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Acknowledgements
The Fisherman's Workbook has been prepared in the Fishing Technology Service, Fishery Industries Division, in the Fisheries Department of the FAO.' A number of consultants and experts in fishing technology worked on the preparation of this book, over a period of several years. Without their contributions it would have been impossible to compile the book, and we wish to thank them. We wish to thank the FAO masterfishermen working in various countries, who offered valuable comments on the draft, and Messrs A. Smith and S. Drew, for translating and editing the English language edition. Finally, we wish to thank the draftspeople in the FAO Fisheries Department for preparation of the illustrations.

FISHERMAN'S WORKBOOK

Compiled by J. Prado

Fishery Industries Division, FAO
in collaboration with P.Y. Dremiere IFREMER, Sete, France

Published by arrangement with the FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS by . . FISHING NEWS BOOKS OXFORD 1990

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Copyright ©FAO 1990
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduc-tion, should be addressed to the Director, Publications.Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Fishing News Books A division of Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd Editorial Offices: Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL (Orders: Tel. 0865 240201) 25 John Street, London WC1N 2BL 23 Ainslie Place, Edinburgh EH3 6AJ 3 Cambridge Center, Suite 208, Cambridge MA 02142, USA 107 Barry Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia Set by Best-set Typesetter Ltd. Printed and bound in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk

British Library Cataloging in Publication Data Prado, J. Fisherman's workbook. 1. Fishing equipment I . Title II. Dremiere, P.Y. III. Food and Agriculture Organization 639.2

ISBN 0-85238-163-8

Notice
To fishermen, net makers, boatbuilders, and other professionals working in commercial fisheries:

The Fisherman's Workbook is a tool intended for field use, to carry with you for easy reference on land or sea. It contains essential information about the choice and use of a variety of materials and equipment necessary for commercial fishing.

The first part of the book, 'Materials and ac-cessories', contains a review of common materials and components used in commercial fishing, with examples and explanations of their use. This part should help with the choice and use of appropriate materials.

The second part, 'Fishing gear and operations', will help with the choice of particular types of fishing gear, their characteristics and use.

The third section, Equipment for deck and wheelhouse', outlines the characteristics of echo-sounders and deck machinery for handling fishing gear and gives examples of such equipment.

A fourth part, 'Fishing vessel operation', gives information about the most effective use of fishing vessels. Guidelines for calculating the costs and benefits of fishing operations are presented.

The fifth part, 'Formulae and tables', gives tables for converting units and numbers among different systems of measurement as well as formulae for calculations which a fisherman may need. Finally, the section on 'Ordering equipment' gives recommendations about the specifications to be listed when ordering fishing gear and equipment.

Notice
Fishing technologies in use are generally not dependent on exact, absolute science. Individua experience, knowledge and skill are of great importance, and these are often specific for particular fishing grounds or regions. Therefore, the Fisherman's Workbook is not an absolute set of rules or formulae appropriate for all questions and situa-tions. It does contain sets of guidelines drawn from wide experience in professional fishing. These guidelines may be helpful, when considered in combination with your own experience, knowledge and expertise. Although the Fisherman's Workbook covers a wide range of subjects, it cannot pretend to cover everything, and in the preparation of the book it was necessary to leave out many subjects. It is hoped that the reader will fill these 'gaps' with his personal knowledge, skill and experience in the context of the area in which he works.

traps. tanks bait operations bookkeeping regulations Equipment for deck and wheelhouse light echo-sounders deck equipment Index .Contents Materials and accessories density of materials strength of hardware synthetic fibres twine rope wire rope net webbing fish hooks line fishing accessories floats sinkers hardware lifting Formulae and tables Fishing gear and operations purse seines beach seines bottom seines trawls entangling nets traps and pots line fishing longlines nets. lines — buoys dredges Ordering equipment fishing gear and accessories deck equipment units of measurement formulae Fishing vessel operations propulsion fish holds.

.

94 1.87 + 0.32 + 0.86 0.081. expanded Density (g/cc) 0.260.26 + 0.190.33 + 0.0 1.53 + 0.0 kgf 4. heavy crude oil.86 + 0. light fuel oil.4 1.89 + to 0.580. DENSITY OF MATERILS .12 + 0.57 + 0.20 + Multiplication factor* sea water 0.60 + 0.10 + 0.55 + 0.9 Multiplication factor* freshwater sea water 0.48 0.5 1.41 0.65 0.88 + 0.37 1.38 0.65 0.009.79 0.010. poplar oplar spruce teak walnut Density (g/cc) 0.40 + 0.58 1.86 + 0.86 + 0. heavy fuel oil.250.0 to 1.90-0.430.00 0.88 + 0.110.70 1.38 1.51 1.540.32 + 0.32 + 0.270.15 + 0.35 + 0.080.20 1.31 + (merchant vessels) ■ Textiles Type polyethylene polypropylen e polystyrene. red cedar.46 + 0.30 Multiplicatio n factor* freshwater 0.6 7.53 + 0.9 11.2 2.010.88 + 0.88 + 0.87 + 0.59 + 0.220.080.51 0.300.32 + 0.95 Examples of loss of buoyancy as a function of duration of immersion: 10 days after 0 days 15 days cork wood 4.23 + ■ Fuel sea water 0.91 + 0.2 2.40 0.32 0.21 + Type petrol (normal or super) petrol for lamps diesel fuel crude oil.91 + 0.25 + 0.441.141.110.54 1.17 + 0.220.8 7.011.300.39 0.86 + 0.132.003.59 + 0.58 + 0.10 Multiplicatie factor* freshwater sea water 0.213.09Density (g/cc) 0.48 1.5 1.95 0.8 8.86 + 0.540.95 0.89 + 0.95 0.50 0.85 + FLOATING MATERIALS ■ Wood Type bamboo cedar.60 + 0.9 2.050.5 sandstone stone ebony 2.44 + 0.50 1.68- ■ Textiles Type aramide (kevlar) cotton hemp linen manilla polyamide (PA) polyester (PES) polyviny alcohol (PVA) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polyvinylidene ramie sisal ■ Other Materials Type brick chalk concrete earthenware glass rubber Density (g/cc) 1.33 + 0.1 2.43 + 0.5 kgf 2.4 7.60 + 0.67 + 0.0 0 ' Multiplication factor used to calculate the weight in water' of different materials.31 + 0.14.101. as shown on page 4.90 0.270.79 0.32 + 0.8 to 3.060.160.5 8.961.14 1.14 9.51 0.9 7.87 + 0.051. intermediate 0.25 0.702.59 + 0.34 + 0.04- freshwater 0.82 0.33 + 0.87 + 0.631.140.03 0. Oregon pine.2 6.72 0.86 + 0.190.050.001.640.570.84 0.501.961. white cork cypress fir oak.48 1. green pine pine.33 + 0. dry oak.61 Multiplication factor* freshwater sea water 1.41 + 0.500.49 Density (g/cc) 1.4 to 8.081.86 + 0.68 + 0.Density of materials SINKING MATERIALS ■ Metals Type aluminium brass bronze cast iron copper lead steel tin zinc Density (g/cc) 2.2 to 7.27+ 0.47 + 0.99 Multiplication factor* freshwater sea water 0.18 + ■ Others ice 1 0.I oil 0.32 + 0.55 + 0.28 + 0.25 0.48 0.

060 -0.000 air) (or 50 floats of 60 gf each) sinkers: 180 lead sinkers. avg. with examples for materials and for a rigged gillnet DENSITY OF MATERILS 24.5 x 3. The factor followed by a .DW/DM}* where : P = weight (kg) in water A = weight (kg) in air DW = density (g/cc) of water (freshwater 1.5 kg flotation in freshwater 1. with the results given in the tables on pages 2-3.590 9.sign indicates a buoyant or floating force.6 x 0.3. sea water 1.12( + ) = 2.430 mm netting: 900 x 11 meshes 140 mm stretched mesh PAR 450 tex with bolchlines 1. To obtain the weight in water of a certain quantity of material.5 x 3.10( + ) = 2.360 + 0. the multiplication factor.6 kg of polyamide (nylon) in air The table on page 3 gives the multiplication factor for polyamide: freshwater : 0.12( + ) sea water : 0.790 (2) 27.46 kg flotation in sea water P = A x {1 .00.970 .95 kg flotation in freshwater ■ Example c: Calculating the weight in water of a bottom gillnet component weight(kg) weight (kg) in air in sea water ropes: 2 x 90 m PP Ø 6 3.00(-) sea water : 3.10H = 4. 1.136 + floats: 46 corks x 21 g (in 0. weight 200 g (2) 22.00(-) = 4. has been calculated for the materials most commonly used in fisheries.10( + ) so. 24. thus.6 x 0.806 kg.400 +13. Example a: 1.806 + The weight of a gillnet in water is calculated by adding the weights of the different components.200 TOTAL (1)19. 14. The sign of the total indicates the type of net we have made. this gillnet with a + sign would be a bottom net with a sinking force of 9.026) DM = density (g/cc) of material * The term in brackets.Weight in water. simply multiply its weight in air by the factor.10( -) so. .5 kg of cork in air The table on page 3 gives the multiplication factor for cork: freshwater : 3.65 kg flotation in sea water Example b: 24.100 + 80g each (in air) (1 or 111 stones. taking into account the sign of the factor. The factor followed by a + sign indicates a sinking force.

■ Values of the safety factor (a) For ropes Diameter (mm) 3-18 20-28 30-38 40-44 48-100 Safety factor 25 (est) 20 15 10 8 (b) For wire ropes and metal hardware : safety factor about 5—6. Another equivalent term in use is Working load limit. Dynamic or shock loads increase the stress considerably.Safe working load. is the maximum load that an item is certified to lift in service. and thus increase the possibility of breakage. — Breaking load (BL) is the maximum load that an item can hold with a static load before it breaks. — Safety factor = breaking load safe working load Very important : The loads used in these calculations are static loads. ■ Safe working load . Another equivalent term in use is Breaking strength. breaking load. safety factor STRENGTH OF HARDWARE ■ Definitions — Safe working load (SWL).

= continuous fibres = staple fibre . PVA (or PVC) Marumoron Cont. fil PA + Saran Livlon Cont. PVC Saran-N Cont. PVA Marlon B Cont. fil. fil PA + St. fil PVC Marlon D Cont. fil.Synthetic fibres and commercial names ■ Polyamide (PA) Amilan (Jap) Anid (USSR) Anzalon (Neth) Caprolan (USA) Denderon (E. fil PA + Cont. UK) Tetoron (Jap) Terylene (UK) Trevira (W. fil. Ger) Enkalon (Neth. Ger) Tergal (Fran) Terital (Ital) Terlenka (Neth. fil PA + Saran Marlon C Cont. USA) Tiviron (Jap) Velon (USA) Wynene (Can) SYNTHETIC FIBRES ■ Polyester (PES) Dacron (USA) Diolen (Ger) Grisufen (E. UK) Forlion (ltd) Kapron (USSR) Kenlon (UK) Knoxlock (UK) Lilion (ltd) Nailon (ltd) Nailonsix (Braz) Nylon (many coun) Perlon (Ger) Platil (Ger) Relon (Roum) Roblon (Den) Silon (Czec) ■ Polyethylene (PE) Akvaflex (Nor) Cerfil (Port) Corfiplaste (Port) Courlene (UK) Drylene 3 (UK) Etylon (Jap) Flotten (Fran) Hiralon (Jap) Hi-Zex (Jap) Hostalen G (W. fil PA + Saran Marlon A Cont. PA + Saran Tailon (Tylon P) Cont. fil. PA + St. PVC Cont. PVC Ryolon Cont. PA Temimew St. fil. PES + Cont. PVA Polex PE + Saran Polysara PE + Saran Polytex PE + cont. fil PA + Saran Marlon E St. PA + St. fil. St. PVA + St. Ger) ■ Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) Cremona (Jap) Kanebian (Jap) Kuralon (Jap) Kuremona (Jap) Manryo (Jap) Mewlon (Jap) Trawlon (Jap) Vinylon (Jap) ■ Commercial names of combined twines for netting Kyokurin Cont. fil. Ger) Laveten (Swed) Levilene (ltd) Marlin PE (Ice) Norfil (UK) Northylen (Ger) Nymplex (Neth) Rigidex (UK) Sainthene (Fran) Trofil (Ger) Velon PS (LP) (USA) Vestolen A (Ger) ■ Polypropylene (PP) Akvaflex PP (Nor) Courlene PY (UK) Danaflex (Den) Drylene 6 (UK) Hostalen PP (Ger) Meraklon (Ital) Multiflex (Den) Nufil (UK) Prolene (Arg) Ribofil (UK) Trofil P (Ger) Ulstron (UK) Velon P (USA) Vestolen P (Ger) ■ Copolymers (PVD) Clorene (Fran) Dynel (USA) Kurehalon (Jap) Saran (Jap. PA + St.

30-1.92) Good breaking strength Good resistance to abrasion Sinks (density = 1. polyamide (PA) Sinks (density = 1.14) Good breaking strength and resistance to Abrasion Very good elongation and elasticity Sinks (density = 1.94-0.Synthetic fibres: physical properties SYNTHETIC FIBRES ■ Nylon.96) Good resistance to abrasion Good elasticity Floats (density = 0.32) Good resistance to abrasion Good elongation ■ Polyester (PES) ■ Polyethylene (PE) ■ Polypropylene (PP) ■ Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) .91-0.38) Very good breaking strength Good elasticity Poor elongation (does not stretch) Floats (density = 0.

Sheets Combustion PA No X (X) (X) Melts following short duration of heating forms molten droplets White Celery-like fishy odour Solid yellowish round droplets PES No X (X) (X) Melts and burns slowly with bright yellow flame PE Yes X (X) Melts and burns slowly with pale blue flame PP Yes X (X) (X) X Melts and burns slowly with pale blue flame Smoke Smell Black with soot Hot oil faintly sweet Solid blackish droplets White Snuffed out candle Solid droplets White Hot wax/ burning asphalt Solid brown droplets Residue X (X) - = Commonly available = Material exists but is less common = Not available .Monofilament .Appearance .Short (staple) fibres .Synthetic fibres: identification SYNTHETIC FIBRES Properties Floats .Continuous fibres .

tex. then the diameter of the twine = 60 mm/20 turns = 3 mm Note : The strength of twine or rope depends not only on its thickness. Example: TWIN ■ Simple fibres ■ Estimating the diameter of twine . there exists a quick method of estimation. metres/kg : m/kg = length (m) of 1 kg of finished twine Resultant tex : Rtex = weight (g) of 1000 m of finished twine ■ Equivalents and conversions Textile\system PA PP Titre/denier International tex system 210 23 190 21 PE 400 44 PES 250 28 PVA 267 30 If 20 turns of the twine measure 6 cm. magnifying glass and microscope. metres/kg. but also on the method and degree of twisting or braiding its yarns. diameter Titre (denier) : Td = weight (g) of 9000 m of fibre Metric number : Nm = length (m) of 1 kg of fibre English number for cotton : Nec = length (in multiples of 840 yd) per lb International system: tex = weight (g) of 1000 m of fibre ■ Finished twine Runnage. denier.Twine: number. Roll 20 turns of the twine to be measured around a pencil and measure the total length of the turns. In addition to precise measurements from instruments such as micrometer.

A rough estimation of Rtex can be found by adding 10% to the value calculated above: 138 tex + 10% = R 152 tex (estimate) Case 2 : A sample of twine is available for evaluation Example . 5 m of twine. hard lay. placed on a precision scale. braided. weigh 11. with 210 denier single yarns. degree of twist. 210 x 2 x 3 = 23 tex x 2 x 3 = 138 tex To find the Resultant tex (Rtex) we have to apply a correction to the calculated value.). So.25 g/m.25 g. . but also on the method and degree of twisting or braiding its yarns Note : in view of the complex structure of braided twines. and the weight per metre of the sample twine is 11. 2 single yarns in each of the 3 folded yarns (strands) which make up the twine. We know that twine of R 1 tex weighs 1 g per 1000 m. 1000 m of the sample would weigh 1000 x 2.25/5 = 2.25 = 2250 g. it is the general practice in fisheries for the gear designer to use the Rtex value without going into detail. etc. taking into account the structure of the finished twine (twisted.Twin : calculation of tex TWIN ■ Calculation of Resultant tex (Rtex) of twine Case 1 : When the structure of the twine is known Example: Netting twine made of nylon (polyamide). or R 2250 tex Note : The strength of twine or rope depends not only on its thickness.

(m/kg)/2 m/kg = approx.Twine: equivalents of numbering systems m/kg 20 000 13 500 10 000 6 450 4 250 3 150 2 500 2 100 1 800 1 600 1 420 1 250 1 150 1 060 980 910 850 790 630 530 400 360 310 260 238 225 200 180 155 130 100 Rtex g/1000m 50 75 100 155 235 317 450 476 556 625 704 800 870 943 1 020 1 099 1 176 1 266 1 587 1 887 2 500 2 778 3 226 3 846 4 202 4 444 5 000 5 556 6 452 7 692 10 000 Eg.: twisted nylon (polyamide) twine yds/lb No of yarns a/ denier 9 921 210x2 6 696 3 4 960 4 3 199 6 2 180 9 1 562 12 1 240 15 1 041 18 893 21 794 24 704 27 620 30 570 33 526 36 486 39 451 42 422 45 392 48 313 60 263 72 198 96 179 108 154 120 129 144 118 156 112 168 99 192 89 216 77 240 64 264 50 360 No.ofdeniers Td 420 630 840 1 260 1 890 2 520 3 150 3 780 4 410 5 040 5 670 6 300 6 930 7 560 8 190 8 820 9 450 10 080 12 600 15 120 20 160 22 680 25 200 30 240 32 760 35 280 40 320 45 360 50 400 55 440 75 600 Tex 47 70 93 140 210 280 350 420 490 559 629 699 769 839 909 979 1 049 1 119 1 399 1 678 2 238 2 517 2 797 3 357 3 636 3 916 4 476 5 035 5 594 6 154 8 392 a/ yds/lb = approx. (yds/lb) x 2 Note: 210 denier = 23 Tex TWIN .

37 1.65 1.05 1.33 1.50 4.80 0.2 9 14 18 22 26 30 34 39 43 47 51 55 64 67 75 82 91 110 138 165 178 210 260 320 420 560 B kgf 1. dry without knots (single twine) B = breaking load.33 0.6 1.8 2.87 3.95 6.4 2.93 6.85 0.43 1.75 2.50 1.20 1.80 1.65 0.Twines: nylon (polyamide PA).50 0.47 2. multifilament twisted or braided TWIN A = breaking load. knotted (single twine) ■ Twisted.9 2.13 5.35 3.10 3.05 4. Appox .73 0.6 6 9 11 14 16 18 21 22 24 26 28 29 34 35 40 43 47 56 73 84 90 104 125 150 190 250 m/kg Rtex Diam.85 3.0 2.40 1.2 2.60 4.6 6. mm 1.7 3.13 1.08 A kgf 82 92 95 110 138 154 195 220 235 270 320 360 435 460 520 600 680 840 B kgf 44 49 52 60 74 81 99 112 117 135 155 178 215 225 245 275 315 390 20 000 13 300 10 000 6 400 4 350 3 230 2 560 2 130 1 850 1 620 1 430 1 280 1 160 1 050 970 830 780 700 640 590 500 385 315 294 250 200 175 125 91 50 75 100 155 230 310 390 470 540 620 700 780 860 950 1 030 1 200 1 280 1 430 1 570 1 690 2 000 2 600 3 180 3 400 4 000 5 000 6 000 8 000 11 000 740 645 590 515 410 360 280 250 233 200 167 139 115 108 95 81 71 57 1 350 1 550 1 700 1 950 2 450 2 800 3 550 4 000 4 300 5 000 6 000 7 200 8 700 9 300 10 500 12 300 14 000 17 500 .16 1. continuous filament m/kg Rtex Diam.40 5.95 2. continuous filament ■ Braided.24 0.8 A kgf 3.60 0.92 1.74 5.25 3. wet.30 2. mm 0.24 0.40 0.5 1.1 4.

