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zurab jaSi

giorgi mTawmindeli aRmosavleTis da dasavleTis gzagasayarze

saqarTvelos eklesiis istoriis mravali furceli dResac ar gamxdara istorikosebis mxridan jerovani yuradRebis Rirsi, maSinac ki, roca zogierTi aseTi furclis Zieba araTu raime Znelad xelmisawvdom xelnawerebSi an ucxoenovan wyaroebSi gviwevs, aramed jer kidev saSualo skolis kedlebSi avad Tu kargad nacnob, CvenTvis esoden saTayvanebel hagiografiul ZeglebSi. erT-erT aseT SemTxvevad migvaCnia wm. giorgi mTawmindelis mier gamoxatuli saRvTismetyvelo pozicia iseT metad mniSvnelovan movlenebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac adgili hqonda 1054 wels da esoden dramatuli gavlena iqonia aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis eklesiaTa Semdgom urTierTobebze. aqve davazustebdiT, rom ganxeTqileba aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris XI saukuneSi arc dawyebula da arc dasrulebula: erTi mxriv, am mimarTulebiT saukuneebis winaT daiwyo moZraoba orive eklesiam, da, meore mxriv, arc XI s-is Sua xanebSi da arc mis Semdeg karga xans gauwyvetiaT erTmaneTTan kavSiri ise radikalurad, rogoradac dRes aris warmodgenili an surT warmoadginon. amis miuxedavad, zemoxsenebuli TariRi mainc yvelaze reliefurad ikveTeba am urTierTobebSi da pirobiTad mas SeiZleba vuwodoT aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis gzagasayari, romelic dRemde ar SeerTebula. aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis eklesiaTa urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo azris istoriisaTvis uaRresad aqtualur sakiTxs warmoadgens didi saeklesio moazrovnisa da mwerlis, giorgi mTawmindelis saRvTismetyvelo poziciis gamokveTa da misi Sefaseba zogad-saeklesio istoriis konteqstSi. Cveni statia miznad isaxavs am sakiTxis kvlevisaTvis sawyisi wertilebis moniSvnas da kiTxvebis dasmas kvlevis samomavlo ganviTarebisaTvis. pirvel yovlisa mokled da zogadad mimovixilavT im istoriulsaRvTismetyvelo faqtorebs, ramac gadamwyveti roli Seasrula XI saukuneSi gaformebul sqizmaze. Semdeg, kritikulad SevafasebT gansaxilvel periodSi bizantiis sasuliero kerebSi, kerZod, antioqiis monastrebSi, qarTvelebis mimarT Camoyalibebul damokidebulebebs. bolos ki gavaanalizebT gansazRvrul istoriul konsteqstSi giorgi mTawmindelis saRvTismetyvelo pozicias.

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Cveulebriv, miCneulia, rom im xanad ganaxlebul davas romisa da konstantinepolis eklesiebs Soris naklebad hqonda wminda saRvTismetyvelo xasiaTis safuZveli da saboloo sityva politikuri da kulturuli saxis faqtorebs ekuTvnoda. mama ioane eriqsonis azriT, aseTi Sefaseba logikurad warmoCndeba, Tu Tvals gadavavlebT im sakiTxebs, rac aRelvebdaT aRmosavlel da laTin RvTismetyvelT: `imdroindeli berZeni polemistebi kicxavdnen laTinebs maTi yoveldRiuri Cveulebebis gamo, raki isini ar galobdnen `aliluias~ marxvis dros; marxvas icavdnen SabaTobiT; da gansakuTrebiT imitom, rom ziarebaSi iyenebdnen ufuar purs _ `azimas~. pasuxad laTinebi daobdnen iseT sakiTxebze, rogoric iyo samRvdeloebis uqorwinebloba da mRvdlebis mier wverebis tareba”.1 yvela es sakiTxi miekuTvneba Cveulebebisa da RvTismsaxurebis sferos da maTi Taviseburebebis axsna SesaZlebelia dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis eklesiebis istoriulad Camoyalibebuli kulturuli gansxvavebebis gaanalizebiT, rasac