinematic excitation The expression for the reaction force transmitted to the foundation is
R = kx + cx − ky − cy = kA sin(ωt + ϕ) + cωA cos(ωt + ϕ) − ka sin ωt − cωa cos ωt ˙ ˙ = |R| sin(ωt + γ) (1.83 x = A sin(ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
q ω2 n
(1.102) Problem of minimizing the reaction force R (e. 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
42
Without any harm to the generality of the considerations one can neglect the phase α and adopt the mathematical model in the following form ˙ x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ n Motion of the block along axis x is governed by the equation 1.98 gives q ω a 1 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2 A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
ϕ = − arctan
ω 2ς ωn ω 1 − ( ωn )2
(1.92) or the amplitude A (e.
.101)
ω The magnifying factor A and the phase ϕ as a function of ωn is shown in Fig.

1 ζ=1.5
0 0 1
1 0 -45
ω ωn
2
2
3
3
ϕ
-90 -135 -180
ζ=0 ζ=1.5 ζ =0.25 ζ=0.5
Figure 32
.25 ζ=0.0 ζ=0.5 ζ=1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
43
6
4
A a
2
ζ=0 ζ=0.0 ζ=1.1 ζ =0.

The distance between the highest and the lowest ﬂoor is H = 30m. Calculate the stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c of the shock-absorber which assure that the deceleration during the impact is smaller then 200m/s2 .3 Problems Free vibrations Problem 9
1 H 2 k c
Figure 33 The carriage 1 of the lift shown in Fig.2. To attenuate the impact between the carriage and the basement in the case the rope 3 is broken.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
44
1. 33 operates between ﬂoors of a building.
. the shock absorber 2 is to be installed. The average mass of the carriage is m = 500kg.

the lift is at the level H when the rope brakes.105) (1.107) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
45
Solution In the worst case scenario.106)
.
x H mg
x k c
Figure 34 Due to the gravity force the lift is falling down with the initial velocity equal to zero.104)
(1. Equation of motion of the lift is m¨ = mg x (1.103) By double side by side integrating of the above equation one can get g x = A + Bt + t2 2 Introduction of the following initial conditions ˙ x |t=0 = 0 x |t=0 = 0 yields A = 0 and B = 0 and results in the following equation of motion g x = t2 2 Hence. the time the lift reaches the shock-absorber is s 2H to = g Since v = x = gt ˙ (1.

109)
c k .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
46
To analyze the motion of the lift after impact let us introduce the inertial axis y in such a way that its origin coincides with the upper end of the shock-absorber at the instant of impact (see Fig. the equation of motion after the lift has reached the shock-absorber is m¨ + cy + ky = mg y ˙ or in the standardized form ˙ y + 2ςωn y + ω2 y = g ¨ n where ωn = r (1.112) ωn The best performance of the shock-absorber is expected if the damping is critical (ς = 1). 35). there exists one double root and the general solution of the homogeneous equation is yg = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t (1.Since at the instant of impact the spring k is
the velocity of the lift at the time of the impact with the shock-absorber is p ˙ (1. 2ςωn = (1.111) m m It is easy to see that in the case considered the particular solution of the nonhomogeneous equation is g yp = 2 (1.113)
. In this case.108) vo = x |t=to = 2Hg
H
x y k y mg c
Figure 35 uncompressed.110) (1.

28s−1 2 2Hg 2 2 · 30 · 10
k .121)
amax = Dω 2 + 2Eω n = g + 2vo ω n − 2g = 2vo ω n − g n
(1.118)
Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.123)
(1.115)
and results in the following equation of motion µ ¶ ¶ µ g g g −ω n t y = − 2 e te−ωn t + 2 + vo − ωn ωn ωn ¶ µ ¡ ¢ ¢ g ¡ g te−ωn t = D 1 − e−ωn t + Ete−ωn t (1.117 yields acceleration during the impact ¡ ¢ y = −Dω2 − 2Eωn e−ωn t + Eω 2 te−ωn t ¨ (1. one can see that the maximum of the deceleration occurs for time t = 0.125)
.117) = 1 − e−ωn t + vo − ω2 ωn n where D= g ω2 n E = vo − g ωn (1.118.120) n g ωn both constants E and D are positive.282 · 500 = 9160N/m n (1. 2vo ωn − g < aa It follows q aa + g 200 + 10 ωn < √ = √ = 4.116) (1.119) n n By inspection of the function 1.122)
This deceleration has to be smaller then the allowed deceleration aa = 200ms−2 .114) ωn This equation has to fullﬁl the following initial conditions y |t=0 = 0 y |t=0 = vo ˙ Introduction of these initial conditions into the equation 1.113 yields C1 = − g ω2 n C2 = vo − g ωn (1. Hence the maximum of deceleration is ¯ ¯ amax = y |t=0 = ¯−Dω2 − 2Eωn ¯ ¨ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
47
Therefore the general solution of the non-homogeneous equation as the sum of yp and yg is g y = C1 e−ωn t + C2 te−ωn t + 2 (1. m
(1.124)
Since ω n =
the stiﬀness of the shock-absorber is k = ω 2 m = 4. Hence vo >
If
(1.

4m/s 2Hg = 2 · 30 · 10 = 24.5 > = ωn 4. Indeed vo = (1. 36
.121 is fullﬁl.127)
The displacement of the lift.126)
Our computation can be accepted only if the inequality 1. its velocity and acceleration during the impact as a function of time is shown in Fig.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
48
and the damping coeﬃcient c = 2ςω n m = 2 · 1 · 4.28 · 500 = 4280Ns/m p √ g 10 = 2.28 (1.

5
displacement
y [m]
1 0.5 0.5 0 0 0.5 0.75 1
time [s]
50
acceleration
0 0.75 1
time [s]
25 20 15
velocity
v [m/s] 10
5 0 -5 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.5 2 1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
49
2.25 0.75 1
time [s]
-50
a [m/s 2]
-100
-150
-200
Figure 36
.

and c.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
50
Problem 10 The power winch W was mounted on the truss T as shown in Fig. 39. k. Calculate the parameters m. In this ﬁgure the equivalent mass. 38. k and c respectively. the following experiment was carried out. To identify the unknown parameters m. and c. stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient are denoted by m. Record of those oscillations is presented in Fig.
. 38b). 37a) To
a)
T
b)
k c x
W R m
Figure 37 analyze the vibrations of the power winch the installation was modelled by the one degree of freedom physical model shown in Fig. k. The winch was loaded with the weight equal to M1 = 1000kg as shown in Fig. Origin of the axis x coincides with the centre of gravity of the weight m when the system rests in its equilibrium position. Then the load was released allowing the installation to perform the vertical
T
W R
L
Ml
Figure 38 oscillations in x direction.

001 x[m] 0 -0.
c = 15000N sm−1
.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
51
0.002 0.001 -0.003 1 2 time [s] 3 4
Figure 39 Answer m = 7000kg.002 -0.003 0.
k = 3000000Nm−1 .

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
52
Problem 11
a)
T
b)
k c x m
W R
Figure 40 The winch W shown in Fig.Assuming that the rope
T
W R
M
Figure 41 R is not extendible produce expression for the tension in the rope R before and after the block will lose contact with the ﬂoor. 41).
. 40 is modelled as a system with one degree of freedom of mass m stiﬀness k and the damping coeﬃcient c. The winch is lifting the block of mass M with the constant velocity vo (see Fig.

130)
The equation 1. Hence ˙ −T = c(−vo ) + k(−vo t) (1. The tension T in the rope R varies between 0 and Mg.128)
If origin of the inertial axis x coincides with the gravity centre when the unloaded winch is at its equilibrium. 0 < T 0 Mg (1.131)
At the instant of separation the winch will be at the position determined by the following formula Mg − cvo xs = −vo ts = − (1.129)
In the above equation x = 0 (the winch is moving with the constant velocity vo ).132) k If Mg < cvo then xs = ts = 0.135)
(1. it stays motionlessly at the ﬂoor whereas the lift itself is going down with respect to the inertial axis x with the constant velocity vo .133) Tension in the rope R after the contact of the weight with the ﬂoor is lost Without any harm to the generality of the further consideration one may assume that the time corresponding to the instant of separation is equal to 0. For t > 0. the instantaneous length of the rope L is L = Lo − vo t (1. the equation of motion of the winch and the block (see Fig. ts = Mg − cvo kvo (1.130 allows the time of separation ts to be obtained. If Mg > cvo T = cvo + kvo t f or 0 < t < ts (1. the equation of motion of the winch is m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ (1. 42) are as following m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M xb = T − Mg ¨ Since the rope R is not extendible. Therefore the equation 1.134)
.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
53
Solution Tension in the rope R before the contact is lost In the ﬁrst stage of lifting the block M.130 governs motion of the winch till the tension T will reach value Mg. ¨ x = −vo and x = −vo t.

A= 2 (1. Hence q ω 2 A = q.138)
The standardized form is as following
Elimination of the unknown tension force allows the equation of motion of the winch to be formulated (m + M)¨ + cx + kx = −Mg x ˙ (1. q=− (1. Taking into account that L = x − xb we have Introduction of the equation 1.137) (1.142) n ωn ωn = r (1. 2ςωn = .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
54
k
c x m
x T xb L T
Mg
Figure 42 Where Lo stands for the initial length of the rope (the lenght the rope had at the instance t = 0).136)
m¨ + cx + kx = −T x ˙ M x = T − Mg ¨
(1.139) x + 2ςωn x + ω 2 x = q ¨ ˙ n where k Mg c .134 yields xb = x − L = x − Lo + vo t (1.141) m+M m+M m+M The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation can be predicted as a constant magnitude A.140)
.137 into 1.

ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
55
The general solution of the mathematical model 1.148)
.143 yields the following expressions for the constants Cs and Cc Cs = Hence.147)
The time history diagram of the above function is shown in Fig.43 The tension is
x
xs
O
t
A
xmax
Td
Figure 43 determined by the equation 1.145)
Introduction of these initial conditions into the solution 1.140 is x = e−ςωn t (Cs sin ωd t + Cc cos ωd t) + A where ωd = ωn p 1 − ς2 (1.144)
This solution has to fulﬁll the following initial conditions f or t = 0 x = xs x = −vo ˙ (1.146)
µ
¶ −vo + ςω n (xs − A) sin ωd t + (xs − A) cos ωd t + A ωd
(1.138 T = M x + Mg ¨ (1. x=e
−ςω n t
−vo + ςωn (xs − A) ωd
Cc = xs − A
(1.143) (1.

149) +Me−ςωn t Cc (ςω n )2 − 2Cs ςω n ωd + Cc ω 2 cos ω d t d
.147 yields the wanted tension as a function of time ¡ ¢ T = Mg + Me−ςωn t Cs (ςωn )2 + 2Cc ςω n ω d − Cs ω 2 sin ω d t d ¡ ¢ (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
56
Double diﬀerentiation of the function 1.

44) is mounted on the massless beam of length l. rotates with the constant angular velocity ω and its unbalance (distance between the axis of rotation and the shaft centre of gravity) is µ.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
57
Forced vibration Problem 12
E. The damping properties of the system are modelled by the linear damping of the damping coeﬃcient c. of mass m. the second moment of inertia of its cross-section I and Young modulus E. Shaft of the motor.
.I
m M
ωt
c B l
Figure 44
A
µ
The electric motor of mass M (see Fig. Produce expression for the amplitude of the forced vibration of the motor as well as the interaction forces transmitted to the foundation at the points A and B.

152 x = A sin (ωt + ϕ) where A= q ω ω (1 − ( ωn )2 )2 + 4ς 2 ( ωn )2
q ω2 n ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ω 1 − ( ωn )2
(1. The interaction force at the point A can be determined from equilibrium of forces acting on the beam at an arbitrarily chosen position x (see Fig 46).ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
58
Solution
E.150)
48EI l3
(1. k= Its standardized form is x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = q sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c 2ςω n = M m+M The particular solution of the equation 1. 45 results in the following diﬀerential equations of motion. M x = −kx − cx + mµω 2 sin ωt ¨ ˙ where k stands for the stiﬀness of the beam EI. In the above formula A stands for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the motor.154)
(1.152) mµω2 M
r
q=
(1.I
m M
x
mµω
2
ωt
c B
µ
l
A
Figure 45 Application of the Newton’s approach to the system shown in Fig.151)
(1.155)
represents the forced vibrations of the system.153)
(1.
.

5k x
The force needed to displace the point D by x is equal to kx. ˙ ˙ Hence.5kx = −0.5k x l
Figure 46
0. 47) with the velocity x the force cx is required.I
kx D x A 0. from the equilibrium of the damper one can see that the reaction at the point B is RB = −cx = −cωA sin (ωt + ϕ) ˙
.156)
x cx x D c B cx
Figure 47 To move the point D (see Fig.5kA sin (ωt + ϕ) (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
59
x
E. the reaction at the point A is RA = −0. Hence.

157)
where y is the absolute displacement of the vibration object 1 and x is the absolute displacement of the seismic weight 3. Upon assuming that the object 1 performs a harmonic motion y = a sin ωt (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
60
Problem 13
z 5 x 3 z=x-y 4 y 2 1
Figure 48 Figure 48 presents a seismic transducer.158) derive the formula for the ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ of the amplitude of vibration of amplitude of z the object 1 of this transducer ( κ = amplitude of y ) as a function of the non-dimensional ω frequency ωn . The seismic weight 3 of mass m is supported by the spring 4 of stiﬀness k and the damper 5 of the damping coeﬃcient c.This transducer records the displacement z =x−y (1. Its base 2 is attached to the vibrating object 1.
.

If the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation κ is equal to one.168) κ= ampy
The diagram presented in Fig. the coeﬃcient of ampliﬁcation is ampz p 2 = A + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1.164)
A = sµ ³ ´2 ¶2 ³ ´2 ω ω 1 − ωn + 4ς 2 ωn Hence the record of the transducer is
´2
+1
ω 2ς ωn ϕ = − arctan ³ ´2 ω 1 − ωn
(1.159)
(1.166)
The amplitude of this record is q p ampz = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a)2 + (aA sin (α + ϕ))2 = a A2 + 1 − 2A cos(α + ϕ) (1. 48 is m¨ + cx + kx = cy + ky x ˙ ˙ Its standardize form is x + 2ςω n x + ω2 x = aqc cos ωt + aqs sin ωt ¨ ˙ n where ωn = k c c k 2ςω n = qc = ω qs = m m m m Simpliﬁcation of the right side of the above equation yields x + 2ςω n x + ω 2 x = aq sin (ωt + α) ¨ ˙ n where p 2 2 q = qc + qs = ω 2 n s 4ς 2 µ ω ωn ¶2 +1 α = arctan qc ω = arctan 2ς qs ωn (1.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
61
Solution The equation of motion of the system shown in Fig.167) Therefore.165)
z = x − y = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) − a sin ωt = = aA cos (α + ϕ) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt − a sin ωt = = (aA cos (α + ϕ) − a) sin ωt + aA sin (α + ϕ) cos ωt
(1.76 (page 35) the particular solution of the equation 1.162)
According to equation 1. the record of the
.49 shows this ampliﬁcation coeﬃcient κ as a function ω of the ratio ωn .160) (1.162 is xp = aA sin(ωt + α + ϕ) where r 4ς 2 ³
ω ωn
(1.161)
(1.163) r (1.

if the frequency ω of the recorded vibrations is twice greater than the natural frequency ωn of the transducer and the damping ratio ς is 0.
6
5
ζ=0. It almost happends.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
62
amplitude of vibration (ampz ) is equal to the amplitude of vibration of the object (ampy = a). as one can see from the diagram 49.5
4
κ
3 2
1
0
1
2
3
ω/ ω n
4
5
Figure 49
.1 ζ=0.25.25 ζ=0.

the expression for the interaction force at the point A 4. It is supported with by means of the spring of the stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. 50. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the table caused by the motion of the point C 3. The motion of the lower end of the spring with respect to the absolute coordinate x can be approximated as follows x = X cos ωt where X stands for the amplitude of the oscillations of the point C and ω stands for the frequency of these oscillations. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the vibrating table and present it in the standard form 2. It can be considered as a rigid body of the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG .ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
63
Problem 14
α
O A a b d c G B k C x
Figure 50 The physical model of a vibrating table is shown in Fig. the expression for the driving force that has to be applied to the point C
. Produce: 1.

The expression for the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis through the point A. The point C of the damper is driven along the axis Y and its motion is approximated by the following function Y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. The diﬀerential equation of motion of the pendulum Answer: α + 2ζω n α + ω2 α = q cos ωt ¨ ˙ n
. The expression for the position xG of the center of gravity G of the pendulum Answer: xG = 3 L − a 4 2. Answer: 17 IA = 12 mL2 + 2maH2 − 3mLa 3. each of length L and mass m.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
64
Problem 15
C Y c B k a
α
1 2 G
A xG
L
L/2
L/2
Figure 51 Two uniform rods (1 and 2). At the point B it is supported by a spring of stiﬀness k and a damper of damping coeﬃcient c. The pendulum performs small oscillations α about the axis through the point A. were joined together to form the pendulum whose physical model is depicted in Fig. 51.

The expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the pendulum Answer: q ω2 n Aα = 2 2 ω ω 2 1−( ω ) +4ζ 2 ( ω ) n n 5. The driving force that must be applied to the point C to assure the assumed motion . ω 2ζ ω n D = c(Aω cos ωt − aAα cos(ωt + ϕ)) ϕ = − arctan ω 2 1−( ω ) n
.ANALYSIS OF ONE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
2 2
65
where: 2ζω n = ca . ω 2 = 2mgxIG +ka q = Aωca n IA IA A 4.

In this chapter it will be assumed that forces produced by these massless
xj mj xi k ij mi y i(t) ki ci c ij
Figure 1 elements (springs and dampers) are linear functions of displacements and velocities respectively.1 MODELLING
2. xj . therefore each of the particle the real element is made of can moves independently. This process is called discretization and the ﬁnal result of this process is called multi-degree-of-freedom system. Usually. the number of degrees of freedom of each real element is equal to inﬁnity. to describe motion of such a system a set of local generalized coordinates is introduced. according to the previously introduce deﬁnition. with acceptable accuracy. yi (t)) are motionless with respect to a global (inertial) system of coordinates
.1. the real elements can be represented by a limited number of rigid elements connected to each other by means of massless elements representing the elastic and damping properties. It follows that to determine its position with respect to the inertial space one has to introduce inﬁnite number of coordinates. 2. 1 shows part of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. These coordinates (xi . Hence. But in many vibration problems.Chapter 2 MECHANICAL VIBRATION OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM LINEAR SYSTEMS
Since in the nature massless or rigid elements do not exist.1 Physical model Fig.

2. one may utilize the Newton’s or Euler’s equations.MODELLING
67
(not shown in the Fig.2 Mathematical model It will be shown in this section that the equation of motion of the multi-degree of freedom linear system has the following form m¨+cx+kx=F(t) x ˙ where m .is the stiﬀness matrix F . For this equilibrium position all the static forces acting on individual bodies produces the resultant force equal to zero. the resultant of all static forces is equal zero.1)
If the system stays at its equilibrium position. The coordinate yi (t) is not independent (is an explicit function of time) whereas the coordinates xi . and xj are independent and their number determines the number of degree of freedom of the system.1. The conﬁguration a) shown in the ﬁgure below is achieved.is the inertia matrix c .is the external excitation matrix x. In the following sections a few of them are presented.is the damping matrix k. Newton-Euler method of formulation of the mathematical model To develop the equations of motion of the system described. To ﬁgure these forces out let us move the mass mi out of its equilibrium position by the displacement xi . the force F must contains forces due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position only. Since in case considered the body of mass mi performs a plane motion hence the Newton’s equations may be used.
. Therefore. Origin of each coordinate coincides with the centre of gravity of individual bodies when the whole system is at its equilibrium position. 1). ¨ mi xi = F (2. as it was mention earlier.is the displacement matrix There are many methods that allow the mathematical model to be formulated.

MODELLING
68
a) xi 6= 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙
xj mj -kijxi kij cij xi mi xi -ki xi yi (t) k ci i
b) xi = 0 xj 6= 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙
xj xj mj cij mi yi (t) k i ci
c) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi 6= 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙
xj mj xi +kiyi yi (t) ki yi kij mi ci cij
d) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi 6= 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙
xj m j -cijxi k ij xi -ci xi yi (t) k i m i ci cij xi
e) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj 6= 0 ˙ yi = 0 ˙
xj mj +cijxj k ij xi mi yi (t) k i ci xj cij
f) xi = 0 xj = 0 yi = 0 xi = 0 ˙ xj = 0 ˙ yi 6= 0 ˙
xj mj xi kij mi yi (t) k i yj ci cij
+kijxj kij xi
+0 (2. one can add all this forces together to obtain ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi + kij xj + ki yi (t) − ci xi − cij xi + cij xj (2. Both of them must be taken with sign ’-’ because the positive displacement xi causes forces opposite to the positive direction of axis xi . The last three conﬁgurations (d. Both of them are caused by ˙ ˙ positive velocity and have sense opposite to the positive sense of axis xi . As a result of these consideration we are getting set of diﬀerential equation containing as many equations as the number of degree of freedom. Similar consideration carried out for the displacements along the axis xj (conﬁguration b)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration c)) results in the term +kij xj . Up to now it has been assumed that the velocities of the system along all coordinates are equal to zero and because of this the dampers do not produce any force. Since the system is linear. ¨ ˙ ˙ mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) (2. The forces caused by motion along the axis xj (conﬁguration e)) and axis yi ( conﬁguration f )) results in the term +cij xj . and +ki yi (t) respectively. and f ) allow to take these forces into account. and 0 ˙ respectively.
.4)
To accomplished the mathematical model. Therefore they have to be taken with the sign ’-’. e. Due to motion of the system along the coordinate xi with velocity xi two additional forces are created ˙ by the dampers ci and cij.3)
mi xi = −ki xi − kij xi ¨
+kij xj
+ki yi (t)
−ci xi − cij xi ˙ ˙
+cij xj ˙
After standardization we have the ﬁnal form of equation of motion of the mass mi . one has to carry out similar consideration for each mass involved in the system. they are −ci xi and −cij xi .2) Due to this displacement there are two forces ki xi and kij xi acting on the considered mass mi .

. ω iy. Iiy .mass of the rigid body vi .is the generalized force along the generalized coordinate qm The kinetic energy function of the system considered is equal to sum of the kinetic energy of the individual rigid bodies the system is made of. 2 is Vi = mi grGiZ (2. .5)
where
mi .8) Vs = ks (|rA − rB | − ls )2 2
. ω iz.MODELLING
69
Lagrange method of formulation of the mathematical model The same set of equation of motion one can get by utilization of the Lagrange’s equations d ∂ ∂ ∂V ( T) − T+ = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm where T . Iiz .stands for the potential energy function Qm ..6) 2 2 i=1 0 0 Iiz ω iz m = 1. 2. 3) is 1 (2..components of the absolute angular velocity of the body Iix . Hence ⎡ ⎛ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎞ I ωix X 1 £ ¤ Iix 0 0 2 ⎝ mi vi + 1 ω ix ω iy ω iz ⎣ 0 Iiy 0 ⎦ ⎣ ω iy ⎦⎠ T = (2.is the system kinetic energy function V . .M (2.7)
i Gi
Z O X
rG i
rGiZ Y
Figure 2 Potential energy for the spring s of stiﬀness ks and uncompressed length ls (see Fig.absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the body ωix.The principal moments of inertia of the body about axes through its centre of gravity Potential energy function V for the gravity force acting on the link i shown in Fig.

. .qm . . . Therefore. .qm ..qM
o o o f (q1 ..... as such..qm ... 0.MODELLING
70
A rA Z O X
Figure 3
s B rB Y
Potential energy function for all conservative forces acting on the system is V =
I X i=1
Vi +
S X s=1
Vs
(2.0) ∆qm + m=1 ∂ q˙m (q1 . should be included in the generalized force Qm .. .... . .qM .. 4.qm ... before application of the developed in this chapter methods of analysis... .0. 0....qm ... . in general case. elongation of the springs ki and kij are respectively ∆li = xi − yi ∆lij = xj − xi (2..... It must be remembered that the Lagrange’s equations yield.10) In the case of the system shown in Fig. . .0) ∆qm ˙ (2. q1 .9)
In a general case the damping forces should be classiﬁed as non-conservative ones and..0)+ ˙ ˙ ˙ PM ∂f o PM ∂f o o o o o + m=1 ∂qm (q1 . .qM .. .12)
. If the system takes an arbitral position that is shown in Fig. a non-linear mathematical model. . 1 the kinetic energy function is
1 1 T = mi x2 + mj x2 + · · ·· ˙i ˙j 2 2
(2..11)
Dots in the above equation represents this part of the kinetic energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi .. the linearization process must be carried out.. . The following formula allows for any nonlinear multi-variable function to be linearized in vicinity of the system equilibrium o o o position q1 ..qM ) = f (q1 . .. .0.qm .qM .0.. .qM .. 0.

M (2. Hence. They. It follows that the conservative forces due to the static deﬂections can not be produced from this potential energy function. produce resultant equal to zero. But. the potential energy function is 1 1 V = ki (xi − yi )2 + kij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· 2 2 (2.13 either.. Generally.MODELLING
71
xj mj x i k ij mi y i (t) k i ci c ij
xj k ij xi
mj c ij mi
xj
xi ci yi
y i (t)
ki
Figure 4 Therefore. very often. the force produced by the dampers is included in the generalized force Qm . dots stands for this part of the potential energy function that does not depend on the generalized coordinate xi . The function D does not represent the dissipation energy but has such a property that its partial derivative produces the damping forces. together with the gravity forces. The damping function is created by analogy to the creation of the potential energy function. Therefore the above function does not include the potential energy due to the static deﬂection of the springs.15) (2. a damping function (dissipation function) D is introduced into the Lagrange’s equation to produce the damping forces. 2.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must not be included in the function 2. Hence.13 the potential energy due to gravitation must be included in the function 2. The stiﬀness k is replaced by the damping coeﬃcient c and the generalized displacements are replaced by the generalized velocities.13)
Again.14)
. If the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is included in the function 2. for convenience.13 too. .. in the considered case. It should be noted that the above potential energy function represents increment of the potential energy of the springs due to the displacement of the system from its equilibrium position. if the potential energy due to the static deﬂections is not included in the function 2. the damping function is 1 1 D = ci (xi )2 + cij (xj − xi )2 + · · ·· ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 The Lagrange’s equation with the damping function takes form ∂ ∂V ∂D d ∂ ( T) − T+ + = Qm dt ∂ qm ˙ ∂qm ∂qm ∂ qm ˙ m = 1.. since the lower end of the damper is motionless.

2. mi xi + (ci + cij )xi − cij xj + (ki + kij )xi − kij xj = ki yi (t) ¨ ˙ ˙ The inﬂuence coeﬃcient method (2.20)
. the displacement along the i − th coordinate.. Let us assume that the masses mi and mj can move along the coordinate xi and xj respectively. according to the superposition principle.13 and 2. xi =
I X j=1
δ ij Fj
i = 1. Let xij be the displacement of the system along the coordinate xi caused by the force Fj . Let us apply to this system a static force Fj along the coordinate xj . 5.14 into equation 2..15 yields the equation of the motion of the mass mi ..17)
If one apply forces along all I generalized coordinates xi along which the system is allowed to move.19)
These linear relationships can be written in the matrix form x = δF (2.. DEFINITION: The ratio δ ij = is called the inﬂuence coeﬃcient It can be easily proved (see Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem) that for any structure δij = δ ji (2.11..I
(2.18) xij Fj (2.MODELLING
72
Introduction of the equations 2. is. . 2.16)
Fj mj
xj
xi x ij mi
Figure 5 Let us consider the ﬂexible structure shown in Fig.

. k = δ −1 Hence according to equation 2.xj .xJ ) the force that acts on the particle mi is fi = −Fi = −
I X j=1
kij xj
(2.MODELLING
73
The inverse transformation permits to produce forces that have to act on the system along the individual coordinates if the system is at an arbitrarily chosen position x.23)
If the system considered moves and its instantaneous position is determined by the vector x (x1 .24)
Hence. . application of the third Newton’s law to the particle i yields the equation of its motion in the following form mi xi + ¨
I X j=1
kij xj = 0
(2.21 is Fi =
I X j=1
(2..22)
kij xj
(2. F = δ −1 x The inverse matrix δ −1 is called stiﬀness matrix and will be denoted by k..25)
.21)
(2.. ..

1.MODELLING
74
2. length l and the Young modulus E as shown in Fig. 6 Develop equations of motion of this system. and mass m is attached to the massless beam 2 of radius r.3 Problems Problem 16
2
1 R
l
Figure 6 The disk 1 of radius R.
.

8). 8).
2
Fs Ms y z
ϕy
l y
Figure 8 If the beam is loaded with force Fs (see Fig.27) y= 3EJ 2EJ If the beam is loaded with force Ms (see Fig. the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l l2 Ms . Ms ϕy = (2.moment of inertia of the disk about axis x 4 Fd .MODELLING
75
Solution.28) y= 2EJ EJ
.
2 1 R Md F d y
ϕy
z
l
Figure 7 The motion of the disk shown in Fig.forces acting on the disk due to its interaction with the beam The interaction forces Fd and Md can be expressed as a function of the displacements y and ϕy by means of the inﬂuence coeﬃcient method.26)
In the above mathematical model I = 1 mR2 . Md . the corresponding displacements y and ϕy are l2 l3 Fs Fs ϕy = (2. 7 is governed by Newton’s equations m¨ = Fd y I ϕy = Md ¨
(2.

