WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS

2010

WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
World health statistics 2010.
1.Health status indicators. 2.World health. 3.Health services - statistics. 4.Mortality. 5.Morbidity. 6.Life expectancy.
7.Demography. 8.Statistics. I.World Health Organization.
ISBN 978 92 4 156398 7

(NLM classification: WA 900.1)

© World Health Organization 2010
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Acknowledgements
This publication was produced by the Department of Health Statistics and Informatics of the Information, Evidence and Research Cluster, under the direction of Ties Boerma and Carla AbouZahr, assisted by Jessica Ho, Ahmadreza Hosseinpoor and
Annet WR Mahanani, and in collaboration with WHO technical programmes and regional offices and with other agencies in the
United Nations system.
The following WHO staff contributed to the content of this publication: Mohammed Ali, Khan Aseel, Eric Bertherat, Michel
Beusenberg, Monika Bloessner, Sophie Bonjour, Cynthia Boschi Pinto, Sylvie Briand, Anthony Burton, Alexandra Cameron,
Claire Chauvin, Doris Chou, Denis Daumerie, Mercedes de Onis, Chris Dye, Katya Fernandez-Vegas, Alexandra Fleischmann,
Katherine Floyd, Daniela Fuhr, Marta Gacic Dobo, Jun Gao, Sandra Garnier, Andrea Gerger, Philippe Glaziou, Neeru Gupta,
Alexandra Hill, Rifat Hossain, Chandika Indikadahena, Mie Inoue, Gauri Khanna, Nathalie Kizirian, Teena Kunjumen, Richard
Laing, Enrique Loyola, Doris Ma Fat, Fatima Marinho, Ramon Martinez, Liz Mason, Colin Mathers, Jill Meloni, Anne-Beth
Moller, Elizabeth Mumford, Chizuru Nishida, Sahar Parvez, William Perea Caro, Vladimir Pozniak, Annette Pruss-Ustun, Dag
Rekve, Randa Saadeh, Lale Say, Sunil Senanayake, William Soumbey-Alley, Yves Souteyrand, Tessa Tan-Torres, Hazim Timimi,
Katelijn Vandemaele, Caroline Warming, Ryan Williams and Ju Yang. WHO is grateful to UNICEF (Danielle Burke, Claudia
Cappa, Edilberto Loaiza, Holly Newby and Tessa Wardlaw); the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (Gerhard K Heilig and François Pelletier); the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America
(Brandon O’Hara and Wick Warren); and the World Bank (Shota Hatakeyama) for their valuable contributions.
The publication was edited by Tony Waddell. Support for the online database was provided by Phillipe Boucher, Zoe
Brillantes, Steve Moore, John Rawlinson, Florence Rusciano and Knut Staring. Production support was provided by the
Department of Knowledge Management and Sharing, including Caroline Allsopp, Ian Coltart and Maryvonne Grisetti. Graphic
design and layout was by Sophie Guetaneh Aguettant and Florence Rusciano. We thank Petra Schuster for her administrative
support.
Cover design: Michel Beusenberg, Sophie Guetaneh Aguettant and Denis Meissner.

Printed in France.

2

Table of Contents
Introduction

8

Part I. Health-related Millennium Development Goals

11

Summary of status and trends
Regional and country charts

12

1. Children aged <5 years underweight (%)
2. Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)
3. Measles immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%)
4. Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)
5. Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)
6. Contraceptive prevalence (%)
7. Adolescent fertility rate (per 1000 girls aged 15–19 years)
8. Antenatal care coverage (%): at least 1 visit and at least 4 visits
9. Unmet need for family planning (%)
10. Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15–49 years (%)
11. Males aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)
12. Females aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)
13. Antiretroviral therapy coverage among people with advanced HIV infection (%)
14. Malaria mortality rate (per 100 000 population)
15. Children aged <5 years sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (%)
16. Children aged <5 years with fever who received treatment with any antimalarial (%)
17. Tuberculosis mortality rate among HIV-negative people (per 100 000 population)
18. Population using improved drinking-water sources (%)
19. Population using improved sanitation (%)

Part II. Global health indicators
Table 1

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

43

Mortality and burden of disease

45

Life expectancy at birth (years)
Healthy life expectancy (HALE) at birth (years)
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births)
Infant mortality rate (probability of dying by age 1 per 1000 live births)
Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)
Adult mortality rate (probability of dying between 15 and 60 years per 1000 population)

3

Table 2

Cause-specific mortality and morbidity

59

Mortality
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)
Cause-specific mortality rate (per 100 000 population)
Age-standardized mortality rates by cause (per 100 000 population)
Distribution of years of life lost by broader causes (%)
Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 years (%)
Morbidity
Prevalence of tuberculosis (per 100 000 population)
Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100 000 population per year)
Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15–49 years (%)

Table 3

Selected infectious diseases : number of reported cases

73

Cholera
Diphtheria
H5N1 influenza
Japanese encephalitis
Leprosy
Malaria
Measles
Meningitis
Mumps
Pertussis
Plague
Poliomyelitis
Congenital rubella syndrome
Rubella
Neonatal tetanus
Total tetanus
Tuberculosis
Yellow fever

Table 4

Health service coverage

85

Antenatal care coverage (%)
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)
Births by caesarean section (%)
Neonates protected at birth against neonatal tetanus (%)
Immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%)
Children aged 6–59 months who received vitamin A supplementation (%)
Children aged <5 years sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (%)

4

Children aged <5 years with fever who received treatment with any antimalarial (%)
Children aged <5 years with ARI symptoms taken to facility (%)
Children aged <5 years with diarrhoea receiving ORT (%)
Unmet need for family planning (%)
Contraceptive prevalence (%)
Antiretroviral therapy coverage among HIV-infected pregnant women for PMTCT (%)
Antiretroviral therapy coverage among people with advanced HIV infection (%)
Smear-positive tuberculosis case-detection rate (%)
Smear-positive tuberculosis treatment-success rate (%)

Table 5

Risk factors

99

Population using improved drinking-water sources (%)
Population using improved sanitation (%)
Population using solid fuels (%)
Low-birth-weight newborns (%)
Infants exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life (%)
Children aged <5 years stunted (%)
Children aged <5 years underweight (%)
Children aged <5 years overweight (%)
Adults aged ≥15 years who are obese (%)
Alcohol consumption among adults aged ≥15 years (litres of pure alcohol per person per year)
Prevalence of smoking any tobacco product among adults aged ≥15 years (%)
Prevalence of current tobacco use among adolescents aged 13–15 years (%)
Prevalence of condom use by adults aged 15–49 years at higher-risk sex (%)
Population aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)

Table 6

Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines

Health workforce and infrastructure
Number of physicians and density (per 10 000 population)
Number of nursing and midwifery personnel and density (per 10 000 population)
Number of dentistry personnel and density (per 10 000 population)
Number of pharmaceutical personnel and density (per 10 000 population)
Number of environment and public health workers and density (per 10 000 population)
Number of community health workers and density (per 10 000 population)
Hospital beds (per 10 000 population)
Essential medicines
Median availability of selected generic medicines in public and private sectors (%)
Median consumer price ratio of selected generic medicines in public and private sectors

5

113

Table 7

Health expenditure

127

Health expenditure ratios
Total expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product
General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total expenditure on health
Private expenditure on health as a percentage of total expenditure on health
General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure
External resources for health as a percentage of total expenditure on health
Social security expenditure on health as a percentage of general government expenditure on health
Out-of-pocket expenditure as a percentage of private expenditure on health
Private prepaid plans as a percentage of private expenditure on health
Per capita health expenditures
Per capita total expenditure on health at average exchange rate (US$)
Per capita total expenditure on health (PPP int. $)
Per capita government expenditure on health at average exchange rate (US$)
Per capita government expenditure on health (PPP int. $)

Table 8

Health inequities

141

Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)
Measles immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%)
Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Table 9

Demographic and socioeconomic statistics

155

Population – total (000s)
Population – median age (years)
Population – aged under 15 (%)
Population – aged over 60 (%)
Annual population growth rate (%)
Population living in urban areas (%)
Civil registration coverage (%) of births and deaths
Total fertility rate (per woman)
Adolescent fertility rate (per 1000 girls aged 15–19 years)
Adult literacy rate (%)
Net primary school enrolment rate (%)
Gross national income per capita (PPP int. $)
Population living on <$1 (PPP int. $) a day (%)

Footnotes

168

6

Abbreviations
AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AFR

WHO African Region

AMR

WHO Region of the Americas

ARI

acute respiratory infection

ART

antiretroviral therapy

DHS

Demographic and Health Survey

DTP3

3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine

EMR

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

EUR

WHO European Region

GDP

gross domestic product

HALE

healthy life expectancy

HepB3

3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine

Hib3

3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

MCV

measles-containing vaccine

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MICS

Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey

NHA

national health account

ORT

oral rehydration therapy

PMTCT

prevention of mother-to-child transmission

PPP

Purchasing Power Parity

SEAR

WHO South-East Asia Region

TB

tuberculosis

WPR

WHO Western Pacific Region

YLL

years of life lost

7

Introduction
The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for
its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the
health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets.
As with previous versions, World Health Statistics 2010 has been compiled using
publications and databases produced and maintained by the technical programmes and
regional offices of WHO. Indicators have been included on the basis of their relevance
to global public health; the availability and quality of the data; and the reliability and
comparability of the resulting estimates.
Taken together, these indicators provide a comprehensive summary of the current status of
national health and health systems in the following nine areas:
mortality and burden of disease;
cause-specific mortality and morbidity;
selected infectious diseases;
health service coverage;
risk factors;
health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines;
health expenditure;
health inequities; and
demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
The estimates in this book are derived from multiple sources, depending on each indicator
and the availability and quality of data. In many countries, statistical and health information
systems are weak and the underlying empirical data may not be available or may be of limited
quality. Every effort has been made to ensure the best use of country-reported data – adjusted
where necessary to deal with missing values, to correct for known biases, and to maximize the
comparability of the statistics across countries and over time. In addition, statistical techniques
and modelling have been used to fill data gaps.
Because of the weakness of the underlying empirical data in many countries, a number
of the indicators are associated with significant uncertainty. It is WHO policy on statistical
transparency to make available to users the methods of estimation and the margins of
uncertainty for relevant indicators. However, because of space restrictions, printed versions of
the World Health Statistics series include uncertainty ranges for only a few indicators. Further
information on the margins of uncertainty for additional indicators will be made available at
the Global Health Observatory web site.1

1

The Global Health Observatory is a WHO portal that provides access to data and analyses for monitoring the global health situation and trends.
www.who.int/gho

8

While every effort has been made to maximize the comparability of the statistics across
countries and over time, users are advised that country data may differ in terms of the
definitions used, data-collection methods, population coverage and estimation methods.
More-detailed information on indicator metadata is available in the Indicator and Metadata
Registry.2
WHO presents World Health Statistics 2010 as an integral part of its ongoing efforts to
provide enhanced access to high-quality data on core measures of population health and
national health systems. Unless otherwise stated, all estimates have been cleared following
consultation with Member States and are published here as official WHO figures. However,
these best estimates have been derived using standard categories and methods to enhance
their cross-national comparability. As a result they should not be regarded as the nationally
endorsed statistics of Member States which may have been derived using alternative
methodologies.

2

www.who.int/gho/indicatorregistry

9

Part I
Health-related
Millennium Development Goals

Summary of status and trends
With only five years remaining to 2015, there are signs of progress in many countries in achieving the
health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In other countries, progress has been limited
because of conflict, poor governance, economic or humanitarian crises, and lack of resources. The
effects of the global food, energy, financial and economic crises on health are still unfolding, and action
is needed to protect the health spending of governments and donors alike.
Undernutrition is an underlying cause in about one third of all child deaths. Over the past year,
rising food prices coupled with falling incomes have increased the risk of malnutrition, especially
among children. Although the percentage of children under 5 years of age who are underweight
(compared to the WHO Child Growth Standards3) declined globally from 25% in 1990 to 18% in
2005, subsequent progress has been uneven. In some countries, the prevalence of undernutrition has
increased, and worldwide stunted growth still affected about 186 million children under 5 years of age
in 2005.
Globally, child mortality continues to fall. In 2008, the total annual number of deaths in children
under 5 years old fell to 8.8 million – down by 30% from the 12.4 million estimated in 1990.
Mortality in children under 5 years old in 2008 was estimated at 65 per 1000 live births, which is
a 27% reduction from 90 per 1000 live births in 1990 (Figure 1). Recent encouraging trends also
indicate an acceleration of the rate of decline in all regions since 2000 (Table 1).

Table 1: Average annual rate of decline (%) in mortality in children under 5 years old –
1990–1999 and 2000–2008
WHO region

3

1990–1999

2000–2008

African Region

0.9

1.8

Region of the Americas

4.2

4.6

South-East Asia Region

2.5

3.8

European Region

3.6

5.6

Eastern Mediterranean Region

1.5

1.7

Western Pacific Region

2.5

5.7

GLOBAL

1.2

2.3

WHO Child Growth Standards. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and
development. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006, page 312.
www.who.int/childgrowth/publications/en/

12

Despite these encouraging trends, regional and national averages mask considerable inequities.
The greatest reductions in child mortality have been recorded among the wealthiest households and
in urban areas. Concerted efforts will be needed to achieve the MDG target of a 67% reduction from
1990 levels by the year 2015, especially in countries facing economic crises or conflicts. Low-income
countries would need to increase their annual average rate of decline from 1.9% to 10.9% in order to
achieve the target. Reducing child mortality increasingly depends upon tackling neonatal mortality;
globally about 40% of deaths in children under 5 years old are estimated to occur in the first month of
life; most in the first week.

Figure 1: Mortality rate in children under 5 years old by WHO region
200
1990

Probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births

180

2008
Global, 1990

160

Global, 2008
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
AFR

AMR

SEAR

EUR

EMR

WPR

There have been increases in the coverage of relatively new child health interventions, such as the
use of insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria; efforts to prevent the mother-to-child transmission
of HIV; and vaccination against hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B pneumonia.
Gradual progress can also be recorded for several established interventions such as micronutrient
supplementation, while the global coverage of measles immunization increased from 73% to 83%
between 1990 and 2008 (Figure 2).

13

Figure 2: Measles immunization coverage among 1-year-olds by WHO region
100
90
80

Percentage

70
60
50

AFR
AMR
SEAR
EUR
EMR
WPR
GLOBAL

40
30
20

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

0

1990

10

Despite these gains, the coverage of critical interventions such as oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
for diarrhoea and case management with antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) remains
inadequate. As a result, diarrhoea and pneumonia still kill almost 3 million children under 5 years old
each year, especially in low-income countries.
According to estimates made for the year 2005,4 half a million women – most of them in
developing countries – die each year of complications during pregnancy or childbirth. The risk of
death was highest in the WHO African Region, where there were 900 maternal deaths per 100 000
live births; compared with only 27 per 100 000 in the WHO European Region. In fact, half of all
maternal deaths occurred in the WHO African Region and another third in the WHO South-East
Asia Region. Further analysis of the estimates indicated that between 1990 and 2005, no WHO
region achieved the 5.5% annual decline in maternal mortality necessary to attain the relevant MDG
target.5 The WHO South-East Asia Region, the WHO European Region and the WHO Western
Pacific Region showed annual declines of only around 2.4%. There appeared to be stagnation or
even a possible worsening of the situation in both the WHO African Region and the WHO Eastern
Mediterranean Region. Maternal mortality is the health indicator that shows the widest gaps between
richer and poorer, both between and within countries.

4

5

Maternal mortality in 2005: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2007.
www.who.int/whosis/mme_2005.pdf
MDG 5; Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.

14

Interventions to reduce the levels of maternal mortality include ensuring that all pregnant women
have access to family-planning services as well as skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth and the
postpartum period. This includes emergency obstetric care for the management of complications.
The proportion of births attended by a skilled health worker has increased globally, with particularly
pronounced improvements in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (Figure 3). However, there
was no improvement at all in the WHO African Region. In both the WHO African Region and the
WHO South-East Asia Region, less than 50% of women received skilled care during childbirth.

Figure 3: Births attended by skilled health personnel by WHO region and country-income group
100

1990–1999
2000–2008

90

Global, 1990–1999
80

Global, 2000–2008

Percentage

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
AFR

AMR

SEAR

EUR

EMR

WPR

Low
income

Lower
middle
income

Upper
middle
income

High
income

Antenatal care offers multiple opportunities to improve the health of women. Potential
improvements include the prevention and management of HIV infection and malaria, the detection
and management of eclampsia, and iron and folate supplementation – the latter being particularly
important in low-income and middle-income countries where micronutrient deficiencies are common.
Despite this, less than half of all pregnant women in the world receive the WHO-recommended
minimum of four antenatal visits.
Contraceptive prevalence6 in developing countries increased from 50% in 1990 to 62% in
2005.7 Despite this, there remains a continuing unmet need for family planning. For example, data
available during 2000–2008 indicates that in the WHO African Region 24% of women wanting to
delay or stop childbearing were not using a family-planning method. Levels of adolescent fertility
over the period of 2000–2007 were at 47 births per 1000 women aged 15–19 years globally, and were

6
7

Defined here as: the proportion of women, married or in union, aged 15–49 years, using any method of contraception.
The Millennium Development Goals report 2009. New York, United Nations, 2009.
www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/MDG%20Report%202009%20ENG.pdf

15

particularly high in the WHO African Region at 118 births for every 1000 adolescent girls – about ten
times the average in the WHO Western Pacific Region. Factors that contribute to continuing unmet
need for family planning include a lack of decision-making power among women and a shortage of
appropriate health services, especially for adolescent girls.
In 2008, there were an estimated 243 million cases of malaria causing 863 000 deaths; mostly of
children under 5 years old.8 Despite increases in the supply of insecticide-treated nets, their availability
in that year was far below the level of need almost everywhere. The procurement of antimalarial
medicines through public health services increased, but access to treatment (especially artemisininbased combination therapy) was inadequate in all countries surveyed in 2007 and 2008. There are,
however, indications8 that 9 African countries and 29 countries outside Africa are on course to meet
the MDG target9 for reducing the malaria burden.
Latest estimates indicate that the incidence rate of tuberculosis (TB) continued to slowly decline,
reaching an estimated 140 per 100 000 population in 2008. The prevalence of all TB cases is falling
along with mortality rates among HIV-negative TB cases. Globally, the estimated case-detection rate10
for new smear-positive TB cases increased from 40% in 2000 to 62% in 2008. While there were some
improvements in the WHO African Region, less than 50% of TB cases were reported in this region in
2008.
Data on treatment-success rates for new smear-positive TB cases indicate consistent improvements
with the global rate rising from 69% in 2000 to 86% in 2007 (Figure 4). In the WHO South-East
Asia Region, the rate increased from 50% in 2000 to 88% in 2007. In the WHO European Region,
while case-detection rate for new smear-positive cases increased, treatment success remains low at 67%
in 2007, partly attributable to a high burden of multidrug-resistant TB. Multidrug-resistant TB and
HIV-associated TB pose considerable challenges. Globally, there were an estimated 0.5 million new
cases of multidrug-resistant TB in 2007, with 27 countries accounting for 85% of the total.11
New HIV infections have been reduced by 16% globally between 2000 and 2008, due, at least
in part, to successful HIV-prevention efforts. In 2008, it was estimated that 2.7 million people were
newly infected with HIV (Figure 5) and there were 2 million HIV/AIDS-related deaths.12
The availability and coverage of priority health-sector interventions for HIV prevention, treatment
and care have continued to expand. In 2008, of the 1.4 million HIV-positive pregnant women, more
than 628 000 received antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent the transmission of HIV to their
children. This represents a coverage of 45% – an increase of 10% compared with 2007.13 There are,
however, striking regional variations. In the WHO African Region (where HIV prevalence among
adults was the highest) only 45% of pregnant women in need in low-income and middle-income
countries received treatment, while in the WHO European Region (where HIV prevalence among
adults was much lower) 94% of pregnant women in need in low-income and middle-income countries
had access to treatment.

8
9
10

11
12

13

World malaria report 2009. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009. www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2009/en/index.html
MDG 6; Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
No distinction is made between DOTS and non-DOTS programmes because by 2007 more than 99% of notified cases were reported to WHO as treated in a
DOTS programme. Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009 report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report
Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009 report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
AIDS epidemic update: December 2009. Geneva, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and World Health Organization (WHO), 2009.
www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/EpiUpdate/EpiUpdArchive/2009/default.asp
Towards universal access. Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: Progress report 2009. Geneva, WHO, UNAIDS, UNICEF, 2009.
www.who.int/hiv/pub/2009progressreport/en/

16

Figure 4: Treatment-success rate among new smear-positive tuberculosis cases by WHO region
100

Global, 2000

2000

Global, 2007

2007

90
80

Percentage

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
AFR

AMR

SEAR

EUR

EMR

Figure 5: Adults and children newly infected with HIV in 2008 by WHO region

WHO regional boundaries
International boundaries
Estimated new HIV infection (all ages)
by WHO region (000s)
EMR (61)
WPR (130)
EUR (140)
SEAR (200)
AMR (240)
AFR (1900)
Data not available

17

WPR

It is estimated that by the end of 2008, more than 4 million people in low-income and middleincome countries were receiving ART – an increase of more than 1 million compared with the end
of 2007. This represents a 10-fold expansion in five years, with the greatest growth occurring in subSaharan Africa. Nonetheless, more than 5 million of the estimated 9.5 million people in low-income
and middle-income countries needing ART were still without access to treatment.13 Coverage was
lowest in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (where only one in every 10 people needing ART
received it) and highest in the WHO Region of the Americas (where one out of two who needed
therapy received it).
More than 1000 million people are affected by neglected tropical diseases. In 2008, 496 million
people were treated for lymphatic filariasis out of the 695 million targeted. In 2008, only 4619 cases
of dracunculiasis were reported – in the mid-1980s the estimated number of cases was 3.5 million. As
many as 190 130 cases of cholera were reported in 2008 – up from 177 963 in 2007. At the beginning
of 2009, there were a reported 213 036 cases of leprosy – down from 5.2 million in 1985.
The percentage of the world’s population using “improved” drinking-water sources14 increased
from 77% to 87% between 1990 and 2008 (Figure 6). This rate of improvement is sufficient to
achieve the relevant MDG target15 globally. In the WHO African Region, however, while the
percentage increased from 50% in 1990 to 61% in 2008, it remained well short of the 68% needed
in that year to remain on course for achieving the MDG target. The situation in the WHO Eastern
Mediterranean Region appears to have stalled, and an annual rate of increase of 1.6% is needed to

Figure 6: Population using improved drinking-water sources by WHO region and country-income group
100

Global, 1990

1990

Global, 2008

2008

90
80

Percentage

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
AFR

14
15

AMR

SEAR

EUR

EMR

WPR

Low
income

Lower
middle
income

Upper
middle
income

See Part II, Table 5. Risk factors, footnotes 20 and 22 for a full explanation of this term.
MDG 7; Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation.

18

High
income

achieve the MDG target by 2015. In 2008, the coverage was 90% in the WHO Western Pacific
Region, and well in excess of this figure in the WHO Region of the Americas and the WHO European
Region. In low-income countries, the annual rate of increase needs to double in order to reach the
target, and concerted efforts are also needed to narrow the gap in coverage between urban and rural
areas.
In 2008, 2600 million people were not using “improved” sanitation facilities,16 and of these 1100
million were defecating in the open, resulting in high levels of environmental contamination and
exposure to the risks of worm infestations (such as schistosomiasis) and microbial infections (such as
trachoma, hepatitis and cholera). The situation was most severe in the WHO African Region, where
the percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities increased very slowly: from 30%
in 1990 to 34% in 2008. In the WHO South-East Asia Region, the coverage increased from 26% to
40% – still short of the MDG target. In the WHO European Region, 6% of the population were not
using improved sanitation facilities in 2008 (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Population using improved sanitation facilities by WHO region and country-income group
100
1990
90

2008
Global, 1990

80

Global, 2008

Percentage

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
AFR

AMR

SEAR

EUR

EMR

WPR

Low
income

Lower
middle
income

Upper
middle
income

High
income

Although nearly all countries publish an essential medicines list, the availability of medicines at
public-health facilities is often poor. Surveys conducted in approximately 30 low-income countries
indicate that the availability of selected generic medicines at health facilities was only 44% in the
public sector and 66% in the private sector. Lack of medicines in the public sector forces patients
to purchase medicines privately. In the private sector, generic medicines cost on average 630% more

16

See Part II, Table 5. Risk factors, footnotes 21 and 22 for a full explanation of this term.

19

than their international reference price, while originator brands are generally even more expensive.
Common treatment regimens can cost a low-paid government worker in the developing world several
days’ wages.
Noncommunicable diseases and injuries caused an estimated 33 million deaths in developing
countries in 200417 and will account for a growing proportion of total deaths in the future. The health
of individuals will also be undermined in the longer term by chronic conditions, sensory and mental
disorders and violence. Tackling risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity
and the harmful use of alcohol (while also dealing with the socioeconomic impact of cardiovascular
diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes) will depend not only upon effective healthcare services but also upon actions taken in a variety of policy domains. Countries need to increase
prevention efforts and improve access to services such as early detection and trauma care. Putting in
place and sufficiently resourcing stronger health surveillance systems will be critical. Efforts are now
under way to strengthen surveillance systems for noncommunicable diseases, including through the
identification of core indicators and the use of standardized methods of data collection on risk factors
and determinants, disease incidence, mortality by cause, health-system indicators and coverage of key
interventions.
Stronger health systems will be central to continued progress towards the achievement of the
MDGs. Continuing political momentum and sustained and predictable funding will be needed to
strengthen human resources for health; improve service availability and quality; provide access to
diagnosis through national laboratory networks; ensure better infection control in clinical settings; and
promote the rational use of medicines. In addition, the financial and economic crisis has highlighted
the urgent need to increase the coverage of social health protection. People in need cannot access the
required services or continue treatment if financial barriers remain high.
Better information and intelligence will also be essential in monitoring progress towards the MDGs
and related goals and targets, particularly with regard to differentials between and within countries.
WHO will continue to report on the most-recent estimates of health-related statistics. However,
the quality of such reporting depends critically upon the quality of country health information and
statistical systems – which in many settings are weak. There is therefore a need for international
commitment to support country efforts to enhance the availability and quality of data on the MDGs
and other indicators.

17

The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008.
www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/2004_report_update/en/index.html

20

The following charts provide country-by-country and regional summaries of progress for key MDG
indicators for which data are available for most countries. For each indicator, countries are sorted
within the relevant WHO region by the level of the indicator at the latest available year. Countries
with no data, or for which a particular indicator is not relevant, are included at the end of each
regional list.
Depending on the availability of data for each indicator, there are three types of chart:

Chart type I
For three indicators – under-five mortality rate; population using improved drinking-water sources;
and population using improved sanitation – the charts show data for the latest available year; trends
since 1990 (or since the first year for which data are available); and the overall trend required for
the country to achieve the relevant MDG by 2015.

Chart type II
For five indicators – children aged <5 years underweight; measles immunization coverage among
1-year-olds; births attended by skilled health personnel; prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15–
49 years; and tuberculosis mortality rate among HIV-negative people – the charts show data for the
latest available year, and country trends since the year for which data were first available. For most
countries, data have been available since the baseline year of 1990.

Chart type III
For eleven indicators – maternal mortality ratio; contraceptive prevalence; adolescent fertility
rate; antenatal care coverage; unmet need for family planning; males aged 15–24 years with
comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS; females aged 15–24 years with comprehensive
correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS; antiretroviral therapy coverage among people with advanced HIV
infection; malaria mortality rate; children aged <5 years sleeping under insecticide-treated nets; and
children aged <5 years with fever who received treatment with any antimalarial – the charts show
only data for the latest available year.
Further details can be found in the country tables as indicated in each chart.

21

1. Children aged <5 years underweight (%)

Algeria

3.7

Chile

0.5

Germany

1.1

Tunisia

3.3

Swaziland

6.1

United States of America

1.3

Belarus

1.3

Jordan

3.6

Gabon

8.8

Brazil

2.2

Bosnia and Herzegovina

1.6

Lebanon

4.2

Equatorial Guinea

10.6

Jamaica

2.2

Bulgaria

1.6

Saudi Arabia

5.3

Botswana

10.7

Argentina

2.3

Serbia

1.8

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

5.6

Congo

11.8

Dominican Republic

3.4

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

1.8

Egypt

6.8

Sao Tome and Principe

13.1

Mexico

3.4

Czech Republic

2.1

Iraq

7.1

Zimbabwe

14.0

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

3.7

Montenegro

2.2

Morocco

9.9

Ghana

14.3

Cuba

3.9

Georgia

2.3

Syrian Arab Republic

10.0

Senegal

14.5

Panama

3.9

Kyrgyzstan

2.7

Djibouti

29.6

Zambia

14.9

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

4.3

Republic of Moldova

3.2

Pakistan

31.3

Malawi

15.5

Nicaragua

4.3

Romania

3.5

Sudan

31.7

Gambia

15.8

Trinidad and Tobago

4.4

Turkey

3.5

Somalia

32.8

Uganda

16.4

Belize

4.9

Ukraine

4.1

Afghanistan

32.9

Kenya

16.5

Colombia

5.1

Armenia

4.2

Yemen

43.1

Cameroon

16.6

Peru

5.4

Uzbekistan

4.4

Bahrain

Lesotho

16.6

Uruguay

6.0

Kazakhstan

4.9

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Côte d'Ivoire

16.7

El Salvador

6.1

Albania

6.6

Kuwait

Mauritania

16.7

Ecuador

6.2

Azerbaijan

8.4

Oman

United Republic of Tanzania

16.7

Honduras

8.6

Tajikistan

14.9

Qatar

Guinea-Bissau

17.2

Guyana

10.8

Andorra

United Arab Emirates

Namibia

17.5

Guatemala

17.7

Austria

Rwanda

18.0

Haiti

18.9

Belgium

Benin

20.2

Antigua and Barbuda

Croatia

Liberia

20.4

Bahamas

Cyprus

Togo

20.5

Barbados

Denmark

Tuvalu

1.6

Guinea

20.8

Canada

Estonia

Singapore

3.3

Mozambique

21.2

Costa Rica

Finland

Mongolia

5.3

Sierra Leone

21.3

Dominica

France

China

6.8

Central African Republic

21.8

Grenada

Greece

Solomon Islands

11.5

Comoros

25.0

Paraguay

Hungary

Papua New Guinea

18.1

Nigeria

26.7

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Iceland

Viet Nam

20.2

Angola

27.5

Saint Lucia

Ireland

Philippines

20.7

Mali

27.9

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Israel

Cambodia

28.8

Democratic Republic of the Congo

28.2

Suriname

Italy

Lao People's Democratic Republic

31.6

Chad

33.9

Latvia

Australia

Eritrea

34.5

Lithuania

Brunei Darussalam

Ethiopia

34.6

Luxembourg

Cook Islands

Madagascar

36.8

Malta

Fiji

Burkina Faso

37.4

Thailand

7.0

Monaco

Japan

Burundi

38.9

Bhutan

12.0

Netherlands

Kiribati

Niger

39.9

Indonesia

19.6

Norway

Malaysia

Cape Verde

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

20.6

Poland

Mauritius

Sri Lanka

21.1

Portugal

Seychelles

Maldives

25.7

South Africa

Myanmar
Nepal

1990



Russian Federation

San Marino

Nauru

29.6

Slovakia

New Zealand

38.8

Slovenia

Niue

Timor-Leste

40.6

Spain

Palau

Bangladesh

41.3

Sweden

Republic of Korea

India

43.5

Key
Country trend

Marshall Islands
Micronesia (Federated States of)

Switzerland

Turkmenistan

United Kingdom

Latest available

This chart shows the percentage of children under 5 years old who are underweight in each country.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Regional averages are not available at this time.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 5.

23

Samoa

Tonga

Vanuatu

2. Under-five mortality rate (probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Seychelles

11

Canada

6

San Marino

2

Qatar

Mauritius

16

Cuba

6

Finland

3

United Arab Emirates

8
8

Cape Verde

29

United States of America

8

Greece

3

Kuwait

11

Botswana

31

Chile

9

Iceland

3

Bahrain

12

Algeria

41

Dominica

10

Luxembourg

3

Oman

12

Namibia

42

Barbados

11

Norway

3

Lebanon

13

Eritrea

58

Costa Rica

11

Slovenia

3

Syrian Arab Republic

16

South Africa

67

Antigua and Barbuda

12

Sweden

3

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

17

Ghana

76

Bahamas

13

Andorra

4

Jordan

20

Gabon

77

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

13

Austria

4

Saudi Arabia

21

Lesotho

79

Argentina

15

Cyprus

4

Tunisia

21
23

Swaziland

83

Grenada

15

Czech Republic

4

Egypt

Zimbabwe

96

Saint Kitts and Nevis

15

Denmark

4

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

32

Sao Tome and Principe

97

Saint Lucia

15

France

4

Morocco

36

Togo

98

Uruguay

16

Germany

4

Iraq

45

Malawi

100

Mexico

17

Italy

4

Yemen

69

United Republic of Tanzania

103

El Salvador

18

Monaco

4

Pakistan

89

Comoros

105

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

18

Portugal

4

Djibouti

95

Gambia

106

4

Sudan

109

Madagascar
Senegal
Ethiopia

18

Regional average

Belize

19

Spain

106

Colombia

20

Belgium

5

Somalia

200

108

Brazil

22

Croatia

5

Afghanistan

257

109

Panama

23

Ireland

5

Peru

24

Israel

5

25

Netherlands

5

Switzerland

5

Regional average

Rwanda

112

Côte d'Ivoire

114

Mauritania

118

Nicaragua

27

Benin

121

Suriname

27

Estonia

6

Japan

3

Congo

127

Paraguay

28

United Kingdom

6

Singapore

3

Kenya

128

Honduras

31

Hungary

7

Australia

5

Mozambique

130

Jamaica

31

Lithuania

7

Republic of Korea

5

Cameroon

131

Dominican Republic

33

Malta

7

Malaysia

6

Uganda

135

34

Poland

7

New Zealand

6

Liberia

144

Trinidad and Tobago

35

Slovakia

7

Brunei Darussalam

7

Guinea

146

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

54

Serbia

8

Viet Nam

14

Equatorial Guinea

147

Guyana

61

Latvia

9

Cook Islands

15

72

Montenegro

9

Palau

15

Bulgaria

11

Fiji

18

Regional average

Zambia

Ecuador

Guatemala

142

148

Niger

167

Burundi

168

Haiti

Russian Federation

11

Tonga

19

11

China

21

Samoa

26

Niue

28

Philippines

32

Burkina Faso

169

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Central African Republic

173

Belarus

13

Nigeria

186

Thailand

14

Romania

13

Mali

194

Sri Lanka

17

Albania

14

Sierra Leone

194

Maldives

28

Bosnia and Herzegovina

15

Vanuatu

33

Guinea-Bissau

195

Indonesia

41

Ukraine

15

Marshall Islands

36

Democratic Republic of the Congo

199

Republic of Moldova

17

Solomon Islands

36

Turkey

22

Tuvalu

36

Armenia

23

Micronesia (Federated States of)

39

Chad

209

Angola

220

Nepal

51

Bangladesh

54

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

55

Regional average

Regional average

63

India

69

Georgia

30

Mongolia

41

81

Kazakhstan

30

Nauru

45

Timor-Leste

93

Azerbaijan

36

Kiribati

48

Myanmar

122

Kyrgyzstan

38

Lao People's Democratic Republic

61

Country trend
Latest available
MDG target

14

Bhutan

Key
1990

Regional average

2015

Uzbekistan

38

Papua New Guinea

69

Turkmenistan

48

Cambodia

89

Tajikistan

64

This chart shows estimated under-five mortality for 2008, with countries within each WHO region sorted by level.
The bold lines indicate trends since 1990 or since the first year for which data are available.
The thin lines indicate the projected trend needed to reduce by two thirds the under-five mortality rate by 2015.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 1.

24

78

21

3. Measles immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%)

Seychelles

99

Antigua and Barbuda

99

Belarus

99

Bahrain

99

Mauritius

98

Argentina

99

Greece

99

Kuwait

99

Cape Verde

96

Brazil

99

Hungary

99

Oman

99

Eritrea

95

Cuba

99

Kazakhstan

99

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

98

Swaziland

95

Dominica

99

Kyrgyzstan

99

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

98

Botswana

94

Grenada

99

Monaco

99

Tunisia

98

Sao Tome and Principe

93

Nicaragua

99

Russian Federation

99

Saudi Arabia

97

Rwanda

92

Saint Kitts and Nevis

99

Slovakia

99

Morocco

96

Gambia

91

Saint Lucia

99

Turkmenistan

99

Jordan

95

Kenya

90

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

99

Albania

98

Egypt

92

Algeria

88

Belize

96

Andorra

98

Qatar

92

Malawi

88

Guatemala

96

Poland

98

United Arab Emirates

92

United Republic of Tanzania

88

Mexico

96

Spain

98

Pakistan

85

Ghana

86

El Salvador

95

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

98

Syrian Arab Republic

81

Lesotho

85

Guyana

95

Uzbekistan

98

Sudan

79

Zambia

85

Honduras

95

Czech Republic

97

Afghanistan

75

Burundi

84

Uruguay

95

Finland

97

Djibouti

73

Madagascar

81

Canada

94

Cameroon

80

Barbados

Niger

80

Angola

Latvia

97

Iraq

69

92

Lithuania

97

Yemen

62

Chile

92

Portugal

97

Lebanon

53

79

Colombia

92

Romania

97

Somalia

24

97

Regional average

93

Congo

79

United States of America

92

Turkey

Mozambique

77

Costa Rica

91

Bulgaria

96

Senegal

77

Trinidad and Tobago

91

Croatia

96

Bahamas

90

Georgia

96

90

Iceland

96

Nauru

99

96

Niue

99

Togo

77

Comoros

76

Guinea-Bissau

76

Jamaica

88

Luxembourg

Burkina Faso

75

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

86

Netherlands

96

Tonga

99

Ethiopia

74

Suriname

86

Slovenia

96

Brunei Darussalam

97

Namibia

73

85

Sweden

96

Japan

97

95

Mongolia

97

Regional average

Peru

Panama

73

Mali

68

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

82

Estonia

Uganda

68

Dominican Republic

79

Germany

95

Palau

97

Armenia

94

Cook Islands

95

Malaysia

95

Singapore

95

Democratic Republic of the Congo

67

Paraguay

77

Zimbabwe

66

Ecuador

66

Mauritania

65

Haiti

58

Guinea

Republic of Moldova
Regional average

64

Ukraine
Belgium

94
94 94
93

Liberia

64

Norway

93

Côte d'Ivoire

63

Serbia

92

Central African Republic

62

Nigeria

62

South Africa

62

Benin

61

Sierra Leone

60

Gabon

55

Equatorial Guinea

51

Chad

23

Italy
Bhutan

99

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

98

Sri Lanka

98

Thailand

98

Maldives

97

Bangladesh

89

Indonesia

83

Myanmar

82

Nepal

79

Timor-Leste
India

Regional average

Country trend

91

Denmark

89

Ireland

89

Australia

94

China

94

Fiji

94

Marshall Islands

94

Tuvalu

93

Regional average
Micronesia (Federated States of)

92

Montenegro

89

Philippines

92

Cyprus

87

Republic of Korea

92
92

France

87

Viet Nam

Switzerland

87

Cambodia

89

New Zealand

86

Tajikistan

86

United Kingdom

86

Kiribati

72

Bosnia and Herzegovina

84

Vanuatu

65

73

Israel

84

Solomon Islands

60

70

Austria

83

Papua New Guinea

54

Malta

78

Lao People's Democratic Republic

52

San Marino

73

Samoa

45

Azerbaijan

66

75

Key

1990

Regional average

Latest available

This chart shows the percentage of 1-year-olds fully immunized against measles, with countries within each WHO region sorted by 2008 level.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

25

83

93

4. Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)

Mauritius

15

Canada

7

Ireland

1

Kuwait

4

Algeria

180

United States of America

11

Bosnia and Herzegovina

3

Qatar

12

Cape Verde

210

Bahamas

16

Denmark

3

Saudi Arabia

18

Namibia

210

Barbados

16

Greece

3

Bahrain

32

Botswana

380

Chile

16

Italy

3

United Arab Emirates

37

Swaziland

390

Uruguay

20

Sweden

3

Jordan

62

Comoros

400

Costa Rica

30

Austria

4

Oman

64

South Africa

400

Cuba

45

Czech Republic

4

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

97

Eritrea

450

Trinidad and Tobago

45

Germany

4

Tunisia

100

Madagascar

510

Belize

52

Iceland

4

Egypt

130
130

Togo

510

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

57

Israel

4

Syrian Arab Republic

Gabon

520

Mexico

60

Spain

4

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

140

Mozambique

520

Suriname

72

Switzerland

5

Lebanon

150

Uganda

550

Argentina

77

Ghana

560

Kenya

560

Equatorial Guinea

Hungary

6

Morocco

240

Brazil 110

Netherlands

6

Iraq

300

Colombia 130

Slovakia

6

Pakistan

320

680

Panama 130

Slovenia

6

Yemen

430

Gambia

690

Dominican Republic 150

Croatia

7

Sudan

450

Burkina Faso

700

Paraguay 150

Finland

7

Djibouti

650

Ethiopia

720

El Salvador 170

Norway

7

Somalia 1 400

Congo

740

Jamaica 170

Belgium

8

Afghanistan 1 800

Côte d'Ivoire

810

Nicaragua 170

France

8

Mauritania

820

Ecuador 210

Malta

8

Zambia

830

Peru 240

Poland

8

Benin

840

Honduras 280

United Kingdom

8

Zimbabwe

880

Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 290

Cyprus 10

Australia

4

Guinea

910

Guatemala 290

Latvia 10

Japan

6

United Republic of Tanzania

950

Guyana 470

Regional average

Lesotho

960

Mali

970

Regional average

900

99

10

New Zealand

9

Bulgaria 11

Brunei Darussalam

13

Lithuania 11

Republic of Korea

14

Singapore

14

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Haiti 670
Antigua and Barbuda

Regional average

Central African Republic

980

Dominica

Portugal 11

Senegal

980

Grenada

Luxembourg 12

China

45

Cameroon 1 000

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Belarus 18

Mongolia

46

Burundi 1 100

Saint Lucia

Ukraine 18

Malaysia

62

Democratic Republic of the Congo 1 100

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Republic of Moldova 22

Guinea-Bissau 1 100

Romania 24

Malawi 1 100

Uzbekistan 24

Nigeria 1 100

Estonia 25
Regional average
Russian Federation 28

Liberia 1 200
Sri Lanka

Rwanda 1 300
Angola 1 400

Niger 1 800

Sao Tome and Principe

Seychelles

Fiji 210
Solomon Islands 220
27

Philippines 230
Papua New Guinea 470

58

Turkey 44

Cambodia 540

Georgia 66

Lao People's Democratic Republic 660

Armenia 76

Cook Islands …

Democratic People's Republic of Korea 370
Myanmar 380

Sierra Leone 2 100

Viet Nam 150

Thailand 110
Maldives 120

Chad 1 500

Regional average

Timor-Leste 380
Indonesia 420
Bhutan 440

Azerbaijan 82

Kiribati …

Albania 92

Marshall Islands …

Turkmenistan 130

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

Kazakhstan 140

Nauru …

Kyrgyzstan 150

Niue …

Tajikistan 170

Palau …

Bangladesh 570

Andorra …

Samoa …

Nepal 830

Monaco …

Tonga …

Montenegro …

Tuvalu …

San Marino …

Vanuatu …

Regional average

India 450

450

Serbia …

This chart shows the interagency estimated maternal mortality ratio for each country for 2005, with countries within each WHO region sorted by level.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 2.