25 17 200 58 0.9 1.30 11 100 90 0.55 0.00 1 090 920 1.20 2 12 0.80 1 670 600 0.3 3.20 x 10 2 630 24 0.8 12.Twine.5 15 19 22 25 30 35 40 46 52 58 65 72 75 113 ■ Multimonofilament diam.55 0.30 650 1 540 1.3 7. nylon (polyamide PA). (mm) 0.00 270 3 640 2.90 1 320 755 1.45 5 400 185 0. N' Japan N" Japan (mm) 0.5 8.20 x 12 2 120 26 * for monofilament.4 5.7 9.90 Diameter*xnumberof A m/kg (mm) filaments Kgf 0.60 3 030 330 0.8 2.30 4 18 0. m/kg Tex* mm 0.20 22 700 44 0.7 6.20 x 8 3 125 18 0.80 340 2 960 1.6 2.50 180 5 630 Japanese numbering system for Monofilament Diam.75 1. monofilament and multimonofilament.25 3 14 0.20 x 4 6 250 9 0.90 300 3 290 2. dry without knots (single twine) B = breaking load.40 560 1 790 1.45 8 0.1 4.4 0.7 3.5 7.20 760 1 320 1.60 0.55 3 570 280 0.50 490 2 060 1.50 A kgf 0. Japanese numbering system A = breaking load.80 0. wet.70 0.40 30 6 7 0.70 2 080 480 0.35 8 330 120 0.5 12 14 17 24 29 36 42 47 55 65 75 86 98 110 120 132 145 220 B kgf 0. tex and Rtex are the same.35 5 24 0.20 X 6 4 255 14 0. knotted (single twine) Diam.0 1.70 380 2 630 1.10 90 900 11 0.18 33 300 30 0.5 6.40 6 450 155 0.50 4 170 240 0.6 4.12 62 500 16 0.4 1.65 0.3 1. 10 - TWIN .60 430 2 330 1.10 900 1 110 1.15 43 500 23 0.

94 3.42 36 710 1 410 1.60 0. A m/kg Rtex approx.38 3.18 2.96 290 ■ twisted staple fibres B kgf 5. mm 0.81 0. polyethylene (PE).64 49 570 1 760 1.3 10. approx.80 0.82 A kgf 9 13 18 32 38 57 73 86 100 150 215 300 B kgf 6 9 12 22 24 36 46 54 59 88 120 170 .18 A kgf 13 15 19 25 28 38 44 58 71 92 112 132 152 190 254 B kgf 8 9 11 14 15 19 23 30 36 47 59 70 80 100 130 POLYETHYLENE (PE) ■ twisted or braided thick filaments Diam. continuous filaments m/kg 4 760 3 470 2 780 2 330 1 820 1 560 1 090 840 690 520 440 350 300 210 177 Rtex 210 290 360 430 550 640 920 119011 10 1 920 2 290 2 820 3 300 4 700 5 640 Diam.60 0. mm 0.33 93 294 3 400 2.73 0.60 0.12 27 950 1 050 1.05 1.50 7.56 116 225 4 440 2. mm 0.3 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 29 30 32 40 78 POLYPROPYLENE (PP) ■ twisted.50 0.52 2.40 0.90 3.15 1.72 0.12 2. polypropylene (PP) TWIN A = breaking load.68 218 100 10 100 3.34 1.94 2. approx. continuous filaments m/kg 11 100 5 550 3 640 2 700 2 180 1 800 1 500 1 330 1 200 1 080 1 020 900 830 775 725 665 540 270 Rtex 90 80 275 370 460 555 670 750 830 925 980 1 110 1 200 1 290 1 380 1 500 1 850 3 700 Diam.20 1.22 1.5 16 21 27 32 37 42 46 50 54 60 63 68 73 78 96 180 B kgf 2.02 1.95 2.32 2.92 135 190 5 300 3.48 2. knotted (single twine) POLYESTER (PES) ■ twisted.3 9.85 1.00 1.70 1. dry without knots (single twine) B = breaking load.90 1..62 1.36 1.83 60 460 2 170 2.19 170 130 7 680 3.85 0.95 A kgf* 5.95 1. wet.25 1.Twine: polyester (PES).70 0.04 75 360 2 800 2.5 7 19 24 35 84 54 67 83 97 125 160 210 m/kg 4 760 3 330 2 560 1 250 1 010 720 530 420 325 240 185 150 Rtex 210 300 390 800 990 1 390 1 900 2 360 3 070 4 100 5 400 6 660 Diam.90 0.10 1.75 0.8 5 7. kgf mm 5 260 190 0.10 1.78 10 1 430 700 1.5 2 700 370 0.54 1.35 1.

4 47.8 112.0 5510 37 90.585 1.15 924 11.0 5 220 92.0 190.9 6 380 74.2 1 550 19 24.4 70.0 1 100 17.0 161.3 2 720 39.8 11 120 ROPE .0 5 670 95.0 9 770 115.1 1 760 29.3 30.0 7 480 40 48 R = Breaking strength.0 619 924 1 027 1 285 Diameter mm" 10 11 13 14 16 19 21 24 29 32 37 40 48 16 17.0 132.448 2.905 3.4 10.8 35.4 4 800 72.3 17.3 192 3.2 25.0 R kgf 631 745 994 1 228 1 449 2017 2318 3 091 4 250 5 175 6 456 7 536 10 632 Extra kg/ 100 m 7.2 776 9.5 8 600 Extra kg/ R kgf 100 m 6.3 29.3 17.3 2 230 21 28.25 inch circumference 0 (mm) = 2.5 290 6.056 1.0 R kgf 600 708 944 1 167 1 376 1 916 2 202 2 936 4 037 4916 6 133 7 159 10 100 Diameter mm 3.5 3 370 56.0 20. 8 x c (inch) Example: 0 (mm) of a rope of 2.5 487 598 800 915 Hemp R kgf 45 55 66 77 88 100 113 127 Diameter mm" 10 11 13 14 16 19 21 24 29 32 37 40 48 Standard kg/ 100 m 6.Vegetable fibre ropes* Tarred Cotton kg/100 m 1.300 Sisal Standard kg / R kgf 100 m 2.0 5.0 14.4 8.5 1 550 25.5 3 425 29 54.2 619 9.3 14.0 6.0 86.5 5.2 1 285 17.5 11.5 6.5 3 330 41.3 7 670 112.25 x 8=18 mm (approximate) Manilla Standard kg/ R kgf 100 m 6.6 8.6 4 780 59.9 12.915 2.0 4.5 2 125 26.5 3 425 58.5 2 230 29.3 336 4.8 94.65 2 970 30.2 59.0 1 795 18.25 1 159 12.320 1.5 4.4 9.0 72.0 40.0 112.4 1 470 15.5 1630 25. see page 5 " In English-speaking countries the size of a rope is sometimes measured by its circumference in inches (in.0 4 0501 70. dry Safe working load.188 1.8 10.0 4 640 32 68.2 1 027 14.) or by its diameter in inches Diameter of rope 0 (mm) = approx.7 2 520 40.5 Diameter mm" 6 8 10 11 13 14 Extra kg/ R kgf 100 m 3.7 505 6.30 2 390 24 38.0 7 450 98.0 11.0 13.0 3.

8 18 22 26 30.6 15.4 3 5.1 11.6 22.1 8.5 14.5 6.5 44 51 58.5 46 58.2 6.7 3 4.6 21 26 31.5 84 104 320 750 1 350 2 080 3 000 4 100 5 300 6 700 8 300 10 000 12 000 14 000 15 800 17 800 20 000 24 800 30 000 400 685 1 010 1 450 1 950 2 520 3 020 3 720 4 500 5 250 6 130 7 080 8 050 9 150 11 400 14 000 295 565 1 020 1 590 2 270 3 180 4 060 5 080 6 350 7 620 9 140 10 700 12 200 13 700 15 700 19 300 23 900 . 550 960 1 425 2 030 2 790 3 500 4 450 5 370 6 500 7 600 8 900 10 100 11 500 12 800 16 100 19 400 R = breaking strength.5 (PE) Rkgf Polyest er kg/100 m 1.4 4.8 16.7 20. seepage 15 .7 6.5 35.5 72 (PP) Rkgf 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 36 40 1.1 2.5 66.7 3 4.5 9 11.5 42 47.4 46 53.7 9.9 82 104 128 (PES) R kgf Polypr opy ene Kg/10 0m _ 1. ropes and cables ' Safe working load see page 5 " Conversioninch-mm.5 36.Synthetic fibre rope* ROPE Diameter mm" Polyamid e kg/100 (PA) R kgf Polyet hy ene kg/10 0m 1.5 40.4 12.5 37.1 12 15 18. dry Direction of twist of twines.7 63 71.6 60 74.5 26 32 38.5 27 31.5 9.

Rope: joining knots and loops Some knots are used more than others. ■ Joining two cords ■ Loops ROPE . In selecting which knot to use the following points should be considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether the knot is permanent.

In selecting which knot to use the following points should be considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether the knot is permanent.e. ■ For stopping a rope from running through a narrow space (i.Knots for stoppers and mooring ROPE Some knots are used more than others. sheave) ■ Knots for mooring ■ To close the codend of a trawl (codend knot) ■ To shorten a rope .

In selecting which knot to use the following points should be considered : — the use of the knot — the type of rope — whether the knot will slip — whether the knot is permanent. ROPE .Knots for hitches and stoppers Some knots are used more than others.

Loss of breaking strength due to knots and splices ROPE .

565 28 0. see page 5 ROPE .370 0.840 Tarred Rkgf 1 285 1 750 2 200 2 800 3 500 4 200 5 300 6 400 7 600 R = Breaking strength dry *Safe working loads.255 0.200 0.183 16 0.485 0.103 0.700 0.094 12 0.760 0.615 0.147 0.325 0.445 0.405 0.Sisal 4 strands Diameter (mm) kg/m 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 28 30 0.615 0.235 18 0.183 0.300 0.885 Tarred Rkgf 910 1 285 1 750 2 200 2 800 3 500 4 200 5 300 6 700 7 600 Untreated Rkgf 1 420 1 900 2 400 3 100 3 800 4 600 5 700 7 200 8 400 kg/m 0.700 30 0.255 0.135 14 0.235 0.760 0.Combination wire (1)* ■ Steel .405 0.565 0.445 25 0.Sisal 3 strands Diameter (mm) kg/m 10 0.820 ■ Steel .300 20 0.485 0.147 0.325 0.775 Untreated Rkgf 1 010 1 420 1 900 2 400 3 100 3 800 4 600 5 700 7 500 8 400 kg/m 0.135 0.200 0.370 22 0.

380 22 0.706 50 2.120 0.480 0.165 0.235 1.350 0.22 Combination wire (2)* ■ Steel -Manilla B.710 30 0.205 0.275 0.775 0.140 0.250 0.890 34 1.860 0.Polypropylene Diameter (mm) 10 12 14 16 18 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 R = Breaking strength dry * Safe working loads. see page 5 ROPE Untreated Rkgf 1 500 2 000 2 500 3 300 4 000 5 000 6 200 7 600 8 900 9 500 11 200 12 000 15 000 18 500 22 500 kg/m 0.100 1.495 0.495 1.640 1 230 1 345 1 540 2 070 3 000 4 000 4 400 5 300 6 400 7 200 7 800 9 700 .240 18 0.520 0.970 1.220 Tarred Rkgf 1 370 1 850 2 350 3 000 3 800 4 600 5 700 6 900 8 200 8 750 10 200 11 000 14000 17 500 20 000 Number of strands 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 kg/m Rkgf 0.630 0.105 0.790 32 0.150 0.860 2.305 20 0.138 14 0.260 0.045 ■ Steel .410 0.185 16 0.140 40 1.430 0.335 0.575 28 0.010 36 1.240 0.380 45 1. 4 strands Diameter (mm) kg/m 12 0.455 25 0.

2.2 8 13.90. high cost.7 kg/100m 7.1 12.5 4 4. 2) ROPE Braided with a centre core of lead .3.3 23.5 9.Floatlines and leadlines ■ Floatline (with floats inside) Diameter (mm) 2 2.75.0 R = breaking strength there are also leadlines of 0. Diameter (mm) 7. better hanging.5 9.3 10 21. uniform weight of leadline.8 21.5 15.7 7 11. Need to calculate the rigging as a function of the distance between the floats. 1.8 kg/100m Rkgf 495 675 865 1 280 1 825 2510 ■ Leadline (with leads inside) Principal advantages (i) and disadvantages (2) 1) Ease of rigging.2 8 8 9. difficult to repair.5 11.5 3 3.1 Rkgf 73 100 200 300 1) 2) Ease of rigging. In the case of breaking. loss of leads.5 5 Principal advantages (1) and disadvantages (2) kg/100 m 2. 1.5 Rkgf 360 360 360 360 360 360 360 675 Floatline (with floats inside) Interval between floats (cm) 52 47 35 20 35 20 Flotation gf/100m 480 500 570 840 2850 3 000 Rope with a lead core in three strands Diameter kg/100m 6 8.1 9. 1.2-18.5.1 -12.8 27.5 12.6 14 33.0 37. 0.6 6.5 4.5 18. fragility of some types of float when passing through certain gillnet haulers.6 12 26.1 11.3 .3 14. no entanglement in meshes.5-7.5 30. less entanglement in the meshes.

the greater the flexibility of the cable. the greater the number of strands. running rigging moorings and towing Purse wire moorings and running rigging mooring + ++ ++ . Example of Use Standing rigging S + Standing rigging Warps for small trawlers Small coastal vessels Bridles and warps for small trawlers moorings and running rigging Trawler warps + ++ + Trawler's sweeps and warps running rigging Purse wire bridles and otter board strops. diameter and use WIRE ROPE Examples of common marine wire rope Type Structure and diameter 7x7(6/1) central heart: steel 12 to 28 mm 6x7 (6/1) Central heart: textile 8 to 16 mm 6x12(12/fibre) Central heart. strand cores. fibre 8 to 16 mm 6x19 (9/9/1) Central heart of steel or textile 16to30mm 6x19(12/6/1) Central heart of textile 8 to 30 mm 6x24(15/9/fibre) Central heart and strand cores of textile 8 to 40 mm 6x37(18/12/6/1) Central heart of textile 20 to 72 mm S = flexibility + = poor or average ++ = good As a general rule.Steel wire rope: structure. and the greater the number of filaments per strand.

0 109 134 163 193 6x 37 (18/12/6/1) kg/ 100 m 134 163 193 227 R kgf 2 850 4 460 6 420 8 730 11 400 14 400 17 800 21 600 25 700 Diam mm 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 21 22 24 26 6 x24(15/9/fibre) kg/ 100 m 19.8 6x19(9/9/1) kg/ 100 m 92.3 35.1 34. breaking strength* 25 (for structure.6 68.0 50.0 47.5 33.Galvanised steel wire rope: runnage.5 60.6 48.1 88.7 42. mm 6 8 9 10 12 14 16 6x12 (12/fibre) kg/ 100 m 9. mm 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 R kgf 12 300 13 900 15 500 17 300 19 200 21 200 23 200 25 400 27 600 30 000 32 400 diam.3 R kgf 1 100 1 940 2 450 3 020 4 350 5 930 7 740 diam.0 78.8 30.9 44. mm 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 6x7 (6/1) kg/ 100 m 22.7 24.6 19.9 15. mm 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 6x19(12/6/1) kg/ 100 m 21.2 28.1 100 124 136 150 178 209 diam mm 20 R kgf 2 600 4 060 5 850 7 960 10 400 13 200 22 24 26 R kgf 17 100 20 700 24 600 28 900 R = Breaking strength (steel 145 kgf/mm ) * Safe Working Loads.0 58.6 79. see page 24) examples diam.4 65. see page 5 2 16 200 17 900 19 700 23 400 27 500 WIRE ROPE .6 105 117 131 145 160 175 191 208 226 245 R kgf 3 080 3 900 4 820 5 830 6 940 8 140 9 440 10 800 12 300 diam.7 62.8 86.

26 Handling wire rope WIRE ROPE NO YES ■ Winding onto a drum depending on the direction of lay in a wire .

In practical use on board fishing vessels. and depending on the particular situation.C x 5 (or more). D should range from 20 to 48 . and depending on the particular situation. the following values are common : D = 14 or more The diameter of a sheave (D) relative to the diameter of the wire rope (0) to be used with the sheave — D/ depends on the structure of the wire rope.) ■ Cable clamps should be fastened with nuts on the standing part of the wire WIRE ROPE . C x 11 is recommended (In order to let a sheave shift with changing wire angles. depending on the space available. In practical use on board fishing vessels. depending on the space available.Matching wire ropes with drums and sheaves ■ Drums: the diameter of a drum (D) relative to the diameter of the wire rope (0) to be held on the drum — D/ depends on the structure of the wire rope. it is often better to use a flexibly attached block rather than a fixed sheave. D should range from 20 to 48 . the following values are common: D = 9 or more Width of sheave relative to the diameter of the wire rope ■ Sheaves : ■ Location of sheave relative to drum Maximum fleet angle of a steel wire between a fixed sheave and a drum with manual or automatic spooling gear: L .

049 0.4 170 1.5 1. heat treated and painted (examples) diam.4 290 245 200 175 155 130 110 2.3 140 1.4 1.Steel wire rope.028 0.8 1.50 0.5 1.2 120 1. not lubricated Number of Diameter Strands Wires mm 2 3 4 5 6 R = breaking stength 5 6 6 6 6 1 plus 6 1 plus 6 1 plus 6 7 9 Diameter of wires mm 0.016 0.64 34 0.69 40 0.8 1.8 1.25 0.2 2.0 1.1 100 1.7 50 0.110 Rkat (steel 80 .8 1.9 1.3 R kgf 220 180 155 130 115 100 85 2.3 155 1.8 65 0.2 2.5 290 245 200 175 155 1.4 2.6 40 0.0 1.90 kgf/mm ) 125 215 380 600 775 .5 1.3 1. mm 2.50 kg/m 0.6 1.5 210 1. R Construction mm kgf 1.2 2.30 0.0 90 0.1 290 245 200 175 155 135 110 ■ Galvanised steel.9 75 0.6 1.081 0. small diameter WIRE ROPE ■ Stainless steel.91 60 0.75 45 0.58 28 1.6 1.6 30 Construction diam.40 0.0 1.6 1.2 1.82 50 0.00 75 0.