31) 4 The inverse transformation yields the wanted forces as function of the displacements J= ∙ Fs Ms ¸ = ∙
l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ
where
¸−1 ∙
y ϕy
¸
=
∙
k11 k12 k21 k22
¸∙
y ϕy
¸
(2.35)
. according to the second Newton’s law ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Fd Fs =− Md Ms the equation of motion takes the following form ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ y ¨ k11 k12 y m 0 =− ϕy ¨ ϕy 0 I k21 k22 Hence.30)
π r4 (2.29)
(2.32)
Since.34)
(2.MODELLING
76
Hence the total displacement along coordinates y and ϕy are y = ϕy or in matrix form ∙ y ϕy ¸ l3 Fs + 3EJ l2 = Fs + 2EJ = ∙
l3 3EJ l2 2EJ l2 2EJ l EJ
l2 Ms 2EJ l Ms EJ ¸∙ Fs Ms ¸
(2.
x=
(2.33)
(2. the ﬁnal mathematical model of the system considered is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ ∙ k11 k12 k21 k22 ¸ ∙ y ϕy ¸
(2.
k=
.36)
.

MODELLING
77
Problem 17
G k1 l1 l2 k2
Figure 9 A rigid beam of mass m and the moments of inertia I about axis through its centre of gravity G is supported by massless springs k1 .
. and as shown in Fig. 9. Produce equations of motion of the system.

ϕ l1 y k1 l1 F y
Figure 10 The system has two degree of freedom. the generalized Newton’s equations yield m¨ = F = −[(k11 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] y 2 2 I ϕ = M = −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ ¨ The matrix form of the system equations of motion is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m 0 0 I ¸ .39)
(2. The force F and the moment M that act on the beam due to its motion along coordinates y and ϕ are F = = M = = −y1 k1 − y2 k2 = −(y − ϕl1 )k1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 −[(k1 + k2 )y + (k2 l2 − k1 l1 )ϕ] +y1 k1 l1 − y2 k2 l2 = +(y − ϕl1 )k1 l1 − (y + ϕl2 )k2 l2 2 2 −[(k2 l2 − k1 l1 )y + (k1 l1 + yk2 l2 )ϕ
l2
ϕ
y2=y+ϕ l 2 k2
(2. x= ∙ y ϕ ¸ (2.38)
.40) (2.
M G O y1 =y. k= ∙ k1 + k2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 2 2 k2 l2 − k1 l1 k1 l1 + k2 l2 ¸ .37)
Hence.MODELLING
78
Solution. Let us then introduce the two coordinates y and ϕ as shown in Fig. 10.

This body is hinged to the link 1 at the point A. shown in Fig.MODELLING
79
Problem 18
1 A k 3 4 2 r k R
Figure 11 The link 1 of a mass m1 . Use Lagrange’s approach to derive equations of small vibrations of the system about its equilibrium position. All motion is in the vertical plane. I = 2 m2 r2 – moment of inertia of the ball about axis through its centre of gravity. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. 11). 5
. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r and the massless rod 4 form a rigid body.

1 1 1 2 T = T1 + T2 = m1 x2 + m2 vG + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 (2.46) 2
.12.43)
(2.45)
The potential energy function is due the energy stored in the springs and the energy due to gravitation.41)
The absolute velocity of the centre of gravity of the ball vG can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of its absolute position vector.42) Hence vG = rG = i(x + Rϕ cos ϕ) + j(Rϕ sin ϕ) ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ The required squared magnitude of this velocity is
2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ vG = (x + Rϕ cos ϕ)2 + (Rϕ sin ϕ)2 = x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2
(2.44 into Eq. T = 1 1 1 m1 x2 + m2 (x2 + 2xRϕ cos ϕ + R2 ϕ2 ) + I ϕ2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 2 2 1 1 = ˙ ˙˙ ˙ (m1 + m2 )x2 + m2 Rxϕ cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ2 2 2
(2. 2. 12. 2. 1 V = 2 kx2 − m2 gR cos ϕ (2.41 yields the kinetic energy function of the system as a function of the generalized coordinates x and ϕ.44)
Introduction of Eq.MODELLING
80
Solution
y 1 x k o k 3 2 rG r R x
ϕ
Figure 12
G
The system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates x and ϕ are shown in Fig. The kinetic energy of the system T is equal to the sum of the kinetic energy of the link 1 T1 and the link 2 T2 . this position vector is rG = i(x + R sin ϕ) + j( − R cos ϕ) (2. According to Fig .

47) dt ∂ ϕ ˙ ∂ϕ ∂ϕ The individual terms that appeare in the above equation are µ ¶ d d ∂T ˙ ˙ = ((m1 + m2 )x + m2 Rϕ cos ϕ) = dt ∂ x ˙ dt x ϕ ˙ = (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ ∂T =0 ∂x ∂V = 2kx ∂x d dt µ ∂T ∂ϕ ˙ ¶ = ¢ d ¡ ˙ ˙ m2 Rx cos ϕ + (m2 R2 + I)ϕ = dt ϕ x ˙˙ = (m2 R2 + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ
(2. cos ϕ ∼ 1. the Lagrange’s equations can be adopted in the following form µ ¶ d ∂T ∂V ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ x ˙ ∂x ∂x µ ¶ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 (2. according to Eq.53)
∂T = −m2 Rxϕ sin ϕ ˙˙ ∂ϕ ∂V = m2 gR sin ϕ ∂ϕ Hence.MODELLING
81
In the case considered.54)
For small magnitudes of x and ϕ. ϕ2 ∼ 0. we have the following equations of motion x ϕ ˙ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ − m2 Rϕ2 sin ϕ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ cos ϕ + m2 gR sin ϕ = 0
(2. 2.51) (2.50)
(2.55)
. sinϕ ∼ ϕ. x= ∙ x ϕ ¸ (2.48) (2.56)
(2.47.57) (2.52) (2.49) (2. Taking this into ˙ = = = account the linearized equations of motion are x ϕ (m1 + m2 )¨ + m2 R¨ + 2kx = 0 2 ϕ x (m2 R + I)¨ + m2 R¨ + m2 gRϕ = 0 Their matrix form is m¨ + kx = 0 x where m= ∙ m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I ¸ . k= ∙ 2k 0 0 m2 gR ¸ .

MODELLING
82
Problem 19
k q
A2
k
2
l k A1 q
1
k
l
Figure 13 Two identical and uniform rods shown in Fig. Produce equation of small vibrations of the pendulum about this equilibrium position. are joined together to form an inverse double pendulum. The pendulum is supported by four springs.
. in such way that its vertical position (q1 = 0 and q2 = 0) is its stable equilibrium position. each of mass m and length l. all of stiﬀness k. 13.

MODELLING
83
Problem 20
1 3 4 2
l3
GJ o
EI
R
l4
Figure 14 The disk 1 of mass m1 and radius R shown in Fig.
. is fasten to the massless and ﬂexible shaft 3. 14. The left hand end of the massless and ﬂexible beam 4 is rigidly attached to the disk 1. At its right hand side the particle 2 of m2 is placed. Derive equations for analysis of small vibrations of the system.

. I2 . and I3 . 15. The shafts are assumed to be massless and their length the second moment of inertia and the shear modulus is denoted by l. The disks have moments of inertia I1 . and G respectively. The belt is modelled as the spring of a stiﬀness k.MODELLING
84
Problem 21
k R R
k I1 l 1 J1 G 1 I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3
Figure 15 A belt gear was modelled as shown in Fig. J. Derive the diﬀerential equations for the torsional vibrations of the system.

. 16 the physical model of a gear box is presented. Derive equations for the torsional vibrations of the gear box.MODELLING
85
Problem 22
D1
D2
I1 l 1 J1 G 1
I2 l 2 J2 G 2 I3
Figure 16 In Fig. The shafts the gears are mounted on are massless.

MODELLING

86

Problem 23

X

B l l l O 2 4 6 7

C

l

l

A

α l

Y 1 5 3

Figure 17 Fig. 17 shows a mechanical system. Link 1 of the system is motionless with respect to the inertial system of coordinates XY . The links 2 and 3 are hinged to the link 1 at the point O. The links 4 and 5 join the links 2 and 3 with the collar 6. The spring 7 has a stiﬀness k and its uncompressed length is equal to 2l. The system has one degree of freedom and its position may be determined by one generalized coordinate α. The links 4 5 and 6 are assumed to be massless. The links 2 and 3 can be treated as thin and uniform bars each of length 2l and mass m. Derive equations of the small vibration of the system about its equilibrium position.

MODELLING

87

Problem 24

l 4 m l 4 m l 4 m l 4

T

Figure 18 Three beads, each of mass m are attached to the massless string shown in Fig. 18. The string has length l and is loaded with the tensile force T. Derive equation of motion of the beads

MODELLING

88

Problem 25

m l q

1

R q

2

Figure 19 On the massless string of length l the ball of mass m and radius R is suspended (see Fig. 19). Derive equation of motion of the system.

MODELLING

89

Problem 26

I1 i

I2

I1

i

I2

c

R

k ks1 m ks2

Figure 20 Fig. 20 presents the physical model of a winch. The shafts of the torsional stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 as well as the gear of ratio i are massless. To the right hand end of the shaft ks2 the rotor of the moment of inertia I2 is attached. The left hand end of the shaft ks1 is connected to the drum of the moment of inertia I1 . The rope is modelled as a massless spring of the stiﬀness k. At its end the block of mass m is fastened. The damper of the damping coeﬃcient c represents the damping properties of the system. Produce the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system.

58 into the equations 2. Let r1 α2 i= = (2. m¨ x ¨ I1 ϕ1 0¨ 1 α 0¨ 2 α ¨ I2 ϕ2 = = = = = −kx + Rkϕ1 +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 α1 ˙ −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + F r1 −ks2 α2 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 α2 0 = −ks1 α1 + ks1 ϕ1 + iF r2 0 = −ks2 iα1 + ks2 ϕ2 − F r2 Solving the above equations for α1 we have α1 = ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2.63)
Introducing 2. They are a function of the independent coordinates.58) r2 α1 Application of the Newton’s law to the individual bodies yields equations of motion in the following form.64) (2.61) (2.61 and 2.59) (2.62 one can obtain (2.66) (2.62) (2.MODELLING
90
Solution
i F c R
I2
I1
i
I2 r2 r1
α2
F
ϕ2 ϕ α1 1
k ks1 m ks2
x
Figure 21 In Fig. Since the gear of the gear ratio as well as the shafts of stiﬀness ks1 and ks2 are massless the coordinates that specify the position of the of the gear α1 and α2 are not independent. 21 x.65)
. ϕ1 and ϕ2 are the independant coordinates.60) (2.

66 and 2.67 into 2. (2.58 α2 = iα1 = iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2 (2. 0 0 I2 i2 0 0 ⎡ k −kR 0 ⎢ −kR kR2 + ks1 ks2 i2 − ks1 ks2 i2 k = ⎣ ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 ks1 ks2 i2 0 − ks1 +ks2 i2 ks1 +ks2 i2 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎦. according to 2.60 and 2.68)
iks1 ϕ1 + i2 ks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2
⎡
.67)
Introducing 2.63 one can get the equations of motion in the following form m¨ = −kx + Rkϕ1 x I1 ϕ1 = +kRx − kR2 ϕ1 − cR2 ϕ1 − ks1 ϕ1 + ks1 ¨ ˙ ϕ2 = −ks2 ϕ2 + ks2 ¨ After standardization we have m¨ + c˙ + kz = 0 z z where ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m 0 0 c = ⎣ 0 cR2 m = ⎣ 0 I1 0 ⎦ . 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦.69) ⎤ x z = ⎣ ϕ1 ⎦
ϕ2 i
ks1 ϕ1 + iks2 ϕ2 ks1 + ks2 i2
(2.MODELLING
91
Hence.

The instantaneous angular position of this semi-cylinder is determined by the angular displacement α. Produce 1.MODELLING
92
Problem 27
Z 4R 3π
z C
G
α
R
O
X
x
Figure 22 The semi-cylinder of mass m and radius R shown in Fig. the expression for period of these oscillations. 50 is free to roll over the horizontal plane XY without slipping. Answer: 2π T = mgR(1− 4 )
3π 16 8 (IG +mR2 (1+ 9π2 − 3π ))
. the equation of small oscillations of the semi-cylinder (take advantage of the Lagrange’s equations) Answer: ¡ ¡ ¢¢ 16 8 4 IG + mR2 1 + 9π2 − 3π α + mgR(1 − 3π )α = 0 ¨ ¡ 4 R ¢2 where IG = 1 mR2 − m 3 π 2 2.

its general solution is always equal to the sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation xg and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation xp .vector of the external excitation x. Produce the diﬀerential equations of motion. Such a situation takes place.). The dynamic properties of the shafts are determined by their lenghts l.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
93
Problem 28
I1 l 1 J1 G1 l 2 J2 G2 l 3 J3 G3
I2
l 4 J4 G4
Figure 23 The two disks of moments of inertia I1 and I2 are join together by means of the massless shafts as is shown in Fig. for example. x = xg + xp The homogeneous equation m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2.vector of the generalized coordinates 2.70 is linear.matrix of stiﬀness F(t). Since the equation 2. ﬂatter of plane wings etc.72) (2.2.1 General case In the general case of the multi-degree-of-freedom system the matrices c and k do not necessary have to be symmetrical.71) (2.2 ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
The analysis carried out in the previous section leads to conclusion that the mathematical model of the linear multi-degree-of -freedom system is as follows m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where m . if the mechanical structure interacts with ﬂuid or air (oil bearings.matrix of inertia c . 2. 51. the second moments of area J and the shear modulus G.matrix of damping k .70)
.

Free vibrations .natural frequencies.78)
The process of searching for a solution of the equation 2.stability of the equilibrium position To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. 2. 2..77)
Introduction of Eq.77 into Eq. Therefore.N (2.. Let y=x ˙ (2..75 results in a set of the homogeneous algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the vector z0 .70 represents the vibrations caused by the excitation force F(t).78 have non-zero solution if and only if the characteristic determinant is equal to 0.77. [A − 1r] z0 = 0 (2.79 is called eigenvalue problem and the process of searching for the corresponding vector z0 is called eigenvector problem. Introduction of Eq. 2. The particular solutions corresponding to the complex roots 2.79)
Their number N is equal to the number of degree of freedom of the system considered.72 to so called state-space coordinates. x = y ˙ y = −m−1 kx − m−1 cy ˙ The above equations can be rewritten as follows z = Az ˙ where z= ∙ x y ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ (2. |[A − 1r]| = 0 (2.73) be the vector of the generalized velocities. its general solution represents the free (natural) vibrations of the system.80 are zn1 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) cos ωn t − Im(z0n ) sin ω n t) zn2 = ehn t (Re(z0n ) sin ω n t + Im(z0n ) cos ω n t)
n = 1.81)
.72 yields the following set of the diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order.N
(2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
94
corresponds to the case when the excitation F(t) is not present....
A=
(2..76)
Solution of the above equation can be predicted in the form 2. The particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation 2..75)
(2. Both of them can be easily solved by means of the commercially available computer programs. It is often refered to as the forced vibrations.73 into Eq. rn = hn ± iω n n = 1. 2.80)
The equations 2.74)
. The roots rn are usually complex and conjugated. z = z0 ert
(2.

7 0.4
0.3 0.6
t
T n = 2 π /ω n
-0.8
0. this problem is diﬃcult and goes beyond the scope of this lectures.80 allow the stability of the system equilibrium position to be determined.4 0..84 the imaginary part.zN1 .83)
Let us assume that the excitation force F(t) is a sum of K addends. z = [z11 .5
0.. Forced vibrations ..9
1
1.2 0
h<0
t
-0.3 1.6 0.81 is given in Fig. z21 .81 allow to formulate the general solution that approximates the system free vibrations.84)
To facilitate the process of looking for the particular solution of equation 2.80 respectively. If at least one root of the equation 2.5 0..4 1..1
0. The particular solutions 2.9 1 1. The roots 2. k k f k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) + iFo sin(ωt + ϕk ) (2. For the further analysis let us assume that each of them has the following form
k F k = Fo cos(ωt + ϕk ) o
(2. let us introduce the complex excitation force by adding to the expression 2. In the general case. If all roots rn of the equation 2..transfer functions The response to the external excitation F(t) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is determined by the particular solution of the mathematical model 2.2
0.5 1.70..6
z
1
z
h>0
0.8 0. 24 for the positive and negative magnitude of hn .1 0.83. z31 .5
1.8 0.8
T n = 2 π /ω n
Figure 24 constant magnitudes C is called initial problem.82)
As one can see from the formulae 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
95
In the above expressions Re(z0n ) and Im(z0n ) stand for the real and imaginary part of the complex and conjugated eigenvector z0n associated with the nth root of the set 2. .2
1.6 0.zn1 . The system with N degree of freedom possesses N natural frequencies.80 has positive real part then the equilibrium position of the system considered is unstable.. z12.2 1. the imaginary parts of roots rn represent the natural frequencies of the system and their real parts represent rate of decay of the free vibrations.3
1.80 have negative real parts then the equilibrium position of the system considered is stable. m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2.3
0.4 0..81. z22.2 0.4
0.4
1.1
1..6 -0. A graphical interpretation of the solutions 2. .7
0. zn2.6
0..82 indicates that the free motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system is a linear combination of the solutions 2. The equation 2.81. zN 2 ] C (2.The problem of searching for the vector of the
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0. z32.2 -0.1 1.85) o o
...

87)
Now. According to Euler’s formula the complex excitation may be rewritten as
Im f
k
F 0
k
k ϕ0
ωt ω F cos( t+ ϕ 0 ) 0
k k
Re
k ϕ0
F
k
ω t
F 0
k
ω t
Figure 25 follows
k k k f k = Fo ei(ωt+ϕo ) = Fo eiϕo eiωt = fo eiωt
k k
(2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
96
The relationship between the complex excitation f k and the real excitation is shown in Fig.87 can be predicted in the complex form 2. 2. the particular solution of Eq. 25.88 (2. 2. Introduction of Eq. fo is a complex number that depends on the amplitude and phase of the external excitation.86)
k Here.88)
.86 into Eq.83 yields
m¨ + cx + kx = fo eiωt x ˙ xc = aeiωt
(2. 2.

27.92 is xk = xk cos(ωt + β k ) o where xk = o p Re(ak )2 + Im(ak )2 β k = arc tan Im(ak ) Re(ak ) (2.91) Response of the system x due to the real excitation F is represented by the real part of the solution 2.94)
will be denoted by R(iω) and it is called matrix of transfer functions. 26.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
97
Its solution is
Introduction of Eq. and its phase β k is equal to the phase between the complex amplitudes ak and the vector eiωt . This ﬁndings are presented in Fig. according to 2.
. according to Eq. The complex matrix ¢− 1 ¡ 2 (2. The ﬁrst two diagrams present the real and the imaginary parts of the complex transform functions whereas the last two present its absolute value (amplitude) and phase. the response of the system xc due to the complex force f is xc = (Re(a) + i Im(a))(cos ωt + i sin ωt) (2. according to 2.93)
(2.87 produces set of the algebraic equations which are linear with respect to the unknown vector a. Example of three elements of a matrix of the transform functions are presented in Fig.96)
It is easy to see from 2. 2.90)
Therefore.95) −ω m + iωc + k
It is easy to see that the element Rpq (iω) of the matrix of transfer functions represents the complex displacement (amplitude and phase) of the system along the coordinates xp caused by the unit excitation 1eiωt along the coordinate xq .89) −ω m + iωc + k a = fo ¢− 1 ¡ fo a = −ω2 m + iωc + k (2. It transfers. ¢ ¡ 2 (2. 2.91 that the amplitude of the forced vibration xk is equal to the o absolute value of the complex amplitude ak . xc = aeiωt = R(iω)fo eiωt (2.88.91. x = Re(a) cos ωt − Im(a) sin ωt (2.88 into Eq. 2.90. the vector of the complex excitation fo eiωt into the vector of the complex displacement xc = aeiωt .92) Motion of the system considered along the coordinate xk .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
98
Im f F 0
k k ϕ0 k
a x0
k
k
k β0
ωt
k
F cos(ω t+ ϕ 0 ) 0
k
Re
x0 cos( ω t+ β 0 )
k k ϕ0 k β0
k
F
k k
ω t
F 0 x0
k k
x
ω t
Figure 26
.

0002 -0.0005 0.002 0.0002 0.2) R(1.3)
(phase)
1500
frequency rad/s
Figure 27
.001 -0.0001 -0.0001 0 -0.1) R(1.001 0 -0.003 0.3)
transfer function m/N (imaginary part) 0.0006 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0 0 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.2) R(1.2) R(1.002 -0.0025 0.0035 0.0003 0.0003 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.0004 0.1) R(1.004 500 1000 1500 frequency rad/s R(1.003 -0.1) R(1.3)
transfer functions m/N 4 2 0 -2 -4 500 1000 R(1.002 0.003 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
99
transfer functions m/N (real parts) 0.1) R(1.3)
transfer function m/N (modulus)
0.2) R(1.

98)
.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
100
Experimental determination of the transfer functions
Fq
xq
xp
xp
F(t) q
Fq ( iω ) t
Fourier
R (iω ) i pq
ω
x( iω ) p
x(t) p t
x( iω ) p ___ Fq ( iω )
transformation
ω
ω
Figure 28 In order to produce the transfer function between the coordinate xp and the coordinate xq (see Fig. The amplitude of the complex functions xp (iω) and Fq (iω) q Re(xp (iω))2 + Im(xp (iω))2 |xp (iω)| = q |Fq (iω)| = Re(Fq (iω))2 + Im(Fq (iω))2 (2. 28) let us apply force Fq (t) along the coordinate xq and record it simultaneously with the system response xp (t) along the coordinate xp . Fourier transformation applied to these functions Z +∞ Fq (iω) = e−iωt Fq (t)dt −∞ Z +∞ e−iωt xp (t)dt (2.97) xp (iω) =
−∞
yields the Fourier transforms in the frequency domain xp (iω) and Fq (iω).

101)
Since the system considered is by assumption linear. the response along the coordinate xp caused by set of forces acting along coordinates N coordinates xq ...N (2. Rpq (iω) = xp (iω) Fq (iω) (2. is
q=N
xp (iω) =
X
q=1
Rpq (iω)Fq (iω)
q = 1.. The corresponding phases are determined by the following formulae.N
(2. ϕxp = arctan ϕF q Im(xp (iω)) Re(xp (iω)) Im(Fq (iω)) = arctan Re(Fq (iω))
(2...ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
101
represents the amplitude of displacement and force respectively as a function of the frequency ω.N.99)
These Fourier transforms allow the transfer function Rpq (iω) to be computed.100)
The above formula determines response of the system along coordinate xp caused by the harmonic excitation Fq along the coordinate xq ..... q = 1..N ) allows to formulate the matrix of the transfer functions Rpq (iω). xp (iω) = Rpq (iω)Fq (iω) (2. according to the superposition principle.The relationship above can be rewritten in the following matrix form x(iω) = Rpq (iω)F(iω) p = 1..102)
Application of the above described experimental procedure to all coordinates involved in the modelling (p = 1.103)
..

is solution of the Eq. it is said that the system performs free vibrations. the above set of equations has the non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero ¯ ¯ 2 ¯−ω m + k¯ = 0 (2.. Hence.2. 2. introduction of Eq.108.case of small damping In the following analysis it will be assumed that the matrices m. for any physical system.109)
The above characteristic equation. Its follows that if Xn is a solution of Eq. the vector Cn Xn (2. ± ω n .104)
Free vibration of the undamped system . Size of these matrices is N × N where N is the number of the system degree of freedom.. ±ω2 . If the vector of the external excitation F(t) is equal to zero.eigenvalue and eigenvector problem If the damping is neglected the equation of the free vibrations is m¨ + kx = 0 x It is easy to see that x = X cos ωt (2.110) As one can see from Eq. the parameter ω can take any of the following values ±ω1 . ± ω N (2.106 into 2.105 is fulﬁlled for any instant of time if the following set of the homogeneous algebraic equations is fulﬁlled... c and k are square and symmetrical.. these parameters have the physical meaning only for positive values. 2. 2.106) is a particular solution of the equation 2. .105)
In turn..105 yields (2. They represent frequencies of the system free vibrations.108) (2. Indeed..107) (−ω 2 m + k)X cos ωt = 0 and the diﬀerential equation 2.108 too.105.2 Modal analysis .108 becomes linearly dependent and therefore has inﬁnite number of solution Xn . . The number of diﬀerent natural frequencies is therefore equal to the number of degree of freedom. has N positive roots with respect to the parameter ω2 . The vector Xn represents so called natural mode of vibration associated with the natural
.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
102
2.106. 2. For each of the possible natural frequencies ωn the system of equations 2.111)
where Cn is arbitrarily chosen constant. (−ω2 m + k)X = 0 (2. ±ω3 . According to the above deﬁnition the free vibrations are governed by the homogeneous set of equations m¨ + cx + kx = 0 x ˙ (2. They are called natural frequencies.

In similar manner one can prove that xn = Xn sin ω n t (2. It determines the shape that the system must possess to oscillate harmonically with the frequency ω n . Therefore the natural frequencies are very often referred to as eigenvalue and the natural modes as eigenvectors.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
103
frequency ω n . Now. 29) the vector Xn contains four numbers Xn = [X1n . For example.105 xn =
N X (Sn Xn sin ω n t + Cn Xn cos ωn t) n=1
(2. There are N such particular solutions.105 has been accomplished. There are four such a natural modes and four corresponding natural frequencies for this system.112)
If the system is deﬂected according to the this vector and allowed to move with the
x3n = X 3n cosω n t x X 1n X 2n X 3n X 4n t Tn
Figure 29 initial velocity equal to zero.115)
The 2N constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to satisfy the 2N initial conditions. X2n .
.114 are linearly independent. if a beam with four concentrated masses is considered (see Fig. X3n . The problem of the determination of the natural frequencies is called eigenvalue problem and searching for the corresponding natural modes is called eigenvector problem. Since the solutions ?? and 2. their linear combination forms the general solution of the equation 2.113)
of the equation 2.114)
is a particular solution too. X4n ]T (2. one can say that the process of determination of the particular solution xn = Xn cos ω n t (2. it will oscillate with the frequency ω n .

111
1 X λn n
(2. Hence.118)
(2. n m XT mXm = 0 for n 6= m n (2.117 by -1 and then adding them together we are getting (2.117)
Now.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
104
Properties of the natural modes. Each eigenvector has to fulﬁll the Eq.125)
It is said that eigenvectors Ξn and Ξm that fulﬁll the above conditions are orthogonal with respect to the inertia matrix m. Let this product be equal to λ2 n XT mXn = λ2 n n Division of the above equation by λ2 yields n ( But according to 2.
. Let us denot it by Ξn Ξn = 1 Xn λn (2. since (ω 2 − ω 2 ) = 0. 2.120 and 2.122)
is eigenvector too.108.124 one can conclude that ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn mΞm = 1 if n = m
(2.119) (ω 2 − ω2 )XT mXm = 0 n m n Since for n 6= m (ω2 − ω2 ) 6= 0. the product XT mXn does not have to be equal to n n n zero.121)
1 1 T Xn )m( Xn ) = 1 λn λn
(2. ΞT mΞn = 1 (2.123)
The process of producing of the eigenvectors Ξn is called normalization and the eigenvector Ξn is called normalized eigenvector or normalized mode. −ω 2 mXn +kXn = 0 n −ω2 mXm +kXm = 0 m −ω 2 XT mXn +XT kXn = 0 m n m T 2 T −ω m Xn mXm +Xn kXm = 0 Since matrices m and k are symmetrical XT kXn = XT kXm m n and XT mXn = XT mXm m n (2.116)
Primultiplying the ﬁrst equation by XT and the second equation by XT one can get m n (2.120)
If n = m. primultiplying the ﬁrst equation of set 2.124) n Taking into account Eq’s 2. According to 2.122.