26

420

82

5. Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)

Mauritius

≥99

Antigua and Barbuda

≥99

Albania

≥99

Bahrain

≥99

Algeria

95

Argentina

≥99

Belarus

≥99

Jordan

≥99

Botswana

94

Bahamas

≥99

Bosnia and Herzegovina

≥99

Kuwait

≥99

South Africa

91

Barbados

≥99

Bulgaria

≥99

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

≥99

Congo

86

Canada

≥99

Croatia

≥99

Qatar

≥99

Gabon

86

Chile

≥99

Cyprus

≥99

United Arab Emirates

≥99

Namibia

81

Cuba

≥99

Czech Republic

≥99

Lebanon

98

Sao Tome and Principe

81

Ecuador

≥99

Estonia

≥99

Oman

98

Benin

78

Grenada

≥99

Finland

≥99

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

97

Cape Verde

78

Saint Kitts and Nevis

≥99

Germany

≥99

Saudi Arabia

96

Democratic Republic of the Congo

74

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

≥99

Hungary

≥99

Djibouti

93

Swaziland

74

United States of America

≥99

Ireland

≥99

Syrian Arab Republic

93

Zimbabwe

69

Uruguay

≥99

Italy

≥99

Tunisia

90

Cameroon

63

Dominican Republic

98

Kazakhstan

≥99

Iraq

89

Equatorial Guinea

63

Saint Lucia

98

Latvia

≥99

Egypt

79

Comoros

62

Trinidad and Tobago

98

Lithuania

≥99

Togo

62

Brazil

97

Luxembourg

≥99

Sudan

Mauritania

61

Jamaica

97

Malta

≥99

Pakistan

39

Côte d'Ivoire

57

Belize

96

Montenegro

≥99

Yemen

36

Gambia

57

Colombia

96

Netherlands

≥99

Somalia

33

Ghana

57

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

95

Poland

≥99

Afghanistan

14

Lesotho

55

Costa Rica

94

Portugal

≥99

Republic of Moldova

≥99

Romania

≥99
≥99

Burkina Faso

54

Dominica

94

Central African Republic

54

Mexico

94

Malawi

54

Rwanda

52

Senegal

52

Madagascar

51

Regional average

Mali

49

Mozambique

48

Angola

47

Zambia

47

Regional average

Morocco

63 59
49

91

Russian Federation

≥99

90

Serbia

≥99

Australia

El Salvador

84

Slovakia

≥99

Brunei Darussalam

≥99

Guyana

83

Slovenia

≥99

Cook Islands

≥99

Paraguay

77

Switzerland

≥99

Fiji

≥99

74

Turkmenistan

≥99

Japan

≥99

Peru

73

Ukraine

≥99

Malaysia

≥99

Honduras

67

Uzbekistan

≥99

Mongolia

≥99

Armenia

98

Niue

≥99

Panama
Suriname

Nicaragua

47

92

Regional average

Liberia

46

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

66

United Republic of Tanzania

46

Guatemala

41

Georgia

98

Palau

≥99

Kenya

42

Haiti

26

Kyrgyzstan

98

Republic of Korea

≥99

Sierra Leone

42

Samoa

≥99

Uganda

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Regional average

42

89

Singapore

≥99

Tonga

≥99

Guinea-Bissau

39

Tajikistan

Nigeria

39

Turkey

83

Tuvalu

≥99

Guinea

38

Andorra

China

98

Burundi

34

Eritrea
Niger
Chad

28

≥99

Thailand

≥99

Austria

Nauru

97

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

97

Belgium

Marshall Islands

95

Maldives

84

Denmark

New Zealand

94

Indonesia

73

France

Vanuatu

Myanmar

57

Greece

Bhutan

51

Iceland

Kiribati

90

Israel

Micronesia (Federated States of)

88

18
14

Ethiopia

6

Seychelles

Country trend

83

Sri Lanka

Regional average

49

Regional average

93 92

India

47

Monaco

Viet Nam

88

Nepal

19

Norway

Philippines

62

Timor-Leste

19

San Marino

Cambodia

44

Bangladesh

18

Spain

Sweden

Solomon Islands

43

United Kingdom

Key

1990

Azerbaijan

98 96

Latest available

This chart shows the percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

27

Papua New Guinea

39

Lao People's Democratic Republic

20

6. Contraceptive prevalence (%)

Mauritius 75.8

Paraguay 79.4

Norway 88.4

Iran (Islamic Republic of) 73.3

Algeria 61.4

Colombia 78.2

United Kingdom 82.0

Morocco 63.0

Cape Verde 61.3

Uruguay 77.0

France 81.8

Egypt 60.3

South Africa 60.3

Canada 74.0

Greece 76.2

Tunisia 60.2

Zimbabwe 60.2

Dominican Republic 72.9

Ireland 75.0

Syrian Arab Republic 58.3

Namibia 55.1

United States of America 72.8

Belgium 74.6

Lebanon 58.0

Swaziland 50.6

Ecuador 72.7

Belarus 72.6

Jordan 57.1

Botswana 44.4

Cuba 72.6

Turkey 71.0

Congo 44.3

El Salvador 72.5

Romania 70.3

Malawi 41.0

Nicaragua 72.4

Republic of Moldova 67.8

Yemen 27.7

Zambia 40.8

Peru 71.3

Portugal 67.1

Saudi Arabia 23.8

Netherlands 67.0

Afghanistan 18.6

Kenya 39.3

Regional average

Mexico 70.9

Regional average

70.6

Regional average
68.4

Iraq 49.8

Lesotho 37.3

Jamaica 69.0

Ukraine 66.7

Djibouti 17.8

Rwanda 36.4

Argentina 65.3

Spain 65.7

Somalia 14.6

Gabon 32.7

Honduras 65.2

Uzbekistan 64.9

Sudan

7.6

Sao Tome and Principe 29.3

Chile 64.2

Turkmenistan 61.8

Bahrain

Cameroon 29.2

Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 60.6

Albania 60.1

Kuwait

Madagascar 27.1

Guatemala 43.3

Armenia 53.1

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

United Republic of Tanzania 26.4

Trinidad and Tobago 42.5

Azerbaijan 51.1

Oman

Comoros 25.7

Suriname 42.1

Kazakhstan 50.7

Qatar

Belize 34.3

Kyrgyzstan 47.8

United Arab Emirates

Guyana 34.2

Georgia 47.3

Regional average

Uganda 23.7

23.7

Ghana 23.5

Haiti 32.0

Democratic Republic of the Congo 20.6

Serbia 41.2

Burundi 19.7

Antigua and Barbuda

Central African Republic 19.0

Bahamas

Tajikistan 37.9

Gambia 17.5

Barbados

Bosnia and Herzegovina 35.7

Burkina Faso 17.4

Brazil

Benin 17.0

Costa Rica

Montenegro 39.4
China 86.9

Andorra …

Republic of Korea 84.5
Regional average
Viet Nam 79.0

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

13.5

Togo 16.8

Dominica

Austria …

Australia 70.8

Mozambique 16.5

Grenada

Bulgaria …

Mongolia 66.0

Ethiopia 14.7

Panama

Croatia …

Japan 54.3

Nigeria 14.7

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Cyprus …

Philippines 50.6

Côte d'Ivoire 12.9

Saint Lucia

Czech Republic …

Cambodia 40.0

Senegal 11.8

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Denmark …

Kiribati 36.1

Liberia 11.4

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Estonia …

Nauru 35.6

Niger 11.2

Finland …

Palau 32.8

Guinea-Bissau 10.3

Germany …

Lao People's Democratic Republic 32.2

Equatorial Guinea 10.1

Hungary …

Brunei Darussalam …

Mauritania

9.3

Iceland …

Cook Islands …

Guinea

9.1

Mali

8.2

Sierra Leone

8.2

Thailand 81.1
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 68.6
Sri Lanka 68.0

Fiji …

Italy …

Malaysia …

Latvia …

Marshall Islands …
Micronesia (Federated States of) …

India 56.3

Luxembourg …

New Zealand …

Bangladesh 55.8

Malta …

Niue …

Monaco …

Papua New Guinea …

Eritrea

8.0

Angola

6.2

Chad

2.8

Seychelles

Nepal 48.0

Regional average

Israel …

Lithuania …

Indonesia 61.4

42.8

Pakistan 29.6

57.5

Maldives 39.0

Poland …

Samoa …

Myanmar 37.0

Russian Federation …

Singapore …

Bhutan 30.7

San Marino …

Solomon Islands …

Timor-Leste 10.0

Slovakia …

Tonga …

Slovenia …

Tuvalu …

Sweden …

Vanuatu …

Switzerland …

This chart shows the percentage of women married or cohabiting who report current use of at least one method of contraception.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

28

82.7

7. Adolescent fertility rate (per 1000 girls aged 15–19 years)

Algeria

4

Canada

14

San Marino

1

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

4

Burundi

30

Trinidad and Tobago

35

Netherlands

4

Tunisia

6

Mauritius

35

United States of America

41

Switzerland

4

Saudi Arabia

7

Rwanda

40

Cuba

42

Slovenia

5

Oman

11
14

Botswana

51

Bahamas

43

Cyprus

6

Kuwait

Seychelles

54

Dominica

48

Denmark

6

Bahrain

15

South Africa

54

Chile

49

Sweden

6

Qatar

16

Ghana

74

Saint Lucia

49

Italy

7

Lebanon

18

Namibia

74

Barbados

51

France

8

Morocco

18

Eritrea

85

Grenada

53

Finland

9

Pakistan

20

Mauritania

88

Brazil

56

Norway

9

United Arab Emirates

23

Sao Tome and Principe

91

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

57

Belgium 10

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

25

Cape Verde

92

Jamaica

58

Germany 10

Djibouti

27

Comoros

95

Peru

59

Luxembourg 10

Egypt

27

Lesotho

98

Argentina

62

Andorra 11

Jordan

28

Senegal

100

Costa Rica

63

Czech Republic 11

Iraq

68

Zimbabwe

101

Suriname

63

Greece 11

Syrian Arab Republic

75

Gambia

104

Uruguay

63

Austria 12

Yemen

80

Paraguay

65

Spain 12

Somalia

123

Afghanistan

151

Sudan

Regional average

61

Ethiopia

109

Côte d'Ivoire

111

Antigua and Barbuda

67

Albania 13

Swaziland

111

El Salvador

67

Croatia 13

Benin

114

Haiti

69

Poland 13

Kenya
Regional average
Democratic Republic of the Congo

116

Saint Kitts and Nevis

74

Iceland 14

Mexico

82

Israel 15

118

124

Regional average

Nigeria

126

Panama

85

Bosnia and Herzegovina 16

Equatorial Guinea

128

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

88

Montenegro 16

Republic of Korea

2

Burkina Faso

131

Belize

90

Ireland 17

China

5

Congo

132

Guyana

90

Latvia 17

Japan

5

Central African Republic

133

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

91

Malta 17

Singapore

6

Portugal 17

Malaysia

13

Lithuania 19

Australia

15

19

Tonga

16

Belarus 20

Mongolia

19

Liberia

137

Guatemala

92

United Republic of Tanzania

139

Colombia

96

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Regional average

Cameroon

141

Sierra Leone

146

Zambia

146

Honduras 108

Estonia 20

Tuvalu

22

Guinea

153

Nicaragua 109

Hungary 20

Brunei Darussalam

26

Madagascar

154

Uganda

159

Dominican Republic

98

Ecuador 100

Turkmenistan 20
Regional average

Slovakia 21

23

Niue

28

New Zealand

29
29

Angola

165

Serbia 24

Samoa

Guinea-Bissau

170

Armenia 25

Fiji

30

Malawi

178

Republic of Moldova 25

Palau

31

Mozambique

185

United Kingdom 26

Viet Nam

35

Uzbekistan 26

Kiribati

39

Kazakhstan 27

Cook Islands

47

Tajikistan 27

Micronesia (Federated States of)

51

Mali

190

Chad

193

Niger

199

Gabon

Togo

Maldives

8

Sri Lanka

28

India

45

Bhutan

46

Thailand

46

Indonesia

51

Kyrgyzstan 28

Cambodia

52

Timor-Leste

59

Russian Federation 28

Philippines

55

Nepal 106

Ukraine 30

Nauru

69

Bangladesh 127

Romania 35

Papua New Guinea

70

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

Georgia 37

Marshall Islands

88

Myanmar …

Bulgaria 38

Lao People's Democratic Republic 110

Azerbaijan 44

Solomon Islands …

Turkey 51

Vanuatu …

Regional average

55

Monaco …

This chart shows estimated adolescent fertility expressed as the number of births among girls aged 15–19 years per 1000 girls in this age group per year.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 9.

29

35

11

8. Antenatal care coverage (%): at least 1 visit and at least 4 visits

Cape Verde

98

Antigua and Barbuda 100

Kazakhstan 100

Oman

Gambia

98

Barbados 100

Belarus 99

Jordan

99

Sao Tome and Principe

98

Cuba 100

Bosnia and Herzegovina 99

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

98

Botswana

97

Dominica 100

Turkmenistan 99

Lebanon

96

Rwanda

96

Grenada 100

Ukraine 99

Tunisia

96

Namibia

95

Saint Kitts and Nevis 100

Uzbekistan 99

Djibouti

92

100

Gabon

94

Argentina

99

Republic of Moldova 98

Iraq

84

Uganda

94

Dominican Republic

99

Serbia 98

Syrian Arab Republic

84

Zambia

94

Saint Lucia

99

Albania 97

Egypt

74

Zimbabwe

94

Bahamas

98

Kyrgyzstan 97

Morocco

68

Burundi

92

Brazil

98

Montenegro 97

Sudan

64
61

Regional average

Kenya

92

Uruguay

97

Georgia 94

Pakistan

Malawi

92

Paraguay

96

Romania 94

Yemen

47

South Africa

92

Trinidad and Tobago

96

94

Somalia

26

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Ghana

90

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

95

Armenia 93

Afghanistan

16

Lesotho

90

Belize

94

Turkey 92

Bahrain


Algeria

89

Colombia

94

Tajikistan 89

Kuwait

Mozambique

89

El Salvador

94

Azerbaijan 77

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Guinea

88

Mexico

94

Andorra …

Qatar

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Senegal

87

Sierra Leone

87

Congo

94

Austria …

Saudi Arabia

Honduras

92

Belgium …

United Arab Emirates

86

Jamaica

91

Bulgaria …

Equatorial Guinea

86

Peru

91

Croatia …

Burkina Faso

85

Costa Rica

90

Cyprus …

Côte d'Ivoire

85

Nicaragua

90

Czech Republic …

Democratic Republic of the Congo

85

Suriname

90

Denmark …

Mongolia

Swaziland

85

Haiti

85

Estonia …

Tuvalu

97

Benin

84

Ecuador

84

Finland …

Nauru

95

Guatemala

84

France …

China

91

81

Germany …

Philippines

91

77

Greece …

Viet Nam

91

Hungary …

Vanuatu

84
81

Togo

84

Cameroon

82

Angola

80

Madagascar

80

Regional average

Guyana
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Canada

94

Regional average

99

Liberia

79

Chile

Iceland …

Marshall Islands

Guinea-Bissau

78

Panama

Ireland …

Malaysia

79

United Republic of Tanzania

76

United States of America

Israel …

Papua New Guinea

79

Comoros

75

Italy …

Solomon Islands

74

Mauritania

75

Latvia …

Cambodia

69

Eritrea

70

Lithuania …

Lao People's Democratic Republic

35

Mali

70

Luxembourg …

Australia …

Central African Republic

69

Regional average

Nigeria

58

Niger

46

Chad

39

Ethiopia

28

Mauritius

Seychelles

73

Regional average

Sri Lanka

99

Malta …

Brunei Darussalam …

Thailand

98

Monaco …

Cook Islands …

Indonesia

93

Netherlands …

Fiji …

Bhutan

88

Norway …

Japan …

Maldives

81

Poland …

Kiribati …

Myanmar

76

Portugal …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …
New Zealand …

75

India

74

Russian Federation …

Timor-Leste

61

San Marino …

Niue …

Bangladesh

51

Slovakia …

Palau …

Nepal

44

Slovenia …

Republic of Korea …

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

Spain …

Samoa …

Sweden …

Singapore …

Switzerland …

Tonga …

Key
1+ visit

United Kingdom …

4+ visits

This chart shows the percentage of women who received antenatal care from skilled health personnel at least once and at least four times during pregnancy.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000 for coverage of at least one visit.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

30

65

90

9. Unmet need for family planning (%)

Morocco 10.0

Mauritius

3.5

Colombia

5.8

Albania 1.3

Namibia

6.7

United States of America

6.3

Turkey 6.0

Egypt 10.3

Zimbabwe 12.8

Paraguay

6.6

Republic of Moldova 6.7

Jordan 11.9

Niger 15.8

Ecuador

7.4

Turkmenistan 10.1

Congo 16.2

Nicaragua

7.5

Ukraine 10.3
Romania 11.9

Afghanistan

Armenia 13.3

Bahrain

Cape Verde 16.7

Peru

8.1

Nigeria 16.9

El Salvador

8.9

9.4

Regional average

Tunisia 12.1

Mozambique 18.4

Regional average
Dominican Republic 11.4

Georgia 16.3

Djibouti

Cameroon 20.2

Jamaica 11.7

Azerbaijan 22.7

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Guinea 21.2

Mexico 12.0

Andorra …

Iraq

United Republic of Tanzania 21.8

Honduras 16.9

Austria …

Kuwait

Chad 23.3

Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 22.7

Belarus …

Lebanon

Madagascar 23.6

Guatemala 27.6

Belgium …

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Haiti 37.5

Bosnia and Herzegovina …

Oman

Democratic Republic of the Congo 24.4

Antigua and Barbuda

Bulgaria …

Qatar

Kenya 24.5

Argentina

Croatia …

Saudi Arabia

Zambia 26.5

Bahamas

Cyprus …

Somalia

Eritrea 27.0

Barbados

Czech Republic …

Sudan

Malawi 27.6

Belize

Denmark …

Syrian Arab Republic

Gabon 28.0

Brazil

Estonia …

United Arab Emirates

Burkina Faso 28.8

Canada

Finland …

Yemen

Burundi 29.0

Chile

France …

Benin 29.9

Costa Rica

Germany …

Lesotho 30.9

Cuba

Greece …

Regional average

Swaziland 24.0

24.3

Mali 31.2

Dominica

Hungary …

Mauritania 31.6

Grenada

Iceland …

Senegal 31.6

Guyana

Ireland …

Regional average

China 2.3
Mongolia 4.6

Ethiopia 33.8

Panama

Israel …

Viet Nam 4.8

Ghana 34.0

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Italy …

Philippines 17.3

Liberia 35.6

Saint Lucia

Kazakhstan …

Cambodia 25.1

Rwanda 37.9

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Kyrgyzstan …

Lao People's Democratic Republic 39.5

Suriname

Latvia …

Australia …

Trinidad and Tobago

Lithuania …

Brunei Darussalam …
Cook Islands …

Uganda 40.6
Algeria

Angola

Uruguay

Luxembourg …

Botswana

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Malta …

Fiji …

Central African Republic

Monaco …

Japan …

Comoros

Montenegro …

Kiribati …

Côte d'Ivoire

Netherlands …

Malaysia …

Equatorial Guinea

Gambia

Guinea-Bissau

Sao Tome and Principe

Seychelles

Thailand 3.1

Norway …

Marshall Islands …

Poland …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

Timor-Leste 3.8

Portugal …

Nauru …

Indonesia 9.1

Russian Federation …

New Zealand …

India 12.8

San Marino …

Niue …

Bangladesh 17.1

Serbia …

Palau …

South Africa

Sri Lanka 18.2

Slovakia …

Papua New Guinea …

Togo

Myanmar 19.1

Slovenia …

Republic of Korea …

Nepal 24.6

Spain …

Samoa …

Bhutan …

Sweden …

Singapore …

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

Switzerland …

Solomon Islands …

Maldives …

Tajikistan …

Tonga …

Tuvalu …

United Kingdom …

Vanuatu …

Sierra Leone

Regional average

12.8

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Uzbekistan …

This chart shows the percentage of women who are fecund and sexually active but are not using any method of contraception, and report not wanting any more children
or wanting to delay the next child.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

31

18.6

Pakistan 24.9

3.4

10. Prevalence of HIV among adults aged 15–49 years (%)

Comoros

<0.1

Cuba

0.1

Bosnia and Herzegovina

<0.1

Lebanon

0.1

Algeria

0.1

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

0.2

Croatia

<0.1

Morocco

0.1

Madagascar

0.1

Nicaragua

0.2

Slovakia

<0.1

Pakistan

0.1

Mauritania

0.8

Chile

0.3

Slovenia

<0.1

Tunisia

0.1

Niger

0.8

Ecuador

0.3

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

<0.1

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

0.2

Gambia

0.9

Mexico

0.3

Turkmenistan

<0.1

Senegal

1.0

Canada

0.4

Armenia

0.1

Sudan

1.4

Benin

1.2

Costa Rica

0.4

Finland

0.1

Djibouti

3.1

Eritrea

1.3

Argentina

0.5

Georgia

0.1

Afghanistan

Mali

1.5

Peru

0.5

Germany

0.1

Bahrain

Burkina Faso

1.6

Brazil

0.6

Hungary

0.1

Egypt

Guinea

1.6

Colombia

0.6

Israel

0.1

Iraq

Liberia

1.7

Paraguay

0.6

Kazakhstan

0.1

Jordan

Mauritius

1.7

United States of America

0.6

Kyrgyzstan

0.1

Kuwait

Regional average

0.5

Regional average

Somalia

Sierra Leone

1.7

Uruguay

0.6

Lithuania

0.1

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Guinea-Bissau

1.8

Honduras

0.7

Malta

0.1

Oman

El Salvador

0.8

Norway

0.1

Qatar

0.1

Saudi Arabia


Ghana

1.9

Burundi

2.0

Guatemala

0.8

Poland

Angola

2.1

Panama

1.0

Romania

0.1

Syrian Arab Republic

Ethiopia

2.1

Dominican Republic

1.1

Serbia

0.1

United Arab Emirates

Rwanda

2.8

Barbados

1.2

Sweden

0.1

Yemen

Nigeria

3.1

Trinidad and Tobago

1.5

Uzbekistan

0.1

Togo

3.3

Jamaica

1.6

Austria

0.2

Equatorial Guinea

3.4

Belize

2.1

Azerbaijan

0.2

Chad

3.5

2.2

Belarus

0.2

Congo

3.5

2.4

Belgium

0.2

Republic of Korea

<0.1

Côte d'Ivoire
Regional average
Cameroon

3.9

Guyana

2.5

Denmark

0.2

China

0.1

5.1

Bahamas

3.0

Greece

0.2

Fiji

0.1

Uganda

5.4

Antigua and Barbuda

Iceland

0.2

Mongolia

0.1

Ireland

0.2

New Zealand

0.1

Luxembourg

0.2

Gabon

Haiti
Suriname
4.9

Dominica

5.9

United Republic of Tanzania

6.2

Grenada

Central African Republic

6.3

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Netherlands

Malawi

11.9

Saint Lucia

United Kingdom

Mozambique

12.5

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Tajikistan

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Regional average

Australia

0.2

0.2

Lao People's Democratic Republic

0.2

0.2

Singapore

0.2

0.3

Malaysia

0.5

Zambia

15.2

France

0.4

Viet Nam

0.5

Namibia

15.3

Italy

0.4

Cambodia

0.8

Zimbabwe

15.3

Republic of Moldova

0.4

Papua New Guinea

1.5

South Africa

18.1

Portugal

0.5

Brunei Darussalam

Lesotho

23.2

Spain

0.5

Cook Islands

Botswana

23.9

Switzerland

0.6

Japan

Latvia

0.8

Kiribati

Bhutan

0.1

Indonesia

0.2

India

0.3

Regional average

0.5

Swaziland

26.1

Cape Verde

Russian Federation

1.1

Marshall Islands

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Nepal

0.5

Estonia

1.3

Micronesia (Federated States of)

Regional average

0.3

Kenya

Myanmar

0.7

Ukraine

1.6

Nauru

Sao Tome and Principe

Thailand

1.4

Albania

Niue

Seychelles

Bangladesh

Andorra

Palau

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Bulgaria

Maldives

Cyprus

Philippines

Czech Republic

Samoa

Sri Lanka

Timor-Leste

Key
Country trend
1990

Monaco

Solomon Islands

Montenegro

Tonga

San Marino

Tuvalu

Turkey

Vanuatu

Latest available

This chart shows the estimated prevalence of HIV infection in adults aged 15–49 years, with countries within each WHO region sorted by 2007 level. The regional
averages are based on updates and reflect 2008 levels.
Because of limited data availability for the MDG target age group (15–24 years) prevalence is reported here for the 15–49 age group.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 2.

32

0.2

0.5

0.1

11. Males aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)

Namibia

62

Guyana

47

Ukraine 43

Afghanistan

Rwanda

54

Haiti

40

Armenia 15

Bahrain

Swaziland

52

Dominican Republic

34

5

Djibouti

Kenya

47

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

18

Albania …

Egypt

Zimbabwe

46

Antigua and Barbuda

Andorra …

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

United Republic of Tanzania

40

Argentina

Austria …

Iraq

Uganda

38

Bahamas

Belarus …

Jordan

Zambia

37

Barbados

Belgium …

Kuwait

Cape Verde

36

Belize

Bosnia and Herzegovina …

Lebanon

Malawi

36

Brazil

Bulgaria …

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


Regional average

Azerbaijan

Benin

35

Canada

Croatia …

Morocco

Congo

35

Chile

Cyprus …

Oman

Cameroon

34

Colombia

Czech Republic …

Pakistan

Ethiopia

33

Costa Rica

Denmark …

Qatar

Ghana

33

Cuba

Estonia …

Saudi Arabia

Mozambique

33

Dominica

Finland …

Somalia

Côte d'Ivoire

28

Ecuador

France …

Sudan

27

El Salvador

Georgia …

Syrian Arab Republic

Germany …

Tunisia

Central African Republic

30

Senegal

26

Grenada

Burkina Faso

23

Guatemala

Greece …

United Arab Emirates

Guinea

23

Honduras

Hungary …

Yemen

Mali

22

Jamaica

Iceland …

Democratic Republic of the Congo

21

Mexico

Ireland …

21

Nicaragua

Israel …

19

Panama

Italy …

Kazakhstan …

Nigeria
Chad
Lesotho

19

Paraguay

Viet Nam

50

Madagascar

16

Peru

Kyrgyzstan …

Cambodia

45

Niger

16

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Latvia …

Marshall Islands

39

Algeria

Saint Lucia

Lithuania …

Philippines

18

Angola

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Luxembourg …

Australia …

Botswana

Suriname

Malta …

Brunei Darussalam …

Burundi

Trinidad and Tobago

Monaco …

China …

Comoros

United States of America

Montenegro …

Cook Islands …

Equatorial Guinea

Uruguay

Netherlands …

Fiji …

Eritrea

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Norway …

Japan …

Gabon

Poland …

Kiribati …
Lao People's Democratic Republic …

Gambia

Portugal …

Guinea-Bissau

Republic of Moldova …

Malaysia …

Liberia

Romania …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

Mauritania

Mongolia …

Mauritius

Nepal

44

Russian Federation …

India

36

San Marino …

Nauru …

Bangladesh …

Serbia …

New Zealand …

Bhutan …

Slovakia …

Niue …

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

Slovenia …

Palau …

Indonesia …

Spain …

Papua New Guinea …

Maldives …

Sweden …

Republic of Korea …

Myanmar …

Switzerland …

Samoa …

Sri Lanka …

Tajikistan …

Singapore …

Solomon Islands …

Sao Tome and Principe

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

South Africa

Togo

Thailand …

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Timor-Leste …

Turkey …

Tonga …

Turkmenistan …

Tuvalu …

United Kingdom …

Vanuatu …

Uzbekistan …

This chart shows the percentage of males who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, who reject the two most-common local
misconceptions about HIV transmission and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 5.

33

12. Females aged 15–24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS (%)

Namibia

65

Jamaica

60

Bosnia and Herzegovina 48

Djibouti

18

Swaziland

52

Guyana

53

Serbia 42

Morocco

12

Rwanda

51

Dominican Republic

41

Ukraine 42

Syrian Arab Republic

7

United Republic of Tanzania

45

Suriname

41

Belarus 34

Somalia

4

Sao Tome and Principe

44

Haiti

34

Uzbekistan 31

Iraq

3

Zimbabwe

44

Cuba

30

Montenegro 30

Afghanistan

Gambia

39

Honduras

30

27

Bahrain

Eritrea

37

Trinidad and Tobago

28

Armenia 23

Egypt

Cape Verde

36

Nicaragua

22

Kazakhstan 22

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Kyrgyzstan 20

Regional average

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Kenya

34

Peru

19

Zambia

34

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

15

Albania

6

Jordan

Kuwait

Uganda

32

Antigua and Barbuda

Azerbaijan

6

Lebanon

Burundi

30

Argentina

Tajikistan

3

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Togo

28

Bahamas

Andorra …

Oman

Cameroon

27

Barbados

Austria …

Pakistan

Lesotho

27

Belize

Belgium …

Qatar

Congo

26

Brazil

Bulgaria …

Saudi Arabia

Ghana

25

Canada

Croatia …

Sudan

Malawi

24

Chile

Cyprus …

Tunisia

Czech Republic …

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

23

Senegal

21

Colombia

Ethiopia

20

Costa Rica

Denmark …

Mozambique

20

Dominica

Estonia …

Madagascar

19

Ecuador

Finland …

18

El Salvador

France …

Georgia …

Comoros
Côte d'Ivoire

18

Grenada

Guinea-Bissau

18

Guatemala

Germany …

Cambodia

50

Mali

18

Mexico

Greece …

Viet Nam

42

Nigeria

18

Panama

Hungary …

Mongolia

35

Central African Republic

17

Paraguay

Iceland …

Marshall Islands

27

Guinea

17

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Ireland …

Philippines

12

Sierra Leone

17

Saint Lucia

Israel …

Australia …

Benin

16

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Italy …

Brunei Darussalam …

Burkina Faso

15

United States of America

Latvia …

China …

Democratic Republic of the Congo

15

Uruguay

Lithuania …

Cook Islands …

Algeria

13

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Luxembourg …

Fiji …

Malta …

Japan …

Niger

13

Chad

7

Monaco …

Kiribati …

Equatorial Guinea

4

Netherlands …

Lao People's Democratic Republic …

Angola

Botswana

Gabon

Regional average

Thailand

46

Nepal

28

21

Norway …

Malaysia …

Poland …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

Portugal …

Nauru …

Republic of Moldova …

New Zealand …

Liberia

India

20

Mauritania

Bangladesh

16

Romania …

Niue …
Palau …

Mauritius

Bhutan …

Russian Federation …

Seychelles

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

San Marino …

Papua New Guinea …

South Africa

Indonesia …

Slovakia …

Republic of Korea …

Maldives …

Slovenia …

Samoa …

Myanmar …

Spain …

Singapore …

Sri Lanka …

Sweden …

Solomon Islands …

Timor-Leste …

Switzerland …

Tonga …

Turkey …

Tuvalu …

Turkmenistan …

Vanuatu …

United Kingdom …

This chart shows the percentage of females who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, who reject the two most-common
local misconceptions about HIV transmission and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 5.

34

13. Antiretroviral therapy coverage among people with advanced HIV infection (%)

Regional average

Namibia

88

Costa Rica >95

Romania 73

Morocco

31

Botswana

79

Cuba >95

Republic of Moldova 58

Tunisia

29

Lebanon

26

Djibouti

16

Egypt

9

Rwanda

71

Chile

82

Poland 36

Senegal

56

Brazil

80

Uzbekistan 24

Benin

49

Argentina

73

Kazakhstan 23

Zambia

46

44

23

Mexico

57

Hungary 22

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

5

Panama

56

Belarus 20

Pakistan

3

Uruguay

56

Lithuania 18

Sudan

1

51

Serbia 17

Afghanistan

Gabon

42

Swaziland

42

Mali

41

El Salvador

Regional average

Regional average

Regional average

54

Kenya

38

Belize

49

Russian Federation 16

Bahrain

Burkina Faso

35

Peru

48

Latvia 15

Iraq

Malawi

35

Honduras

47

Azerbaijan 14

Jordan

Uganda

33

Guyana

45

Kyrgyzstan 14

Kuwait

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Equatorial Guinea

31

Suriname

45

Armenia 12

United Republic of Tanzania

31

Jamaica

43

Ukraine

8

Oman

Ethiopia

29

Ecuador

42

Tajikistan

6

Qatar

Côte d'Ivoire

28

Haiti

41

Albania …

Saudi Arabia

South Africa

28

Colombia

38

Andorra …

Somalia

Guinea

27

Dominican Republic

38

Austria …

Syrian Arab Republic

Lesotho

26

Guatemala

37

Belgium …

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

Nigeria

26

Nicaragua

30

Bosnia and Herzegovina …

Angola

25

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

22

Bulgaria …
Croatia …

Cameroon

25

Paraguay

22

Democratic Republic of the Congo

24

Antigua and Barbuda

Cyprus …

Mozambique

24

Bahamas

Czech Republic …
Lao People's Democratic Republic >95

Burundi

23

Barbados

Denmark …

Mauritania

23

Canada

Estonia …

Cambodia

Mauritius

22

Dominica

Finland …

Papua New Guinea

38

Central African Republic

21

Grenada

France …

Malaysia

35

Algeria

20

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Georgia …

Philippines

31

Guinea-Bissau

20

Saint Lucia

Germany …

Viet Nam

26

Sierra Leone

20

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Greece …

China

19

Togo

19

Trinidad and Tobago

Iceland …

Australia …

Regional average

67

Gambia

18

United States of America

Ireland …

Brunei Darussalam …

Congo

17

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Israel …

Cook Islands …

Liberia

17

Italy …

Fiji …

Zimbabwe

17

Luxembourg …

Japan …

Ghana

15

Malta …

Kiribati …

Chad

13

Monaco …

Marshall Islands …

Eritrea

13

Niger

Thailand

61

Montenegro …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

10

Indonesia

15

Netherlands …

Mongolia …

Madagascar

4

Myanmar

15

Norway …

Nauru …

Cape Verde

Sri Lanka

14

Portugal …

New Zealand …

Regional average

40

Comoros

Bangladesh

7

San Marino …

Niue …

Sao Tome and Principe

Nepal

7

Slovakia …

Palau …

Seychelles

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Republic of Korea …

0

Slovenia …

Bhutan …

Spain …

Samoa …

India …

Sweden …

Singapore …

Switzerland …

Solomon Islands …

Maldives …
Timor-Leste …

Tonga …

Turkey …

Tuvalu …

Turkmenistan …

Vanuatu …

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

United Kingdom …

This chart shows the percentage of people with advanced HIV infection currently receiving antiretroviral therapy according to standards of the Joint United Nations
Programme on HIV/AIDS for each country for 2007, with countries within each WHO region sorted by level. The regional averages shown are based on 2008 updated
data.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

35

11

31

14. Malaria mortality rate (per 100 000 population)

Algeria

0.0

Argentina

0.0

Armenia

0.0

Egypt

0.0

Cape Verde

0.1

Belize

<0.1

Azerbaijan

0.0

Iraq

0.0
0.0

Swaziland

0.1

Costa Rica

<0.1

Turkmenistan

0.0

Morocco

South Africa

0.3

El Salvador

<0.1

Georgia

<0.1

Oman

0.0

Botswana

1.6

Mexico

<0.1

Kyrgyzstan

<0.1

Saudi Arabia

0.0

Eritrea

1.6

Nicaragua

<0.1

Tajikistan

<0.1

Syrian Arab Republic

0.0

Zimbabwe

10

Panama

<0.1

Turkey

<0.1

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

<0.1

Madagascar

12

Paraguay

<0.1

Uzbekistan

<0.1

Afghanistan

0.5

Sao Tome and Principe

19

Guatemala

0.1

Albania

Pakistan

0.8

Comoros

36

Honduras

0.1

Andorra

Yemen

3.9

Namibia

47

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

0.2

Austria

Djibouti

14

Ethiopia

51

Ecuador

0.2

Belarus

Somalia

41

Rwanda

59

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

0.2

Belgium

Sudan

85

Kenya

74

Dominican Republic

0.3

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bahrain

Regional average

Senegal

80

Brazil

0.5

Bulgaria

Jordan

Mauritania

85

Peru

0.5

Croatia

Kuwait

Mozambique

92

Regional average Colombia

1.0

Cyprus

Lebanon

Burundi

94

Suriname

4.9

Czech Republic

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Malawi

95

Haiti

7.8

Denmark

Qatar

Gabon

96

Guyana

10

Estonia

Tunisia

United Republic of Tanzania

98

Antigua and Barbuda

Finland

United Arab Emirates

Central African Republic

100

Bahamas

France

Côte d'Ivoire

103

Barbados

Germany


Regional average

104

0.5

Gambia

106

Canada

Greece

Ghana

109

Chile

Hungary


Republic of Korea

0.0

Togo

113

Cuba

Iceland

Cameroon

116

Dominica

Ireland

Zambia

121

Grenada

Israel

Malaysia

0.1

Congo

124

Jamaica

Italy

Viet Nam

0.2

Kazakhstan

Philippines

0.3

Latvia

Lao People's Democratic Republic

1.1

Angola
Uganda

128

Saint Kitts and Nevis

145

Saint Lucia

China <0.1

Regional average

Benin

146

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Lithuania

Cambodia

4.1

Sierra Leone

154

Trinidad and Tobago

Luxembourg

Vanuatu

13

Nigeria

156

United States of America …

Malta

Solomon Islands

30

Democratic Republic of the Congo

158

Monaco

Papua New Guinea

45

Guinea

164

Montenegro

Australia

Liberia

171

Netherlands

Brunei Darussalam

Chad

173

Norway

Cook Islands

Burkina Faso

178

Guinea-Bissau

180

Mali

201

Equatorial Guinea

220

Niger

229

Lesotho

Mauritius

Seychelles

Uruguay

Poland

Fiji

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

0.0

Portugal

Japan

Sri Lanka

<0.1

Republic of Moldova

Kiribati

Nepal

0.1

Romania

Marshall Islands

Thailand

0.6

Russian Federation

Micronesia (Federated States of)

India

1.3

San Marino

Mongolia

Indonesia

1.5

Serbia

Nauru

Bhutan

3.0

Slovakia

New Zealand

Bangladesh

4.2

Slovenia

Niue

Myanmar

19

Spain

Palau

Timor-Leste

93

Sweden

Samoa

Maldives

Switzerland

Singapore

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Tonga

Ukraine

Tuvalu

United Kingdom

Regional average

2.1

This chart shows the estimated number of deaths from malaria for 2006, with countries within each WHO region sorted by level.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 2.