Meshes: Definition ■ Types of mesh nets ■ Dimension of mesh. and mesh opening (OM) Knotted netting Knotted netting (Raschel type) Hexagonal mesh b = bar length Meshes of metallic or plastic netting see page 107 NET WEBBING . stretched mesh (a).

which is considered in many fisheries regulations. Portugal Japan * Note that stretched meshsize is not the same as mesh opening. A simple method of measuring stretched meshsize is as follows: extend a panel of twine fully in the N direction (see page 32 for N direction). Then divide this measure by 10. .Systems of measuring net meshes in different countries NET WEBBING SYSTEM stretched mesh PLACES USED international TYPE OF MEASURE distance (N direction) between the centres of the 2 opposite knots of a stretched mesh * maximum inside measure (N direction) between the 2 opposite knots of a stretched mesh * length of one bar of mesh number of meshes per 200 mm half the number of meshes per Alen (1 Alen = 628 mm) half the number of meshes per Alen (1 Alen = 594 mm) number of rows of knots per yard (1 yard = 910 mm) number of knots per metre number of knots per 6 inches (6 inches = 152 mm) a OM mesh opening international b P On Os R N F bar length pasada omfar omfar rows knots Fushi or Setsu Conversions some European countries Spain. and measure the distance between the centres of 2 knots (or connexions) separated by 10 meshes. Iceland Sweden Netherlands. UK Spain. Portugal Norway.

Double sheet bend ■ Edges and selvedges Reef knot NET WEBBING .Knots and edges or selvedges ■ Knots Sheet bend The height of the single knot is approximately equal to three times the diameter of the twine.

Definition of cuts NET WEBBING .

5 4x1 + 3x0.5 0.5 0 + 2x0.5 0.5 1.5 0.5/ 5.5=3/11 NET WEBBING .5 2 1 4x0 + 3x0.5 0 1 0 1 Meshes T 1 0 1 0 1T2B 4N3B 1 +2x0.Cutting rates ■ Cutting rate D = number of meshes to decrease H = number of meshes in height ■ Values of the parts of a cut Bars Sideknots B N Decrease in meshes D Height in meshes H 0.

Common cutting rates and tapers NET WEBBING Number of meshes decreasing (or increasing) in width 1 1 2 3 4 Number of meshes in height (or depth) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 AB 1N2B 1N1B 3N2B 2N1B 5N2B 3N1B 7N2B 4N1B 9N2B 5N1B 11N2B 6N1B 13N2B 7MB 15N2B 8N1B 17N2B 9N1B 2 1T2B AB 1N4B 1N2B 3N4B 1N1B 5N4B 3N2B 7N4B 2N1B 9N4B 5N2B 11N4B 3N1B 13N4B 7N2B 15N4B 4N1B 17N4B 3 1T1B 1T4B AB 1N6B 1N3B 1N2B 2N3B 5N6B 1N1B 7N6B 4N3B 3N2B 5N3B 11N6B 2N1B 13N6B 7N3B 5N2B 8N3B 4 3T2B 1T2B 1T6B AB 1N8B 1N4B 3N8B 1N2B 5N8B 3N4B 7N8B 1MB 9N8B 5N4B 11N8B 3M2B 13N8B 7N4B 15N8B 5 2T1B 3T4B 1 T3B 1T8B AB 1N10B 1N5B 3N10B 2N5B 1N2B 3N5B 7N10B 4N5B 9N10B 1MB 11N10B 6N5B 13N10B 7N5B 6 5T2B 1T1B 1T2B 1T4B 1T10B AB 1N12B 1N6B 1N4B 1N3B 5N12B 1N2B 7N12B 2N3B 3N4B 5N6B 11N12B 1MB 13M12B 7 3T1B 5T4B 2T3B 3T8B 1T5B 1T12B AB 1N14B 1N7B 3N14B 2N7B 5N14B 3N7B 1N2B 4N7B 9N14B 5N7B 11N14B 6N7B 8 7T2B 3T2B 5T6B 1T2B 3T10B 1T6B 1T14B AB 1N16B 1N8B 3N16B 1N4B 5N16B 3N8B 7N16B 1N2B 9N16B 5N8B 11N16B 9 4T1B 7T4B 1T1B 5T8B 2T5B 1T4B 1T7B 1T16B AB 1N18B 1N9B 1N6B 2N9B 5N18B 1N3B 7N18B 4N9B 1N2B 5N9B 10 9T2B 2T1B 7T6B 3T4B 1T2B 1T3B 3T14B 1T8B 1T18B AB 1N20B 1N10B 3N20B 1N5B 1N4B 3N10B 7N20B 2N5B 9N20B N = Sideknots T = Meshes B = Bars .

09 1.5 mm) W= 100 x 20 x (1690/1000) x 1.40 1. 100 mm bar length (200 mm stretched mesh length).32 1.24 120 1.12 1. see table below K = (knot correction factor) for different netting panels Stretched Twine diameter (d) in mm meshsize 0.04 1.40 1.02 200 1.16 1.60 1.30 1.16 1.20 1.75 1.05 1.80 30 1.15 1.07 1.02 1.12 1.80 1.64 1.25 0.60 1.07 1.16 1.05 1.00 2.5 mm (see page 12) K in the table above =1.27 1.40 1.40 1.16 1.64 1.03 1 600 - 2.53 1.02 1. height 50 meshes.03 1.40 80 1.23 1.08 1.07 1.80 1.Estimation of weight of netting ■ Knotless netting W = H x L x Rtex/1000 = H x L x (1000/m/kg) ■ Knotted netting W = H x L x Rtex/1000 x K = H x L x (1000/m/ka) Where W = H x L x Rtex/1000 x K = H x L x (1000/m/ka) W = estimated weight (g) of netting H = number of rows of knots in the height of the netting 2 x number of meshes L = Stretched length (m) of netting Rtex and m/kg = the size of twine in the netting K = knot correction factor to take into account the weight of the knots (single knot).32 1.06 800 1.06 1.80 1.07 1.17 160 1.00 1.24 1.12 = 3785 g = about 3. R1690 tex (590 m/kg).02 3.04 1.00 2.02 400 1.08 1.04 Example : Knotted netting of twisted nylon twine.60 40 1. diameter 1.03 1.20 1.13 1.10 1.20 1.34 1.96 1.03 4.50 (mm) 20 1.00 1.40 1.20 1.03 1.46 1.48 60 1.12 (stretched mesh 200 mm.15 1.30 1.10 1.32 1.08 1.80 1.8 kg NET WEBBING .24 1.10 1.30 100 1.10 1.48 1.08 1.13 1.20 1.200 m = 20 m Diameter of twisted polyamide twine 1690 Rtex = 1.11 1. length 100 meshes 50 meshes = 100 rows of knots in height Stretched length = 100 meshes x 0.07 1.27 1.53 1.06 1.53 1.08 1.40 50 1.13 1.06 1.27 1.04 1.04 1.20 140 1.50 0.12 1.

5 mm . where S = twine surface area (square metres) N = number of meshes at the top of the panel n = number of meshes at the bottom of the panel H = number of meshes in the height of the panel a = stretched mesh (mm) = diameter of twine (mm) Example : In the piece of netting shown above on the right. 0 = 1. H = 6. a = 80 mm. if N = 16. n = 6.Calculating twine surface area NET WEBBING The drag of a net is proportional to the number and type of meshes in the netting. and to the orientation of the net panel(s) in the water.

the trawls should be as nearly the same shape as possible.58 2.84 5. .36 1.13 B 2 61 90 5490 80 1. and can be disregarded.76 0.83 F 2 54 90 4860 80 1.13 Twine surface area without knots 181 181 100 100 66 181 100 90 Twine Area 0. will cause no significant drag.32 2 TOTAL S = 15.83 J 2 86 150 12900 40 1.43 1.Calculating twine surface area of a trawl NET WEBBING ■ NET WEBBING: CALCULATING TWINE SURFACE AREA OF A TRAWL PANEL No of A H Surface Panels (mm) (mm) A 4 21 24 504 80 1.83 D 2 194 140 27160 60 0.80 1. In the case of such comparisons the surfaces of the lengthening pieces and the codend (parts without oblique orientation).08 m In order to compare the twine surface areas of two trawls.13 C 1 279 30 8370 60 0.83 E 2 136 100 13600 40 0.13 G 2 97 30 2910 60 0.99 0.

22 2.25 1.66 1.71 0.50 0.75 0.02 90% 80% 70% 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 29% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 2% 900% 400% 233% 150% 122% 100% 82% 67% 54% 41% 33% 25% 18% 11% 5% 2% 1) Also called external hanging co-efficient 2) Also called percentage of hanging in — Setting in x 100 — Looseness percentage of hanging — Hang in (Asia. definition and calculation NET WEBBING ■ Hanging ratio (E) is commonly defined as : F = L / Lo = Length of rope on which a net panel is mounted (L) / Length of stretched netting hung on the rope (Lo) Example: 200 meshes of 50 mm stretched mesh size hung on a rope of 8 m ■ Other expressions used for hanging ratio : Estimate of the height as mounted % of stretched height 99% 98% 95% 92% 89% 87% 84% 80% 76% 71% 66% 60% 53% 44% 31% 20% 0.Hanging ratios.85 0.20 0.33 1.40 0.55 0.65 0.60 0.80 0.10 0.00 1.45 0.33 2.5 2.18 1.11 1.82 1.30 0.05 1.95 0.98 10% 20% 30% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 71% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 98% 10 5 3.41 1.54 1.90 0. Japan) 3) Also called Hang in ratio (Scandinavia) Note : It is recommended that only the hanging ratio E be used .

that is when each mesh forms a square NET WEBBING .Surface covered at different hanging ratios ■ Examples of common horizontal hanging ratios ■ Calculation of the surface covered by a piece of netting where S = surface covered by netting (in square metres) E = hanging ratio (horizontal) L = number of meshes in length H = number of meshes in height 2 a = (stretched mesh size in metres) squared Example: Note : The surface covered is at a maximum when E = 0.71.

Mounted height of a net NET WEBBING ■ Calculation of mounted height The actual height of a mounted (rigged or hung) net depends on the stretched height and the hanging ratio.6 m .90. 500 x 30 = 15000 mm = 15 m Mounted height = stretched height x ■ Table for estimating mounted height Example: Given the piece of netting described on the preceding page.90 : Stretched height of netting 500 meshes of 30 mm. The general formula permitting estimation in all cases is : mounted height (m) = stretched height (m) 2 Where E = horizontal hanging ratio multiplied by itself Example: Given the piece of netting described on the preceding page with hanging ratio of 0. Stretched height = 500 meshes of 30 mm = 500 x 30 mm = 15 m Mounted height = 44% of 15 m = 6. we can deduce from the table above (E to A to H) that its mounted height is 44% of the stretched height. mounted with the horizontal hanging ratio 0.

and AN) Netting having the same number of meshes. and meshes of the same size. AT.Joining panels of netting ■ Netting with straight edges (i. Netting having a different number of meshes or meshes of a different size Example of joining 2/3 2 meshes of 45 mm on 3 meshes of 30 mm (2 x 45 = 3 x 30) ■ Netting cut obliquely with a combination of cuts B and N orT Pieces having a different number of meshes and different cuts NET WEBBING .e. or approximately the same size. AB.

Mounting (hanging or rigging) panels of netting NET WEBBING Examples .

5 4 4. (mm) 1 1 1 1.5 31 35 Shank diam.Examples of fish hook characteristics Number 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1/0 Regular hooks gap (mm) 9.5 1.5 Number 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 5/0 6/0 8/0 10/0 12/0 14/0 Forged hooks gap (mm) 10 11 12 13 14.5 10 11 12.5 2 2.5 14 15 16 18 20 23 26.5 1.5 3 3 3. (mm) 1 1 1 1.5 3 3.5 2 2 2.5 16.5 4 5 6 .Terms for describing fish hooks FISH HOOKS ■ .5 10 27 29 31 39 50 Shank diam.

ring eye ■ Reversed hooks ■ Specialised hooks for particular species or fishing methods Trolling Reversed. closed Tuna jig hook. for tuna or shark Pole and line Flatted shank Double. flatted shank Double hook. reversed Flatted shank. for tuna poles and line ■ Kirbed (offset) hooks Treble. hole in flat. reversed Kirbed. ring eye . tuna Trolling Circle hook Large gap ■ Double and treble hooks Longlines Shank bent down Double.Principal types of fish hooks FISH HOOKS ■ Straight hooks 'J' shape. barbless With swivel Treble. straight Barbless.

knots for fish hooks ■ Lures ■ Knots for ring-eyed hooks ■ Knots for flatted shank hooks FISH HOOKS .Lures.

snaps.Swivels. knots for longlines LINE FISHING ACCESSORIES ■ Swivels ■ Snaps ■ Knots for joining branchline or snood to mainline ■ Knots for joining branchline to snood .

Floats for seines: examples Examples : in expanded PVC. (g) buoyancy in air kgf 350 2. Estimation of the number of floats necessary for a seine : FLOATS .5 L 195 203 203 Ø 150 152 175 Ø 28 28 28 L 192 198 198 Ø 146 151 174 Ø 26 28 33 For the dimensions given. (g) buoyancy in air kgf 326 2. Durability is a most important characteristic of a seine float.0 Wt. two types of manufacture Wt. with L ranging from 100 to 400 mm. 0 from 75 to 300 mm.2 412 2.5 490 3. the buoyancy varies depending on the material. There are a great variety of seine floats. and buoyancy from 300 to 22 000 gf.4 322 2.2 515 3. Rough estimation of the buoyancy may be found by measuring the float.

67 x L (cm) x Ø (cm) Dimensions (mm) ØxL 76 x 44 88 x 51 101 x 57 140 x 89 Ø 8 8 10 16 Buoyancy (gf) 70 100 160 560 Buoyancy (gf) 70 100 160 560 180 Dimensions (mm) ØxL Ø 76 x 45 8 89 x 51 8 102 x 57 10 140 x 89 16 158 x 46 8 Estimation of the buoyancy from the size of a float 2 2 buoyancy (in gf) = 0.5 x L (cm) x Ø (cm) 2 Ø = external diameter multiplied by itself .Floats for gillnets and seines (1) FLOATS Examples Dimensions (mm) ØxL 30 x 50 50 x 30 50 x 40 65 x 20 65 x 40 70 x 20 70 x 30 80 X 20 80 x 30 80 x 40 80 x 75 85 x 140 100 x 40 100 x 50 100 x 75 100 x 90 100 x 100 125 x 100 150 x 100 Ø 6 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 14 19 25 Buoyancy (gf) 30 50 67 55 110 63 95 88 131 175 330 720 275 355 530 614 690 1 060 1 523 Estimating the buoyancy from the size of the Float: 2 2 buoyancy (in gf) = 0.

Floats for gillnets and seines (2) Examples L (mm) 25 32 42 58 60 65 Ø (mm) 32 58 75 66 70 75 Ø (mm) 6 10 12 12 12 12 Buoyancy (gf) 20 60 110 175 200 220 65 80 12 250 58 60 72 80 100 Ø (mm) 146 146 146 184 184 200 200 23 25 35 40 50 Ø (mm) 100 88 82 120 106 116 112 8 10 25 35 100 Buoyancy (gf) 110 200 240 310 450 590 550 FLOATS .

5 1. with "ears" or lugs plastic with screw lug Aluminium The table below shows that. center hole plastic. for floats of equal diameter (200 mm in this case). and should be specified by the supplier.5 Aluminium. side hole 200 200 280 75 100 125 160 200 203 200 280 152 191 203 254 Volume (litres) 4 4 11 0. shape or colour .3 2.8 3.5 0. with screw lug 4 3.5 Plastic.1 0.6 Plastic.9 3. Ø 200 mm Volume Buoyancy (kgf) Plastic.7 2. center hole 4 2.8 1.6 Buoyancy kgf 2.2 0.5 8.3 0.8 3.4 2.4 Maximum depth (m) 1 500 350 600 400 500 400-500 400-500 400-500 1 800 400 500-600 1 190. side hole 4 3. the volume and buoyancy may vary a great deal.4 8.6 2.4 4 11-11.5 1 2 4 4. 820 1 000 1 000 plastic. with lugs 4.8 6. depending on the material and placement of holes or lugs.6 4.Spherical floats and trawl floats FLOATS Examples from suppliers' catalogues Diameter (mm) plastic.4 3.5 9 1.8 * Note: The maximum effective depth of a float depends on the manufacture. It cannot be deduced from the appearance.9 4 3.

5 L (mm) 300 180 L (mm) 300 180 H (mm) 200 180 Ø (mm) 35 25 Buoyancy kgf 12 – 15 4 Ø (mm) 510 760 1 015 1 270 1 525 1 905 2 540 Ø (mm) 160 240 320 405 480 610 810 Ø (mm) 11 30 30 30 30 30 30 L (mm) 185 350 440 585 670 785 1 000 L (mm) 18 43 43 43 43 48 48 Buoyancy kgf 2 8 17 34 60 110 310 Ø (mm) 760 1 015 1 270 1 525 Ø (mm) 240 320 405 480 Ø (mm) 38 38 51 51 L (mm) 340 400 520 570 Buoyancy kgf 7.5 17 33. lines and traps Ø (mm) 125 150 150 150 150 200 L (mm) 300 530 600 680 760 430 Ø (mm) 25 25 25 25 25 45 B (mm) 200 380 450 530 580 290 C (mm) 90 100 100 100 100 110 Buoyancy kgf 2.8 9.9 7.4 11.Floats (buoys) for marking nets.5 59 FLOATS .5 10.2 10.

examples of shapes ■ Example of mould for leads ■ Example of groundrope rings for a gillnet Ex: Ø mm 210 220 Ø mm 5 6 Pg 105 128 .Groundrope leads and rings Examples ■ Leads for ropes L(mm) Ø (mm) G (g) 25 16 113 38 16 90 38 13 64 32 10 56 32 8 50 32 6 41 25 6 28 45 5 28 45 5 28 45 6 16 ■ Leads for lines.

25 Ø mm 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ø mm 11 13 14 16 18 20 Approximate weight kg/m 2.W.5 0.30 9.250 6.80 4.5 64x24 76 X 28.640 7.5 S.90 2.00 High tensile steel Ø mm 7 10 13 16 19 LxE (mm) 21 X 10.175 45.570 21.75 1.80 7.35 1.Chains and thimbles* ■ Chains Approximate Weight kg/m 0.000 Breaking strength Ton.720 5.435 9.232 2.f 1.370 Weight kg/m 1.00 1.158 12.140 ■ Thimbles ■ Clips for wire rope Cable clamps or 'bulldog grips' Safe Working Load see page 5 HARDWARE . Ton.240 32.L.40 5.5 40x15 52x19.090 2.514 4.70 3.207 3.F 6.

830 2.200 1.f 0.375 0.S.000 13.000 35.250 3.000 22. Ton.200 2.Steel accessories for joining : shackles.600 3.250 11.f 1.W.L Ton.000 ■ Links and Clips * Safe Working Load see page 5 .600 5. links and clips* HARDWARE Ø (mm) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 C (mm) 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 40 45 O (mm) 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 65 75 100 S.220 0.200 16.350 2.750 1.830 B.565 0.500 7.400 4.