Ξ = [Ξ1 . The structural damping is extremely diﬃcult or simply impossible to be predicted by means of any analytical methods. cause friction between the particles the elements are made of.. 0 ⎥ n ⎥ .. the structural damping can be omitted.. in turn. 2 ω =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ . 0 . c =µm+κk (2.129) 0 . . the second of the equations 2. . 0 ω2 . The damping caused by such an internal friction and damping due to friction of these elements against the surrounding medium is usually referred to as the structural damping.127)
Owning to the above orthogonality condition.. 0 . particularly if the system considered is furnished with special devices design for dissipation of energy called dampers. .126) ω 2 if n = m n
It is easy to see that the developed orthogonality conditions yields ΞT mΞ = 1 ΞT kΞ = ω2 where ω 2 is a square diagonal matrix ⎡ 2 ω1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ . ⎦ 0 .ΞN ] where N is number of degrees of freedom (2.131)
. In such cases the matrix of damping c (see Eq. the structural damping has to be taken into account. ..Ξn . . 0 ⎥ 2 ⎥ .117 yields ½ ¾ 0 if n 6= m T Ξn kΞm = (2. These deﬂections.128)
containing the squared natural frequencies ω 2 n ⎤ 0 . .130)
This coeﬃcients are to be determined experimentally.. The modal modes Ξn can be arranged in a square matrix of order N known as the modal matrix Ξ . . . Ξ2 . It will be shown that application of the following linear transformation x = Ξη (2. ⎥ ⎥ (2. ω2 . ω2 N
Normal coordinates . 2.. Vibrations of any mechanical structures are coupled with deﬂections of the elastic elements. ..104) is assumed as the following combination of the matrix of inertia m and stiﬀness k with the unknown coeﬃcients µ and κ. 0 . .. But in case of absence of such devices. 0
(2.modal damping Motion of any real system is always associated with a dissipation of energy. In many cases.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
105
It means that the normalized modes are orthogonal with respect to the matrix of stiﬀness.

137) p where ω dn = ω n 1 − ς 2 and η pn stands for the particular solution of the nonn homogeneous equation 2. n Solution of each of the above equations can be obtained independently and according to the discussion carried out in the ﬁrst chapter (page 30. .136 takes form ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎥ ⎢ .133) Primultiplying both sides of the above equation by ΞT we obtain ΞT mΞ¨ + ΞT (µm+κk)Ξη + ΞT kΞη = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2. Introduction of the solutions 2.the unit matrix ω2 and γ = (µ1+κω 2 ) .diagonal matrices n n Hence.. 1. 0 η n + 2ς n ω n η n + ω2 η n = Ξqn Fq eiωt ¨ ˙ n n = 1.137 into equation 2. 2.136 for response of the system due to the harmonic excitation along coordinate xq .N ¨ ˙ n n (2.132)
results in its decoupling.136.128 we are getting set of independent equations 1¨ + γ η + ω 2 η = ΞT F(t) η ˙ (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
106
to the mathematical model m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ (2. 2. ⎥ ⎢ (2. Problem of determination of this particular solution is considered in the next section.131 into 2.134)
Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions 2. Indeed.131 yields motion of the system along the physical coordinates x.139)
Hence
..135) n where 1 .132 yields mΞ¨ + cΞη + kΞη = F(t) η ˙ (2.. In this case the right hand side of the equation 2. each equation of the above set has the following form η n + 2ς n ωn η n + ω2 η n = ΞT F(t) n = 1.transfer functions Let us solve the Eq.. Response to the harmonic excitation . 2. Eq.136)
The coeﬃcients ς n = (µ+κω 2 )/2ω n are often referred to as the modal damping ratio. .N (2. introduction of the transformation 2.138) ΞT F(t) = ΞT ⎢ Fq eiωt ⎥ = Ξqn Fq eiωt n n ⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ .46) can be written as follows η n = e−ς n ωn t (Csn sin ωdn t + Ccn cos ω dn t) + η pn (2.

...141)
response along coordinate xp xp = e
iωt N X
ω2 n=1 n
Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi
(2.147)
This property allows the natural frequencies to be determined.. 2. 2.
. The phase ϕ. .143)
= if
ω ∼ ωn =
Rpq (iω) = Fqxp = eiωt PN ³ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 −ω2 ) n
n=1 (ω 2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 n n n
PN +
Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n Rpq (iω) ∼ + = 4ς 2 ω 2 ω 2 2ς n ω n ω n n
Ξpn Ξqn ((ω 2 −ω2 )−2ς n ωn ωi) n = n=1 (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n ´n n −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ω n ωi q = 1... natural modes and the modal damping to be identiﬁed.N..N (ω2 −ω 2 )2 +4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n
(2. .. .....144)
q = 1. but for the same p yield the natural modes with accuracy to the ω2 constant magnitude C = − 2ς npnn Ξ Ξnq = C Im(Rpq (iω n )) q = 1.145)
Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions The transfer functions Rpq (iω) can be easily obtained by means of a simple experiment (see page 100).N
(2.... . It can be seen from the equation 2.. 2.N
(2.N (2..... ..N
(2.... 2... Hence the zero-points of the real part of the transfer functions determine the system natural frequencies.142)
transfer function between coordinate p and the others X Ξpn Ξqn xp = iωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi Fq e ω n n n=1 n
N
q = 1. The natural frequencies and the natural modes can be extracted from diagrams of the magnitudes and phases of the transfer function. From the same equation it is apparent that the imaginary parts corresponding to ω ∼ ωn and measured for diﬀer= ent q = 1. 2..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
107
Therefore ηn = Since
Ξqn Fq eiωt 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ωn n n x = Ξη
n = 1.145 that the real part of the transfer function Rpq (iω) is equal to zero for the frequency equal to the natural frequency ω n .....140) (2.146)
Alternatively. since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n .. is equal to ±90o ϕn = arctan Im (Rpq (iω n )) = ± arctan ∞ = ±90o Re (Rpq (iω n )) (2.. 2. They allow the natural frequencies.

.N (2... 30
transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.2) R(1.1) R(1.3) natural mode
¯ ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω2 ¯ n¯ ¯ C=¯ Ξpn ¯
transfer functions m/N (phase)
π/2
natural frequency
−π/2
Figure 30 The demonstated in this chapter approach for solution of the vibration problems is referred to as modal analysis.150)
where
Signe of the idividual elements Ξnq of the mode n is deremined by signe of the corresponding phase ϕn = ±90o An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer functions is shown in Fig.2) R(1.
.149) (2..00015 0.0002 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
108
Hence
Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n .00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s 2 1 3 R(1. .0001 0...1) R(1.3) 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn ¯ (2.148) Ξqn ¯ |Rpq (iω)| = ¯ ¯ 2ς n ω 2 n Ξnq = C |Rpq (iω)| q = 1. 2. its modulus is equal to the absolute value of imaginary part.

xn . according to Lagrange’s equations should be ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ......xN } ˙ = ˙ ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎪ .. .... ...... ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = T = xn ˙ {x1 .0} + {x1 .. ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ mNm xm ˙ m=1 !! Ã Ãm=N m=N X X d 1 = mnm xm + ˙ mmn xm ˙ dt 2 m=1 m=1
If this function is positive deﬁnite (is always positive and is equal to zero if and only if all variables xn are equal to zero) the corresponding matrix m is called positive ˙ deﬁnite matrix. ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T − dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎛ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ...151)
Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ m=1 m1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..............152 fulﬁlls the requirement 2.155)
...xn . 0..ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
109
2.. .... ⎪ ⎪ ¶ µ ⎨ ⎬ d ∂T ∂T ¨ (2... c and k are symmetric and positive deﬁnite matrices......1..154. mmn . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN ¨ ⎫⎞⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟⎟ ⎟⎟ = ⎪⎟⎟ ⎪⎠⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭
m1n .2....xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 (2.153) ˙ m x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ ..mnN } xn ⎪ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ⎪ ..........154) − = {mn1 ...Dissipation function In this section the kinetic energy function........... If T is the kinetic energy function. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ d ⎜1 ⎜ m=N ⎜ ⎜{0.3 Kinetic and potential energy functions .. the potential energy function and the dissipation function are formulated for a linear system governed by the equation m¨ + cx + kx = F(t) x ˙ where the matrices m...xn .................. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 mNm xm =
n=N m=N 1X X mnm xn xm ˙ ˙ 2 n=1 m=1
Let us prove that the function 2.mnn . mNn
(2... .... Kinetic energy function Let us consider function 1 T = xT mx x = {x1 .....xN } ˙ ˙ ˙ mnm xm (2.......152) (2.

. ⎪ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎭ ˙ m=1 kNm xm = If V is the potential energy function....xN } knm xm (2. ⎧ Pm=N ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..xN } = k x ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn 2⎜ ⎪ .. ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ∂V (2..156) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭
Now we may conclude that the function 2.... X ¨ = mnm xm = {mn1 .157 fulﬁlls the requirement 2.....159..
1 V = xT kx x = {x1 .....knN } xn ⎪ ⎪ ∂xn ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . .....152 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix m is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.. ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ P ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ m=N ⎩ ⎭ kNm xm m=1 ! Ãm=N m=N X X 1 = knm xm + kmn xm 2 m=1 m=1 k1n .. .. ⎪ Ã m=N ! ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ P ⎬ 1 n=N X X 1 m=N = V = xn {x1 ....mnN } xn ¨ ⎪ ⎪ .1....... x2 ............. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ xN Let us prove that the function 2.mnn ..........0} + {x1 ..... kN n ⎫⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪⎟ ⎪ ⎬⎟ ⎟= ⎪⎟ ⎪⎠ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭
n=N m=N 1X X knm xn xm 2 n=1 m=1
(2........ m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ¨ Potential energy function Let us consider function
(2... ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ ⎨ P ⎨ ⎬ ∂V 1⎜ m=N ⎜{0..xn ...............159) = {kn1 .knn ..... .....ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
110
Since mnm = mmn ! ! Ã m=N Ãm=N ¶ µ d X d ∂T ∂T d 1 X − 2 = mnm xm = ˙ mnm xm ˙ dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn dt 2 m=1 dt m=1 ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ¨ ⎪ ⎪ m=N ⎨ .158) k x ˙ ⎪ m=1 nm m ⎪ 2 n=1 2 ⎪ .......157) 2 Performing the matrix multiplication we are getting ⎧ Pm=N ⎫ ⎪ m=1 k1m xm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ..........xn .. kmn .160)
............. 0..........xN }T (2..xn ... it must be positive deﬁnite and according to Lagrange’s equations should fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ...

.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
111
Since knm = kmn ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ . ∂D ˙ = {cn1 ...
. It must be noted that the dissipation function does not represent the dissipation energy.cnN } xn ⎪ ∂ xn ˙ ⎪ .....cnn ... Dissipation function It is easy to notice..knN } xn ⎪ ∂xn 2 m=1 ⎪ ...163)
It follows that if the matrix of damping is symmetrical and positive deﬁnite. are not conservative and have to be included in the generalized force Qn .xN }T ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 2 fulﬁlls the following relationship ⎧ ⎪ x1 ⎪ ˙ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ .....xn .knn ........ The damping forces. such a damping can be included in the Lagrange’s equation in the following way ¶ µ d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − + + = Qn (2.... that the function 1 D = xT cx x = {x1 .164) dt ∂ xn ˙ ∂xn ∂xn ∂ xn ˙ The function D is called dissipation function... ....... ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ˙ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (2..161)
Now we may conclude that the function 2. . in a general case..162)
(2. m=1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ xN ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭
(2. having in mind the previous consideration.. m=N m=N ⎨ X X ∂V 1 = 2 knm xm = knm xm = {kn1 .... ...157 is the kinetic energy function if the matrix k is symmetric and positive deﬁnite.........

Given are: l1 = 1m E1 = 0.2 · 1012 N/m2 J2 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m2 = 20kg k = 10000N/m c = 100Ns/m A1 = 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
112
2. the reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B. the steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation y 4.2.01m f1 = 30rad/s A2 = 0. Produce 1.2 · 1012 N/m2 J1 = 1 · 10−8 m4 m1 = 10kg l2 = 2m E2 = 0. . the exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion 5.165) y = A1 sin(f1 t) + A2 sin(f2 t) where A1 and A2 are amplitudes of this motion and f1 and f2 are the corresponding frequencies. the natural frequencies 3. the diﬀerential equations of motion 2. 31 moves according to the following equation (2.01m f2 = 35rad/s
.4 Problems Problem 29
l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k m2 l2 2 m1
c
Figure 31 The point A of the system shown in Fig.

168 yields m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) + F2 (t) y ˙ (2.168)
Taking into consideration Eq.167) + + = c cy ˙ −k k + k2 m2 y2 ¨ y2 ˙ y2 or shorter m¨ + cy + ky = F(t) y ˙ where m= ∙ m1 0 0 m2 ¸ . 32 allows to develop its mathematical model. the excitation cy is ˙ cy = cA1 f1 cos(f1 t) + cA2 f2 cos(f2 t) = a1 cos(f1 t) + a2 cos(f2 t) ˙ where a1 = cA1 f1 .170 into the equation of motion 2. a2 = cA2 f2 Introduction of Eq.170) (2. ¨ m1 y1 = −k1 y1 − ky1 + ky2 m2 y2 = −k2 y2 − ky2 + ky1 − cy2 + cy ¨ ˙ ˙
(2.171)
.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
113
Solution 1.169) (2. 2.166)
Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ∙ y1 ˙ y1 ¨ 0 k + k1 y1 0 −k m1 (2. The diﬀerential equations of motion
l 1 J1 E 1 B J2 E 2 l2 2 A y k
m1 y m2 1 l2 2
c
y2
Figure 32 Utilization of the Newton-Euler approach for modelling of the system shown in Fig.165. k= ∙ k + k1 −k −k k + k2 ¸ . c= ∙ 0 0 0 c ¸ . F(t) = ∙ ¸ 0 cy ˙ (2. 2.

483i ω 2 = −0. 8259 ± 45.
. 0 20 ∙ F1 (t) = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 0 16000 −10000 c= . k= 0 ¸ 100 ∙ −10000 22000 ¸ 0 0 . 6741 ± 24. Free motion .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
114
where F1 (t) =
For the given numerical data the stiﬀness of the beam 1 at the point of attachment of the mass 1 is k1 = 3E1 J1 3 · 0. The real part indicates the rate of decay of the free vibrations.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 12000N/m 3 l2 23 (2.172)
The stiﬀness of the beam 2 at the point of attachment of the mass 2 is k2 = Hence ¸ 10 0 m= .176)
z=
.
A=
Solution of the eigenvalue problem yields the following complex roots ω 1 = −1.173)
∙
0 a1 cos(f1 t)
¸
.177) (2.175)
2.the natural frequencies To analyze the free vibrations let us transfer the homogeneous equation 2. F2 (t) = 30 cos(30t) 35 cos(35t) ∙ 48E2 J2 48 · 0.178) 0 ⎦ −5 (2.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 = = 6000N/m 3 l1 13 (2.
F2 (t) =
∙
0 a2 cos(f2 t)
¸
(2. 734i
(2.0 500 ⎡ 0 0 1000 −1100 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 1 ⎥ ⎥ (2.179)
For underdamped system the imaginary part of the above roots represents the natural frequency of the damped system.174)
(2. The substitution w=y ˙ results in the following set of equations z = Az ˙ where ∙ y w ¸ ∙ 0 1 −m−1 k −m−1 c ¸ 0 ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎣ −1600.171 to the state-space coordinates.

26033 . 90847 −2 −5. 3213 × 10 = e−1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 9755 × 10−2 cos 45. 734t + 6.182) are presented in Fig 33. Im z02 = ⎢ 1. 7637 × 10 ⎥ sin 24. 38263 −. ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ −1. 049 × 10−3 1. 40969 ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ 1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . the particular solutions are
Solution of the eigenvector problem produces the following complex vectors. 9162 × 10 −. Im z01 = ⎢ −1. 483t − ⎢ −1. 0154 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 45.81. 26033 . 37705 . 38263 −. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 46561 ⎤ ⎞
z12 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) sin ω 1 t + Im(z01 ) cos ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 9755 × 10−2 −6.181)
The two ﬁrst rows in the above solutions represent displacement along the coordinates y1 and y2 respectively. 8259t (1. 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞
⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 45. 049 × 10−3 sin 45. 38263 −. 477 × 10 = e−0. 40969
⎤
⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 24. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 7637 × 10−2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞
⎤
⎟ ⎥ ⎥ sin 45. 734t + ⎢ 1. 9755 × 10−2 ⎢ 1. 477 × 10 ⎥ (2. 35302 −. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 477 × 10−3 ⎜⎢ −1. 6392 × 10−2 cos 24.180) Re z02 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ . 9755 × 10−2 −3 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 6741t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 049 × 10−3 −3 ⎥ ⎢ −1. associated with the particular solution z11 (y111 ) and z21 (y211 ) y111 = e−1. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 26033 . 483t⎟ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞
⎤
⎟ ⎥ ⎥ cos 24. Example of the motion along the coordinate y1 . 3213 × 10 = e−1. 90847 −2 −5.
. 35302 −. 35302 −. 9162 × 10 −. 90847 −2 −5. 9162 × 10 −. 483t + 1. 8259t ⎜⎢ ⎣ ⎝⎣ ⎦ . 37705 . 46561 z22 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) sin ω 2 t + Im(z02 ) cos ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. The two last rows represents the generalized velocities along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 4508 × 10−2 sin 24. 46561
z11 = eh1 t (Re(z01 ) cos ω1 t − Im(z01 ) sin ω1 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −1. 483t) y211 = e−0. 734t − ⎢ = e−0. 049 × 10−3 1. 37705 . 734t⎟ ⎠ ⎦
(2. 734t) (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
115
According to 2. 40969 z21 = eh2 t (Re(z02 ) cos ω2 t − Im(z02 ) sin ω2 t) = ⎡ ⎛⎡ ⎤ −6. 483t + ⎢ −1. 4508 × 10−2 −1. 6741t (−1. 6392 × 10−2 −1. 4508 × 10−2 −2 ⎥ ⎢ −1. 6392 × 10−2 −2 ⎢ ⎜⎢ −1. 3213 × 10 ⎥ Re z01 = ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
116
y111[m] 0.02
Figure 33
.01
0 -0.01
1
2
3
4
t[s]
-0.01
1
2
3
4
t[s]
-0.02
y211[m]
0.01
0 -0.

34 The particular solution y.187) = F10 e = 30 Hence the equation of motion takes form m¨ + cy + ky = F10 eif1 t y ˙ Its particular solution is
c c y1 = y10 eif1 t
(2. according to the superposition rule.185 m¨ + cy + ky = F1 (t) y ˙ and y2 is the particular solution of the equation 2.184) where y1 is the particular solution of the equation 2.186 m¨ + cy + ky = F2 (t) y ˙ (2.185)
To produce the particular solution of the equation 2. motion of the point A is y = 0.189)
.5
1
1.02
Figure 34 The time history diagram of this motion is given in Fig.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
117
3. is y = y1 + y2 (2.183)
0. The steady state motion of the system due to the kinematic excitation According to the given data.01 · sin(35 · t)
y[m]
(2.185 let us introduce the complex excitation ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 0 0 0 c = = eif1 t = F1 (t) = a1 eif1 t a1 a1 cos(f1 t) + ia1 sin(f1 t) ∙ ¸ 0 if1 t ei30t (2.186) (2.01
0. which represents the forced vibration.5
t[s]
-0.01
0 -0.01 · sin(30 · t) + 0.188) (2.

00 38 cos 30t + . 7855 × 10−4 i (2. 7855 × 10−4 i −1.00 112 sin 30t = −2. 78 × 10−4 sin 35t −2. one can obtained motion due to the excitation F2 (t)
c 2 y20 = (−f2 m+if2 c + k)−1 F20 = ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ µ 10 0 0 0 16000 −10000 0 2 + 35i + = = −35 0 20 0 100 −10000 22000 35 ¸ ∙ −3. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t = −1. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 7855 × 10−4 sin 35t + −1. 688 × 10−3 − 7. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 112 sin 30t + = −2. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t Similarly.00 112i = (2. 183 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 183 × 10−3 − 1.193) This resultant motion of the system along the coordinates y1 and y2 . 4196 × 10−4 i
Hence y2 = Re e ¸ ∙ −3. 84 × 10−4 i
The motion of the system.193. 84 × 10−4 i ∙ ¸ −. 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3. 6 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 688 × 10−3 − 7.189 is ¶ µ∙ ¸ −. 8 × 10−4 sin 30t − 1. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t The resultant motion of the system due to both components of excitation is y = y1 + y2 ¸ −.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
118
where
c 2 y10 = (−f1 m+if1 c + k)−1 F10 = ¸¶−1 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ µ 16000 −10000 0 0 10 0 0 2 + + 30i = = −30 −10000 22000 0 100 0 20 30 ∙ ¸ −.192)
. 84 × 10−4 sin 30t ∙ ¸ −3. computed according to the equation 2. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. 183 × 10−3 − 1.00 384 − .00 11 sin 30t − 3. 41 × 10−4 sin 35t ∙ (2. 35 and 36 respectively. 4196 × 10−4 i ¸
i35t
¶
(2. 688 × 10−3 cos 30t + 7. is shown in Fig. 1 × 10−3 cos 35t + 1.00 384 − .191) = −1. as the real part of 2.190) −2. 1546 × 10−3 − 3. 4196 × 10−4 sin 35t = ¸ ∙ −.00 384 cos 30t + .00 384 cos 30t + . 1546 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.00 112i i30t y1 = Re e −2. µ∙ −3.

5
1
1.5
t[s]
-0.01
Figure 35
y2[m]
0.005
0 -0.5
t[s]
-0.005
0 -0.005
0.5
1
1.01
Figure 36
.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
119
y1[m]
0.005
0.

196) Diagram of this force is presented in Fig. 8 · 10−4 sin 30t+ −1. the relative velocity of the point A with respect to the mass m2 is ˙ v = y − y2 ˙ ˙ (2. 503 cos 35t − 8. 37. 1405 sin 35t[N]
(2. let us consider the damper c shown in Fig.
. If the point A moves with the velocity y and in the same time the mass m2 moves with the ˙ velocity y2 .194)
. 648 cos 30t + 34.38
.183. it is necessary to apply at the point A the following force ˙ ˙ (2.183 and 2. 1 · 10−3 cos 35t + 1. 4 · 10−4 sin 35t)) = = 27. The exciting force at the point A required to maintain the steady state motion
y2 c y A y
Figure 37 To develop the expression for the force necessary to move the point A according to the assumed motion 2.195) FA = c (y − y2 ) Hence.01 · sin 35t) + d − dt (−2.193 we have
d FA = 100( dt (0.
m2
y2
Therefore. 064 sin 30t − 4. according to the equation 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
120
4. 6 · 10−3 cos 30t + 7.01 · sin 30t + 0. to realize this motion.

200)
.00 38 cos 30t + . 78 × 10−4 sin 35t (2. 39 RB = P MB = P l1 (2. 15×10−3 cos 35t + 3. This relationship is determined by the formula 2. 15 × 10−3 cos 35t + 3.199) Hence ¡ ¢ RB =6000 −.00 38 cos 30t+. 78×10−4 sin 35t
(2.5
1
1.5
t[s]
Figure 38 5.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
121
FA[N] 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60
0.197)
where P is dependent on the instantaneous displacement y1 . The reaction force and the reaction moment at the point B.00 38 cos 30t+.193 P = k1 y1 = (2. 15×10−3 cos 35t+3. 78×10−4 sin 35t ¡ ¢ MB =6000·1· −.00 11 sin 30t − 3.2 · 1012 · 1 · 10−8 y1 = = 6000y1 3 l1 13 The motion along the coordinate y1 is determined by the function 2.00 11 sin 30t−3.00 11 sin 30t−3.198)
y1 = −.173 3E1 J1 3 · 0.
P l 1 J1 E 1 B MB RB y1
Figure 39 According to Fig.

the equation motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ due to the given initial conditions.201)
.05 m k = 1000 N/m a = 0. the diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates 4.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
122
Problem 30 The link 1 of a mass m1 . in terms of the coordinates x and ϕ (see Fig. The ball 2 of mass m2 and a radius r is hinged to the link 1 at the point A by means of the massless and rigid rod 4. 42 and released with the initial velocity equal to zero. The equation of motion. 41) have been formulated in page 81 to be m¨ + kx = 0 x where 2 I = m2 r2 5 (2. For the following data: m1 = 2 kg m2 = 1 kg R = 0. x= x ϕ . All motion is in the vertical plane.1 m r = . 40. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ (2. the normalized natural modes 3. the natural frequencies of the system 2.202) At the instant t = 0. can move along the horizontal slide and is supported by two springs 3 each of stiﬀness k. the link 1 was placed to the position shown in Fig.01 m Produce: 1. k= 2k 0 0 m2 gR . shown in Fig. m= m1 + m2 m2 R m2 R m2 R2 + I .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
123
1 A k 3 4 2 r k R
Figure 40
y 1 x k o k x 3 2 r R
ϕ
G
Figure 41
y 1 a k o k x 3 2 r R
Figure 42
.

carried out for the natural frequency ω2 = 22. 1 · 22. ¯∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ −3.001 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1000.99 2 . Therefore.0X1 ω2 + 1000. one of the unknown can be chosen arbitrarily (e.yields the second mode.0 = −10.0 0 1000 0 = k = 0 1.g. 936 −22.12 + 0.1 (2.203) = m = .0ω2 + 1000.0 · 9.0ω2 + 1000.9362 + 1000.0 0 1 · 10 · 0.205 become linearly dependent.205.001 kgm2 I = 5 ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 3. 1ω2 n n ¯ = . 1ωn −.108 (page 102) one can write the following set of equations (−ω 2 m + k)X = 0 n (2.0 11 1 · 0. 1ω n −. 091 3 −9.204)
where ω stands for the natural frequency and X is the corresponding natural mode. 1ω 2 X 0 n n = (2. (2.0 11ωn + 1. 0913 the equations 2.207)
For ω n = ω1 = 9. 1 · 9.0 .0ω 2 + 1000. the inertia matrix and the stuﬃness matrix are 2 · 1 · 0.936 X1 = 1 −3.1 According to 2.1 1 · 0. 936 [s−1 ] ¤
(2.0 Φ 0 This set of equations has non-zero solution if and only if its determinant is equal to zero.0913 These two numbers form the ﬁrst mode of vibrations corresponding to the ﬁrst natural frequency ω 1 .0 = 0 (2.092 + 1000. X1 = 1) and the other may be produced from the ﬁrst equation of the set 2. The natural frequencies and the natural modes According to the given numerical data the moment of inertia of the ball. 1ω2 Φ1 = 0 1 1
(2. 091 3 ω1 = 9.206) ¯ 2 2 n n ¯ −.0) = 90.0 23ω4 − 14. 936 9.991 2 . Hence for the given numerical data we are getting ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −3.0 −.208) 1 Φ1 = − 3.052 = 0. 936.Similar consideration. X2 = 1 Φ2 = ¡ ¢ 1 −3.0 · 22.205) 2 2 −.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
124
Solution 1. 0913 ω2 = 22.0 ¯ Its roots: yield the wanted natural frequencies £ 22. 1 2 + 1 1 · 0.0 11ω n + 1.0X1 − .209)
. 1 . Hence the equation for the natural frequencies is.0 −.

X2 ] = ∙ 1 1 90. ΞT mΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9. 1 9. 1 .210)
In this case the modal matrix has two eigenvectors X1 and X2 .214) 8. 5296 8. 1 . 4375 × 10−2 . 596 ¤ ∙
(2. 68507 3. Normalization of the natural modes According to 2.215)
These two vectors forms the normalized modal matrix Ξ. 4375 × 10−2 . 5296 ¸ ∙ 1 0 (2.0 11 90.99 √ λ1 = 112. Indeed. 1306 = 1. 5872 10. 4375 × 10−2 Ξ1 = = (2. 4597 −10.991 . 5296 1.212)
(2.991 (2.991 2. ¸ ∙ 9.211)
(2. one can create the modal matrix X = [X1 .121 the normalization factor is XT mXn = λ2 n n Hence λ2 1 = £ ¸∙ ¸ 3.99 −10. 27 . 1 1 1 90. 5872 −7.99 −10. 5296
(2. X2 = X1 = 90.0 11 . 4597 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 . 1306 λ2 = 1 −10.217) = 0 1
. 5872 = . 68507 −7.216)
The normalized eigenvectors must be orthogonal with respect to both the inertia matrix and the stiﬀness matrix. 99 = 112. 4375 × 10−2 8.0 . 5872 −7. 1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
125
Now.99 Similar procedure allows the second normalized mode to be obtained ∙ ¸∙ ¸ £ ¤ 3. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 1 1 9. 68507 Ξ2 = = −7. ¸ ¸ ∙ ∙ 1 1 .0 11 −10. 1 1 2 = 2.213)
Division of the eigenvector X1 by the factor λ1 yields the normalized mode Ξ1 . 68507 Ξ= 8.991 ¸ (2.0 . 596 90.991 √ λ2 = 2. 27 = 10.0 .