36

7.5

0.3

15. Children aged <5 years sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (%)

Madagascar

60

Guyana

6

Azerbaijan

1

Sudan

28

Sao Tome and Principe

54

Suriname

3

Tajikistan

1

Somalia

9

Gambia

49

Argentina

Armenia …

Equatorial Guinea

42

Bahamas

Georgia …

Afghanistan
Regional average
Djibouti

1
0

6

Zambia

41

Belize

Kyrgyzstan …

Iraq

Guinea-Bissau

39

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

Russian Federation …

Pakistan

0

Kenya

39

Brazil

Turkey …

Egypt

Togo

35

Colombia

Turkmenistan …

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Ethiopia

33

Costa Rica

Uzbekistan …

Morocco

Senegal

31

Dominican Republic

Oman

Ghana

28

Ecuador

Albania …

Saudi Arabia

Non-endemic

Mali

27

El Salvador

Andorra …

Syrian Arab Republic

Sierra Leone

26

Guatemala

Austria …

Yemen

Malawi

25

Haiti

Belarus …

Non-endemic

Rwanda

24

Honduras

Belgium …

Bahrain

Benin

20

Jamaica

Bosnia and Herzegovina …

Jordan

Angola

17

Mexico

Bulgaria …

Kuwait

16

Nicaragua

Croatia …

Lebanon

15

Panama

Cyprus …

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


Regional average
United Republic of Tanzania

Central African Republic

17

Cameroon

13

Paraguay

Czech Republic …

Qatar

Burkina Faso

10

Peru

Denmark …

Tunisia

Comoros

9

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Estonia …

United Arab Emirates

Uganda

9

Non-endemic

8

Antigua and Barbuda

France …

Mozambique

7

Barbados

Germany …

Niger

7

Canada

Greece …

Lao People's Democratic Republic

18

Congo

6

Chile

Hungary …

Viet Nam

5

Côte d'Ivoire

6

Cuba

Iceland …

Cambodia

4

Democratic Republic of the Congo

6

Dominica

Ireland …

Nigeria

6

Grenada

Israel …

Malaysia …

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Italy …

Papua New Guinea …

Burundi

Finland …

China …

Eritrea

4

Liberia

3

Saint Lucia

Kazakhstan …

Philippines …

Zimbabwe

3

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Latvia …

Republic of Korea …

Mauritania

2

Trinidad and Tobago

Lithuania …

Solomon Islands …

Chad

1

United States of America

Luxembourg …

Guinea

1

Uruguay

Malta …

Swaziland

0

Monaco …

Australia …

Montenegro …

Brunei Darussalam …

Netherlands …

Cook Islands …

Algeria

Botswana

Cape Verde

Gabon

Namibia

South Africa

Lesotho

Mauritius

Seychelles

Timor-Leste

8

Norway …

Fiji …

Indonesia

3

Poland …

Japan …

Bangladesh …

Portugal …

Kiribati …

Bhutan …

Republic of Moldova …

Marshall Islands …

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

Romania …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

India …

San Marino …

Mongolia …

Myanmar …

Serbia …

Nauru …

Nepal …

Slovakia …

New Zealand …

Sri Lanka …

Slovenia …

Niue …

Thailand …

Spain …

Palau …

Non-endemic

Vanuatu …
Non-endemic

Non-endemic
Maldives …

Sweden …

Samoa …

Switzerland …

Singapore …

Tonga …

Ukraine …

Tuvalu …

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

United Kingdom …

This chart shows the percentage of children under 5 years of age that slept under an insecticide-treated net the night prior to the survey.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

37

5

16. Children aged <5 years with fever who received treatment with any antimalarial (%)

Comoros

63

Haiti

5

Tajikistan

2

Sudan

54

Gambia

63

Nicaragua

2

Azerbaijan

1

Djibouti

10

Uganda

61

Guyana

1

Armenia …

Afghanistan

8

Liberia

59

Honduras

1

Georgia …

Somalia

8

Cameroon

58

Argentina

Kyrgyzstan …

Pakistan

3

United Republic of Tanzania

58

Bahamas

Russian Federation …

Iraq

1

Central African Republic

57

Belize

Turkey …

Egypt

Benin

54

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

Turkmenistan …

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Burkina Faso

48

Brazil

Uzbekistan …

Morocco

Congo

48

Colombia

Guinea-Bissau

46

Costa Rica

Guinea

44

Dominican Republic

Zambia

43

Ecuador

Oman

Albania …

Saudi Arabia

Andorra …

Syrian Arab Republic

Austria …

Yemen

Non-endemic

Togo

37

El Salvador

Belarus …

Non-endemic

Côte d'Ivoire

36

Guatemala

Belgium …

Bahrain

Madagascar

34

Jamaica

Bosnia and Herzegovina …

Jordan

Niger

33

Mexico

Bulgaria …

Kuwait

Nigeria

33

Panama

Croatia …

Lebanon

Chad

32

Paraguay

Cyprus …

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya


Mali

32

Peru

Czech Republic …

Qatar

Burundi

30

Suriname

Denmark …

Tunisia

Democratic Republic of the Congo

30

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Estonia …

United Arab Emirates

Sierra Leone

30

Non-endemic

Angola

28

Antigua and Barbuda

France …

Swaziland

26

Barbados

Germany …

Sao Tome and Principe

25

Canada

Greece …

Lao People's Democratic Republic

9

Ghana

24

Chile

Hungary …

Viet Nam

3

Kenya

24

Cuba

Iceland …

Cambodia

0

Malawi

24

Dominica

Ireland …

Mozambique

23

Grenada

Israel …

Malaysia …

Senegal

22

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Italy …

Papua New Guinea …

Finland …

China …

Mauritania

21

Saint Lucia

Kazakhstan …

Philippines …

Equatorial Guinea

16

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Latvia …

Republic of Korea …

Namibia

14

Trinidad and Tobago

Lithuania …

Solomon Islands …

Ethiopia

10

United States of America

Luxembourg …

Rwanda

6

Uruguay

Malta …

Zimbabwe

5

Monaco …

Australia …

Eritrea

4

Montenegro …

Brunei Darussalam …

Netherlands …

Cook Islands …

Vanuatu …
Non-endemic

Algeria

Botswana

Timor-Leste

47

Norway …

Fiji …

Cape Verde

India

12

Poland …

Japan …

Indonesia

Gabon

1

Portugal …

Kiribati …

South Africa

Bangladesh …

Republic of Moldova …

Marshall Islands …

Bhutan …

Romania …

Micronesia (Federated States of) …

Lesotho

Democratic People's Republic of Korea …

San Marino …

Mongolia …

Mauritius

Myanmar …

Serbia …

Nauru …

Seychelles

Nepal …

Slovakia …

New Zealand …

Sri Lanka …

Slovenia …

Niue …

Thailand …

Spain …

Palau …

Non-endemic

Non-endemic
Maldives …

Sweden …

Samoa …

Switzerland …

Singapore …

Tonga …

Ukraine …

Tuvalu …

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

United Kingdom …

This chart shows the percentage of children under 5 years of age with fever in the two weeks prior to the survey who received any antimalarial medicine.
Within each WHO region, countries are sorted by the latest available data since 2000.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

38

17. Tuberculosis mortality rate among HIV-negative people (per 100 000 population)

Algeria

4.1

Barbados

0.0

Luxembourg

0.0

United Arab Emirates

0.3

Mauritius

4.7

Saint Kitts and Nevis

0.0

Monaco

0.0

Jordan

0.5

Equatorial Guinea

5.0

Antigua and Barbuda

0.1

San Marino

0.0

Oman

0.8

Comoros

8.0

Canada

0.3

Iceland

0.1

Saudi Arabia

1.2

Seychelles

8.7

Grenada

0.3

Andorra

0.3

Lebanon

1.3

Eritrea

9.0

United States of America

0.3

Cyprus

0.3

Tunisia

1.8

United Republic of Tanzania

13

Cuba

0.4

Germany

0.3

Kuwait

2.3

Benin

15

Bahamas

0.7

Greece

0.3

Syrian Arab Republic

2.3

Cameroon

16

Costa Rica

0.7

Switzerland

0.3

Bahrain

2.8

Sao Tome and Principe

18

Chile

0.8

Denmark

0.4

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

3.0

Zambia

18

Jamaica

0.9

France

0.4

Egypt

3.1

Kenya

19

Saint Lucia

0.9

Israel

0.4

Qatar

3.8

Malawi

23

Dominica

1.1

Italy

0.4

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

4.2

Angola

25

Trinidad and Tobago

1.2

Netherlands

0.4

Morocco

8.0

Guinea-Bissau

25

Mexico

1.4

Norway

0.4

Yemen

10

Namibia

26

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

1.4

Sweden

0.4

Iraq

14

Lesotho

27

Uruguay

1.7

Austria

0.5

Sudan

19

Uganda

27

El Salvador

2.7

Belgium

0.5

Afghanistan

34

Pakistan

39

Swaziland

31

Panama

2.8

Finland

0.5

Cape Verde

33

Argentina

3.1

Ireland

0.5

Mozambique

36

Brazil

3.8

Czech Republic

0.6

Nicaragua

4.1

Slovakia

0.7

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

4.3

Niger

37

Botswana

38

South Africa

39

Central African Republic

41

Gabon

41

Congo

42

Gambia

44

Ghana

44

Liberia

46

Burkina Faso
Regional average
Madagascar

51

Regional average

Colombia

4.6

Belize

5.1

Paraguay

8.7

Honduras

10

Dominican Republic

12

Guatemala

12

Ecuador

13

52

Guyana

15

Zimbabwe

54

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

22

Chad

60

Suriname

29

Guinea

60

Nigeria

63

Ethiopia

64

Senegal

64

Burundi

69

Rwanda

71

Côte d'Ivoire

75

Democratic Republic of the Congo

77

Mauritania

80

Mali

81

Togo

92

Sierra Leone

140

Haiti

1990

0.7

Malta

0.8

Slovenia

0.8

Hungary

1.0

Spain

1.0

Serbia

1.3

Albania

1.4

Montenegro

1.5

Croatia

1.6

Portugal

1.6

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

1.7

Estonia

1.9

Poland

2.6

Turkey

3.2

Bosnia and Herzegovina

3.4

Republic of Moldova

4.6

Belarus

5.2

Latvia

5.5

Bulgaria

5.8

32

Maldives

2.9

Sri Lanka

10

Bhutan

15

Thailand

19

Nepal

22

India

23

Indonesia

27

Regional average

81

Niue

0.0

Australia

0.4

New Zealand

0.5

Nauru

0.8

Japan

1.4

Singapore

2.5

Tonga

3.0

Fiji

3.2

Cook Islands

4.0

Brunei Darussalam

4.2

Samoa

4.3

Republic of Korea

5.5

Micronesia (Federated States of)

6.6

Tuvalu

11

6.5

Vanuatu

11

China

12
14

7.7

Marshall Islands

8.4

Palau

14

Lithuania

9.3

Malaysia

15

Armenia

12

Solomon Islands

19

Mongolia

21

Papua New Guinea

21

Georgia

13

Russian Federation

15

Bangladesh

50

Ukraine

15

Myanmar

57

Azerbaijan

21

Timor-Leste

83

Kazakhstan

24

Kyrgyzstan

25

Uzbekistan

Latest available

54

Djibouti

Romania

39

28

Somalia

Turkmenistan

Regional average
Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Key
Country trend

United Kingdom

5.4

Peru

51

3.4

Regional average

Tajikistan

27
44

Regional average

Kiribati

25

Lao People's Democratic Republic

32

Viet Nam

34

Philippines

52

Cambodia

79

This chart shows the estimated number of deaths (per 100 000 population) from tuberculosis among HIV-negative cases for 2008, with countries within each WHO
region sorted by level.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 4.

39

19

15

18. Population using improved drinking-water sources (%)

Mauritius

99

Barbados

100

Andorra

100

Lebanon

100

Botswana

95

Canada

100

Austria

100

Qatar

100

Comoros

95

Uruguay

100

Belarus

100

United Arab Emirates

100

Gambia

92

Belize

99

Belgium

100

Egypt

99

Namibia

92

Saint Kitts and Nevis

99

Bulgaria

100

Kuwait

99

South Africa

91

United States of America

99

Cyprus

100

Jordan

96

Sao Tome and Principe

89

Saint Lucia

98

Czech Republic

100

Tunisia

94

Gabon

87

Argentina

97

Denmark

100

Djibouti

92

Lesotho

85

Brazil

97

Finland

100

Pakistan

90

Cape Verde

84

Costa Rica

97

France

100

Syrian Arab Republic

89

Algeria

83

Chile

96

Germany

100

Oman

88

Ghana

82

Cuba

94

Greece

100

Morocco

81

Regional average

96

Regional average

Zimbabwe

82

Ecuador

94

Hungary

100

Iraq

79

Côte d'Ivoire

80

Guatemala

94

Iceland

100

Yemen

62

Malawi

80

Guyana

94

Ireland

100

Sudan

57

Burkina Faso

76

Jamaica

94

Israel

100

Afghanistan

48

Benin

75

Mexico

94

Italy

100

Somalia

30

Cameroon

74

Trinidad and Tobago

94

Luxembourg

100

Bahrain

Burundi

72

Panama

93

Malta

100

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Congo

71

Suriname

93

Monaco

100

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Guinea

71

Colombia

92

Netherlands

100

Saudi Arabia

El Salvador

87

Norway

100

86

Poland

100

86

Slovakia

100

86

Spain

100
100

Senegal

69

Swaziland

69

Liberia

68

Central African Republic

67

Uganda

67

Paraguay

86

Sweden

100

Australia

Rwanda

65

Nicaragua

85

Switzerland

100

Japan

100

Eritrea

61

Peru

82

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

100

Malaysia

100

Guinea-Bissau
Regional average
Togo

61

Haiti

63

United Kingdom

100

New Zealand

100

60

Antigua and Barbuda

Bosnia and Herzegovina

99

Niue

100

Zambia

60

Bahamas

Croatia

99

Singapore

100

99

Tonga

100

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Dominican Republic
Honduras

61

Kenya

59

Dominica

Latvia

Nigeria

58

Grenada

Portugal

99

Republic of Korea

98

Mali

56

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Serbia

99

Tuvalu

97

United Republic of Tanzania

54

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Slovenia

99

Marshall Islands

94

Turkey

99

Viet Nam

94

Angola

50

Chad

50

Estonia

98

Philippines

91

Mauritania

49

Georgia

98

Nauru

90

Sierra Leone

49

Montenegro

98

China

89

Ukraine

98

Albania

97

Niger
Mozambique
Democratic Republic of the Congo

48 Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Thailand
47

100

46

Madagascar

41

Ethiopia

38

Equatorial Guinea

Seychelles

Regional average

Regional average

98

Bhutan

92

Maldives

91

Sri Lanka

90

India

88

Nepal

88

Bangladesh

80

Indonesia

80

Myanmar

71

Timor-Leste

69

86

Key
MDG target
1990
Country trend

2015
Latest available

Regional average
98

Vanuatu

82

Mongolia

76

Armenia

96

Cambodia

61

Russian Federation

96

Lao People's Democratic Republic

57

Kazakhstan

95

Papua New Guinea

41

Kyrgyzstan

90

Brunei Darussalam

Republic of Moldova

90

Cook Islands

Uzbekistan

87

Fiji

Azerbaijan

80

Kiribati

Tajikistan

70

Micronesia (Federated States of)

Lithuania

Palau

Romania

Samoa

San Marino

Solomon Islands

Turkmenistan

This chart shows the percentage of the population using an improved drinking-water source, with countries within each WHO region sorted by 2008 level.
The bold lines indicate trends since 1990 or since the first year for which data are available.
The thin lines indicate the projected trend needed to double the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking-water by 2015.
The MDG target is worded in terms of halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water by 2015.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 5.

40

83

90

19. Population using improved sanitation (%)

Algeria

95

Bahamas

100

Andorra

100

Kuwait

100

Mauritius

91

Barbados

100

Austria

100

Qatar

100

South Africa

77

Canada

100

Belgium

100

Jordan

98

Gambia

67

United States of America

100

Bulgaria

100

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

97

Botswana

60

Uruguay

100

Cyprus

100

United Arab Emirates

97

Angola

57

Grenada

97

Denmark

100

Syrian Arab Republic

96

Malawi

56

Chile

96

Finland

100

Egypt

94

Swaziland

55

Saint Kitts and Nevis

96

France

100

Tunisia

85

Cape Verde

54

Costa Rica

95

Germany

100

Iraq

73

Rwanda

54

Ecuador

92

Hungary

100

Morocco

69

Senegal

51

Trinidad and Tobago

92

Iceland

100

Djibouti

56

Regional average

Zambia

49

Cuba

91

Israel

100

Yemen

52

Uganda

48

Argentina

90

Luxembourg

100

Pakistan

45

Cameroon

47

Belize

90

Malta

100

Afghanistan

37

Burundi

46

El Salvador

Monaco

100

Sudan

34

Zimbabwe

44

Netherlands

100

Somalia

23

Comoros

36

Suriname

84

Norway

100

Bahrain

36

Dominican Republic

83

Portugal

100

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Slovakia

100

Lebanon

Slovenia

100

Oman

Saudi Arabia

Mali
Central African Republic
Regional average
Gabon

Regional average

34 34

Mexico

87 87
85

Jamaica

83

33

Guatemala

81

Namibia

33

Guyana

81

Spain

100

Nigeria

32

Brazil

80

Sweden

100

Kenya

31

Colombia

74

Switzerland

100

71

United Kingdom

100
100

Congo

30

Honduras

Lesotho

29

Paraguay

70

Uzbekistan

Mauritania

26

Panama

69

Croatia

99

Australia

100

Sao Tome and Principe

26

Peru

68

Ireland

99

Cook Islands

100

United Republic of Tanzania

24

Nicaragua

52

Albania

98

Japan

100

Côte d'Ivoire

23

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

25

Czech Republic

98

Niue

100

Democratic Republic of the Congo

23

Haiti

17

Greece

98

Republic of Korea

100

Turkmenistan

98

Samoa

100

97

Singapore

100
96

Guinea-Bissau

Antigua and Barbuda

21

Guinea

19

Dominica

Kazakhstan

Liberia

17

Saint Lucia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

95

Malaysia

Mozambique

17

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Estonia

95

Tonga

96

Eritrea

14

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

Georgia

95

Tuvalu

84

Ghana

13

Sierra Leone

13

Regional average

Ukraine

95

Philippines

76

Tajikistan

94

Viet Nam

75

93

94

Benin

12

Belarus

Ethiopia

12

Kyrgyzstan

93

Marshall Islands
Regional average
China

Togo

12

Montenegro

92

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Burkina Faso

11

Madagascar

11

Chad

9

Niger

9

Equatorial Guinea

Seychelles

MDG target
1990
Country trend

98

72 62
55
53

Thailand

96

Serbia

92

Vanuatu

51

Sri Lanka

91

Armenia

90

Mongolia

50

Myanmar

81

Bhutan

65

Bangladesh

53

Indonesia

52

Timor-Leste

50

Republic of Moldova

India

31

Latvia

Nepal

31

Romania

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Regional average

Key

Maldives

Poland

90

Nauru

50

Turkey

90

Papua New Guinea

45

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

89

Cambodia

29

Russian Federation

87

Brunei Darussalam

79

Fiji

78

Kiribati

72

Micronesia (Federated States of)

Azerbaijan

45

New Zealand

Italy

Palau

Lithuania

Solomon Islands

San Marino

40

2015
Latest available

This chart shows the percentage of the population using an improved sanitation facility, with countries within each WHO region sorted by 2008 level.
The bold lines indicate trends since 1990 or since the first year for which data are available.
The thin lines indicate the projected trend needed to double the proportion of people with sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015.
The MDG target is worded in terms of halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015.
Further details can be found in Part II, Table 5.

41

61

Part II
Global Health Indicators

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Mortality and burden of disease
This section deals with indicators of life expectancy and mortality rates, which provide good summary measures of
overall population health. The indicators include overall life expectancy at birth, as well as infant and under-five
mortality (the probability of dying between birth and 1 and 5 years of age, respectively), and adult mortality (the
probability of dying between 15 and 60 years of age). Levels and trends for child mortality (Figure 8 and Box 1) are
particularly relevant in understanding public health because globally almost 20% of all deaths are of children less
than 5 years old. Neonatal mortality (death during the first 28 days of life per 1000 live births) accounts for a large
proportion of child deaths in many countries, especially in low-income settings.
Although estimates of life expectancy reflect how many years a person might be expected to live given the current
mortality rates in specific settings, they say nothing about health status during life. Mortality statistics alone are
insufficient in fully describing and comparing the health status of different populations because they underestimate
the burden of ill-health caused by chronic conditions and provide no information on non-fatal health outcomes.
“Healthy life expectancy” (HALE) at birth, on the other hand, represents the average number of years that a person
could expect to live in “good health” by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or
injury. As a result, it captures both fatal and non-fatal health outcomes and disabilities, of which the most common
worldwide are hearing loss, visual impairment and mental disorders.
The estimates of mortality presented here have been derived wherever possible from death-registration data
reported annually to WHO. For countries where such data are not available or are of poor quality, household surveys
and censuses are used to create life tables from a model developed by WHO that generates estimates of mortality
rates and life expectancy. In the case of child mortality, WHO is part of the Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality
Estimation (IGME) which was established to advance the work on monitoring the progress made towards the
achievement of the MDG target,18 and works to harmonize the estimates used by its members. In addition, to develop
its country estimates of HALE, WHO has conducted analyses of 135 causes of disability for 17 regions of the world
and analysed 69 health surveys in 60 countries.
WHO makes every effort to standardize the methods used to estimate and project indicators for all Member
States using comparable data. This may lead to some differences compared with the official statistics prepared by
individual Member States. It is also important to stress that these estimates are subject to considerable uncertainty,
especially for countries with weak statistical and health information systems where the quality of underlying empirical
data is limited. Estimates of HALE are more uncertain than estimates of life expectancy, as it is particularly difficult
to ensure comparable measurements of disability across countries, and to correct for limitations in the data. In
recognition of this, uncertainty intervals for WHO estimates of mortality and life expectancy will be made available in
the Global Health Observatory.
18

MDG 4; Target 4.A: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

45

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 8: Mortality rate in children under 5 years old by country-income group – 1990 and 2008

Low income

Lower middle income

Upper middle income

High income

320
300
280
260
240

Probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births

220
200
180
160 157
140
120
109
100
80
70
60
40

36
26

20

15

11
5

0
1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

Note: Solid horizontal lines indicate the median.

46

2008

1990

2008

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Box 1: Trends in child mortality

In Figure 8, each circle represents a country (note that circles may overlap). From the data presented, three
major conclusions emerge:
In general, wealthier countries have far lower levels of child mortality than poorer ones – in low-income
countries, the median level of child mortality in 2008 was 109 deaths per 1000 live births, compared with
5 per 1000 in high-income countries, representing a more than 20-fold difference.
Several low-income countries have achieved comparably low levels of child mortality – with wide variation
in levels of child mortality observed in most of the country-income groups. In low-income countries, child
mortality in 2008 ranged from 14 to 257 per 1000 live births representing an 18-fold difference.
Child mortality rates have fallen since 1990 in all country-income groups – with the rate of decline
generally faster in high-income and middle-income countries than in low-income countries. Median child
mortality fell by almost 50% between 1990 and 2008 in lower middle-income countries, but by only 31%
in low-income countries.

47

1. Mortality and burden of disease
Life expectancy at birtha
(years)

Member State

Male

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

Healthy life expectancy
(HALE) at birthb
(years)

Female

Both sexes

Male

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

42
66
65
74
38
69
69
62
74
72
59
67
73
55
70
66
73
71
50
53
57
69
65
63
71
68
48
48
57
54
74
65
51
48
69
68
66
56
58
67
74
53
69
72
74
68
65
47
72
56

41
68
67
76
41
71
71
67
77
75
62
69
72
61
70
63
75
67
54
58
61
71
51
67
75
68
49
45
55
52
77
66
49
46
73
70
68
56
53
69
75
52
70
75
75
72
65
44
75
57

40
71
70
79
45
73
72
66
79
78
66
72
74
64
71
64
77
69
57
61
65
73
60
70
75
70
51
49
59
53
79
66
49
46
75
72
72
58
54
72
76
55
72
76
78
74
65
47
77
57

44
71
68
81
45
71
76
70
80
79
66
74
74
54
77
75
79
75
51
56
58
75
69
70
76
75
49
51
60
55
80
70
51
50
76
69
72
59
61
71
78
55
76
76
78
75
69
50
78
60

44
73
71
83
47
74
78
73
82
81
67
75
74
61
77
74
81
74
55
62
64
76
53
74
79
75
50
49
61
53
82
72
48
48
80
73
77
61
54
74
79
53
78
79
79
79
69
49
79
61

44
74
72
85
48
75
79
73
84
83
70
78
76
65
77
76
82
76
58
65
68
78
62
77
77
77
52
51
64
53
83
74
48
47
82
76
79
62
55
76
81
56
79
79
82
80
69
50
81
61

43
69
66
77
42
70
73
66
77
76
63
71
74
54
74
71
76
73
51
55
58
72
67
67
73
71
49
50
59
55
77
67
51
49
72
68
69
57
60
69
76
54
72
74
76
71
67
49
75
58

42
71
69
80
44
72
75
70
80
78
64
72
73
61
74
69
78
70
55
60
62
74
52
70
77
72
49
47
58
52
79
69
49
47
77
71
72
58
54
71
77
53
74
77
77
75
67
47
77
59

42
73
71
82
46
74
76
70
82
80
68
75
75
65
74
70
80
72
57
63
67
75
61
73
76
73
51
50
62
53
81
71
48
46
78
74
75
60
54
74
78
56
76
77
80
77
67
48
79
59

48

Female

Both sexes

2007
36
64
62
72
44
65
64
59
72
70
59
63
66
56
65
58
70
57
50
54
57
65
49
62
66
63
42
42
51
45
71
59
43
40
67
65
64
55
48
63
68
45
66
68
69
68
57
44
70
47

36
64
63
76
47
66
69
63
75
74
60
68
66
55
69
66
74
63
50
56
59
68
48
66
67
69
43
43
55
45
75
64
42
40
72
68
69
58
49
66
71
48
70
71
71
72
61
46
73
50

Neonatal
mortality
ratec
(per 1000
live births)
2008

36
64
62
74
45
66
67
61
74
72
59
65
66
56
67
62
72
60
50
55
58
67
49
64
66
66
43
43
53
45
73
61
42
40
70
66
66
56
48
65
69
47
68
69
70
70
59
45
72
48

50
4
24
2
47
8
9
14
3
3
19
6
6
33
7
7
2
8
33
35
25
7
16
11
3
5
36
42
31
31
4
16
47
44
5
11
12
42
34
7
7
41
3
3
2
2
29
56
3
36

MDG 4
Infant mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 1
per 1000 live births)
Male

Female

Adult mortality ratea
(probability of dying between 15 and 60 years
per 1000 population)

MDG 4
Under-five mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 5
per 1000 live births)
Both sexes

Male

Female

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Both sexes

Male

Female

Both sexes

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008
175
39
57
8
161
27
27
51
9
9
87
19
13
110
18
24
9
38
117
99
93
23
39
51
11
16
114
125
94
99
8
59
120
127
20
31
32
99
69
12
21
115
12
13
12
13
43
133
9
108

172
22
44
4
148
21
19
34
6
5
64
14
11
71
13
18
5
27
94
73
70
16
56
31
6
15
106
118
88
99
6
40
123
130
10
25
25
90
76
17
13
106
7
8
5
5
43
133
6
95

172
13
39
3
136
14
14
22
5
4
36
9
9
45
9
13
4
18
81
58
48
15
26
20
5
10
95
112
76
89
6
29
118
132
8
15
19
83
82
16
10
89
6
5
4
3
43
133
4
86

160
36
48
6
147
22
21
45
7
7
68
14
14
97
12
17
7
32
104
84
83
19
38
40
8
12
106
102
76
84
6
39
112
112
16
43
22
80
64
20
17
93
9
9
10
9
41
119
6
82

158
19
38
4
134
12
15
30
5
4
50
12
10
63
13
13
4
19
84
62
63
12
54
25
6
12
98
96
71
84
5
26
115
114
9
35
17
73
71
12
10
85
6
5
5
4
41
119
4
72

158
12
33
3
124
8
11
19
4
3
28
9
10
40
12
10
3
15
72
49
43
10
26
16
6
8
89
92
62
75
5
19
111
116
7
21
13
67
77
11
9
72
3
5
3
2
41
119
3
66

168
37
52
7
154
25
24
48
8
8
78
17
14
103
15
20
8
35
111
91
88
21
39
46
9
14
110
113
85
92
7
49
116
120
18
37
28
90
67
16
19
104
10
11
11
11
42
126
7
95

165
21
41
4
141
17
17
32
5
5
58
13
10
67
13
15
5
23
89
68
67
14
55
28
6
14
102
107
80
91
5
33
119
122
9
30
21
81
74
15
12
96
7
6
5
4
42
126
5
84

165
13
36
3
130
11
13
21
4
4
32
9
10
43
10
11
4
17
76
54
46
13
26
18
5
9
92
102
69
82
5
24
115
124
7
18
16
75
80
14
10
81
4
5
4
3
42
126
4
76

262
48
69
9
276
32
31
63
10
10
109
28
16
153
20
27
11
46
189
158
124
26
52
62
12
20
203
203
126
155
9
74
177
206
24
39
41
138
108
15
25
157
14
15
13
14
57
210
10
137

258
26
52
5
253
23
22
40
7
6
77
22
14
93
14
20
7
30
148
113
87
20
84
37
8
18
189
190
115
154
7
48
180
210
12
31
30
123
121
19
15
144
8
10
7
6
57
210
6
119

258
15
45
4
234
16
17
26
6
5
41
13
12
56
9
14
5
21
124
87
55
17
32
24
6
11
170
179
97
137
7
34
173
214
10
18
23
114
132
18
12
119
7
7
4
4
57
210
5
106

258
44
58
8
243
26
25
49
8
9
85
21
17
146
15
20
8
39
180
137
120
21
48
50
11
15
200
176
107
142
7
52
178
197
19
52
29
117
99
21
20
143
10
11
11
11
53
187
8
108

256
22
43
4
224
15
18
31
6
5
60
18
11
89
15
15
5
24
141
98
84
14
78
31
8
15
186
165
97
140
5
34
181
201
10
41
22
104
111
14
12
131
7
7
6
5
53
187
5
94

49

256
13
37
3
206
9
14
20
5
4
31
13
12
53
13
11
4
18
118
75
53
12
30
19
7
10
167
155
82
125
6
24
174
204
8
24
16
96
121
13
10
109
4
6
4
3
53
187
4
83

260
46
64
9
260
29
28
56
9
10
98
25
16
149
17
24
10
43
184
148
122
23
50
56
11
18
201
189
117
149
8
63
178
201
22
46
35
128
104
18
22
150
12
13
12
12
55
199
9
123

257
24
48
5
238
19
20
36
6
6
69
20
13
91
14
17
6
27
144
106
86
17
81
34
8
16
187
178
106
147
6
41
181
205
11
36
26
114
116
17
13
138
8
8
6
5
55
199
6
106

257
14
41
4
220
12
15
23
5
4
36
13
12
54
11
13
5
19
121
81
54
15
31
22
7
11
169
168
89
131
6
29
173
209
9
21
20
105
127
15
11
114
5
6
4
4
55
199
4
95

485
158
198
143
579
192
198
279
124
153
285
262
105
305
188
282
139
161
377
337
296
181
234
272
151
216
418
409
306
334
132
253
364
401
196
193
254
313
296
252
129
340
223
155
110
230
227
419
152
311

526
157
175
125
531
203
176
210
97
126
259
245
115
251
187
354
130
251
337
284
259
170
576
239
113
222
430
542
382
400
100
284
434
448
137
160
228
319
439
178
124
406
187
140
107
172
227
503
122
316

543
141
144
99
460
192
160
240
81
99
228
206
116
247
168
330
110
223
312
256
230
147
419
210
106
214
388
425
294
405
87
274
448
465
116
140
162
286
389
133
124
367
163
122
84
143
229
443
112
335

384
104
165
60
386
137
102
135
66
74
165
147
107
333
109
107
75
101
340
302
271
86
158
150
112
97
362
351
248
309
71
144
345
351
98
148
140
265
246
154
86
312
89
111
61
95
161
351
99
250

389
103
131
50
385
160
92
96
55
63
157
145
89
258
106
125
68
152
324
234
212
85
528
126
85
97
382
456
255
381
61
163
441
392
69
106
97
247
416
116
75
388
74
90
56
76
161
383
77
250

398
91
119
44
383
160
86
101
46
50
138
127
82
230
108
111
61
129
291
197
163
68
394
106
80
91
361
401
216
403
53
115
467
429
60
84
75
231
374
89
68
354
65
81
39
65
161
373
67
283

439
133
181
102
489
164
150
207
96
114
225
205
106
319
146
194
107
132
355
321
283
134
194
212
133
158
387
377
272
321
102
189
353
375
147
172
197
289
271
206
108
329
158
133
86
163
193
384
126
280

465
130
153
88
460
181
135
149
77
95
208
195
105
254
146
242
100
203
329
261
235
127
550
183
101
160
403
496
315
390
81
213
437
420
103
135
163
284
426
148
100
399
132
115
82
124
194
444
100
283

479
116
132
72
421
176
123
165
63
75
182
166
103
238
138
221
86
178
301
229
196
107
404
158
94
153
372
411
253
403
70
185
457
446
88
113
118
258
381
112
97
361
115
102
61
105
196
407
90
309

1. Mortality and burden of disease
Life expectancy at birtha
(years)

Member State

Male

Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg

Healthy life expectancy
(HALE) at birthb
(years)

Female

Both sexes

Male

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

71
68
64
61
59
48
28
65
46
63
71
73
59
53
65
72
57
75
64
61
44
42
56
53
65
65
75
57
60
60
64
72
75
74
72
76
66
61
58
62
72
61
51
64
63
59
29
67
66
72

72
72
67
66
67
51
58
65
51
65
74
75
58
55
68
75
57
76
66
64
48
44
59
56
64
68
78
60
64
65
64
74
77
76
71
78
69
58
50
64
75
62
58
65
68
46
49
69
67
75

72
71
70
68
68
53
63
69
57
67
76
78
58
58
67
77
60
78
67
65
53
47
62
60
67
70
80
63
66
70
59
78
79
79
69
79
70
59
53
65
78
62
61
66
70
44
53
71
66
77

75
70
69
64
70
50
51
75
50
69
79
81
64
55
72
78
60
79
66
65
48
48
66
55
69
74
81
58
62
66
69
78
78
80
74
82
70
70
62
64
75
68
53
75
69
62
46
71
76
79

76
74
73
69
74
52
63
76
54
71
81
83
63
58
74
81
60
81
69
70
52
50
70
60
71
76
82
62
66
70
69
79
81
82
74
85
73
68
53
68
76
69
60
76
73
54
52
74
77
81

77
74
76
71
76
54
67
79
60
73
83
85
62
61
76
83
64
83
70
72
55
51
68
64
73
78
83
66
69
75
69
82
83
84
74
86
74
70
55
70
79
69
63
77
74
49
55
76
78
83

73
69
67
62
64
49
36
70
48
66
75
77
62
54
69
75
58
77
65
63
46
45
61
54
67
69
78
58
61
63
66
75
77
77
73
79
68
65
60
63
73
65
52
70
66
61
36
69
71
75

74
73
70
67
70
51
61
71
53
68
78
79
60
57
71
78
58
78
67
67
50
47
64
58
67
72
80
61
65
67
67
76
79
79
72
81
71
63
51
66
76
65
59
71
70
50
50
71
72
78

74
73
73
69
72
53
65
74
58
70
80
81
60
59
72
80
62
80
69
69
54
49
65
62
70
74
82
64
67
72
63
80
81
82
72
83
72
64
54
67
78
66
62
71
72
47
54
73
72
80

50

Female

Both sexes

2007
65
62
63
59
58
45
54
61
49
60
70
71
50
50
62
71
49
71
61
58
46
40
52
53
61
62
73
56
60
60
50
71
72
73
62
73
62
53
47
56
69
55
53
59
60
38
47
63
58
71

67
64
66
62
63
46
56
71
51
64
75
76
53
53
67
75
50
74
62
62
48
43
55
55
64
69
75
57
61
62
58
74
74
76
66
78
64
60
48
60
69
59
54
68
64
41
49
66
68
75

Neonatal
mortality
ratec
(per 1000
live births)
2008

66
63
64
60
61
46
55
66
50
62
72
73
52
51
64
73
50
72
61
60
47
42
53
54
62
66
74
56
60
61
54
73
73
74
64
76
63
56
48
58
69
57
54
64
62
40
48
64
63
73

8
19
11
13
8
40
17
3
39
8
2
2
28
34
20
3
30
2
13
11
43
45
23
25
15
4
1
37
19
19
25
3
2
2
9
1
13
17
33
17
6
18
20
5
8
37
44
9
3
1

MDG 4
Infant mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 1
per 1000 live births)
Male

Female

Adult mortality ratea
(probability of dying between 15 and 60 years
per 1000 population)

MDG 4
Under-five mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 5
per 1000 live births)
Both sexes

Male

Female

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Both sexes

Male

Female

Both sexes

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008
18
51
47
70
52
128
103
14
140
21
6
8
80
111
44
8
79
10
27
59
152
157
82
112
47
17
6
82
62
62
45
9
11
9
30
5
31
58
75
68
13
68
122
16
36
85
154
33
11
9

16
34
32
40
30
108
65
10
103
18
4
5
76
100
33
5
74
7
21
39
124
142
68
84
36
10
3
67
43
43
41
7
6
5
29
4
23
43
90
52
10
48
71
12
22
88
125
22
8
4

10
29
24
21
17
95
46
6
78
17
3
4
68
85
29
4
54
3
16
29
100
129
59
58
28
6
2
52
34
31
38
5
4
4
28
3
17
30
89
41
10
36
53
7
13
67
106
15
5
2

12
45
35
60
44
111
81
10
108
17
6
6
53
96
37
6
71
9
39
56
121
127
46
96
39
13
5
84
51
47
39
8
9
7
25
4
31
44
60
62
12
57
94
11
30
75
138
33
10
7

13
30
24
35
25
95
51
7
79
14
3
4
51
87
28
4
67
5
14
37
98
115
38
72
30
9
2
69
35
33
35
5
5
4
25
3
23
33
72
45
7
40
55
9
19
77
112
22
9
4

8
25
18
18
14
84
36
4
60
14
2
3
45
74
24
3
48
2
10
28
80
104
33
50
23
5
1
53
28
23
33
4
3
3
24
2
17
23
71
35
9
30
41
8
11
59
95
15
5
2

15
48
41
66
48
120
92
12
124
19
6
7
67
104
41
7
75
9
33
58
137
142
64
105
43
15
5
83
56
55
42
8
10
8
28
5
31
51
68
65
13
63
108
14
33
80
146
33
10
8

15
32
28
38
28
102
58
9
91
16
4
4
64
93
31
4
71
6
18
38
111
129
54
78
33
9
3
68
40
38
38
6
6
5
27
3
23
38
81
49
9
44
64
11
21
83
118
22
8
4

9
27
21
20
16
90
41
5
69
16
3
3
57
80
26
4
51
3
13
29
90
117
46
54
26
6
2
52
31
27
36
4
4
3
26
3
17
27
81
38
9
33
48
8
12
63
100
15
5
2

21
67
58
94
68
205
162
18
225
25
7
10
103
163
51
10
125
11
37
76
246
264
115
157
58
19
7
109
93
82
58
11
13
10
35
7
37
69
113
93
16
80
166
20
45
108
230
38
15
11

18
42
37
49
37
174
96
13
159
19
5
6
98
140
38
6
117
8
24
47
198
240
94
113
42
12
4
88
61
54
52
8
8
6
34
5
27
51
138
64
13
55
91
15
27
116
183
24
11
6

11
35
27
24
20
152
63
7
117
20
4
5
86
113
32
5
81
4
18
34
156
215
80
75
32
7
3
65
44
37
49
5
5
4
32
4
19
35
138
49
11
41
65
9
15
84
152
17
7
3

14
57
48
85
56
190
137
14
193
19
7
8
80
142
42
8
111
10
44
78
214
215
59
145
52
15
6
124
77
63
48
9
11
8
32
6
38
51
96
84
14
69
148
15
35
95
207
38
12
8

15
36
31
44
30
162
81
9
137
17
4
5
76
122
31
5
104
6
16
48
172
196
48
105
38
10
3
100
51
41
43
6
6
5
30
4
28
38
117
62
10
47
81
11
21
102
164
24
11
5

51

9
30
23
22
16
143
53
5
100
15
3
3
67
98
27
4
71
3
12
35
135
175
41
69
29
6
3
73
37
28
42
4
4
4
29
3
20
26
117
47
10
35
58
9
12
74
137
17
6
3

18
62
53
89
62
198
150
16
210
22
7
9
92
153
47
9
118
11
40
77
231
240
87
151
55
17
6
116
86
73
53
10
12
9
33
6
38
60
105
89
15
75
157
17
40
101
218
38
13
10

17
39
34
47
33
168
89
11
148
18
4
5
87
131
35
5
111
7
20
47
185
218
72
109
40
11
3
94
56
48
48
7
7
5
32
5
27
44
128
63
11
51
86
13
24
109
174
24
11
5

10
33
25
23
18
147
58
6
109
18
3
4
77
106
30
4
76
3
15
34
146
195
61
72
31
7
3
69
41
32
45
5
5
4
31
3
20
30
128
48
11
38
61
9
13
79
144
17
7
3

194
180
254
238
373
403
920
301
430
326
183
162
276
343
242
157
297
117
285
286
461
489
385
337
229
304
112
302
286
291
254
133
107
129
136
109
241
318
302
246
116
290
386
311
291
279
861
209
287
160

189
164
228
220
277
392
321
318
406
292
143
138
334
320
195
124
322
116
266
292
418
460
357
351
273
271
92
289
248
238
244
120
103
101
182
98
195
422
488
284
86
326
345
320
208
627
422
189
293
121

209
188
207
222
301
366
266
249
329
249
129
119
353
300
232
101
298
105
245
302
352
436
291
306
227
233
66
250
226
152
377
90
87
80
220
87
179
432
382
321
68
343
317
311
191
758
353
170
314
101

145
153
173
182
164
349
430
107
348
213
70
67
204
311
110
77
255
56
237
198
359
358
223
315
159
133
69
243
266
208
171
81
71
60
118
53
166
150
231
226
86
156
354
118
193
228
445
136
107
79

116
124
141
158
136
375
229
120
352
183
63
61
248
279
79
63
268
48
227
178
350
358
210
272
151
114
57
220
217
148
169
70
55
51
132
48
123
194
439
191
62
170
312
117
142
437
359
112
103
67

119
127
121
151
136
356
197
84
286
156
57
55
301
253
85
54
247
44
209
159
320
370
226
229
129
101
46
173
185
95
179
56
46
42
130
43
116
186
364
175
51
184
288
115
131
633
328
97
114
56

169
167
214
210
270
375
774
204
389
272
128
115
240
327
175
118
276
86
260
243
410
426
304
326
195
219
91
274
275
252
212
108
89
95
127
81
205
235
267
237
105
224
369
215
241
251
717
178
196
121

152
144
185
190
203
383
272
218
379
240
104
100
292
299
135
94
295
82
246
234
384
410
281
311
214
193
75
256
232
194
207
96
79
76
157
73
161
308
463
240
78
250
328
218
174
521
390
156
197
95

164
158
165
187
214
361
228
165
307
204
94
87
327
276
157
78
273
75
228
228
336
403
261
267
179
167
56
213
206
124
285
73
66
61
175
65
149
310
371
251
61
264
302
213
160
685
340
138
215
79

1. Mortality and burden of disease
Life expectancy at birtha
(years)

Member State

Male

Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia

Healthy life expectancy
(HALE) at birthb
(years)

Female

Both sexes

Male

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

52
45
68
58
43
74
59
56
66
68
64
74
59
73
63
39
56
62
57
54
74
72
63
37
45
67
73
68
58
64
72
57
71
67
62
67
71
75
68
64
67
64
48
65
69
68
62
76
59
66

56
46
69
67
46
76
58
57
68
72
66
76
60
72
67
48
56
57
56
59
76
76
70
45
47
66
76
71
61
67
73
60
71
70
66
70
73
76
72
64
68
59
43
69
71
67
65
78
60
69