320 0.000 B.100 1.500 4.W.17 1.f 0.000 36.61 7.S.920 3.f 1. high tensile stainless steel A (mm) 146 174 200 B (mm) 48 55 62 C (mm) 20 27 34 S.* Ton.000 ■ Swivel.800 1.L.000 4.* Ton.1 2.540 8.W.S.L.L.* Ton.f 15 25 30 Weight Kg 1.14 ■ Swivel.Swivels ■ Swivel.3 2. tempered steel and hot galvanized Ø mm 8 16 22 32 S.570 2.000 15.360 4. forged steel Ø (mm) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 E (mm) 17 25 28 35 35 38 43 50 60 Ø (mm) 14 15 18 20 20 25 26 33 40 S.f 3 5 6 B.000 2.** Ton.** Ton.12 2.W.8 HARDWARE .600 9.000 6.170 Weight Kg 0.000 24.600 12.f 0.500 0.800 6.600 2.

* Ton.L.* Ton.6 5.1 3.0 B.0 7.W.f 8 15 25 35 * Safe working load and breaking strength see page 5 .S.f 1.Hooks and 'G' links* HARDWARE "G" link High tensile steel F mm 25 30 34 38 S.

0 0.Spreaders.800 2.400 6.000 3.3 4.1 HARDWARE .0 6.0 2.0 6.500 1.000 12.000 6.65 1.t 0.0 4.000 Weight kg 1.5 0.600 5. codend release and purse rings ■ For trawl ■ For seine : Opening purse clips or rings Interior Diam.200 3.0 5.0 3. mm A 86 107 107 110 75 94 103 103 106 25 38 36 Exterior Width mm B 128 172 187 187 128 150 169 169 175 65 80 90 Exterior Length mm C 180 244 262 262 200 231 253 262 264 111 140 153 Thickness Mm D 22 32 32 37 19 25 28 35 38 17 15 19 Opening Mm E 34 47 52 53 40 47 50 53 53 17 25 29 Breaking strength Ton.800 5.400 3.500 3.0 5.

chains (2} and spacers (3) .Elements of trawl groundropes: steel bobbins HARDWARE Ø mm L mm A Weight in air Kg 7.5 10 18 29 35 B Weight in air kg 9.5 22 34 40 200 250 300 350 400 165 215 260 310 360 Ø mm L mm Ø mm A Weight in air kg 12 15 25 42 51 B Weight in air kg 14 17.5 29 46 56 200 250 300 350 400 380 570 610 660 715 30 32 35 60 60 Example of rigging a groundrope with bobbins (1).5 12.

50 4.50 ■ Rings or "cookies" (made from old tyres) diameter ext.Elements of trawl groundropes: steel bobbins HARDWARE Examples ■ Bunts Ø (mm) Wt.40 0. in air (kg) per piece Wt. Ø (mm) Weight* (kg/m) diameter ext.0 80 30 3. in water (kg) per piece 178 121 44 1.80 2.65 2.4 1.57 305 5.3 200 45 5.20 3.0 240 45 7. Ø (mm) Weight* per piece (kg) 60 25 2. in air (kg) per piece Wt.0 110 30 7.10 2. in air (kg) per piece Wt. Ø (mm) diameter int.5 * Weight in air .98 305 9.85 406 19.30 0.50 229 4. Ø (mm) diameter int. in water (kg) per piece ■ Spacers L(mm) Ø (mm) Ø (mm) Wt.36 178 165 66 2. in water (kg) per piece ■ Bobbins Ø (mm) Wt.00 406 11.10 356 8.63 0.10 356 11.5 280 45 10.

Slings and tackles LIFTING .

.

.

Purse seine: example of plan and rigging PURSE SEINES
Purse seine for sardine and other small pelagic species for a boat of 10 m LOA (PAJOT FAO) * Note : With small purse seines where the purse line is not coiled on a drum, the purse line may be lashed to the buoy line.

Purse seines: minimum dimensions, mesh sizes, twine sizes PURSE SEINES
■ Minimum length and depth the purse seine, size of the bunt* of Some examples Species Stretched meshsize (mm) 12 16 18-20 25-30 Size of twine (Rtex) 75-100 75-150 100-150 150-300

— Minimum length depends on the length of seiner : length of purse seine > 15 x length of seiner

— Minimum
seine

depth : 10% of the length of

small anchovy, n'dagala, kapenta (East Africa) anchovies, small sardine sardine, sardinella large sardinella, bonga, flying fish, small mackerel and Spanish mackerel mackerel, mullet, tilapia, Spanish mackerel, small bonito Bonito, tuna, wahoo, Scorn beromorus sp.

— Minimum

length and depth of bunt = length of vessel ■ Choice of mesh size is a function of the target species. It is necessary to avoid enmeshing or gilling the fish (with respect for regulations on minimum mesh size].

50-70

300-390

50-70 (min)

450-550

where: OM = mesh opening (mm] in the bunt L = length (mm) of target species

■ Relationship between the diameter of the twine and mesh size in different parts of the purse seine : diameter of twine (mm) stretched mesh size (mm) Some examples Body of the purse seine 0.01 to 0.04 Bunt of the purse seine 0.01 to 0.05 North Sea 0.04 to 0.07 0.01 to 0.06

K = coefficient, a function of the target species K K = 5 for fish that are long and narrow = 3.5 for average shaped fish

Small Pelagic Fish

K = 2.5 for flat, deep-bodied, or wide fish

Large Pelagic Fish

0.005 to 0.03

* In purse seines, as in many types of fishing gear, the 'bunt' refers to the section of net which is hauied last or the section in which the catch may be concentrated

Weight of ballast*, buoyancy of floats, weight of netting
■ Ratio of netting (in air) ballast to weight of the buoyancy needed is a bit more than half the weight (in air) of the netting. Buoyancy = 1.3 to 1.6 x (weight of netting in water + weight of ballast in water) = (1.3 to 1.6) x (0.10 + 0.27) = 0.5 to 0.6 kg per kg of netting (weight in air) (b) If a smaller purse seine has relatively light netting (as is common), the ballast should be relatively heavy, and the buoyancy may be equal to or slightly greater than the weight of the netting (in air).

The weight (in air) of the ballast normally ranges between 1/3 and 2/3 the weight of the netting (in air).** The weight (in air) of the ballast per metre of seine footrope is often between 1 and 3 kg (although more is used for small mesh purse seines used to catch deep-swimming small pelagic fish and up to 8 kg/m is used in large tuna seines). ■ Ratio of buoyancy weight of the seine to total

The rigging of floats on a purse seine must take into account not only the buoyancy needed to balance the total weight of the gear in water, but also additional buoyancy.*** This additional buoyancy should be of the order of 30% for calm waters, and up to 50-60% in areas of strong currents, to compensate for rough sea conditions and other factors related to handling of the gear. Buoyancy should be greater in the area of the bunt (which has heavier twine) and mid-way along the seine (where pulling forces are greater during pursing). In practical terms, the buoyancy of the floats should be equal to about 1.5 to 2 times the weight of the ballast along the bottom of the seine, Examples (a) If a large purse seine has relatively heavy netting (as is common), ballast may be relatively light, and

Buoyancy = 1.3 to 1.6 (weight of netting in water + weight of ballast in water) = (1.3 to 1.6) x (0.10 + 0.72) = 1 to 1.3 kg per kg of netting (in air) In summary, the procedure of choosing weight of ballast and buoyancy*** required is to calculate : (1) the weight (in air) of netting Wn** (2) the weight (in air) of leads Ws
Ws= (0.3 to 0.8) x Wn

(3) Buoyancy = (1.3 to 1.6) x (0.1 Wn + 0.9 Ws) = (1.3 to 2) x Ws

* Ballast in this case Is considered to include the sinkers on the leadline, purse rings, chain and any other lead or Iron rigging along the bottom of the seine ** Weight of netting, see page 35 *** Buoyancy of purse seine floats, see pages

PURSE SEINES

The hanging ratio (E). and 60% near the centre of the net.75 times the length of the leadline. The hanging ratio may also vary along the floatline or leadline. leads and purserings) AD = SD x 0.Hanging. For more on hanging ratios and methods of hanging. volume on board. tow line. depending on the type of net.0 m/min. Volume (on board) occupied by the seine when rigged V(m ) = 5 x weight (tons) of the seine (in air) Depth in water of the seine (see also pages 39 and 40).1 to 1. The purse line must have good resistance to abrasion and good breaking strength. however in some types. is usually greater on the leadline than on the floatline. Hanging ratios generally range from 0. see pages 38. As an approximation.90. The tow line is normally about 25% of the length of the purse seine. with an average of 9. the two lines are equal in length. purse line.50 to 0. The purse line is generally 1. leadline. leadline. sinking speed has been measured in a range from 2.6 centre of net Sinking speed of a purse seine — for different seines. and 42. or stretched meshsize x number of meshes) of the seine at its extremities. 3 . usually being lower in the bunt. performance PURSE SEINES The leadline of a purse seine is usually longer than the floatline by up to 10%.4 to 16. depth. the breaking strength (R) of the purse line should be as follows : R > 3 x (combined weight of netting. 39.5 times the length of the purse seine. the actual depth or height (AD) can be considered equal to roughly 50% of the stretched depth (SD.5 = SD/2 extremities AD = SD x 0. usually about 1.0 m/min. As a general guideline.

bridles. polyethylene.1500 diameter synthetic fibre bridle (mm) 6 14. ropes ■ Beach seine without bag A single panel of netting — no particular rules concerning height and length or Special meshsize and/or twinesize in the central part ■ Beach seine with bag ■ Hauling points For a rather high small seine with bridle.16 18 BEACH SEINES .Types of beach seine. polypropylene Seine length (m) 50.100 200 – 500 800. handled by one man alone ■ Ropes for hauling beach seines Natural fibre rope or nylon.

but it is sometimes slightly greater (E = 0.7). or concentrated more near the bunt. In the wings the hanging ratio is usually the same as in the bunt. or placed closer together in the bunt. a net is rigged with more weight than buoyancy.5 or slightly greater (0. For central sections. or different from. the mesh size and twine thickness may be the same as. to make the net 'dig' more. the ratio of buoyancy/ weight of sinkers is around 1. or slightly less than. The headrope and footrope (float line and lead line) are usually of the same material (PA or PE) and diameter. but sometimes.9).7-0. the ratio of buoyancy/weight of sinkers is equal to.5-2. ■ Floats on the headrope The number of floats required increases with the height of the seine. or 'dig' less).Beach seines: materials and hanging BEACH SEINES ■ Mesh size and twine thickness In the wings. those of the central section or bunt. 15 20 Buoyancy (g/m of hung net) 50 150 350-400 500-600 1000 target species sardine sardinella tilapia tropical shrimp/prawn diverse large species The floats are either evenly spaced along the headrope.5-0. The following are examples of buoyancy observed in the central part of seines : ■ Ratio of buoyancy/weight In the bunt. In the wings. Sinkers may be spaced evenly along the footrope.0. E = 0. . and spaced increasingly farther apart toward the ends of the seine. Hanging ratios (E) are usually the same on headrope and footrope. height (m) of seine 3-4 7 10 Examples of specifications for bunts of beach seines stretched mesh (mm) 5-12 30 25 18 40-50 twine thickness (R tex) 150-250 800-1200 100 450 150-300 ■ Sinkers on the footrope The quantity and type of sinkers varies according to the intended use (to 'dig' more. 1.

Bottom seines: types of bottom seines and method of setting ■ Construction. rigging : very similar to bottom trawls Bottom seine Original European type Asian type Bridles 20-25 m Headline 35 m 45 m Rigging of spreader without bridles 45-55 m ■ Track of the boat for shooting the anchor seine or Danish seine Bottom seine with high headline Example : Shooting 12 'coils' or 2640 m (1 coil = 220 m) BOTTOM SEINES .

so caution in interpretation is necessary.36 x Power in (kW) "* The mouth opening is measured along the forward edge of the bellies. .65 stretched mesh (mm) 110-150 90-110 70-90 40-70 Rtex ■ Size of nets 10-15 15-20 10-20 20 20-25 25 + 1100-1400 1000-1100 700-1000 600-800 ■ Vertical opening (estimation) vertical opening of high-opening bottom seine with bridles * Power in (hp) = 1. twine size Boat Length Power (m) (hp)* Bottom seine (Japan) Bottom seine (Europe) Bottom seine (high op.) Net Mouth" Headline opening (m) (m) 30 100-200 100 200 300 .400 500 20-30 35-45 45-65 ~100 50 55-65 25-35 35-45 45-55 I 55 . and is equal to (bar length x number of meshes) + (bar length x number of meshes) jupper panel) {lower panel) However. there are local differences in how this term is used. (in some places it refers to stretched meshsize x number of meshes).Bottom seines: dimensions and properties of net BOTTOM SEINES ■ Mesh size.

Method Scottish technique Fishing grounds shallow waters (50-70 m) or small areas of soft bottom surrounded by rocky areas medium depths (80-260 m) or large smooth bottom areas for depths as great as 300-500 m or soft. total length usually 1000-3000 m. resistance to abrasion. BOTTOM SEINES . from 24-36 mm (for mid-sized boats). and weight are essential qualities of seine ropes. regular bottom Rope length less than 2000 m 3000 m or longer 8 to 15 times depth of water Japanese technique Anchor seining combination rope (Danish seining) : Ø18-20 Fly dragging PE or PP. Ø 20(Scottish seining) : 32 (3 strands with lead core in each strand) Fly dragging small boats : (Japan. Weights are often attached along the rope. Materials Length is expressed in coils of 200-220 m.Bottom seines: ropes Durability. Korea) : manila mid-sized boats : PVA Diameter Rope Ø PP 20 24 26 28 30 Weight (kg/100 m) 35 43 55 61 69 Often the diameter changes along a single rope.

Canada) . Korea) ■ Operations of 2 boats (pair seining.Bottom seines: operations BOTTOM SEINES ■ Operating with an anchor (Denmark) Where the direction of the current changes with the height of the fide ■ Fly-dragging (Scotland) ■ Fly-dragging (bull trawling) (Japan.

Plan of a 2-panel bottom trawl This example. 2 bars (see pages 32-33). 1N2B means 1 sideknot. Numbers and letters along inside edges of net represent cutting rates. Lengths of lines are presented in metres (11. see page 10) a (mm) = stretched meshsize (see pages 29-30) n = depth of panel in number of meshes (N direction) The numbers appearing along the front and aft edges of panels represent number of meshes. Ratios presented along inside edges represent numbers of meshes taken up when joining the corresponding panels (see page 41). See table below for terms. for example.00. from FAO. etc). Terms used in net plan MAT = twine material (see pages 6-8] Rtex = Resultant tex (twine size. is for a 50-70 hp vessel. TRAWLS .

for herring and mackerel .Plan and rigging of a 4-panel midwater trawl TRAWLS This example is a midwater pair trawl used by French vessels of 120-150 hp.

950 650 650 ■ Shrimp trawls.6 39. see pg.6 Size of twine(Rtex) 940-1190 1 190 Power 150 to 300 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 200 160 120 80 60 40 Size of twine (Rtex) 1 660-2 500 1 300-1 550 1 300-2 000 950-1 550 850-1 190 850-1 020 Power 300 to 600 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 200 160 120 80 60 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 2 500-3 570 1 230-2 000 1 230-2 000 1 660 950-1 190 950-1 190 * brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). American type. semi-balloon try-net (see pg.Trawls: relationship between mesh size and twine size for bottom trawls ■ Bottom Trawls Power 30 to 100hp* Stretched rnesh (mm) 100 80 60 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 950-1 170 650.6 Size of twine(Rtex) 1 190 1 540 Stretched mesh (mm) 44 39. 95 Power in HP = 1. 84) Stretched mesh (mm) 39.36 x (power in kW) Power 300 to 800 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 800 400 200 160 120 80 60 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 5 550 3 570 2 500-3 030 1 660-2 500 1 550-2 500 1 300-2 500 1 190-1 540 940-1 200 TRAWLS .6 Size of twine(Rtex) 645 ■ High-opening bottom trawls Power 75 to 150 hp* Stretched mesh (mmW) 120 80 60 40 Size of twine (Rtex) 950 650-950 650-950 650-950 Power 150 to 300 hp* Power 100 to 300 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 200 160 120 80 60 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 1 660-2 500 1 300 1 300-2 000 950-1 550 850-1 190 850-1 190 Power 300 to 600 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 47.

Relationship between mesh size and twine size for midwater trawls TRAWLS ■ Midwater trawls (for single vessel) Power 150 to 200 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 400 200 160 120 80 40 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 2 500 1 190-1 310 950-1 190 650-950 650-950 450 950-1 310 ■ Midwater pair trawls Power 2 x 100-300 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 800 400 200 120 80 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 3 030-4 000 1 190-2 280 1 190-1 540 950 650-950 450-950 Power 2 x 300-500 hp* Power 400 to 500 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 800 400 200 160 120 80 40 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 3 700 2 500 1 310-1 660 1 190-1 310 950 650-950 650-950 1 660 Stretched mesh (mm) 800 400 200 120 80 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 5 550 2 280 1 540 950-1 190 950-1 190 950-1 190 Power 700 hp* Stretched mesh (mm) 800 400 200 160 120 80 40 40 Size of twine(Rtex) 7 140-9 090 3 700-5 550 2 500-3 700 2 500 1 660 1 660 1 660 2 500 * Brake horsepower (BHPj or Apparent Nominal Power(APNj.36 X (power in kWj . see page 95. Power in Hp = 1.

the twine surface areas (m ) indicated above should be multiplied by the factors shown in the table: 2 * Brake Horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). trawl type two-panel bottom trawls: four-panel bottom trawls : single-boat mid-water trawls (stretched mesh in wings up to 200 mm) : single-boat mid-water trawls (wing meshes Iargerthan 200 mm) : 2 2 factor 2. In order to calculate the right net size for another vessel of horsepower P2.36 x Power in (kW) TRAWLS .2 ■ Choice by comparison with a trawl of the same type used by a vessel in the same horsepower range Let us say you know the dimensions of a particular trawl (TI) used by a particular trawler which has horsepower P|.Choosing the right size trawl for the power of the vessel ■ Selection according to the calculated twine surface area of the net (see page 37 for twine surface area) Given the vessel horsepower. type of rigging. For pair trawling. type of bottom. etc.4 2. the length and width of each panel of P] are multiplied by 1 Two-panel bottom trawls 2 Four-panel bottom trawls 3 Single-boat mid-wotertrawls (stretched mesh in wings up to 200mm) 4 Single-boat mid-water trawls ( wing meshes larger than 200 mm ) Given the vessel horsepower and trawl type. for example : real delivered horsepower. the twine surface area may vary according to several factors. the best results will be obtained by choosing a net of which the twine surface area falls within a particular range. strength of currents. see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1. meshsize. and the type of trawling intended. rate of utilisation of the motor.

06 to 0.67 S ~ VO x 10 VO ~ n x a x 0.2 S ~ HR x 0.50 S ~ HR x 0.07 ■ Shrimp trawl (flat or semiballoon) S ~ HR x 0.40 or VO = height of panel x 1.50 VO = 2 x N x a x 0.05 to 0.7 S ~ VO x 12 N or n = width in number of meshes of front edge of belly (seams not included) a = meshsize.06 ■ High-opening bottom trawl S ~ HR x 0.Opening of bottom trawls TRAWLS ■ Bottom trawl with low vertical opening (VO) VO (m) S(m) VO = 2 x N x a x 0. length in metres of one stretched mesh at the part of net considered VO = approximate vertical opening of net mouth (metres) S = approximate horizontal spread between ends of wings (metres) HR = length in metres of headrope .