68507 1000 0 9. 935)2 η 2 = 0 ¨
(2.219)
(2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
126
and ΞT kΞ = ∙ ¸∙ ¸∙ ¸ 9.1 . 647 0 (9. 935) 2 3.01 η 01 −1 −1 = = Ξ =Ξ 1. 091)2 0 η+ ¨ η=0 (2.218) 2 0 526.01142 = (2. according to 1. 091)2 ω1 0 0 = = = (2.221)
Taking advantage of the orthogonality conditions.222) 0 1 0 (22. 68507 −7. the equations of motion are of the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ 1 0 (9.201 and premultiplying them from the left hand side by ΞT we are getting the diﬀerential equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates η. (ΞT mΞ)¨ +(ΞT kΞ)η = 0 η (2. 02 0 ω2 0 (22.4313 × 10−2 0 0 η 02 Φo ∙ ¸ . 4375 × 10−2 .224) ω2 Where η 01 and η 02 stand for the initial position whereas v01 and v02 stand for the initial velocity of the system along the normal coordinates. ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ∙ 1. 091)2 η 1 = 0 ¨ η 2 + (22. It can be obtained by transforming the initial conditions from the physical coordinates to the normal coordinates. 5872 = 0 1 · 10 · 0.225) 1. 4375 × 10−2 8.142 .220)
into 2.1039 Xo a 0. These initial conditions must be formulated along the normal coordinates.3024 −1. 935)2 or η 1 + (9.36 is v01 sin ω 1 t + η 01 cos ω 1 t η1 = ω1 v02 η2 = sin ω 2 t + η 02 cos ω 2 t (2.3024 × 10−2
. The diﬀerential equation of motion in terms of the normal coordinates Introducing the substitution 2. 5296 8. 5296 ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ 2 ¸ 82. 5872 −7.223)
The general solution of the above set of the diﬀerential equations.131 x = Ξη that in the case considered has the following form ¸ ∙ ∙ ¸ η1 X = Ξη = Ξ Φ η2 (2.

5
t[s]
Figure 44
. one has to transform the motion along the normal coordinates beck to the physical ones.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
127
Introduction of the above initial conditions into the equations 2.01142 cos 9.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.2 0.935t
∙
v01 v02
¸
=
∙
0 0
¸
(2. 68507 .1 -0.227)
4. 0778 × 10−3 cos 9.226)
(2.01142 cos 9.228) = 9.15 0. 9224 × 10−3 cos 22. 091t + 8. 43 and 44
0.1 0. we are getting ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ 9. The equations of motion of the system along the coordinates x and ϕ To produce equation of motion along the physical coordinates.091t η 2 = η 02 cos ω 2 t = 1.05 -0.15
Φ [rad]
0. using the relationship 2.5
1
1.01 X[m]
0. 5872 −7.5
t[s]
-0. 5296 ¸ ∙ 1.01
Figure 43
0.5
1
1.3024 × 10−2 cos 22.224 results in motion of the system along the normal coordinates η 1 = η 01 cos ω 1 t = .05 0 -0. 8066 × 10−2 cos 22. 091t − 9. 935t This motion is presented in Fig.005
0
0. Hence. 935t (2.219. 4375 × 10−2 .005
-0.935t Φ 8. 8066 × 10−2 cos 9.091t X = Ξη = = 1.

J D
3 l
Figure 45
2
The rigid beam 1 of mass M. Its end D is ﬁxed and the particle 3 of mass m is attached to the end C. Derive an expression for the ﬁxing moment and the ﬁxing force at the point D due to the exciting force F that is applied to the system at the point B. 45. length L and the moment of inertia about its point of rotation IA . I A
k C
c
E. The beam 2 is massless and the Young’s modulus E and the second moment of area J determine its dynamic properties.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
128
Problem 31
L A 1
F=F cosω t o B
M. is supported by means of the spring of stiﬀness k and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c as shown in Fig.
.

Vibrations of the system are excited by the two harmonic forces of amplitudes F1 . k1 . IO1 . The centres of gravity of these rods are denoted by G1 and G2 respectively.the lower element of the matrix X
. F= −F2 b 0 ϕ2 2. Answer: RA = Φ2 ak2 . the expression for the forced vibrations of the rods Answer: X = X1 + X2 ¸ ∙ F1 b cos ω 1 t X1 . k2 and as well as the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. 46.particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ cos ω 2 t −F2 b 3. K= . 1 and 2. C= . are suspended in the vertical plane as shown in Fig. the diﬀerential equation of the small vibrations of the system in the matrix form Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx¸= F ∙ x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ −kb2 ca2 −ca2 k1 a2 + kb2 + m1 gs1 Io1 0 . These rods are connected to each other by means of springs of the stiﬀness k. Produce 1. and m2 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
129
Problem 32
1 O1 s1 k1 c s2 k2 A m1 I O1 G1 G2 b m 2 I O2 O2 a 2
F cosω 1 t 1
k
F cosω 2 t 2
Figure 46 The two rods. F2 and frequencies ω1 and ω2 . Their mass and their moment of inertia about their points of rotation are respectively m1 . M= 2 2 ca∙ −kb2 k2 a2 + kb2 + m2 gs2 ¸−ca ¸ ∙ 0 ¸ Io2 ∙ ϕ1 F1 b 0 cos ω 1 t + cos ω2 t x= . the expression for the dynamic reaction at the point A.particular solutionof equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = x ˙ ∙ 0 ¸ 0 X2 . IO2 . Φ2 .

C= . F= cos ωt x= x 0
. K= . Answer: M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ∙ ˙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ IA + M(h2 + a2 ) 0 c1 b2 + c2 a2 −c2 a k1 b 0 M= . The motor 3 is mounted on this beam. Produce 1. Its mass is equal to m and its unbalance is µ. Its mass and its moment of inertia about A are m1 and IA respectively. The damping coeﬃcient of the damper between the beam and the block is denoted by c2 and the stiﬀness of the supporting spring in denoted by k2 .IA c1 C A B c2 2 m2 k1 1
ω
h
µ
k2 D
Figure 47 The rigid beam 1 (see Fig. It can be approximated by a particle of the mass M that is concentrated at the point G that is located by the dimensions h and a. 0 m2 −c2 a 0 k2 c2 ∙ √ ¸ ∙ ¸ α mµω 2 h2 + a2 . 47) is hinged at the point A and is supported at the point C by means of the spring of stiﬀness k1 and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
130
Problem 33
b 3 a m M G m1. The rotor of this motor rotates with the constant velocity ω. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the standard matrix form. To attenuate the vibrations of the beam the block 2 of mass m2 was attached.

. x .the linear displacement of the block 2 2. Produce the expression for the interaction forces at the point A and D.the angular displacement of the beam1.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
131
α .

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

132

Problem 34

l A G k

l

F C

l D

α

B

β

k

Figure 48 Three uniform platforms each of the length l, the mass m and the moment of inertia about axis through its centre of gravity IG are hinged together to form a bridge that is shown in Fig. 48. This bridge is supported by means of two springs each of the stiﬀness k. This system has two degree of freedom and the two generalized coordinates are denoted by α and β. There is an excitation force F applied at the hinge C. This force can be adopted in the following form F = Fo cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equations of motion of the system and present them in the standard form Answer: M¨ + Kx = F ¸ x ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 1 0 α 0 −1 2 2 3 6 ml ; K = kl ; x = ; F= M= cos ωt 2 0 1 β Fo l −1 3 6 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system Answer: |K − 1ω n | = 0 3. the expression for the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 A −1 2 X = [−ω M + K] cos ωt = Fo l B 4. the expression for the interaction force between the spring attached to the hinge B and the ground Answer: R = Akl cos ωt

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

133

Problem 35

1

L

m1,IA x k m k1 B c

ϕ

2

A

y

Figure 49 Figure. 49 shows the physical model of a trolley. It was modelled as a system with two degree of freedom. Its position is determined by two generalized coordinates x and ϕ. The moment of inertia of he trolley about the point A is denoted by IA and its mass by m1 . The dynamic properties of the shock-absorber are approximated by the spring of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c. Mass of the wheels 2 are denoted by m and the stiﬀness of its tire is k1 . Motion of the trolley is excited by roughnees of the road. It causes motion of the point B according to the following function. y = A sin ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system 2. the equation for the natural frequencies of the system 3. the expression for the amplitudes of the steady state vibration of the system 4. the expression for the amplitude of the interaction force between the tire and suface of the road..

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

134

Problem 36

y A c3 m3 k3 3

2 4

r m2,I2

k2 k1 m1

1

c1 B

Figure 50 In Fig. 50 the physical model of a winch is shown. The blocks 1 and 3 are rigid and their masses are respectively m1 and m3 respectively. The rigid pulley 2 has radius r, mass m2 and the moment of inertia about its axis of rotation I2 . The elastic properties of the rope 4 are modeled by two springs of stiﬀness k1 and k2 . The point A moves with respect to the axis y according to the following equation. y = a cos ωt Produce: 1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

135

⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Answer: ⎡ 0 0 m1 c1 0 0 M = ⎣ 0 m2 + m3 0 ⎦ ; C = ⎣ 0 c3 0 ⎦ 0 I2 0⎤ 0 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎡ −k1 −k1 r k1 x1 0 K = ⎣ −k1 k1 + k2 + k3 k1 r − k2 r ⎦ F = ⎣ ak3 ⎦ cos ωt; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ −k1 r k1 r − k2 r (k1 + k2 ) r2 0 ϕ x1 - the linear displacement of the block 1 x2 - the linear displacement of the pulley 2 and the block 3 ϕ - the angular displacement of the pulley 2 2. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system Answer: The particular solution xp of the equation M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ The ﬁrst element xp1 of the matrix xp represents displacement of the block 1 3. the expression for the interaction force at point B. Answer RB = c1 xp1 ˙

. and I3 are connected to each other by means of the massless shafts that the torsional stiﬀness are k1 .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
136
Problem 37
I1
I2
I3
D2 D1
T3
k1
k2
Figure 51
k3
Figure 51 shows the physical model of a compressor. the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system 3. There is a torque T3 applied to the disk I3 . I2 . the expression for the toque transmitted through the shaft k1. the diﬀerential equation of motion of the system and present it in the following matrix form. k2 and k3 respectively. The disks of moment of inertia I1 . It can be approximated by the following function T3 = T cos ωt Produce: 1. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The shaft k1 is connected to the shaft k2 by means of the gear of ratio i = D1 /D2 .

231)
According to the third Newton’s law we have F12 = F21 (2.229)
(2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
137
Solution
ϕ2 ϕ3 ϕ22
F21 F12 T3 I1
ϕ2 ϕ22
I2
ϕ3
I3
D2 T3 D1
ϕ11 ϕ1 ϕ1 ϕ11
k1
k2
k3
Figure 52 To produce the equations of motion of the system one may split it into ﬁve rigid bodies (Newton approach) and write the following set of equations I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨
D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 ϕ22 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 ϕ22 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12 where F12 F21 stand for the interaction forces between the rear D1 and D2 . In the above equations not all variables are independent.232)
. ϕ22 = iϕ11 Hence the equations can be rewritten as follows I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + k1 ϕ11 ¨
(2.230)
D1 2 D2 0 = −k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 − F21 2 I2 ϕ2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + k2 iϕ11 + k3 ϕ3 ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ¨ 0 = −k1 ϕ11 + k1 ϕ1 + F12
(2.

234)
Introduction of this relationship into the ﬁrst.238)
M =⎣
I2
The same results one can get by means of the Lagrange’s equations
⎤ ⎤ ⎡ −ke 0 ke iϕ1 ⎦ . K = ⎣ −ke ke + k3 −k3 ⎦ . x = ⎣ ϕ2 ⎦ I3 0 −k3 k3 ϕ3 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎦ 0 F =⎣ (2.233)
D1 (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) D2 The equation 2. C = 0.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
138
Hence the second and third equation yields F12 = 2 2 (k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 ) = (−k2 iϕ11 + k2 ϕ2 ) = F21 D1 D2 k1 ϕ11 − k1 ϕ1 = (2.235)
(2.233 allows the angular displacement ϕ11 to be expressed in terms of the displacements ϕ1 and ϕ2 .237)
(2.236)
k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 The above set of equations can be now presented in the matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ where ⎡
1 I i2 1
where
(2. second and ﬁfth equation of the set 2.231 one can get ¨ I1 ϕ1 = −k1 ϕ1 + I2 ϕ2 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 or µ ¶ 1 ϕ I1 (i¨ 1 ) = −ke (iϕ1 ) + ke ϕ2 i2 I2 ϕ2 = −ke ϕ2 − k3 ϕ2 + ke (iϕ1 ) + k3 ϕ3 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3 ke =
2 k1 ik1 k2 ϕ1 + ϕ k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 2 k1 k2 i i2 k2 = −(k2 + k3 )ϕ2 + ϕ1 + ϕ + k3 ϕ3 k1 + k2 i2 k1 + k2 i2 2 = −k3 ϕ3 + k3 ϕ2 + T3
(2. ϕ11 = k1 ik2 ϕ + ϕ 2 1 k1 + k2 i k1 + k2 i2 2 (2.239) T cos ωt ⎡
⎤
.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
139
The kinetic energy function and the potential energy function of the system considered are 1 1 1 T = I1 ϕ2 + I2 ϕ2 + I3 ϕ2 ˙1 ˙2 ˙3 2 2 2 V 1 k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 1 = k1 (ϕ11 − ϕ1 )2 + 2 = d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T dt ∂ ϕ3 ˙ ∂T ∂ϕ1 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − ϕ22 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 = 2 2 1 1 k2 (ϕ2 − iϕ11 )2 + k3 (ϕ3 − ϕ2 )2 2 2
Hence = I1 ϕ1 ¨ = I2 ϕ2 ¨ = I3 ϕ3 ¨ = 0. ∂T = 0.240)
. ∂ϕ2 ∂T =0 ∂ϕ3
¶ µ ¶ µ ∂V 1 ∂ϕ11 1 ∂ϕ11 = = − 1 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) −i k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 2 ∂ϕ1 = i2 ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 ¶ ¶ µ µ 1 1 1 ∂ϕ11 ∂V ∂ϕ11 + k2 2(ϕ2 − iϕ11 ) 1 − i + k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (−1) = k1 2(ϕ11 − ϕ1 ) = ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 ∂ϕ2 2 = −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 ∂V 1 = k3 2(ϕ3 − ϕ2 ) (1) = ∂ϕ3 2 = −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 The virtual work produced by the impressed forces acting on the system is δW = (0) ϕ1 + (0) ϕ2 + (T3 ) ϕ3 Introduction of the above expressions into the following Lagrange’s equations ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = Q1 dt ∂ ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ∂ϕ1 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q2 dt ∂ ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ∂ϕ2 ˙ d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = Q3 dt ∂ ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ∂ϕ3 ˙
(2.

243)
(2. reduced moment of inertia and reduced stiﬀness.242) 2 i i stands for so called reduced displacement.244)
.239. I1r = 1 1 1 1 1 = + = k1 + ke k1r k2 k2 i2 It is ke = k1 k2 k1 + i2 k2 (2. k1r = 2 (2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
140
yields the wanted equations of motion of the system considered ¨ I1 ϕ1 + ke ϕ1 − ike ϕ2 = 0 ¨ I2 ϕ2 + −ke iϕ1 + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 or ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3 µ
(2. 53
ϕ1r= iϕ1
I1r=I1 / i2 k1r=k1 / i D2
2
ϕ2
I2
ϕ3
I3
T3 D1
I1
ϕ1
k1
k2
k3
Figure 53 In this ﬁgure I1 k1 . The equivalent stiﬀness of the shaft assembled of the shaft k2 and k1r can be produced from the following equation ϕ1r = iϕ1 .241)
They are identical with the equation 2. It is easy to see that precisely the same equations possesses the system presented in Fig.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
141
Hence. the equations of motion of the system presented in Fig. 53 are as follows µ ¶ I1 (¨ 1 i) + ke (ϕ1 i) − ke ϕ2 = 0 ϕ i2 I2 ϕ2 − ke (ϕ1 i) + (ke + k3 )ϕ2 − ke ϕ3 = 0 ¨ (2.245) ¨ I3 ϕ3 + −k3 ϕ2 + k3 ϕ3 = T3
.

Vibrations of the pendulum about the horizontal axis Z are excited by the harmonic moment M applied to the body 1. These bodies possess masses m1 and m2 and the moments of inertia about the axis through their centers of gravity (G1. the diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the pendulum and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙
. The system has two degrees of freedom and the generalized coordinates are denoted by q1 and q2 . G2) are I1 and I2 respectively.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
142
Problem 38
M=Mocosωt O c1 l q1 G1 1 Y
A a b c2 c k c q1 q2
k 2
B
G2
X
Figure 54 Two rigid bodies 1 and 2 were hinged together at the point A to form the double pendulum whose physical model is shown in Fig. Produce: 1.??.

ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
143
Take advantage of Lagrange’s equations. the expression for the interaction force between the damper and the body 1 at the point B. C= . ¸ ¸ ∙ Answer: ∙ IG1 + m1 c2 + IG2 + m2 (l + c2 )2 IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) q1 1 . F= 0 2ca2 m2 gc2 m2 gc2 + 2kb2 0 2.
. x= IG2 + m2 c2 (l + c2 ) IG2 m2 c2 ¸ ∙ q2 ¸ ∙ ¸ 2 ∙ m1 gc1 + m2 g(l + c2 ) 0 0 Mo m2 gc2 K= . M= . the expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the pendulum 3.

the spring of stiﬀness k d and the damper of the damping coeﬃcient c d . Produce: 1. This assembly is furnished with the dynamic absorber of vibrations. This rotor is unbalanced and its centre of gravity is oﬀ from its axis of rotation by µ. The rotor R of the ventilator V possesses a mass m R and rotates with a constant angular velocity Ω. 55) can be considered as a rigid body. Its moment of inertia about the axis X-X is I X . The block D can translate along the inertial axis x only.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
144
Problem 39
B X Gr
V X R
Ω α
kv cv kd kv cd l cv e
a
b
d
D x
Figure 55 The assembly of the ventilator V and its base B (see Fig. The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the system shown in Fig. It is made of the block D of mass m d . The angular displacement α deﬁnes the instantaneous position of this assembly.1 and present it in the following matrix form M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙
. This assembly is free to rotate about the horizontal axis X-X and is kept in the horizontal position by means of two springs each of stiﬀness k v and two dampers each of the damping coeﬃcient c v . Its centre of gravity G r is located by the distances a and b.

∙
. M= 0 m
¸ ∙ ¸ 2cv e2 + cd l2 −cd l 2kv d2 + kd l2 −kd l C= . K= . Ix 0 . −c l −kd l c kd ∙ d √ ¸ ∙ ¸ d α mR µΩ2 a2 + b2 . The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system along the coordinates x and α 3. The expression for the force transmitted to foundation by the damper c v .ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
145
¸ ∙ Answer. F= cos Ωt x= x 0 2.

3. It possesses three degrees of freedom and the three independent coordinates are denoted by y2 and y3 . The diﬀerential equation of small oscillations of the and present it in the following matrix form. The system performs small oscillation in the vertical plane XY . 56 is hinged at the point A to the support 5.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
146
Problem 40
Y
5
A
Y
1 l 3 y3 y2 G1 2
α
B
4
X
Figure 56 The uniform rod 1 of mass m and length l shown in Fig.
. Produce: 1. M¨ + Cx + Kx = F x ˙ 2. The support 5 moves along the horizontal axis Y according to the following function Y = a cos ωt The lower end of the rod is connected to the blocks 2 and 3 by means of two springs 4 each of stiﬀness k. The expression for the amplitudes of the forced vibrations of the system. The expression for the driving force that must be applied to the point A in order to assure the assumed motion Y (t). The blocks mass is m2 and m3 respectively.

rG1 = J(Y + l l sin α) + I( cos α) 2 2 (2. d ∂T ∂T ∂V − + = 0 dt ∂ α ∂α ˙ ∂α ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y2 ∂y2 ∂y2 ˙ ∂T ∂V d ∂T − + = 0 dt ∂ y3 ∂y3 ∂y3 ˙
(2. let us develop the position vector of its centre of gravity G1 . l l ˙ ˙ ˙ rG1 = J(Y + α cos α) + I(− α sin α) ˙ 2 2 Hence.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
147
Solution
Y 5
A rG1 1 l 3 y3 y2 G1
Y
2
α
B
4
X
Figure 57 Motion of the system is governed by the Lagrange equations.249)
. the kinetic energy of the rod is ¶ µ 1 1 l l 2 2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ T1 = m (Y + α cos α) + (− α sin α) + IG1 α2 2 2 2 2 (2.247)
Its ﬁrst derivative provide us with the absolute velocity of the centre of gravity.248)
(2.246)
To produce the kinetic energy function T associated with the the rod 1.

252)
.255) (2.251) ˙ ˙ ˙2 ˙2 2 2 8 2 2 2 The potential energy of the springs 4 is 1 1 Vs = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 2 2 The potential energy due to gravitation is l Vg = −mgrG1Y = −mg cos α 2 Hence. C = 0.254) 2 2 2 Introducing the expressions 2.251 and 2.246 one can get the required equation in the following matrix form.256) F = k2 Y k3 a y3 k3 Y ⎡ To verify the above equations of motion let us employ the Newton-Euler method for modeling of the system considered. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig. the total potential energy is 1 1 l V = Vs + Vg = k2 (y2 − Y − l sin α)2 + k3 (−y3 + Y + l sin α)2 − mg cos α (2.254 into equations 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
148
Since the kinetic energy of the blocks 2 and 3 is as follows 1 T2 = m2 y2 ˙2 2 1 T3 = m3 y3 ˙2 2 (2. 58 (2. x = ⎣ y2 ⎦ ⎦=⎣ ⎣ k2 a (2. K = ⎣ −k2 l k2 0 ⎦ M = ⎣ 0 k3 0 0 m3 −k3 l ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 1 ⎡ ¨ α + 2 mlaω2 − a (k2 l + k3 l) − 2 mY − (k2 l + k3 l) Y ⎦ . M¨ + Cx + Kx = F cos ωt x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 mgl + k2 l2 + k3 l2 −k2 l −k3 l IG + 1 ml2 0 4 2 0 m2 0 ⎦ .250)
the total kinetic energy of the whole system is 1 ˙ 1 1 1 1 1 ˙ ˙ T = T1 +T2 +T3 = mY 2 + mlY α cos α+ ml2 α2 + IG1 α2 + m2 y2 + m3 y3 (2.253) (2.

257)
The second equation can be used for determination of the unknown interaction force RAY . l l l l ¨ ¨G1 = J(Y + α cos α − α2 sin α) + I(− α sin α − α2 cos α) r ¨ ˙ ¨ ˙ 2 2 2 2 Hence After linearization l l ¨ ¨ ˙ aG1Y = Y + α cos α − α2 sin α 2 2 l ¨ aG1Y = Y + α ¨ 2 (2.247.262)
.258) RAY = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y Introduction of the above expression into the ﬁrst equation of 2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
149
Y
RAX
5
A RAY
Y
1 l 3 G1 y3 y2 G1 2
α
B R3Y 4 R3Y R2Y R2Y
X
Figure 58
For the rod one can produce the following two equations 1 ¨ IG α = − RAY l + 2 maG1Y = RAY + R2Y 1 1 R2Y l + R3Y l 2 2 + R3Y
(2.260)
(2.259)
In the latest equation aG1Y stands for the component Y of the absolute acceleration of the centre of gravity G1 .257 gives 1 ¨ IG α = − lmaG1Y + R2Y l + R3Y l 2 (2. It can be obtained by diﬀerentiation of the absolute velocity vector 2.261) (2. (2.

255.268) ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y They are identical with 2.270)
(2.ANALYSIS OF MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM
150
Introduction of 2.259 results in the following equation l 1 ¨ IG α = − lm(Y + α) + R2Y l + R3Y l ¨ ¨ 2 2 (2.266)
(2. the governing equations are 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ (2.272)
.262 into 2. R3Y = k3 (y3 − Y − αl) (2.271) (2.267)
The amplitudes of the forced vibration could be obtained from the particular solution of the above equation. It can be predicted as x = A cos ωt Introducing it into the equation of motion we have (−ω 2 M + K)A = F The wanted vector of the amplitudes of the system forced vibrations is ⎤ ⎡ Aα A =(−ω2 M + K)−1 F = ⎣ Ay2 ⎦ Ay3 (2.263)
The interaction forces between the rod and the springs are can be expressed as follows R2Y = k2 (y2 − Y − αl).264)
Introducing them into equation 2. M¨ + Kx = F cos ωt x (2.265)
(2.269) (2.264 we have ¨ m2 y2 + k2 y2 − k2 lα = k2 Y ¨ m3 y3 + k3 y3 + k3 lα = k3 Y Hence.263 one can obtain 1 1 ¨ (IG + ml2 )¨ + k2 l2 α + k3 l2 α − k2 ly2 − k3 ly3 = − lmY − k2 lY − k3 lY α 4 2 The Newton’s law if apply to the blocks 2 and 3 yields m2 y2 = −R2Y ¨ m3 y3 = −R3Y ¨ Since the interaction forces are deﬁned by 2.

59). 59).273) 2 −k (A − a − Aα l) cos ωt − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt ¶ ¶ µ 2 µ y2 l 2 = m −a − Aα ω − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l) cos ωt 2 = |RAY | cos ωt ¯ ¡ ¯ ¢ l where |RAY | = ¯m −a − 2 Aα ω2 − k2 (Ay2 − a − Aα l) − k3 (Ay3 − a − Aα l)¯ is the amplitude of the interaction force. They are distributed along. Its follows that due to rotation of this body at each cross-section i there exists the centrifugal force Ui (see Fig.
1 U1
2
ω
B A m1
U2
ϕ1 ωt
F2 Ui1 m2
ϕ2 ωt
B A Ui2 Ui x2
F1
x1
Figure 59
In a general case. due to the limited accuracy of manufacturing.1 Balancing of rotors Let us consider a rigid rotor that rotates with an angular velocity ω about the axis A − A (see Fig.258 = maG1Y − R2Y − R3Y ¶ µ l ¨ ¨ = m Y + α − k2 (y2 − Y − αl) − k3 (y3 − Y − αl) 2 µ ¶ l 2 2 = m −aω − Aα ω cos ωt + (2.3.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
151
Now. the centres of gravity of the individual cross-sections do not have to coincide with this axis of rotation. usually unknown. RAY 2.3 ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 2. Each of this forces can be replaced by two forces Ui1 and Ui2 acting in
. the interaction force RAY can be produced as an explicit function of time from 2. line B − B.

60 by nubers 1 and 2. According to the above discussion. The process of searching for magnitude of the unbalance forces U1 and U2 and their phases ϕ1 and ϕ2 is called balancing. Each of them is perpendicular to the axis of rotation. These two arbitrarily chosen planes. 60. therefore their resultants U1 and U2 are perpendicular to the axis of rotation too.denoted in Fig. one can eliminate this unbalance of the rotor by means of two weights of mass m1 and m2 attached at such a position that the centrifugal forces F1 and F2 balance the resultant forces U1 and U2 . The second approach for balancing rotors is consider in this section. The balancing of a rotor can be performed with help of a specially design machines before it is installed or can be carried out after its installation ’in its own bearings’. the unbalance forces can be represented by forces U1 and U2 in two arbitrarily chosen plane. if the rotor of this machine can be approximated by a rigid body. are
. Hence.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
152
two arbitrarily chosen planes.
1 2
x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2
x2
x4 4
4
ωt
x1
ϕ1 ωt ωt
U 1o U1 x2 t
U2o
ωt
ϕ2
U2 a4 a 4o
β3
a 3o a3 x3
β3
β4
ωt
x3
ωt
Figure 60 Let us consider the rotating machine shown in Fig.

ϕ2 ) and the phases of the recorded displacements (β 1 .j (iω) would be known. These planes. Test (1)
3
1
2
4
µ (1)
m (1) U o
(1)
U (1)
ϕ (1) ωt
x1
ϕ1 ωt
U 1o U1 x2
U2o
ωt
ϕ2
U2 a (1) 4o a (1) 4
(1) β4
β3
(1)
(1) a 3o
a3 x3
(1)
ωt
ωt
Figure 61
. ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸∙ a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 = (2. there are numerous practical considerations for proper selection. are called measurement planes. These unbalance forces excite vibrations of this machine. which is called key phasor. This mark. Although the selection of the balancing planes is arbitrary. The equation 2.274) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 where a3 = a3o eiβ 3 .275)
If the transfer functions Ri. 60 by N. The transducer 5. U2 = U2o eiϕ2 (2.96 oﬀers the relationship between the unknown unbalance forces U1 and U2 and the measured displacements a3 and a4 . For long rotors. the balancing planes should be chosen as far apart as possible. allows the phases of the unbalance forces (ϕ1 . a4 = a4o eiβ 4 . marked in Fig. Let a3 and a4 be the complex displacements measured in the measurement plasen along the coordinates x3 and x4 with help of the two transducers 3 and 4. creates a timing reference mark on the rotor. shown in Fig. Furthermore. for example. β 2 ) to be measured. these plane should oﬀer an easy access and allow additional weights to be attached. In order to identify the transfer functions two additional tests are required. U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . Let us arrange for these vibrations to be recorded in two arbitrarily chosen planes. 60 by numbers 3 and 4. this relation would allow the unknow magnitudes of the unbalance as well as their phases to be determined.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
153
called balancing plane.