58
52
71
73
48
78
58
56
69
73
68
78
64
72
70
51
53
61
57
63
78
78
71
51
49
64
78
72
63
68
74
61
71
74
67
71
76
76
76
65
70
62
56
70
71
66
66
81
60
69

53
48
73
55
46
78
65
58
73
74
67
81
66
79
68
45
60
67
63
54
80
78
73
41
47
74
80
73
59
75
75
61
76
71
68
75
77
75
76
71
73
74
52
71
74
74
64
82
62
71

58
48
74
67
48
80
60
59
75
77
68
84
70
77
72
49
62
63
62
60
81
81
76
47
48
77
81
76
62
74
78
63
76
74
73
78
80
76
80
71
75
72
47
73
77
73
70
84
62
75

61
54
76
75
50
82
60
59
77
78
70
85
73
76
75
51
56
66
63
64
82
83
77
53
49
79
83
77
64
77
79
64
77
77
74
80
83
76
83
73
77
74
59
76
78
76
70
84
62
75

52
47
71
57
44
76
62
57
69
71
66
77
63
76
65
42
58
65
60
54
77
75
68
39
46
70
77
70
58
69
73
59
73
69
65
71
74
75
72
68
70
69
50
68
71
71
63
79
61
68

57
47
72
67
47
78
59
58
71
74
67
80
65
74
70
48
59
60
59
60
78
79
73
46
47
71
79
73
61
70
76
61
74
72
70
74
77
76
76
68
71
65
45
71
74
70
67
81
61
71

60
53
73
74
49
80
59
58
73
76
69
82
68
74
72
51
54
63
60
63
80
81
74
52
49
71
81
74
63
72
76
62
74
76
70
76
79
76
80
69
73
68
58
73
75
71
68
83
61
72

52

Female

Both sexes

2007
51
43
62
64
41
71
52
49
61
65
61
71
55
65
61
42
48
52
53
55
72
72
63
44
42
56
72
64
56
62
65
55
63
66
59
64
69
68
68
58
63
55
43
62
64
60
60
74
52
61

53
44
66
64
43
74
53
52
65
69
62
76
62
66
63
42
52
53
57
55
74
74
66
45
42
68
74
67
55
67
68
57
66
67
64
70
73
66
74
63
68
65
44
67
69
66
63
76
54
64

Neonatal
mortality
ratec
(per 1000
live births)
2008

52
44
64
64
42
72
52
51
63
67
62
73
58
65
62
42
50
52
55
55
73
73
64
44
42
62
73
65
55
64
67
56
64
67
62
67
71
67
71
61
65
60
43
64
66
63
61
75
53
62

35
29
3
16
52
2
15
45
9
7
15
2
14
5
23
43
48
18
33
31
3
4
13
34
49
30
2
7
53
7
10
26
15
13
15
4
2
4
2
8
6
6
35
11
12
10
11
0
32
12

MDG 4
Infant mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 1
per 1000 live births)
Male

Female

Adult mortality ratea
(probability of dying between 15 and 60 years
per 1000 population)

MDG 4
Under-five mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 5
per 1000 live births)
Both sexes

Male

Female

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Both sexes

Male

Female

Both sexes

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008
110
139
17
82
147
12
40
86
23
40
45
8
84
12
79
171
96
57
7
98
8
10
58
148
128
8
8
24
105
22
26
69
39
71
49
17
13
20
8
37
26
19
114
28
20
21
42
12
69
37

89
105
10
44
127
7
33
82
20
24
38
5
58
14
53
128
86
60
38
63
6
7
39
110
114
18
4
14
89
18
23
61
32
40
32
9
7
13
6
25
21
18
121
15
15
21
43
6
68
21

74
68
7
27
109
7
30
80
17
17
32
4
40
8
37
93
85
37
34
41
4
5
26
81
102
36
3
11
75
15
22
56
27
24
30
6
3
7
5
18
13
10
77
16
13
15
35
2
67
19

93
126
14
77
130
8
38
75
18
32
45
6
58
12
57
161
74
40
9
99
6
7
44
140
112
55
6
22
96
14
23
64
29
56
35
14
10
15
8
24
21
14
98
16
14
19
38
16
61
33

76
95
8
42
112
5
31
71
12
20
37
4
40
11
39
120
67
42
44
63
5
6
29
104
100
17
3
13
81
9
20
53
24
32
24
7
5
12
6
16
17
13
104
22
13
17
10
4
60
19

62
61
5
21
96
7
29
69
11
14
32
3
27
8
27
88
66
26
39
41
4
4
20
76
89
6
2
10
69
11
17
49
21
19
22
5
3
6
4
12
10
8
66
11
13
8
8
1
60
18

101
133
16
79
139
10
39
81
21
36
45
7
71
12
68
166
85
49
8
99
7
9
51
144
120
31
7
23
101
18
24
67
34
64
42
16
11
18
8
30
23
17
106
22
17
20
40
14
65
35

83
100
9
43
120
6
32
77
16
22
38
5
49
13
46
124
77
51
41
63
5
6
34
107
107
17
4
13
85
14
21
57
28
36
28
8
6
13
6
21
19
16
112
18
14
19
28
5
64
20

68
65
6
24
102
7
30
75
14
15
32
3
33
8
32
90
76
31
36
41
4
5
23
79
96
22
3
10
72
13
19
53
24
22
26
6
3
7
5
15
11
9
72
14
13
12
22
1
64
18

174
236
19
113
258
13
49
136
27
49
58
9
114
14
97
252
133
83
8
144
10
13
74
310
235
8
10
32
130
25
33
95
47
90
71
20
16
24
9
45
34
24
188
32
25
26
51
12
104
47

138
170
11
57
225
8
39
128
22
29
47
6
73
15
60
185
119
89
48
86
7
9
46
230
212
23
5
17
108
19
27
81
38
46
42
10
9
15
7
30
24
22
202
16
17
26
47
6
102
25

111
105
7
30
200
7
36
124
19
19
39
5
47
10
40
131
133
48
43
52
5
7
30
169
190
46
4
12
89
18
26
73
32
27
38
8
4
9
5
21
15
12
122
17
15
17
37
3
101
23

159
212
16
110
241
9
48
122
20
41
57
7
82
14
79
246
106
60
9
140
8
9
61
300
225
55
7
30
130
17
28
88
37
72
50
16
12
19
8
28
27
18
159
20
18
24
49
18
97
39

126
153
9
53
210
6
38
115
14
23
46
5
53
12
49
180
95
65
54
84
6
7
38
223
202
21
4
16
108
13
25
72
30
37
30
8
7
14
6
19
20
17
170
26
15
20
18
4
95
21

53

101
94
6
25
187
7
35
111
13
16
39
4
34
8
33
128
111
35
47
51
4
5
24
164
182
7
3
11
89
11
20
65
25
21
27
6
3
8
5
13
11
10
103
14
15
9
14
1
94
19

167
224
18
111
250
11
48
129
23
45
58
8
98
14
88
249
120
72
9
142
9
11
67
305
230
31
9
31
130
21
30
91
42
81
61
18
14
21
9
37
31
21
174
26
21
25
50
15
101
43

132
162
10
55
217
7
39
122
18
26
47
5
63
14
54
183
107
77
51
85
6
8
42
227
207
22
5
17
108
16
26
77
34
41
36
9
8
15
6
24
22
20
186
21
16
23
34
5
99
23

106
100
6
28
194
7
36
118
16
17
39
4
41
9
36
130
122
42
45
51
5
6
27
167
186
28
3
12
89
15
23
69
28
24
32
7
4
8
5
17
13
11
112
15
15
13
26
2
97
21

357
445
209
281
480
107
385
310
263
215
230
155
264
164
195
575
310
255
567
352
116
143
272
572
445
209
128
203
265
289
146
347
138
165
281
263
176
94
236
285
239
318
441
272
204
217
295
80
275
217

313
542
198
182
438
90
436
304
222
172
219
136
309
179
164
457
333
383
463
306
100
105
191
443
444
261
107
171
230
253
139
310
158
161
241
216
155
80
163
310
237
445
585
214
205
259
235
74
272
191

286
498
177
100
412
77
427
318
214
154
187
118
291
173
147
485
368
356
448
281
78
88
209
374
424
255
81
155
216
232
140
292
170
118
227
205
128
77
108
312
220
396
330
180
193
305
235
59
271
186

329
357
128
346
374
62
329
274
121
120
195
67
194
73
133
389
247
174
399
350
67
93
136
413
366
75
65
122
235
112
101
278
99
123
167
102
80
82
102
155
114
117
381
193
147
140
268
40
232
139

281
492
112
161
369
54
368
263
121
99
183
61
189
98
106
415
238
286
313
296
67
67
121
365
394
90
61
96
205
140
85
252
103
119
129
86
66
77
62
155
106
161
516
134
117
165
203
39
229
106

240
468
97
72
365
44
384
262
104
89
156
53
145
90
88
458
304
290
303
273
57
57
123
340
399
89
53
84
190
112
83
235
105
95
117
77
52
53
43
141
90
147
281
95
94
169
203
48
227
103

343
400
170
312
427
84
359
290
193
168
213
112
229
118
164
480
278
213
495
351
92
118
206
497
405
147
97
169
251
210
124
317
119
144
226
184
127
90
171
218
177
218
408
233
175
179
282
60
253
187

297
517
157
172
401
72
403
282
172
136
201
99
250
140
135
435
286
332
395
301
84
86
156
408
419
182
85
143
218
199
112
283
132
140
187
152
111
78
113
232
173
309
547
174
161
214
220
57
249
156

263
481
139
86
386
61
405
290
160
121
172
86
219
131
118
470
336
320
381
277
68
72
165
359
411
178
67
129
204
175
112
264
139
106
174
142
90
72
76
227
156
273
303
138
144
242
220
53
247
154

1. Mortality and burden of disease
Life expectancy at birtha
(years)

Member State

Male

Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Healthy life expectancy
(HALE) at birthb
(years)

Female

Both sexes

Male

Female

Neonatal
mortality
ratec
(per 1000
live births)

Both sexes

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

54
69
64
38
73
67
70
66
44
59
73
61
58
64
61
75
74
65
60
65
70

55
69
67
37
76
69
72
67
47
55
76
62
57
66
51
77
77
69
62
63
69

58
71
68
48
79
71
75
68
47
52
78
63
57
68
48
79
80
70
66
66
72

55
75
76
44
77
76
78
69
49
68
80
71
57
69
64
80
81
70
65
71
74

58
74
76
45
81
77
80
71
49
61
83
73
57
72
54
82
83
74
65
72
75

61
76
76
50
83
79
82
71
49
55
84
76
58
75
48
83
84
75
69
74
76

54
72
69
41
75
71
74
68
46
63
77
66
57
66
63
78
77
67
63
68
72

57
72
72
41
78
73
76
69
48
58
79
67
57
69
53
80
80
71
64
68
72

59
74
72
49
81
75
79
70
48
53
81
69
57
71
48
81
82
72
67
70
74

50
64
60
34
71
64
69
59
44
47
71
61
50
58
42
72
73
62
58
59
65

52
66
65
37
75
70
74
60
46
48
76
65
50
64
42
75
76
65
57
65
66

51
65
63
35
73
67
71
59
45
48
74
63
50
61
42
74
75
63
57
62
66

34
5
7
45
1
3
2
14
61
20
2
9
41
12
18
2
3
8
22
10
7

48
52
64
66
69
62
58
61
45
65
72
73
51
72
69
63
65
70
64
56
50
58

55
54
67
65
71
67
59
63
44
62
75
75
49
74
71
63
67
71
68
60
42
42

59
56
71
66
73
72
60
64
51
62
77
78
52
76
72
66
68
71
70
63
47
42

53
57
73
71
72
67
65
63
49
75
75
78
52
79
76
69
67
74
68
58
54
65

60
59
71
73
75
73
65
63
46
73
78
80
49
80
79
68
70
77
72
62
45
45

64
61
70
73
77
77
67
63
53
74
80
82
53
81
79
71
70
78
75
66
49
42

50
55
68
69
70
65
62
62
47
70
73
76
52
75
72
66
66
72
66
57
52
61

57
56
69
69
73
70
62
63
45
68
76
78
49
77
75
66
68
74
70
61
43
44

62
59
71
70
75
74
63
64
52
68
78
80
53
78
75
68
69
75
73
64
48
42

52
49
64
59
65
64
53
58
41
55
68
71
45
68
64
58
61
64
62
53
39
40

55
52
62
64
67
67
57
58
44
64
68
73
45
72
70
60
62
68
66
55
40
38

53
51
63
62
66
66
55
58
42
60
68
72
45
70
67
59
61
66
64
54
40
39

43
33
9
24
12
14
21
14
31
8
5
3
33
4
8
20
13
10
9
32
36
28

54

2007

2008

MDG 4
Infant mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 1
per 1000 live births)
Male

Female

Adult mortality ratea
(probability of dying between 15 and 60 years
per 1000 population)

MDG 4
Under-five mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 5
per 1000 live births)
Both sexes

Male

Female

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Both sexes

Male

Female

Both sexes

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008
80
24
19
178
8
14
10
32
121
49
8
26
75
48
65
7
7
36
106
30
33

73
13
10
165
3
10
6
31
121
59
5
20
70
37
87
4
5
23
87
19
18

63
7
10
135
3
7
3
30
121
54
4
15
67
28
62
2
4
17
63
14
12

64
22
11
148
7
10
7
31
117
38
7
20
81
39
59
5
6
24
76
22
30

58
9
13
137
2
7
4
30
117
45
4
15
76
29
79
3
4
15
63
15
16

50
6
9
112
2
5
2
29
117
42
3
12
72
21
56
2
4
11
45
11
9

72
23
15
163
7
12
8
31
119
44
7
23
78
44
62
6
7
30
91
26
32

66
11
12
151
3
8
5
30
119
52
4
17
73
33
83
3
5
19
75
17
17

57
7
10
123
2
6
2
30
119
48
4
13
70
25
59
2
4
14
54
13
10

158
28
21
296
10
16
12
37
197
63
10
33
116
54
86
8
9
44
136
36
37

139
15
13
268
4
12
6
36
197
83
6
24
108
41
127
5
6
27
109
22
20

114
8
12
206
3
8
4
35
197
76
5
19
103
31
86
3
5
20
74
16
13

140
25
12
260
8
12
8
39
203
48
8
24
131
48
81
6
8
29
97
27
35

123
11
14
236
4
8
5
38
203
62
5
18
122
35
120
3
5
17
78
18
18

102
7
11
181
2
6
2
37
203
58
4
15
115
24
81
3
4
13
53
12
10

149
26
17
278
9
14
10
38
200
56
9
29
124
51
84
7
9
37
117
32
36

131
13
14
252
4
10
6
37
200
73
6
21
115
38
124
4
6
22
94
20
19

108
8
11
194
3
7
3
36
200
67
4
17
109
27
83
3
5
16
64
14
11

337
184
317
545
152
269
207
225
524
346
146
361
288
265
257
114
126
248
217
259
153

322
209
248
637
97
215
167
205
443
452
122
341
336
241
485
87
99
194
218
328
195

293
183
232
422
82
195
132
182
459
563
102
315
335
218
631
76
76
179
185
276
151

307
94
127
385
93
103
81
174
369
191
60
156
288
175
205
66
62
187
180
147
87

281
106
99
406
56
79
72
151
359
330
49
131
302
165
408
56
54
130
179
163
90

247
91
109
368
47
73
55
136
373
479
43
93
304
128
616
48
44
120
162
140
80

323
139
225
469
123
187
144
201
450
271
103
265
288
221
230
90
95
218
198
204
120

302
158
175
530
77
147
121
179
401
392
86
242
319
204
444
72
77
162
199
248
144

269
138
172
393
64
135
95
160
416
520
72
209
319
174
620
62
60
150
173
209
116

155
103
23
33
44
75
93
43
128
22
16
9
100
11
24
65
23
30
39
96
117
53

112
88
19
34
26
40
68
37
110
20
11
6
89
8
16
56
25
23
24
76
116
64

84
74
18
33
21
22
50
30
95
16
8
5
69
7
15
36
27
18
12
56
102
64

120
75
16
27
35
62
67
41
99
14
13
7
94
8
21
57
23
23
40
83
93
49

87
64
16
26
20
33
49
32
85
13
9
5
85
7
12
49
25
17
24
66
93
59

65
54
16
29
16
18
36
30
74
11
6
4
65
6
13
31
27
14
12
49
82
59

138
89
19
30
40
69
81
42
114
18
15
8
97
10
22
61
23
27
39
90
105
51

100
76
18
30
23
36
59
35
98
17
10
6
87
7
14
53
25
20
24
71
104
62

75
64
17
31
18
20
43
30
84
14
7
5
67
7
14
34
27
16
12
53
92
62

208
171
24
38
54
92
112
54
204
26
19
11
156
13
27
77
26
35
58
131
188
82

146
138
22
40
31
45
81
42
174
24
12
7
138
9
19
65
28
26
31
101
185
106

105
111
20
36
24
24
54
36
148
19
8
6
103
9
17
40
31
20
14
71
162
99

158
129
20
31
45
76
84
52
167
16
15
8
159
10
23
70
28
28
53
123
154
76

111
105
19
29
24
38
61
43
141
14
10
6
140
8
14
60
30
20
29
95
152
98

80
84
18
34
18
20
41
36
121
12
7
5
104
7
14
37
34
16
13
67
133
92

184
150
22
34
50
84
99
53
186
21
17
10
157
11
25
74
27
32
56
127
172
79

129
122
20
34
27
42
71
42
158
19
11
6
139
9
16
62
29
23
30
98
169
102

93
98
19
35
21
22
48
36
135
15
8
6
103
8
16
38
33
18
14
69
148
96

403
353
313
236
146
217
301
272
516
287
140
129
414
172
196
250
271
178
235
304
382
352

322
367
219
252
144
187
347
273
618
377
101
108
531
144
181
252
222
185
202
271
668
766

275
351
143
219
132
138
377
257
451
399
78
96
475
135
158
223
202
195
192
249
538
812

329
287
128
156
103
151
192
280
433
112
111
78
356
91
98
144
237
117
168
277
322
215

256
304
187
155
88
112
208
262
586
136
77
67
497
83
90
151
180
98
136
229
597
660

204
296
228
107
72
73
212
279
424
151
60
59
444
79
85
140
162
93
110
185
498
752

368
320
222
195
124
185
247
276
475
199
131
104
385
132
147
198
256
148
200
288
352
285

289
335
202
203
117
150
278
267
600
257
95
88
513
114
135
202
202
143
167
249
632
711

240
323
188
163
103
106
296
268
436
277
73
78
458
107
121
181
182
146
150
217
515
772

55

1. Mortality and burden of disease
Life expectancy at birtha
(years)

Member State

Male

Healthy life expectancy
(HALE) at birthb
(years)

Female

Both sexes

Male

Female

Neonatal
mortality
ratec
(per 1000
live births)

Both sexes

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

1990

2000

2008

2007

2008

28
64
76

37
67
78

40
68
81

41
70
82

44
73
85

42
74
86

36
67
79

41
70
81

42
71
83

34
60
74

36
64
78

35
62
76

0
12
61

49
68
58
68
59
68

49
71
61
68
62
70

52
73
63
71
63
72

53
75
59
75
62
71

52
77
63
77
65
74

54
79
66
79
66
77

51
71
58
72
61
69

50
74
62
72
63
72

53
76
65
75
65
75

45
65
56
64
55
65

46
69
57
70
57
69

45
67
57
67
56
67

40
9
34
7
35
11

Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

52
61
65
72

53
63
65
75

56
65
67
77

55
63
72
79

56
66
73
81

59
69
75
83

54
62
68
76

55
65
69
78

57
67
71
80

48
60
58
68

49
62
63
72

49
61
61
70

37
29
11
4

GLOBAL

62

64

66

66

68

70

64

66

68

58

61

59

26

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP

56

MDG 4
Infant mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 1
per 1000 live births)
Male

Female

Adult mortality ratea
(probability of dying between 15 and 60 years
per 1000 population)

MDG 4
Under-five mortality ratea
(probability of dying by age 5
per 1000 live births)
Both sexes

Male

Female

Table 1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Both sexes

Male

Female

Both sexes

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008

5
39
178

3
31
172

2
22
172

4
36
161

2
25
158

1
18
158

5
37
168

3
28
165

1
21
165

7
49
310

4
37
268

3
26
258

6
45
300

3
30
256

1
20
256

6
46
305

3
34
257

2
23
257

80
262
920

74
239
766

59
223
812

40
154
445

39
142
660

39
127
752

60
206
774

57
197
711

53
175
772

116
36
81
30
82
32

105
24
64
20
69
25

91
17
49
13
60
17

99
29
79
24
72
41

90
20
62
16
62
32

79
14
47
10
54
20

108
33
80
27
77
36

98
22
63
18
66
28

85
15
48
12
57
18

191
45
110
36
108
42

173
29
84
24
91
32

149
20
61
15
79
20

174
37
116
29
102
50

157
24
90
19
89
38

136
17
66
12
78
23

182
41
113
32
105
46

165
27
87
22
90
34

142
18
63
14
78
21

417
206
299
215
267
190

453
179
283
229
243
160

412
162
252
208
231
142

325
116
248
97
215
137

389
101
219
98
188
102

374
90
183
90
172
83

371
162
274
157
242
165

421
140
252
165
217
132

392
126
218
149
203
113

108
63
41
11

95
55
29
7

81
45
21
6

93
64
32
9

82
55
23
6

70
44
17
5

101
64
37
10

88
55
26
7

76
44
19
6

165
88
50
13

143
76
35
9

123
61
25
8

150
94
40
11

130
81
28
7

112
65
20
6

158
91
45
12

137
78
32
8

118
63
23
7

364
254
261
155

374
235
276
129

333
210
251
113

299
198
128
77

318
172
134
67

287
144
129
61

331
227
195
117

345
205
206
98

310
178
191
87

63

55

46

60

52

43

62

54

45

90

79

66

89

78

65

90

78

65

246

236

213

173

163

146

210

200

180

57

Table 2

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
This section brings together indicators on the level and distribution of specific causes of deaths grouped as follows:
communicable, maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies; noncommunicable conditions; and
injuries.
Estimates are also provided of the distribution of causes of death among children under 5 years old. These include
major communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, diarrhoea, malaria, measles and pneumonia, as well as conditions
arising in the neonatal period such as prematurity, birth asphyxia, neonatal sepsis and congenital anomalies.
The “years of life lost” (YLL) is a measure of premature mortality that takes into account both the frequency of
deaths and the age at which death occurs. The distribution of YLL by broad cause differs significantly by countryincome group (Figure 9 and Box 2).
The country-specific indictors presented in this section have been derived from a range of data sources on
mortality, incidence and prevalence data. These include death-registration records; health-facility reports; household
surveys; censuses; and special studies on deaths due to HIV and conflict. There are considerable uncertainty ranges
for many countries due to limitations in data availability, quality and timeliness. Uncertainty in estimated all-cause
mortality for 2008 ranges from ±1% for high-income countries to ±15–20% for sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting a large
difference in data availability. Uncertainty ranges are generally larger for deaths from specific causes. For example, the
relative uncertainty for deaths from ischaemic heart disease ranges from around ±12% for high-income countries to
±25–35% for sub-Saharan Africa.
The section also includes estimates for key MDG-related indicators, including mortality due to maternal
conditions, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Estimating cause-specific mortality is difficult in developing
countries where systems for counting deaths and accurately recording cause-of-death are weak or non-existent. These
indicators are, therefore, associated with significant uncertainty – in the case of tuberculosis indicators the margins of
uncertainty are provided.
Estimating maternal mortality is also particularly challenging because few developing countries have robust
sources of data. Reported figures are derived from different sources and are of variable quality in terms of
completeness, timeliness, reliability and accuracy. WHO and its partners are working to develop revised estimates that
will be available during the second half of 2010. In the meantime, country-reported figures and 2005 interagency
estimates are provided, along with the estimated margins of uncertainty.
Estimates of both disease incidence and prevalence are provided for tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Incidence is the
number of new cases each year, while prevalence is the number of people with the disease at a specific point in time.
Because not all people with infection attend health facilities, household surveys are required to obtain the true number
of cases. Such surveys, however, only provide reliable data if the condition is sufficiently common. Tuberculosis
surveys require very large sample sizes and are rarely conducted. Therefore, estimates for many countries depend upon
modelling which relies heavily on the notification rate for tuberculosis; as a result the uncertainty range associated
with both its incidence and prevalence is large. In countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics, prevalence
estimates are derived from the testing of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and, more recently, from
population-based surveys which include HIV testing. In concentrated HIV/AIDS epidemics, estimates are largely
based upon surveillance among populations with high-risk behaviours.

59

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 9: Years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality by broad cause and country-income group – 200419

Low income

Middle income

High income

10%
22%
21%

28%

15% 8%

90

69%

234

50%

103

77%

55

Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population
Communicable diseases, maternal and perinatal conditions and nutritional deficiencies
Noncommunicable conditions
Injuries

19

Income categories for 2004 shown in Figure 9 are as defined by the World Bank’s World development report 2004: Making services work for poor people.
Washington, DC, World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003.
60

Table 2

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Box 2: Years of life lost (YLL)

YLL take into account the age at which deaths occur by assigning greater statistical weight to deaths
occurring at younger ages and lower statistical weight to deaths occurring at older ages. In Figure 9, the
YLL due to each major group of causes are shown as a proportion of the total YLL lost due to all premature
mortality in the population. Each income-level chart is proportional in size in terms of the absolute
number of YLL per 1000 population. Three major conclusions emerge from the data:
Low-income countries have the highest rates of premature mortality relative to their populations – total
YLL per 1000 population are more than four times higher in low-income countries compared with highincome countries, and more than double the figure in middle-income countries.
The distribution of YLL by cause differs significantly by country-income group – in low-income countries,
over two thirds of YLL per 1000 population are due to communicable diseases, maternal and perinatal
conditions, and nutritional deficiencies. By contrast, these causes account for around one quarter of YLL
per 1000 population in middle-income countries, and under 10% in high-income countries.
In high-income and middle-income countries, noncommunicable conditions are the major contributors
to YLL – these conditions account for over three quarters of YLL per 1000 population in the former
and half the total in the latter. In low-income countries, noncommunicable conditions account for a
smaller percentage (21%) of total YLL per 1000 population. Nonetheless, in absolute terms, YLL due to
noncommunicable diseases are higher in low-income countries than high-income ones.

61

2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
Mortality

TB among
HIV-negative
peoplee

2007

2006

2008

Afghanistan
Albania

1 600
15

1 800 [730–3 200]
92 [26–300]

Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark

93
0
1 400

44
15
8
3
35

19
380

7
1

397
255


193
77
16
7
307
615
461
669
9
42
1 355

18
34
75
380
781
0

543
7
47
11
6
97
549
14

180

1 400

77
76
4
4
82
16
32
570
16
18
8
52
840
440
290
3
380
110
13
11
700
1 100
540
1 000
7
210
980
1 500
16
45
130
400
740

30
810
7
45
10
4
370
1 100
3

[55–520]
[560–2 600]
[51–100]
[23–250]
[4–9]
[4–7]
[21–290]
[16–33]
[21–42]
[380–760]
[16–31]
[18–35]
[8–16]
[52–100]
[330–1 600]
[160–970]
[160–430]
[3–6]
[120–1 000]
[74–150]
[3–47]
[11–22]
[390–1 000]
[480–1 900]
[370–720]
[670–1 400]
[7–13]
[68–530]
[380–1 900]
[930–2 000]
[16–32]
[30–60]
[38–370]
[150–840]
[450–1 100]
[30–60]
[310–1 600]
[7–15]
[45–90]
[10–20]
[4–9]
[110–1 200]
[480–1 900]
[3–6]

2004

Injuries

Malariad

2005

Noncommunicable

HIV/AIDSc

2000–2009

Distribution of years
of life lost by broader
causesf,h (%)
Communicable

Interagency
estimatesb

MDG 6

Country reported
estimatesa

MDG 6

Age-standardized
mortality rates by
causef,g
(per 100 000 population)

Injuries

Cause-specific mortality rate
(per 100 000 population)

Noncommunicable

MDG 5
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100 000
live births)

Communicable

Member State

2004


0.5

34 [14–66]
1.4 [0.5–2.9]

961
52

1 309
752

97
58

77
12

18
71

5
16

<10

65

18
<10
<10

<10
<100

<10
<50
11
<10
<100
37

<10

585
8


62
129
48
210
<10

253
130
7
3
21

170

<10
197

<10




0.0

128

0.0
0.0


0.0


4.2



0.0k
146
3.0
0.2

1.6
0.5


178
94
4.1
116

0.1
100
173

0.0k
1.0
36
124

0.0k
103




0.0
158

4.1
0.3
25
0.1
3.1
12
0.4
0.5
21
0.7
2.8
50
0.0
5.2
0.5
5.1
15
15
22
3.4
38
3.8
4.2
5.8
51
69
79
16
0.3
33
41
60
0.8
12
4.6
8.0
42
4.0
0.7
75
1.6
0.4
0.3
0.6
39
77
0.4

[1.4–9.0]

218
25
1 287
97
88
75
21
18
173
167
62
413
97
31
28
158
700
376
290
27
1 379
139
37
32
900
1 127
660
883
22
257
1 034
963
46
86
87
360
758
152
39
1 135
32
49
34
22
317
1 094
21

565
373
1 071
674
515
1 064
355
409
856
509
678
730
531
854
437
677
835
708
765
670
594
625
473
733
924
919
832
840
374
591
868
910
458
627
483
713
716
570
439
946
578
437
412
559
642
921
495

60
29
206
45
46
44
32
38
27
76
37
100
38
150
44
118
82
99
74
41
111
78
29
42
110
200
73
96
33
66
173
117
46
73
150
61
99
35
54
250
49
50
27
52
62
207
38

43
7
81
17
18
13
6
4
37
36
12
61
22
5
5
33
78
57
54
6
84
30
16
5
82
80
67
78
6
53
78
82
10
20
22
66
79
29
14
74
5
9
9
4
40
81
4

42
80
11
70
67
79
78
82
57
45
68
27
66
71
81
41
16
30
34
83
10
50
65
87
12
11
25
15
79
31
13
12
71
59
34
25
13
58
64
14
84
75
78
83
49
10
85

15
12
8
12
15
7
16
13
6
19
20
12
12
24
15
26
6
13
11
11
7
20
20
8
6
9
8
7
15
16
9
6
19
21
44
9
8
13
22
12
12
16
14
14
11
9
11

62

[0.1–0.6]
[9.9–51]
[0.0–0.2]
[1.2–6.5]
[5.9–22]
[0.2–0.7]
[0.5–0.6]
[11–38]
[0.3–1.1]
[1.2–4.9]
[20–95]
[0.0–0.1]
[2.5–9.0]
[0.2–0.9]
[2.2–10]
[6.3–30]
[5.4–31]
[9.4–43]
[1.2–6.8]
[14–84]
[1.4–7.9]
[1.9–7.1]
[2.9–9.7]
[18–98]
[25–130]
[33–150]
[6.7–32]
[0.1–0.5]
[13–64]
[17–79]
[22–120]
[0.3–1.7]
[4.8–25]
[2.0–9.3]
[3.3–15]
[18–83]
[1.6–7.7]
[0.2–1.5]
[28–140]
[0.7–2.8]
[0.1–0.9]
[0.2–0.6]
[0.3–1.0]
[17–75]
[31–150]
[0.2–0.8]

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Morbidity

MDG 6
Incidence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000
population per year)

2000

2000

Injuries

Other diseases

Congenital
abnormalities

Neonatal sepsis

Birth asphyxia

Prematurity

Pneumonia

Malaria

Measles

Diarrhoea

HIV/AIDS

MDG 6
Prevalence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000 population)

2008
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
4
0
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
5
0
0
7
3
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

29
2
13
0
25
1
1
2
0
0
11
1
1
11
0
1
1
7
13
14
15
1
7
5
2
2
19
24
7
16
0
8
17
22
0
3
4
20
14
0
1
13
1
1
0
1
12
19
1

1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
23
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
20
9
1
19
0
0
14
19
0
0
0
0
24
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
17
0

26
18
19
5
20
7
7
17
2
1
22
9
1
14
2
4
1
11
19
24
18
14
12
9
1
21
21
17
28
18
1
14
20
19
6
17
12
22
16
15
5
17
4
11
4
5
20
20
1

5
14
22
20
6
48
30
26
22
25
22
12
24
17
37
10
14
18
10
14
16
24
23
23
15
17
6
7
11
8
27
24
9
6
25
15
19
16
11
15
23
12
20
10
23
14
21
10
34

5
7
13
8
6
7
5
10
9
9
10
14
7
18
16
6
8
9
6
11
13
10
11
10
7
9
5
7
10
6
12
12
7
6
5
17
7
9
6
0
9
9
7
7
6
13
12
7
9

4
1
6
1
5
1
6
2
1
0
5
9
1
16
5
2
2
4
2
7
8
1
4
7
2
2
3
6
8
4
2
5
4
3
3
2
7
6
4
0
6
6
5
9
1
3
7
4
0

2
22
8
34
2
20
25
17
24
32
7
19
43
4
13
30
32
15
3
4
5
24
10
15
36
18
2
2
2
2
24
9
2
1
35
10
17
3
3
19
30
3
36
24
35
23
6
3
31

25
26
17
23
23
11
20
22
33
25
21
25
14
16
17
30
31
20
19
22
22
19
27
26
24
25
21
21
29
18
27
19
18
19
21
25
25
22
15
31
22
14
20
31
22
29
19
17
20

4
11
2
10
3
5
7
4
8
7
2
11
10
2
6
17
10
11
2
4
3
7
5
5
13
6
3
4
3
2
6
3
1
1
6
11
7
2
2
20
3
1
6
8
9
12
2
2
4

470
11
15
18
360
8
33
85
4
13
160
17
43
520
0
44
10
11
130
200
210
18
300
52
98
15
410
520
1 000
270
3
300
440
510
5
210
47
99
270
3
4
620
28
7
1
9
720
650
9

63

[320–660]
[3–25]
[10–51]
[9–29]
[210–540]
[5–12]
[9–64]
[42–140]
[1–7]
[6–22]
[69–250]
[7–29]
[19–75]
[350–740]
[0–1]
[11–84]
[3–17]
[8–39]
[77–190]
[55–400]
[100–350]
[12–65]
[96–560]
[20–93]
[51–160]
[8–39]
[280–570]
[340–750]
[680–1 500]
[180–390]
[1–6]
[190–440]
[290–640]
[340–720]
[3–19]
[140–310]
[22–80]
[62–150]
[130–460]
[2–8]
[3–14]
[420–880]
[10–49]
[3–13]
[1–4]
[2–17]
[480–1 000]
[420–950]
[4–16]

2008
270
9
15
2
190
0
22
67
5
1
140
9
28
410
1
11
3
43
130
96
170
14
560
29
43
23
490
670
680
150
3
280
420
580
4
88
37
65
390
32
3
730
16
2
3
6
270
660
4

[150–430]
[2–19]
[10–59]
[1–4]
[53–370]
[0–1]
[5–45]
[24–120]
[2–8]
[1–2]
[71–230]
[3–15]
[7–58]
[260–610]
[1–2]
[8–41]
[1–8]
[22–72]
[81–210]
[24–200]
[88–290]
[9–42]
[300–920]
[7–59]
[15–78]
[6–46]
[340–680]
[460–960]
[400–1 100]
[71–270]
[1–5]
[180–410]
[260–640]
[390–820]
[2–12]
[31–160]
[16–64]
[39–100]
[200–650]
[19–50]
[2–11]
[480–1 000]
[5–30]
[1–6]
[1–6]
[2–10]
[110–480]
[420–980]
[1–7]

190
23
48
21
250
6
40
71
6
17
110
31
40
220
1
75
14
40
85
250
180
63
640
60
110
46
200
320
530
170
6
160
300
260
19
110
43
56
350
7
14
370
42
11
5
16
340
340
13

[150–230]
[20–27]
[38–57]
[18–23]
[200–300]
[5–7]
[32–49]
[57–85]
[5–7]
[15–19]
[88–130]
[27–35]
[32–48]
[180–270]
[1–2]
[68–89]
[13–16]
[32–48]
[68–100]
[200–300]
[150–220]
[50–75]
[540–770]
[48–72]
[92–120]
[42–55]
[160–240]
[260–390]
[420–640]
[130–200]
[5–7]
[130–190]
[240–360]
[210–310]
[16–23]
[84–130]
[34–52]
[45–68]
[300–420]
[6–8]
[11–16]
[290–440]
[36–47]
[11–14]
[4–6]
[14–18]
[280–410]
[270–410]
[11–14]

2008
190
16
58
5
290
1
30
73
7
0
110
16
46
220
1
43
9
40
92
160
140
51
710
46
65
43
220
360
490
190
5
150
340
290
11
97
36
40
390
20
11
410
25
6
6
9
340
380
7

[150–230]
[14–19]
[46–70]
[5–6]
[250–350]
[1–2]
[24–36]
[58–87]
[6–8]
[0–0]
[88–130]
[14–18]
[39–55]
[180–270]
[1–2]
[35–52]
[8–10]
[32–48]
[73–110]
[140–200]
[120–170]
[45–61]
[570–850]
[38–56]
[57–74]
[39–51]
[180–260]
[290–430]
[390–590]
[150–220]
[4–6]
[120–180]
[270–400]
[230–350]
[9–14]
[78–120]
[29–43]
[32–48]
[310–470]
[16–24]
[9–13]
[330–490]
[22–29]
[5–7]
[5–6]
[8–10]
[300–410]
[310–460]
[6–8]

MDG 6
Prevalence
of HIV
among
adults
aged
15–49
yearsc (%)

2007


0.1

2.1

0.5
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
3.0


1.2
0.2
0.2
2.1
1.2
0.1
0.2
<0.1
23.9
0.6


1.6
2.0
0.8
5.1
0.4

6.3
3.5
0.3
0.1
0.6
<0.1
3.5

0.4
3.9
<0.1
0.1




0.2

Table 2

Mortality

Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 yearsh,i (%)

2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
Mortality

Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

TB among
HIV-negative
peoplee

2007

2006

2008

546

86
95
59
82

450
0
673
31
8
8
519
556
20
6
451
2
56
149
980
818
113
630

8
0
254
307
25
84
1
7
2
93
3
41
25

158
2
61
405
26
23
762
994
27

650

150
210
130
170
680
450
25
720
210
7
8
520
690
66
4
560
3

290
910
1 100
470
670
280
6
4
450
420
140
300
1
4
3
170
6
62
140
560

4
150
660
10
150
960
1 200
97

[240–1 400]
[90–210]
[65–560]
[84–170]
[55–460]
[210–1 600]
[180–850]
[25–50]
[460–980]
[55–720]
[7–15]
[8–16]
[290–760]
[250–1 500]
[18–230]
[4–9]
[200–1 300]
[2–4]
[100–650]
[590–1 200]
[500–1 800]
[140–1 600]
[390–960]
[190–380]
[6–11]
[4–8]
[300–600]
[240–600]
[95–190]
[110–600]
[1–2]
[4–9]
[3–6]
[51–510]
[6–12]
[41–82]
[40–500]
[340–800]
[4–8]
[43–460]
[190–1 600]
[10–19]
[41–500]
[570–1 400]
[520–2 100]
[28–300]

132

42
10
<10
25

54
<50
81


3
173


<10
89
<10

29
48
65
<200
75
27



4
6

<10
<10
3
55
<10

<10



<10
<10
<50
<10
896
61

64

14

0.3
0.2
0.0
0.0k
220
1.6

51



96
106
0.0k

109


0.1
164
180
10
7.8
0.1


1.3
1.5
0.0k
0.0







74


0.0k
1.1



171

81
1.1
12
13
3.1
2.7
5.0
9.0
1.9
64
3.2
0.5
0.4
41
44
13
0.3
44
0.3
0.3
12
60
25
15
32
9.5
1.0
0.1
23
27
3.0
14
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.9
1.4
0.5
24
19
25
2.3
25
32
5.5
1.3
27
46
4.2

[35–160]
[0.4–2.6]
[4.9–23]
[5.4–25]
[1.4–5.8]
[1.0–5.3]
[2.1–8.7]
[3.8–18]
[0.7–3.3]
[26–120]
[1.4–6.3]
[0.2–0.8]
[0.1–0.6]
[17–83]
[18–86]
[6.6–22]
[0.1–0.6]
[16–84]
[0.1–0.6]
[0.1–0.8]
[4.6–23]
[23–120]
[11–51]
[6.3–31]
[14–63]
[4.1–19]
[0.4–1.8]
[0.0–0.2]
[10–47]
[12–55]
[1.3–5.9]
[5.4–26]
[0.2–0.9]
[0.1–0.6]
[0.2–0.7]
[0.4–1.8]
[0.6–2.4]
[0.2–1.0]
[12–43]
[6.8–42]
[9.0–46]
[1.1–3.8]
[12–45]
[13–61]
[2.7–9.0]
[0.5–2.4]
[6.7–61]
[19–90]
[1.5–8.9]

2004
603
82
203
134
131
163
967
445
33
886
177
22
26
610
559
98
22
690
23
162
279
692
944
294
693
174
19
18
377
272
92
355
42
26
17
135
39
78
169
1 014
275
53
160
445
36
80
1 374
1 155
85

862
580
794
484
891
518
938
686
664
817
767
405
387
716
830
554
429
699
436
827
515
844
925
835
740
761
693
375
713
690
687
1 018
459
368
372
605
284
711
1 145
729
730
454
1 012
828
710
715
581
931
654

Injuries

Malariad

2005

Noncommunicable

HIV/AIDSc

2000–2009

Distribution of years
of life lost by broader
causesf,h (%)
Communicable

Interagency
estimatesb

MDG 6

Country reported
estimatesa

MDG 6

Age-standardized
mortality rates by
causef,g
(per 100 000 population)

Injuries

Cause-specific mortality rate
(per 100 000 population)

Noncommunicable

MDG 5
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100 000
live births)

Communicable

Member State

2004
84
32
109
83
36
99
136
90
113
105
36
64
45
97
84
20
28
80
31
47
103
101
104
119
178
68
63
34
116
233
95
486
30
29
29
71
39
59
152
113
22
32
95
129
115
91
72
192
60