akeTebs kidevac Cveni RvTismetyveli giorgi mTawmindeli, romlis poziciasac cota mogvianebiT ganvixilavT. manamde ki oriode sityva unda iTqvas im politikur viTarebaze, rac im droisTvis iyo Seqmnili dasavleT da aRmosavleT samyaroebs Soris. ori saukuniT adre karlos didma aRadgina dasavleT romis imperia, xolo romis papma igi imperatorad akurTxa. bizantias gamouCnda Zlieri metoqe, romelic mas romis imperiis memkvidreobaSi ecileboda da romlis legitimaciasac romis papi uzrunvelyofda. politikuri xasiaTis cvlilebebi adreve aisaxa eklesiaTa Soris urTierTobebze da gamoiwvia bulgareTSi saeklesio iurisdiqciasTan dakavSirebuli konfliqti. magram XI saukuneSi romis eklesiaSi Zlieri papis, grigol VII mier inicirebuli reformis Sedegad papis Zalauflebis universaluri iurisdiqciis mqoned aRiarebam sabediswero gavlena iqonia SemdgomSi ganviTarebul movlenebze.2 swored politikurma movlenebma ganapiroba wes-Cveulebebze yuradRebis zedmetad gamaxvileba 1054 wels. XI saukuneSi teritoriebis saZieblad wamosuli normani warCinebuli gvaris Svilebi SemoiWrnen italiaSi, aiSenes cixe-simagreebi da mTel samxreT italiaze ganavrces TavianTi Zalaufleba. isini arcTu megobrulad epyrobodnen romis paps, da leon IX datusaRebulic ki hyavdaT. maT aiZules italiaSi bizantiis mmarTvelobis qveS mcxovrebi berZnebi, romlebic misdevdnen laTinebisgan gansxvavebul saeklesio tradiciebs, uareyoT TavianTi wes-Cveulebebi da sanacvlod mieRoT laTinuri; isini berZen wmindanebsac ki ar aRiarebdnen. es cvlilebebi gansakuTrebiT mtkivneulad Seexo evqaristiaSi puris gamoyenebis sakiTxs _ gafuebulis nacvlad Semoitanes ufuari puri, ramac aRaSfoTa
J. Erickson. The Challenge of Our Past: Studies in Orthodox Canon Law and Church History. New-York, SVS Press 1991, p.133-134 2 Ware, T., The Orthodox Church, Penguin books, 1963, p. 66
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adgilobrivi mosaxleoba. miuxedavad normanebisadmi antipaTiisa, romis papic ar iyo winaaRmdegi laTinuri tradiciebis gavrcelebisa.1 sapasuxod konstantinepolis patriarqmac mosTxova konstantinepolSi arsebul laTinTa (Cveulebriv, venecieli vaWrebis) eklesiebs, gaeziarebinaT berZnuli Cveulebebi, xolo rodesac maT uari ganacxades, patriarqma miqael kerulariosma isini daxura. Tumca, 1053 wels manve gamoiCina iniciativa da Serigeba SesTavaza paps.2 miuxedavad imisa, Tu raoden wonadi SeiZleba iyos zemoT naxsenebi kulturuli da politikuri faqtorebi, maTze dayrdnobiT sakmarisi damajereblobiT ver avxsniT ganxeTqilebis mizezs. Cemi azriT, ara mxolod politikuri da kulturuli faqtorebi axdenen gavlenas RvTismetyvelebaze, aramed RvTismetyvelebac, Tavis mxriv, aZlevs gezs istoriis msvlelobas. es miT ufro TvalsaCinoa, roca saqme exeba Sua saukuneebs. XI saukuneSi, marTlac, mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa saRvTismetyvelo diskursma, romlis ganxilvis Suqzec, vfiqrob, ufro saintereso kuTxiT warmogviCndeba giorgi mTawmindelis pozicia. im droisaTvis laTinebi da bizantielebi CarTuli iyvnen Tav-TavianT Sida Teologiur polemikaSi, ramac mTlianad gansazRvra erTmaneTTan davaSi maTi saRvTismetyvelo interesebi da meTodebi. daviwyoT iqidan, rom wamoWril davaSi sul sxva ram ipyrobda dasavlelebis yuradRebas, da sxva ram _ aRmosavlelebisas. xSirad miiCneva, rom ganxeTqilebis mizezi gaxda sakiTxi suliwmindis Zisgan gamomavlobis Sesaxeb, e. w. Filioque. magram, rogorc cnobili istorikosi filip