The amplitude of this force U (1) is (1) Uo = m(1) µ(1) ω2 (2.279) The response of the system is recorded in both measurement planes so the amplitudes (2) (2) (2) (2) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained. The amplitude of this force U (2) is (2) Uo = m(2) µ(2) ω2 (2.276) The response of the system is recorded in both measurment planes so the amplitudes (1) (1) (1) (1) a3o and a4o as well as the phases β 3 and β 4 can be obtained.278)
(1)
3
1
2
4
µ (2)
m (2) Uo
(2)
U
(2)
ϕ (2) ωt
x1
ϕ1 ωt
U 1o U1 x2
U2o
ωt
ϕ2
U2 a (2) 4o a (2) 4
(2) β4
β3
(2)
(2) a 3o
a3 x3
(2)
ωt
ωt
Figure 62 An additional trial weight of mass m(2) (see Fig 62) is attached in the balancing plane 2 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(2) and the know distance µ(2) . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (1) .277) (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 . There is the following relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
154
An additionl trial weight of mass m(1) (see Fig 61) is attached in the balancing plane 1 at the known (with respect to the key phasor’s mark) phase ϕ(1) and the know distance µ(1) . There is the following
.
(1)
(1)
(1)
U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . The system is now excited by both the residual unbalance forces (U1 and U2 ) and the centrifugal force produced by the trial weight U (2) .
U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .
(1) U (1) = Uo eiϕ (2. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 U1 + U (1) = (2. Test (2)
(1) (1)
(1)
a4 = a4o eiβ 4 .

282)
Similarly.274 ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2.284) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4 where a3 and a4 represent the know response of the system without the additional weights.274 from 2.283)
Now.274 from 2.
U2 = U2o eiϕ2 .280)
(2)
(2) U (2) = Uo eiϕ (2.280 allow the unknown transfer functions and the wanted unbalances U1 and U2 to be computed.
(2)
(2)
(2)
U1 = U1o eiϕ1 . To achieve that let us subtract the equations 2.274. 2.285) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 a4o eiβ 4 U2o eiϕ2
.277 # ∙ Ã" ¸ µ∙ ¸! ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸¶ (1) a3 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) U1 a3 U1 + U (1) − = − (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) a4 U2 U2 a4
a4 = a4o eiβ 4 .
(2) (2)
(2)
(2.277 and 2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
155
relationship between the measured parameters and the transfer functions. if one subtracts equations 2. # ∙ " ¸∙ ¸ (2) U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 = (2) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) U2 + U (2) a4 a3 = a3o eiβ 3 .281) The formulated equations 2.
"
# ∙ ¸ ∙ (1) ¸ (1) R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3 − a3 U = (1) R41 (iω) R42 (iω) 0 a4 − a4 " # ∙ ¸ (1) a3 − a3 R31 (iω)U (1) = (1) R41 (iω)U (1) a4 − a4 a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R31 (iω) = 3 (1) = 3o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R41 (iω) = 4 (1) = 4o (1) (1) U Uo eiϕ
(1) (1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2.280 one can get a − a3 a eiβ 3 − a3o eiβ 3 R32 (iω) = 3 (2) = 3o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ a − a4 a eiβ 4 − a4o eiβ 4 R42 (iω) = 4 (2) = 4o (2) (2) U Uo eiϕ
(2) (2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2. ¸−1 ∙ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ U1 R31 (iω) R32 (iω) a3o eiβ 3 U1o eiϕ1 = = (2. the wanted complex imbalances U1 and U2 in the plane 1 and 2 may be computed from the equation 2.

should be place at angular position (see Fig. to balance the rotor.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
156
The amplitudes U1o and U2o determine the weights m1 and m2 that should be attached in the balancing planes m1 = m2 U1 r1 ω 2 U2 = r2 ω 2
(2. 63) β 1 = 180o + ϕ1 β 2 = 180o + ϕ2
1 2
(2.286)
These weights.287)
x1 5 3 3 x3 1 2
x2 4
x4 4
m1 r1
β1 ϕ1
U1o U1
m2 r2
β2
U2o
ωt
x1
ωt
ωt
x2
ϕ2
U2
Figure 63
.

imbalance of the rotor The natural frequency of the system is r r K 9000000 = = 300 (2.3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ .total mass of the ventilator mr = 20 kg . Vibration of this ventilator are due to the imbalance u if its rotor.292) A=¯ 2 ω n − ω2 ¯ ¯ 3002 − ω 2 ¯ Its values. 65
.
a)
mr µ ω 2 cosω t x mr µ ω
2
b)
x
µ
ωt
mr µ ω 2 cosω t
K
mr M
M
Figure 64 Let us assume that the system has the following parameters: M = 100 kg . 64a).0001 m .2 Dynamic absorber of vibrations Let us consider vibration of the ventilator shown in Fig. as a function of the angular speed of the rotor is shown in Fig.289)
(2. 64b). within the range of the rotor angular speed 0 < ω < 500 the system can be approximated by system with one degree of freedom. Its physical model is shown in Fig.290) x + ω 2 x = q cos ωt ¨ n u 2 0.mass of rotor of the ventilator K = 9000000 N/m .0000 2ω 2 q= (2.distance between the axis of rotation and the centre of gravity u = mr µ = 20 · .00 2 kgm .0000 2ω 2 ¯ ¯ q ¯=¯ ¯ ¯ (2.0001 = . The following mathematical model M x + Kx = mr µω2 cos ωt ¨ (2.291) M 100 allows the amplitude of the forced vibrations of the ventilator A to be predicted.002 2 ω = ω = .ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
157
2.stiﬀness of the supporting beam ω = 314 rad/s the ventilator’s operating speed µ = .288) ωn = M 100 Hence.

the ventilator develops large vibration in vicinity of its working speed ω = 314 rad/s and has to pass the critical speed during the run up. results in the following mathematical model.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
158
0. Application of the Newton’s . M x + (K + k)x − ky + cx − cy = uω2 cosωt ¨ ˙ ˙ m¨ − kx + ky − cx + cy = 0 y ˙ ˙
(2. Such a solution is not acceptable. One of a possible way of reducing these vibration is to furnish the ventilator with the absorber of vibration shown in ﬁg 66
a)
mr µ ω 2 cosω t x
b)
x
µ
ωt
mr µ ω
2
mr µ ω 2 cosω t
K
mr M k y k c m m y
M c
Figure 66 It comprises block of mass m.0001
A1[m]
0
100
200
300
400
ω[ 1/s]
Figure 65 As it can be seen from this diagram.Euler’s method.293)
. elastic element of stiﬀness k and damper of the damping coeﬃcient c.

002 · ω2 ¯ ¯ + iω + 106 ¯ −ω2 ¯ 0 25 0 0 −2.300 k = mω 2 = 25 · 3142 = 2. 0 m −c +c The above equations takes form m¨ + cx + kx = qeiωt x ˙ If one predicts the particular solution as x = Aeiωt (2. as a function of the angular speed of its rotor is presented in Fig.294) To analyze the forced vibrations let us introduce the complex excitation ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ M 0 x ¨ +c −c x ˙ K + k −k x + + = 0 m y ¨ −c +c ˙ ∙ ¸ ∙y 2 iωt −k ∙ +k ¸ y ¸ (2.
x=
(2. c= . 46 0 ¯ ¯ (2. 67:
Remarkable results we are getting if parameters k and m of the absorber fulﬁll the following relationship r k = ω = 314 (2. 46 2. 46 0.297 one obtains the formula for the amplitude of the forced vibration ¯ ¯ (2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
159
Its matrix form is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ uω 2 cos ωt x K + k −k x ˙ +c −c x ¨ M 0 = + + y −k +k y ˙ −c +c y ¨ 0 m 0 (2. ¸ ∙ A1 = A= A2 ¯µ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¶−1 ∙ ¸¯ ¯ ¯ 100 0 0 0 11.296)
and than introduces it into the equation 2. representing vibrations of the ventilator. 4649 × 106 N/m Introduction of this data into equation 2.295) uω 2 cos ωt + iuω 2 sin ωt uω e uω 2 iωt = = = e 0 0 0 Introducing notations ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ M 0 +c −c m= .299 and the zero damping results in the following response A1 and A2 of the system along the coordinates x and y respectively.298) (2.300) m To show it let us assume m = 25 kg and compute the value of the stiﬀness k from the formula 2.
q=
.297) ∙ K + k −k −k +k ¸ ∙ uω2 0 ¸ ∙ x y ¸
k=
.301)
.299) A = ¯(−ω2 m+iωc + k)−1 q¯
Amplitude A1 .5 −2.

5 −2. let us analyze the inﬂuence of the damping coeﬃcient c. The best results of attenuation of vibrations can be achieved if the two local maxima are equal to each other.
. 46 2 3 6 10 + + iω 10 = −ω c c 0 25 −2.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
160
0. The relative motion is ceased and the system behaves like the undamped system with one degree of freedom.302) The amplitudes of the forced vibration of the ventilator for diﬀerent values of the damping coeﬃcient c. 46 0 (2. computed according to the formula 2.302 are collected in the Table 1. It can be noticed. 46 2. Application of the absorber of vibrations oﬀers a safe operation in region of the angular speed 0 < ω < 500 rad/s. But the ventilator still has to pass resonance in vicinity of ω = 240 rad/s. To improve the dynamic response. This case is shown in the last raw of the table 1. If the damping tends to inﬁnity. Damping coeﬃcient lager then 5000 results in increment of the amplitude of the ventilator’s forced vibrations. ∙ ¸ A1 = A2 ¸ ¸ ∙ ¸ ¸ ∙ ¶−1 ∙ ∙ µ c c 100 0 0.002 · ω2 11.0001
A1[m]
0
100
200
300
400
ω[1/s]
Figure 67 One can notice that the amplitude of vibration for the working speed ω = 314 rad/s is equal to zero.00004 m. The amplitude is less than 0. that by increasing the damping coeﬃcient c one can lower amplitude of vibrations in all region of frequency.

46 × 106 c=0
A1[m]
0
100
200
300
400
ω[1/s]
0.ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
161
.
Table 1
0.0001
m = 25 k = 2.0001
m = 25 k = 1.0001
m = 25 k = 2.75 × 106 c = 5000
A1[m]
0 0 100 200 300 400
ω[1/s]
. 46 × 106 c = 2500
A1[m]
0 0 100 200 300 400
ω[1/s]
0. 46 × 106 c = 5000
A1[m]
0 0 100 200 300 400
ω[1/s
]
0.0001
m = 25 k = 2. 46 × 106 c = 1000
A1[m]
0 0 100 200 300 400
ω[1/s]
0.0001
m = 25 k = 2.

1)
The free body diagram of this element is shown in Fig. It is assumed that the tensile force T is large enough to neglect its variations due to small motion of the string around its equilibrium position.1 Modelling of strings.t) + ∂ y(z.t) ∂z
∂ y(z. t) ∂y(z. t) +T + = −T dz + f (z. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 1 A(z) stands for area of cross-section of the string and (z) is its density.t) T y(z.t) dz ∂z ∂ z2
2
y
Figure 1 Strings are elastic elements that are subjected to tensile forces (see Fig. ρ (z) T z
∂ y(z. 1). Let us consider element dz of the sting.Chapter 3 VIBRATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
3.1 MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
3. rods and shafts Modelling of stings
f(z.2) dm ∂t2 ∂z ∂z ∂z 2
. Its position is determined by the coordinate z and its mass dm is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3. According to the second Newton’s law µ ¶ ∂y(z.t) z dz T A(z). Motion of the string is caused by the unit vertical load f (z. t)dz (3. In the Fig. 1. t) that in a general case can be a function of time t and the position z.1. t) ∂ 2 y(z.

t) + ∂ F(z.t) z dz dz
E(z).3)
If one divide this equation by A(z) (z)dz it takes form ∂ 2 y(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
163
Introduction of Eq. t) ∂ 2 y(z. A q(z. ρ (z)
F(z. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.2 and its simpliﬁcation yields A(z) (z) ∂ 2 y(z. t) dz − T dz = f (z. A(z). 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z.1 into Eq. t) A (3.6)
f(z.t)
F(z.t) dz ∂z z
Figure 2
. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Modelling of rods T .t) + ∂ F(z.t) dz ∂z y(z. t) − = 2 2 ∂t A(z) (z) ∂z A(z) (z) (3. 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t) F(z.4)
If the string is uniform ( A and ρ are independent of z ) the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y(z. t) T f (z. t) = f (z.t)
z F(z.5)
(3. t) − λ2 = q(z.t)
F(z.

12)
where λ2 =
E
.10)
(3.7)
The axial force F (z. Application of the second Newton’s law to the free body diagram of the element yields. Let us consider the highlighted in Fig. Its instantaneous position is determined by the displacement y(z. Motion of the rod is excited by the axial force f (z. t) ∂y(z.13)
. t) + ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) that. are constant) one can get
2 ∂ 2 y(z. t) ∂z
(3. t). can be a function of position z and time t. Young’s modulus E(z) and the density (z).t) dz ∂z
dz
= A(z)E(z)
∂y(z. t) =
f (z. t) A
(3. Let as consider a rod of the cross-section A(z). t) − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If the rod is uniform ( A. in a general case. t) −λ = q(z. t)dz = −F (z.
q(z.8)
Upon introducing the above expression into Eq.7 one may obtain µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. 3. t) + F (z. t) ∂y(z. t) dz + f (z. dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) = A(z)E(z)
∂y(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2
(3.9)
(3. t) 2 ∂ y(z. t)dz − ∂t2 ∂z ∂z Since mass of the element is dm = A(z) (z)dz the equation of motion of the element is µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z. t) is related to the elongation of the element by Hooke’s law F (z. E. t) ∂ dm A(z)E(z) dz = f (z. 2 element dz.11)
(3. t) ∂F (z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
164
Rods are elastic elements that are subjected to the axial forces. t) ∂ A(z) (z) A(z)E(z) = f (z.

The shaft has the shear modulus G(z). Its moment of inertia ∂z about the axis z is Z Z 2 dI = r dA (z)dz = (z)dz r2 dA = J(z) (z)dz (3.t) dz ∂z
ϕ (z.t) + ∂ (z. t) + dz + τ (z. the shaft performs the torsional vibrations and the instantaneous angular position of the cross-section at z is ϕ(z.t) z dz
T(z.t)
ϕ ϕ (z. t).t) dz greater. The angular position at the distance z + dz is by the total diﬀerential ∂ϕ(z. Let us consider the element dz of the shaft. the density (z). the cross-section area A(z) and the second moment of area J(z). t) ∂T (z. A(z). t). t) = −T (z.t) τ (z. Let us assume that the torque τ (z. Due to the moment τ (z.t) +
∂ T(z. t) is distributed along the axis z and is a function of time t (see Fig.t)
z
T(z.14)
A A
Owning to the generalized Newton’s law we can write the following equation dI ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) + T (z. J(z).MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
165
Modelling of shafts
G(z). ρ (z)
ϕ (z.15)
.t) dz ∂z
z
Figure 3 Shafts are elastic elements that are subjected to torques. t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. 3).t)
ϕ (z.

q(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
166
After introduction of Eq.2 Modelling of beams Beams are elastic elements that are subjected to lateral loads (forces or moments that have their vectors perpendicular to the centre line of a beam).14 and an elementary simpliﬁcation the equation 3. t) = +V (z.15 takes form ∂ 2 ϕ(z.
2 ∂ 2 ϕ(z.16) − ∂t2 ∂z If we introduce the relationship between the torque T (z. sum of the moments about the point G has to be equal to zero µ ¶ µ ¶ ∂V (z. t) − M(z. density (z) and the Young’s modulus E(z).21)
If one neglect the inertia moment associated with rotation of the element dz. t) dz dz + M(z. t) ∂ϕ(z.1. The equation of motion of the beam in the z direction is dm ∂ 2 y(z. t) dz ∂M(z. (z) and G(z) are constant. Let us consider a beam of the second moment of area J(z). t) ∂T (z. ∂M(z.22) Simpliﬁcation of the above equation and omission of the terms of order higher then one with respect to dz. t) − G(z)J(z) J(z) (z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z If J(z). 3. 3. t) (3. t) J
(3.18)
(3. t) ∂ ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) = τ (z. t) 2 ∂ ϕ(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2
(3.23) V (z. The beam performs vibrations due to the external distributed unit load f (z.20)
3.24)
. t) + V (z. t) =
τ (z. cross-section A(z). t) −λ = q(z. t)dz dz = ∂z G(z)J(z) into Eq.16 we are getting µ ¶ ∂ϕ(z. t) J(z) (z) = τ (z.17)
(3. t) = ∂z Since mass of the element dz is dm = A(z) (z)dz (3. the equation of motion takes form. t) − V (z. t) and the deﬂection ϕ(z. The instantaneous position of the element dz is highlighted in Fig. t) (3. 4. t). t)dz ∂t2 ∂z (3. t) − dz + f (z. t) T (z. yields the relationship between the bending moment M and the shearing force V. t) ∂V (z. t) + 2 ∂z 2 ∂z (3.19)
where λ2 =
G
. t) + dz = 0 V (z.

27)
are constant. E and beam is governed by the following equation (3. t) and the bending moment M(z. ∂ 2 y(z.29)
. t) ∂2 A(z) (z) = f (z.t) y(z.t) dz ∂z M(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 4 where λ2 = EJ .t)
z f(z.t) M(z.MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
167
f(z.25) ∂t2 ∂z 2 The mechanics of solids oﬀers the following relationship between the deﬂection of the beam y(z. one can get the equation of motion in the following form ∂ 2 y(z. t) (3. t) + λ2 = q(z. A(z). J. t) A
(3. t) + 2 E(z)J(z) ∂t2 ∂z ∂z 2 M(z. motion of the
∂ 2 y(z.t) dz/2 z y
Figure 4 and taking into account Eq. t) ∂M 2 (z. t). 3. t) A(z) (z) + = f (z.t) + ∂ V(z.25 yields µ ¶ ∂ 2 y(z.ρ (z)
dz
(3. t) = f (z. t) ∂ 2 y(z.t)+ ∂ ∂z E(z). t) ∂z 2 Introduction of equation 3.t)dz M(z.23. t) = E(z)J(z) If the following parameters of the beam A. A q(z.t) G V(z.26 into equation 3.26)
V(z.J(z). t) ∂ 4 y(z.28)
(3.

3. vibrations of strings.33)
for strings for rods
(3. a function of two variables.35) (3. its analysis can be discussed simultaneously. In this case the governing equation ∂ 2 y(z.2
ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
As could be seen from the previous section.38)
β n = ωn
E
.34) (3.32) Introduction of the predicted solution 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z.31) ∂t2 ∂z 2 Boundary conditions . The strict solution can be produced only if parameters of the system considered are constant. If the external excitation q(z. t) = 0. The general solution. Therefore.2.31 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n or Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0 n where βn = The general solution of this equation is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z where β n = ωn r A T r (3. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. the equation 3. rods and shafts The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of Eq. y(z. t) − λ2 =0 (3. rods and shafts are described by the same mathematical model.natural frequencies and natural modes Let us predict the particular solution of the above equation in a form of the product of two functions.37) (3.32 into equation 3.30)
is classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
168
3.30 describes the free vibration of the system due to a non-zero initial excitation determined by the initial conditions. t) ∂ 2 y(z. One of them is a function of the position z and the other one is a function of time t. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3. 3.30 ∂ 2 y(z.36) ωn λ (3.1 Free vibration of strings. t) − λ2 = q(z. t) ∂t2 ∂z 2 (3.

rods and shafts are shown in the following table. Some of the boundary conditions for strings.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
169
β n = ωn
The values for the parameter β n as well as the constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the boundary conditions.39)
.
r
G
for shafts
(3.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
170
Table 3.1
z l y
string for for z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0
z l
free-free rod
for for
I z = 0 F = AEYn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0
z l
ﬁxed-free rod
for for
z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = 0
k z l
ﬁxed-elasticaly supported rod for for z = 0 Yn = 0 I z = l F = AEYn = −kYn
z l
ﬁxed-ﬁxed rod
for for
z = 0 Yn = 0 z = l Yn = 0
z l
free-free shaft
for for
I z = 0 T = GJYn = 0 I z = l T = GJYn = 0
z l
ﬁxed free shaft
for for
z=0 z=l
Yn = 0 I T = GJYn = 0
z l
ﬁxed-ﬁxed shaft
for for
z=0 z=l
Yn = 0 Yn = 0
.

β n = . The ﬁrst mode is called fundamental mode and the corresponding frequency is called fundamental natural frequency.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
171
To demonstrate the way of the determination of the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes... . . . The above analysis allows to conclude that a continuous system possesses inﬁnite number of the natural frequencies and inﬁnite number of the corresponding natural modes. n = 1..41 becomes linearly dependant and one of the constants can be chosen arbitrarily. the natural modes determine the angular positions of the cross-section of the shaft ϕ(z).. For this case the boundary conditions are for for z = 0 z = l Yn = 0 Yn = 0 (3... .. in this particular case we have sin β n l = 0 (3..41.44) This equation is called characteristic equation and has inﬁnite number of solution.say Sn = 1.. results in a set of two homogeneous algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Sn and Cn . If one choose arbitrarily Sn .45) l l l Taking advantage of equation 3. Therefore we can conclude that the predicted solution. ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 ¯ ¯ (3. 0 = 0 · Sn + 1 · Cn 0 = (sin β n l)Sn + (cos β n l)Cn Its matrix form is ∙ (3.... Cn has to be equal to 0. A few ﬁrst of them are shown in Fig.∞ (3. 5
.42) = sin β n l cos β n l 0 Cn This set of equations has non-zero solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero....47) l The functions Yn (z)are called eigenfunctions or natural modes and the corresponding roots ω n are called eigenvalues or natural frequencies.. β2 = .... . according to 3.. In the case of free vibrations of the shaft. 2..46) ωn = β n l For each of this natural frequencies the set of equations 3.. 2.39 one can compute the natural frequencies to be p β n = ωn G s s G nπ G = n = 1. Since β n and l are always positive. only positive roots of the above equation has the physical meaning π 2π nπ β1 = . in the case considered is nπ Yn (z) = sin β n z = sin z n = 1.36..∞ (3.∞ (3.. let us consider the ﬁxed on both ends shaft (last row of the above Table).36.41)
¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ 0 1 Sn 0 (3..40)
Introduction of this boundary conditions into the solution 3. 2. according to the ﬁrst equation of the set 3..43) ¯ sin β n l cos β n l ¯ = 0 Hence.

48) (3. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 I ¯ − λ2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ´ ¯l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJI (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiI (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 (3.2
0.8
z
1
-0.5
z l=1
-1
Figure 5 Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z).50) j
0 0
The second integrals can be integrated by parts.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
172
1 ϕ (z)
0.51) j
0 0
Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields Z ³¡ ¡ 2 ¢¯l ¡ I ¢¯ ´ ¢ l 2 2 I ¯ − YJ (z)Yi (z) ¯l = 0 ωi − ωj Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ 0
0
(3.6
0.52)
.33 −ω 2 Y (z) − λ2 Y II (z) = 0 n Hence −ω 2 Yi (z) − λ2 YiII (z) = 0 i 2 −ω j Yj (z) − λ2 YjII (z) = 0 (3.49 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 ωi Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiII (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjII (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.5
0
0.4
0. Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3.49)
Premultiplying the equation 3.48 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.

56)
Since the equation 3.∞ (3.. y(z.. t) = Yn (z) cos ωn t n = 1.31 is of second order with respect to time.59) ∂t To produce the constant Sn and Cn let us introduce the solution 3. 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
173
It is easy to show that for any boundary conditions the second expression is equal to zero ¡ I ¢¯l ¡ ¢¯l Yi (z)Yj (z) ¯0 − YJI (z)Yi (z) ¯0 = YiI (l)Yj (l)−YiI (0)Yj (0)−YJI (l)Yi (l)+YJI (0)Yi (0) = 0 (3... This operation results in the following two equations.∞ (3. 2. 2. 0) = V0 (z) (3.31 can be adopted in the following form y(z.58)
This solution has to fulﬁll the initial conditions.31 eventually may be adopted in the following form.60)
.57)
Hence. yn (z. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3..54)
0
The above property of the eigenfunctions is called orthogonality condition. Z
l
Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0
(3... yn (z.58 into the above initial conditions. 3. 0) = Y0 (z) y(z. t) =
∞ X n=1
Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t + Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t
(3. ∂ y(z. Y0 (z) = V0 (z) =
∞ X n=1 ∞ X n=1
Cn Yn (z) Sn ωn Yn (z) (3. It the same manner as it was done in the previous section one may prove that the following functions form the required linearly independent set of solution.53) Hence.55) At this stage of consideration the function Y (z) is known and we are able to produce inﬁnite number of such particular solutions. the general solution of the equation 3. t) = Yn (z) sin ωn t n = 1. The initial conditions determine the initial position Y0 (z) and the initial velocity V0 (z) of the system considered for the time t equal to zero.32 one of the particular solution of the equation 3. to fulﬁll initial conditions we need second set of linearly independent solution. General solution of the homogeneous equation According to 3..

a function of two variables.2 Free vibrations of beams For the uniform beam the equation of motion was derived to be
∂ 2 y(z. t) + λ2 =0 (3.2.64) ∂t2 ∂z 4 This equation can be classiﬁed as linear partial diﬀerential equation of two variables ( z and t ) with constant coeﬃcients ( λ2 ).64.47. ∂ 2 y(z. The general solution. t) (3. is sum of the general solution of the homogeneous equation and the particular solution of the non-homogeneous equation. t) ∂ 4 y(z.64 describes the free vibration of the beam due to a non-zero initial conditions.61)
0
3. t) + λ2 = q(z. If the external excitation q(z.62) Sn = Rl 2 ωn Yn (z)dz
0
n=1 ∞ X n=1
0
Sn ω n
Z
l
Yn (z)Ym (z)dz
(3.natural frequencies and natural modes Similarly to the analysis of strings and shafts. t) ∂ 4 y(z. the equation 3. y(z. t) = 0. The free vibrations (natural vibrations) are governed by the homogeneous equation of 3. according to 3.54 the wanted constants Sn and Cn are Rl Y0 (z)Yn (z)dz Cn = 0 R l Y 2 (z)dz 0 n Rl 1 0 V0 (z)Yn (z)dz (3. take form Rl Y (z) sin nπ zdz 0 0 Cn = R l ¡ ¢l2 nπ sin l z dz 0 Rl 1 0 V0 (z) sin nπ zdz Sn = (3. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
174
To determine the unknown constants Sn and Cn . let us multiply the above equations by Ym (z) and then integrate them side by side Z l ∞ X Z l Y0 (z)Ym (z)dz = Cn Yn (z)Ym (z)dz
0
Z
l
V0 (z)Ym (z)dz =
0
For the example considered in the previous section the above formulae.65) ∂t2 ∂z 4 Boundary conditions .66)
. Its order with respect to time is 2 and with respect to z is equal to 4.63) ¢l R ¡ ω n l sin nπ z 2 dz
0 l
Taking advantage of the developed orthogonality conditions 3. let us predict the solution of the above equation in the form of a product of two functions. One of them is a function of the position z and the other is the function of time t.

69) (3.66 into equation 3. 6. one can choose their combinations as the set of the independent solutions eβ n z − e−β n z eβ n z + e−β n z = sinh β n z Y2 (z) = = cosh β n z Y1 (z) = 2 2 eiβ n z − e−iβ n z eiβ n z + e−iβ n z Y3 (z) = = sin β n z Y2 (z) = = cos β n z (3.67)
ω2 Aρ 2 n ω 2 = EJ n λ The standard form of its particular solution is Y (z) = erz r4 = β 4 n Its roots r1 = β n Y1 (z) = eβ n z determine the set of the linearly independent particular solution.72) (3.70) (3.68 yields the characteristic equation
Alternatively.71) (3.73)
Introduction of this solution into the equation 3. Y2 (z) = e−β n z Y3 (z) = eiβ n z Y1 (z) = e−iβ n z r2 = −β n r3 = iβ n r2 = −iβ n
(3.68) (3.74) 2 2 A graphical interpretation of these functions for β n = 1 is given in Fig.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
175
Introduction of the predicted solution 3.65 yields the following ordinary diﬀerential equation −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n or where Y IV (z) − β 4 Y (z) = 0 n β4 = n (3.
4 Y (z) 1 Y (z) 2 2 Y (z) 3 Y (z) 4 -4 -2 0 2 4 z
-2
-4
Figure 6
.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
176
The general solution of the equation 3. They involve the function Y (z) and its ﬁrst three derivatives with respect to z.77) II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n (3.2.75) Values for the parameter β n as well as for the constants An . Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3. Table 3. as a linear combination of these particular solutions is Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z (3.79)
The boundary conditions for some cases of beams are shown in Table 3. Cn and Dn should be chosen to fulﬁll boundary conditions.2
O l Y z
free-free beam
O l Y z
for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for for
z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z
=0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l =0 =0 =l =l
M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 Y I (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0 Y (0) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 Y (l) = 0 Y I (l) = 0 M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = −kY (0) M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = +kY (l)
ﬁxed-free beam
O l Y z
pined-ﬁxed beam
O k l Y k z
elasticaly supported beam
. Since this equation is of fourth order.68. one has to produce four boundary conditions reﬂecting the conditions at both ends of the beam.78) I Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z = Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.76)
I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z (3. Bn .