72
20
40
34
31
37
78
73
5
82
24
4
6
68
72
25
5
73
4
26
51
77
83
41
67
47
3
4
56
31
28
42
7
9
5
35
8
29
25
82
42
13
35
62
5
20
86
84
29

20
69
40
44
61
39
15
16
72
12
66
75
79
21
21
70
86
20
83
64
32
16
12
43
16
39
86
79
30
32
47
25
79
76
85
48
76
53
56
11
55
61
50
24
73
60
10
9
54

8
11
20
22
8
24
7
11
22
6
10
21
15
11
8
5
9
7
12
11
17
7
5
17
17
14
11
18
14
37
25
34
13
15
10
17
16
18
20
8
3
25
14
14
21
19
5
7
17

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Morbidity

MDG 6
Incidence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000
population per year)

2000

2000

Injuries

Other diseases

Congenital
abnormalities

Neonatal sepsis

Birth asphyxia

Prematurity

Pneumonia

Malaria

Measles

Diarrhoea

HIV/AIDS

MDG 6
Prevalence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000 population)

2008
6
0
1
1
0
4
3
4
1
3
1
0
0
10
1
0
0
3
0
0
3
2
2
6
5
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
17
3
0

19
0
9
6
5
4
9
21
0
23
5
0
1
6
14
6
0
9
0
1
19
14
19
15
20
10
0
0
13
15
10
12
0
0
0
14
1
4
2
21
17
1
14
7
1
2
10
17
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
9
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
2
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
28
0
0
7
0
0
0
29
23
0
0
26
0
0
0
24
18
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16
0

19
4
18
17
11
14
12
19
2
15
13
4
2
11
16
19
1
10
8
12
20
17
18
17
20
18
7
0
20
22
16
20
0
2
1
23
6
11
17
16
24
4
22
27
7
8
13
17
9

11
32
26
22
33
21
10
11
10
9
23
19
13
15
11
27
33
12
35
38
19
8
8
16
11
22
24
7
14
19
27
23
15
19
23
13
9
35
1
8
15
28
18
9
7
30
16
10
30

9
11
11
9
6
9
7
7
10
11
9
6
12
8
8
13
7
11
4
14
5
8
6
9
10
12
5
10
10
10
9
12
5
6
7
5
5
6
1
8
8
3
12
11
25
6
13
8
6

6
8
4
2
1
1
4
4
4
9
1
3
3
4
5
5
2
9
0
3
1
6
5
7
6
5
1
8
7
5
4
5
2
2
3
1
2
2
0
6
3
2
4
6
1
1
10
6
1

7
27
9
16
18
19
3
3
27
2
18
37
26
4
3
11
28
4
36
19
5
2
2
8
2
9
26
24
3
6
14
8
48
40
31
9
39
19
15
2
7
48
7
4
30
24
4
2
22

20
14
18
22
21
22
12
24
24
19
24
24
37
10
15
16
23
11
9
11
24
14
18
17
23
19
32
49
25
19
16
16
25
29
30
26
28
18
57
20
23
11
20
31
21
20
14
18
21

2
4
3
6
5
7
1
5
21
3
7
6
7
1
3
3
6
2
9
2
5
1
2
4
2
4
6
3
3
2
4
5
5
4
5
5
11
5
7
3
4
4
3
3
8
8
2
1
7

290
42
130
170
34
37
0
35
53
540
30
8
8
230
300
64
9
420
4
6
120
380
280
130
410
100
18
4
190
450
45
81
5
7
2
6
23
3
120
500
490
16
94
360
53
7
220
480
42

65

[94–630]
[29–57]
[68–200]
[100–260]
[19–52]
[17–65]
[0–0]
[24–88]
[17–99]
[350–800]
[12–53]
[3–14]
[3–14]
[120–390]
[170–490]
[15–130]
[4–16]
[280–600]
[1–8]
[4–10]
[80–180]
[250–550]
[170–420]
[75–200]
[260–620]
[52–170]
[5–36]
[2–6]
[93–320]
[310–640]
[25–71]
[42–130]
[2–11]
[3–13]
[1–5]
[2–10]
[8–42]
[1–7]
[29–230]
[300–770]
[240–830]
[5–30]
[22–200]
[240–510]
[14–100]
[3–16]
[82–370]
[320–680]
[18–74]

2008
670
7
95
110
24
18
63
82
14
560
25
5
2
410
390
42
2
400
3
2
110
550
220
110
290
79
8
1
190
210
23
110
2
3
5
8
12
3
98
180
110
30
140
260
13
8
490
420
28

[330–1 100]
[2–17]
[52–150]
[65–170]
[14–38]
[5–36]
[21–110]
[36–150]
[5–32]
[350–850]
[14–41]
[2–9]
[1–5]
[210–690]
[240–600]
[17–89]
[1–4]
[270–570]
[1–5]
[1–5]
[69–160]
[360–800]
[100–370]
[44–200]
[150–460]
[43–130]
[3–17]
[0–2]
[88–320]
[100–360]
[12–39]
[70–170]
[1–7]
[1–6]
[3–9]
[4–13]
[3–24]
[1–6]
[26–210]
[45–370]
[58–260]
[15–49]
[53–270]
[170–400]
[8–36]
[2–15]
[300–730]
[260–640]
[6–60]

620
14
100
110
26
37

85
69
330
30
12
12
250
230
110
13
210
7
4
68
200
190
100
270
120
35
5
170
190
32
64
12
11
7
7
36
7
200
400
420
26
150
160
94
17
550
240
40

[540–740]
[11–17]
[80–120]
[85–130]
[21–30]
[29–44]
[68–100]
[58–82]
[260–400]
[24–36]
[10–13]
[10–13]
[200–310]
[180–270]
[93–130]
[11–14]
[170–250]
[6–8]
[4–5]
[54–81]
[160–240]
[150–230]
[83–120]
[220–330]
[100–140]
[30–39]
[5–6]
[130–200]
[150–230]
[25–38]
[51–77]
[10–13]
[9–12]
[6–8]
[5–8]
[31–40]
[6–9]
[170–240]
[320–490]
[340–500]
[23–30]
[130–180]
[130–190]
[83–110]
[15–20]
[520–660]
[190–290]
[32–48]

2008
620
13
73
72
19
32
130
97
34
370
20
7
6
450
260
110
5
200
6
4
63
300
220
110
250
64
16
2
170
190
20
64
9
6
7
7
22
6
180
330
360
34
160
150
50
14
640
280
40

[500–740]
[11–16]
[58–87]
[58–86]
[16–22]
[28–38]
[110–140]
[78–120]
[30–41]
[290–440]
[16–24]
[6–8]
[5–7]
[360–540]
[210–320]
[100–130]
[5–6]
[160–240]
[5–6]
[3–5]
[50–75]
[240–360]
[180–270]
[90–140]
[200–300]
[52–77]
[14–19]
[2–3]
[130–200]
[150–230]
[16–24]
[51–77]
[8–10]
[5–7]
[6–7]
[5–8]
[19–25]
[6–7]
[150–210]
[260–390]
[350–430]
[30–39]
[130–190]
[120–180]
[46–60]
[12–16]
[590–760]
[230–340]
[32–48]

MDG 6
Prevalence
of HIV
among
adults
aged
15–49
yearsc (%)

2007
3.1

1.1
0.3

0.8
3.4
1.3
1.3
2.1
0.1
0.1
0.4
5.9
0.9
0.1
0.1
1.9
0.2

0.8
1.6
1.8
2.5
2.2
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2

0.2
0.1
0.4
1.6


0.1



0.1
0.2
0.8
0.1
23.2
1.7

Table 2

Mortality

Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 yearsh,i (%)

2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
Mortality

Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa

TB among
HIV-negative
peoplee

2007

2006

2008

9
19
469

28
72

0
0
686

56
317
0
50

227

380
449
300
281
5
7
77
648
800
0
9
17
276
0
84
733
127

162
3
8
12
15
44
14
24
750
141


3

11
12
510
1 100
62
120
970
8

820
15
60


46

240
520
380
210

830
6
9
170
1 800
1 100

7
64
320

130
470
150
240
230
8
11
12
14
22
24
28
1 300



[11–22]
[12–23]
[290–740]
[720–1 500]
[41–82]
[42–260]
[620–1 300]
[8–17]
[480–1 200]
[15–30]
[60–120]

[46–93]
[140–350]
[360–680]
[260–510]
[110–300]
[290–1 900]
[6–12]
[9–18]
[120–230]
[840–2 900]
[440–2 000]
[7–15]
[18–200]
[99–810]
[39–410]
[130–1 300]
[99–200]
[170–310]
[60–700]
[5–10]
[7–14]
[8–16]
[14–27]
[22–44]
[24–49]
[28–55]
[770–1 800]

<10

<10
488
15

47


<50

10




<10
379
51
246

18
<10

<10
28
115



3

<50
<50
<50
12
<10
<10
<10

<10
<10

28
80



66



12
95
0.1

201


85

0.0k




0.0
92
19
47

0.1


0.0k
229
156


0.0
0.8

0.0k
45
0.0k
0.5
0.3



0.0



59



9.3
0.0
52
23
15
2.9
81
0.8
14
80
4.7
1.4
6.6
0.0
21
1.5
8.0
36
57
26
0.8
22
0.4
0.5
4.1
37
63
0.0
0.4
0.8
39
14
2.8
21
5.4
8.7
52
2.6
1.6
3.8
5.5
4.6
7.7
15
71
0.0
0.9
1.4
4.3

[4.5–16]
[0.0–0.0]
[21–99]
[8.6–48]
[6.5–30]
[1.1–5.6]
[28–150]
[0.4–1.4]
[5.0–25]
[30–150]
[1.8–8.9]
[0.5–2.7]
[2.3–14]
[0.0–0.0]
[7.6–43]
[0.6–3.0]
[3.1–15]
[14–75]
[25–110]
[8.5–58]
[0.3–1.8]
[9.3–45]
[0.2–0.7]
[0.2–0.9]
[1.6–8.2]
[15–72]
[22–120]
[0.0–0.0]
[0.1–0.7]
[0.3–1.4]
[17–77]
[5.4–26]
[1.0–5.4]
[7.6–44]
[2.2–11]
[3.2–17]
[22–100]
[0.9–5.4]
[0.7–2.8]
[1.8–6.4]
[2.3–9.5]
[0.0–12]
[6.9–8.5]
[7.2–26]
[25–140]
[0.0–0.2]
[0.4–1.9]
[0.4–3.2]
[1.7–8.2]

2004
30
35
536
1 396
161
160
1 011
37
293
566
52
73
178
25
152

118
954
513
825
210
463
31
14
129
1 272
964
174
22
26
403
190
95
468
119
231
285
27
42
61
32
64
51
71
1 157
179
69
162
204

635
419
799
796
623
953
967
433
961
812
731
501
682
321
923

655
777
775
513
1 093
769
425
398
705
1 030
909
595
391
664
717
735
417
772
602
534
620
583
456
512
470
963
706
904
878
691
522
674
766

Injuries

Malariad

2005

Noncommunicable

HIV/AIDSc

2000–2009

Distribution of years
of life lost by broader
causesf,h (%)
Communicable

Interagency
estimatesb

MDG 6

Country reported
estimatesa

MDG 6

Age-standardized
mortality rates by
causef,g
(per 100 000 population)

Injuries

Cause-specific mortality rate
(per 100 000 population)

Noncommunicable

MDG 5
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100 000
live births)

Communicable

Member State

2004
128
46
81
105
53
165
112
25
61
90
43
55
33
39
86

49
108
96
73
129
119
24
39
71
127
109
36
42
39
91
36
52
100
74
60
59
54
40
35
67
97
54
218
147
43
67
64
40

5
7
74
87
28
35
83
6
34
73
10
25
32
7
32

39
81
56
82
24
60
6
5
39
86
81
33
4
16
64
29
35
65
33
41
44
4
9
17
6
10
9
8
83
27
17
31
32

69
77
19
8
55
35
11
85
56
18
78
58
58
77
51

48
12
33
11
60
27
85
77
44
10
13
56
79
63
26
62
45
25
44
45
43
81
78
59
72
74
79
62
10
63
60
54
58

26
16
8
5
17
30
5
9
10
9
12
18
10
16
17

13
7
11
6
15
13
9
18
17
4
6
11
16
21
10
9
20
11
23
15
13
15
12
25
22
16
12
29
7
11
22
16
9

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Morbidity

MDG 6
Incidence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000
population per year)

2000

2000

Injuries

Other diseases

Congenital
abnormalities

Neonatal sepsis

Birth asphyxia

Prematurity

Pneumonia

Malaria

Measles

Diarrhoea

HIV/AIDS

MDG 6
Prevalence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000 population)

2008
0
0
0
14
4
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
1
18
0
1
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0

0
0
22
11
1
9
19
0
9
16
2
6
4
0
4
0
12
12
13
6
3
15
0
0
9
20
19
0
3
2
16
4
6
5
9
4
7
0
0
2
0
2
1
1
23
0
0
2
7

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
4
17
0
0
21
0
0
13
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
12
2
5
0
0
0
0
0
18
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0

6
0
21
13
6
16
19
6
23
20
7
13
29
4
29
9
17
18
13
14
18
14
2
5
20
22
16
5
0
7
18
10
13
22
17
16
24
5
6
6
4
23
33
7
15
2
1
1
20

12
26
11
10
22
26
8
24
17
13
23
17
17
22
14
26
21
10
14
18
27
17
18
26
22
7
8
32
14
32
17
21
16
11
24
25
19
30
22
24
26
4
12
13
9
33
52
36
20

7
17
9
8
8
11
7
8
6
9
14
7
7
9
5
11
15
9
11
8
16
18
12
11
8
6
8
14
17
6
15
8
6
11
13
10
7
7
10
5
5
7
4
8
10
29
23
11
8

4
1
7
6
1
5
4
0
2
6
5
5
3
1
1
1
8
6
9
4
9
14
6
3
2
3
6
4
3
1
12
1
5
6
5
2
2
4
1
1
4
6
0
3
8
3
2
11
2

35
19
2
3
26
9
2
29
9
3
22
22
5
32
7
28
10
3
2
6
9
4
28
25
13
1
2
19
28
25
7
20
24
3
10
16
8
35
32
26
21
31
21
24
3
10
10
7
11

18
24
21
16
23
20
17
18
29
17
22
22
30
23
35
17
14
15
13
13
13
15
28
21
21
21
17
23
26
19
14
26
22
25
18
20
29
14
19
25
28
14
20
31
20
15
10
24
27

17
13
2
2
9
4
2
15
5
2
4
9
4
9
5
6
3
2
22
2
5
2
6
10
4
2
1
2
9
7
2
9
6
3
4
6
4
6
8
11
12
14
8
13
4
7
2
7
5

45
11
350
410
140
77
650
1
510
450
38
40
130
1
230

51
540
950
250
50
160
4
3
68
310
600
4
3
9
640
23
12
130
37
140
780
26
23
66
16
130
160
110
600
19
21
47
20

67

[13–93]
[6–17]
[210–540]
[250–630]
[77–230]
[33–140]
[450–910]
[1–4]
[330–740]
[270–680]
[23–59]
[21–65]
[54–230]
[1–1]
[110–400]
[17–110]
[350–780]
[650–1 300]
[100–500]
[29–77]
[65–290]
[1–8]
[2–8]
[28–120]
[210–440]
[420–830]
[3–6]
[1–5]
[4–16]
[400–890]
[16–65]
[8–41]
[37–320]
[9–73]
[32–280]
[600–950]
[5–52]
[7–46]
[28–120]
[11–44]
[72–200]
[58–290]
[41–210]
[410–850]
[12–28]
[12–34]
[30–70]
[6–38]

2008
34
1
430
310
120
13
750
11
59
700
40
8
34
0
140
6
48
470
470
290
10
170
4
5
26
330
610
0
3
6
310
110
14
130
40
46
550
17
15
54
50
90
110
69
720
3
8
23
36

[11–75]
[1–1]
[270–650]
[180–480]
[67–200]
[7–33]
[510–1 000]
[6–18]
[39–150]
[470–1 000]
[26–60]
[3–17]
[23–110]
[0–0]
[29–280]
[4–17]
[14–97]
[290–710]
[240–780]
[110–620]
[7–21]
[71–300]
[1–8]
[2–9]
[7–53]
[210–480]
[410–860]
[0–0]
[1–6]
[2–12]
[170–510]
[71–170]
[8–34]
[37–290]
[13–77]
[19–100]
[500–600]
[3–37]
[5–30]
[22–97]
[13–96]
[39–160]
[35–220]
[15–140]
[490–1 000]
[2–10]
[3–15]
[13–36]
[23–53]

85
12
220
420
110
74
300
5
250
280
24
32
130
0
210

110
380
400
670
44
160
9
10
68
150
270
0
6
14
230
52
47
250
48
180
330
35
48
63
54
140
170
120
350
10
15
26
23

[76–100]
[10–13]
[170–260]
[340–510]
[87–130]
[59–89]
[240–360]
[4–5]
[200–300]
[220–330]
[20–29]
[25–38]
[100–150]
[0–0]
[160–250]
[100–130]
[300–450]
[320–480]
[590–810]
[40–53]
[130–200]
[8–10]
[9–12]
[54–81]
[120–180]
[220–330]
[0–0]
[5–6]
[13–17]
[190–280]
[42–63]
[40–57]
[200–300]
[38–58]
[150–220]
[260–390]
[28–42]
[41–54]
[50–75]
[47–61]
[110–160]
[130–200]
[99–150]
[280–420]
[8–12]
[12–18]
[21–31]
[19–28]

2008
71
0
260
320
100
42
320
14
210
320
22
19
93
0
210
23
93
420
400
750
12
160
7
8
46
180
300
0
6
13
230
63
47
250
47
120
280
25
30
55
88
170
130
110
390
9
14
25
18

[63–85]
[0–0]
[200–310]
[260–390]
[82–120]
[39–50]
[260–390]
[12–16]
[210–250]
[260–390]
[18–27]
[17–22]
[75–110]
[0–0]
[170–250]
[21–27]
[85–110]
[340–500]
[320–480]
[630–900]
[9–14]
[130–200]
[6–8]
[7–9]
[41–56]
[140–210]
[240–360]
[0–0]
[5–7]
[13–16]
[190–280]
[50–75]
[45–57]
[210–300]
[38–57]
[110–140]
[230–340]
[20–29]
[26–34]
[44–66]
[77–99]
[140–210]
[110–160]
[91–130]
[310–460]
[7–11]
[12–17]
[20–30]
[15–22]

MDG 6
Prevalence
of HIV
among
adults
aged
15–49
yearsc (%)

2007
0.1
0.2
0.1
11.9
0.5

1.5
0.1

0.8
1.7
0.3


0.1

0.1
12.5
0.7
15.3

0.5
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
3.1

0.1

0.1

1.0
1.5
0.6
0.5

0.1
0.5

<0.1
0.4
0.1
1.1
2.8



Table 2

Mortality

Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 yearsh,i (%)

2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
Mortality

San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

TB among
HIV-negative
peoplee

2007

2006

2008

0
6
15
401
6
…l
857
8
6
15
236
1 044
124
4
17
1 107
184
589
2
1
58
43
14
0



18
980


2 100
14
6
6
220
1 400
400
4
58
450
72
390
3
5
130
170
110
10


478
37

36
21
16
0
435
15
0
7
578
13

25
70
57
75
366
591
725

380
510

45
100
44
130

550
18
37
8
950
11
20
24

57
150
430
830
880

[12–24]
[590–1 400]

[880–3 700]
[14–27]
[6–12]
[6–12]
[65–580]
[550–2 700]
[270–530]
[4–9]
[39–77]
[160–1 000]
[72–140]
[130–980]
[3–7]
[5–11]
[40–370]
[53–460]
[70–140]
[10–20]
[150–700]
[290–750]
[45–89]
[27–380]
[29–58]
[37–400]
[350–770]
[18–36]
[10–130]
[8–15]
[620–1 300]
[11–21]
[20–40]
[24–49]
[57–110]
[40–510]
[150–900]
[520–1 200]
[300–2 000]




15
<10

56
<10

<10

18
721
5

65

876
<10
<10

<10
47


19
0.0
80


154



30
41
0.3

0.0k
85
4.9
0.1


0.0
0.0k
0.6

0.0
18
1.2
64
1.3
8.7
140
2.5
0.7
0.8
19
54
39
1.0
9.6
19
29
31
0.4
0.3
2.3
44
19
1.7

[0.0–0.0]


138


<10



249
41

<10
237
7
<50
<10


27

470
1 049

93
113



0.0k
0.0

145



98


0.0k
13
0.2
0.2
3.9
121
10

83
92
3.0
1.2
1.8
3.2
8.4
11
27
15
0.3
0.7
13
0.3
1.7
27
11
4.3
34
9.9
18
54

[36–160]

68

[7.4–34]
[0.5–2.1]
[24–120]
[0.4–2.8]
[3.2–17]
[52–260]
[1.1–4.1]
[0.3–1.3]
[0.3–1.3]
[8.2–38]
[22–100]
[17–79]
[0.4–1.7]
[4.1–19]
[8.2–38]
[10–56]
[0.0–88]
[0.2–0.6]
[0.1–0.5]
[0.8–4.9]
[20–80]
[8.2–38]
[0.6–3.3]

[32–180]
[1.3–6.2]
[0.6–2.1]
[0.7–3.4]
[1.2–6.8]
[4.1–15]
[3.9–25]
[10–55]
[7.1–26]
[0.2–0.6]
[0.3–1.3]
[6.1–22]
[0.1–0.5]
[0.7–3.3]
[13–50]
[4.9–23]
[1.8–8.6]
[14–71]
[4.3–20]
[5.9–41]
[21–100]

2004

Injuries

Malariad

2005

Noncommunicable

HIV/AIDSc

2000–2009

Distribution of years
of life lost by broader
causesf,h (%)
Communicable

Interagency
estimatesb

MDG 6

Country reported
estimatesa

MDG 6

Age-standardized
mortality rates by
causef,g
(per 100 000 population)

Injuries

Cause-specific mortality rate
(per 100 000 population)

Noncommunicable

MDG 5
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100 000
live births)

Communicable

Member State

2004

17
502
98
607

109
1 389
79
35
31
237
910
965
24
113
470
174
1 497
22
19
66
310
225
29

357
788
678
852

650
1 033
345
628
480
694
1 148
867
379
681
986
728
707
372
360
679
884
516
737

18
103
76
96

62
171
27
48
57
36
247
159
30
458
235
87
122
32
34
46
34
92
79

5
71
24
74

17
83
12
5
4
50
72
69
7
8
57
31
83
5
5
25
72
42
6

87
18
49
18

63
11
73
82
80
41
16
19
81
30
21
52
10
83
81
59
23
40
74

9
11
27
8

19
6
14
13
16
9
12
12
12
62
23
17
7
12
13
15
5
19
21

421
748
174
130
195
82
253
275
1 069
61
79
37
1 031
36
53
164
216
69
170
314
1 602
2 598

663
818
658
751
537
701
1 100
979
786
881
410
441
851
450
521
880
749
441
611
941
833
816

83
86
28
60
53
39
71
71
169
130
37
26
130
50
52
49
37
92
64
110
125
147

70
78
31
26
41
26
48
30
80
9
18
7
79
9
12
48
39
21
39
60
85
85

21
16
61
61
44
63
42
59
10
72
53
84
13
73
74
42
52
44
46
27
9
8

9
7
8
14
15
11
11
11
10
19
28
9
8
18
15
10
9
35
15
12
6
6

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Morbidity

MDG 6
Incidence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000
population per year)

2000

2000

Injuries

Other diseases

Congenital
abnormalities

Neonatal sepsis

Birth asphyxia

Prematurity

Pneumonia

Malaria

Measles

Diarrhoea

HIV/AIDS

MDG 6
Prevalence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000 population)

2008

2008

0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
46
0
0
2
2
49
0
0
0
0
2
0

0
15
5
15
0
0
21
0
0
0
4
22
9
0
3
11
6
8
1
0
5
19
2
3

0
1
0
3
0
0
5
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
19
0
0
13
0
0
0
6
6
0
0
0
25
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
26
10
18
6
10
20
13
11
2
26
19
9
2
10
16
10
12
2
1
11
21
10
5

0
12
31
10
39
37
8
25
28
24
18
8
12
17
22
18
22
8
12
23
26
15
30
44

0
8
6
8
12
6
6
1
4
8
6
8
7
7
8
7
10
5
10
10
5
9
11
10

0
5
1
5
1
0
4
3
1
12
2
5
2
4
1
2
6
3
3
3
1
5
2
2

0
4
19
3
22
14
1
35
29
20
6
3
3
30
19
4
12
3
33
28
22
4
21
25

100
26
19
17
15
29
19
19
19
30
29
21
10
34
19
13
23
12
34
30
23
24
17
6

0
3
8
2
3
4
3
5
8
4
3
2
2
6
16
3
8
1
3
5
7
3
5
3

9
150
36
460

41
820
32
12
11
360
610
470
15
85
150
160
530
3
3
18
210
210
40

[7–13]

0
150
[20–59]
12
[300–680]
560
7
[19–71]
75
[550–1 200] 1 200
[11–57]
27
[3–23]
6
[3–22]
7
[230–530]
150
[400–880]
460
[260–740]
610
[5–26]
8
[44–140]
73
[78–240]
160
[110–230]
270
[290–870]
770
[1–6]
3
[1–7]
1
[5–38]
15
[130–320]
330
[130–320]
160
[15–72]
7

[0–0]

[80–240]

[90–230]

0
6
0
6
0
0
0
0
5
1
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
12
21

13
12
6
1
5
1
13
1
16
1
1
0
12
0
2
12
7
7
2
20
15
9

5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
1
1
8

11
26
0
0
0
0
0
0
22
0
0
0
16
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
15
3

10
15
15
6
10
14
23
16
14
4
5
3
14
3
7
21
23
10
10
18
15
13

12
11
20
22
30
30
18
17
7
11
31
36
10
30
20
22
20
23
27
17
7
12

16
9
8
7
6
11
10
8
7
7
6
7
10
5
4
10
7
9
10
12
7
8

12
5
2
7
1
2
6
2
5
2
1
1
8
3
6
5
1
8
2
5
6
4

3
3
17
21
20
18
6
14
2
28
29
26
3
23
28
8
8
19
19
5
2
3

14
12
25
22
21
18
22
34
16
32
20
23
16
26
22
20
26
14
20
19
17
16

2
2
7
9
6
5
3
7
4
13
7
4
3
11
11
3
4
9
5
3
3
2

610
810
29
12
12
58
31
190
380
57
5
8
180
4
18
200
79
29
290
140
350
470

[310–1 000]

[350–1 100]

69

[560–1 100]
[15–46]
[5–20]
[4–26]
[30–96]
[15–69]
[62–350]
[240–560]
[12–120]
[3–8]
[2–14]
[100–270]
[1–7]
[4–36]
[120–310]
[22–150]
[9–55]
[140–500]
[74–240]
[140–620]
[260–760]

660
930
22
18
10
22
18
44
340
76
7
5
130
3
12
190
88
34
280
78
260
790

[3–24]
[370–800]
[5–21]
[51–110]
[800–1 700]
[11–48]
[2–12]
[2–13]
[74–250]
[280–700]
[290–1 000]
[3–17]
[34–130]
[93–260]
[190–380]
[400–1 300]
[1–6]
[1–4]
[3–33]
[200–500]
[88–270]
[4–20]

[640–1 300]
[8–41]
[9–29]
[4–21]
[4–45]
[12–69]
[30–170]
[210–520]
[19–150]
[4–10]
[2–11]
[85–180]
[1–5]
[4–22]
[110–300]
[43–150]
[15–59]
[140–480]
[41–130]
[94–480]
[500–1 200]

4
110
27
240

37
380
49
22
21
180
290
580
23
66
120
79
800
5
9
35
120
140
41

[4–5]

500
370
28
18
24
46
92
210
340
84
4
12
240
7
24
130
98
34
200
120
600
680

[400–600]

[91–140]
[22–33]
[190–280]
[29–44]
[300–450]
[43–56]
[19–24]
[19–24]
[150–220]
[230–340]
[460–690]
[20–26]
[53–79]
[95–140]
[63–95]
[640–960]
[5–6]
[8–10]
[31–42]
[93–140]
[110–160]
[33–50]

[300–450]
[24–33]
[15–20]
[22–29]
[37–55]
[90–110]
[170–250]
[270–410]
[67–100]
[4–5]
[11–14]
[210–270]
[6–7]
[20–29]
[100–150]
[80–120]
[27–41]
[170–280]
[92–140]
[480–720]
[550–820]

2008
0
99
19
280
18
32
610
39
12
12
120
290
960
17
66
120
130
1 200
6
5
22
200
140
24
500
440
24
24
24
30
68
160
310
100
4
12
190
5
22
130
74
33
200
60
470
760

[0–0]
[79–120]
[16–22]
[220–330]
[15–22]
[25–38]
[490–730]
[34–44]
[10–13]
[10–13]
[97–150]
[230–340]
[770–1 200]
[15–20]
[53–79]
[95–140]
[100–150]
[980–1 500]
[5–7]
[4–6]
[18–27]
[160–240]
[110–160]
[22–29]
[400–600]
[350–530]
[19–28]
[21–27]
[22–29]
[24–36]
[54–81]
[130–190]
[250–370]
[82–120]
[3–5]
[11–14]
[180–200]
[4–5]
[20–26]
[100–150]
[60–89]
[27–40]
[170–270]
[48–72]
[370–560]
[610–910]

MDG 6
Prevalence
of HIV
among
adults
aged
15–49
yearsc (%)

2007



1.0
0.1

1.7
0.2
<0.1
<0.1

0.5
18.1
0.5

1.4
2.4
26.1
0.1
0.6

0.3
1.4
<0.1

3.3

1.5
0.1

<0.1

5.4
1.6

0.2
6.2
0.6
0.6
0.1


0.5

15.2
15.3

Table 2

Mortality

Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 yearsh,i (%)

2. Cause-specific mortality and morbidity
Mortality

TB among
HIV-negative
peoplee

2007

2006

2008

2004

Injuries

Malariad

2005

Noncommunicable

HIV/AIDSc

2000–2009

Distribution of years
of life lost by broader
causesf,h (%)
Communicable

Interagency
estimatesb

MDG 6

Country reported
estimatesa

MDG 6

Age-standardized
mortality rates by
causef,g
(per 100 000 population)

Injuries

Cause-specific mortality rate
(per 100 000 population)

Noncommunicable

MDG 5
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100 000
live births)

Communicable

Member State

2004

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

0
44
1 600

1
130
2 100

3
21
1 049

0.0
2.3
229

0.0
6.6
140






900
99
450
27
420
82

[450–1 500]

174
12
13
11
5
5

104
0.5
2.1

7.5
0.3

51
3.4
28
6.5
19
15

[40–69]

Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income




650
180
91
9

[350–1 000]

56
9.7
0.6

48
22
8.4
1.0

[39–61]

[8–17]

87
11
65
4

GLOBAL

400 [220–650]

30

17

21 [17–27]

14
162
2 598

284
691
1 309

18
68
486

3
31
87

8
52
87

3
12
62

978
91
363
62
308
99

841
499
701
590
790
557

126
66
131
79
109
68

80
25
52
12
56
24

13
55
31
70
30
57

7
20
17
18
15
19

515
125
97
32

794
675
692
408

108
104
102
43

68
29
27
8

21
49
53
77

10
22
20
15

275

612

93

51

34

14

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

[62–170]
[290–630]
[17–64]
[170–850]
[40–170]

[2.6–4.6]
[18–47]
[5.1–8.8]
[12–32]
[9.4–26]

INCOME GROUP
[94–300]
[65–150]

70

[16–32]
[6.4–11]
[0.8–1.2]

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Morbidity

MDG 6
Incidence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000
population per year)

2000

2000

Injuries

Other diseases

Congenital
abnormalities

Neonatal sepsis

Birth asphyxia

Prematurity

Pneumonia

Malaria

Measles

Diarrhoea

HIV/AIDS

MDG 6
Prevalence of tuberculosisj
(per 100 000 population)

2008

0
0
49

0
5
29

0
0
9

0
0
29

0
13
33

0
18
52

0
8
29

0
4
16

0
14
48

6
21
100

0
4
22

0
58
1 000

4
1
0
0
0
0

18
7
13
5
18
4

1
0
4
0
1
0

16
0
1
0
3
0

17
12
19
14
19
18

9
22
14
20
15
16

8
8
11
9
10
14

5
5
7
3
7
2

2
16
3
17
6
10

17
23
23
25
18
26

2
6
4
6
3
9

470
42
290
53
260
220

[420–530]

3
1
10
0

18
14
6
1

1
2
0
0

12
7
0
0

18
19
12
4

10
13
20
27

8
10
9
6

6
6
4
2

3
4
14
25

18
21
20
25

3
3
5
9

480
250
91
11

[440–540]
[210–310]

2

15

1

8

18

12

9

6

4

20

3

220 [190–260]

71

2008

0
44
1 200

[33–56]
[220–390]
[40–78]
[200–350]
[160–290]

[72–120]
[8–15]

0
73
800

480
25
220
39
150
110

[430–560]

410
180
73
8

[370–470]
[130–240]

0
63
1 200

320
40
180
57
120
120

[300–330]

[270–290]
[130–160]

[6–13]

280
150
100
17

170 [150–210]

140

[20–37]
[160–330]
[28–61]
[110–220]
[74–200]

[53–110]

2008

[330–370]

[270–300]
[130–160]

[17–18]

280
150
110
14

[130–140]

140 [130–150]

[160–210]
[52–62]
[100–130]
[100–130]

[93–110]

2007

<0.1
0.5
26.1

350
31
180
48
110
110

[38–44]

MDG 6
Prevalence
of HIV
among
adults
aged
15–49
yearsc (%)

[29–33]
[160–210]
[45–51]
[99–130]
[95–130]

[97–120]
[13–15]

4.9
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.1

2.8
0.4
1.7
0.4
0.8

Table 2

Mortality

Distribution of causes of death among children aged <5 yearsh,i (%)

Table 3

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Selected infectious diseases
This section has been compiled from official national reports of case numbers for selected infectious diseases.
Decisions on which diseases to include were made primarily on the basis of data availability. Where possible, a
distinction is made between zero cases reported and no information available for a country. In isolation, the numbers
given provide no indication of the relative risk of disease, nor of the quality of disease reporting in different countries.
However, the section does give an indication of the current status of officially reported infectious disease data at
the global level, and of the major reporting gaps. Given the variations in the methods countries use to obtain these
numbers, no attempt has been made to calculate incidence or prevalence.
To interpret these numbers, both epidemiological patterns and data-collection efforts in specific countries must
be considered. Some diseases (for example, malaria and yellow fever) are endemic to certain geographical regions, but
are extremely rare elsewhere. Diseases such as plague are prone to outbreaks that can cause case numbers to fluctuate
wildly over time. Some diseases are best tackled with preventive measures such as mass drug treatment, so reporting
the number of cases is a lower priority than estimating the population at risk. For vaccine-preventable diseases, case
numbers are affected by immunization rates. Diseases such as H5N1 influenza, Japanese encephalitis and malaria are
difficult to identify without specialized laboratory tests that are often not available in developing countries. In many
settings, cases of some diseases (such as malaria) are identified through clinical signs and symptoms alone.
Despite ongoing efforts to enhance disease surveillance and response, many countries face challenges in accurately
identifying, diagnosing and reporting infectious diseases due to the remoteness of communities, lack of transport and
communication infrastructures, and shortage of skilled health-care workers and laboratory facilities to ensure accurate
diagnosis. No inference can be drawn from the figures shown about the efforts or progress that countries are making
in controlling particular diseases.
Case numbers are also a poor indication of the burden of disease. Diseases such as H5N1 influenza and plague
have high mortality rates, while diseases such as polio and leprosy have low mortality rates but result in a heavy loss of
healthy years of life. Some diseases with very small initial case numbers can potentially cause devastating epidemics,
and so mandatory reporting is essential. For diseases that are considered eradicable (such as leprosy and poliomyelitis)
case reporting is essential to ensure that eradication efforts are targeted to the affected areas.
Some diseases are reported under the International Health Regulations, while others are monitored by countries
or by WHO in the context of specific control programmes. Further information on disease incidence and prevalence,
as well as on immunization coverage rates for vaccine-preventable diseases, can be obtained from the relevant WHO
programme.