60 VO = n x a x 0 . 3 0 ■ Mid-water pair trawl S ~ HR x 0.60 S ~ HR x0.50 to 0.50 ■ Single-boat mid-water trawl VO = n x a x 0 .Opening of bottom trawls and mid-water trawls TRAWLS ■ High-opening. 3 0 n = width in number of meshes of front edge of belly (seams not included) nv = width in number of meshes of aft edge of belly (seams not included) HR = length of headrope in metres (not including free ends) a = meshsize (length in metres of one stretched mesh at the part of the net being considered) VO = approximate vertical opening of net mouth (metres) S = approximate horizontal spread between ends of wings (metres) S ~ HR x0. 2 5 t o 0 .60 . 2 5 t o 0 . 4-panel bottom trawl VO (m) S(m) S ~ HR x0.

2 times the depth for deep As a general rule water about 10 times the depth for shallow water F = trawl warps (m) B = length of sweeps or sweeps + bridles or 'forks'** * Brake horsepower (BHPj or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). see page 8 1 . the adjustments made are extremely small. relative length ■ Bottom trawls with low headline height ■ Bottom trawls with high headline heights (OV) : sweeps and bridles ■ Adjustments To increase the vertical height: lengthen the upper bridle (U) or shorten the lower bridle (B) To increase the ground contact: lengthen thelower bridle (B) or shorten the upper Dridle (U) N. see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1. measured in single chain links ■ Relative lengths of different parts of the trawl gear F about 2.36 x Power in (kW) ** Fork rig.Rigging of bottom trawl for one boat TRAWLS Principal types.B. adjustments.

5 times the depth of water ■ Single-boat midwater trawl TRAWLS .Rigging of bottom and midwater trawls for single-boat operation ■ High-opening bottom trawls : fork rigging The length of warps equals 3 to 4.

Rigging for pair trawling TRAWLS ■ Bottom trawls ■ Midwater trawls P = power of the trawler L = distance trawl — trawler G = weights in front of the trawl d = distance between the trawlers * Broke horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP).36 x Power in (kW) . see paqe 95 Power in (HP) = 1.

the inclination.) Note : These methods give only very rough approximations. They should be used only when you have | no nelsounder to give more accurate information. or angle between the warps and the horizontal plane. Be careful to keep the net away from the bottom. The warp angle may be measured with a protractor or other device Depth of the trawl is estimated as follows : (1) Measure the warp angle A (3) Follow the warp length down to (2) On the horizontal scale of the angle A the graph below.Estimating the depth of a midwater pair trawl It is necessary to estimate the vertical angle of the warps. (In other words. find the warp (4) Read the estimated trawl depth length from the vertical scale at the left Another method without using a protractor is shown below (1) Mark the warp I m aft ot block (2) Drop a vertical line from the block (3) Measure the distance D 4) Find the trawl depth in the table on the right Distance measured D cm 99 98 97 96 95 94 WARP LENGTH (M) 100 14 21 25 28 31 34 200 27 42 49 57 62 68 300 42 62 72 82 92 103 400 56 83 94 106 123 138 500 70 103 116 130 153 174 TRAWLS .

Power of enqine* TO 150 to 200 200 to 150 250 to 300 300 to 400 500 Examples of mesh sizes Stretched mesh (in mm) French Guyana : 45 West Africa : 40-50 Persian Gulf : 30-40/ 43-45 Madagascar . and also special rigging. special types of trawl are used.Shrimp (prawn) trawls and their rigging TRAWLS ■ Gulf of Mexico type Example . see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1. In tropical zones the catch rate is propor tional to the horizonta spread of the trawl. (1) Special types of trawl ■ Rigging of booms This rigging allows an increase in shrimp catch rate of 15-30% over that of a single trawl.36 x Power in (kW) . Towing speed is 2.5 to 3 knots. In order to obtain the greatest horizontal opening. 33-40 India : 50-100 Australia : 44 (2) Special rigging Lengths (m) Headline 12-14 15-17 17-20 20 24 Bridles 33 35 40 45 50 Booms 9 9 9 10 12 Depth (m) -20 20 to 30 30 to 35 35 to 40 Warp length (m) 110 145 180 220 * Brake horsepower {BMP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP).

Rigging between different parts of trawls ■ Bottom trawls ■ Midwater trawls for 1 boat ■ Midwater pair trawls TRAWLS .

26 — For buoyancy. 0.24 0...28 0.18 W1 (kg air) P (hp)* W1=Px .20 0.20 0.28 0.22 0. * Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANPj.Headline buoyancy and groundrope weight recommended for trawls TRAWLS Real horsepower* hp B1 (kgf) P (hp)* 50 100 200 400 600 800 B1=Px.29 0..27 0. They may vary according to the trawling speed. buoyancy of the net and floats.19 W3 (kg air) P (hp)* W3=P x .22 0. If another material is used.22 0. — The weights presented are estimated. 0. 0.22 0..31 0. etc..20 0.5 kg in air. 0.20 0.33 0.27 0. a synthetic fibre with negative buoyancy (it sinks).20 B2 (kgf) P (hp)* B2=P x. in order to get the same sinking force in water.24 0. These weights have been calculated assuming that steel chain will be used for ballast. type of bottom.25 0. target species. with a 5-10% margin of error.28 0.23 0.. the floats may be decreased by 10-15%. a length of chain weighing 1 kg in air must be replaced by a quantity of rubber rollers which weighs 3-3. 0.21 0. For example.25 0.27 0.. For nets made of floating materials. its density must be taken into account.19 W2 (kg air) P (hp)* W2=P x .36 x Power in (kW) .22 B3 (kgf) P (hp)* B3=P x .21 0. 0.. see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1..... the indicated values correspond to nets made of poly-amide (nylon).

Groundrope of chain ■ Shrimp trawls. smooth bottom Grassrope with lead rings (chain ground-rope is also common) ■ High-opening bottom trawl with 2 bridles : groundrope of rubber rings For use on rougher bottom : groundrope of rubber bobbins or rollers with rubber disc spacers and chain joining lines ■ Fish or shrimp trawls. Groundrope of leaded rope ■ High-opening bottom trawls : Joining lines of braided PP. hard bottom : groundrope of rubber rings and hard plastic spheres ■ Fish or shrimp trawls for soft or muddy bottom : split wooden rollers which can be added or removed without running groundrope through centre TRAWLS .Examples of groundropes ■ Midwater trawls (maximum vertical opening) joining lines of braided PP.

then spread of trawl wing ends : .Spread of otter boards and trawl TRAWLS ■ Estimating the spread of otter boards (doors) Example: On the vessel above.18 .4.00 B = 4.00) x 200] + 4 = 40 m spread at otter boards ■ Estimating the spread of the trawl To estimate the horizontal spread between the wing ends : Example: given a trawl of 25 m in length (without bag) rigged with sweeps of 50 m and otter board spread of 40 m.18 F = 200 then D = [(4. if : A = 4.

Otter boards: proportions. angles of attack ■ Flat rectangular otter boards ■ Rectangular V section otter boards ■ Shrimp otter boards ■ Suberkrub pelagic otter boards ■ Angles of attack TRAWLS .

keeping in mind that a little upward till is good for certain bottom conditions Lengthen the lower back-strop lb) or shorten the upper backstrop (a) . some upward tilting (b) longer than (a) may be good Problem Recommended adjustment Raise the towing brackets a little if possible Lower the towing brockets a little if possible or add weight to the keel Lengthen the upper back-strop (a) or shorten the lower backstrop (b). adjustments TRAWLS ■ Angle of attack ■ Adjustment of angle of attack ■ Adjustment of orientation a ~ L x 1-2 Generally a = b or b = a + (2-5% of L) However on soft muddy bottom or small corals.Otter boards: angle of attack.

40 2.45 x 1 2.33 Surface 2 (m ) 1.50 0.20 2.00 2. choice depending on the trawler's power ■ Rectangular and oval curved The weights indicated below (for single board) are the maximum values used.75 1.23 2. For a given horsepower.65 500-520 600 2.60 1.00 1.20 1.1 -3.1 3 x 1.07 1.4 x0.12 1.50 3.68 2.51 2.88 2.3 x 1.20 Weight kg 240 400 580 720 890 1 000 1 100 1 200 Power* (hp) Dimensions H(m) 1.80 0.94 0.3 * Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP).00 1.9 x 0.40 3. Suberkrub Surface 2 m 1.2 3.03 1.25 2.25 3.97 1.15 400-420 500 2.10 2.50 4.36 X Power in (kW) TRAWLS .05 1.3 x 1.90 1.85 45 100-120 100 1.93 200 2.80 1.75 1.12 2.88 2.5 x 1 -2.12 2.1 -3 x 1.40 1.65 0.9 .20 1.90 4.Otter boards: properties of the principal types. but with a lighter material which may make a board as much as 50% lighter.10 1.2.0152 x Sf) + 1.60 3.42 2.22 1.10 2.20 2.40 2. Rectangular flat Oval Curved otter boards Otter boards Power* Weight (hp) (Kg) Dimensions Surface Dimensions Surface L(m) h(m) m2 L(m) h(m) m2 50-75 1.50 1.05 600-620 700-800 2.8 x 0.92 2.86 3.00 3.65 300-320 400 2.12 1.40 2.45 190-220 300 2. see page 95 Power in HP = 1.80 2.14 1.85 0.87 0.30 3.60 3.2.80 3.8-2.45 x 1 Weight kg 60-90 90-100 120 160 220 300 Example of the relationship between the twine surface area (see page 37) of a pelagic trawl (Sf in 2 m ) and the surface area of a Suberkrub otter board 2 used by the boat (Sp in m ) Sp = (0. the surface area listed below is often used.60 2.40 1.4 x 1 .32 2.00 L(m) 0.90 1.90 3.42 1.50 1.30 0.7 x 1.60 1.30 3.05 2.38 2.28 2.65 800-900 ■ V otter boards Power* (hp) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 ■ Midwater.50 2.00 2.40 0.00 Weight (kg) 90-100 110-120 150-160 170-180 220-240 240-260 260-280 280-300 320-350 400-430 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700-800 ■ Shrimp otter boards (double rig) Power (hp)* 100-150 150-200 200-250 250-300 300-450 450-600 2 Dimensions m 1.

Kites TRAWLS

Power (hp)* 150-250 250-350 350-500 500-800

Lxl 0.55 x 0.45 m 0.60 x 0.45 m 0.65 x 0.50 m 0.80 x 0.60 m

Many types of kites exist and are being tested, the simplest being a piece of sail cloth mounted on the headline and patched to the inside netting.

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal

Warps: diameter and length
■ Characteristics of steel trawl warps, according to power of trawler hp* 0 (mm) 100 200 300 400 500 700 900 1 200 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16,5 18.0 19.5 22.5

kg/m 0.410 0.530 0.670 0.830 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.870

R kgf 5 400 7 000 8 800 11 000 13 200 15 800 18 400 24 500

R= breaking strength

■ Length of warps according to depth of water (for bottom trawling) (for shallow water less than 20 m, the length should not be less than 120 m) This curve gives only estimates; the captain should decide warp length according to the type of bottom, sea conditions, current, etc.

* Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP), see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1.36 x Power in (kW

TRAWLS

Trawling speed TRAWLS
Main species groups shrimp, small bottom species, flat fish very small trawlers mid-sized and large trawlers mid-sized bottom species, small pelagic fish small trawlers mid-sized to large trawlers cephalopods (squid, cuttlefish) mid-sized pelagic fish Average trawling speed (knots) 1.5-2 2.5-3.5 3-4 4-5 3.5-4.5 >5

reduction gear between 2 : 1 and 4 : 1. Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). with a variable pitch propeller and a nozzle. It may be calculated as follows : ANP = bollard pull (kg) x 0. It is expressed in horsepower (HP) or in kilowatts (kW). Power available for trawling (p).09 Example : A trawler. p = 0. should be used in the tables of this book. the fishing gear should be chosen from the tables according to an Apparent Nominal Power of 540 HP. and may be calculated as follows : In calm waters.09 = 540 HP Thus.28 . the tables in this book are intended for use with the Brake Horsepower (BHP).75 x k x (BHP or ANP) type of propeller and engine fixed propeller high RPM engine slow turning engine k 0. 1 HP = 0.25 .0. has an engine rated at 400 BHP. and the bollard pull is 6000 kg ANP = 6000 x 0. p is reduced by 1/3.0. and not 400 HP. and no nozzle.74 kW 1 kW= 1.30 In rough weather. This is the figure given most often by manufacturers as the horsepower or rated power of an engine.20 variable pitch propeller 0.Power of trawlers TRAWLS ■ The choice of fishing gear depends on the power of the trawler For trawlers with a fixed propeller. .36 HP If a trawler has a variable pitch propeller and/or a nozzle. This power is used to pull the gear.28 0. is usually 15 to 20% of the BHP or ANP.

5 Vessel A Vessel B — — — — — — — — Choosing the appropriate engine speeds (RPM) for 2 boats of different characteristics for pair trawling Vessel A pulls vessel B. for the chosen speed of 2 knots. BP(kq) = BP0(kg) Revs Speed 2 knots 2. The engine RPM of both vessels A and B are noted.5 3 3. for example 2 knots. If you have measured the bollard pull BP0 at speed 0 knots. engine in neutral. at the chosen speed. Then vessel B engine is engaged and the revs .Pulling power of trawlers TRAWLS ■ Bollard pull BP0 of a trawler at fixed point (speed = 0) BP0(kg) = 10 to 12 kg per BHP* (with fixed propeller) 13 to 16 kg per HP of Apparent Nominal Power* (with a variable pitch propeller or nozzle) ■ Bollard pull BP (when fishing) If you have calculated the engine power (p) available for towing (page 95). The same operations are repeated for other speeds until the range of normal trawling speeds is covered. progressively increased until vessel B holds vessel A stationary.

50 Floats" : 32 plastic floats. each with buoyancy of 50 gf Sinkers +. size — R 1666 tex Floatline : polypropylene/polyamide. France Vessel length 5-15 m HP 15-20 This drawing shows the following information about the net: Stretched meshsize : 320 mm Length : 313 meshes Height : 5 1/2 meshes Hanging ratio (Ej : 0. 156 leads. each weighing 50 g Twine : material — polyamide.Plan and rigging of a gillnet : example Gillnet bottom set for spider crabs Brittany. length 50 m for more details pages 29-30 pages 38-39 pages 47-49 pages 7-10 pages 7-8 pages 7-8 ENTANGLING NETS . diameter 6 mm. diameter 6 mm. length 50 m Leadline : polypropylene/polyamide.

5 for very thick.5 for average-shaped fish (neither very thick nor thin) = 2. bonito. flying fish bonito. skipjack marlin. jacks Atlantic bluefin tuna sharks swordfish * For clarification of terms stretched meshsize and mesh opening see page 29 salmon 240 170-250 300-330 120-200 80-100 120-160 125 large mackerel Spanish mackerel 22-25 50-60 28 30-43 45-60 60-80 50 75 100-110 . anglerfish 150-170 150-190 90 110-115 130-135 25 250 240 = 5 for long.Choosing the meshsize of gillnets* ENTANGLING NETS ■ Choice of meshsize according to fish species There is a ratio between the body girth or length of a fish one wants to catch. species according to Temperate demersal species cod pollack Pacific pollack sole hake red mullet (Mugilidae) halibut (Greenland) turbot. thin fish = 3. wide or high (shaped) fish Crustaceans shrimp (India) shrimp (El Salvador) green spiny lobster red spiny lobster spider crab king crab 36 63-82 160 200-220 320 450 A few examples of stretched meshsizes (mm) adapted for particular species Small pelagic species sprat herring anchovy sardine sardinella shad (Ethmalosa) Demersal tropical species threadfin (Polynemidae) small catfish grunt (Pomadasidae) mullet maigre (Sciaenidae) croaker (Sciaenidae) seabream (Sparidae) barracuda small mackerel 50 75 50 110-120 120-140 160-200 140-160 120 Large pelagic species mackerel. and the gillnet meshsize which will be effective for that fish (Fridman formula). OM = L(fish)/K where OM = mesh opening (mm) L(fish) = average length (mm) of fish one wants to catch K and K K K = coefficient. monk.

An average ratio is 0. It should also be flexible. monofil. The ratio twine diameter stretched meshsize (same units of measurement) Note : A length of twine may stretch 20-40% before breaking should be between 0.6 0.Choosing twine type for gillnets The twine should be relatively thin. Good breaking strength is important. for rough waters or bottom set. Ømm 0.01.2 0.15 8x0. lakes.9 6a8x0.33-0.0025.15 10x0.2 4x0.15 6x0. m/kg 10 000 6 660 6 660 4 440 4 440 3 330 3 330 2 220 2 220 1 550 1 100 1 615-2 220 1 615-2 220 pen ocean monofil.15 6x0. rivers multifil.15 0.005.28-0.30 0.35-0. for calm waters and low catches. especially for bottom set gillnets.15 8a10x0.7 0. taking into account the size of the fish and the meshsize.3 0. Ømm 0.6-0.2 0. ■ Examples of twine sizes used with certain types of gillnets and meshsizes stretched meshsize mm 30 50 60 80 100 120 140 160 200 240 500 600 700 20 000 13 400 10 000 6 660 6 660 4 440 3 330 2 220 1 550 inland waters.40 0.15 ENTANGLING NETS . either clear (mono or multi-monofilament) or of a colour which blends in with the environment.35 0. but not so fine that it damages.4 multimono. m/kg Ømm coastal waters multifil. and 0. The twine should have low visibility. nxØmm multifil.5 0.9 0. entangled fish. nxØmm 0.35 multimono. ■ Choosing twine diameter for gillnets Twine diameter should be proporional to meshsize. m/kg 20 000 13 400 10 000 6 660 4 440 4 440 3 330 3 330 2 220 1 550 3 330 2 660 monofil.

and will capture a variety of different species.5 the net will tend to gill the fish and be more selective than in the preceding case. This is the case with most driftnets.Rigging or hanging gillnets ENTANGLING NETS ■ Effect of the hanging ratio the catching efficiency of the net on Generally the horizontal hanging ratio is about 0. If E is greater than 0. This is the case with most set nets.5 the net will tend to tangle fish. — If E is smaller than 0.5 for gillnets (see page 38). — ■ Examples of rigging On the headrope with floats attached On the footrope with sinkers attached .

plan and rigging of trammel net Trammel net* Bottom set or drifting. for shrimp Sri Lanka * For clarification of symbols used in drawing of entangling net see page 97 ENTANGLING NETS .