.81) n n n n 0 Dn β 3 cosh β n l β 3 sinh β n l −β 3 cos β n l β 3 sin β n l n n n n
As one can see from the diagram 7. Therefore. this root is associated with the possible translation and rotation of the beam as a rigid body. takes the following form cosh β n l cos β n l − 1 = 0 (3.. it is possible to choose arbitrarily one of the constants (for example An ) and the other can be obtained from three arbitrarily chosen equations 3. since its characteristic determinant is zero. This condition forms the characteristic equation ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ 1 0 −1 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 ¯ 0 −1 0 ¯ ¯ (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
177
Let us take advantage of the boundary conditions corresponding to the freefree beam in order to determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes.83) This characteristic equation is transcendental and therefore has inﬁnite number of roots. becomes linearly dependant. (3.81.78 and 3.79 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the constants An . Since the beam considered is free-free in space. Modes corresponding to the non-zero roots can be produced according to the following procedure..84)
Introduction of the functions 3. If we take advantage of the second. for for for for z z z z =0 =0 =l =l M(0) = EJY II (0) = 0 V (0) = EJY III (0) = 0 M(l) = EJY II (l) = 0 V (l) = EJY III (l) = 0
(3. For any root of the characteristic equation the set of equations 3..80)
They have a non-zero solution if and only if their characteristic determinant is equal to zero. third and fourth equation we are getting ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = − ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ An sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn ⎡
(3.73 β 2 l = 7. Bn .82) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ cosh β n l sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l ¯ that.. Cn and Dn .85)
. within a limited range of the parameter β n l is shown in Fig. ⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ 0 β2 0 −β 2 0 An n n 3 ⎢ β3 ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ 0 −β n 0 ⎢ n ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ β 2 sinh β n l β 2 cosh β n l −β 2 sin β n l −β 2 cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ (3. 7 The ﬁrst few roots are β 0 l = 0 β 1 l = 4. the characteristic equation has double root of zero magnitude..85 β 3 l = 11. These two modes..81. corresponding to the zero root are shown in Fig. after simpliﬁcation. Solution of this equation. 8a) and b)..

73 − cos 4.73 − cos 4.87) Hence.90)
. taking into account the predicted solution 3.73z + 1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
178
20 cosh βn l cosβn l -1=0 10
β0 l
0
β1 l
5
β2 l
β3 l
10 15
βn l
-10
-20
Figure 7 Hence. s s EJ (β n l)2 EJ ωn = β 2 = (3. C1 and D1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ B1 1 0 −1 0 1.73z + 1. In the same manner one can produce modes for all the other characteristic roots.73 1.69 allows the natural frequencies to be computed.73 D1 sinh 4.0 sinh 4. according to Eq. the particular solution is y(z.73z (3.85 and β 3 l = 11 are shown in Fig.0177 cos 4. for An = −1 we have ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎤ Bn 0 −1 0 1 ⎣ Cn ⎦ = ⎣ cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l ⎦ sinh β n l − cos β n l sin β n l cosh β n l Dn
(3.73 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.017 8 ⎣ C1 ⎦ = ⎣ cosh 4.0178 cosh 4.73 sin 4.86)
For the ﬁrst non-zero root β 1 l = 4.89) n Aρ l2 Aρ Eventually.73 the above set of equations yields values for constants B1 . the corresponding mode.66. 3.73 ⎦ ⎣ sinh 4. 8c). The formula 3. Modes for β 2 l = 7.73 − sin 4. 8d) and e) respectively. t) = Sn Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.0 ⎦ cosh 4.88) Its graphical representation is shown in Fig.75 is Y1 (z) = −1.0 sin 4.73z − 1.0177 (3.

4
z
0.6
0.2
0.8
1
2 1
Y3 (z)
e)
0 -1 -2
0.8 1
0 -1 -2 2 1 Y0 (z)
z
b)
0 -1 -2 2
0.4 0.8 1
z
d)
0 -1 -2
0.6 0.6 0.6
0.8
1
c)
1 Y (z) 1 0 -1 -2 2 1 Y2 (z) 0.4 0.2
0.4
z
0.6
0.4
z
0.2 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
179
2 Y0 (z) 1
a)
0.8
1
Figure 8
.2
0.2 0.

73z (3.93) Y2 (z) = ..92)
n=1
Y1 (z) = −1. In the same manner we can show that the function y(z.0 sin 4.... Orthogonality of the natural modes Let us consider two arbitrarily chosen natural modes Yi (z) and Yj (z)......... The constants Sn and Cn should be chosen to fulﬁll the initial conditions.0 sinh 4..0178 cosh 4.73z − 1...95 by Yi (z) and then integrating them side by side one can get Z l Z l 2 2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ YiIV (z)Yj (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l −ω 2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YjIV (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.94) (3.....94 by Yj (z) and the equation 3.....73z + 1. t) = Cn Yn (z) cos ω n t (3..73z + 1...0177 cos 4. ..67 −ω 2 Y (z) + λ2 Y IV (z) = 0 n Hence −ω2 Yi (z) + λ2 YiIV (z) = 0 i −ω 2 Yj (z) + λ2 YjIV (z) = 0 j (3..95)
Premultiplying the equation 3...ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
180
where Yn (z) and ωn are uniquely determined and Sn is an arbitrarily chosen constant.91)
where
is the linearly independent particular solution too.65....97)
........ Both of them must fulﬁll the equation 3. It follows that the following linear combination n=∞ X Yn (z) (Sn sin ωn t + Cn cos ω n t) (3. Hence Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ 2 2 III ¯ − λ2 −ω i Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 0 0 Z l Z l ³ ¯l ´ −ω2 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz + λ2 YJIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 − λ2 YiIII (z)YjI (z)dz = 0 j
0 0
(3. is the general solution of the equation 3.96) j
0 0
The second integrals can be integrated by parts.

Hence.101)
0
The above property of the natural modes is called orthogonality condition and play a very important role in further development of the theory of vibrations.
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
181
Let us apply the same procedure to the last integral again ³ ¯l ´ Rl −ω 2 0 Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + i ³ ¯l ´ Rl −λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 −ω j R 2 l ¯l ´ Yi (z)Yj (z)dz + λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯0 + 0 ³ ¯l ´ Rl 2 II I −λ Yj (z)Yi (z)¯0 + λ2 0 YiII (z)YjII (z)dz = 0 ³
(3. It is easy to show that for any possible boundary conditions this expression is equal to zero. Z l Yj (z)Yi (z)dz = 0 (3.99)
The expression ³ ³ ³ ¯l ´ 2 ³ II ¯´ ¯´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ +λ Yi (z)YjI (z)¯l +λ2 YjIII (z)Yi (z)¯l −λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l −λ Yi (z)Yj (z) 0 0 0 0 (3.98)
Substraction of the second equation from the ﬁrst one yields ¢Rl ¡ 2 ω i − ω 2 0 Yj (z)Yi (z)dz+ ´ j ³ ³ ¯l ¯l ´ −λ2 YiIII (z)Yj (z)¯0 + λ2 YiII (z)YjI (z)¯0 ³ ³ ¯l ´ ¯´ 2 III ¯ − λ2 YjII (z)YiI (z)¯l = 0 +λ Yj (z)Yi (z) 0 0
(3.100) depends exclusively on boundary conditions.

J1 G2. ρ1.
. A2. ρ2.3 Problems Problem 41
G1.2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
182
3. A1. J2 z l1 l2
Figure 9 For the shaft shown in Fig. 9 produce equation for its natural frequencies.

102) motion of the system.105)
(3.110) (3.111)
ωn ωn β n2 = (3.112) λ1 λ2 These two equations are coupled together by the following boundary conditions for for for for z z z z = = = = 0 l1 l1 l1 + l2 Φ1 (0) = 0 Φ1 (l1 ) = Φ2 (l1 ) G1 J1 ΦI (l1 ) = G2 J2 ΦI (l1 ) 1 2 ΦI (l1 + l2 ) = 0 2
(3. t) − λ2 =0 1 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 1 Similarly. Therefore the particular solution of the above equations must be of the following form ϕ1 (z. according to 3. t) ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z. is governed by the following equation ∂ 2 ϕ1 (z. according to 3.19.106)
where λ2 = 2
G2
2
(3.109)
Introduction of these solutions into the equations of motion yields.103)
G1
1
(3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2
(3.108) (3. ΦII (z) + β 2 Φ1 (z) = 0 1 n1 II Φ2 (z) + β 2 Φ2 (z) = 0 n2 where β n1 = (3.104)
(3.107)
Both parts of the shaft must have the same natural frequencies. t) = Φ2 (z) sin ω n t (3.34. The second and the third condition represent the continuity of the angular
. t) 2 ∂ ϕ2 (z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
183
Solution For 0 < z < l1 (3.113)
The ﬁrst boundary condition reﬂects the fact that the left hand end of the shaft is ﬁxed. one may say that within range l1 < z < l1 + l2 motion of the shaft is governed by
2 ∂ 2 ϕ2 (z. t) = Φ1 (z) sin ω n t ϕ2 (z.

117)
where ⎡
(3.115)
(3. Since the general solution of equation 3.118) Solution of this equation for the roots ω n yields the wanted natural frequencies of the shaft. The last condition says that the torque at the free end is zero. ¯ ¯ 0 1 ¯ ¯ sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 ¯ ¯ 0 0
0 ⎢ sin ωn l1 λ1 [A] = ⎢ ⎣ G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 0
the non-zero solutions if and only if its char0 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ2 λ2 ωn cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 0 − cos ωn l2 λ2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯= 0 ¯ ¯ ¯
⎤ 0 ⎥ − cos ωn l2 λ2 ⎥ ωn ωn G2 J2 λ2 sin λ2 l1 ⎦ − ωn sin ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
184
displacement and continuity of the torque.111are ωn ωn z + Cn1 cos z λ1 λ1 ωn ωn Φ2 (z) = Sn2 sin z + Cn2 cos z λ2 λ2 Φ1 (z) = Sn1 sin the formulated boundary conditions results in the following set of equations Cn1 = 0 Sn1 sin ωn l1 + Cn1 cos ωn l1 − Sn2 sin ωn l2 − Cn2 cos ωn l2 = 0 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 Sn1 G1 J1 ωn cos ωn l1 − Cn1 G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 + λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 −Sn2 G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 + Cn2 G2 J2 ωn sin ωn l1 = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 +Sn2 ωn cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) − Cn2 ωn sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) = 0 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 Its matrix for is ⎤ Sn1 ⎢ C ⎥ [A] ⎢ n1 ⎥ = 0 ⎣ Sn2 ⎦ Cn2 1 0 ωn cos λ1 l1 − sin ωn l2 λ2 −G1 J1 ωn sin ωn l1 −G2 J2 ωn cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ2 λ2 ωn 0 cos ωn (l1 +l2 ) λ2 λ2 ⎡ (3.114) (3.
This homogeneous set of equations has acteristic determinant is equal to zero.116)
(3.110 and 3.

shown in Fig. Compute the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of this assembly. is connected to the block 2 of mass m.A . 10.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
185
Problem 42
1 E.
.ρ l 2 m
z
Figure 10 The uniform rod 1 .

121)
or.120)
To produce the boundary conditions let us consider the block 2 with the adjusted inﬁnitesimal element (see Fig. t) ¯ ¯ = −AE ∂y(z.t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯ = −AE ∂z ¯
z=l
(3.123)
(3. t) = ¯ 0 ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. t) = Y (z) sin ω n t
(3.125)
. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = E (3. t) = 0 forms boundary conditions for the equation 3. ( y(0. t) ∂t2 (3.12.8 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. t) = −F (l. taking advantage of the relationship 3.119)
(3. 3. is m ∂ 2 y(l.32) y(z. according to Eq. 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
186
Solution The equation of motion of the rod.
l F(l.119. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 11).t)
m z
Figure 11 Equation of motion of the block. is ∂ 2 y(z.122)
This equation together with the condition corresponding to the upper end of the rod (3.124)
z=l
Introduction of the particular solution (see Eq. according to the Newton’s law. t) ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=l ∂z ¯z=l y(0.t) y y(l.t) ¯ ∂y(z.

36.0 n f (ωn ) = tan =0 − 5188.127) βn = ωn λ (3.129) or ¢ ¡ 2 mω n sin β n z − AEβ n cos β n z Sn = 0 mω 2 sin n or after simpliﬁcation tan ωn AE l− =0 λ λωn m (3.mass of the rod m = 20kg . is Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z (3.132) ωn ωn ωn z − AE cos z = 0 λ λ λ (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
187
into the equation of motion 3. n with boundary conditions ½ Y (0) = 0 mω2 Y (l) − AEY I (l) = 0 n (3.126)
The general solution of the equation 3.131)
For the following numerical data l = 1m E = 2.1 × 1011 N/m2 A = 25 × 10−4 m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 q λ = E = 5188.119 and the boundary conditions 3.124 yields the ordinary diﬀerential equation Y II (z) + β 2 Y (z) = 0.7 ωn Its solution f (ω = 0 is shown in Fig. after taking advantage of 3.130)
Hence.126.
(3. the characteristic equation. is (3.126.7m/s ρ mr = A × l × ρ = 19.5kg .128)
Introduction of this solution into boundary conditions yields ½ Cn = 0 mω2 (Sn sin β n z + Cn cos β n z) − AE (Sn β n cos β n z − Cn β n sin β n z) = 0 n (3.133)
. according to 3.mass of the block the characteristic equation takes the following form ³ ω ´ 5059. 12.

If we neglect the mass of the rod.134)
The corresponding natural modes. 13.5
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
ωn
-0.7 Y3 (z) = sin 33400 z 5188. according to 3. ω1 = 33400 s−1 (3.
. are Yn (z) = Sn sin β n z = Sn sin ωn ωn z = Sn sin z λ 5188. 14 and 15 respectively.5
-1
Figure 12 The ﬁrst three natural frequencies.7 (3.128. the system becomes of one degree of freedom and its the only one natural frequency is r r r k EA 2.7 (3. according to the diagram 12 are ω1 = 4400.136)
are presented in Fig.1 × 1011 × 25 × 10−4 ω1 = (3.7 Y2 (z) = sin 17720 z 5188.135)
For the ﬁrst three natural frequencies the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = sin 4400 z 5188.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
188
1 f( ω n ) 0. ω 2 = 17720.137) = = = 5123s−1 m lm 20 and the corresponding mode is a straight line.

5
0 -0.5
0 -0.6
0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
189
1 Y (z)
1
0.6
0.5
0.8
1
-1
Figure 15
.2
0.5
0 -0.5
0.2
0.6
0.8
1
-1
Figure 14
1 Y3 (z) 0.8
1
-1
Figure 13
1
Y2 (z)
0.4
z
0.2
0.4
z
0.4
z
0.5
0.

16
O z k l y
Figure 16
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
190
Problem 43 Produce natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxedelastically supported beam shown in Fig.

t)| z=l k l k y(z. t)|z=l = E(z)J(z) (3. t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. t)| V (z.139) (3. t) ¯ ¯ =0 M(z.65.143) z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ∂z ∂z ∂z z=l z=l Yn (z)|z=0 = 0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 = 0 ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = 0
Introduction of the solution 3.141)
The right hand end. t) ¯ = ky(z. t)|z=l = (3.138)
the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3. is shown in Fig. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z. Equilibrium
O M(z. y(z.t)| z=l V(z.139 into the above boundary conditions yields
¯ III α Yn (z)¯z=l − Yn (z)|z=l = 0
(3.144)
. t) ¯ ¯ = ∂ EJ ∂ y(z. forms the boundary conditions associated with the right hand end ¯ ∂ 2 y(z. Hence. the equation of motion of the beam is ∂ 2 y(z.140) (3.t)|z=l y dz z z
Figure 17 conditions for the element dz which have to be fulﬁll for any instant of time.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
191
Solution According to the equation 3. with the forces acting on it. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. t) ∂ 4 y(z. 17.142) ∂z 2 ¯z=l ¯ ¯ 2 ¯ ∂M(z.

Bn .69) ω2 Aρ 2 n (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
192
EJ (3.76 to 3.144 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An . Cn and Dn . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 (3.147) ω 2 = EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3. β4 = n Bn + Dn = 0 An + Cn = 0 2 2 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β n cosh β n l − Cn β n sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l = 0 n An β 3 α cosh β n l + Bn β 3 α sinh β n l − Cn β 3 α cos β n l + Dn β 3 α sin β n l n n n n −(An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l) = 0 (3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are α= Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z
II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.150) sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ¯ ¯ 3 3 3 3 ¯ β α cosh β l β n α sinh β n l −β n α cos β n l β n α sin β n l ¯ n n ¯ ¯ ¯ − sinh β l ¯ − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l n
. 3.148) The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎢ sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎢ ⎣ β 3 α cosh β n l β 3 α sinh β n l −β 3 α cos β n l β 3 α sin β n l n n n n − sinh β n l − cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l ⎤
⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎥ An ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Bn ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ Cn ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Dn
(3.145) k According to the equations 3.146) I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z
where
where (see Eq.149)
⎤ 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎦ 0
The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
193
For the following data E = 2.18
200
100
0
2
4
6
8
β
n
-100
-200
Figure 18 From this diagram the ﬁrst three roots are β 1 = 2.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.152)
.0525β 3 sin β n n − cos β n
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
(3.01 = 2.0525β 3 cosh β .0525 k the characteristic equation takes form ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ sinh β n cosh β n − sin β n ¯ 3 ¯ .0525β 3 cos β n n n n ¯ ¯ − sinh β n − cosh β n − sin β n
1 0 − cos β n .03 × 0.0525β n sinh β n −.147 β4 = n Aρ 2 ω EJ n
(3.03×0.0003m2 3 J = 0.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.1×10 10000 = 0.01 = 0.942m−1 β 2 = 4.888m−1 The relationship 3.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.884m−1 β 3 = 7.151)
Solution of this equation for its roots β n is presented in Fig.

0s−1 ω2 = Aρ
(3.0 sinh 7. 19
.6s−1 Aρ s β 4 EJ 2 = 357.883 1.888z − 1.884z − 1.02 sinh 4. The three remaining equations allow the constants An .02 −1.155)
(3.0 ⎦ . Hence one of the unknown constants can be chosen arbitrarily (e.02 1.883 sinh 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
194
oﬀers values for the wanted natural frequencies s β 4 EJ 1 ω1 = = 129.942z Y2 (z) = 1.0 sin 7.888z (3.942z + 1 cos 2. and Cn to be computed.158)
The graphical interpretation of these natural modes is given in Fig.942z − 1.0
(3.3s−1 ω2 = Aρ s β 4 EJ 3 = 932.0 ⎦ .883 sin 2. Bn .884z + 1 cos 4.888z − 1.883 −1.g.02 sin 4.0 cosh 4.157)
Introducing them into the ﬁrst function of 3.156)
For the ﬁrst three roots the numerical values of these constants are ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ A1 .884z Y3 (z) = 1.154) ⎣ Cn ⎦ 0 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l − cos β n l 1 ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 ⎣ ⎦⎣ 1 0 1 sinh β n l cosh β n l − sin β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 1 An ⎣ Bn ⎦ = − ⎣ 1 0 Cn sinh β n l cosh β n l ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ An 1 ⎦=⎣ Bn ⎦ + ⎣ 0 − cos β n l Cn ⎤−1 ⎡ 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 − cos β n l − sin β n l ⎤ 0 0 ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎦ (3.0 ⎦ C1 C2 C3 −.884z − 1. ⎣ B2 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.149 becomes linearly dependant.0 cosh 2. Dn = 1) and the last equation can be crossed out.942z − .0 cosh 7.153)
For each of these roots the set of equations 3. we are getting the corresponding natural modes Y1 (z) = . ⎣ B3 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.146 and remembering that Dn = 1. ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ An ⎡ 0 1 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎢ Bn ⎥ = ⎣ 0 ⎦ ⎣ 1 0 1 0 (3.0 A2 A3 ⎣ B1 ⎦ = ⎣ −1.888z + 1 cos 7.

4 z 0.2
Y2 (z)
Y3 (z) 0.6 0.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
195
2
1
Y1 (z) 0.8 1
0 -1 -2
Figure 19
.

20 is ﬁxed. Its right hand end is supported by means of the massless and rigid beam 2 of length L that is connected to two springs each of the stiﬀness k.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
196
Problem 44
ρ . G. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the shaft. Answer: GJo ωn 2 kL2 λ cot ωn l + 1 = 0 where λ2 = G λ ρ
. Jo
1
2
2
z k l L k
Figure 20 The left hand end of the shaft 1 shown in Fig.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
197
Problem 45
2
2
ρ . 21) are joined together by means of the shaft 1 of the length l. Jo
1
z l
Figure 21 Two rigid discs 2 (see Fig. G. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly. Answer: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ βn αn ¯ ¯ ¯ β n cos β n l − αn sin β n l −β n sin β n l − αn cos β n l ¯ = 0 p Iω2 where β n = ω n G αn = GJn o
. The moment of inertia of each disc about the axis z is I.

t) + λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 4 Its particular solution can be sought in the following form y(z. the equation of motion of the beam is (3.161) (3. Produce the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: p λ = EJ sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 β n = ωn λ Aρ ∂ 2 y(z. 22.164)
Introduction of the solution 3. y(z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
198
Problem 46
l. t) ¯ ¯ = 0 ∂z ¯z=0 (3. E. ρ z l y
Figure 22 The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. Hence. y(z. t)|z=0 = 0 ¯ ∂y(z.160)
Solution According to the equation 3. t) = Yn (z) sin ω n t (3.65. Hence. At the left hand end the displacement and gradient of the beam have to be equal to zero. t) ∂ 4 y(z.159)
the above solution has to fulﬁll boundary conditions. t)|z=l = 0 M(z. t) ¯ ¯ = E(z)J(z) ∂z 2 ¯
2
(3.162)
The right hand end The displacement and the bending moment has to be equal to zero.165)
. t)|z=l ¯ ∂ y(z.163) =0
z=l
(3.160 into the above boundary conditions yields Yn (z)|z=0 ¯ I Yn (z)¯z=0 Yn (z)|z=l ¯ II Yn (z)¯z=l = = = = 0 0 0 0
(3. A. J.

β4 n Bn + Dn An + Cn An sinh β n l + Bn cosh β n l + Cn sin β n l + Dn cos β n l 2 An β n sinh β n l + Bn β 2 cosh β n l − Cn β 2 sin β n l − Dn β 2 cos β n l n n n The matrix form of these equations is presented below ⎡ ⎤⎡ 0 1 0 1 ⎢ ⎥⎢ 1 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ⎦ ⎣ sinh β n l cosh β n l -sin β n l -cos β n l = = = = 0 0 0 0 (3.79 the expressions for the natural modes Yn (z) and their derivatives are Yn (z) = An sinh β n z + Bn cosh β n z + Cn sin β n z + Dn cos β n z
I Yn (z) = An β n cosh β n z + Bn β n sinh β n z + Cn β n cos β n z − Dn β n sin β n z
II Yn (z) = An β 2 sinh β n z + Bn β 2 cosh β n z − Cn β 2 sin β n z − Dn β 2 cos β n z n n n n III Yn (z) = An β 3 cosh β n z + Bn β 3 sinh β n z − Cn β 3 cos β n z + Dn β 3 sin β n z n n n n (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
199
According to the equations 3. 3.69) ω2 Aρ 2 ω = n = (3.76 to 3.170) ¯ sinh β n l cosh β n l sin β n l cos β n l ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sinh β l cosh β l − sin β l − cos β l ¯ n n n n β n l sinh β n l cos β n l − sin β n l cosh β n l = 0 where: (3.171)
A development of the above determinant results in the following equation for the unknown parameter β n l
.166)
where (see Eq. Cn and Dn .169)
The non-zero solution of this set of equations exists if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.167) 2 EJ n λ Introduction of the above expressions into the boundary conditions 3. Bn . ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 1 0 1 0 ¯ ¯=0 (3.168) ⎡ ⎤ 0 An ⎢ 0 ⎥ Bn ⎥ = ⎢ ⎣ 0 Cn ⎦ 0 Dn ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3.165 results in the following set of algebraic equations that is linear with respect to the constants An .

172)
.171 allows the natural frequences to be produced ωn = λβ 2 = λ n (β n l)2 EJ = (β l)2 l2 Aρl2 n (3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
200
βn =
The roots β n l of the equation 3.173)
r
ωn λ
λ=
EJ Aρ
(3.

23 is supported by means of the massless spring of stiﬀness k. ρ z l y
Figure 24
. E. J. Problem 48
l. A
l
2
k
z
Figure 23 The uniform rod 1 shown in Fig. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
201
Problem 47
1
ρ . A. E.

the boundary conditions for the equation (1) Answer: for z = 0 (1) Y = 0 (2) Y 00 = 0 0 for z = l (3) Y = 0 (4) Y 000 = 0 2.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
202
The uniform beam is supported as shown in Fig. 24. the equations for the natural frequencies of this beam Answer: cosβl = 0 q EJ where β = 4 Aρω2
. Produce: 1.

∂ 2 ϕ(z. where. G2. 25 are welded to a motionless wall.shear modulus ρ — density Answer: ωn β 1 cot λ1 l+β 2 cot ωn l = 1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
203
Problem 49
1
2
3
z
ρ1 . JO2
Figure 25 The left hand ends of the two shafts (1 and 2) depicted in the Fig. β 1 = λ2 G ρ
JO1 ρ1 Iz
. ρ1
λ2 =
q
G2 ρ2
. λ1 =
q
G1 . This assembly performs the torsional vibration about axis z. their shear modulus G 1 and G 2 and the second polar moment of area J O1 and J O2 respectively. The dynamic properties of the shafts are deﬁned by their density ρ1 and ρ2 . The moment of inertia of the plate about the axis z is I z . The diﬀerential equation of motion of a shaft is. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the assembly described. t) ∂ 2 ϕ(z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = G . β2 =
JO2 ρ2 Iz
. G1. JO1
l
ρ2 . Their right hand ends are welded to the plate 3.

. Produce the equation for the natural frequencies of the system described. At the position deﬁned by the distance a the element 2 is attached.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
204
Problem 50
m
z 1 a l y T 2
Figure 26 The string 1 shown in Fig. This element can be treated as a particle of mass m.26 of length l. density ρ and area of its cross-section A is under the constant tension T.

181)
where ω n stands for the natural frequency that is common for both parts of the string.174)
(3.180) (3.176) (3. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z.177) T Aρ (3. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t (3.t)|z=a
T
T a l T
∂y1 ( z.t)|z=a=y2(z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z.
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
205
Solution
∂y2 ( z.178) (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = Similarly.175) (3.179) (3. t ) | z =a ∂z
z
y
Figure 27 Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0<z<a be ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where T Aρ Solutions of the above equations are of the following form λ2 = y1n (z.t)
y2(z.t)
y1(z. t ) |z = a ∂z
y1(z. in the region a<z<l the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z.

187) (3.189) (3.186) (3.185)
Introduction of the solutions 3. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β n a cos β n a − sin β n a − cos β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ −mω2 sin β n a + ¯=0 −mω 2 sin β n a + n n ¯ −T β n cos β n a T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ +T β n cos β n a −T β n sin β n a ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β n l cos β n l ¯ (3. t) ¯ ¯ m ∂t2 ¯z=a y2n (z.178 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n where ω2 Aρω 2 n n = 2 T λ The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows β2 = n Y1n (z) = S1n sin β n z + C1n cos β n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β n z + C2n cos β n z Introduction of the solutions 3.181 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=a = Y2n (z) |z=a ¯ ¯ 0 ¯ −mω 2 Y1n (z)¯z=a = −T Y1n (z)¯ n Y2n (z) |z=l = 0 (3.189 and 3.193) (3. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ = −T +T ∂z ¯z=a ∂z ¯z=a = 0 (3. t) |z=a ¯ ¯ ∂y1 (z.180 into the conditions 3.195) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.188)
(3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
206
These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0.191) (3. t) |z=0 y1n (z.194)
00
(3.192) (3. They are y1n (z.181 into the equations 3.190 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β n a) S1n + (cos β n a) C1n − (sin β n a) S2n − (cos β n a) C2n = 0 (−mω 2 sin β n a + T β n cos β n a) S1n + (−mω2 sin β n a − T β n sin β n a) C1n + n n − (T β n cos β n a) S2n + (T β n sin β n a) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β n l) S2n + (cos β n l) C2n = 0 (3. t) |z=l = 0 = y2n (z.180 and 3. t) ¯ ∂y2 (z.175 and 3.183) (3.182) (3.184) (3.196)
¯ 0 ¯ + T Y2n (z)¯
z=a
. t) |z=a ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z.190)
z=a
Introduction of the solutions 3. z = l) and compatibility conditions at z = a.

188 allow the natural frequencies to be produced s T ωn = β n Aρ
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
207
Roots β n of the above equation. with help of the relationship 3.

A1 ρ2. Produce the natural frequencies of the system described and the corresponding natural modes
.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
208
Problem 51
ρ1. A2
1 l1 y
2 l2 T
z
Figure 28 Two strings of length l1 and l2 are loaded with tension T . Their dynamic properties are determined by the density and the area of their cross-section A.