73

3. Selected infectious diseases
Number of reported cases

Member State
a

b

Cholera

Diphtheria

2008
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

4 384



10 511













985



8




234


1




174

4
156


7





30 150
1

H5N1
influenzac

Japanese
encephalitisb

Leprosyd

2009
0
0
0
0
69
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
43
0
3
0
0

0
0
0
0
85
0
0
0
0
7

4
0


0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0

Malariae

Measlesb

2008




























1






7













74



0





1
0
0

0
702


0

0


0


0
0

0
372


0



2 975

0
0



0


1
124


0

24

0

1 184

388

11



0
5 249




298
18
129

0
38 914
2

452
275
306
406


141
549

1 614
445
336
217
0
3
998

233



6 114

0

Meningitisf

2009
462 689

11 964

3 432 424

130
471


73
14

1 275 192





121
150 826

17 886
315 642


3 790 238
2 039 353
58 887
1 650 749

35
152 260
478 987

135 467
80 559



966
1 343 654





5 371 196

3 528

1 599

217
0
265
0
0
0
65
448
5
0
2
2 660
0
0
98
0
928
7
0
8
0
0
3
1
395
173
4 211
495
61
0
12
63
0
131 441
0
0
2
0
0
12
51
0
1
2
82
12 461
14
143



















377







4 447





289 j
1 460







284





4 842k

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Number of reported cases
b

Mumps

Pertussis

g

Plague

2008

50
0
0

0
12 198
98
286

82
0
77

0
245
46
0
0

10 566
54


41
5 582

0


748
13


1 243
310 826
5 930

0
0
0

110
11
3
403
67

24

Poliomyelitish

Rubellab

Congenital
rubella
syndromeb

Neonatal
tetanusb

2009
2 448
10
28
0
1 148
0
3 085
3
14 435
183
5
0
0
33
0
125
260
2
0
0
0
41
0
3 562
2
193
171
0
1 212

1 961
0


969
2 387
408

0
0
2 024

102
0
3
767
395
3 190
105
0



0

















0

0
0











12











618

Total
tetanusb

Tuberculosisi

Yellow feverb

13 136
170
8 643
3
22 562
1
4 758
487
299

1 409
31
141
106 373
1
1 060
311
83
2 966
351
6 048
509
3 351
37 697
132
1 020
2 756
3 610
19 860
14 232
488
197
4 232
3 309
1 114
462 596
7 196
77
3 371
2
287
15 294
328
498
6
251
28 026
69 477
106
1 375


0
0
0

0
8

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
0

46
0
0
4
0

2
1
0
5
0
0

3
0
0

0
14
0
0
0
0
0
113

0

2008
37



29













21







15
2

3


14
64







27





5


0
0
0

0
0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0

30
0
0

0


0



3

0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0

415
0
1 339
0
28
0
1 075
4
38
7
0
0
2
5 526
0
2

0
97
2
0
19
2
2 029
0
58
97
173
4 211
78
5
9 648
28

15
120 354
2

21
0
0
113
1
0
0
14
82
969
2
118

75

12
0
3
0
89
0
0

0

0
0
0
152
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
8

34
43
0
0
25
163
0
1 786
3
3
3
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
0
737
0
0

57
0
9
0
601
0
8

4
0
6
0
0
943
2
0
2
1
7
7
13
0
0
333
0
2
11

324
65
1
2
25
163
8
1 786
45
3
3
0
1
15
1
3
0
0
0
1 252
1
0

Table 3

b

3. Selected infectious diseases
Number of reported cases

Member State
a

b

Cholera

Diphtheria

2008
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg







1

3 862

1
2
2
1


1 223



513
14 323





2 680
1 007
72
925






1
3 091



201



1 236


H5N1
influenzac

Japanese
encephalitisb

Leprosyd

2009
0
3
0
0
0


0

0
0
5

0
7
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
6 081
219
52
6
0
0

0
0
0
5

0

0
2
28
0
0

0
4
0

Malariae

Measlesb

2008



39
























20




















76








0

0
0
0

0
0





0
0



0
0
294


0
0



3
0
0

0

0

0
0
0

0
0
0


154
83
797
5
27


4 170
4


24



557


3
664
78
28
52
1


134 184
17 441
35
0



4
3
0

167
42
0

93

1
7
777
5

Meningitisf

2009

1 262
4 891
80
33
63 147
10 572

2 532 645



187 714
508 846
8

3 200 147


43 244
422 180
148 542
11 815
36 774
8 225


95 734 579
2 106 957
11 371
5



22



839 904


18
18 566



726 905


0
0
0
668
0
436
0
0
3 511
0
5
604
3
0
56
917
82
1
0
0
89
12
0
0
0
0
0
48 181
15 369
127
5 494
57
931
1 617
2
11 015
2
20
1 282
0

16
174
3
24
0
1
8
1
1









114l







288k



161m




























WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Number of reported cases
b

Mumps

Pertussis

g

Plague

2008
0
0
0
50
313

2 071
14

0
5


0
76


5
0
627
0
0
0
38
219
14
0



1 876
1 388
11
896
0
65 361
193
240

0

436

6
229


464
82
26

Poliomyelitish

Rubellab

Congenital
rubella
syndromeb

Neonatal
tetanusb

2009
0
11
125
0
5

30
485

0
511


0
129


22
0
60
0
0
0
696
224
33
2
44 180

605
2 311
102
2 169
174
0
6 753
0
45

0

45
26
14
50
0

22
51
2



0
























0
0








0
0



0




5

Total
tetanusb

Tuberculosisi

Yellow feverb

3
2 458
3 380
5 102
985
541
839
144
40 794
78
104
1 222
1 502
1 300
1 868
954
7 904
80
5
2 070
6 561
1 223
320
8 171
1 897
346
2
615 977
166 376
4 722
3 150
123
173
938
78
8 995
104
6 193
36 811
147
345
1 712
3 079
400
158
3 862
3 038
871
884
0

0
0
0

0
10

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0

0
0
0

0

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0

2008








1











42






723










18







11


0
0
0

0


0

0
0


0
0
1

0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0


0

0
0

0
0
0
1

0

0

0
0


0
0
0

0
0
0
1 097
0
2

4
191
0
0

55
0
188

459
0
0
0
88
0
0
0
0
0
1

340
14
110
42
5
4 847
0
303
1
3 350
1 280
0

4
45
9
18
0
40
1
0
0

77

0
2
2
36
0
4
1
0
66
0


6
0
0

8
0
0
1
28
0
0
16
1
0
0
811
183
4
9
0
0

0

0
0
30
0

0
5
0
0
0
8
0
0
0

0
66
13
189
1
4
8
0
66
0

8
6
0
4

8
7
2
2
28
11
0
16
12
4
0
3 714
183
10
18
2
0

1
123
0
2
30
0

0
12
0
2
0
8
0
0
0

Table 3

b

3. Selected infectious diseases
Number of reported cases

Member State
a

b

Cholera

Diphtheria

2008
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia


831


153




1





9 087
45
3 496


5


972
5 410

















23





119

H5N1
influenzac

Japanese
encephalitisb

Leprosyd

2009

0
4
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
0
3
0
0
149
0

0
0

0
0
0
32
0
0

0
0
65

0

0
0
0
50

0
0
0


0
0

Malariae

Measlesb

2008

















































78



17


0


0



0
0

0
5
0
0
329





0
0
0

0

2


34



6
0
0
0






0
0

1 763

218
6


46


143
124

0

53
1 313
3 365

2
4 708


1
486
4 899
0

2
447
5
0
422
487
13
2 373


38
7



34

5

6

0
23

Meningitisf

2009
352 520
4 986 779
588 489




201 044

2 357




142
4 831 491
948 937
119 711

255 543


764
2 033 971
2 834 174


965
4 554 247

744
1 606 843
1 341

23 655



1 052



771 753





1 647
1 491

3
20
334
0
98
1

4
12
0


31
0
1 455
4
333
0
0
2 089
109

0
1 317
9 960
0
4
18
1 129
0
0
0
0
0
341

1

1
0
12
27
6
0
0
0


0
158





309


















13 405
56 047
























WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Number of reported cases
b

Mumps

Pertussis

g

Plague

2008



114
0
7


3
7 475


560
15

0

0
0



108


0
16
995

0
0

70
0


140

4 474
29 783
2 302
1 535

0
73
0


0
31

Poliomyelitish

Rubellab

Congenital
rubella
syndromeb

Neonatal
tetanusb

2009

0
11
0
41
1

0
0
162


0
5
74
0
5
15
0
2 297
8 661

25
1 199
13 240
0
3 893
58
169
0
108

7
59
46

69

7
30
51
3 557

0
0
0
53

0
30

289
0










0


0
0
0















25















Total
tetanusb

Tuberculosisi

Yellow feverb

15 391
7 627
10 441
53
4 734
15
28
1 605
85
11 903
38

1 838
65
11 825
18 824
41 248
4 828
2
14 640
189
101
1 394
5 853
46 026

53
171
100 102

829
2 323
1 345
17 989
85 025
2 650
1 053
201
11 048
1 533
9 511
33 949
4 173
5
18
11
6

52
2 108



0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0

0

3
0

0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

28
15
0



0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0

2008




2


9















15
537



87

























0


0
1


0


0

0
0

0




0
0
1

0
0

0
0


0


0
0
5

0
0
0


0
0

73
105


33
3

10
3
46


167
0

166
5
0
0
781
2

0
55
422
0
1
4

0
0
4
0
0
280

4

31
1
1 746
9 618
35
0
0
0

48
0
15

79

8
5
13
0
6
0

2
0
1


0
0
8
11
25
11
0
53


0
16
721
0
0
0
809
0
0

1
2
132

0


0
0
0
1
0
0
0


0
13

227
5
29
0
11
0

2
0
45


1
0
27
11
147
1
0
308


2
136
721
0
2
2
984
0
5

14
42
813

1

14
0
11
11
1
0
0
0


0
17

Table 3

b

3. Selected infectious diseases
Number of reported cases

Member State
a

b

Cholera

Diphtheria

2008

H5N1
influenzac

Japanese
encephalitisb

Leprosyd

2009

Malariae

Measlesb

2008

Meningitisf

2009

Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia

1 283


62




1 281
3 907
5

17 241

1




436


0
0

0
0
0
0


0
0
38
0
0
0
0
0
2
7
0






















0
0

1
0
0
0



118


0
0
0
0

70

257



10


17
125


1 979
1 901
40



5

401

701 460


932 819



102 140
24 016
7 796

670
3 073 996n
28 137
5 881


51
158 068
26 150

4
2
0
44
18
0
0
0
1 081
39
297
33
129
0
1
25
2 022
19
0
7 016
27





















Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe


397






3 726


8
2 911
5




853

2 061
60 055

0

0
0
0
0
11
0

61
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
5
3
0



















5


0

0




0

0
0
0



0


17

0

154

0
14
1


0
345

10

3 276
150
10

0
586
530
471

143 594
898 112




0

11 029 571



9 611


27
17 398
32 037
51 668
158 648
3 080 301
1 003 846

0
187
0
0
2
4
0
0
1 319
48
55
1 445
3 413
140
0
2
0
0
352
7
140
0


289



















80

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Number of reported cases
b

Mumps

Pertussis

g

Plague

2008

Poliomyelitish

Rubellab

Congenital
rubella
syndromeb

Neonatal
tetanusb

2009

Total
tetanusb

Tuberculosisi

Yellow feverb

2008


277
0

801
5
32
0


3 816
778

0
1 058
52

561
1 171
13 445
5 865

45
6
0

33
105
181
0
697

563
9
34
0
0
459

59
7
18
0
























12








45








0
0

2
0
0
0


1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

161
23
0
44
181
0
0
0


70
79
150
0
26
0
12
5
124
540
14

16
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
86
1
0
1
172
0
0
0
0
4
0
5
0

252
5
0
67
0
0
1
0
86
1
15
29
173
1
0
0
1
8
2
137
0

7 584
1 172
4
5 826
525
126
81
140
6 520
138 803
2 333
4 683
10 800
68
3 105
97
64
1 116
2 057
28 788
188

0
0
0
111
0
0
0
0


0


0
0
0
0
0


0

0

0
0

9 514
241
0

1 985
477
2 625
71
451
641
1 862
0
1 007

5 191
13 728

0
156
0
0
12
25
0
0

1 025
51
1 028
0
13 213
128
31
0
0
280
1 229
162
0













2
7




0

0
0


6






8












0

0
0


0
0

0

0

0
0
0

0


0

0
136
0
0
156
159
0
0

3 495
70
31
0
16
0
24

0
873
187
257
63

1
5
0
0
0
7

0
100
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
34
46
13
1

9
5
1
0
5
19
0
0
1 646
17
3
5

0
2
0
0
0
221
46
16
1

867
2 234
11
169
1 005
6 993
1 331
9
22 766
14 574
50
1 286
24 171
4 742
424
5 117
45
3 344
53 484
3 540
13 211
9 830

0
2
0
0



0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0

0

0
0

81

Table 3

b

3. Selected infectious diseases
Number of reported cases

Member State
a

b

Cholera

Diphtheria

2008

H5N1
influenzac

Japanese
encephalitisb

Leprosyd

2009

Malariae

Measlesb

2008

Meningitisf

2009

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

1
417
60 055

0
0
6 081

1
7
39

0
0
2 975

0
53
134 184

0
61 017
95 734 579

0
4
131 441

114
309
56 047

160 801

4 168


1 228


102
6 502
184
133
95






13



1 642
1

3 428

29 814
41 891
167 505

3 938
5 835

60 731 835
719 783
100 491 743

8 291 229
2 604 165

37 010
203
75 770
8 883
12 120
147 986

82 312




Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

143 948
38 739

28

241
6 651
182
14





3 493

36 975
170 514
41 197
297

54 504 086
117 031 249
1 395 416

38 174
222 431
744
20 623




GLOBAL

190 130

7 088

5 071

248 983

172 997 420

281 972

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP

82

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Number of reported cases
b

Mumps

Pertussis

g

Plague

Poliomyelitish

2008

Rubellab

Congenital
rubella
syndromeb

Neonatal
tetanusb

2009

Total
tetanusb

Tuberculosisi

Yellow feverb

2008

0
51
310 826

0
27
44 180

0
0
618

1
15
723

0
0
30

0
5
120 354

0
0
1 786

0
3
3 714

0
1 338
615 977

0
0
113


41 718

71 139

382 349

19 425
26 834
46 937
25 278
7 849
25 245


32
0


12

841

723

169


34

8

16 297
3 188

23 932
2 363
126 487

2 182
35
1 231
7
1 199
2 004

5 428
639
5 477
129
1 627
3 328

595 184
119 810
1 007 382
105 240
166 542
660 252

270
102

0



54 991
83 380

14 395
65 995
14 755
56 423


12

282
1 451



40
6

16 837
137 441
19 583
5 761

1 749
4 837
55
17

6 162
9 586
660
220

635 689
1 656 197
322 047
40 477



75
11

536 698

151 568

958

1 733

179 622

6 658

16 628

2 654 410

83

Table 3

b

Table 4

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Health service coverage
Health service coverage indicators reflect the extent to which people in need actually receive important health
interventions. Such interventions include the provision of skilled care to women during pregnancy and childbirth;
reproductive-health services; immunization to prevent common childhood infections; vitamin A supplementation in
children; and the treatment of disease in children, adolescents and adults.
This section therefore presents data on the following MDG indicators: antenatal care coverage; births attended
by skilled health personnel; measles immunization coverage among 1-year-olds; children aged <5 years sleeping under
insecticide-treated nets; children aged <5 years with fever who received treatment with any antimalarial; unmet need
for family planning; contraceptive prevalence; antiretroviral therapy coverage among people with advanced HIV
infection; smear-positive tuberculosis case-detection rate; and smear-positive tuberculosis treatment-success rate.
Data are also presented on births by caesarean section; neonates protected at birth against neonatal tetanus;
1-year-olds immunized against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3), hepatitis B (HepB3), and Haemophilus
influenzae type B (Hib3); vitamin A supplementation in children; children aged <5 years with acute respiratory
infection (ARI) symptoms taken to a health facility; children aged <5 with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration
therapy (ORT); and HIV-infected pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT) of HIV.
Coverage indicators are typically calculated by dividing the number of people receiving a defined intervention
by the population eligible for – or in need of – the intervention. For example, immunization coverage among 1-yearold children can be calculated from the number of children having received a specific vaccine divided by the total
population of children aged one in each country (Figure 10 and Box 3). For indicators on antenatal care, births
attended by skilled health personnel and births by caesarean section, the denominator is the total number of live
births in the defined population.
The main sources of data on health service coverage are household surveys and completed questionnaires on
health service use. The principal types of surveys used are the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS),
the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and country health and economic surveys. Another source of data is
the administrative records of routine service provision, which provide data on the numerator. The denominator is
estimated on the basis of census projections.
It should be borne in mind that administrative records tend to overestimate coverage as a result of double
counting in the numerator and uncertainty in the denominator. Although household surveys are generally considered
to be more reliable, these are subject to respondent reporting errors as well as to margins of uncertainty due to
sampling errors. In generating global estimates, it is good practice to reconcile data from multiple sources in order to
maximize the accuracy of all estimates.
Unavoidable differences in terminology also occur from country to country making standardization difficult. For
example, there are significant variations across countries in the precise skills and training of health workers grouped as
“skilled birth attendants”. Indicator definitions may also change over time. As a result of these and other issues, there
may be limitations on the comparability of results across countries and over time.
Regional aggregates are not available for several coverage indicators, reflecting both the limited availability of data
for several indicators, and the fact that some conditions (such as malaria) are not of public health significance in all
countries.

85

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 10: Immunization (DTP3) coverage among 1-year-olds by country-income group – 2000 and 2008

Low income

Middle income

High income

100
95

96

95

90

90

81
80

70

62

Percentage

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
2000

2008

2000

2008

Note: Solid horizontal lines indicate the median.

86

2000

2008

Table 4

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Box 3: Trends in immunization coverage

In Figure 10, each circle represents a country (note that circles may overlap). From the data presented,
three major conclusions emerge:
Low-income countries demonstrated substantial increases in DPT3 immunization coverage between 2000
and 2008 – median immunization coverage rose from 62% to 81% over the 8-year period and by 2008,
one quarter of all low-income countries had achieved coverage levels of 91% or higher.
Despite these gains, immunization coverage in low-income countries remains significantly below the levels
in middle-income and high-income countries – in 2008, median coverage was 95% and 96% respectively
in such countries, compared with 81% in low-income countries.
There are wide variations in immunization coverage levels within the middle-income and low-income
country groups – with levels in 2008 ranging from as low as 20% up to 99% (representing a five-fold
difference). Improvements in the level of immunization coverage must continue to be achieved in a
number of countries if such wide variations are to be reduced and median levels of coverage increased.

87

4. Health service coverage
Member State

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

MDG 5
Antenatal care
coverage
(%)
At
At
least
least
1 visita 4 visitsb

MDG 5
Births
attended
by skilled
health
personnelb
(%)

2000–2009

1990– 2000–
1999 2008

16
97
89

80
100
99
93


77
98

51
100
99

94
84
88
77
99
97
98


85
92
69
82

98
69
39

91
94
75
86

90
85

100



85

92


41
41



89
71


45


21




61

58

97
88


18
79
27
60

72

18


83

75


45




95
47

7


89
77

23
100
97
93
99
100
100
99
98
14p
100
100
99o
79
64m
15
47m
99

97r
99
99
42

34
55
98
89q
46
12
100
89
93r
52

100
97
45
100
100

100

70

14
100
95

47m
100
99
98
99o

89m
99
99
18m
100
100m

96m
78m
51
66
100m
94q
97
100
99
54
34
44
63
100
78p
54r
14
100
98
96r
62r
86m
100
94
57
100
100
100
100
97
74

93r

Births by
caesarean

sectionb
(%)

Immunization coverage among 1-year-oldsd
(%)

Neonates
protected at
birth against
neonatal tetanusc
(%)

MDG 4

DTP3

Measles
2000–
2008


24.3





9.0
30.8
25.8
4.7


3.5

19.5


3.6

14.6

7.7
41.3

23.6
0.7

1.8
2.0
26.3
10.7

0.4
30.7
23.0
26.7

3.2


6.4
16.2
28.5

18.4

4.0
20.3
10.0

HepB3

Hib3

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2000 2008 2000 2008

13
30
75

34






71
48
70



88
48
63
23

59
63
40

55
67
11
19

75
69
14


45
78
60


36




90
53

80

88

32
86
64

60






85
77
89



85
87
85
67

80
92
77

57
51
58
54

60
36
39


70
57
67


76




81
45

46

83
87
71

79






90
63
91



88
92
89
74

85
92
65

79
78
87
86

78
86
58


78
83
82


92




91
75

79

20
88
83

38
89
93

86
60

86
87
65
87

85
86
79
93
53

87
78
99
99
79
74
34
56
89
79
82
32
97
98
82
87
75
67
90
56

94
77

98
38
84
85

35
95
80
97
41
95
91
92
91
75
67
93
98
76
94
98
82
96
72
76
81
80
91
99
99
89
51
76
65
49
95
78
36
28
97
85
80
70
34
76
82
73
93
94
86
98
78
46
99
50

75
98
88
98
79
99
99
94
94
83
66
90
99
89
92
99
93
96
61
99
86
84
94
99
97
96
75
84
89
80
94
96
62
23
92
94
92
76
79
95
91
63
96
99
87
97
98
67
89
73

25
94
89

24
99
87

95
90

86
94
69
91

93
91
74
96
41

92
66
93
99
66
86
38
48
88
88
82
20
95
97
88
94
79
93
95
54

92
93

98
35
90
85

31
97
92
98
31
95
83
93
90
81
73
99
97
83
93
99
95
91
79
92
80
85
97
98
99
93
49
76
59
53
91
86
37
24
91
85
79
70
33
97
88
72
93
95
97
98
56
43
97
46

85
99
93
99
81
99
96
89
92
83
70
93
97
95
93
97
99
94
67
96
83
91
96
97
99
95
79
92
91
84
94
98
54
20
96
97
92
81
89
99
90
74
96
99
97
99
92
69
75
89


96

84



55

33


97


70
60
76

98
80

86
94
99
94









72
78


97
89


98
89




85
99
91
91
83
99
92
89
94
83
46
90
97
95
93
98
98
94
67
96
83
88
93
96
99
96
79
92
91
84
14
91

10
96
95
92
81
89
99
89
74
97
99
93
99
92
69

88




90


83

90
72

90
97



86



80


90






86



91

65



92


78
32



95



93
98
83
99
96

94
83

94
97

93
6
98
94
67

83
83

97
99

79
92


94


10
96

92



87

96
99
90
99


75
89

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

2000–2008


8.0















23.8


23.5


28.3


67.1


57.7


60.2
34.3







54.8







17.9

Children aged <5 years
(%)
MDG 6

Sleeping
under
insecticidetreated
netsf

MDG 6
With fever who
received treatment with any
antimalarialf

2000–2008

6



17





1







20







10
8
4
13


15
1



9
6


6





6

1

MDG 5

With ARI
symptoms
taken to
facilitye

With
diarrhoea
receiving
ORTe

2000–2008

8



28





1







54







48
30
0
58


57
32



63
48


36





30

10


45.3
52.6




31.9


32.5


57.2

89.5

70.9
35.7

50.9
91.3

49.7


38.5
37.8
45.4
34.8

51.4
31.8
6.5




47.5


35.1








89.1
26.6




41.9


31.3


81.2

84.9

60.6
30.1

43.6
64.8

51.3


23.3
36.5
35.8
19.2

99.8
34.3
17.7


55.4

27.0


32.6





44.9

71.0

MDG 5

Unmet need Contrafor family
ceptive
planningg prevalenceg
(%)
(%)

2000–
2007

2000–
2008


1.3





13.3


22.7


17.1




29.9

22.7





28.8
29.0
25.1
20.2

16.7

23.3

2.3
5.8

16.2








24.4

18.6
60.1l
61.4l

6.2l

65.3n
53.1l
70.8n

51.1l


55.8

72.6l
74.6n
34.3l
17.0l
30.7
60.6l
35.7l
44.4



17.4l
19.7
40.0l
29.2l
74.0n
61.3
19.0l
2.8l
64.2l,s
86.9l
78.2l
25.7l
44.3l


12.9l

72.6l


68.6l
20.6l

17.8

Antiretroviral therapy
coverage (%)
MDG 6
Among
HIV-infected
pregnant women
(PMTCT)h

Among people
with advanced
HIV infectioni

2008

2007





19













40



>95



20
9

28


23
5




10


41





5

6

89

[1–9]
[12–37]
[ >95– >95]

[9–40]

[25– >95]

[5–15]

[20–68]
[26–86]
[86– >95]
[6–21]
[75– >95]

[3–9]
[13–39]
[6–21]
[35– >95]
[20–53]

[16–44]
[3–9]
[32– >95]
[8–24]
[0–0]
[7–20]
[13–50]
[28–83]
[34– >95]

[4–10]
[4–13]



20

25

73
12


14


7

20

49
49

22

79
80


35
23
67
25


21
13
82
19
38

17

>95
28

>95


0
24

16

[10–36]
[11–35]
[57– >95]
[8–17]

[6–24]

[4–12]
[14–29]
[32–76]
[41–60]
[16–30]
[69–91]
[69– >95]

[29–43]
[18–31]
[57–80]
[21–32]

[18–27]
[9–18]
[64– >95]
[12–29]
[26–53]
[14–21]
[64– >95]
[23–35]
[ >95– >95]

[20–29]
[12–21]

MDG 6

MDG 6

Smear-positive tuberculosis
case-detection ratej
(%)

Smear-positive
tuberculosis
treatmentsuccess ratek
(%)

2000

18
64
100
87
46
87
57
93
87
87
33
87
80
25
87
110
87
78
73
50
75
85
66
70
87
220
12

44
35
87



77
31
87
51
92
0
120
31

96
87
87
43
49
87
56

[15–22]
[53–73]
[86–130]
[77–100]
[38–57]
[77–100]
[47–71]
[78–120]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[27–41]
[77–100]
[67–100]
[21–31]
[77–100]
[92–120]
[77–100]
[65–97]
[61–91]
[42–63]
[62–94]
[71–110]
[55–78]
[58–87]
[77–100]
[190–250]
[10–15]
[37–55]
[29–44]
[77–100]

[64–96]
[26–39]
[72–110]
[42–63]
[77–110]
[0–0]
[97–150]
[26–39]
[80–100]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[36–54]
[40–61]
[77–100]
[46–63]

2008

61
90
78
87
77
87
72
71
87

48
87
86
61
87
83
87
120
67
64
77
69
57
75
87
100
15
29
56
93
87
48
68
19
100
72
79
52
56
100
110
42
87
130
87
87
70
66
87
47

[51–76]

2000

85

[65–98]
87
[77–100]
50
[64–91]
68
[77–100] 100
[60–90]
47
[59–89]
87
[77–100]
72
73
[40–60]
90
[77–100]

[72–100]
73
[51–76]
81
[77–100]

[69–100]

[77–100]
66
[100–150] 78
[56–84]

[53–75]
90
[64–96]
79
[58–77]
94
[48–72]
77
[63–91]
71
[77–100]
63
[86–110]

[12–19]
60
[24–37]
80
[47–70]
91
[78–120]
77
[77–100]
35
[40–60]
64
[57–85]
58
[16–23]

[86–130]
82
[60–90]
93
[66–99]
80
[44–65]
93
[46–69]
69
[85–130]

[88–130]
57
[35–53]
57
[77–100]

[110–170] 93
[77–100]

[77–100]
70
[59–80]
82
[55–83]
78
[77–100]
86
[39–59]
62
[75–100]

2007

87
85
90
100
74
50
62
70
85

58
63
14
92
100
74
68
46
87
93
85
97
73
72
76
79
72
86
94
76
64

67

85
94
77
93

100
88
73
61
92

72
87
87
79
81

Table 4

Children aged
6–59 months
who received
vitamin A
supplementatione
(%)

4. Health service coverage
Member State

Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg

MDG 5
Antenatal care
coverage
(%)
At
At
least
least
1 visita 4 visitsb

MDG 5
Births
attended
by skilled
health
personnelb
(%)

2000–2009

1990– 2000–
1999 2008

100
99
84
74
94
86
70

28



94
98
94

90

100
84
88
78
81
85
92


74
93
98
84



91

99
100
92


97
35

96
90
79



95
57t
65
79
37
41

12



63

75

78


66
49
62

54
81


37
81
94



68


94

52





76
70
66


100
96m
99m
46
52

21
100

99
100
99


96

44

100
35
31

93
21m
55
99

42p
43


100


95
100
97
100
44
85
98
98
7
100
89
40

94
100

94
98m
99m
79
84o
63r
28p
100
6
99
100

86
57m
98
100u
57

99
41
38r
39r
83m
26m
67m
100

47m
73p
97
89
100

99o
97r
100
99
100m
42
90
100
98m
20m
100
98
55p
46m
100
100
100

Births by
caesarean

sectionb
(%)

Immunization coverage among 1-year-oldsd
(%)

Neonates
protected at
birth against
neonatal tetanusc
(%)

MDG 4

DTP3

Measles
2000–
2008


41.9
25.8
27.6
22.0

2.7
19.0
1.0
7.1
16.1
18.8
5.6

13.0
27.8
6.9


11.4
1.7


3.0
13.0
28.0
15.6
8.5
4.1


25.4
19.1
37.4


18.5
10.0
4.0

13.9
5.1

21.1
23.1
5.1
3.5

19.2
24.0

HepB3

Hib3

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2000 2008 2000 2008


60
82
74
37
58


24
5


84
85


60


44
27
40
56
39
60


81
64
71
70





49

60

51

12



33


90


48
42
80
83
61
80

54
84


39
92


69


67
79
49
82
41
93


85
82
82
75



51

44

68

77

58


73
51



86
73
85
87
69
86

84
94


73
91


86


71
96
94
90
50
94


86
79
83
69



58

87

78

84

47


83
91


88
70
60
86
98
88


38
84
97
71
76
86

75
61
76
85
68
35
53
73
31
90
99
99
56
58
85
75
78
91
43
74
73
87

78
75
66

32

61
80

89

80

99
84
72
98
97
51
86
93
52
85
96
84
55
92
73
93
84
89
92
86
42
71
86
55
98
99
91
54
72
99
87
79
97
74
88
96
94
99
75
80
99
98
42
97
79
74
63
92
97
91

99
79
66
92
95
51
95
95
74
94
97
87
55
91
96
95
86
99
99
96
64
76
95
58
95
99
96
70
83
98
69
89
84
91
88
97
95
99
90
72
99
99
52
97
53
85
64
98
97
96

92
69
68
87
80
77


49
97
90
94
78
92

80
58
54
80
66
17
61
83
41
84
99
99
70
60
91
83
65
93
83
86
90
92

84
97
71

18

82
82

84

90

99
68
78
98
99
33
88
93
56
89
99
97
38
74
80
90
84
89
97
84
45
42
88
45
95
99
98
58
75
99
78
86
96
87
86
85
91
97
75
90
98
99
53
96
86
82
47
94
94
98

96
77
75
97
94
33
97
95
81
99
99
98
38
96
92
90
87
99
99
85
66
63
93
53
93
99
98
66
77
99
62
93
93
96
87
98
97
99
85
82
99
95
61
97
74
83
64
98
96
99


68
38
93
99




95

26

87
55
84

89






95



65
99
67

97
94


93
99

90
95
44

95
86


92
99
49

96
88
75
97
94

97
94
81
99

29
38
99
89
90
87
95
99
85
71

93

93


21
78
99
58

96
96
89

97
99
85
83
99
97
61
96
74
85
64
98
96
94










86
96
86

74

94

89
33





95
99
98




85
94
55






98


79




2
91

96
79
75

94

97
95
81
99
98
87

96

93
87
83
99
85


93

93
99
98




93
93
96
87

97
49
85
83
99


96
74

64
98
96
98

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

2000–2008




12.4


38.0

45.8




80.1






68.2
58.6








2.0







33.3


47.0
18.1


54.6



Children aged <5 years
(%)
MDG 6

Sleeping
under
insecticidetreated
netsf

MDG 6
With fever who
received treatment with any
antimalarialf

2000–2008






42
4

33




49


28



1
39
6





3

0







39



18



3


MDG 5

With ARI
symptoms
taken to
facilitye

With
diarrhoea
receiving
ORTe

2000–2008






16
4

10




63


24



44
46
1
5
1


12
1

1







24



9



59



67.3

73.0


43.6

18.7



47.7
68.9
73.6

60.4



42.0
4.3
64.1
31.5
53.9


67.3


81.6



75.1

75.0
70.5
49.1


62.1
32.3


58.8
62.2



46.3

28.4


55.7

27.5



35.4
48.2
50.1

51.9



36.6
46.3
51.7
43.8
55.7


26.0
46.1

30.7





24.9
74.0
29.2


20.4
50.5


75.2
58.1


MDG 5

Unmet need Contrafor family
ceptive
planningg prevalenceg
(%)
(%)

2000–
2007

2000–
2008


11.4
7.4
10.3
8.9

27.0

33.8



28.0

16.3

34.0


27.6
21.2


37.5
16.9


12.8
9.1





11.7

11.9

24.5



39.5


30.9
35.6



72.9l
72.7
60.3l
72.5l
10.1l
8.0l

14.7l


81.8l
32.7l
17.5
47.3

23.5
76.2n,v

43.3l
9.1l
10.3l
34.2l
32.0l
65.2l


56.3
61.4l
73.3n
49.8l
75.0l,n


69.0
54.3
57.1l
50.7l
39.3
36.1n

47.8l
32.2

58.0
37.3
11.4


Antiretroviral therapy
coverage (%)
MDG 6
Among
HIV-infected
pregnant women
(PMTCT)h

Among people
with advanced
HIV infectioni

2008

2007






40
29

18



35



39



22
20

46














56






57
14


91


38
[24–81]
42
[1–3]
9
[23–69]
51
[25–76]
31
[16–59]
13

[12–35]
29
[17–75]



[22–70]
42
[18–64]
18
[78– >95] …

[26–78]
15


[9–29]
37
[15–45]
27
[12–39]
20
[85– >95] 45
[29–92]
41
[27–94]
47
[2–8]
22

[13–42]

[4–15]
15
[3–10]
5




[70– >95] 43


[ >95– >95] 23
[37– >95] 38


[5–19]
14
[8–28]
>95
[56– >95] 15
26
[43–94]
26
[9–29]
17

[ >95– >95] 18

[37– >95]

[31–48]
[25–71]
[7–13]
[9–74]
[23–43]
[9–20]
[25–36]

[30–60]
[12–37]

[13–19]

[28–51]
[21–37]
[13–30]
[33–61]
[33–51]
[29–71]
[13–38]

[8–28]
[4–7]

[32–60]

[14–36]
[31–48]

[8–26]
[59– >95]
[9–22]
[11–45]
[21–33]
[9–23]
[8–31]

MDG 6

MDG 6

Smear-positive tuberculosis
case-detection ratej
(%)

Smear-positive
tuberculosis
treatmentsuccess ratek
(%)

2000


59
69
61
82

34
84
33
52
87
87


39

32
87
0
48
42
38
27
45
84
87
87
45
28
61
48
87
87
87
95
87
86
99
53
31
87
57
35
94
91
68
27
68
85
87

[49–73]
[57–86]
[52–74]
[68–100]
[29–43]
[70–100]
[27–41]
[44–65]
[77–100]
[77–100]

[32–45]
[27–40]
[77–100]
[0–0]
[40–60]
[35–53]
[32–47]
[22–34]
[37–56]
[70–95]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[34–51]
[23–35]
[51–76]
[40–61]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[79–120]
[77–100]
[72–100]
[82–110]
[44–66]
[26–39]
[77–100]
[47–68]
[29–44]
[78–100]
[76–100]
[57–73]
[22–34]
[57–85]
[71–95]
[77–100]

2008

60
60
62
78
90
87
32
88
32
95
87
87
54
54
130
87
30
87
210
43
40
62
66
60
72
87
87
70
80
78
39
87
87
87
78
87
91
74
68
86
87
65
67
120
91
69
51
83
120

[50–75]

2000


70
[52–78]

[67–95]
87
[75–100]
79
[77–100]

[26–40]
76
[73–100]
70
[27–40]
80
[79–120]
85
[77–100]

[77–100]

[45–67]

[45–67]

[110–140] 63
[77–100]
77
[25–38]
50
[77–100]

[170–260] …
[36–53]
86
[33–50]
68
[52–78]

[55–83]
55
[50–75]
71
[60–89]
86
[77–100]
64
[77–100] 100
[53–80]
34
[67–100]
87
[65–97]
85
[33–49]
92
[77–100]
84
[77–100]
78
[77–100]
74
[65–98]
45
[77–100]
45
[76–100]
90
[62–87]
79
[57–85]
80
[72–89]
91
[77–100]
69
[54–81]
82
[56–84]
77
[97–120]
72
[76–100]
92
[58–75]

[43–64]
80
[69–100]

[100–140] 73

[50–75]

2007

67
78
75
89
91
60
88
61
84
81
70

36
84
77
77
84

100
84
79
71
71
82
85
51
86
87
91
83
86
70
77

56
46
77
69
85
93
79
85
92
82
90
67
71
67
70

Table 4

Children aged
6–59 months
who received
vitamin A
supplementatione
(%)

4. Health service coverage
Member State

Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia

MDG 5
Antenatal care
coverage
(%)
At
At
least
least
1 visita 4 visitsb

MDG 5
Births
attended
by skilled
health
personnelb
(%)

2000–2009

1990– 2000–
1999 2008

80
92
79
81
70

81
75

94


99
97
68
89
76
95
95
44


90
46
58


100
61


79
96
91
91




98
94

96
100
99
95


98

40
57

91
35


16






31
53
66w
70

29


78
15
45


83
28



79
87
78




89
76

13






47
50
81

40q

95
40
99
74
93

99

40
44p
46
68

9p
100
93o
61
18
42m
100

91
19p
100
86
47
61
56
56
100
100
99
100
99o
99o
99
26
100
100
100
100


91

r

51
54
100
84
49q
100u
95
61m
99o
94
88

99
99r
63
48p
57
81
97
19
100
94o
74
18
39m
100

98
39m
100
91
39o
77
73m
62
100
100
100
100
100m
99
100
52p
100
98
100
100

81
96

Births by
caesarean

sectionb
(%)

Immunization coverage among 1-year-oldsd
(%)

Neonates
protected at
birth against
neonatal tetanusc
(%)

MDG 4

DTP3

Measles
2000–
2008

1.0
3.1


1.6
34.3

3.2
37.0
36.1



11.4
5.4
1.9

12.7

2.7
13.7
23.7
19.6
1.0
1.8

16.6

7.3


4.7
26.9
15.8
9.5

34.0

37.7
8.5
21.4
17.2
2.9






11.6

HepB3

Hib3

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2000 2008 2000 2008

45
81
82
86
45


24
61
59




66
37
62


35


39
17
32


93
50


78
66
19
57







85






92

58
84
88
95
50


44
79
81




86
75
79
74

67


83
63
57


94
71


24
47
66
55







81






76
87
87
95
92


77
87
87




86
83
93
82

81


80
84
64


91
80


61
74
67
58







85






47
81
70
96
43
80
52
38
76
75
81
99
92

79
59
68


57
94
90
82
25
54
99
87
98
50
98
73
67
69
64
85
95
85
79
93

92

83
99
82
96
89

71
88

56
73
88
99
49
74
94
62
84
96
85
99
92

93
71
84
69
8
71
96
85
86
34
35
99
88
99
56
83
97
62
92
97
80
97
87
91
95
89
98
97
74
99
88
96
93
74
69
94

81
88
95
97
68
78
94
65
98
96
92
99
97
89
96
77
82
73
99
79
96
86
99
80
62
99
93
99
85
97
85
54
77
90
92
98
97
92
92
94
97
99
92
99
99
99
45
73
93
97

46
87
90
94
42
63
92
33
85
53
85
99
84

81
46
88

74
43
97
90
70
22
56
99
86
98
54
99
86
68
67
72
88
96
89
82
74

96

84
99
89
98
90
99
92
92

57
75
95
98
40
94
39
40
88
97
85
99
95

95
68
82
79
44
72
97
90
83
31
24
99
90
99
61
96
98
59
86
91
79
98
96
80
97
95
99
97
90
99
70
99
99
96
82
95

82
91
90
98
68
72
93
74
99
98
79
99
96
95
99
72
85
83
99
82
97
89
96
66
54
99
94
92
73
92
82
52
76
99
91
99
97
94
94
95
97
98
97
99
96
99
46
87
99
98



94
96


36

88
97
87
99
93

43



58


90
83


99

99

96

57


19
99
58
89
93
92
98


99


96
94

93

82
91
90
98
68
59
93
74
99
98
90
99
96
93
97
72
84

99
82

90
96

41
99

92
73
92
83
56
76
99
88
98
97
94
94
98
99
98
97
98
96
99
38
87
99
98






93
45


97
75
99








96
90
83


99
93


96



38


86
80





12



92

13
91
90

68
72
83

99
98
79
99
96
93
99





97
86
96


99
94
92

92
83

76
99

88
97
94




97
97
96
99
32
87

98

Children aged
6–59 months
who received
vitamin A
supplementatione
(%)

2000–2008

76.2
68.5





55.5




64.7

25.5
49.8






65.3

25.8









76.0







72.0






Children aged <5 years
(%)
MDG 6

Sleeping
under
insecticidetreated
netsf

MDG 6
With fever who
received treatment with any
antimalarialf

2000–2008

60
25


27


2







7







7
6



0













24





54

MDG 5

With ARI
symptoms
taken to
facilitye

With
diarrhoea
receiving
ORTe

2000–2008

34
24


32


21







23

14




2
33
33



3













6





25

47.9
51.8


38.1


44.5




62.6
89.4
37.8
55.4

71.5

34.3


57.7
47.2
45.4



80.5




66.8
54.8




59.7


28.0






42.7
55.3


24.3


30.5




62.8
98.1
28.0
54.1

69.3

29.3


54.1
26.2
31.2



47.2




36.6
57.6




34.9


30.8






MDG 5

Unmet need Contrafor family
ceptive
planningg prevalenceg
(%)
(%)

2000–
2007

23.6
27.6


31.2


31.6
3.5
12.0


4.6

10.0
18.4
19.1
6.7

24.6


7.5
15.8
16.9



24.9



6.6
8.1
17.3




6.7
11.9

37.9






2000–
2008
l

27.1
41.0l

39.0l
8.2l


9.3l,v
75.8
70.9l


66.0l
39.4l
63.0l
16.5
37.0
55.1
35.6l
48.0
67.0

72.4l
11.2l
14.7l

88.4l,n

29.6
32.8n


79.4l
71.3l
50.6l

67.1l,n

84.5l
67.8l
70.3

36.4l





29.3l
23.8x

Antiretroviral therapy
coverage (%)
MDG 6
Among
HIV-infected
pregnant women
(PMTCT)h

Among people
with advanced
HIV infectioni

2008

2007
















42

91






10






13










72






93

[1]
[41– >95]
[10–39]
[0–0]
[17–54]

[5–29]
[8–37]
[5–16]

[0–0]
[9–33]
[26–93]
[14–65]
[63– >95]
[2–6]

[65– >95]
[19–67]
[7–18]

[11–44]
[<1–2]
[13– >95]
[9–28]
[29– >95]
[29– >95]
[<1–1]
[25– >95]

[32– >95]
[45– >95]

4
35
35

41


23
22
57




31
24
15
88

7


30
10
26



3

56
38
22
48
31
36




73
16
71






[3–7]
[29–42]
[24–49]
[32–51]

[13–40]
[14–32]
[40–80]

[21–44]
[20–31]
[11–20]
[73– >95]
[5–11]

[11–43]
[7–13]
[17–36]

[2–4]
[43–71]
[33–45]
[12–37]
[36–62]
[22–45]
[20–62]

[62– >95]
[10–25]
[62–84]

MDG 6

MDG 6

Smear-positive tuberculosis
case-detection ratej
(%)

Smear-positive
tuberculosis
treatmentsuccess ratek
(%)

2000


38
65
67
14
87
17
40
71
66
22

57

97
45
19
77
180
71
87
87
76
33
12

87
95
2

58
29
62
84
53
61
87
72
87
38
90
49
31
0
53
58
64
87
34
61

[32–48]
[54–81]
[56–83]
[12–18]
[77–100]
[14–22]
[33–49]
[59–89]
[55–82]
[19–28]
[48–72]
[81–110]
[38–56]
[16–24]
[64–87]
[150–200]
[59–89]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[63–95]
[27–41]
[10–15]
[77–100]
[79–100]
[2–3]
[49–70]
[24–36]
[52–78]
[70–100]
[44–66]
[51–75]
[77–100]
[60–90]
[77–100]
[32–48]
[75–110]
[41–62]
[26–39]
[0–0]
[44–67]
[48–72]
[53–80]
[77–100]
[28–42]
[50–76]

2008

57
37
76
86
21
87
44
28
54
100
75

69
120
96
47
43
71
340
64
87
87
94
40
24

87
95
58

91
29
81
93
67
74
87
81
87
79
110
73
26
190
130
73
37

59
86

[47–71]
[31–46]
[64–95]
[71–91]
[17–26]
[77–100]
[37–45]
[23–35]
[45–68]
[87–110]
[62–93]
[57–83]
[100–130]
[80–110]
[39–59]
[35–53]
[59–85]
[290–430]
[54–80]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[78–110]
[34–50]
[20–29]
[77–100]
[79–100]
[49–73]
[76–96]
[24–34]
[67–100]
[78–99]
[56–84]
[61–92]
[77–100]
[68–100]
[77–100]
[66–99]
[90–140]
[61–86]
[22–32]
[160–230]
[110–150]
[61–91]
[31–47]
[49–74]
[72–100]

2000

2007

70
73
78
97

100
91

93
76
93

87

89
75
82
56
25
84
76
30
82
65
79

70
93
74

60
63
66
90
88
72
79
66
83
63
70
68
61

100
100
92
0
78
73

80
85
72
68
78
75
96
66
85
84
65

89
79
86
79
85
82
100
88
79
86
86
79
82

79
91
91

79
39
82
92
89
76
87
67
82
62
85
58
86
25
84

92

90
67

Table 4

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

4. Health service coverage
Member State

MDG 5
Antenatal care
coverage
(%)
At
At
least
least
1 visita 4 visitsb

MDG 5
Births
attended
by skilled
health
personnelb
(%)

2000–2009

1990– 2000–
1999 2008
r

Births by
caesarean

sectionb
(%)

Immunization coverage among 1-year-oldsd
(%)

Neonates
protected at
birth against
neonatal tetanusc
(%)

MDG 4

DTP3

Measles
2000–
2008

HepB3

Hib3

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2000 2008 2000 2008

Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia

87
98

87



74
26
92

99
64
90
85


84
89
98
94

40


56




6
56




79


42

74

47



100
100
100

34r
84



80



76
81
85
94

52
99r

42p
100o
100
100
43o
33q
91

99
49q
90m
74r

100u
93m
83m
99
98m

3.3
14.7



20.0
16.3


20.6
25.0

4.5

7.9
16.5
28.9
14.8
2.1
17.4
11.4

45


85



71
49


72
72
92
63


63

75

62


53



75
47
68

92
61
92
80


90

85

88


97



85
49
75

93
70
93
86


94

91

51

86

84


70
30
79
99
80
57
65
85
96
90
87

80

48
89
97
37
96
98
95
87
38
72
94
99
58
70
72
91
81
83
87
94
97

77
92
99
60
95
99
96
60
24
62
98
98
79
86
95
96
87
81
86
98
98

51

99

85


77
19
72
86
86
62
83
89
99
90
91

92

52
95
98
44
98
99
91
82
33
72
95
99
62
71
77
99
88
85
83
97
95

88
95
99
60
97
99
97
78
31
67
97
98
86
84
95
98
95
82
86
99
95



97

97
99

77

71
77



76


78

95

88
93
99
60
96
99
98
77

67
97
98
86
84
95


82
86
98
97






59



72
92




98
86



88
98

60

99
97
36

67
97

86
84

98
93
82
46

13

Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

61
84

96
96
92
99
97
94
99


76

97
99
84
94
91
47
94
94

30



68
54
83

47
75aa


62





29
14
72
71


51

99
81
81

99
38
100
99
99
39m
98
99
98
89
95
77
22
47
69

19
62r
99
98
90
83
100
100
42
99
100

46m
99
99
100m
93
95
88m
36
47p
69





20.5
21.2
3.4

3.1
10.4
15.2
22.0
3.2
30.2
23.8
4.9

25.1
9.9

2.1
4.8


47


40
20


41



77



47

24
17
62
57


63


68
50


70



79



86

86
54
78
76

66
81


96
71


85



81



73
52
84
63
90
76


73
86
70
93
78

95
52

80
87
80
90
97

66
61
88
69
90
87


58
95
90
95
86
97
81
59
99
94
88
78
91
89
99
94
84
97
62
85
75

73
77
99
91
98
97
99
93
68
94
92
86
88
92
95
98
65
82
92
62
85
66


77
94
82
93
84

99
45

85
84
78
90
97

76
63
88
84
91
88


64
95
90
97
85
97
82
56
99
94
92
79
94
90
99
90
77
96
62
78
76

79
89
99
90
99
96
96
99
64
90
92
92
84
96
94
98
76
47
93
69
80
62



97

94
71

81

4
92


90
92
1
75
5

15

76

79
24
98
90
99
92
96
99
68
84
92

84
93
94
91
76
50
87
69
80
62




74






92
92

93
88


2




24
99
90

96


68
81
92
92

93
94


48

69
80
62

94

Children aged
6–59 months
who received
vitamin A
supplementatione
(%)