Safi aRniSnavs, `konstantinepolis patriarqi miqael kerulariosi 1053 wels apuleis qalaq tranis episkoposisadmi gagzavnil epistoleSi dasavlelebs uwodebs, mis mier, rogorc axali mwvaleblobisTvis gamogonil saxels `azimitebs~, da, imavdroulad, sityvasac ar Zravs suliwmindis gamomavlobis _ Filioque-s sakamaTo sakiTxze~.3 dasavlelebi am sakiTxisadmi zedmetad mgrZnobiare iyvnen, swored isini gamokveTen am sakiTxs da brals sdeben berZnebs, rom maT amoiRes Filioque mrwamsis simbolodan. swored laTinebis mier gamoTqmuli es braldeba gaxda mizezi imisa, rom berZnebmac yuradReba dauTmes `filiokves~ da `aRadgines fotiosis Sesabamisi naSromebi~.4

The Church in History, v.III/Louth, A., Greek East and Latin West, The Church AD 681-1071, St. Vladimir Seminary press, 2007, p.p. 306-307 2 Ware, T., The Orthodox Church, Penguin books, 1963. p. 67 3 Shaff, Ph., The History of the Christian Church, Christian Classics ethereal library, 1882, p. 199. 4 Erickson, J., The Chalenge of Our Past: Studies in Orthodox Canon Law and Church History, St.Vladimir Seminary press, p.134

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ismis kiTxva: riT iyo ganpirobebuli dasavlelTa aseTi Zlieri interesi `filiokves~ mimarT? _ pasuxi unda veZioT jer kidev IX saukuneSi dasavleTSi warmoSobil or eretikul doqtrinasTan gamarTul polemikaSi. orma espanelma episkoposma, elipandus toledoelma da feliqs urgelelma eWvi Seitanes Zis mamasTan TanasworobaSi da ganaaxles `adopcianisturi~ eresi. maTTan kamaTSi pavline akvileelma gamoiyena Filioque-s swavleba, raTa daemtkicebina mamisa da Zis Tanasworoba imgvarad, rom suliwminda warmoedgina rogorc orive maTganisagan Tanabrad gamomavali. imperatorma karlos didma moiwona es swavleba da `daavala Teodulfos orleanels, Seedgina wminda mamaTa gamonaTqvamebis krebuli Filioque-s mxardasaWerad, romelmac is miuZRvna imperators 809 wels~.1 amave periodSi dava wamoiwyo gotSalk orbeelma e. w. `sammagi RmrTeebis~ Sesaxeb; mas daupirispirda hinkmar reimseli, romelmac Tavisi argumentacia aseve `filiokveze~ daafuZna. ase rom, iaroslav pelikanis SejamebiT, `orive trinitologiuri dava, romelic wamoiWra dasavlur RvTismetyvelebaSi, xels uwyobda imas, rom `filiokves~ problema gamxdariyo marTla aqtualuri. misi uaryofa niSnavda suliwmindis gmobis miutevebeli codvis Cadenas, romelzec saubrobda qriste~.2 rac Seexeba berZnebs, maTi azriT, rogorc amas gamoTqvams erT-erTi antioqieli patriarqi, `maTsa da Cvens Soris gayofis mTavari da Tavdapirveli mizezi aris `ufuaris~ sakiTxi: `ufuaris sakiTxi Sejamebulad moicavs WeSmariti RvTismosavobis mTlian Temas~.3 am SemTxvevaSi aRmosavlelebis mier gakeTebuli arCevani ganpirobebuli iyo maTi mTavari sazrunaviT _ imxanad mcire aziaSi da bulgareTSi gavrcelebuli maniqeuri seqtebi (pavlikianelebi, bogomilebi da sxvani) da somexi antiqalkedonelebi, e. w. `monofizitebi~. pirvelni aviTarebdnen `doketistur~ qristologias da, aqedan gamomdinare, uaryofdnen evqaristiaSi qristes realur myofobas, aseve, somxebic ar iyenebdnen safuars evqaristiaSi da amas ganixilavdnen rogor qristeSi erTi saRvTo bunebis gamoxatulebas.4 amrigad, berZnebisaTvis evqaristiaSi safuaris gamoyeneba saRi qristologiis gamosaxatavad iseve mniSvnelovani iyo, rogorc dasavlelebisaTvis `filiokves~ gamoyeneba