200) (3. t) = Y2n (z) sin ω n t
(3. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) ¯ ¯ ¯ dm = −T ∂t2 ¯ ∂z ¯
z=l1
z=l1
y2n (z. t) ¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z. t) = Y1n (z) sin ω n t y2n (z. t) ¯ ¯ +T ∂z ¯z=l1
(3. t) |z=l1 = y2n (z. t) |z=0 = 0 y1n (z. t) ∂ 2 y1 (z. Since dm stands for an inﬁnitesimal mass of this element.205)
y2n (z. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 T A1 ρ1 (3. t) − λ2 =0 ∂t2 ∂z 2 where λ2 = 2 T A2 ρ2 (3.197)
(3. t) ∂ 2 y2 (z.201) (3.203)
These solutions must fulﬁl boundary conditions (z = 0. the above conditions can rewritten as follows y1n (z.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
209
Solution Let the diﬀerential equation of motion of the uniform string in the region 0 < z < l1 be ∂ 2 y1 (z. They are y1n (z.199)
Solutions of the above equations are of the following form y1n (z. z = l1 + l2 ) and compatibility conditions at z = l1 .204)
The third condition we are getting by application of the Newton law to the element of the string associated with z = l1 . t) |z=l1 +l2
= 0
¯ ∂y2 (z. in the region l1 < z < l1 + l2 the equation of motion is ∂ 2 y2 (z.198)
where λ2 = 1 Similarly. t) ¯ ¯ + = 0 ∂z ¯
z=l1
¯ ∂y1 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2
= 0
. t) ¯ ¯ − ∂z ¯z=l1
(3.202) (3. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ¯ ∂ 2 y1 (z. t) |z=l1 +l2 ¯ ∂y2 (z.

207)
(3.
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯=0 ¯ ¯ ¯
(3.206) (3. The solution is presented for the following set of numerical data.208)
The general solution of these equations can be predicted as follows Y1n (z) = S1n sin β 1n z + C1n cos β 1n z Y2n (z) = S2n sin β 2n z + C2n cos β 2n z Introduction of the solutions 3.210)
¯ ¯ −Y1n (z)¯
0
z=l1
(3.205 yields Y1n (z) |z=0 = 0 Y1n (z) |z=l1 = Y2n (z) |z=l1 ¯ 0 ¯ + Y2n (z)¯ = 0
z=l1
(3.212) This set of equations possesses non-trivial solutions if and only if its characteristic determinant is equal to zero.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
210
Introduction of the solutions 3.211)
Y2n (z) |z=l1 +l2
= 0
Introduction of the solutions 3.208 into the above equation we haveβ 1n = ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 sin ωn l1 cos ωn l1 λ1 λ1 ωn cos ωn l1 − ωn sin ωn l1 λ1 λ1 λ1 λ1 0 0
ωn λ2
0 0 ωn − sin λ2 l1 − cos ωn l1 λ2 − ωn cos ωn l1 + ωn sin ωn l1 λ2 λ2 λ2 λ2 sin ωn (l1 + l2 ) cos ωn (l1 + l2 ) λ2 λ2
Now. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 1 0 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ sin β 1n l1 cos β 1n l1 − sin β 2n l1 − cos β 2n l1 ¯ ¯ ¯ (3.198 and 3. = 2 T λ1 β2 = 2n ω2 A2 ρ2 ω 2 n n = 2 T λ2
00
(3.210 into the conditions above one can get the following set of homogeneous linear equations (0) S1n + (1) C1n + (0) S2n + (0) C2n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n + (cos β 1n l1 ) C1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 1n sin β 1n l1 ) C1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (0) C1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.209 and 3.201 results in the following set of diﬀerential equations Y1n (z) + β 2 Y1n (z) = 0 n1 00 Y2n (z) + β 2 Y2n (z) = 0 n2 where β2 = 1n ω2 A1 ρ1 ω 2 n n . the equation can be solved for the natural frequencies of the string.203 into the conditions 3.209) (3.203 into the equations 3.213) ¯ β 1n cos β 1n l1 −β 1n sin β 1n l1 −β 2n cos β 2n l1 +β 2n sin β 2n l1 ¯ = 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ 0 0 sin β 2n (l1 + l2 ) cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) ¯ Introducing 3.214)
.

5 sin 179 ω n ¢ cos 179 ω n ¢ − sin 253 ω n ¢ − cos 253 ω n ¢ ¯ ¯=0 ¡ . ω3 = 1437.18m/s −6 2·10−6 7800
1 2
¯ ¯ 0 0 ¯ ¢ ¢ ¡ . (.215) The magnitude of the determinant as a function of the frequency ω n is presented in Fig. 29 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¡0 ¡1
10
5
0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
frequency [rad/s] -5
-10
Figure 29 It allows the natural frequencies to be determined. From the ﬁrst equation one can see that the constant C1n must be equal to zero C1n = 0 (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n − (cos β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (β 1n cos β 1n l1 ) S1n − (β 2n cos β 2n l1 ) S2n + (β 2n sin β 2n l1 ) C2n = 0 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n + (cos β 2n (l1 + l2 )) C2n = 0 (3.5 ¡ . T = 500N. ω2 = 920. C2n can be computed from the homogeneous set of linear equations 3. ω 4 = 1861. They are ω 1 = 483.5m.5 ¡ .5 1 1 cos 179 ωn − 179 sin 179 ω n −¡ 1 cos 253 ωn ¢ +¡1 sin 253 ωn ¢ ¯ 179 253 253 ¯ 1 1 0 0 sin 253.5 + 1. A1 = 2 · 10−6 m2 .5 .5 ¢ ¡ . S2n .5 ¢ . 1 = 2 = 7800kg/m3 .03m/s.)ω n ¯ (3. A2 = 1 · 10−6 m2 .217)
. q q q q T 500 T λ1 = A1 ρ = 179. ω5 = 2344[rad/s] (3. λ2 = A2 ρ = 1·105007800 = 253.216)
The so far unknown constants S1n .212.)ω n cos 253 (.m.5 ¡ .5 + 1. l2 = 1.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
211
l1 = . C1n .

63·0.675·0.907·1. β 11 =
ω1 483 483 1 = 179.026
23 1 2 = 0. Hence let us crossed out the second equation and assume C2n = 1. C2n = 1 The set of equations for determination of the remaining constants S1n and S2n is (sin β 1n l1 ) S1n − (sin β 2n l1 ) S2n = cos β 2n l1 (0) S1n + (sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )) S2n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) Hence S2n = S1n = − cos β 2n (l1 + l2 ) sin β 2n (l1 + l2 )
β (l1 +l2 ) cos β 2n l1 − (sin β 2n l1 ) cos β 2n(l1 +l2 ) sin
2n
(sin β 1n l1 )
For n = 1.48 sin 2.907·1.15 S12 = (sin β 12 l1 ) (sin 5.907·0.675·1.5 < z < 1.899 sin 3.675·1.697z Y21 (z) = S21 sin β 21 z + 1 cos β 21 z = 3.ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
212
Since the equations is linearly dependent for roots of its characteristic determinant.675·1.18 = 1. β 13 =
ω3 1437 = 179.5 22 1 2 = = 1. β 12 =
ω2 920 920 2 = 179.15 sin 5.63z + 1 cos 3.5) cos 5.13 β 22 = ω2 = 253.773 sin 5.18 = 5.67z f or 0.675·0. 30
.63·1.03 = 5.5 sin = (sin 8.697 β 21 = ω2 = 253.026z for 0 < z < 0.5 < z < 1.5−(sin 5.46 sin 1.13z Y22 (z) = S22 sin β 22 z + 1 cos β 22 z = 0.026·0.67 λ2 5.899 22 for 0 < z < 0.697·0.5) − cos β 21 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 1.5
n=3 ω3 = 1437.907·0.5−(sin 3.48 S11 = (sin β 11 l1 ) (sin 2.907·1.5 Y11 (z) = S11 sin β 11 z = 3.5
sin 1.03 = 2.5 21 1 2 = = 3. 2. one of them must be crossed out and one of the constant can be assumed arbitrarily.944 S13 = (sin β 13 l1 ) − cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 5.18 = 3.5 S22 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 3.63·1.63·1.5 = 3.5
n=2 ω2 = 920.5−(sin 1.5) cos 1.63z f or0.675·1.46Y11 (z) 21 for 0 < z < 0.5 S23 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 5.5 Y12 (z) = S12 sin β 12 z = 1.5)
β 23 =
A plot of the natural modes is shown in Fig.67z + 1 cos 5.5 = 0.907·1.5 < z < 1.91z + 1 cos 1.13·0.5) cos 3.944 sin 8.5 Y23 (z) = S23 sin β 23 z + 1 cos β 23 z = 0.5 = 0.5 S21 = sin β (l1 +l2 ) = sin 1.63 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 22 l1 −(sin β 22 l1 ) sin β 22(l 1+l 2) cos 3.5 cos 5.63·0.5) − cos β 22 (l1 +l2 ) − cos 3.91 λ1 λ cos β (l +l ) cos β 21 l1 −(sin β 21 l1 ) sin β 21(l 1+l 2) cos 1.5
sin 3.63·1. 3 the constants S1n and S2n are n=1 ω 1 = 483.5
ω3 1437 = 253.91z for 0.03 = λ1 cos β 23 (l1 +l2 ) cos β 23 l1 −(sin β 23 l1 ) sin β (l +l )
8.773 23 Y13 (z) = S13 sin β 13 z = 0.

ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
213
n a tu ra l m o d e s 4
3
2
1
0 0 -1 0 .5
-2 z [m ]
Figure 30
.5 1 1 .

33d) yri = li γ ri = yields GAi (3..... N
yn
ϕy
n
Figure 31 are called Rigid Element Method and Finite Element Method... 32a))The bending and shearing properties of each segment are represented by two springs of stiﬀness kMi and kTi respectively (Fig. In this kTi = Ti li GAi and yei = Ti kTi (3.....3...... number of segments I of constant cross-section (Fig ...b)... 32.. Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Rigid Element Method.218)
Similarly..DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
214
3.. Since: δ ri = the bending stiﬀness is kMi = EJi li (3.221) li The right hand part of the segment li−1 and the left hand part of the subsequent segment li .. 33b) requires equal angular deﬂection ( δri = δ ei ) caused by the same bending moment Mi . the beam is divided into a suﬃcient.... 33c and Fig..219) Mi li 2EJi and δ ei = Mi 2kMi (3.....3
DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
The commercially available computer packages allow to produce stiﬀness and inertia matrix of free in space beam along coordinates yn and ϕyn (see Fig.... Equivalence of both. 31) associated with an arbitrary chosen number N of points... n . 32c).... for necessary accuracy.1 Rigid Elements Method. the equivalence of shearing deﬂections (yri = yei ) caused by the same shearing force Ti (Fig. the actual element (Fig..... Each section is considered rigid and its inertia properties are represented by mass mi and moments of inertia Ii . 3. form a section (Fig....... 33a) and its model (Fig........... These distinguished points n are called nodes....The most popular approaches for creation of the stiﬀness and inertia matrices
1 2 ...220)
......

..
a)
li kT i k Mi l i-1 /2 Gi l i/ 2 mi Ii mi Ii k Mi zli z ri z l i+1 m i+1 I i +1 k Mi+1 z ri+1
b)
c)
k T i -1
...
k Mi-1
z
d)
y
Figure 32
E...
k T i+1
.Ai Ti y ri Ti Ti ye i
a)
c)
δri δe i
2δe i k Mi Mi
Mi
b)
Ti
kT i
d)
Figure 33
..
li
l i+1
...DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
215
l i-1
.....Ji li Mi Mi li
G....

. ˙ 0 0 .. ˙ 0 0 Mi+1. ˙˙ . ˙ 0 0 0 . ˙ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . ˙ 0 K1. ˙˙ .1 . . ˙ MN.. ˙ 0 ..N ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (3..... ˙˙ . ˙ Ki−1.. . .
+kTi−1 zli + kTi zri 2 +kMi−1 + kTi−1 zl2i + kTi zri ¸ +kTi zli+1 −kMi + kTi zli+1 zri ¸ ∙ yi yi = ϕyi
. .i−1 0 ..i 0 ..i = +kTi−1 zli + kTi zri ∙ −kTi Ki. ˙˙ .i+1 ..... . ˙˙ . .. ˙ Mi−1..227) ¸ (3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
216
way a complete symmetry is obtained that gives simple programming for computer analysis.i = 0 Ii
0 .i Ki+1.230) (3.N 0 .. ˙ 0 0 0 . 32d) results in the following equations of motion. ˙ 0 0 .. . ˙ 0 0 ..The coordinates yi .223) (3. . Application of the Lagrange’s equations to the physical model is shown in Fig. ˙˙ .228) ¸ (3..i . . ˙ 0 0 0 . . ˙ KN. ˙ 0 0 .. . .. m¨ + ky = 0 y where: ⎡ M1..i+1 = −kTi zri
∙
−kTi−1 −kTi−1 zri−1 +kTi−1 zli −kMi−1 + kTi−1 zri−1 zli
N =I +1 ¸ ∙ mi 0 Mi. 0 ..225)
(3.. ˙˙ .231 is given in Fig. . . 34.1 .i Ki.i−1 0 0 . ˙ 0 0 0 .. ˙ Ki−1. . ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located at the centre of gravity of the rigid elements.222)
⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ k=⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡
Ki. ˙ 0 Ki.i−1 = ∙ +kTi−1 + kTi Ki..i+1 .229) (3. ˙˙ . . 0 .i−1 Ki.i+1 Ki+1. .224)
(3. ˙ 0 Mi. ˙ 0 ⎡ y1 ⎢ : ⎢ ⎢ yi−1 ⎢ yb = ⎢ yi ⎢ ⎢ yi+1 ⎢ ⎣ : yN
⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦
(3..226) (3.231)
The geometrical interpretation of the vector of coordinates 3.

the shaft is divided into a number of the uniform and ﬂexible elements.3.232)
.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
217
element 1 Oi node 1
element i
element N z
node i yi ϕ
yi
node N
y
Figure 34 Introduction of the external forces If there is a set of forces acting on the rigid element. Introducing notations Fs for the static forces and F(t) for the excitation forces. ϕyi should be added to the mathematical model 3. 36. Inertia and stiﬀness matrix for the free-free beam According to the Finite Elements Method. (3.g. m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y 3. 35This equivalent set of forces along the nodal coordinates
Fi Mi
element i z node i yi ϕ
yi
Oi ai
Fi
y
Figure 35 yi . each of them (e. In a general case these forces can be independent of time (static forces) or they can depend on time (excitation forces). Fi ) can be equivalently replaced by the force Fi applied to the node Oi and the moment Mi = ai · Fi as shown in Fig. The i − th element is shown in Fig. the equation of motion of the free-free beam takes the following form.2 Finite Elements Method.232.

dz ¯z=0 dz ¯z=li The parameters yi1 and yi2 are called nodal displacements and the parameters ϕi1 and ϕi2 are called nodal rotations. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤−1 ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 0 1 yi1 C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ C2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ 6 2 i 1 2 C4 l li 1 0 ϕyi2 2 i ⎤ + li ϕyi1 − 2yi2 + li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ 2 2 (−3yi1 − 2li ϕyi1 + 3yi2 − li ϕyi2 ) ⎥ li ⎥ ⎦ ϕyi1 yi1 (3. Ji . Introduction of solution 3.237)
6 3 (2yi1 li
. second moment of area about the neutral axis. = ϕyi2 (3. and ρi stand for Young modulus.236) ⎦ ⎣ C3 ⎦ ⎣ yi2 ⎦ ⎣ li l li 1 6 2 i 1 2 l li 1 0 C4 ϕyi2 2 i Its solution yields the integration constants Cj . The diﬀerential equation of the statically deﬂected line of the element in the plane yz is d4 y(z) Ei Ji =0 (3.235) y(z)|z=0 = yi1 . 3. 4) must be chosen to fulﬁll the following boundary conditions ¯ ¯ dy(z) ¯ dy(z) ¯ ¯ ¯ = ϕyi1 y(z)|z=li = yi2 .233) dz 4 Integration of the above equation four times yields 1 1 y(z) = C1 z 3 + C2 z 2 + C3 z + C4 6 2 (3.234)
The constants of integration Cj (j = 1. ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤⎡ ⎡ yi1 C1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1 3 102 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ C2 ⎥ = ⎢ ϕyi1 ⎥ (3. The nodes are denoted by numbers 1 and 2. 2.234 into the above boundary conditions results in the following set of algebraic equations linear with respect to the constants Cj . Ai .DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
218
1
z yi1 E i Ji Ai ρi yi2
ϕyi1
li y 2
ϕyi2
Figure 36 In this ﬁgure Ei . area of cross-section and the unit mass of the element.

The following mathematical manipulations are aimed to replace the continues mathematical model of the element considered ∂ 4 y(z.238) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ where: ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 lz + 2 lz ⎪ i ⎪ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ∙³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ H1 ⎪ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 lz + lz ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ li i i H2 li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = {H(z)} = ⎪ H3 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 lz − 2 lz ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ i ∙ ³i´ H4 li ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − lz + lz li i i ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 {y} = ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2
(3.243)
In the above equations ρi stands for the unit mass of the ﬁnite element and [mi ] and [ki ] stands for the inertia and stiﬀness matrix respectively. t) = {H(z)}T {y (t)} (3. H3 . " "µ ¶ µ ¶2 µ ¶2 µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # z z z z z y(z) = 1 − 3 yi1 + li ϕyi1 −2 +2 + li li li li li " µ ¶ " µ ¶ µ ¶3 # µ ¶3 # 2 2 z z z z yi2 + − li ϕyi2 + 3 −2 + li li li li = {H(z)}T {y} (3. t) − ρi =0 ∂z 4 ∂t2 by its discreet representation along the nodal coordinates Ei Ji y [mi ] {¨ (t)} + [ki ] {y (t)} = 0. it is assumed that the motion in the plane yz can be approximated by the following equation.241)
As one can see from the equation 3. H4 (see Eq. These two matrices are going to be developed from the two following criterions:
. If the ﬁnite element performs motion with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz.240)
Functions H1 .238 the deﬂected line of the ﬁnite element is assembled of terms which are linear with respect to the nodal coordinates. 3. t) ∂ 2 y(z. 3. 3.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
219
After introduction of Eq. the dynamic deﬂection line is approximated by the static deﬂection line. (3. The matrix {y} contains the nodal coordinates.239) are known as Hermite cubics or shape functions.241.242)
(3.239)
(3. H2 . It should be noted that this assumption is acceptable only if the considered element is reasonably short. y(z.237 into the equation of the deﬂected line 3.234 one may get it in the following form. As it can be seen from Eq.

The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element is µ ¶2 Z 1 li ∂y(z.DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS
220
1.245)
In the last formula mi stands for mass of the ﬁnite element. t) ρ = dz 2 0 i ∂t ∂t Z ´³ ´ 1 li ³ = ˙ ρi {y (t)}T {H(z)} {H(z)}T {y (t)} dz ˙ 2 0 ∙ Z li ¸ 1 T T = {y (t)} ρi ˙ {H(z)} {H(z)} dz {y (t)} ˙ 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ⎤ ⎞ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎜ ⎢ H2 H1 li 1 H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ˙ = {y (t)}T ⎜ρi ˙ 2 ⎝ ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 2 0 2 2 2 H4 H11 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li (3.244) It is easy to see that the last row of Eq. 2. To take advantage of the second criterion let us produce expression for the
. 3.244 represents kinetic energy function of the discreet physical model along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 with the following matrix of inertia. The potential energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the potential energy of its discreet physical model. t) 1 li ∂y(z. t) T = ρ dz 2 0 i ∂t µ ¶µ ¶ Z ∂y(z. ⎤ 2 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li 2 2 2 ⎢ H2 H1 li H2 li H2 H3 li H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dz = ρi 2 ⎣ H3 H1 H3 H2 li H3 H3 H4 li ⎦ 0 2 2 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li H4 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 9 13 11 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 11 ⎢ l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = ρi li ⎢ 210 i 9 11 13 13 ⎣ li − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡ 13 ⎤ 13 11 9 l − 420 li 35 210 i 70 13 1 2 1 2 ⎢ 11 l l l − 140 li ⎥ 105 i 420 i ⎥ = mi ⎢ 210 i 13 9 11 13 ⎣ l − 210 li ⎦ 70 420 i 35 13 1 2 11 1 2 − 420 li − 140 li − 210 li 105 li ⎡
mi
(3. The kinetic energy of the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element must be equal to the kinetic energy of its discreet physical model.

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

221

potential energy function for the continues physical model of the ﬁnite element. µ 2 ¶2 Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) V = Ei Ji dz 2 0 ∂z 2 µ 2 ¶µ 2 ¶ Z 1 li ∂ y(z, t) ∂ y(z, t) = dz Ei Ji 2 0 ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ! µ ½ 2 ¾¶ Ã½ 2 ¾T Z d H(z) d H(z) 1 li Ei Ji {y (t)}T {y (t)} dz = 2 0 dz 2 dz 2 " ¾½ 2 ¾T # Z li ½ 2 d H(z) d H(z) 1 {y (t)}T Ei Ji dz {y (t)} = 2 dz 2 dz 2 0 ⎛ ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 ⎤ ⎞ 00 00 00 00 00 00 H1 H1 H2 li H1 H3 H1 H4 li Z li ⎜ ⎢ H 00 H 00 li (H 00 )2 l2 H 00 H 00 li H 00 H 00 l2 ⎥ ⎟ 1 T ⎜ i 2 2 3 2 4 i ⎥ dz ⎟ {y (t)} ⎢ 200 100 = {y (t)} ⎝Ei Ji 00 00 00 00 00 ⎣ H H 2 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 H3 H4 li ⎦ ⎠ 0 3 1 00 00 00 00 2 00 00 00 2 H4 H1 li H4 H2 li H4 H3 li (H4 )2 li (3.246) As one can see from Eq. 3.246, to fulﬁll the second criterion, the stiﬀness matrix along the nodal coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 must be as follows. ⎡ ¡ 00 ¢2 H1 Z li ⎢ H 00 H 00 li ⎢ 200 100 = Ei Ji ⎣ H H 0 3 1 00 00 H4 H1 li ⎡ 12 6li 2 Ei Ji ⎢ 6li 4li ⎢ = 3 ⎣ −12 −6l li i 2 6li 2li H1 H2 li H1 H3 00 00 00 2 (H2 )2 li H2 H3 li 00 00 00 H3 H2 li (H3 )2 00 00 2 00 00 H4 H2 li H4 H3 li ⎤ −12 6li 2 −6li 2li ⎥ ⎥ 12 −6li ⎦ 2 −6li 4li

00 00 00 00

ki

⎤ 00 00 H1 H4 li 00 00 2 H2 H4 li ⎥ ⎥ dz 00 00 H3 H4 li ⎦ 00 2 (H4 )2 li (3.247)

Hence, the mathematical model of the element considered can be written as mi yi + ki yi = Ryi ¨ (3.248)

The vector Ri represents the interaction forces between the neighborhood elements. Ryi = £ Ryi1 Rϕyi1 Ryi2 Rϕyi2 ¤T (3.249)

In exactly the same manner one can create mathematical model for the next to the right hand side element of the shaft, say element j. ¨ mj yj + kj yj = Ryj (3.250)

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

222

where: ⎢ mj = mj ⎢ ⎣ kj ⎡

13 35 11 l 210 j 9 70 13 − 420 lj 11 l 210 j 1 2 l 105 j 13 l 420 j 1 2 − 140 lj 9 70 13 l 420 j 13 35 11 − 210 lj

12 6lj −12 6lj 2 2 ⎢ 6lj Ej Aj ⎢ 4lj −6lj 2lj ⎥ ⎥ = 3 lj ⎣ −12 −6lj 12 −6lj ⎦ 2 2 6lj 2lj −6lj 4lj £ ¤T yj = yj1 ϕyj1 yj2 ϕyj2 £ ¤T Ryi = Ryj1 Rϕyj1 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

⎡

⎤ 13 − 420 lj 1 2 − 140 lj ⎥ ⎥ 11 − 210 lj ⎦ 1 2 l 105 j ⎤

(3.251)

(3.252) (3.253)

These two equations of motion (3.248 3.250), associated with the two elements i and j, haveto fulﬁll the compatibility (continuity and equilibrium) conditions. These conditions allow to join those two elements to create one mathematical model representing both elements. In the case considered here, the compatibility conditions between the two elements i and j correspond to the left hand side node of the element i and the right hand side node of the element j. For these nodes the continuity conditions take form ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ yi2 yj1 yij = = (3.254) ϕyi2 ϕyj1 ϕyij and the equilibrium conditions are ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ Ryi2 Ryj1 0 + = Rϕyi2 Rϕyj1 0

(3.255)

They results in the following mathematical model of the joint elements. ¨ mij yij + kij yij = Ryij where: ⎡

13 m 35 i 11 lm 210 i i 9 m 70 i 13 − 420 li mi 11 lm 210 i i 1 2 l mi 105 i 13 lm 420 i i 1 2 − 140 li mi

(3.256)

mij

⎢ ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣

0 0

0 0

⎤ 13 − 420 li mi 0 0 1 2 ⎥ − 140 li mi 0 0 ⎥ 13 11 9 13 (mi + mj ) (−li mi +lj mj ) m − 420 lj mj ⎥ 35 210 70 j ⎥ 11 1 13 1 2 2 2 (−li mi +lj mj ) 105 (li mi +lj mj ) lj mj − 140 lj mj ⎥ 210 420 ⎥ 9 11 13 13 mj lj mj mj − 210 lj mj ⎦ 70 420 35 1 2 13 1 2 11 − 420 lj mj − 140 lj mj − 210 lj mj 105 lj mj (3.257)

9 m 70 i 13 lm 420 i i

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

223

A 6 Eli2 i i 2 EilAi

kij

⎢ ⎢ i i i i ⎢ A A A A A A A A ⎢ −129 Ei3 i −6 Ei2 i 12( Ei3 i + Ej3 j ) 6(− Ei2 i + Ej2 j ) −12 Ej3 j 6 Ej2 j ⎢ li li li lj li lj lj lj = ⎢ E A E A E A E A A A ⎢ 6 Ei2 i 2 EilAi 6(− Eli2 i + j2 j ) 4( EilAi + jl j ) −6 j2 j 2 jl j li lj lj ⎢ i i j j i ⎢ E A E A E A E A ⎢ 0 0 −12 j3 j −6 j2 j 12 j3 j −6 j2 j lj lj lj lj ⎣ Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj Ej Aj 0 0 6 l2 2 l −6 l2 4 l

j j j j

⎡

A 12 Eli3 i i A 6 Eli2 i

iA 6 El2 i i 4 EilAi

iA −12 El3 i i iA −6 El2 i

0 0

0 0

⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦

(3.258)

yij = Rij =

Repetition of the described procedure to all elements of the shaft results in the mathematical model of the shaft in the plane yz. m¨ + ky = 0 y (3.261)

£

£

yi1 ϕyi1 yij ϕyij yj2 ϕyj2

Ryi1 Rϕyi1 0 0 Ryj2 Rϕyj2

¤T

(3.259) (3.260)

¤T

The geometrical interpretation of the nodal coordinates appearing in the Eq. 3.259 is given in Fig. 37.The coordinates yi , ϕyi are associated with nodes which are located

element 1 Oi node 1 node i yi ϕyi y node N element i element N-1 z

Figure 37 at the ends of the ﬁnite elements. Introduction of the external forces Since the ﬁnite element is considered elastic, the treatment of the external forces presented in the previous section can not be applied. In this case one has to take advantage of the principle of the virtual work. It says that the virtual work produced by a force Fi (see Fig. 38) on the displacement yi is equal to the virtual work produced by a set of forces along the coordinates yi1 ϕyi1 yi2 ϕyi2 . Hence ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ∂Wi = Fi · yi (ai , t) = {Fi1 , Mi1 , Fi2 , Mi2 } (3.262) ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ϕyi2

DISCRETE MODEL OF THE FREE-FREE BEAMS

224

ai 1 yi1

Fi Ei Ji Ai ρ i

z yi2

ϕ yi1

li y

Figure 38 But according to 3.241 ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ li li li ³ ´2 ³ ´3 y(ai , t) = {H(ai )}T {y (t)} = ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai l

li li i

2

ϕyi2

**Hence, the vector of forces along the nodal coordinates is ⎧ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ai ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∙ 1 − 3 li + 2 li ¸ ⎧ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎫ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ Fi1 ⎪ ⎪ ai ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ li − 2 ai + ai ⎨ ⎨ ⎬ li li li Mi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 = Fi · ⎪ Fi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎩ ⎪ ⎭ li ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ Mi2 ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ − ai + ai li l l
**

i i

Introduction of the above expression into the expression for the virtual work yields ⎧ ⎫T ³ ´2 ³ ´3 ⎪ ⎪ 1 − 3 ai + 2 ai ⎪ ⎪ li l ⎪ ∙ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´ ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´2 ³ i ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎧ y ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ai ai ai ⎪ li ⎪ ⎪ i1 ⎪ −2 l + l ⎨ ⎬ ⎬ ⎨ li i i ϕyi1 ³ ´2 ³ ´3 (3.264) ∂Wi = Fi · ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 3 ai − 2 ai ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ li ⎪ ⎪ ∙ ³ li ´ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ³ ´3 ¸ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ − ai + ai li l l

i i

⎫T ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ϕyi1 ⎪ ⎪ yi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ϕyi2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.263)

⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

(3.265)

This forces have to be introduced into the equation of motion 3.261 m¨ + ky = Fs + F(t) y (3.266)

where, similarly as before, Fs stands for the static forces and F(t) stands for the excitation forces.