2000–2008

Children aged <5 years
(%)
MDG 6

Sleeping
under
insecticidetreated
netsf

MDG 5

MDG 6
With fever who
received treatment with any
antimalarialf

2000–2008

With ARI
symptoms
taken to
facilitye

With
diarrhoea
receiving
ORTe

2000–2008

MDG 5

Unmet need Contrafor family
ceptive
planningg prevalenceg
(%)
(%)

2000–
2007

2000–
2008
l

Antiretroviral therapy
coverage (%)
MDG 6
Among
HIV-infected
pregnant women
(PMTCT)h

Among people
with advanced
HIV infectioni

2008

2007

75.3


25.9




24.2
39.4







2.9
46.6

31


26




9



28z
3
0



1

22


30




8



54z

26



2

47.2
92.5

45.8




13.0
64.8




71.6


76.8
63.9
84.0
92.7

26.7
94.0

73.4




20.8
63.0




88.8


67.7
58.4
68.3
81.3

31.6










18.2


24.0




3.1

11.8
41.2l

8.2l




14.6l
60.3l
65.7
68.0l,y
7.6l
42.1l
50.6l


58.3l
37.9l
81.1
13.5l




31





73


1

>95






39.3




15.8





45.5


72.0


53.1


8
35






9



16





5

41
3

47
37






61



58





3

43
5


22.7


58.6
41.0
50.9

73.5



59.4


67.7


82.7

68.2
26.3


21.0


74.4

46.7





62.2


78.8


94.7
86.7
66.8
61.6

3.8



12.1
6.0
10.1

40.6
10.3


21.8
6.3




4.8

26.5
12.8

10.0l
16.8l

42.5l
60.2v
71.0l
61.8l

23.7
66.7

82.0ab
26.4l
72.8
77.0ac
64.9l


79.0
27.7l
40.8l
60.2l


18






50











59
36

95

[8–29]
[3–12]
[20–60]

[<1–1]
[53– >95]
[5–22]
[<1–1]
[22– >95]
[87– >95]

[33– >95]

56
17

20





28

14
1
45
42



6
61


19


[2–7]
29



[36–95]
33
[82– >95]
8


[53– >95] 31

56
[17–74]
24

[8–27]

[27–87]
26

[43– >95] 46
[26–64]
17
[12–37]

[44–70]
[8–30]
[13–30]

[22–36]
[10–20]
[1–2]
[29–72]
[36–50]

[4–11]
[47–81]

[15–24]

[20–39]

[27–40]
[7–11]

[26–38]
[23– >95]
[9–51]

[17–42]
[40–56]
[14–22]

MDG 6

MDG 6

Smear-positive tuberculosis
case-detection ratej
(%)

Smear-positive
tuberculosis
treatmentsuccess ratek
(%)

2000

45

67
28
87
87
87
29
32
69
87
72
54
18
49
87
87
89
20
43
52

9
110
87
120
36
80
0
49
85
86
87
70
87
76
39
68
75
67
63
48
39

[37–56]
[56–84]
[23–35]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[24–36]
[27–40]
[57–86]
[77–100]
[60–90]
[45–67]
[15–22]
[41–62]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[74–100]
[16–25]
[36–54]
[43–65]

[8–11]
[93–130]
[77–100]
[96–130]
[30–46]
[67–82]
[0–0]
[40–61]
[71–110]
[71–100]
[77–100]
[61–79]
[77–100]
[64–95]
[33–49]
[57–84]
[62–94]
[49–81]
[53–79]
[40–60]
[33–49]

2008

40
170
27
31
87
87
87
46
46
68
87
73
40
19
51
87
87
79
49
64
99

[34–51]

33
14
91
87
99
81
130
110
54
100
50
87
70
87
100
48
52
63
62
61
52
24

[27–41]

[140–210]
[23–34]
[26–39]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[38–57]
[38–58]
[57–85]
[77–100]
[61–91]
[33–50]
[16–23]
[42–63]
[77–100]
[77–100]
[66–98]
[41–62]
[54–81]
[82–110]

[12–18]
[76–110]
[77–100]
[82–110]
[68–100]
[110–160]
[95–140]
[45–68]
[85–130]
[42–63]
[77–100]
[65–75]
[77–100]
[85–110]
[40–60]
[44–65]
[53–79]
[45–75]
[51–76]
[44–65]
[20–30]

2000

2007

52

82
77
71
82
84
81
83
63

79
75
68

79

78
77
69
86

77
84
89
89
81
86
82
92
86
74

86
78

58
66

88
83
83
87



93
68
91
73
81
86
63

74

78
83
85
80
88
76
92
72
67
69

84
76
93
65
89
91
84
75
75
59
64
77
88
85
84
79
93
82
92
84
85
78

Table 4

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

4. Health service coverage
Member State

MDG 5
Antenatal care
coverage
(%)
At
At
least
least
1 visita 4 visitsb

MDG 5
Births
attended
by skilled
health
personnelb
(%)

2000–2009

1990– 2000–
1999 2008

Births by
caesarean

sectionb
(%)

Immunization coverage among 1-year-oldsd
(%)

Neonates
protected at
birth against
neonatal tetanusc
(%)

MDG 4

DTP3

Measles
2000–
2008

HepB3

Hib3

1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 1990 2000 2008 2000 2008 2000 2008

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

16
91
100

6
62
97

7
93
100

6
95
100

0.4
13.8
41.9

5
58
93

24
71
95

47
84
97

20
80
99

8
87
99

23
92
99

17
86
99

24
90
99

20
93
99

1
90
99

10
92
99

2
90
99

6
93
99

73
94
75

65
90

44

43

44

48
87
40
95
38
85

47
92
49
96
59
92

3.4
30.8
7.6
19.0
11.8
23.9

43
51
76
21
57
42

62
74
85
51
69
68

78
81
86
72
79
71

57
80
59
80
67
94

56
92
61
91
72
85

73
93
75
94
83
93

57
74
70
78
71
94

53
91
65
93
73
85

72
92
72
95
82
95


70

42
39
59

67
88
41
76
81
89


75



38
90

64

Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

69
79
94

39
47
75

42
56
88
98

43
65
95
99

3.3
13.0
28.6
26.8

46
72
46
70

66
80
74
82

79
82
82
82

58
76
77
83

61
71
92
91

76
82
94
93

60
81
71
88

60
73
92
93

75
82
92
95



68
60

71
63
91
68



53
70



76
81

GLOBAL

78

48

61

66

13.9

60

74

81

73

72

83

75

73

82

69

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP

96

Children aged
6–59 months
who received
vitamin A
supplementatione
(%)

2000–2008

Children aged <5 years
(%)
MDG 6

Sleeping
under
insecticidetreated
netsf

MDG 5

MDG 6
With fever who
received treatment with any
antimalarialf

2000–2008

With ARI
symptoms
taken to
facilitye

With
diarrhoea
receiving
ORTe

2000–2008

MDG 5

Unmet need Contrafor family
ceptive
planningg prevalenceg
(%)
(%)

2000–
2007

2000–
2008

Antiretroviral therapy
coverage (%)
MDG 6
Among
HIV-infected
pregnant women
(PMTCT)h

Among people
with advanced
HIV infectioni

2008

2007

2.0
46.2
80.1

0
9
60

0
25
63

4.3
53.9
92.7

17.7
47.2
99.8

1.3
17.0
40.6

2.8
47.8
88.4

1
29
>95

43.2




17



5
















24.3
9.4
12.8

18.6
3.4

23.7
70.6
57.5
68.4
42.8
82.7

45
54
28
94
1
23

0
26
>95

[37–58]
[42–71]
[18–47]
[64–>95]
[1–2]
[14–48]




18











21.7
8.9

39.6
65.8
67.5
70.1

37
44
74

[30–48]

10.8

62.3

45

[37–57]

97

[35–60]
[55–>95]

44
54
40
23
11
31

MDG 6

MDG 6

Smear-positive tuberculosis
case-detection ratej
(%)

Smear-positive
tuberculosis
treatmentsuccess ratek
(%)

2000

0
68
220

[41–48]
[51–60]
[33–49]
[19–27]
[9–13]
[21–64]

40
42
49

[37–44]
[36–53]
[44–55]

42

[40–47]

39
70
38
62
24
39

2008

14
77
340

[37–41]
[65–76]
[34–43]
[57–68]
[22–27]
[34–45]

38
36
68
85

[36–39]

40

47
77
68
79
59
70

[44–49]
[72–82]
[60–76]
[74–85]
[51–66]
[60–80]

[47–52]

[81–90]

50
66
74
87

[38–43]

62

[33–39]
[63–74]

2000

2007

0
78
100

14
82
100

71
76
50
75
81
90

79
82
88
67
88
92

[83–91]

79
64
71
66

86
89
74
61

[58–66]

69

86

[60–72]
[67–81]

Table 4

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Table 5

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Risk factors
This section presents indicators for certain risk factors that are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The
preventable risks presented here are: unsafe water and lack of sanitation; use of solid fuels in households; low birth
weight; poor infant feeding practices; childhood under-nutrition; being overweight or obese; harmful consumption of
alcohol; use of tobacco; and unsafe sex.
Low birth weight is an important predictor of the health and survival of the newborn but in many settings
(especially where deliveries occur outside health-care facilities) many infants are not weighed at birth.
Child growth is the most widely used indicator of nutritional status. Included in the estimates presented in this
section are the three indicators: “stunted”; “underweight” (which is an MDG indicator); and “overweight”. Stunting
(i.e. low height-for-age) reflects the cumulative effects of under-nutrition and infections since birth – and even
before birth. Evidence of this condition indicates chronic malnutrition, which is likely to have the most serious and
long-lasting impact on health. Being underweight may reflect wasting (i.e. low weight-for-height) which indicates
acute weight loss and/or stunting. Thus, it is a composite indicator that is more difficult to interpret. Fewer data are
available on the levels of overweight children, although there is increasing evidence in many countries of a double
burden of malnutrition (with high levels of underweight or stunting) in some population groups coupled with high
levels of overweight in other groups.
The prevalence of current tobacco smoking is an important predictor of the future burden of tobacco-related
diseases. Harmful use of alcohol can cause alcohol dependence, hepatic cirrhosis, cancer and injuries.
The use of solid fuels in households is a proxy for indoor air pollution. Using solid fuels such as wood, charcoal
and crops is associated with increased mortality from pneumonia and other acute lower respiratory diseases among
children as well as increased mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer (where coal is
used) among adults.
Unsafe water supplies and inadequate levels of sanitation and hygiene increase the transmission of diarrhoeal
diseases (including cholera); schistosomiasis; trachoma; and hepatitis. Although more people globally now are
using “improved” drinking-water sources20 and “improved” sanitation facilities21 compared to 2000, the rate of
improvement will need to accelerate to meet the relevant MDG target22 for 2015 (Figure 11 and Box 4).
Data on risk factors and health-related behaviours are generally drawn from household surveys. It is important to
note that the reliability of these estimates depends on the overall quality of the sampling frames and methods used;
on interviewer training, data-quality assurance procedures, and statistical analyses of the data; and on the ability
and willingness of respondents to provide accurate responses. Where data from household surveys are not available,
statistical techniques may be used to develop estimates in some settings.

20

21

22

Improved drinking-water sources include: piped water into dwelling, plot or yard; public tap/standpipe; borehole/tube well; protected dug well; protected
spring; rainwater collection; and bottled water (if a secondary available source is also improved).
Improved sanitation facilities are facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human contact and include: flush/pour flush toilets or latrines
connected to a sewer, septic tank or pit; ventilated pit latrines; pit latrines with a slab or platform of any material which covers the pit entirely except for
the drop hole; and composting toilets/latrines.
MDG 7; Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation.
Use of an improved drinking-water source is a proxy for access to safe drinking-water. Similarly, the indicator used as a proxy for access to basic
sanitation records the proportion of the population using an improved sanitation facility. Definitions and a detailed description of drinking-water sources
and sanitation facilities can be found at the web site of the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation at www.wssinfo.org

99

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 11: Population using improved drinking-water sources and sanitation in low-income and lower middle-income
countries by rural and urban areas – 2008
Population using improved drinking-water sources
Low income

Population using improved sanitation

Lower middle income

Low income

Lower middle income

100
96
90
85

83

83

80

70

60

Percentage

56
54
50

50

40

30

28

20

10

0

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Note: Solid horizontal lines indicate the median.

100

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Box 4: Use of improved drinking-water sources and sanitation

In Figure 11, each circle represents a country (note that circles may overlap). From the data presented,
three major conclusions emerge:
The use of improved drinking-water and sanitation are heavily dependent upon country income and
place of residence – people living in rural areas in low-income countries are least likely to have access to
improved drinking-water and sanitation facilities.
The use of improved sanitation is generally far lower than the use of improved drinking-water in both
rural and urban areas – in low-income countries, median use of improved drinking-water in rural areas is
56% compared with only 28% for sanitation. In the corresponding urban areas, the figures are 85% and
50% respectively.
There are wide inequalities across countries in the use of both improved drinking-water and sanitation
facilities – for example in rural areas of lower middle-income countries, improved sanitation levels ranged
from 9% to 100% – representing an 11-fold difference.

101

Table 5

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

5. Risk factors
Member State

MDG 7
Population using improved
drinking-water sourcesa
(%)

Urban

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo

Rural

Total

MDG 7
Population using improved sanitationa
(%)

Population using solid
fuelsb (%)

Urban

Urban Rural

Rural

Total

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008


100
100
100
30
95
97
99
100
100
88
98
100
88
100
100
100
89
72

92

100
96

100
73
97
52
77
100

78
48
99
97
98
98

99
99
90

93
100
100
100
90

78
96
85
100
60
95
98
98
100
100
88
98
100
85
100
100
100
99
84
99
96
100
99
99

100
95
83
81
92
100
85
92
67
99
98
99
91
95
98
100
93
100
96
100
100
100
80



88
100
40

72

100
100
49


76
100
99
100
63
47

42

88
65

99
36
68
33
31
99

47
36
48
56
68
83

87
86
67

53
100
100
100
27

39
98
79
100
38

80
93
100
100
71


78
100
99
100
100
69
88
67
98
90
84

100
72
71
56
51
99
82
51
44
75
82
73
97
34

91
68
97
89
100
100
100
28



94
100
36

94

100
100
70


78
100
100
100
75
56

70

93
88

100
41
70
35
50
100

58
38
90
67
88
87

94
93
76

82
100
100
100
45

48
97
83
100
50

97
96
100
100
80


80
100
100
100
99
75
92
86
99
95
97

100
76
72
61
74
100
84
67
50
96
89
92
95
71

97
80
99
94
100
100
100
46



99
100
58
98
93
95
100
100

100
100
59
100

100
73
14

29

58
81

100
28
41
38
65
100

21
20
91
48
80
34

100
94
38

86
100
100

23

60
98
98
100
86
98
91
95
100
100
51
100
100
56
100
91
100
93
24
87
34
99
74
87

100
33
49
67
56
100
65
43
23
98
58
81
50
31
100
95
36
99
94
100
99

23



77
100
6

73

100
100

100

34
100

100
75
1

6

20
35

98
2
44
5
35
99

5
2
48
38
43
11

91
91
8

64
100
98

4

30
98
88
100
18

77
80
100
100
39
100

52
100
97
100
86
4
54
9
92
39
37

100
6
46
18
35
99
38
28
4
83
52
55
30
29
100
96
11
98
81
100
97

23



88
100
25

90

100
100

100

39
100

100
74
5

19

36
69

99
6
44
9
47
100

11
6
84
41
68
17

96
93
20

80
100
100

9

37
98
95
100
57

90
90
100
100
45
100

53
100
93
100
90
12
65
25
95
60
80

100
11
46
29
47
100
54
34
9
96
55
74
36
30
100
95
23
99
91
100
98

23

102

Total
2000–
2008

2007
36l

<5l

17l

<5l
<5


<5l


60

<5l

<5
88
<5t
6
20t
<5
<5


82t
>95
64
62t

12
>95l
94l

23
<5
44l
77t


64
7l
<5

<5l

89l

97l

<5l

92l


<5


23l


99

9l

21
97
72t
75
71t
53
40


99t
>95
96
98t

73
>95l
>95l

71
53
90l
>95t


>95
24l
13

<5l

>95l

Low
birthweight
newbornsc
(%)

87

<5
<5n
48
<5
5l
26
<5n
<5n
7
<5n
<5n
90
<5n
<5l
<5n
10
94
54t
31
49t
40
7
<5n

>95t
>95
91
81t
<5n
36
>95
93t
<5n
48
13
76t
84t
<5

79
12l
<5
<5n
<5l

>95


7
6

12
5
7
7
7
7
10
11
8
22
14
4
8
7
15
15
7
5
10
8
10
9
16
11
14
11
6
6
13
22
6
4
6
25
13
3
7
17
5
5

7
7
12

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Children
aged <5 yearse
(%)

Stunted

MDG1
Underweight

Adults aged
≥15 years who
are obesef
(%)

Overweight

Male
2000–
2009


39
7

11


33

10
12


43

9
1
10
43
10
60
18

40


7
45
66
21
17
60
23
2
58

47
21
19

19
4

26


65
36

1990–
1999
53.2
20.4
22.5

61.7

16.9
15.1
0.0




62.4




34.5
47.7
33.1

35.1
13.5


45.5

58.6
36.7

21.4
40.2
45.0
3.1
20.7
19.7
41.4


9.0
31.5



3.1

51.0

2000–
2009
59.3
27.0
15.9

50.8

8.2
18.2


26.8


43.2

4.5

22.2
44.7
37.5
27.1
11.8
29.1
7.1

8.8
44.5
63.1
39.5
36.4


44.6
44.8
2.0
21.8
16.2
46.9
31.2


40.1

4.6

2.6
43.1
45.8

1990–
1999
44.9
7.1
11.3

37.0

4.7
2.7
0.0




52.0




26.8
14.1
5.9

15.1
4.5


33.7

42.6
17.8

11.8
23.3
34.3
0.7
7.9
6.3
22.3


4.5
18.2



0.9

30.7

2000–
2009
32.9
6.6
3.7

27.5

2.3
4.2


8.4


41.3

1.3

4.9
20.2
12.0
4.3
1.6
10.7
2.2

1.6
37.4
38.9
28.8
16.6


21.8
33.9
0.5
6.8
5.1
25.0
11.8


16.7

3.9

2.1
20.6
28.2

1990–
1999
6.5
9.5
13.2

1.6

13.5
10.8
8.2




0.5




2.5
3.9
10.7


6.6


1.9

6.5
8.2


4.2
2.7
11.9
6.8
4.5
5.9


9.6
4.6



6.7

2000–
2009
4.6
25.2
12.9

5.3

9.9
11.7


13.9


1.1

9.7

13.7
11.4
5.2
8.5
25.6
10.4
7.3

13.6
7.7
1.4
2.0
9.6


10.8
4.4
9.5
9.2
4.2
21.5
8.5


9.0



4.4

6.8

Female

2000–2009








25.6p,r
13.0p,r,s
4.3q





11.9r,s




16.5p,r

8.9p,r

13.4p,r




22.9p,r



19.0p,r
2.4p,r
10.4p,r


57.4p,v


21.6p,r
8.0p,r
12.9r
23.9p,r

Prevalence of
Alcohol
smoking any
consumptobacco product
tion
among adults
among
aged ≥15 yearsh
adults
(%)
aged
≥15 yearsg
(litres
of pure
alcohol per
person per
year)

2005







19.4p,q
15.5q
24.0p,r
9.0p,r,s
17.9q


1.7q


13.4r,s

5.8q

17.4q
25.2p,r

16.0q

19.2p,r
2.4q

1.5q
2.4q
23.2p,r


1.5q
25.0p,r
3.4p,r
16.2p,r

7.5q
65.7p,v


22.7p,r
15.4p,r
11.8r
22.3p,r

2.4q

<0.1
4.9
0.6
12.8
4.7
9.5o
7.8
11.5
9.9
12.7
8.0
11.0o
3.7
0.0
7.6o
11.1
9.7
5.8o
1.1
0.2
2.8
9.6
4.5
6.2
1.7
10.9
4.7
6.2
2.0
4.7
7.8
2.5o
1.6
0.4
6.8
4.4
4.3
0.2
2.0
5.4o
4.2
4.5
12.5
4.5
9.3o
14.8

2.0

103

Male

Female
2006


42.6
28.8
35.6


34.7
61.0
22.0
46.7


21.8
47.0
18.0
64.4
33.3
24.8
18.0

34.3
48.7

19.4

49.0
20.8

49.1
11.9
24.0
16.1

15.3
42.0
59.5u

26.7
11.4
42.0
25.7
14.4
38.5
42.9

34.8
58.4
12.7

Prevalence of
current tobacco
use among adolescents aged
13–15 yearsi
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2009

3.8
0.2
27.7


25.7
2.7
19.0
41.3
0.6

2.9
3.7
3.0
21.6
24.4
3.0
2.0

29.1
35.1

12.0

38.0
10.3

6.6
2.0
18.0
4.5

2.3
33.8
3.7u

12.4
0.9
34.2
7.3
2.2
29.1
29.4

27.2
...
2.4

m

13.1
17.6
25.5m


15.1
26.1
10.9



12.9
28.0
9.1
34.5
31.6

21.8
14.6m
27.6
24.7m
16.3
27.0
17.2m

26.4
22.6m
20.7
4.3
14.0m

14.7
29.5m
20.9
29.8m
7.1m
27.0m
21.8
27.6
33.7
15.9
21.7m
23.3
10.9m
13.2
35.8

36.5m

MDG 6
Prevalence of
condom use
by adults aged
15–49 years at
higher-risk sexj
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007
m

3.2
6.7
5.7m


12.5
29.7
4.3



10.2
11.7
5.1
23.2
22.2

15.3
5.8m
11.6
16.6m
10.5
20.5
15.7m

31.8
11.5m
16.8
2.3
8.2m

11.7
34.5m
13.9
39.8m
4.1m
27.8m
14.8
20.4
36.3
13.1
10.3m
25.6
9.5m
8.4
34.1

29.3m








58


26







17







43

41
38

69

20




30


38





16











<1















44


35

57

7


31

23


41





8

MDG 6
Population aged
15–24 years with
comprehensive
correct
knowledge of
HIV/AIDSk
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007







15


5







35

18





23

45
34

36
27
19




35


28





21


6
13




23


6


16

34


16

15
48




15
30
50
27

36
17
7



18
26


18

30



15

Table 5

Infants
exclusively
breastfed
for the
first 6
months of
lifed
(%)

5. Risk factors
Member State

MDG 7
Population using improved
drinking-water sourcesa
(%)

Urban

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho

Rural

Total

MDG 7
Population using improved sanitationa
(%)

Population using solid
fuelsb (%)

Urban

Urban Rural

Rural

Total

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

100
80

98
81
96
90

62
99
77
92
100
100

85
94
100
84
99
97
91
87


62
91
98
100
90
92
98
97
100
100
100
98
100
99
99
91
76
99
98

100
100
88

100
98

87
97
100
94

74
99
98

100
100
95
96
100
100
90
100
97
98
89
83
98
71
95
100
100
96
89
98
91
100
100
100
98
100
98
99
83

99
99
72
100
100
97

100
69

76
62
86
58

39
97
8

100
100

67
66
100
37
92

75
38
37

41
59
91
100
66
62
83
44
100
100
100
88
100
91
92
32
33
99


96
100
57

100
52

84
88
98
76

57
97
26

100
100
41
86
96
100
74
99

90
61
51
93
55
77
100
100
84
71

55
100
100
100
89
100
91
90
52

99
85
51
96
100
81

100
77

88
72
90
74

43
98
17

100
100

74
81
100
54
96

82
52


47
72
96
100
72
71
91
81
100
100
100
93
100
97
96
43
48
99


99
100
61

100
92

86
94
99
87

61
98
38

100
100
87
92
98
100
82
100

94
71
61
94
63
86
100
100
88
80

79
100
100
100
94
100
96
95
59

99
90
57
99
100
85

100
73

83
86
91
88

58

21
92
100
100


97
100
11
100
96
84
18


44
68
100
100
49
58
86

100
100

82
100
98
96
24
36
100
94


100
29

100
63

87
96
97
89

52
96
29

100
100
33
68
96
100
18
99
96
89
34
49
85
24
80
100
100
54
67

76
100
100

82
100
98
97
27

100
94
86
82
100
40

100
45

61
48
57
62

0

1

100
100


95
100
4
92
97
51
6


19
28
100
100
7
22
78

98
100

83
100

97
27
21
100




32

100
10

74
84
92
83

4
94
8

100
100
30
65
93
100
7
97
97
73
11
9
80
10
62
100
100
21
36

66
98
100

84
100
97
98
32

100
93
38
71

25

100
66

73
69
72
75

9

4

100
100


96
100
7
97
97
65
9


26
44
100
100
18
33
83

99
100

83
100

96
26
26
100




32

100
56

83
92
94
87

14
95
12

100
100
33
67
95
100
13
98
97
81
19
21
81
17
71
100
100
31
52

73
99
100

83
100
98
97
31

100
93
53
78

29

104

Total
2000–
2008

2007

10

<5
<5
<5
8

27
8l
74



15
91l
9l

74


29
>95t
>95l
<5t
86
24t


25
23

<5l





<5
5
32


12l
91
<5l

8


83

21
17
<5
51

89
35l
>95



76
>95l
78l

>95


88
>95t
>95l
14t
>95
89t


88
80

13l





<5
25
>95


56l
>95
26l

86

Low
birthweight
newbornsc
(%)

<5n
16

7
<5
<5
23
<5 n
63
16l
>95

<5n
<5n
27
95
43l
<5n
86
<5n

62
>95
>95
11t
93
57t
<5n
<5n
60
58
<5l,w
5
<5n
<5n
<5n
16
<5n
<5
12
75

<5n
37l
>95
10l
<5l,w
71

5
10
10
11
10
13
7
13
14
4
20
10
4
7
14
20
5
7
9
8
9
12
12
24
19
25
10
9
4
28
9
7
15
6
8
6
12
8
13
6
10
5
7
5
11
5
6
13

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Children
aged <5 yearse
(%)

Stunted

MDG1
Underweight

Adults aged
≥15 years who
are obesef
(%)

Overweight

Male
2000–
2009


1

8
40
53
31

52

49
40
15

5
41
11
22
63


51
48
28
21
41
30


46
32
44
25



15

22
17
32


32
26
29

36

1990–
1999

31.7

13.9
32.5
34.9
29.5

44.4


4.3



36.3
16.1

31.3


53.1
34.3

14.0
37.2
43.3


51.0

20.4




6.3

11.1
13.9
37.0


32.6
52.9

16.7
49.8

2000–
2009

32.6

10.1
29.0
30.7
24.6
35.0
43.7

50.7



26.3
27.6
14.7
1.3
28.6


54.3
40.0
28.1
18.2
29.7
29.9


47.9
40.1

27.5



3.7

12.0
17.5
35.8


18.1
47.6

16.5
45.2

1990–
1999

16.0

4.7
12.5
10.8
7.2

38.3


6.9



23.2
2.7

20.3


20.3
21.2

10.3
24.0
19.2


44.4
22.8
9.5




2.3

3.8
3.8
17.6


8.2
35.9

2.6
14.0

2000–
2009

29.6

3.4
6.2
6.8
6.1
10.6
34.5

34.6



8.8
15.8
2.3
1.1
14.3


17.7
20.8
17.2
10.8
18.9
8.6


43.5
19.6

7.1



2.2

3.6
4.9
16.5


2.7
31.6

4.2
16.6

1990–
1999



6.9

14.7
3.9

1.2


2.2




17.9

2.7


6.9
4.3

1.9
4.3
2.4


3.6

6.9




5.9

4.4
5.3
7.6


9.2



2000–
2009

13.4

8.3
5.1
20.5
5.8
8.3
1.6

5.1



5.6
2.7
21.0
3.5
5.9


5.6


6.8
3.9
5.8


1.9
11.2

15.0





4.7
14.8
5.8


10.7
1.3

16.7
6.8

Female

2000–2009
p,r,s

11.8




18.2v


2.3v
17.5p,v,s

15.1p,v
15.4v,s
16.1p,r



20.5p,r

26.0p,r,s




14.3p,r,s


12.1r
12.4r,s
1.3q
1.1r
9.2v
26.2p,r
16.0p,x
19.8p,v
7.4p,r,s

2.9r
21.1p,r,s


41.7p,v
36.4p,v

0.7r
12.3v,s

Prevalence of
Alcohol
smoking any
consumptobacco product
tion
among adults
among
aged ≥15 yearsh
adults
(%)
aged
≥15 yearsg
(litres
of pure
alcohol per
person per
year)

2005
p,r,s

11.0



14.6q
39.5v
25.6q

4.4v
18.3p,v,s
0.7q
32.7p,v
16.0v,s
17.6p,r
8.2q


21.1p,r
9.3q
18.2p,r,s


3.0q

26.9p,r,s
6.3q
18.8q
18.3r
12.3r,s
2.8q
3.6r
19.2v
38.2p,r
17.0p,x
25.4p,v
8.9p,r,s

3.3r
20.1q,s

6.3q
58.9p,v
47.9p,v

3.0q
18.1v,s

16.1q

11.3
1.7
8.1o
5.8
4.1
0.2
2.5
4.6
0.8
16.2o
0.6
2.1o
10.0
13.2
7.9
2.4
4.2
11.7
1.5
9.2
10.8o
2.4
0.2
3.2
7.2
5.2
3.2
12.5
7.1o
0.6
<0.1
<0.1
0.2
13.4
2.5
8.0
3.5
8.0
0.4
6.2
1.9
1.6
<0.1
2.8
5.8
10.2
1.7
1.9

105

Male

Female
2006

35.3


17.3
23.4
27.6


16.0
47.8
9.0
21.8
33.3
36.4

29.2
57.0
37.2
9.5
63.4

24.1





45.4
29.3
33.2
61.7
29.6
29.6
33.8
30.5
34.0
20.5
42.4
61.1
42.9
25.9

36.9
46.4
64.0
53.4
30.6

Prevalence of
current tobacco
use among adolescents aged
13–15 yearsi
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2009
29.8


13.3
5.8
1.4


1.1
25.3
0.8
3.6
23.0
26.9

2.6
5.6
25.7
0.7
39.4

4.1




3.4
35.3
23.8
3.8
5.2
5.4
3.4
28.2
18.5
19.5
9.2
12.6
9.6
9.1
2.0

4.3
2.0
15.3
24.1
7.1


22.7
30.4
18.4
31.2m
16.0
18.2
25.1
7.8
33.8
9.9m
11.6



34.0m
15.2

11.6
17.1
24.5
19.7
30.8
11.5m
17.6
21.7m
22.8m
27.9

19.0
41.0
32.9
17.7m



24.0

33.7
15.2
14.9
42.6
25.0
10.3
13.2m
41.8
65.8
26.4


14.3
19.8
11.9
26.1m
7.6
11.0
17.3
4.6
27.8
4.9m
10.2



36.6m
2.8

10.9
14.4
16.7
13.3
20.0
10.3m
12.2
23.9m
18.2m
26.7

8.3
6.2
19.5
15.2m



15.3

26.1
8.1
14.5
30.7
11.3
4.4
4.9m
33.9
54.1
21.7

MDG 6
Prevalence of
condom use
by adults aged
15–49 years at
higher-risk sexj
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007



45






9



40



38



24

53
34



23










33






41




35










26



35



20

56
21
27


12










12






19

MDG 6
Population aged
15–24 years with
comprehensive
correct
knowledge of
HIV/AIDSk
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007



34






33







33



23

47
40



36










47






19


18

41



4
37

20




39


25



17
18
53
34
30


20


3



60


22
34


20



27

Table 5

Infants
exclusively
breastfed
for the
first 6
months of
lifed
(%)

5. Risk factors
Member State

MDG 7
Population using improved
drinking-water sourcesa
(%)

Urban

Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia

Rural

Total

MDG 7
Population using improved sanitationa
(%)

Population using solid
fuelsb (%)

Urban

Urban Rural

Rural

Total

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

86
54

100
78
90
94
100
54
100
94
36
100
94
93
100
81

94
73
87
99

96
100
100
92
57
79
100
100
84
96
73
99
89
81
88
93
100
98
100
97


98
96
99
98

79


100
71
95
100
99
81
100
92
52
100
96
95
100
97
100
98
77
75
99
90
93
100
100
98
96
75
100
100
92
95

97
87
99
90
93
100
99
100
100
96

98
77
99
98

34
55

100
16
33
82
87
22
98
97
26
99
64
87

27

55
26
47
51

74
100
100
54
31
30
100
100
72
81
98
66
32
25
45
76
100
94
100



81
66
99
98

51


100
29
77
99
86
44
100
99
47
99
87


49
96
60
29
69
88

87
100
100
68
39
42
100
100
77
87

83
33
66
61
87
100
100
100
88
85

89
62
99
98

58
54

100
31
40
88
90
29
100
95
30
99
85
89
100
58

74
36
57
64

76
100
100
74
35
47
100
100
80
86
81
84
41
52
75
84
100
96
100



93
68
99
98

68


100
41
80
100
91
56
100
94
49
99
94

100
76
98
81
47
71
92
90
88
100
100
85
48
58
100
100
88
90

93
41
86
82
91
100
99
100
98
90

96
65
99
98

21
97

100
14
50
88
100
36
100
77
29
93
80
55
100


81
36

66

41
100

59
19
39
100
100
97
73
76
73
78
61
71
70
96
97
100
100

88
93
35
96

25
97

100
15
51
96
100
45
100
83
50
93
90

100
64
96
83
38
86
60
50
51
100

63
34
36
100
100
97
72
96
75
71
90
81
80
96
100
100
100
85
88
93
50
96

3
96

100
6
41
81
58
23
100
41
8
90
30
20



27
4

9

8
100
88
26
2
36
100
100
61
8
54
40
42
15
16
46

87
100
100

52
70
22
96

4
96

100
10
57
95
96
32
100
53
9
90
68


32
86
52
4
79
17

27
100

37
4
28
100
100

29

51
41
40
36
69
80
100
100
100
74
54
70
55
96

11
97

100
8
42
84
69
26
100
64
16
91
66
29
100


53
11

25

11
100

43
5
37
100
100
85
28
69
58
47
37
54
58

92
100
100

71
87
23
96

17
97

100
11
56
96
98
36
100
72
26
91
85

100
50
92
69
17
81
33
50
31
100

52
9
32
100
100

45

69
45
70
68
76
90
100
100
100
79
72
87
54
96

106

Total
2000–
2008

2007
>95l



>95
>95
<5l

>95

9l
30
<5t
<5l


61l
18l
<5t
89t
88l
19

36


31
>95
40



31

<5

33
11t
27l




<5l
<5l
<5
>95

>95l



>95
>95
<5l

>95

94l
82
<5t
45l


>95l
56l
17t
>95t
>95l
88

91


92
>95
92



91

46

81
80t
70l




24l
42l
20
>95

Low
birthweight
newbornsc
(%)

>95l
<5l,w
<5n
<5n
>95
>95
<5l
10
>95
<5n
31
60
<5t
15
44
<5n
77l
32l
7t
>95t
>95t
57
5
82
<5n
<5n
56
>95
79
5
<5n
<5n
66
<5l,w
16

52
36
47t
<5n
<5n
<5l,w
<5l,w
15l
23l
7
>95
<5n
<5

14
7
4
8
17
13
9
22
19
6
18
34
14
8
18

6
4
15
15
15
16
27
21

6
8
27
14
0
5
9
32
9
10
10
9
8
20
6
8
10
4
6
8
6
6
11
11

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Children
aged <5 yearse
(%)

Stunted

MDG1
Underweight

Adults aged
≥15 years who
are obesef
(%)

29



51
57

10
38

27
19




57
19
31
30
11
24
67
53


31
10
13



37



22
73
34




46
16

88

1990–
1999
45.3
20.7


55.5
55.8
20.7
46.7
36.2


49.8

21.7


30.1
9.7
29.9
45.3
47.6
35.7

61.1


28.3
47.0
39.7


12.9
42.7

21.5

18.3
31.6
38.3


11.6


15.3

56.8

2000–
2009
39.4
21.0


52.8
53.2

31.9
38.5


24.2

15.5


27.5
7.9
23.1
47.0
40.6
29.6

49.3


18.8
54.8
41.0



41.5

19.1
43.9

29.8
33.8




11.3
12.8

51.7

1990–
1999
22.8
4.3


35.5
24.4
16.7
41.5
38.2


20.3

6.0


10.8
0.6
8.1
28.1
25.0
21.5

38.2


10.0
45.0
27.3


11.3
35.3

6.3

2.8
5.7
28.3


4.8


3.4

24.3

2000–
2009
20.4
5.6


36.8
15.5

25.7
27.9


16.7

3.4


5.3
2.2
9.9
21.2
29.6
17.5

38.8


4.3
39.9
26.7



31.3

3.9
18.1

5.4
20.7




3.2
3.5

18.0

(litres
of pure
alcohol per
person per
year)

Overweight

Male
2000–
2009

Prevalence of
Alcohol
smoking any
consumptobacco product
tion
among adults
among
aged ≥15 yearsh
adults
(%)
aged
≥15 yearsg

1990–
1999
4.6



2.9
9.9
5.5
6.9
2.1




7.6


7.0
22.0
10.7
6.0
11.6
4.5

0.4


4.0
1.2



1.6
1.6

6.2

6.3
9.9
1.9


10.4


10.1

4.0

2000–
2009
4.2
22.4


6.2
11.3

3.9
4.7




7.6


14.2
15.6
13.3
6.3
2.4
4.6

0.6


5.2
3.5
10.5



4.8


3.4

9.1
2.4




9.1
8.3

6.7

Female

2000–2009


20.6p,v,s



13.9p,v


22.2p,r,s


5.6p,r
24.2p,r


7.2v

8.2p,r



50.3q

8.6p,r,s
24.7r
33.1p,r



11.0p,r,s
16.7p,r


14.4p,r


11.5p,r
3.0p,r
15.7p,r
15.0p,v

2.8p,r,s

7.7r
11.8p,q,s


2005
q

5.7

19.2p,v,s

1.0q
2.4q
18.8p,v

5.2q
19.3p,r,s

16.7q
13.7p,r
34.5p,r


12.5v

11.0q
3.9q

11.7q
56.0q
0.9q
10.8p,r,s
26.0r
35.2p,r
3.2q
6.0q

8.0p,r,s
23.8p,r


21.8p,r


12.5q
5.7p,r
19.9p,r
13.4p,v

3.5p,r,s
18.2q
9.5r
20.1p,q,s
1.1q

3.5
0.0
12.5
11.7
0.8
1.1
0.5

0.5
5.3o

<0.1
2.6
5.1
3.3

1.4

0.5
1.5
0.1
6.5
2.3
0.2
9.5
9.3
3.7
<0.1
9.7
7.7
6.4
0.7
<0.1
11.3
5.9
1.5
6.4
3.1
4.2
9.5
12.2
0.9
11.8

10.5
11.0
7.0
10.3o
12.7o
107

Male

Female
2006

13.1

49.9
38.8

21.4
52.6
44.5
18.3
32.1
35.7
33.7
34.2
36.4
29.8

45.6

30.4
20.9
42.6
24.1
47.5
35.8
33.3
22.2


11.9

30.5
20.5
35.4
37.7


32.9

53.2
29.6
33.7

53.3
44.7
45.5
70.1


28.4

Prevalence of
current tobacco
use among adolescents aged
13–15 yearsi
(%)

Male

Female



21.7
30.4

5.4
2.6
11.8
2.5
20.7
6.1
5.1
0.9
12.4
18.0

6.5

0.2
3.1
14.8
9.5
54.0
27.9
27.5
20.0


1.0

29.7
1.3
6.5
9.3


15.2

12.2
37.7
15.5

5.7
5.4
24.1
27.7


12.1

14.2
15.5
38.4

33.2
16.7
35.1
8.5
23.1


27.5
20.3
27.8m
51.9

25.7
6.6
12.5
12.7m
22.5
28.6

13.0

18.7
30.4m
15.2
19.2m


17.8
12.4m
58.3
10.5
55.4
20.8
19.9m
28.2
26.0m

25.2
14.9
20.8
18.4
30.1
13.3
18.2
22.4

Male

Female

2000–2007

2000–2009
m

MDG 6
Prevalence of
condom use
by adults aged
15–49 years at
higher-risk sexj
(%)

m

11.8
6.1
28.8

14.3
11.4
9.4
3.4
8.8


17.7
7.7
28.5m
39.8

16.0
5.9
8.2
7.4m
8.2
22.9

5.3

21.5
20.5m
8.0
11.1m


11.3
7.5m
42.4
6.5
40.3
12.9
18.2m
17.3
31.7m

13.1
10.6
7.1
10.4
24.4
9.5
13.6
14.5





9
20


12

20








19

74

30



7
22









22




45


8





2
16


8

11








14

66




19
8
13








31





22


14

MDG 6
Population aged
15–24 years with
comprehensive
correct
knowledge of
HIV/AIDSk
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007