P eli ka n, J . , T he C h r i st i an T r ad it io n, v.II //T he S p iri t o f E as ter n C hr i ste n d o m (6 0 0 -1 7 0 0 ), p.185 2 ibid. p.186 3 cit.: J. Erickson, dasax. naSr., gv. 134 4 ibid. p. 137. aqve unda davazustoT, rom antiqalkedonelebis mier termin `erTi buneba~ sruliad sxva datvirTva hqonda, ramdenadac isini `bunebas~, SeiZleba iTqvas, qristes `hipostasis~ sinonimuri mniSvnelobiT iyenebdnen da ara `arsis~, amitom maTTvis qriste iyo erTi buneba, magram ori arsi, saRvTo da adamianuri, rogorc amas amtkicebda VI saukunis gamoCenili RvTismetyveli severos antioqieli. am SemTxvevaSi isini misdevdnen wm. kirile aleqsandrielis terminologias, romlis mixedviT qriste aris `ganxorcielebuli RmerTi-sityvis erTi buneba~.
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saRi trinitaruli moZRvrebis dasasabuTeblad. orive mxrisTvis es saRvTismetyvelo instrumentebi _ evqaristiis qristologiuri interpretacia da `filiokve~ _ Tavis funqcias mxolod im konkretuli davis konteqstebSi asrulebdnen, romlebSic Seiqmnen. magram, rogorc Cans, arc dasavleTi iyo da arc aRmosavleTi sakmarisad distancirebuli am davebisgan, instrumentebis pirobiTi mniSvnelobis gacnobiereba rom SeZlebodaT. amas, aseve, xels uSlida aramegobruli politikuri urTierTobebi. aseT metad rTul da orive eklesiis momavlisaTvis sabediswero viTarebisadmi saqarTvelos eklesiis damokidebulebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos giorgi mciris avtorobiT cnobil `cxoreba da moqalaqoba giorgi mTawmindelisa~-Si gadmocemuli saRvTismetyvelo pozicia. es hagiografiuli Zegli gvaniWebs imis bednierebas, rom garkveuli warmodgena Camogviyalibdes sadavo sakiTxisadmi im periodis saqarTvelos eklesiis saRvTismetyvelo midgomaze, risi kvlevac ase Zneldeba, rodesac ganvixilavT sxva periodebs da istoriul movlenebs (magaliTad, qarTuli da somxuri eklesiebis urTierTobebi VI saukuneSi). Tumca teqsti, sadac dafiqsirebulia gansaxilveli pozicia, ar gamoirCeva didi moculobiT, masSi mainc naTlad da Tanmimdevrulad ikiTxeba saRvTismetyvelo argumentacia. mis uSualo avtorad ki warmodgenilia Cveni eklesiisaTvis im epoqis udidesi avtoriteti wm. giorgi mTawmindeli, vis saxelsac ukavSirdeba axali aRTqmis qarTuli Targmanis axali redaqciis Seqmna, rac mTel eklesiaSi sayovelTaod iqna miRebuli. ra Tqma unda, Cven darwmunebiT ar SegviZlia imis Tqma, marTla giorgi mTawmindels ekuTvnis Tu ara ZeglSi gadmocemuli sityvebi; Cven ar mogvepoveba sxva wyaroebi, romlebze dayrdnobiTac gamovikvlevdiT am sityvis atribuciis sakiTxs. magram vinaidan giorgi mciris mier eklesiis didi moZRvrisTvis am sityvis miweras ar mohyolia raime saxis protesti an eWvi, unda vifiqroT, rom `dumili Tanxmobis niSania~, da Tamamad SegviZlia es sityvebi im drois saqarTvelos eklesiis oficialur poziciad miviRoT.1 unda aRiniSnos, rom zogadad giorgis sityva gamoirCeva berZnebisadmi arakeTilganwyobiT da laTinebisadmi meti simpaTiiT. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom aseTi ganwyobis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba berZnuli nacionalizmis gaZlierebam, rac aTonis mTaze qarTveli monazvnebis winaaRmdeg aSkara agresiaSi gadaizarda. Tavad giorgi mTawmindeli gulistkiviliT aRwers `cxorebai ioanesi da efTvimesi~-Si berZnebis mcdelobas aTonis mTidan qarTvelebis gandevnisa: `da vinaiTgan berZenTa

ra Tqma unda, termin `oficialur pozicias~ mxolod pirobiTad viyenebT, radgan saqarTvelos eklesiaSi ar moipoveba araviTari sinodaluri oqmebi Tu romelime episkoposis epistole sqizmasTan dakavSirebiT.