■ Hanging ratios of the net panels The horizontal hanging ratios are often close to the following values: E central netting = 0. by bagging.5 to 2 times the stretched height of the external netting.5 for flat.5 E external netting = 0.75 where OM (mm) = mesh opening of the central net L (mm) = length of the smallest fish wanted K K K K = coefficient dependent on the target species = 5 for long and narrow fish = 3. The central net panel should be very slack. thick or large fish mesh larger size than — External panels : the should be 4 to 7 times that of the central netting.Trammel nets: mesh sizes and rigging ENTANGLING NETS ■ Choosing the mesh sizes according to the size of target species* — Central panel : The meshsize should be small enough to catch the smallest fish wanted.6 to 0. A rough estimate of the required meshsize is given by the Fridman formula for net bags: OM should be smaller than : The stretched height of the central net panel should be 1. The actual height in the water of the trammel net depends on the height of the external netting.4 to 0. * For clarification of terms stretched meshsize and mesh opening see page 29 .5 for average fish = 2.

ENTANGLING NETS .5-2 B1 .Average bouyancy (B) and ballast (W) of gillnets and trammel nets ■ Floating gillnets and trammel nets B(gf/m) W (g/m) B/W 100-160 50-80 2 Length of leadline < 1 Length of floatline (smaller or equal) B2 = 50-120 B1 = 50 .1 000 1. etc.Wf + W1 Wf = weight of netting in water Bottom set gillnets and trammel nets B (gf/m) W (g/m) B/W 40-80 120-250 100-200 250-400 (greater or equal) Note : These weights do not include anchors.1 500 300 .80 W1 = 30-80 W2 = 25-60 600 .

Rigging of entangling nets: some examples ENTANGLING NETS ■ Set gillnets and trammel nets ■ Drifting gillnets .

Japan Nova Scotia.Plan and rigging of pots: an example Crab trap Hokkaido. Canada Vessel Length 12-15 m hp 40-100 TRAPS AND POTS .

■ Choosing the size of a pot or trap If a pot gets too crowded with captured fish inside. which can be used for catching fish.see p. wolf fish grouper black cod Japan Canada USA Europe USA Caribbean Australia Morocco Caribbean Norway India USA. A few examples: Species octopus small shrimp small crabs crabs King crab. They may be used on the bottom or in mid-water. Some types of pots appear to be effective because their shape and size make them attractive shelters for certain species. with or without bait. are made in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. crustaceans.Dimensions of pots and traps TRAPS AND POTS These gears. On the other hand. and cephalopods (squid. Alaska Country Volume (cubic decimeters . octopus. in some cases an interior volume which is too large may lead to cannibalism (some captives eating others). snow crab spiny lobster lobster spiny lobster spiny lobster sea bream mixed reef fish torsk. using many different materials. The interior volume of a pot must be large enough to avoid this situation. molluscs. it will stop catching. 157) 6 40-70 70-90 450 2500-4500 60-130 200 300-800 2500 150-200 500-700 (up to 2000) 1300 1400 1800 . etc.).

and fouling by marine growth. Morocco) lobster torsk.Making fish traps and pots Choice of materials must consider such factors as durability. wolffish (Norway) sea bream grouper (India) reef fish (Caribbean) black cod (USA) threadfin (Australia) 12 30 50 127 30-40 25-35 18 (see Alternatives) 40 15-20 (see Alternatives) (see Alternatives) triangular meshes 35-40 mm on a side For black cod. Spacing of bars or laths. USA west coast. according to the type and size of trap. or size of meshes has a direct relation to the size of the target species. the type of bottom. and strength of currents. Alternatives — For lobster pots : Triangular meshes 60-80 mm side Rectangular meshes — For fish pots : For sea bream. hexagonal meshes 25-40 mm across bar of mesh (diamond shape) 8-10 25 x 50 mm Parallel wooden strips spaced 25-38 mm apart or laths. USA) King crab (Alaska) spiny lobster (France. square meshes 51 x 51 mm For threadfin. TRAPS AND POTS . from 10 to 70 kg per trap. Ballast in traps is very variable. A few examples (measurements in mm] : Species small shrimp (Europe) small crabs (Japan) rock crab (Europe) crab (Canada. resistance to immersion. corrosion. Australia.

■ The position : examples Traps for fish and cephalopods : entrance(s) at the side(s) Traps for crustaceans : entrance(s) on the side(s) or on the top .Entrances: shape and position TRAPS AND POTS The shape is usually that of a cone or truncated pyramid. straight or curved.

USA Canada USA Alaska Europe Australia. Caribbean Europe Morocco Norway India USA. W. wolffish grouper black cod threadfin snapper Japan. crayfish spiny lobster lobster sea bream torsk.Entrances: dimensions The diameter of a pot entrance is directly related to the size and characteristics of the target species. A few examples: Species small shrimp small and medium crabs snow crab King crab spiny lobster. coast Australia Caribbean Country Entrance diameter (mm) 40-60 140-170 360 350-480 100-200 230 100-150 70-100 100 210 250 250-310 230 TRAPS AND POTS .

Examples of pots or traps TRAPS AND POTS ■ Forfishorcephalopods .

snapper meagre. grouper. conger. moray snapper. Examples of mainline breaking strength in common use for certain species Species sea bream. wet. cod. knotted) 7-15 15-30 30-40 100 150-200 LINE FISHING . grouper yeliowfin tuna Breaking strength (kg. breaking strength A: Mainline B : Branchline (also called snood leader.Vertical line fishing: examples. dogfish weakfish. gangion. drop line) The breaking strength of the mainline should be greater than or equal to the maximum weight of an individual fish to be caught (even if there are several branchlines).

Trolling methods LINE FISHING Trolling speeds vary from 2 to 7 knots. depending on target species salmon trolling. France Tuna trolling. near-surface to deep water. northeast Pacific albacore trolling. Philippines S . surface. surface. shock absorber or snubber DP: depressor or diving board Pb : 'cannonball' weight .

Trolling lines: rigging equipment ■ Shock absorber or snubber Absorbs the shock load on the line when the fish strikes ■ Shearing depressor or diving board May be adjusted to dive and also shear horizontally to spread lines Depressor or diving board to troll deeper LINE FISHING .

Plan and rigging of bottom longlines: an example LONGLINES Longline for dogfish. ling Channel. rays. conger. France Boat Length TJB Hp 14-15 m 20-30 150 .

but sometimes of steel (for example. and gear-handling methods (manual or mechanical hauling). or nylon monofilament 170/100 (breaking strength 110 kg). according to the size and behaviour of the target species. to which a number of branchlines (also called snoods or gangions) are attached. 4 t vessel. As a general rule. Breaking strength of branchlines (wet. But. if one expects to catch individual fish weighing 10 kg.) The length of a branchline is usually less than half the distance between branchlines. 2 mm diameter (breaking strength 130-160 kg). — at least 10 times the weight of the largest fish one expects to catch. A hook is attached to the end of pnch branchline. in order to avoid tangling. one can choose a mainline whose breaking strength (dry. For example: What would be the minimum breaking strength for the main line of a longline used by a 9 m. LONGLINES . The diameter and breaking strength must take into account not only the weight of the fish. but also the displacement (and therefore.Longline components A longline consists of a main line. and greater than the square of the vessel's length (in metres). it is necessary to calculate 10 kg x 10 = 100 kg Therefore. inertia) of the vessel. in kg) is . — both greater than 10 times the tonnage of the vessel. The material and diameter of the mainline will depend on the target species. in some tuna and shark fisheries). hooked fish should stay alive (for species which can live when hooked). Hooks are usually chosen by experience. unknotted. catching sea bream and gurnards? Breaking strength must be greater than 4 x 10 = 40 kg or 9x9 = 81 kg Branchlines (snoods or gangions) should be as close as possible to invisible in water. with knots) should be at least equal to twice the weight of the fish one expects to catch. or polyethylene (PE) 3 mm diameter (breaking strength 135 kg). (The breaking strength of the main line should equal 3 to 10 times that of the branchlines. but should not come unhooked. the type of longline (bottom or mid-water). the line could be twisted or braided nylon (PA).

Set longlines: various rigs in use LONGLINES ■ Semi-pelagic longlines ■ Bottom longlines .

.

Drifting longlines: various rigs in use LONGLINES Some examples: .

Longlines: automation of operations

Marking bouys and anchors; for nets, traps and lines NETS, TRAPS, LINES
■ On the surface

■ On the bottom

■ Some types of anchors

Dredges DREDGES
■ Characteristics Rigid fishing gear for pulling over the bottom (types for soft bottom, types for very hard bottom) Sizes (usually the width is less than 2 m, exceptionally up to 5 m) Height is always less than 0.5 m Heavy (to scrape the bottom) ■ Examples of differ ent types Industrial shellfish dredge Weight 500-1000 kg ■ Power required 1 hp per 2 kg of dredge ■ Towing cable (one) ■ Amount of warp depends on the depth of water and the speed (The warp paid out will need to be increased with the speed). In general, 3 to 3.5 x depth (at 2-2.5 knots) ■ Speed of dredging : 2 to 2.5 knots ■ Rigging, some examples Dredge for small fish Weight: 30 kg

Dredge with teeth, on the lower edge of the frame and with depressor flap on the upper edge Weight 70-100 kg Rigid dredge with teeth for venus clam Weight: 200-300 kg

Dredge without bag for whelks. The shells entangle in the netting Weight: 20-25 kg Shellfish rake

.

is mounted above the surface. rather than a single light of strong intensity. From Ben-Yami. Resistance to a continuous current (in ohms/km) in a copper conductor is a function of the cross section area of the 2 cable (mm ). Oxford. LIGHT . only half its light effectively penetrates the water. wires used with low voltages should be thicker than those needed for higher voltages. 12-24 V) may involve significant power losses through conducting wires. ■ Type of Lamp and utilization Petrol (gasoline) or liquified gas Advantages inexpensive easy to maintain and use fragile used only above the water Electric effective above the surface or in the water expensive heavy bulky batteries or generators Disadvantages It is better to use several lights of moderate intensity. Fishing with light. When a lamp. 1976.Fishing with light ■ Conditions which favour fishing with light Not favourable Colour of the Sea Transparency (visibility m) Moon phase Current Brownyellow 0 to 5 Full Strong to Medium Average YellowGreen 5 to 10 Medium to Weak Favoura ble GreenBlue 10 to 30 New None ■ Resistance of electric cables Running lamps with low voltages (for example. due to reflection from the surface. Therefore. Fishing News (Books). FAO Fishing Manuals. sufficiently spaced apart.

The type of display may be lamp display (flasher). Paper display (dry. the better will be the strength and precision of detection. black and white) Advantages Disadvantages paper record may be kept differentiation of different echo strengths is limited (shades of black and grey) cost of Recording Paper Television type display (colour) different colours may indicate very small differences in strengths of echoes no memory or limited memory.1 to 1 millisecond Long more than 2 milliseconds The shorter the pulse length. in fact. paper (chart recorder). The greater the power.Characteristics of echo-sounders ECHO . . or colour screen. power) If the echosounder's power supply is a bit weak. the greater the precision but. but note that recording equipment is now available ■ Other predetermined characteristics Wavelength (m) = 1500/frequency (Hz) The smaller the wavelength the greater the precision of detection. this is predetermined according to the frequency and the depth of sounding.SOUNDERS Depth Range Frequency Common frequencies are 30-400 KHz High Frequency Echo-sounders (100 to 400 kHz) Common use Width of Beam Precision Size of transducer Usual Use shallow water narrow very good small fish detection Low Frequency Echo-sounders (50 kHz or less) deep water wide less precise large navigation Electric supply required on the vessel (voltage. its performance will be poor. Beam-width : Wide : 20 to 30 degrees Narrow : 4 to 10 degrees Output power ranges from 100 to 5000 watts. Pulse length : Short 0.

with TVG and whiteline .Choice of an echo-sounder according to the application ECHO – SOUNDERS Navigation echosounder Depth of Water Limited to 100 m Frequency 20-100 kHz Beamwidth 10-20 degrees Output Power less than 1 kW Fish-finding echosounder Frequency 100-400 kHz Beamwidth 4-15 degrees Output Power around 1 kW Pulse length less than 1 millisecond Flasher display may be sufficient Deeper Water Frequency 10-20 kHz Beamwidth 4-10 degrees Output Power 5 -10 Kw depending on depth Pulse length greater than 2 milliseconds Pulse length less than 1 millisecond Usually with TVG and whiteline Frequency 30-50 kHz Beamwidth 4-10 degrees Output Power 5-10 kW depending on depth Pulse length 1-2 milliseconds.

■ Turning speed required ■ At a constant drum diameter. it is necessary to add 25% for power loss through mechanical transmission.0 t x 1. 152) .6 m/s) ■ hauled m/s m/s : : 1.0 t t where R = turning speed of winch or hauler (RPM) v = speed of hauling required (m/min) Ø = diameter of full drum (mm) ■ At a constant hauling speed. For example.Winches and net drums DECK EQUIPMENT ■ Power required where P = actual power of winch or hauler (HP) F = pulling force needed (kgf) v = speed of hauling needed (m/s) When estimating the engine power required to produce the actual power at the winch.6 t x 1 m/s = 1.6 1. then 12.6 (1. if actual winch power (P) of 10 HP is required and transmission is mechanical. the capacity and the pulling force (in tonnes force or in daN. see pages 150.5 HP engine power will be needed to produce this. the pulling force available decreases as speed increases Work done by drum = pull x speed = constant Example: pull at mid-drum at 1 pull at mid-drum at 1. where T = tension on the material (kgf) P = power of the winch or hauler (HP) v — speed of hauling (m/s) Note : Main characteristics of a winch or drum are the dimensions. pulling force available decreases as a drum fills Pulling force Tension on the material being The torque of the drum is constant (at 5. in the example in next column). or 100% for hydraulic transmission.

37 0.00 2.30 0.6 17.purse seine winches and drums The pulling force of the purse line winch required for a seine of given weight can be estimated by the following formula : F = 4/3 (Wn/2 + Wr + Ws) where : F = pulling force of the winch (tf.35 0.6 17.45 360 x 30 32 450 x 64 376 * Power (HP) = 1.5 27 27 24. Drums 2 2 2 3 Cable Ø (mm) 15.35 0.35 0.4 15.4 17. tons force) Wn = weight in air of the netting (t.6 3. Rtex) 3.8 Speed (m/s) (bare drum) 0.35 P(HP)* 44 70 100 100 45-60 3 20 20 20 150 60-75 3 22 22 22 300 ■ Seine drums some examples width of drum inside flanges (m) flange diameter (m) drum diameter (m) Seine dimensions: hung length x stretched height (m) stretched meshsize (mm) (centre section) twine size (centre section.42 0.36 x Power (kW) DECK EQUIPMENT .6 17.35 0.6 Length (m) 1300 1800 1800 1800 800 600 2220 975 975 2420 1120 1120 Pull (†) (bare drum) 8 11 17 21 21 21 27 27 24.45 0.30 0.30 0.5 0.90 2.35 0.44 0. tons) Wr = weight in air of the footrope and purse rings (†) Ws = weight in air of the ballast on the footrope (†) Characteristics of some purse line winches in use (after Brissonneau and Lotz) Drum Capacity Vessel Length (m) 20 20-25 25-30 30-40 No.

35 1. chains.50 1.00 1.36 x Power in (kW) At constant drum = constant. RPM. and 0 = diameter (mm) of warp : — Maximum Pull : At the most. — Depth of drum(A . Note : Tolerances must be taken into account when accessories (i.5 15. If L = length (m) of warp.5 19.20 1. thus. . pull x diameter ■ Dimensions — Diameter of the bare drum : about 14 to 20 times the diameter of the warp. equal to 1/3 the breaking strength of the warp.5 12.0 16.50 900 1600 2500 3500 4500 6500 * Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). The pull of the winch at mid-drum should be at least 80% of the maximum bollard pull of the vessel.B): at least 2 equal to the diameter of the bare drum ■ Capacity of a winch drum ■ Performance — With automatic spooling (levelwind) and drum dimensions given above. see page 95 Power in (HP] = 1.0 13.5 1.Trawl winches DECK EQUIPMENT Power* of trawler(HP) Power of winch(HP) Capacity of drums hauling speed (m/sec) Pull at mid-drum (kg) drums combined Length(m) 50-75 100 200 300 400 500 700-800 200 25 40 60 80 120 165 6. In order to haul the trawl the winch has to develop more power than tha' which is exerted in towing the trawl.3 x pull of the trawler — Manual spooling reduces this capacity by about 10%. shackles) swivels] are hauled on with the warps.3 700 1000 1250 1350 2100 2000 Ø of wire(mm) 500-750 10. It is best to use the formula : Pull of the winch (at mid-drum) = 1.e.40 1.

A few guidelines: Note that for a given capacity. ■ Main dimensions For a given application (requiring a [certain pull. use of the drum (storage and/or hauling) the volume of the net. ballast.5 3 3.36 x Power in (kW) .8 2-2. In order to maintain the speed of hauling. sinker chain and bobbins. Vessel horsep ower 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Capac ity (cubic m) 0. and deck space available. the pull of the net drum at bare drum should be at least equal to the pull of the winch at full drum. ■ Pulling force Note : The volume of a trawl (V) con be estimated from its weight W: midwater trawl V (cubic m) = 3.Trawl net drums DECK EQUIPMENT Weight of Drum (t) 1-1.5 4 Weig ht of net (kg) 120 250 400 550 700 800 1000 1100 Pull (t) (bare drum) Speed (m/min) 6-10 13. according to the strain on the winch. see page 95 Power in (HP) = 1.2 2-4 10 1.5 1 1.B ] 3 2 2 Pull (tonnes) <3 5-8 8-13 20-30 B average (mm) 240 300 450 600 Thus. ■ Hauling speed is generally great er than or equal to 30 m/min.5 X W (tonnes) bottom trawl V (cubic m) = 4.5 7-12 17 The bare drum diameter B generally does not vary much for a given pull. * Brake horsepower (BHP) or Apparent Nominal Power (ANP). their volume must be taken into account.5 ■ Capacity of a drum Usable volume of drum (m ) = 3 x C x (A .5 1. The same is true for the floats. speed and capacity) there may be several alternatives to choose from.5 2 2.0 x W (tonnes) Note : when sweeps and/or the bridles of combination rope are to be reeled onto the drum with the net.7-1. A and C will be chosen depending on the type of net. the pulling force and speed may vary a great deal.

12-24 18-30 24-39 24-34 30-75 Pull (tonnes) .0 ■ Performance of power blocks in common use according to the size of the vessel Seiner length (m) 9-12 ■ Pull available The power block should be capable of pulling 20% to 50% of the total weight of the net (in air).Power block DECK EQUIPMENT ■ Choice of model The netting should fill only the groove (throat) of the power block.5 2 4 5 6-7 Speed (m/min) 30-40 30-40 40-50 40-50 40-70 40-90 Power (HP*) 8-16 13-20 30-45 60-85 80-150 90-220 * Power in (HP) = 1. estimated by two different methods : (1) Direct measurement — take the leadline with the floatline to form a large bundle with the netting and measure the circumference of the bundle with a piece of twine.0 6.36 x power in (kW) . passing it between the leads and the floats. mm) 500-800 800-1100 1100-1800 1800-2500 Pull tonnes 0.0-1. The model is chosen according to the circumference of the seine gathered together.5-1.5-1.0-2. Capacity (circumference of net.5 1.0-5..0 1. 0. at speeds of between 30 m/min for a small seiner to 80 m/min for a larger seiner.0-8. Values of pulling force available at middiameter for power blocks of different capacities in common use.0 3.