The instantaneous position of these supports is determine with respect to the stationary system of coordinates xyz by coordinates byi (t) .270)
Let us reorganize vector of coordinates of the shaft © ªT y = ϕxN .268)
(3.271)
(3. . ⎡ .yN ϕyN
Let us assume that the free-free beam is rigidly supported upon several supports Bi (see Fig..267) b = ⎣ byi (t) ⎦ .272)
... .269) yr Let us assume that the mathematical model of the beam m¨ + ky = F y is organized with respect to the above vector y of coordinates. . y1 ϕy1 . 39).. Let us denote by b vector of such coordinates. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ yb ¨ kbb kbr yb Fb mbb mbr + = mrb mrr yr ¨ krb krr yr Fr Partitioning of the above equations results in the following set of equations ¨ ¨ mbb yb + mbr yr + kbb yb + kbr yr = Fb mrb yb + mrr yr + krb yb + krr yr = Fr ¨ ¨ (3.4
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
O
Oi bxi byi x Bi yi
Figure 39
ϕx
i
ϕy
z
i
xi
y
in such a way that its upper part yb contains coordinates along which the shaft is rigidly supported and its lower part yr contains all the remaining coordinates ∙ ¸ yb y= (3.BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
225
3. ⎢ ⎥ (3.. . (3. ⎤ .

277 yields ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ mee mer ye ¨ cee cer ye ˙ kee ker ye Fe + + = (3.276)
In meny engineering problems. In this section the procedures for reducing the size of mathematical models will be developed.274) mrr yr + krr yr = Fr − mrb bb − krs bb The last two terms represent the kinemetic excitation of the beam cause by motion of its supports. ¸ ∙ ye (3.267. Hence the above equation can be solved. Let yr = Yr (t) (3. due to large number of the uniform sections of the element to be modeld. number of the ﬁnal elements is large too. is a known function of time. These interaction forces can be now determined.277 is arranged in such a way that the coordinates which are to be eliminated due to the condensation procedure ye are located in the upper part of the vector y and these which are to be retained for further consideration yr are located in its lower part.275)
be a solution of this equation. the vector yb in the mathematical model 3.5 CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS (3. ¨ ¨ Fb = mbb b + mbr Yr + kbb b + kbr Yr (t) 3.279) mre mrr yr ¨ cre crr yr ˙ kre krr yr Fr
. It follows that the size of the matrices involved in the discreet mathematical model m¨ + cy + ky = F y ˙ (3.273)
The second equation governs motion of the supported beam and can be rewritten as follows ¨ ¨ (3.272 must be replaced by b.277)
is too large to enable the necessary analysis of the mathematical model to be carried out. This solution approximate motion of the beam along the remining coordinates yr . The vector Fb in the ﬁrst equation of the set 3. ¨ ¨ mbb b + mbr yr + kbb b + kbr yr = Fb ¨ mrb b + mrr yr + krb b + krr yr = Fr ¨
(3. Hence. in a general case.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS
226
Motion of the beam along the coordinates yb is determined by the boundary conditions 3. that the equation 3.273 represents the forces of interaction between the moving beam and its supports.278) y= yr Partitioning of the equations 3. Let us assume. The vector b.

Kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. 4. Potential energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same.282 yields ´ 1³ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙r ˙ [hyr ]T mee hyr + [hyr ]T mer yr + yr mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ T = 2 ¢ 1¡ T T = yr h mee hyr +yT hT mer yr +yT mre hyr +yT mrr yr ˙ ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ ˙r ˙ 2 ¤ ¢ 1¡ T£ T yr h mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr yr ˙ = ˙ (3.280 one may obtain kee ye +ker yr = 0 Therefore the sought relationship is ye = hyr where h = −k−1 ker ee
To eliminate the coordinates ye from the mathematical model 3.5.285) 2 Hence. upon partitioning equation 3. 3. Virtual work done by all the external forces before and after condensation must be the same. one may formulate the following criteria of condensation: 1. 3.281)
(3. the kinetic energy of the system before and after condensation must be the same. if the kinetic energy after condensation is to be the same. ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ ∙ ye 0 kee ker = (3. According to the ﬁrst criterion.284) 2 Introduction of 3. the inertia matrix after condensation mc must be equal to mc = hT mee h + hT mer +mre h + mrr (3.280) kre krr yr 0 (3. Dissipation function of the system before and after condensation must be the same.1 Condensation of the inertia matrix.283)
Once the relationship is established.286)
. One of many possibilities is to assume that the coordinates ye are obeyed to the static relationship.279. one have to determine the relationship between the coordinates ye and the coordinates yr .CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS
227
Hence. 2. The kinetic energy of the system before condensation is ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ mee mer 1£ T ye ˙ T ye yr ˙ ˙ T = mre mrr yr ˙ 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 = ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ˙T ˙ ye mee ye + ye mer yr + yr mre ye + yr mrr yr ˙ (3.282) (3.

296)
.5.283. hT kee h + hT ker = (−k−1 ker )T kee (−k−1 ker ) + (−k−1 ker )T ker ee ee ee −1 T −1 T = −(−kee ker ) ker + (−kee ker ) ker = 0 Hence.282 ye = hyc permits to produce displacement along the ’cut oﬀ’ coordinates on the base of solution of the equation 3. can be adopted as follows ¨ ˙ (3.3 Condensation of the stiﬀness matrix. according to 3. kc = kre h + krr 3.289)
It is easy to show that sum of the ﬁrst two terms in the above expression is equal to zero. ¡ ¢ Fc = hT Fe +Fr (3.291) (3.293) (3.282 into the above equation yields ¡ T ¢ ¡ ¢ δW = (hyr )T Fe +yT Fr = yr hT Fe +yT Fr = yT hT Fe +Fr r r r Hence. The virtual work performed by external forces F on the displacements y is ¸ ∙ £ T ¤ Fe T T δW = ye yr = ye Fe +yT Fr r Fr Introduction of 3. Taking advantage from deﬁnition of potential energy of the system considered ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¤ kee ker 1£ T ye T ye yr V = kre krr yr 2 ¡ T ¢ 1 T T T ye kee ye + ye ker yr + yr kre ye + yr krr yr (3. Since formula for the dissipation function is of the same form as formula for the kinetic energy.295) mc yc +cc yc +kc yc = Fc where yc = yr The relationship 3.5. Indeed. they can be transformed as following.292)
(3.5.294)
The condensed mathematical model.4 Condensation of the external forces.CONDENSATION OF THE DISCREET SYSTEMS
228
3. according to the above consideration. repetition of the above derivation leads to the following deﬁnition of the condensed damping matrix cc = hT cee h + hT cer +cre h + crr (3.295 (3.288) = 2 one can arrive to conclusion that the condensed stiﬀness matrix is of the form 3.287)
3.289 kc = hT kee h + hT ker +kre h + krr (3.2 Condensation of the damping matrix.290)
(3.

0525 k Use this data to produce the solution by means of approximation of this beam with 10 ﬁnite elements.5 × 10−9 m4 12 k = 10000N/m l = 1m 11 ×2.1 × 1011 N/m2 ρ = 7800kg/m3 A = 0.
.03 × 0.6
PROBLEMS
Problem 52 Produce the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes for the ﬁxed-elastically supported uniform beam shown in Fig.PROBLEMS
229
3.5×10−9 α = EJ = 2.01 = 2.03×0. 40.0003m2 3 J = 0.01 = 0.
O z k l y
Figure 40 The exact solution of this problem is presented in page 191 for the following data E = 2.1×10 10000 = 0.

. the equation of the beam supported by the spring is m¨ + ks y = 0 y
This force should be introduced to the ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ 0 0 . ⎥ ⎢ ..... 0 0 . ⎥ = −k1 y (3....... y2 . y
y11
z
ϕ11
y = {y1 . y ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ky11 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 . The computed mathematical model is
O y1 y2
ϕ1 ϕ2
l y
Figure 41 m¨ + ky = 0..
y11 O
ϕ11
z l
y
-ky11
Figure 42
Therefore.. . ϕ2 ... ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ m¨ + ky = − ⎢ .. it was divided into ten ﬁnite elements as shown in Fig...298) ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ y11 ⎦ k 0 0 0 ϕ11 (3. 0 ⎥ ⎢ ϕ1 ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ .... 41. . .. . 42)... y11 .... 0 .PROBLEMS
230
Solution To create the mathematical model of the free-free beam.297)
The inﬂuence of the spring can be represented by the force −ky11 acting along the coordinate y11 (see Fig.. 0
right hand side of the equation 3. ϕ1 ...... ⎤⎡ ⎤ y1 ..299)
.... ⎥ = ⎢ .. 0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 .....297.. ϕ11 }T
(3...

. ϕ2 .... . .305)
... .302)
⎢ ⎢ ks = k + k1 = k+ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣
⎡
⎤ 0 0 .PROBLEMS
231
where
To introduce the boundary conditions associated with the left hand side of the beam. ϕ11 }T (3.... let us partition the above mathematical model in such a manner that all the coordinates involved in this boundary conditions are included in the vector y1 . 0}T and R1 = {R.300)
R M O y1=0 y2
y11
ϕ11
z l y
Figure 43
ϕ1=0 ϕ2
-ky11
According to the boundary conditions (see Fig. ......304 into 3..306) (3.... ϕ1 }T = {0..301) m21 m22 y2 ¨ ks21 ks22 y2 where y1 = {y1 ... 43) y1 = {y1 .. 0 0
(3. ⎥ ⎥ 0 0 .303 and 3.. 0 ⎥ ⎥ . k 0 ⎦ 0 0 . ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ m11 m12 y1 ¨ ks11 ks12 y1 + =0 (3. y11 ... ..303)
(3. 0 0 0 ... ϕ1 }T y2 = {y2 ...301 yields ∙ ¸ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ m11 m12 0 ks11 ks12 0 R1 + = y2 ¨ y2 m21 m22 ks21 ks22 0 This equation is equivalent to two equations as follows ¨ m12 y2 + ks12 y2 = R1 ¨ m22 y2 + ks22 y2 = 0 (3..304) (3. M}T Introduction of 3.. .... ..307) (3..

Results of this computation is shown in Fig. 44) and natural frequencies (second column in the Table) obtained by solving the continuous mathematical model ( see problem page 190).6
0.
O 2 y 1 Y1(z) Y2(z) Y3(z) l k z
0 -1
0.307 is the equation of motion of the supported beam.8
1
-2
Figure 44 Table natural frequenciesof natural frequencies of the descreet system the continuous system [1/sec] [1/sec] 129.65 357. It was solved for the natural modes and the natural frequencies.4
z
0. This results are compare with natural modes (continuous line in Fig.2
0.5 129.3 933.306 allows the vector of the interation forces R1 to be computed.PROBLEMS
232
The second equation 3.0
1 2 3
. The equation 3.6 357.4 932. 44 by boxes and in the ﬁrst column of the Table below.

2. x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ m = ⎢ 21 ⎣ k31 k32 k33 k34 ⎦ ⎣ x3 ⎦ ⎣ m31 m32 m33 m34 ⎦ m41 m42 m43 m44 k41 k42 k43 k44 x4 (3. x3 as shown in Fig.309)
1
2
3
4
x1
x2
Figure 45
x3
x4
This beam is supported upon three rigid pedestals along coordinates x1 . 45 along coordinates x1 . k = ⎢ k21 k22 k23 k24 ⎥ .310)
. x3 . x4 is as follows m¨ + kx = 0 x (3.PROBLEMS
233
Problem 53 The mathematical model of a free-free beam shown in Fig. the interaction forces between the beam and the supports
(3.
1
2
3 a3 Z a2 sin ω t
X
Figure 46 The motion of these supports with respect to the inertial system of coordinate XZ is given by the following equations X1 = 0 X2 = a2 sin ωt X3 = a3 Derive expressions for : 1. x2 . the static deﬂection curve. 46.308) ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ k11 k12 k13 m14 x1 m11 m12 m13 m14 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ m ⎥ ⎥ m22 m23 m24 ⎥ ⎥ . x2 .

k21 = k41 k42 k43 .311)
m11 ⎣ m21 m11 = m31 k11 ⎣ k21 k11 = k31 ⎡
or
¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸∙ ¸ ∙ ¸ x1 ¨ k11 k12 x1 R1 m11 m12 + = (3.321 is x4 = xs k44 xs = −k43 a3 (3. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = −k43 a3 ¨ The particular solution of the equation 3.322) (3.316) (3.310 results in the following equation m¨ + kx = R x where ⎡ ∙ (3. R2 =0 (3. x2 =x4 .308 with respect to the vector of boundary conditions 3.318) ¨ x3 ¨ x3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 x1 ¨ ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω2 sin ωt ⎦ . m22 = m44 m32 m33 m34 (3.PROBLEMS
234
Solution Partitioning of the equations 3.320)
The static deﬂection is due to the time independent term −k43 a3 in the right hand side of the equation 3.321)
.319)
or
¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt − k43 a3
(3.314) ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ x1 R1 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ .317)
where
Introduction of boundary conditions 3. k22 = k44 k32 k33 k34 (3.317 yields ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ¨ £ ¤ x1 ¤ x1 £ ¨ m44 x4 + k44 x4 = − m41 m42 m43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ − k41 k42 k43 ⎣ x2 ⎦ (3.320. ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡
(3.312) m21 m22 x2 ¨ k21 k22 x2 R2 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ m12 m13 m14 £ ¤ m22 m23 ⎦ . R1 = ⎣ R2 ⎦ . m12 = ⎣ m24 ⎦ . m21 = m41 m42 m43 .310 into the equation 3.315) x3 R3 ¨ ¨ m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ m21 x1 + m22 x2 + k21 x1 + k22 x2 = 0 (3.313) ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ k14 k12 k13 ¤ £ k22 k23 ⎦ . k12 = ⎣ k24 ⎦ .323) (3.

326) (3.PROBLEMS
235
−k43 a3 k44 Its graphical representation is given in Fig. 48
1
2
3 a3
4 xs Z
X
a2 sinω t
Figure 48
xd sinω t
This motion causes interaction forces along these coordinates along which the system is attached to the base.325 yields the wanted amplitude of the forced vibration xd .324)
1
2
3 a3
4 Z xs
X
Figure 47
The forced response due to motion of the support 2 (X2 = a2 sin ωt) is represented by the particular solution due to the time dependant term. m11 x1 + m12 x2 + k11 x1 + k12 x2 = R1 ¨ ¨ In this equation x1 stands for the given boundary conditions ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 0 x1 = ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦ a3 x3 ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ x1 ¨ 0 ¨ .316. m44 x4 + k44 x4 = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) sin ωt ¨ For the above equation.328)
(3. These forces can computed from equation 3.325)
Implementation of the solution 3.327)
The resultant motion of the system considered is shown in Fig.326 into the equation 3.329)
. the particular solution may be predicted as follows x4 = xd sin ωt (3. x1= ⎣ x2 ⎦ = ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦ ¨ 0 x3 ¨ ⎡ (3. xd = (m42 a2 ω 2 − k42 a2 ) −ω 2 m44 + k44 (3. 47 xs =
(3.

PROBLEMS
236
and x2 represents. known at this stage. motion of the system along the coordinate 4 ¨ ¨ x2 = x4 = xs + xd sin ωt x2 = x4 = d2 (xs + xd sin ωt) = −xd ω 2 sin ωt.330)
Hence. the wanted vector of interaction forces is as follows ⎤ 0 R1 = m11 ⎣ −a2 ω 2 sin ωt ⎦+k11 ⎣ a2 sin ωt ⎦+m12 (−xd ω2 sin ω)+k12 (xs +xd sin ωt) 0 a3 (3.331) 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡
. dt2 (3.

Part II EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
237
.

The rubber tip 8 is used
. The transducer 5 allows the acceleration of the highest block to be measured in the horizontal direction. 3.1
1
DESCRIPTION OF THE LABORATORY INSTALLATION
2 4 5 3 6 7 8
9
10
12
Figure 1 The vibrating object 2. The spaces between the blocks 2 are ﬁlled in with the foam 4 in order to increase the structural damping.1) is attached to the base 1. It is furnished with the piezoelectric transducer 7 that permits the impulse of the force applied to the object to be measured. and 4 (see Fig. The hammer 6 is used to induce vibrations of the object. It consists of the three rectangular blocks 2 joint together by means of the two springs 3.Chapter 4 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A SYSTEM WITH 3 DEGREES OF FREEDOM
4.

k2 and k3 of the springs can be analytically assessed. EJ FH F dx = z − z2 + A dz 2 2 FH 2 F 3 EJx = z − z + Az + B 4 6 (4. x2 and x3 are shown in Fig. which is considered rigid and motionless. Hence. the system can be approximated by three degrees of freedom physical model. 4. The three independent coordinates x1 . forms a reference system for measuring its vibrations. The blocks 2 are assumed to be rigid and the springs 3 are by assumption massless.MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
239
to smooth and extend the impulse of force. Magnitudes of the stuﬃness k1 . 3 The diﬀerential equation of the deﬂection of the spring is EJ d2 x FH − Fz = M − Fz = 2 dz 2 (4. Motion of the blocks is restricted to one horizontal direction only. To this end let us consider one spring shown in Fig.2. Both.2.3)
.1 Physical model
x3 k3 c3 x2 k2 c2 x1 k1 c1 m1 m2 m3
Figure 2 The base 1.2 MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
4.1)
Double integration results in the following equation of the bending line.2) (4. These data allow the transfer functions to be produced and sent to the personal computer 11 for further analysis. according to these assumptions. the acceleration of the object and the impulse of the force can be simultaneously recorded and stored in the memory of the spectrum analyzer 10.

**MODELLING OF THE OBJECT
**

z x(H) M=FH/2

240

F

w EJ H x F z

t

M=FH/2

Figure 3 Taking advantage of the boundary conditions associated with the lower end of the spring, one can arrived to the following expression for the bending line. ¶ µ 1 FH 2 F 3 x= (4.4) z − z EJ 4 6 Hence, the deﬂection of the upper end is ¶ µ 1 1 FH 2 F 3 x(H) = H − H = F H3 EJ 4 6 12EJ Therefore the stiﬀness of one spring is k= where 12EJ F = x(H) H3 J= (4.6)

(4.5)

wt3 (4.7) 12 Since we deal with a set of two springs between the blocks, the stiﬀness ki shown in the physical model can be computed according to the following formula. ki = 24Ei Ji Hi3 (4.8)

4.2.2 Mathematical model Application of the Newton’s equations to the developed physical model results in the following set of diﬀerential equations m1 x1 + (c1 + c2 )x1 + (−c2 )x2 + (k1 + k2 )x1 + (−k2 )x2 = F1 ¨ ˙ ˙ m2 x2 + (−c2 )x1 + (c2 + c3 )x2 + (−c3 )x3 + (−k2 )x1 + (k2 + k3 )x2 + (−k3 )x3 = F2 ¨ ˙ ˙ ˙ m3 x3 + (−c3 )x2 + c3 x3 + (−k3 )x2 + k3 x3 = F3 ¨ ˙ ˙

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

241

These equations can be rewritten as following m¨ + cx + kx = F x ˙ where ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 m1 0 c1 + c2 −c2 m = ⎣ 0 m2 0 ⎦ ; c = ⎣ −c2 c2 + c3 −c3 ⎦ 0 0 m3 0 −c3 c3 ⎤ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ ⎡ −k2 0 k1 + k2 x1 F1 k2 + k3 −k3 ⎦ ; x = ⎣ x2 ⎦ ; F = ⎣ F2 ⎦ k = ⎣ −k2 0 −k3 k3 x3 F3 ⎡ (4.9)

(4.10)

The vector F represents the external excitation that can be applied to the system. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

4.3.1 Natural frequencies and natural modes of the undamped system. The matrix of inertia and the matrix of stiﬀness can be assessed from the dimensions of the object. Hence, the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes of the undamped system can be produced. Implementation of the particular solution x = X cos ωt into the equation of the free motion of the undamped system m¨ + kx = F x (4.12) (4.11)

Solution of the eigenvalue and eigenvector problem yields the natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes. ±ω1 , ±ω 2 , ±ω 3 (4.14) (4.15)

results in a set of the algebraic equations that are linear with respect to the vector X. ¡ 2 ¢ −ω m + k X = 0 (4.13)

Ξ = [Ξ1 , Ξ2 , Ξ2 ]

For detailed explanation see pages 102 to 105 4.3.2 Equations of motion in terms of the normal coordinates - transfer functions If one assume that the damping matrix is of the following form c =µm+κk (4.16)

the equations of motion 4.9 can be expressed in terms of the normal coordinates η = Ξ−1 x (see section normal coordinates - modal damping page 105) η n + 2ξ n ω n η n + ω 2 η n = ΞT F(t), ¨ ˙ n n n = 1, 2, 3 (4.17)

ANALYSIS OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL

242

The response of the system along the coordinate xp due to the harmonic excitation Fq eiωt along the coordinate xq , according to the formula 2.142 (page 107), is xp = e

iωt N X

ω2 n=1 n

Ξpn Ξqn Fq − ω2 + 2ς n ω n ωi

(4.18)

Hence the acceleration along the coordinate xp as the second derivative with respect to time, is N X Ξpn Ξqn Fq 2 iωt (4.19) xp = −ω e ¨ 2 − ω 2 + 2ς ω ωi ω n n n=1 n It follows that the transfer function between the coordinate xp and xq , according to 2.144 is Rpq (iω) = xp xp ¨ = −ω 2 = iωt Fq e Fq eiωt ¶ N X µ Ξpn Ξqn (ω2 − ω2 ) −2Ξpn Ξqn ς n ωn ωi n 2 = −ω + (ω 2 − ω2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 (ω 2 − ω 2 )2 + 4ς 2 ω 2 ω2 n n n n n n n=1

q = 1, 2, 3 (4.20)

The modal damping ratios ς 1 , ς 2 and ς 3 are unknown and are to be identiﬁed by ﬁtting the analytical transfer functions into the experimental ones. Since the transducer 5 (Fig. 1) produces acceleration, the laboratory installation permits to obtain the acceleration to force transfer function. The theory on the experimental determination of the transfer functions is given in the section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100). 4.3.3 Extraction of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the transfer functions The problem of determination of the natural frequencies and the natural modes from the displacement - force transfer functions was explained in details in section Determination of natural frequencies and modes from the transfer functions (page 107). Let us do similar manipulation on the acceleration - force transfer function. First of all let us notice that µ ¶ Ξpn Ξqn (ω 2 − ω 2 ) −Ξpn Ξqn i n 2 if ω ∼ ωn Rpq (iω n ) ∼ −ω q = 1, 2, 3 (4.21) + = = 4ς 2 ω2 ω 2 2ς n ωn ω n n Since the real part of the transfer function is equal to zero for ω = ω n , its absolute value is equal to the absolute value of the imaginary part. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ξpn Ξqn ¯ ¯ q = 1, 2, 3 (4.22) |Rpq (iω n )| ∼ ¯ =¯ 2ς n ¯ ϕ = arctan Im(Rpq (iωn )) = arctan ∞ = ±90o Re(Rpq (iω n )) (4.23)

and phase ϕ for ω = ω n

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

243

Hence, the frequencies ω corresponding to the phase ±90o are the wanted natural frequencies ω n . Because ς n and Ξpn are constants, magnitudes of the absolute value of the transfer functions for ω = ω n represents the modes Ξ1n , Ξ2n , Ξ3n associated with the n − th natural frequency. An example of extracting the natural frequency and the corresponding natural mode from the transfer function is shown in Fig. 4

transfer functions m/N (modulus) 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 1500 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1500 1600 1700 1800 R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3) natural frequency natural mode 1600 1700 1800 frequency rad/s R(1,1) R(1,2) R(1,3)

transfer functions m/N (phase)

π/2

−π/2

frequency rad/s 2 1

Figure 4

4.4

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

4.4.1 Acquiring of the physical model initial parameters The physical model is determined by the following parameters m1 , m2 m3 - masses of the blocks k1 , k2 k3 - stiﬀness of the springs c1 , c2 c3 - damping coeﬃcients

.m to be measured during the laboratory session t = ....... ς 2 and ς 3 (see equation 4. when applying the impulse to the object make sure that the impulse is not excessive Harder impact does not produce better results....... 1) is permanently attached to the mass m3 and the impulse can be applied along the coordinates x1 ...595kg m3 = 0......8 24EJ wt3 ki = .m to be measured during the laboratory session H1 = ... These impulses should be applied to the middle of the block. Alternatively the damping properties of the system can be uniquely deﬁned by means of the three modal damping ratios ς 1 .. The following set of data is required E = 0.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
244
The blocks were weighted before assembly and their masses are m1 = 0...2 Measurements of the transfer functions According to the description given in section Experimental determination of the transfer functions (page 100) to produce the transfer function Rpq (iω) you have to measure response of the system along the coordinate xp due to impulse along the coordinate xq . one has to observe the following.......01 ς 2 = 0... as the ﬁrst approximation of the damping.670kg m2 = 0........4. To obtain a reliable result..24)
allows the stiﬀness ki to be computed..... R31 (iω) R32 (iω) R33 (iω) (4....m to be measured during the laboratory session H2 = .....17). As the equipment used is delicate and expensive..7 and 4...01 ς 2 = 0. 10 measurements are to be averaged to get one transfer function.............. 1... Hence...... let us adopt the following damping ratios ς 1 = 0....... Inspection of the free vibrations of the object lead to the conclusion that the damping is much smaller then the critical one. ξ = 1 corresponds to the critical damping. The spectrum analyzer must show the ’waiting for trigger’ sign before the subsequent impulse is applied...25)
The hammer 6 should be used to introduce the impulse.595kg The formula 4... J= Hi3 12
(4....m to be measured during the laboratory session H3 = ..
.....21 × 1012 N/m2 w = .. the laboratory installation permits the following transfer functions to be obtained.. x2 or x3 .01 4....... always place the hammer on the pad provided when it is not used 2. Since the transducer 5 (Fig..m to be measured during the laboratory session The damping coeﬃcients ci are diﬃcult to be assessed....

we are going to use the trial and error method. We assume that the following parameters m1 . ξ 2 . m2 .26)
Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right).27) (4.4. In this experiment. Uncertain are t. H1 . H2 . ξ 1 . Work on one (say R33 (iω) transfer function only. E were assessed with a suﬃcient accuracy. m3 . H3 .3 Identiﬁcation of the physical model parameters In a general case. w.
.EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
245
4. the identiﬁcation of a physical model parameters from the transfer functions bases on a very complicated curve ﬁtting procedures. ξ 3 (4. to ﬁt the analytical transfer functions into the experimental one. Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).

..... Set excitation coordinate 3.5
WORKSHEET
1.......... Use the parameter t to shift the natural frequencies (increment of t results in shift of the natural frequencies to the right)...WORKSHEET
246
4...595kg H3 = ......m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0.. Use the parameters ξ i to align the picks of the absolute values of the transfer functions (increment in the modal damping ratio results in lowering the pick of the analytical transfer function).. execute it and apply 10 times impulse along the coordinates 3 Choose sub-menu ’Time/Frequency domain toggle’ to see the measured transfer function Choose sub-menu ’Transfer TRF to computer’ and execute it Exit menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Choose ’Response display/plot’ to display the transfer functions 3.. ξ 2 .... Initial parameters of physical model Measure the missing parameters and insert them to the table below Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0. Identiﬁcation of the thickness t and the modal damping ratios ξ i You can see both the experimental and analytical transfer function R33 (iω).....595kg H2 = .....
∗
program designed by Dr...... Experimental acceleration-force transfer functions R33 (iω) Choose menu ’Frequency response measurements’ Set up the spectrum analyzer by execution of the sub-menu ’Setup analyzer’ Choose sub-menu ’Perform measurement’.....m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0.. try to ﬁt the analytical data into the experimental one.. ξ 1 .670kg H1 = .... response coordinate 3. By varying t.01 E = 0.............. Chalko
.. Save the initial data.................. T. 2.m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0.m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0.. ξ 3 in the input data.21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0.......m of mode 3 springs ∗ Run program ’Prac3 ’ and choose menu ’Input data’ to enter the above data..01 t = ..01 w = .

.........595kg H3 = ... ...... R32 (iω)..............01 E = 0.........
3 ............. . Natural frequencies and the corresponding natural modes Choose menu ’Mode shapes display/plot’ to produce the analytical frequencies and modes Plot the natural modes From plots of the experimental transfer functions R31 (iω)....
2 ..........m of mode 3 springs Save the identiﬁed parameters.............................................m of mode 2 springs damping ratio thickness of the ξ 3 = 0......m 1 1 Mass of the block length of the spring m2 = 0... ......m 3 3 damping ratio Young’s ξ 1 = 0..........670kg H1 = ....................
6. Experimental and analytical transfer functions R31 (iω) and R32 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 1 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R31 (iω) Choose menu ’Input data’ and set the excitation coordinate to 2 and the response coordinate to 3 Repeat all steps of the section 2 Plot the transfer function R32 (iω) 5...WORKSHEET
247
Record the identiﬁed parameters in the following table Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0..01 w = ........595kg H2 = ........................m 2 2 Mass of the block length of the spring m1 = 0................ Plot the analytical and the experimental transfer function R33 (iω) 4..............01 t = ............ Conclusions
.......... R33 (iω) determine the natural frequencies and the natural modes Insert the experimental and analytical frequencies into the table below
natural frequency analytical experimental natural frequency natural frequency
1 ..21 × 1012 N/m2 of mode 1 modulus damping ratio width of the ξ 2 = 0.........