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Jami poves, xel-yves yovliTa RonisZiebiTa, raTamca qarTvelni amis monastrisagan aRmohfrxvnes~.1 Zeglis mixedviT, giorgi mTawmindeli sarwmunoebriv sakiTxebSi Tavis ganmartebebs iZleva imperator konstantine X dukas winaSe konstantinepolSi. konstantine dukas zeobis periodi modis 1059-1067 wlebze da swored am periodSi aris saZebneli `sityvis warmoTqmis~ TariRi. Tu davuSvebT, rom giorgi antioqiis patriarqTan imyofeboda 1057 wels,2 xolo Semdeg gaemarTa saqarTveloSi, sadac 5 weli dayo, da am droisTvis is saqarTvelodan ukan brundeboda, saZiebeli TariRis periodi ufro daviwrovdeba da is, savaraudod, modis 1063-1064 wlebze. pirvel yovlisa, giorgi mTawmindeli imperators gadascems bagrat IV-is mokiTxvas, ris Semdegac imperatori mas ekiTxeba: `ars rai ganyofileba sarwmunoebisa Tqvenisa srulsa mas da ucTomelsa sarwmunoebasa berZenTa Tana?~ es SekiTxva gaugebari Cans, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT imave “cxovrebaSi” aRweril Savi mTis svimonwmindis monasterSi momxdar movlenebs, rodesac `kacni vinme svimonwmindelni SuriTa saeSmakoiTa aRiZrnes Cven qarTvelTa zeda da eneba, raiTamca naTesavi Cveni ZiriTurT aRmohfxvres svimon-wmidiT~. swored am mizniT `ganizraxes gularZnilobiT, raiTa wmindasa amas da marTalsa sarwmunoebasa Cvensa biwi raime daswamon~. amitom, isini midian antioqiis im dros axlad dadginebul patriarqTan, TeodosisTan, da SesCivian mas: `ara uwyiT Tu qarTvelni arian anu somexni, da verca xucesi maTi Jamsa wiravs monastersa Sina Cvensa!~3 rogorc vxedavT, aq eWvi gaCnda qarTvelTa `monofizitobaSi~. es eWvi gamowveuli iyo swored zemoTaRniSnuli gamZafrebuli yuradRebiT somexTa qristologiuri mrwamsisadmi. jer kidev 1048 wels imperatorma konstantine IX-m moiwvia somxeTis eklesiis kaTalikosi petre konstantinepolSi da scada misi Semorigeba, magram mcdeloba uSedego iyo. mogvianebiT saimperio kari ukve megobruli tons cvlis da Setevaze gadadis. es cvlilebebi xdeba swored zemoxsenebuli imperatoris, konstantine X-is dros.4 gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos aseve imdroindeli konstantinopolis patriarqis konstantine III lixudis (1059/10-1063 w.w.) mier sirieli da somexi araqalkedonelebis winaaRmdeg wamowyebuli devna-Seviwroveba.5 ase rom, imxanad antiqalkedonur eklesiasTan urTierTobebi metad mwvaved idga imperiis dRis wesrigSi. amitom, bunebrivia, somxur eklesiasTan nebismieri saxis, Tundac
1

`cxoreba netarisa mamisa Cvenisa iovanesi da efTvimesi da uwyeba Rirsisa mis moqalaqobisa maTisa, aRwerili glaxakisa giorgis mier xuces-monazonisa~ // Zveli qarTuli literaturis Zeglebi, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 264. 2 narkvevebi saqarTvelos istoriaSi, Tb. 1970, t. III., gv. 359 3 `cxovreba netarisa mamisa Cvenisa giorgi mTawmindelisa~ // Zveli qarTuli literaturuli Zeglebi, Tb. 1978, gv. 307 4 Hussey, J.M., The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford, 1990, p. 131 5 ibid. p. 138