Net haulers: some examples Other than power blocks (page 130) Hauling with a net drum Hauling with a net drum crossing two 'shakers' DECK EQUIPMENT .

jigging machine ■ Haulers for long-lines .Line haulers DECK EQUIPMENT ■ Hauler (gurdy) for trolling lines ■ Haulers for vertical lines.

pot/trap haulers ■ Hydraulic pot hauler ■ Pot hauler powered by outboard motor DECK EQUIPMENT .

length is of the order of 100 km. and comparable to that of line haulers and net haulers. Vessel Tonnage 10 20 40 100 > Speed of hauling (m/min) 70-80 70-90 150-210 180-260 . with relatively short branchlines (5 m or less). ■ Net haulers : the following pertain to a few types in common use. except for the existence of models with pulling force greater than 1000 kg (1000. pulling force F decreases (the inverse is also true Pulling force F increases (the inverse is also true) F x V = constant = power of hauler At the hauler: as drum diameter decreases. Vessel Length (m) 5-10 10-15 15-20 Vessel Length (m) <10 10-15 15-20 Ø Line (mm) <6 6-12 8-16 Pull (kg) 200-300 300-400 500-700 Speed of Hauling (m/min) 20-40 60 70 Depth of Water (m) < 100 <200 300 > Pull (kg) 150-300 200-500 500-900 Speed of Hauling (m/min) 20-35 25-45 50-70 ■ Pot/trap haulers Performance is very variable depending on the model. the following pertain to a few types in common use. lines and traps: performance of common types DECK EQUIPMENT Note : within the power limits of the engine (constant torque) : as speed V increases. with snoods spaced 50 m or more apart.e.Haulers for nets. 1350. F x Ø = constant Longline haulers For longlines up to about 30 km long. 1500 kg) and higher hauling speeds. For drifting midwater longlines (i. Japanese-type longlines for tuna).

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72 0.72 0.84 0.7 and 0. V. — for a displacement vessel.75 x P(max) x (S/d) x † x 0.5 to 0. free running it is between 0.8 and when fishing 0.84 * petrol = gasoline 155-180 — Consumption of fuel by an engine during a given period of time : C = 0. speed of vessel ■ Fuel consumption of the engine Specific consumption of fuel depending on the type of engine — Consumption of lubricating oil = 1 to 3% (in litres) of fuel consumption ■ Maximum Economic Speed (Critical Speed) This is related to the length of the vessel at the waterline.8 C S d † hours Note : time can be replaced with distance covered in miles speed in knots Approximation : Annual consumption 1000 litres/HP/year of a trawler = = consumption (in litres) = specific consumption of P(max) = maximum power of engine in HP fuel in grams/HP/hour = density of fuel = time of use of engine in PROPULSION .75 is an average coefficient. this speed.Fuel consumption of engine.001 where 0. can be estimated as follows : Engine Density of fuel Consumptio n in g/hp/hour 400-500 300-400 220-270 170-200 2-stroke petrol 2-stroke petrol (improved) 4-stroke petrol Diesel Diesel (turbo-charged) 0.72 0.

TANKS ■ Quantity of ice required (1 m of ice weighs a round 900 kg) — In temperate waters : 1 ton of ice for 2 tons of fish (kept for more than a week) 0. 3 ■ Capacity of the hold in kg of fish 3 or crustacea per m Taking into account the shape of the hold and arrangement for stowage.Ice. minimum allowance to plan : vessel length 10 m : 10 to 15 litres of water per person per day 20 m : 20 to 25 litres of water per person per day 30 m : 30 litres of water per person per day 3 3 .7 ton of ice for 2 tons of fish (kept for less than a week) — In tropical waters :1 ton of ice for 1 ton of fish These quantities may be reduced by 30 to 50% if the hold is refrigerated. Ice Ice Material Method of stowing Crushed Flake Without Ice In bulk with ice In chilled sea water In bulk with ice In boxes with ice Frozen whole Fresh or frozen fillets Frozen in blocks Frozen in bulk stowing rate 3 kg/m 550 420-480 800-900 650 700 500 350 500 900-950 700-800 600 Small fish(eg sardine) Small fish(eg sardine) Small fish (eg sardine) Average to large fish Average to large fish Average to large fish Average to large fish Tailed shrimp Tuna ■ Capacity of a live tank or well Crustacea in well or tank on board : 120-200 kg of Crustacea per m of tank (Note : adequate water circulation is essential) Crustacea in cage or 'car' set in sea : 400 kg of Crustacea per m of cage Live bait well : 30/50 kg of 3 bait per m (water renewed 6 to 8 times per hour) ■ Consumption of fresh water. fresh water FISH HOLD. capacity of holds and tanks. the real capacity of a hold will reflect a stowing rate 10-20% less than the figures shown here.

cod. BAIT . The figures here are rough estimates taken from examples in use. Target species Weight of bait (g) per hook 20-25 40-60 200 .300 100 to 450 Bait type Sandeel. the following estimates may be given. target species and type of longiine. reckon on 1 † of bait (the proportion will increase a little with the tonnage of the vessel). rays Large sharks Swordfish ■ Live bait for tuna In planning to catch in the order of 10 to 30 † of tuna.Bait: quantity required ■ Longiine The quantity of bait required obviously depends on the bait type.5-3 5-6 10 Whiting Small sharks. Sardine Mackerel. If mackerel is used as bait. Horse mackerel Needlefish (for drifting longiine) Quantity (in kg) per 100 hooks 2.

■ Trawling The amount of time needed to shoot and haul the warps depends on the depth. net) may take 5-15 min. Speed of hauling with power block : 800 1200-1400 7-10 10-15 15-25 Length of purse seine (m) Duration (mins) ■ Purse seining Shooting the seine usually takes 2-5 min Speed of pursing : Length of purse seine (m) 300 800 1200-1400 Duration (mins) 20-25 40-60 60-100 . sweeps. Hauling may take 15-25 min (excluding warps).Speed of operation OPERATIONS ■ Longlining (manual operation aided only by a line hauler) — Bottom longline number of hooks per man per day : 500-1000 speed of baiting : 2-4 hooks/min/man speed of shooting (coastal) : 50-150 m/min speed of shooting (deep-water) : 200-300 m/min 300 speed of hauling (coastal) : 15-40 m/min speed of hauling (deep-water) : 60 m/min — Midwater drifting longline (tuna type) speed of shooting : 400-600 m/min or 500 hooks/h speed of hauling : 200 hooks/h at 3-5 knots ■ Gillnetting Length of net per man per day : 500-1000 m speed of shooting : 6000-9000 m/h speed of hauling : 700-1500 m/h Loading or broiling may take several hours depending on the catch. bridles. Shooting the rest of the gear (doors.

renting of equipment. which will determine the following : — Particular costs are defined as joint expenses (fuel. as well as the labour share (crew share) and the boat share. — Division of the labour share among the crew may depend on individual responsibilities.Bookkeeping ■ Rules — Keep a record of all expenses and receipts — Take a lot of care in organising and classifying records — Check accounts very regularly Date Transaction # Grass Receipts from sale and fish Joint Expenses Keep these two accounts well separated.).) or boat expenses (vessel maintenance. amount of experience. etc. (1) A book for the accounts of the crew. This will help with calculation of the boat's net income. (several columns for different expenses) This will help with calculation of crew payments. etc. preferably in two separate books. these proportions vary among different fisheries.joint expenses = net receipts — Net receipts are divided into labour share and boat share — The labour share is divided among the crew according to the contract (calculated every week or after each trip) The boat share . — Income from the catch is divided to pay certain expenses. which are the accounts of the company or owner (even if the skipper is the owner). — Gross receipts . skipper included ■ Keeping and presenting accounts — The methods of settling and presentation of the accounts depend on the habits and traditions of local fishermen. (2) A book for the boat's accounts (accounts of the company) Date Transaction # Expenses charged to the Owners (several columns for different expenses) NEVER mix the payment of the skipper with the boat's accounts. food etc.boat expenses = gross profit (calculated on an annua! basis) BOOKKEEPING . ice.

motor. as this eventually becomes necessary. Depreciation is a related term which is used more commonly. and the amount set aside should be equal to the depreciation (anticipated loss of value) of the equipment.Bookkeeping (continued) BOOKKEEPING There is a net profit only if the gross profit is greater than the sum of interest on loans plus amortisation of equipment. All equipment should be amortised during the period in which it is actually used. During normal periods while the amortisation is calculated. Table of loan repayment Amortisation is the cost associated with the loss of value. (through use. — Examples periods : new hull motor navigation equipment outfitting and fishing gear — 2 types : (1) linear depreciation : value of the purchase duration of amortisation (2) accelerated depreciation sidual value X depreciation rate : re of 10-15 years 1 -4 years 5 years 3 years amortisation — The sum of the amortisation allotments should equal the actual purchase price of the equipment. ■ Keeping accounting records • gross receipts = sum of (joint expenses + crew shares + boat expenses) • money available at year-end = [money available on January 1 (cash + savings) + gross profits (before taxes) + amortisation] Example of accounts in a situation where the boat and crew split 50/50: joint expenses date of trip record # receip ts (sales ) 1000 300 600 tax on sales 50 15 30 fuel oil ice fishing gear food crew share boat share boat expenses taxes rent for equip. When money for replacement of equipment (which is wearing out) is set aside and considered a cost. but should be set aside for replacement of vessel and equipment. it is not represented by actual payments of money. the money associated with amortisation costs is actually available. etc. wearing out) of the investment (vessel.). this may be called amortisation. maint & repair s gross profit Jan 9 Jan 12 Jan 15 150 180 140 50 20 15 20 30 60 50 320 20 150 320 20 150 32 2 15 30 85 288 97 135 45 65 Jan 23 1200 60 200 20 30 50 420 420 boat share 42 boat expenses 150 228 gross profit receipts from sales-joint expenses =net receipts .

REGULATIONS .Local fisheries regulations and data Use this blank page for records of local fisheries regulations and other useful local information.

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85 km 1609 m Quick approximations ► 10 cm 30 cm 1m ~ ~ ~ 4 in 1 ft 40 in .3 m 0.54 cm 30.3 feet (ft) or (') 1.4 mm 2.5 cm 0.83 m Conversions between metric and Anglo-American units ► • 1 mm 1 cm 1 cm 1m 1m 1m 1 km 1 km = = = = = = = = 0.55 fathom (fm) 0.54 nautical mile (nm) 0.4 inch (in) or (") 0.9 m 1.62 statute mile • 1 in 1 in 1 ft 1ft 1 yd 1 fm 1 nautical mile 1 statute mile = = = = = = = = 25.04 inch (in) or (") 0.83 m 1.Units of length UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1 metre (m) = 10 decimetres (dm) = 100 centimetres (cm) = 1000 millimetres (mm) 1 kilometre (km) = 1000 metres (m) 1 nautical mile = 1852 (m) 1 cable = 185 m 1 fathom = 1.09 yards (yd) 0.03 foot (ft) or ('} 3.

45 cm 0.Units of area UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1 square metre (m ) = 100 square decimetres (dm ) = 10000 square centimetres (cm ) = 1 000000 square millimetres (mm ) 1 square kilometre (km ) = 1 000 000 m 1 are (a) = 100 m 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 hectare (ha) = 10000 m • 1 mm 1 cm 1m 2 2 2 = = = = 0.5 in 15 in 11 ft 12 yd 2 2 2 2 Quick approximations 10 m .09 m 0.7 ft 2 2 2 Conversions between metric and Anglo-American units 1 ha 2.0015 in 0.4 ha 2 2 2 2 1 acre 10 cm b 1 dm 1m 2 2 2 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1.47 acres • 1 in 1 in 1ft 2 2 = = = = 645 mm 6.15 in 10.

57 I 0.03 m 0.22 gallon (gal) 0.3 dm 0.Units of volume.75 pints 2.47 I 3 3 3 1 yd 1 gal 1 US gal 1 pint 1 US pint Quick approximations ► 9I 1m 3 ~ ~ 2 gal 35 ft 3 .8 I 0.76 m 4.4 cm = = = = = = = 3 3 3 3 28.03 ft 35.06 in = = = = = = = 0.26 US gallon 1.3 ft 1.5 I 3.3 yd 3 1 dm 1m 1m 1I 1I 1I 1I 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.1 US pints • 1 in 1 ft 1 ft 3 16. capacity UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1 cubic metre (m ) = 1000 cubic decimetres (dm ) = 1 000000 3 cubic centimetres (cm ) 1 litre (1) = 1000 cubic centimetres (cm ) = 1 cubic 3 decimetre (dm ) 1 cubic metre (m ) = 1000 litres (1) Conversions between metric and Anglo-American units ► 3 3 3 3 • 1 cm 3 0.

weight and force UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ■ Mass and weight 1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams 1 tonne or metric ton (†) = 1000 kilograms Conversions between metric and Anglo-American units • 1g 1 kg 1 kg 1t = = = = 0.2 pounds (lb) 0.45 kg 50.Units of mass.02 hundred weight (cwt) 0.03 ounce (oz) 2.3 g 0.8 kg 1.81 newtons (N) 1 decanewton (daN) = 10 newtons (N) 1 kgf ~ 1 daN Quick approximations .01 t 10 kg 50 kg ~ ~ 22 lb 1 cwt Quick approximations ■ Force 1 kilogram-force (kgf) = 1000 gram-force (gf) 1 kilogram-force (kgf) = 9.98 (long) ton • 1 oz 1 lb 1 cwt 1 (Ion g)t = = = = 28.

74 Kw ∎ Light The international unit which describes light intensity is the candela (cd). illumination decreases quickly as the light source draws farther away. power.81 N/m2 = 689 mb • 1 kg / mm 2 = 1 422 PSI ◄ Conversions between metric and AngloAmerican units 1 PSI = 0. light and sound ∎ Pressure 1 atmosphere (Atm) 1 millibar (mb) 1 kgf/m2 1 pound per square inch (PSI) = 1 kgf/cm2 = 101 kN/m2 ~ 1 bar ~ 100000 Pascals (Pa) ~ 1013 millibars (mb) = 100 N/m2 = 100 Pa = 9.0007 kg / mm 2 ∎ Power Power = force x speed 1 horsepower (HP) = 75 kg x m/s 1 kilowatt (kW) = 1.Units of pressure. that is.34 Hp 1 HP = 0. Illumination varies inversely with the square of the distance from the light source. where r = distance from light source in metres ∎ Sound The speed of sound in water is approximately 1500 m/s. . Illumination (E) is described in terms of units called lux (Lx).

5 0.4 21.5 9 9.1 12 13 13.2 7.5 13 13.Units of speed UNITS OF MEASUREMENT 1 metre per second (m/s) 1 knot (kn) = 1 nautical mile per hour* = 1852 m/h = 0.9 5.6 4.1 5.5 1.5 10 10.1 3.3 0.9 1.1 4.6 18.3 9.5 12 12.8 3.3 1.7 ~ km/h 14.8 15.1 24.5 7 7.5 11 11.8 2.8 Quick approximations Examples : 10 knots is ab/ou equivalent to : * Note : in some countries.5 19.4 8.5 7.5 5 5.7 6.3 3.3 22.5 15 ~ m/s 4.8 2.5 2 2.7 16.2 11.4 5.5 3 3.9 27.6 5.5 6 6.9 ~ km/h 0.4 6.6 6.9 7.9 kn 8 8.0 1.7 4.9 6.87 nautical mile .6 2.5 1 1.5 ~ m/s 0.5 4 4.3 2.1 25 25.51 m/s ■ Speed of a vessel kn 0. sometimes referred to simply as 'miles'.5 7. the distances may be measured in 'statute miles'.9 26.2 6. I statute mile = 1609 m = 0.2 23.4 4.7 5.4 20.8 1.8 3.7 17.1 2.6 3.3 10.5 14 14.

10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -22 -4 14 32 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176 194 212 .4 60.2 37.8 43.0 65.8 93.1.1 76.1 4.0 15.2 -6.7 27.6 24.6 71.Units of temperature UNITS OF MEASUREMENT -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 -29.8 -23.7 32.17.12.7 .3 .9 54.9 -30 -20 .9 87.1 26.8 .3 98.4 10.3 48.

4 15 22 29 44 59 74 147 221 294 368 442 515 589 662 736 883 1 030 1 178 1 325 1 472 .4 8.4 0.7 5.3 0.4 2.1 1.4 5.8 1 2 4 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1 300 1 400 1 500 HP 0.2 2.2 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 200 1 400 1 600 1 800 2 000 kW 0.2 10.6 0.5 2.7 1.7 4.4 0.8 1.5 0. and HP to kW UNITS OF MEASUREMENT kW 0.Conversion of kW to HP.9 3.9 7..9 14 27 41 54 68 82 95 109 122 136 272 408 544 680 816 952 1 088 1 224 1 360 1 496 1 632 1 768 1 904 2 040 HP 0.

Area FORMULAE .

Area. circumference FORMULAE .

Area. volume FORMULAE .

Pressure underwater FORMULAE Depth (m) 0 10 20 40 50 60 100 200 300 400 500 1 000 Hydrostatic pressure kgf/cm or atmospheres 1 2 or 1 + 1 3 or 2 + 1 5 or 4 + 1 6 or 5 + 1 7 or 6 + 1 11 or 10 + 1 21 or 20 + 1 31 or 30 + 1 41 or 40 + 1 51 or 50+ 1 101 or 100 + 1 Pressure (kgf/cm ) = 0.001 kgf/cm ) 3 2 .1 x depth (m) + 1 (specific gravity of water 0.

Gravity and buoyancy Ga (kgf) = weight of a body in air Ga (kgf) = volume of the body (m ) x d (specific gravity of the body ii kgf/m ) F (kgf) F (kgf) = buoyant force = volume of the body (m ) x dw (specific gravity of water i kgf/m ) 3 3 3 3 Gw (kgf) = weight of the body in water Gw (kgf) = weight of the body in air (kgf) — buoyant force (kgf) Gw (kgf) = Ga .F Gw (kgf) = Ga (1 . The difference [weight of the body in air -buoyant force] is positive.1/d) [for salt water Gw (kgf) = Ga (1 . The body (2) has neu-tral buoyancy. The body (3) sinks.1. FORMULAE .02/d)] Buoyantforce is greater than the weight of the body in air. Buoyant force is equal to the weight of the body in air. Buoyant force is less than the weight of the body in air. The difference [weight of the body in air -buoyant force] is negative. The body (1) floats. The difference [weight of the body in air -buoyant force] is zero.

Square roots of numbers from 0 to 499 FORMULAE Extracted from Statisfique et probabilité from the collection Aide-Mémoire TECHNOR. doc. . 15 and 16. Delagrave 1985. With permission of the editor.

Square roots of numbers from 500 to 999 FORMULAE .