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formaluri, CveulebiTi, msgavsebisadmi berZnebi metad mgrZnobiare iqnebodnen. am eWvidan gamomdinare svams kiTxvas imperatori da giorgi sruliad ganuqarvebs mas, rodesac `esreT maRlad da RmrTivbrwyinvaled warmoTqva sarwmunoebai marTali Cven qarTvelTa naTesavisa, romel ganakvirva mefe da yovelni mTavarni misni~.1 amas giorgi moayolebs mis cnobil sityvebs: `ese ars sarwmunoeba marTali naTesavisa Cvenisa da, raJams erTgzis gvicnobies, arRara midrekil varT marcxl gina marjul da arca mivdrkebiT, Tu RmerTsa undes~. rasakvirvelia, am sityvebis namdvili mniSvneloba mxolod qarTvelebis berZnebTan dapirispirebis konteqstSi xdeba naTeli, iseve, rogorc mis mier gamoxatuli simpaTiebi laTinebisadmi, romlebmac, misi azriT, aseve `vinaiTgan erTgzis icnes RmerTi, arRara odes midrekil arian da arca odes wvaleba Semosrul ars maT Soris~. es Sexeduleba istoriuli WeSmaritebis gadmosaxedidan ar imsaxurebs maRal Sefasebas da warmoadgens meeqvse msoflio krebis win romis pap agaTonis mier imperator konstantine IV-sadmi miwerili sakmaod pretenziuli epistolis sityvebis gameorebas, romelic, SesaZloa, efuZneba IV saukunis droindeli saeklesio viTarebis wm. grigol RvTismetyveliseul aRweras. giorgi mTawmindelTan saubrisas imperatori, aseve, gamoTqvams survils, rom `yovelsa mecnier iyos berZenTa da hromTasa~, da misgan moelis pasuxs. wm. giorgi aqac mimarTavs misTvis Cveul meTods da Tavdacvidan Setevaze gadadis:2 qarTvelTagan da laTinTagan gansxvavebiT `berZenTa Soris mravali wvaleba Semovida pirvel da mravalgzis midrkes~. misi azriT, swored es gaxda mizezi imisa, rom evqaristiis pursa da RvinoSi mTel am `midrekebTan~ brZola aisaxa simbolur enaSi: `moviRebdiT comsa saxed xorcTa qristesTa, xolo puris comsa saxed sulisa gonierisa, da marilsa _ saxed gonebisa, winaaRmdgomad wvalebasa uSjuloisa apolinarissa, romeli-igi xorcTa maT qristesTa saufloTa usulod da ugonebod ityoda, ugunuri igi da usulo. xolo Rvinoisa Tana wyalsa urTavT saxed sisxlisa da wylisa, romeli gardamoxda gverdsa mxsnelisasa, viTarca ityvis ioane oqropiri~. berZnebisagan gansxvavebiT, `WeSmaritebisagan miudrekel~ laTinebs ar dasWirvebiaT evqaristiis aseTi garTuleba da `viTarca-igi maSin Tavman mociqulTaman petre Sewira usisxlo igi msxverpli da, umetesadRa, viTarca TviT Tavadman

cxovreba... gv. 328 pirvelad man am gzas mimarTa antioqiis patriarqTan davis dros, rodesac moTxovnaze _ saqarTvelos eklesia antioqiis saydars damorCileboda, _ andria pirvelwodebulis mier qarTlis moqcevis apokrifze dayrdnobiT giorgim aqeT mosTxova, antioqiis eklesia saqarTvelos eklesias damorCileboda. ix. cxovreba, gv. 309.