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etc. central hole or attachment point(s). method and intended use and let him suggest the particular size. with drawing showing clearly the mooring points. seine.Check list of specifications to order fishing equipment ■ Essential data for suppliers N. central axis (diameter of marking mast to be set) □ desired buoyancy or volume (in litres) □ number of buoys. etc. crushing. '10 ton' winch or '100 mesh deep' gillnet.B.g. ORDERING EQUIPMENT . reinforced connectors.) — maximum depth of use □ material. Small : (swivel.tance of elements placed each side or from the catalogue (give the name of the supplier) : trade name of model. seine buoy. — any mechanical constraints (e. give the manufacturer full details of the vessel. — any mechanical constraints (crushing during manoeuvres on a drum or a hauler. clasp) Intended use and in particular nature and resis. shape. bearing in mind the packaging and selling procedure used by the supplier (number per box) Float : Intended use : float for trawl. number(s) of the model and size number chosen. ■ Fishing gear and accessories Accessories. e. marker buoy. □ unit buoyancy or exact size □ quantity required bearing in mind the handling and selling procedure used by the supplier (num ber per box) Fish hook : According to the supplier's catalogue (give the name of the supplier) : name. anchor buoy. resistance a quantity required bearing in mind the handling and selling procedure used by the supplier (box of pieces) Buoy : Intended use . mooring buoy.g. If you are uncertain of the precise details for the specification. size number. gillnet. passage for example through a power block) □ form : as precise a description as possible. Much money and time is wasted foolishly specifying much too large a unit. etc. etc. protecting buoy.

Fishing gear and accessories (continued) ORDERING EQUIPMENT or accurate drawing of hook. double or triple □ normal or forged □ normal finish. mounted : The list of data to be supplied will depend on the supplier's skill and experience in mounting gillnets. tinned. — species to be fished — handling : type of hauler — method of ranging on board — volume of expected catch □ mesh size (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be specified) or. drifting. for trommel nets. galvanised or stainless steel □ kirbed or reversed bend □ extremity of hook shank : flatted or eye type □ with or without lure : description □ with or without barb □ possibly with swivel incorporated □ opening of hook. mesh size of inside net and outside panels. Give a detailed drawing or intended used on the bottom : hard or soft bottom. waters often rough or fairly calm. or in midwater. □ nature of twine : twisted multifilament or mono filament or multimonofilament . bearing in mind the packaging and selling procedure used by the supplier (box of x hooks) Gillnet. gap (distance point — shank) □ long or short shank □ throat (or depth of the hook) □ quantity desired. full-sized or use : trolling or rod fishing or handline fishing or bngline fishing — expected species sought and average size □ single.

braided. monofilament or multimonofilament □ size of the twine (in R tex or m/kg or denier or diameter) □ colour □ mesh size. or number of meshes deep □ number and type of floats and sinkers □ possibly colour □ hanging ratio □ length of mounted net Net webbing : (trade) name of textile □ twisted (direction of twist: right or left). mounted : The list of data to be supplied will depend on the supplier's skill and experience in mounting seines.Fishing gear and accessories (continued) □ twine material and twine size □ possibly height of net when hung or stretched net. depth of fish and/or water depth □ mesh size (body and bunt with specifications of mesh bar or stretched mesh) ORDERING EQUIPMENT . or stretched mesh or mesh opening □ knotted or knotless netting (intended use) □ for knotted netting : simple or double knot □ dimensions of netting : — length of stretched net or number of meshes — depth of stretched net or number of meshes □ simple selvedge or double row or double mesh □ placing of selvedges : at top and bottom of netting or along the sides □ if necessary. treatment (impregnation) of netting Purse seine. Give a detailed drawing or minimum specifications Intended use : — length or tonnage of seine boat and winch power — species to be fished. in specified size of mesh bar.

in cluding border strips or selvedges) □ position and dimensions (width. depth) of bunt □ form of wings □ type of purse rings □ number and buoyancy of the floats □ weight of the ballast on the leadline (type of ballast : lead or chain) Rope. etc. combination rope : (trade) name of textile or composition (fibre synthetic and/or natural and/or steel. □ special requirements for backstrop fastening or brackets adjustments or eye for lifting. direction of twist — Z o r S ) □ if possible. wear Trawl board : Type of board (which implies : use on the bottom or in midwater. breaking strength required □ size of the rope : diameter (or circumference) □ colour □ natural or treated □ length intended use of rope — exposure to sunlight. with or without core) □ braided or twisted (if possible. . material. height and weight of board □ quantity : the pair or the port board or the starboard board. size of opening lines followed or preceded by a trade name coded in letters and/or figures). shape. mounted : The list of data to be supplied will depend on the supplier's skill and experience in mounting trawls □ trade name of a model considered to be typical and well known (e.Fishing gear and accessories (continued) ORDERING EQUIPMENT □ length when hung (with indication of the hanging ratio along the floatline for each part of the seine) □ depth with stretched net (seine fully hung.g. Trawl. main characteristics) □ power of trawler a length.

for trawls in contact with the bottom : relationship of species fished with the bottom. PE. 2. or monofilament or multi-monofilament □ size of the twine (in R tex or m/kg or denier. etc. splitting strap □ possibly characteristics of the codend chafer or the double protection codend □ list of any accessories to be supplied with the trawl(s) and characteristics (rigging. diameter and mounting of groundrope □ codend — mesh size expressed in inside opening of the mesh (regulations in force) or size of the bar or stretched mesh — length. average trawling speed □ mesh size(s) (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be specified) in the fore part □ mesh size(s) (size of the bar or stretched mesh to be specified in the aft part) □ possibly material and twine size desired □ possibly length of headline and footrope □ nature. PA. in spool : (trade) name of texile (or usual abbreviation. beckets) — strop. or diameter) □ breaking strength required □ colour □ natural or treated ORDERING EQUIPMENT . shackles. etc.) □ twisted or braided.Fishing gear and accessories (continued) or give a detailed drawing or specify bottom trawl or high-opening bottom trawl. nature of bottom. species to be fished. 4 or more panels or pelagic trawl for one or two boats (pair trawl) □ intended use : power of trawler(s). stretched net — possibly width — possibly reinforcements (lines. hooks.) Twine. swivels.

with or without core □ finish : galvanised or not (black or bright) or stainless stee □ required breaking strength □ right or left laid □ preparation of ends □ delivered in coils or on wooden reel . number of spools) Warp : Intended use and desired flexibility □ length □ diameter □ composition : number of wires and fibres.Fishing gear and accessories (continued) ORDERING EQUIPMENT □ quantity (weight of one spool or twine length on it.

PTO) □ means of power transmission Power block : Intended use : — tonnage and size of seiner — circumference of bunched seine when floatline and leadline have been joined or. groundrope. line or pot: Intended use : gillnets or lines or pots hauler — tonnage and possibly size of boat — average depth of use — best catches expected (expressed in weight) for a given length of gear — average sea conditions □ pull and desired winding speed □ for line and pot hauler : diameter of main line □ for net hauler : height of gillnet(s) used.Deck equipment Drum. type of floats and sinkers — possibly form of groove or throat preferred □ axle of hauler : vertical or horizontal □ source of power (main engine. various sinkers.) — for a longline drum (storage of main line) : length and diameter of line. greatest height of seine (towards mid-length) expressed in number of meshes and twine size ORDERING EQUIPMENT . seine. type of line. failing this. PTO) □ means of power transmission Hauler. in order to avoid crowding the deck : maximum overall dimensions □ source of power (main engine. auxiliary. chain. shackle. for net. auxiliary. seine or gillnet drum : estimated volume of net(s) with any accessories (floats. etc. for net or line : Intended use : for trawl. gillnet or longline □ pulling power required □ desired winding speed (with corresponding pull) □ capacity : — for a trawl. multifilament or monofilament □ possibly.

etc. etc. + length and diameter of tow line □ possibly : pull and speed Winch for trawl : Intended use : — size of trawler and/or tonnage and/or power of main engine — type of fishing : bottom trawling or pelagic trawling — average depth of the fishing grounds a driving means : mechanical (power. swivel. shackle. — stabilisation by bait or attraction to light — day and/or night fishing — any fishing on bottoms where the depth would be less than the height of the seine □ two or three drums □ with or without warp head(s) □ capacity of each drum — winch with two drums (small and medium-sized seiners). if appropriate in several pieces.Deck equipment (continued) ORDERING EQUIPMENT □ means of power transmission □ possibly pull and hauling speed required Winch for seine : Intended use : — tonnage and size of seiner — main dimensions and weight of seine — common sea conditions — average behaviour of fish : stability of schools swimming speed. triangle. length and diameter(s) of the purse line. any tendency to dive. danleno.) . length and diameter of the purseline — winch with three drums (large seiners). sweeps. nature and position of driving power) hydraulic or electric □ possibly power and/or pull and winding speed required □ monobloc (2 joined drums) or separate drums □ possibly supplementary bobbins □ capacity of each drum : expressed in length of warp of given diameter (if appropriate take into account rigging elements and accessories that could be put on the drum : chain.

two or none □ manual or automatic warp guide (spooling.Deck equipment (continued) □ warp head : one. levelwind) ORDERING EQUIPMENT .

Forged accessories. indicating exact trade name of accessory and code number or the calibre corresponding to the main dimensions and necessary breaking load (breaking strength = 6 times the estimated maximum use load . shackle. forelock. opening of a shackle. diameter of eye of a swivel.: Intended use clearly indicated (junction. galvanised or stainless steel □ main dimensions and characteristics (e. etc) □ elements (nature. very high resistance.) □ finish : black. etc. tools ORDERING EQUIPMENT Chain.) or choice from catalogue (give the name of the supplier). etc. breaking strength) expected on each side of the accessory □ estimated maximum use load □ nature of steel (semi-hard.g. size. anchor. bobbin. etc. eye screw pin. counter sunk. lifting.

units of measurement Buoyancy. estimation Diving board. of floats Buoyant force. traw! net drum Dutch clip (codend clip) E Echo-sounders. see float Buoyancy. of trawler Bookkeeping Bottom seine Bottom seines. for trawl groundrope Bunt* of purse seine Buoy.Bulldog grips. ropes Bottom traw. see also Trawls Brake horsepower. of trawler Area. characteristics Echo-sounders. for trolling Door. bridles and ropes Beach seine. dimensions Bottom seines. of otter board Bait Ballast. operation Bottom seines. BHP Breaking strength.Index A Accounting. of purse seine Bar (of net mesh) Beach seme Beach seine. see Wire rope Chain Circumference. types of Bobbins. formulae for calculation Area. information for ordering Denier Density of materials Depressor. units of measurement Cookies. of fibres and materials D Danish seine Deck equipment Deck equipment. rubber Bobbins. materials and hanging Beach seine. steel Bollard pull. steel Conversion. choice of Edge. formulae for calculation Clips Codendcip Connectors. for trolling Depth of midwater pair trawl. information for ordering Drum. purse seine Drum. net webbing Entangling nets . see Bookkeeping Anchors Angle of attack of otter board Apparent Nominal Power. and gravity C Cable clamps (wire rope clips) Cable. for trawl groundrope B Backstrop. see Cable damps Bunt. breaking load . see also Twine surface area Area. see Otter board Dredges Drum.

see Vertical line fishing Hanging net panels Hanging ratio Hardware Hardware. kilowatts . see Buoyancy Footrope. buoyancy Flotation. information for ordering Haulers. for trawls Floats. terms for describing Floats. pot/trap haulers Head ine height of traw Headline. for stoppers and mooring Knots. hanging. of traw warps. knots for tying Fish hooks. estimating number needed for seine Foots. choosing twine Gil nets. for trawl Knots. for fish hooks Knots. trawl: Examples H Handlines. for seine Floats. of trawl J Jigs K Kites. information for ordering Floats. fish hold Holds. units of measurement Fork rigging of trawl Formulae Fresh water consumption Fuel consumption of engine Fushi Groundrope. choosing meshsize Gillnets.Index F Fish finders. see Fish hooks Horsepower. for gillnets and seines Floats. hooks and G links Hardware. information for ordering Fishhooks. principal types Fish hooks. net webbing kW. ring-shaped Floats. net haulers Haulers. hardware Hooks. flotation and ballast Gillnets. steel. for longlines Knots. speed of operations Gravity and buoyant force Groundrope. information for ordering Gillnets Gillnets. for marking stationary gear Floats. for joining Hauler. of trawl Force. rigging Gillnetting. measurement G G links Gillnet. spherical. capacity Hooks. of traw Height of mounted net Hold. amount required Inclination. estimating buoyancy of Floats. HP l Ice. ine haulers Haulers. see echosounders Fish hooks.

cutting rates Net webbing. see Synthetic fibres. knots. meshes. midwater Pair trawling. estimating spread Otter boards. systems of measuring Net webbing. of bottom seine O Omfar Ordering equipment. twine surface area Net webbing. stretched Midwater pair trawl. twine surface in traw M Marking buoys Mass. fishing with Light. speed of operations Lures Net webbing. units of measurement Lifting. (or fish attraction Leads Length. common cutting rates Net webbing. for purse seine Mesh size. see also Twine Mounting net panes Mouth opening. Twine . types. set Longlinmg. riveted Longlines Longlines. data needed Otter boards. surface covered Net webbing. ad|ustment Otter boards. mounting panels Net webbing. definition Net webbing. estimation of weight Net webbing. components Long ines. mounted height Net webbing. slings and tackles Light. surface area Otter trawl. selvedges Net webbing. units of measurement Line fishing Line fishing accessories Line. see Trawl P N Net webbing. engine RPM Pair trawls. midwater Polyamide (PA). rigging Pelagic trawls. information for ordering Net webbing.Index L Lamps. joining panels Net webbing. units of measurement Mesh opening Mesh size. angle of attack Otter boards. hanging ratio Net webbing. see Trawls. definition of cuts Pair trawl. half-cut Link. estimating depth Midwater traw Monofilament. weight. Rope Link. proportions Otter boards. edges. bottom longline plan and rigging Longlines. see Twine. automation Longlines. drifting Long ines.

for troling Shrimp (prawn| trawls Sinkers Sinking speed of purse seine Slings Snaps. combination wire (2) Rope. see Bookkeeping Shackles Shearing depressor. twine Purse seine. speed of operations mooring Rope. see Synthetic fibres. for purse seine Rings. weight of sinkers Purse seining. live . combination wire (1) Rope. tables Stainless steel. knots for stoppers and T Tackles Tanks. units of measurement Propulsion Puling power of trawler Purse line Purse rings Purse seine Purse seine. knots for joining and loops Rope. see Traps and pots Power block Power block. see Shrimp traw s Pressure. underwater Pressure. see Echosounders Spacers. see Wire rope Strength of hardware Stretched mesh Surface covered by netting Swivels Synthetic fibres. identification Synthetic fibres. see also Bottom seine Selvedge Setsu Settling. commercial names Synthetic fibres. hanging ratio Purse seine. Sounders. physical properties R Regulations. horizontal spread of traw Sguare roots. local fisheries Rings. Twine Pots.Index Polyester (PES). dimensions. anchor or Danish Seine. Twine Polyethylene (PE). for trawl groundrope Rope. information for ordering Power. Resultant tex S Safe working load Safety factor Seine. plan and rigging Purse seine. for groundrope Speed. Twine Polypropylene (PP). see Synthetic fibres. floa (lines and leadlines Rope. of trawlers Power. units of measurement Spread. synthetic fibre Rope. units of measurement Prawn trawls. vegetable fibre Rtex. depth Purse seine. for net ballast Rings. see Synthetic fibres. for long line. buoyancy of floats Purse seine. loss of breaking strength due to knots and splices Rope.

opening of bottom traw Trawls. tex. opening of midwater trawls Trawls. length Weight in water Wells. information for ordering Trawl door. trawl. see also Twine number Twine surface area in trawl Twine. fork rigging Trawls.Index Temperature. twine surface area Trolling Tw me Twine size. measurement Warps. live Winch. trawl Wire rope clips Wire rope. tex Two-boat trawls. runnage. galvanized steel . dimensions Traps and pots. midwater. (see also Pair trawls) Trawls. numbering systems Twine. for purse seine Twine size. vertical. buoyancy and weight Trawls. rigging Trawls. units of measurement Thimbles Tow line. flotation and weight Traps and pots Traps and pots. . number. see Otter board Trawl groundropes Trawling speed Trawls. monofi ament. diameter. see Pair trawls V Vertica line fishing Volume. meshsize and twine size Trawls. bottom. nylon. purse seine Winch. diameter Twine. examples Traps and pots. bottom trawl plan Trawls. for netting Twine. measurement Twine. information for ordering Twine. pull. example of pan and rigging Tramme nets Tramme nets. units of measurement W Warp. meshsize and twine size Trawls. equivalents. nformation for ordering Warp angle. information for ordering Winch. polypropylene Twine. midwatertrawl pan Trawls. speed Winch. mu timonofilament Twine. denier. polyester. power. of purse seine Tramme net. Rtex Twine. choosing size for vessel hp Trawls. common. runnage Twine. formulae for calculation Volume. entrances Traps and pots. materials Trave board. polyethylene.

stainless stee Y Yarn. structure and use 24 Wire rope. sma 1 diameter Wire rope.Index Wire rope. handling Wire rope. see a so Twine . matching drums and sheaves Wire rope.

Books published by Fishing News Books Free catalogue available on request Advances in fish science and technology Aquaculture in Taiwan Aquaculture: principles and practice Aquaculture training manual Aquatic weed control Atlantic salmon: its future Better angling with simple science British freshwater fishes Business management in fisheries and aquaculture Cage aquaculture Calculations for fishing gear designs Carp farming Commercial fishing methods Control of fish quality Crab and lobster fishing The crayfish Culture of bivalve mollusks Design of small fishing vessels Developments in electric fishing Developments in fisheries research in Scotland Echo sounding and sonar for fishing The economics of salmon aquaculture The edible crab and its fishery in British waters Eel culture Engineering. economics and fisheries management European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue FAO catalogue of fishing gear designs FAO catalogue of small scale fishing gear Fibre ropes for fishing gear Fish and shellfish farming in coastal waters Fish catching methods of the world Fisheries oceanography and ecology Fisheries of Australia Fisheries sonar Fisherman's workbook Fishermen's handbook Fishery development experiences Fishing and stock fluctuations Fishing boats and their equipment Fishing boats of the world 1 Fishing boats of the world 2 Fishing boats of the world 3 The fishing cadet's handbook .

Fishing ports and markets Fishing with electricity Fishing with light Freezing and irradiation of fish Freshwater fisheries management Glossary of UK fishing gear terms Handbook of trout and salmon diseases A history of marine fish culture in Europe and North America How to make and set nets Inland aquaculture development handbook Intensive fish farming Introduction to fishery by-products The law of aquaculture: the law relating to the farming of fish and shellfish in Great Britain The lemon sole A living from lobsters The mackerel Making and managing a trout lake Managerial effectiveness in fisheries and aquaculture Marine fisheries ecosystem Marine pollution and sea life Marketing in fisheries and aquaculture Mending of fishing nets Modern deep sea trawling gear More Scottish fishing craft Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products Navigation primer for fishermen Net work exercises Netting materials for fishing gear Ocean forum Pair trawling and pair seining Pelagic and semi-pelagic trawling gear Penaeid shrimps — their biology and management Planning of aquaculture development Refrigeration of fishing vessels Salmon and trout farming in Norway Salmon farming handbook Scallop and queen fisheries in the British Isles Seine fishing Squid jigging from small boats Stability and trim of fishing vessels and other small ships Study of the sea Textbook of fish culture Training fishermen at sea Trends in fish utilization Trout farming handbook Trout farming manual Tuna fishing with pole and line .

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