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ufalman misca mowafeTa Ramesa mas serobisasa, egreT aRasruleben igini~.1 aRsaniSnavia, rom evqaristiuli msxverplis aseTi `antiapolinaristuli~ ganmarteba mxolod antiqalkedonur eklesiasTan polemikaSi iqna gamomuSavebuli da moxmobili iyo rogorc uryevi saRvTismetyvelo argumenti. antiqalkedonitebis apolinarelebTan gaigivebac mxolod polemikuri xerxi iyo, ramdenadac maT RvTismetyvelebas saerTo araferi aqvs im moZRvrebasTan, romlis avtori iyo IV saukunis gamoCenili RvTismetyveli, apolinari laodikieli. mokled rom aRvweroT, am swavlebis mixedviT, qristes pirovnebaSi kacobrivi buneba arasrulad iyo warmodgenili, mxolod sxeulis saxiT, sulis adgili ki ekava masSi davanebul RvTis sityvas. apolinari qristes pirovnebis aRsaniSnavad iyenebda termin `hipostass~, romlis sinonimadac, amave dros, iyenebda termin `bunebas~. misTvis `hipostasi~ da suli erTidaigive iyo, amitom, Tu qriste erTi hipostasi iyo, logikuria, mas sulic erTi unda hqonoda, romelic iyo RvTis gonebisa da nebis matarebeli suli, e. i. misi pirovnebis gamomxatveli. am moZRvrebis soteriologiuri safuZveli iyo macxovris nebis ucodvelobis aucilebloba, romelic aucilebeli iyo Cveni gamoxsnisaTvis. amitom, Tu davuSvebdiT ori, kacobrivi, codvili nebisa da saRvTo, ucodveli nebis Tanaarsebobas ieso qristes pirovnebaSi, maTi urTierTdapirispireba garaduvali iyo da xsnac _ SeuZlebeli.2 am moZRvrebis sawinaaRmdegod misma Tanamedrovem wm. grigol RvTismetyvelma gamoTqva sxarti formula: `rac ar aris miRebuli [macxovris mier], is ganukurnebelicaa~. ra Tqma unda, apolinaris am soterologiur wanamZRvrebsa da mis Sedegebs ar iziarebdnen antiqalkedonelebi, magram gvian bizantiaSi zogadad Zvel mwvaleblobebTan paralelebis gavleba sayovelTaod gavrcelebuli meTodi iyo. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi giorgi mTawmindeli sityvasityviT misdevs misi Tanamdrove saxelovani RvTismetyvelis nikita stiTatis mier SemuSavebul argumentacias.3 uTuod ar aris interesmoklebuli, piradad icnobda Tu ara giorgi mTawmindeli am RvTismtyvels. amgvarad, giorgi mTawmindelis sityvaSi saxezea mniSvnelovani istoriul-saRvTismetyvelo uzustobani. magram, Cveni azriT, am sityvaSi interesis ZiriTad sagans warmoadgens ara imdenad cnobebis sarwmunooba, ramdenadac argumentebis gamoyenebis saRvTismetyvelo strategia, anu principi, ris mixedviTac axdens giorgi argumentebis SerCevas da erTmaneTTan dakavSirebas. es principi SeiZleba gamoixatos formuliT: istoriis ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva adamianuri faqtorebiT ganpirobebuli formaluri gansxvavebebi gavlenas ar axdens sarwmunoebis Sinaarsze.
cxovreba, gv. 329 Studer, B., Trinity and Incarnation, The Faith of the Early Church, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1996, p. 194. 3 The Church in History, v.III/Louth, A., Greek East and Latin West, The Church AD 681-1071, St. Vladimir Seminary press, 2007, p.p. 312-313.
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swored sakiTxisadmi aseTi midgoma aniWebs waruval Rirebulebas giorgi mTawmindelis mier warmoTqmul sityvas. dasavleT-aRmosavleTis ganxeTqilebis konkretul istoriul WrilSi ki es sityva giorgi mTawmindels, rogorc saqarTvelos eklesiis udides wmindans da RvTismetyvels, im RvTismetyvelTa rigSi ayenebs, romlebsac SeeZloT viwro nacionaluri da adgilobrivi tradiciebis kedlebis miRma gadaexedaT da daenaxaT saerTo qristianuli sivrce, romelic macxovris msxverplidan momdinare usazRvro siyvarulSi mogvicavs yvela morwmunes. vfiqrobT, samomavlod unda gagrZeldes rogorc am konkretuli movlenis, ise qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo azrovnebis istoriaSi sxva mravali istoriuli faqtisa da sasuliero moRvawis saqmianobis kvleva am perspeqtividan.

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