16
36


22

39








33

62

44



16
21









18







54





19
24


18

27





35
30
12
20

65

28


22
13
18








19
12







51

Table 5

Infants
exclusively
breastfed
for the
first 6
months of
lifed
(%)

5. Risk factors
Member State

MDG 7
Population using improved
drinking-water sourcesa
(%)

Urban

Rural

Total

MDG 7
Population using improved sanitationa
(%)

Population using solid
fuelsb (%)

Urban

Urban Rural

Rural

Total

Low
birthweight
newbornsc
(%)

Total
2000–
2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia


99


97
88



100

100


98
100
91
85
99

100
100
96

97




89
97
92
99
100
86
100
100
100

67
99
100
98
64
97
92
100
100
94
94
99
100


89


63
43





99


66
100
62
58


100
100
75

89




88

52
98

26

100
99

9
78
100
88
52
81
61
100
100
84
61
98
99


91


89
61



100

100


83
100
67
65


100
100
85

91




89

69
99

49
100
100
99

30
91
100
90
57
93
69
100
100
89
70
98
100


100


100
62



99
100
100
98

80
100
85
63
90

100
100
94
93
93


100

30
100
69
96
97
24
100
100
100
98
52
84
100
88
55
90
61
100
100
96
95
95
92

96
98



22




100
100


58
100
67
23


100
100
72

74

96
100

19

38
88

6

99
100

6
65
100
92
18
66
53
100
100
95
94
96
82


98



38



99
100
100


69
100
70
34


100
100
83

80


100

26

51
92

13
100
100
100

23
77
100
91
34
84
55
100
100
96
94
96
89






17
14l

>95t

<5l

60t
>95t
7
<5l
32t


14


<5l
<5
11l
25l






86
61l

>95t

<5l

>95t
>95t
41
<5l
81t


77


<5l
35
47l
55l


44
<5n

<5n
51
34
<5l
>95
<5n
<5l
8l
92
>95t
17
<5l
72
90

58
<5n
<5n
<5l
21
25
37l

8
4

8
11
19
5

24
8
7

13

15
6
18
31
13
9
4
6
9
10
9
6

Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe


79

92
95
94
97
92
78
99
100
100
94
100
98
97
91
93
88

89
99

86
87
100
98
99
100
97
98
91
98
100
100
80
100
100
98
96

99
72
87
99


36

88
62
73

89
39

100
100
46
94
79
85
49
71
51

23
70

63
41
100
93
84
96

97
64
97
100
100
45
94
100
81
79

92
57
46
72


49

88
81
85

90
43

100
100
55
99
96
90
57
90
58

49
78

69
60
100
94
94
99

97
67
98
100
100
54
99
100
87
82

94
62
60
82


25
98
93
95
96
99
86
35
97
98
100
27
100
95
95

89
61
64
62
58

76
24
98
92
96
97
99
88
38
97
98
100
32
100
100
100
66

94
94
59
56


8
96
93
44
66
97
76
40
91
95
100
23
99
83
76

45
29
6
36
37

40
3
96
92
64
75
97
81
49
90
95
100
21
99
99
100
48

67
33
43
37


13
96
93
74
84
98
80
39
95
97
100
24
100
94
84

82
35
18
46
43

50
12
96
92
85
90
98
84
48
95
97
100
24
100
100
100
51

75
52
49
44


>95l
9l

<5t

<5l

95
<5t
<5l

85

<5t
<5t
53l

20
<5
62
19


>95l
50l

<5t

<5l

>95
15t
<5l

>95

23
26t
>95l

72
53
>95
>95


>95l
45
<5l
<5t

<5l,w
25
>95
7t
<5l
<5n
94
<5n
<5
16t
85

61
36
86
71

12
12
3
19
5
16
4
5
14
4
15
8
10
8
9
5
10
9
7
32
11
11

108

2007

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Children
aged <5 yearse
(%)

Stunted

MDG1
Underweight

Adults aged
≥15 years who
are obesef
(%)

Overweight

Male
2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

Female

2000–2009

Prevalence of
Alcohol
smoking any
consumptobacco product
tion
among adults
among
aged ≥15 yearsh
adults
(%)
aged
≥15 yearsg
(litres
of pure
alcohol per
person per
year)

2005

Male

Female
2006

o

Prevalence of
current tobacco
use among adolescents aged
13–15 yearsi
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2009

MDG 6
Prevalence of
condom use
by adults aged
15–49 years at
higher-risk sexj
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007

MDG 6
Population aged
15–24 years with
comprehensive
correct
knowledge of
HIV/AIDSk
(%)

Male

Female

2000–2007




51

34
15

11



74
9
7

76
34
9
32

14
29
25
5
16


6.4


21.4
33.7
9.9







30.9

26.1
40.3
14.5



26.5
41.5
18.1
8.0




29.3
9.3
20.1
8.1

37.4
4.4


32.8
42.1


17.3
37.9

29.5


28.6
33.1
15.7
11.5


1.7


13.5
21.9
0.5







10.1

29.3
34.9
11.4



11.3

15.4
1.9




13.1
5.3
14.5
1.8

21.3
3.3


11.5
32.8


21.1
31.7

6.1


10.0
14.9
7.0
1.8


6.2


1.2
4.0
17.8







9.6


2.3
2.9





4.7
9.6





6.1
2.4
19.3

10.1
2.6


2.5
4.7


1.6
5.3

11.4


18.7
6.7
8.0
16.2



44.9p,v 66.3p,v




28.3v
43.8v

7.2q


15.0p,v 35.2p,v

9.3q
p,r,s
6.7
4.7p,r,s
v,s
13.5
15.0v,s
p,v,s
16.5
13.8p,v,s
q
5.2
14.5q


8.8r
27.4r
15.7p,r,s 15.4p,r,s

7.2q




3.9q
23.1q
p,r,s
13.0
12.0p,r,s
r,s
8.7
7.8r,s
p,v
15.5
27.7p,v

7.1p,q
p,v
3.3
10.2p,v

5.9
3.6

5.4
0.5
0.3
10.1
11.9o
6.5
2.1o
11.0
10.5
1.1
0.0
7.0
10.0
0.3
1.4
5.4
5.0
6.6
10.1
1.1
0.4
6.5
5.8

18.8
58.5

22.2
22.9
18.5
39.6
32.3

36.3
41.3
31.6


29.5
37.0
32.4
27.8
17.0
23.0
17.3
32.5
42.9

43.1

6.0
22.9

9.7
3.7
1.4
26.7
6.4

5.9
20.3
21.3


9.4
27.2
2.1
3.0
2.8
2.7
23.3
23.1


2.0

22.0
25.8


20.2
20.4
10.8
27.1
20.3m
10.5
28.5
16.9
43.9
15.5m
29.3

12.4
9.5
20.7
15.8


38.6
6.8
24.0
11.9

16.6
20.4


10.7
9.6
9.6
25.3
24.1m
7.5
24.5
24.2
37.0
12.3m
20.1

5.8
4.3
16.6
8.6


19.5
2.8
7.5
11.7






31













56










21













57










26













52








44

21
42

17




4




41
52


7
3
46
27

31
48

13
6
42
11
35
60
18

<1
41
12
57
26
40

17
12
61
22


29.8


30.9
19.1


45.0



48.3
3.2
13.4
39.0
25.7
18.3
43.7
59.3
57.9
33.7

55.7
26.9

5.3
9.0
15.6

10.0
38.7
22.9


44.4
3.9
13.9
19.6

15.6
30.5
57.7
45.8
35.8


23.2


8.1
7.0


21.5



25.3
0.9
3.9
15.3
10.6
4.1
31.1
47.6
19.6
11.5

40.6
20.5

4.4
3.3
3.5

1.6
16.4
4.1


16.7
1.3
6.0
4.4

3.7
20.2
43.1
14.9
14.0


2.6


25.4
4.0


5.1



3.3
5.4
9.6
18.5

5.2
1.8
3.7
12.3
10.6

5.7


4.9
8.8
9.1

6.3
4.9
26.5


4.9
8.0
9.4
12.8

6.1
3.0
5.0
8.4
9.1





56.1v
74.9v


5.8p,r,s 15.3p,r,s
15.6p,r
23.9q

10.3q
q
46.6
67.6q

4.1q

11.3q
p,r
17.1
31.4p,r
p,r
24.0
24.0p,r

4.4q
p,r
31.1
33.2p,r
p,r
18.0
22.0p,r
v
5.4
7.1q,s
v
14.4
25.2v


0.3p,r
0.6p,r



5.4q
3.9p,r
7.2q

0.3
1.0
4.0o
6.0
1.1
1.3
2.3
1.3
11.9
8.5
0.3
11.5
5.2
8.5
6.6
1.8
0.8o
6.9
1.2
0.0
2.3
3.8



62.3

57.6
51.3

53.6
18.9
64.5
25.0
26.1
23.8
25.4
38.7
23.4
49.6
31.6
44.0
29.1
20.9
32.9



15.0

7.3
19.5

20.9
4.2
24.1
2.6
23.5
4.0
19.3
28.5
3.4
7.2
26.5
2.4
5.8
4.6
4.2

60.2
17.7

20.8
27.8
14.4

41.6
17.3
29.8
25.2

12.4m
18.2
21.4
2.7m
34.1
13.0m
6.5
14.5
25.7m
14.9m

53.4
7.9

17.8
8.8
7.4

32.7
15.3
22.2
13.2

8.8m
15.9
24.5
1.6m
19.6
12.2m
1.5
10.5
25.6m
8.2m









42
46


29





58

28
36









41
48


21







33
41









38
43


40





50

37
46


28

28




32
42


45


31


42

34
44

109

Table 5

Infants
exclusively
breastfed
for the
first 6
months of
lifed
(%)

5. Risk factors
Member State

MDG 7
Population using improved
drinking-water sourcesa
(%)

Urban

Rural

Total

MDG 7
Population using improved sanitationa
(%)

Population using solid
fuelsb (%)

Urban

Urban Rural

Rural

Total

Low
birthweight
newbornsc
(%)

Total
2000–
2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

1990

2008

2007

30
97
100

52
98
100

8
74
100

9
87
100

17
88
100

30
94
100

11
91
100

15
92
100

0
60
100

3
75
100

4
74
100

9
84
100

<5
18
>95

<5
80
99

<5
15
>95

0
9
34

84
97
91
99
95
97

84
98
93
99
93
98

36
74
67
91
76
58

48
85
83
94
76
83

50
91
73
96
85
71

61
96
86
98
83
90

47
89
54
97
85
64

47
92
60
97
83
69

23
60
16
85
32
42

26
70
31
87
45
56

30
81
26
94
53
49

34
87
40
94
61
62

51
<5
28

14
23

90
53
87
24
58
71

78
9
62
<5
34
43

14
8
24
6
21
6

86
93
96
100

86
95
98
100

48
62
74
97

60
81
87
98

57
71
89
99

67
86
95
100

46
58
87
100

52
62
90
100

22
28
56
99

37
40
68
99

27
37
77
100

42
49
85
100

62
23
<5

90
76
34

83
51
10
<5

15
17
7
8

95

96

63

78

77

87

77

76

35

45

52

60

21

76

42

15

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP
Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

GLOBAL

110

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Children
aged <5 yearse
(%)

MDG1
Underweight

Stunted

Adults aged
≥15 years who
are obesef
(%)

Overweight

Male

Female

Prevalence of
Alcohol
smoking any
consumptobacco product
tion
among adults
among
aged ≥15 yearsh
adults
(%)
aged
≥15 yearsg
(litres
of pure
alcohol per
person per
year)

Male

Female

Prevalence of
current tobacco
use among adolescents aged
13–15 yearsi
(%)

Male

Female

MDG 6
Prevalence of
condom use
by adults aged
15–49 years at
higher-risk sexj
(%)

Male

Female

MDG 6
Population aged
15–24 years with
comprehensive
correct
knowledge of
HIV/AIDSk
(%)

Male

Female

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

<1
29
88

0.0
31.7
62.4

1.3
29.1
63.1

0.0
14.1
52.0

0.5
11.8
43.5

0.4
5.7
25.4

0.6
6.8
26.5

0.3
14.4
57.4

0.6
15.0
74.9

0.0
4.5
16.2

9.0
33.3
70.1

0.2
9.3
54.0

2.7
20.8
65.8

1.5
13.1
54.1

7
31
74

<1
22
66

5
34
62

3
26
65

31
31
43
23
36









































4.3
6.7
0.7
9.5
0.3
4.7

17.7
26.8
39.4
44.6
32.0
56.5

2.8
17.0
4.6
24.3
4.4
4.8

20.1
20.8
20.7
21.5
17.8
9.5

13.1
19.5
7.7
16.6
10.3
5.4











30

36


23

21


38
37
34
12

























1.6
2.8
6.6
9.4

30.9
47.7
41.1
33.1

4.8
4.4
19.1
19.8

15.2
16.7
23.3

9.8
8.0
19.4
15.5







0
33

0
24

36

4.4

41.1

8.9

17.5

10.4

2000–
2009

2000–2009

2005

111

2006

2000–2009

2000–2007

2000–2007

Table 5

Infants
exclusively
breastfed
for the
first 6
months of
lifed
(%)

Table 6

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Health workforce, infrastructure
and essential medicines
This section presents data on the resources available to the health system – this includes physicians; nurses and
midwives; other health-care workers; and hospital beds. The table also includes the MDG target23 indicator on access
to essential medicines. Such data are essential in enabling governments to determine how best to meet the healthrelated needs of their populations.
Estimates of the numbers and density of the health workforce (Figure 12 and Box 5) refer to the active health
workforce – i.e. those currently participating in the health labour market. The data are derived from multiple sources,
including national population censuses; labour-force and employment surveys; health-facility assessments; and routine
administrative information systems.24
This diversity of sources means there is considerable variability in the coverage and quality of the data. Figures
may be under-estimated or over-estimated where it is not possible to distinguish whether they include health workers
in the private sector, or to identify the double counting of health workers holding two or more jobs at different
locations. In addition health service providers may be working outside the health-care sector, working in unpaid and/
or unregulated conditions, or not currently engaged in the national health labour market.
The density of hospital beds can be used to indicate the availability of inpatient services. Statistics on hospitalbed density are generally drawn from routine administrative records but in some settings only public-sector beds are
included.
Data on the availability of medicines are poor in most developing countries. However, data on availability and
consumer prices for selected generic medicines have been derived from surveys of medicine prices and availability
conducted using WHO/Health Action International (HAI) standard methods between 2001 and 2008. In individual
surveys, availability is reported as the percentage of medicine outlets in which a medicine was found on the day of
data collection. As baskets of medicines differ by country, results are not strictly comparable across countries. The
consumer price ratio is an expression of how much greater or less the local medicine price is than the international
reference price.

23
24

MDG 8; Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
These include registries on public expenditure, staffing and payroll, as well as records of professional training, registration and licensure.

113

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 12: Global distribution of the health workforce (per 10 000 population) 2000–2009

Physicians

Physician density
(per 10 000 population)
<5
5–19.9
20–29.9
≥30
Data not available

Nurses

Nurse/midwife density
(per 10 000 population)
<20
20–49.9
50–99.9
≥100
Data not available
114

Table 6

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Box 5: Health workforce distribution

Figure 12 illustrates the density of physicians and nursing and midwifery personnel as the number of
physicians and nurses/midwives per 10 000 population. From the data presented, three major conclusions
emerge:
In general, countries with the lowest density for both physicians and nurses/midwives are in the WHO
African Region.
European countries have the highest physician densities.
The highest nurse/midwife densities are found in the more-developed regions of the world.

115

6. Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines
Health workforcea

Member State
Physicians
Number

Nursing and midwifery
personnel
Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

5 970
3 626
40 857
249
1 165

122 623
11 088
19 612
31 175
32 388

2 227
42 881

46 965
44 124
251
542
52
10 329
5 540
715
320 013
400
27 911
921
200
2 047
3 124
62 307
310
331
345
17 250
1 862 630
58 761
115
401
20
5 204
2 746
11 799
72 416
1 950
36 815
74 597
5 827
17 226
140

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
2
11
12
37
1

32
37
10
38
38

30
3

49
42
11
1
<0.5
12
14
4
17
11
37
1
<0.5
2
2
19
6
1
<0.5
11
14
14
2
1
12
13
1
26
64
23
36
33
1
32
2

Dentistry personnel

14 930
12 746
65 919
280
18 485

18 685
14 601
222 133
54 580
71 833

4 354
39 471

121 114
5 505
303
7 129
545
18 091
18 332
4 753
549 423
2 120
35 645
10 539
1 348
11 125
26 042
327 224
714
1 613
2 499
10 000
1 259 240
23 940
588
3 492
80
3 653
9 231
25 397
97 800
3 361
91 311
93 414
28 789
53 133
450

116

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
5
40
19
42
13

5
49
109
66
84

58
3

126
5
13
8
2
21
47
26
29
61
47
7
2
8
16
100
13
4
3
6
10
6
7
8
47
9
5
56
86
40
90
41
5
98
6

Pharmaceutical personnel

900
1 035
11 010
47
222

35 592
1 163
29 624
4 490
2 522

334
2 344

4 784
8 305
32
37
65
5 997
629
38
217 217
70
6 432
28
14
209
147
38 310
11
13
15
6 750
136 520
33 951
29
12
10
1 905
274
3 265
20 158
715
6 948
8 315
159
4 266
60

Density
(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
<0.5
3
3
7
<0.5

9
4
15
5
3

4
<0.5

5
8
1
<0.5
<0.5
7
2
<0.5
12
2
8
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
12
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
4
1
8
<0.5
<0.5
6
5
<0.5
7
18
8
7
4
<0.5
8
1

900
1 237
8 232
73
919

19 510
163
15 339
5 076
1 609

644
9 411

2 994
12 109

20
87
4 670
308
333
104 098
30
1 020
347
76
564
700
27 078
43
17
37

351 620

41
63
2
2 101
413
2 607
7 047
160
5 785
13 497
1 200
3 723
41

<0.5
4
2
11
1

5
1
8
6
2

9
1

3
12

<0.5
<0.5
6
1
2
6
1
1
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
8
1
<0.5
<0.5

3

1
<0.5
1
5
<0.5
6
6
2
6
6
<0.5
7
1

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Hospital bedsb
(per 10 000
population)

Health workforcea

Number

Density

Community health
workers
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009


2 429









294
6 091




217
80


172
167 080


36


28
1 375
9
55
230



17
19

1 266
1 419

3 419


2 685


20

Essential medicines

Density

Public

Private

Median consumer price ratio of selected
generic medicinesd
Public

Private

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009


1









4
<0.5




<0.5
<0.5


1
10


<0.5


<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5



<0.5
<0.5

3
1

3


1


<0.5

MDG 8

Median availability of selected generic
medicinesc (%)









1 012




21 000





195






1 238
548



65
99
154















2000–2009








<0.5




1





1






1
1



1
<0.5
<0.5















2001–2008

4
29
17e
26
8e
17
41
41
39
78
79
32
20
4
76
112
53
12h
5e
17
11
30
18e
24
26
64
9e
7e

15e
34
21e
12e
4e
23
30
10
22e
16e
63
13
4e
53
60
37
81
132
8e
35

117








…f












31.9








58.3



31.3

19.2i
86.7j

21.2










2001–2008







…g












86.7








52.5



13.6

10.0i
87.9

31.3

















…f












3.5








2.2



3.9

1.5i
…j

6.5

















3.4












4.5








13.6



15.1

1.1i
3.1

11.5










Table 6

Environment and public
health workers

6. Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines
Health workforcea

Member State
Physicians
Number

Nursing and midwifery
personnel
Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg


15 670
18 335
179 900
7 938
153
215
4 414
1 806
380
17 503
227 683
395
62
19 951
288 182
2 587
59 599


940
78
366

3 676
27 957
1 120
643 520
29 499
61 870
15 994
13 141
25 314
215 000
2 253
270 371
15 279
57 387
4 506
20
4 840
12 395
2 000
6 940
11 760
89
51
7 070
13 729
1 326

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

19
15
24
12
3
1
33
<0.5
5
33
37
3
<0.5
45
35
1
54


1
<0.5
5

6
28
38
6
1
9
5
31
36
37
9
21
26
39
1
2
18
23
3
30
33
1
<0.5
12
40
29

Dentistry personnel


15 352
20 586
248 010
5 103
271
2 505
9 247
19 158
1 660
46 930
494 895
6 778
927
17 119
661 000
22 834
38 727


401
953
1 738

8 528
92 488
2 960
1 372 059
179 959
98 020
31 782
67 245
42 812
403 000
4 374
1 210 633
18 555
115 944
37 113
260
9 940
30 495
5 600
12 909
4 720
1 123
978
27 160
25 751
4 820

118

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

18
17
34
8
5
6
70
2
20
89
81
50
6
39
80
10
35


<0.5
6
23

13
92
101
13
8
14
10
158
61
69
16
95
32
78
12
30
37
57
10
57
13
6
3
48
76
104

Pharmaceutical personnel


7 000
2 062
25 170
3 465
15
16
1 175
93
60
4 490
41 422
66
23
1 219
63 100
148
14 180


33
6
30

1 371
4 245
286
55 344
7 093
13 210
3 515
2 537
7 814
37 000
212
95 197
4 891
5 717
1 340
3
810
1 021

1 552
4 058
16
4
850
2 395
359

Density
(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

8
2
3
5
<0.5
<0.5
9
<0.5
1
9
7
1
<0.5
3
8
<0.5
13


<0.5
<0.5
<0.5

2
4
10
1
<0.5
2
1
6
11
6
1
7
8
4
<0.5
<0.5
3
2

7
11
<0.5
<0.5
2
7
8


3 330

92 540

121
107
869
1 201
90
8 086
72 160
63
49
249
49 528
1 673
8 977


199
38


926
5 483
312
592 577
7 580
13 900
3 357
4 108
5 310
44 000

241 369
8 087
12 651
3 094
2
1 340
86


4 105
62
269
1 130
2 743
405


4

12

2
<0.5
7
<0.5
1
16
12
1
<0.5
1
6
1
8


<0.5
<0.5


1
5
11
6
<0.5
2
1
10
8
8

19
14
9
1
<0.5
5
<0.5


11
<0.5
1
2
8
8

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Hospital bedsb
(per 10 000
population)

Health workforcea

Number

Density

Community health
workers
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009



9 531

18
88
115
1 109



150
79


35



67
58


215



6 493
10 004
2 601





1 412

6 496






55
40


Essential medicines

Density

Public

Private

Median consumer price ratio of selected
generic medicinesd
Public

Private

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009



1

<0.5
<0.5
1
<0.5



1
<0.5


<0.5



<0.5
<0.5


<0.5



<0.5
1
1





3

2






<0.5
<0.5


MDG 8

Median availability of selected generic
medicinesc (%)






308


24 571




117


4 502




2 355





50 393

25 242
149


















2000–2009





6


3




1


2




15





<0.5

4
<0.5


















2001–2008

38
10h
6h
21
8h
19h
12e
56
2h
21
68
72
13h
11e
33
83
9e
48
26
6h
3e
10e
19
13
7h
71
75
9
6
14
13
53
58
39
17h
139
18
77
14e
15
18
51
12
76
34
13e
7e
37
81
63

119



41.7

53.8



52.9
…f






17.9










20.5l
46.7
96.7






27.8
0.0
37.7

12.0
…f


0.0




2001–2008


71.7

69.2



88.0
75.0






44.6










75.4l
62.1
96.7






80.0
70.0
72.4

0.0
80.0


83.8






…k

…k



1.3
…f






2.4










…k
2.5
1.3






0.9
4.8
2.0

…k
…f


…k






5.0

28.3



2.2
2.7






3.8










1.8l
2.8
1.3






10.5
3.7
3.3

15.7
2.6


6.1




Table 6

Environment and public
health workers

6. Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines
Health workforcea

Member State
Physicians
Number

Nursing and midwifery
personnel
Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia

3 150
257
17 020
302
1 060
1 357
24
445
1 303
303 519
60

6 732
1 233
18 269
548
17 791
598
10
5 384
64 417
8 190
2 045
288
55 376
4
18 143
4 908
127 859
30
4 431
275
6 355

90 370
77 479
36 138
2 313
81 998
11 167
41 455
614 183
221
46

89
50

81
41 870

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
2
<0.5
7
9
1
34
5
1
11
29
6

26
20
6
<0.5
4
3
8
2
39
21
4
<0.5
4
20
39
18
8
16
15
1
11

12
20
34
28
17
27
19
43
<0.5
11

8
3

5
16

Dentistry personnel

5 661
3 896
43 380
886
2 882
2 540
152
2 303
4 604
417 665
250

8 826
3 442
24 328
6 214
49 341
6 145
63
11 825
248 810
33 249
5 862
2 115
224 943
22
76 173
10 394
62 651
120
8 158
2 841
10 261

480 910
199 700
50 955
6 185
210 640
27 815
90 698
1 214 292
4 050
198

447
310

308
93 735

120

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
3
3
18
27
2
63
30
7
37
40
23

34
55
8
3
10
31
48
5
151
87
11
1
16
110
163
39
4
60
28
5
18

61
52
48
74
44
66
42
85
4
47

38
17

19
36

Pharmaceutical personnel

57
211
2 160
14
15
175
4
93
233
148 456
10

337
248
3 091
159
1 396
113
1
359
8 113
1 620
243
16
3 781
2
4 108
524
15 790

2 231
90
3 182

43 220
12 187
6 149
486
65 916
1 566
4 360
45 628
35
17

5
10

11
6 049

Density
(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
<0.5
<0.5
1
<0.5
<0.5
4
1
<0.5
2
14
1

1
4
1
<0.5
<0.5
1
1
<0.5
5
4
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
10
9
2
1

8
<0.5
6

6
3
6
6
14
4
2
3
<0.5
4

<0.5
1

1
2

175
293
2 880
241
214
630
2
123
1 428
79 925
20

1 093
105
7 366
817
127
288
10
358
2 871
3 920

21
18 682
1
3 239
1 200
8 102

2 526

1 868

46 360
22 442
10 320
1 056
53 492
2 993
901
11 521
14
21


20

24
15 043

<0.5
<0.5
1
7
<0.5
16
<0.5
<0.5
12
8
2

4
2
2
<0.5
<0.5
1
8
<0.5
2
10

<0.5
1
5
7
5
1

9

3

6
6
10
13
11
7
<0.5
1
<0.5
5


1

2
6

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Hospital bedsb
(per 10 000
population)

Health workforcea

Number

Density

Community health
workers
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
130
318


262


196
238



85

737
564
1 757
240

172



137
4 280


197
106

948

133








72 515
36
17




19

Essential medicines

Density

Public

Private

Median consumer price ratio of selected
generic medicinesd
Public

Private

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009
<0.5
<0.5


<0.5


1
2



<0.5

<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
1

<0.5



<0.5
<0.5


1
<0.5

3

<0.5








5
<0.5
4




1

MDG 8

Median availability of selected generic
medicinesc (%)

385
10 055

515
68



236







44 293


16 206

5 259


19 268



65 999













12 000
65

45


150

2000–2009
<0.5
7

16
<0.5



2







9


6

14


1



4













14
15

4


9

2001–2008
e

3
11e
18
26
6m
78

4e
33e
17h
33

60
40
11
8e
6
27h
35
50
48
62
9h
3e
5e
52
39
20
6
50
22

13
15
5
52
35
25
86
61
65
97
16e
55
28
30
10

32e
22

121



25.0

81.0







100.0

0.0







50.0

26.2


96.7
3.3




61.5
15.4













56.3

2001–2008


43.8

70.0







80.0

52.5







87.1

36.4


70.3
31.3




60.9
26.5













22.2



…k

1.8







2.6

…k







…k

3.5


…k
…k




1.4
6.4













2.4



6.6

5.4







4.2

11.1







5.7

4.3


7.4
2.3




5.6
5.6













13.8

Table 6

Environment and public
health workers

6. Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines
Health workforcea

Member State
Physicians
Number

Nursing and midwifery
personnel
Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Density

Dentistry personnel
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Density

Pharmaceutical personnel
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Density
(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia

741
20 013
121
95
6 380
16 868
4 766
60
300
34 829
163 800
10 479
11 083
191
171
32 495
28 812
10 342
13 267
18 987
5 187

1
20
15
<0.5
15
31
24
1
<0.5
8
38
6
3
5
2
36
40
5
20
3
25

5 254
43 569
634
991
18 710
35 757
15 361
630
965
184 459
322 600
33 431
33 354
688
6 828
104 958
79 153
27 288
33 165
84 683
8 833

4
44
79
2
44
66
78
13
1
41
74
17
9
16
63
116
110
14
50
14
43

105
2 455
94
24
1 190
2 441
1 202


5 995
24 515
1 245
944
4
32
7 541
3 847
2 306
1 003
4 471
1 175

<0.5
3
12
<0.5
3
5
6


1
6
1
<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
8
5
1
2
1
6

127
1 910
61
192
1 280
2 637
944

50
12 521
39 900
1 066
1 531

70
6 605
4 269
89
680
7 350
908

<0.5
2
8
<0.5
3
5
5

<0.5
3
9
1
<0.5

1
7
6
5
1
1
4

Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

79
349
30
1 543
13 330
110 482
12 104
10
3 361
143 728
6 946
126 126
300
793 648
12 384
71 627
30
48 000
44 960
6 739
649
2 086

1
1
3
12
13
15
24
9
1
31
15
21
<0.5
27
37
26
1
19
6
3
1
2

1 795
1 816
350
4 677
28 537
144 229
22 419
50
37 625
388 444
13 936
37 200
9 440
2 927 000
2 880
295 781
360
28 000
61 810
13 746
8 369
9 357

22
3
34
36
29
19
45
45
13
84
46
6
2
98
8
108
17
11
8
7
7
7

45
19
10
294
2 452
17 985
701
2
440
19 169
1 368
25 914
230
463 663
3 936
4 748

13 680

850
56
310

1
<0.5
1
2
3
2
1
2
<0.5
4
4
4
<0.5
16
12
2

6

<0.5
<0.5
<0.5

14
11
4
641
2 909
24 756
970
2
762
22 257
2 006

81
249 642

899


24 080
2 638
108
883

<0.5
<0.5
<0.5
5
3
3
2
2
<0.5
5
7

<0.5
9

<0.5


3
1
<0.5
1

122

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Hospital bedsb
(per 10 000
population)

Health workforcea

Number

Density

Community health
workers
Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

MDG 8

Essential medicines

Median availability of selected generic
medicinesc (%)

Density

Public

Private

Median consumer price ratio of selected
generic medicinesd
Public

Private

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

2000–2009

2001–2008
h

2001–2008

1 212

77
135




41
2 529

1 541
2 897

110




2 151

1

10
<0.5




<0.5
1

1
1

1




<0.5




132








4 716

4 000








<0.5








1

37





3
54
39e
4e
32
68
47
14

28e
34
31
7
31
21e

55
15
61
22
46










…f


51.7o




…f
75.0
75.0










71.7n


77.1o




98.2
85.0
28.6










…f


4.4o




…f
2.4
2.6










6.5n


4.7o




2.5
2.3
3.3

22
68


890
19 304


1 042



1 831






792
803
1 803

<0.5
<0.5


1
3


<0.5



1






<0.5
1
1

10


















2 542

<0.5


















1


9e
24
27
20
28
41
56
4e
87
19
39
11e
31
29h
48
37
13
28
7
19e
30e





64.3



20.0
100.0
61.1

23.4


…f



5.0





95.1



80.0
90.7
73.9

47.9


82.5



90.0





…k



…k
4.0
…k

1.3


…f



1.1





6.8



2.6
3.7
13.8

2.7


2.0



3.5

123

Table 6

Environment and public
health workers

6. Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines
Health workforcea

Member State
Physicians
Number

Nursing and midwifery
personnel
Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Dentistry personnel

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Pharmaceutical personnel

Density

Number

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

Density
(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

4
5 684
1 862 630

<0.5
11
64

22
13 328
2 927 000

<0.5
27
163

1
1 099
463 663

<0.5
2
18

1
1 056
592 577

<0.5
2
19

174 510
1 889 643
843 571
2 877 344
549 009
2 413 713

2
23
5
33
10
14

802 076
4 510 636
1 867 409
6 020 074
773 040
3 575 524

11
55
11
68
14
21

25 798
1 009 763
80 691
428 343
87 658
376 265

<0.5
12
<0.5
5
2
2

56 212
503 383
632 308
413 588
168 034
742 180

1
7
4
5
3
4

Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

332 034
3 464 085
2 126 466
2 825 205

4
10
24
28

899 015
4 917 127
3 566 218
8 166 399

10
14
40
81

24 873
368 175
621 351
994 119

<0.5
1
7
10

65 479
1 203 878
331 961
914 387

1
4
4
10

GLOBAL

8 747 790

14

17 548 759

28

2 008 518

3

2 515 705

4

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP

124

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Hospital bedsb
(per 10 000
population)

Health workforcea

Environment and public
health workers
Number

Density

Community health
workers
Number

Density

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

MDG 8

Essential medicines

Median availability of selected generic
medicinesc (%)
Public

Private

Median consumer price ratio of selected
generic medicinesd
Public

Private

(per 10 000
population)

2000–2009

2000–2009

2001–2008

2001–2008

9
230
167 080

<0.5
<0.5
10

10
1 012
65 999

<0.5
1
37

2
26
139

0.0
39.7
100.0

0.0
71.7
98.2

0.9
2.4
6.5

1.1
4.3
28.3

28 856



29 522

<0.5



1



132 612

98 648



1

3

9
24
11
63
12
38





















<0.5

5







15
18
39
58













27

Table 6

28 602

270 384

125

Table 7

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Health expenditure
This section presents data on government, private, external, social security and out-of-pocket expenditures on health.
These data are generated from information collected by WHO for over 10 years. The most comprehensive and
consistent data on health financing are generated from national health accounts (NHAs) that collect expenditure
information within an internationally recognized framework. NHAs trace financing as it flows from funding sources,
to decision-makers who decide upon the use of the funds, to the providers and beneficiaries of health services. Not
all countries maintain or update NHAs – in such cases data are obtained through technical contacts in the country
or from publicly available documents and reports. Missing values are estimated using various accounting techniques
depending on the data available for each country. WHO sends all such estimates to the respective ministries of health
every year for validation. As a general rule, life expectancy rises with increasing per capita total health expenditure;
however, there are diminishing returns (Figure 13 and Box 6).

127

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 13: Life expectancy at birth against per capita total health expenditure

85

80

75

Life expectancy at birth, 2008 (years)

70

65

AFR
AMR
SEAR

60

EUR
EMR
WPR

55

50

45

40

100
0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

5500

Per capita total expenditure on health, 2007 (PPP int. $)

128

6000

6500

7000

7500

Box 6: Life expectancy and per capita total health expenditure

In Figure 13, each shape represents one country coded according to WHO region. Three major conclusions
can be drawn from the data:
As a general rule, life expectancy rises with increasing per capita total health expenditure; however, there
are diminishing returns – the highest levels of per capita health expenditure are associated with only
modest or no improvements in life expectancy. In addition, a number of countries have achieved high
levels of life expectancy despite relatively lower per capita health expenditures.
In almost one quarter of countries, health expenditure in 2007 was less than 100 PPP int. $ per capita –
most of these countries are in the WHO African Region and three quarters of them had a life expectancy
at birth of 60 years or lower in 2008.
Countries with the highest levels of per capita health expenditure are mainly those in the WHO Region
of the Americas and the WHO European Region.

129

Table 7

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

7. Health expenditure
Health expenditure ratios a

Member State
Total expenditure on
health as % of gross
domestic product

2000
d,e,f

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angolag
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australiah
Austria
Azerbaijani
Bahamas
Bahraind
Bangladeshd,j
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belized
Benin
Bhutanj
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)k
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Fasod
Burundid,g
Cambodiad,l
Cameroond,g
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comorosg
Congo
Cook Islandsj
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

6.5
6.4
3.5
7.6
2.4
4.8
9.0
6.4
8.3
9.9
4.8
6.0
3.9
2.7
6.3
6.4
9.1
3.7
4.6
5.2
6.1
6.9
4.4
7.2
3.0
6.1
5.1
7.2
5.8
4.5
8.8
4.6
3.8
6.3
6.6
4.6
6.8
2.8
2.1
3.8
6.5
5.3
7.8
6.7
5.7
6.5

3.7
8.3
5.8

2007
7.6
7.0
4.4
7.6
2.5
4.7
10.0
4.4
8.9
10.1
3.7
7.3
3.7
3.4
7.0
6.5
9.4
4.0
4.8
4.1
5.0
9.8
5.7
8.4
2.4
7.3
6.1
13.9
5.9
4.9
10.1
4.5
4.1
4.8
6.2
4.3
6.1
3.3
2.4
4.4
8.1
4.2
7.6
10.4
6.6
6.8

5.8
9.8
7.2

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
expenditure
on healthb
2000

2007

2.9
36.3
73.3
64.8
79.2
69.0
55.5
17.7
66.8
76.8
18.1
47.6
67.5
38.0
65.8
76.6
71.8
58.3
47.6
73.6
60.1
52.5
61.0
40.0
86.5
59.6
39.6
38.2
22.5
21.5
70.4
73.5
41.4
42.5
52.1
38.7
80.9
54.1
57.7
90.6
76.8
24.8
86.1
90.9
41.7
90.3

1.1
82.4
67.8

23.6
41.2
81.6
69.8
80.3
69.4
50.8
47.3
67.5
76.4
26.8
51.0
69.6
33.6
64.0
74.9
74.1
65.1
51.8
80.3
69.2
56.8
74.6
41.6
81.5
57.2
56.1
37.7
29.0
25.9
70.0
74.6
34.7
56.3
58.7
44.7
84.2
57.2
70.4
91.7
72.9
24.0
87.0
95.5
45.6
85.2

20.8
84.5
76.6

130

Private expenditure on
health as % of total
expenditure on healthb

2000
97.1
63.7
26.7
35.2
20.8
31.0
44.5
82.3
33.2
23.2
81.9
52.4
32.5
62.0
34.2
23.4
28.2
41.7
52.4
26.4
39.9
47.5
39.0
60.0
13.5
40.4
60.4
61.8
77.5
78.5
29.6
26.5
58.6
57.5
47.9
61.3
19.1
45.9
42.3
9.4
23.2
75.2
13.9
9.1
58.3
9.7

98.9
17.6
32.2

2007
76.4
58.8
18.4
30.2
19.7
30.6
49.2
52.7
32.5
23.6
73.2
49.0
30.4
66.4
36.0
25.1
25.9
34.9
48.2
19.7
30.8
43.2
25.4
58.4
18.5
42.8
43.9
62.3
71.0
74.1
30.0
25.4
65.3
43.7
41.3
55.3
15.8
42.8
29.6
8.3
27.1
76.0
13.0
4.5
54.4
14.8

79.2
15.5
23.4

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
government
expenditure
2000
6.7
7.1
9.0
19.1
3.2
12.1
14.7
4.6
15.3
14.7
4.2
14.5
10.2
7.2
11.7
10.7
13.3
6.7
11.3
8.6
9.8
6.4
6.9
4.1
6.3
8.5
8.9
7.9
8.7
6.4
15.1
9.6
10.1
13.1
14.1
11.1
21.4
9.5
4.8
9.8
21.7
7.2
14.5
11.9
6.4
14.1

0.4
12.6
12.0

2007
3.7
9.5
10.7
21.3
5.3
10.6
13.9
10.4
17.6
15.9
3.8
15.5
9.8
8.0
11.9
9.9
14.4
9.1
10.7
10.7
9.9
13.5
13.0
5.4
6.7
10.7
13.3
12.5
11.2
8.1
18.1
10.5
11.0
13.8
17.9
9.9
18.8
8.4
5.1
12.4
25.8
4.8
17.6
14.5
7.0
13.5

6.4
16.2
14.1

External resources for
health as %
of total
expenditure on health
2000
0.8
6.0
0.1
0
3.6
3.6
0
8.5
0
0
3.9
0
0
7.0
4.0
0.1
0
3.6
16.0
27.1
6.0
10.3
0.5
0.5
0
2.0
13.9
16.3
9.4
4.1
0
13.5
22.9
24.9
0.1
0.1
0.3
26.4
4.6
2.2
1.0
5.1
0.4
0.1
0
0

3.7
0
32.6

2007
20.2
3.9
0.1
0
3.7
0
0.1
15.2
0
0
0.8
0
0
7.7
0.7
0.2
0
1.6
21.3
19.6
0
0.7
4.0
0
0
0
28.3
40.0
16.4
5.2
0
15.5
25.9
11.3
0
0.2
0.1
20.9
5.4
16.3
0.1
5.0
0
0.1
0
0

47.8
0
12.9

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Social security
expenditure on health
as % of general
government
expenditure on health
2000
0
20.2
35.5
88.1
0
0
59.5
0
0
58.8
0
1.8
0.4
0
0
5.8
79.0
0
0.5
0
62.0
95.9
0
0
0
12.7
0.8
25.1
0
0.1
2.0
36.1
0
0
15.0
57.2
60.2
0
0
0
89.6
0
97.6
0
0
89.5

0
0
11.3

2007
0
35.5
30.9
88.0
0
0
58.8
0
0
58.6
0
2.6
0.4
0
0.2
2.7
88.3
8.5
0.5
0
64.3
95.4
0
0
0
63.0
0.3
15.9
0
0
2.0
28.0
0
0
17.0
55.3
70.1
0
0
0
82.3
0
91.0
0
0.1
90.3

0
0
9.6

Out-of-pocket
expenditure as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
98.9
99.9
96.7
75.5
100
86.8
63.3
91.6
59.7
66.1
78.3
40.2
68.7
95.9
77.3
57.1
84.7
100
99.9
100
81.6
100
35.6
62.7
98.8
100
94.4
71.3
97.1
94.4
53.7
99.6
95.0
96.2
48.7
97.3
59.0
100
100
100
88.2
90.7
100
91.9
95.7
100

97.0
91.0
98.4

2007
98.9
93.9
94.7
74.8
100
86.5
42.9
91.4
55.5
65.2
87.8
40.7
67.7
97.4
80.7
69.4
76.4
100
94.9
100
79.4
100
27.3
58.8
98.9
86.4
91.3
60.5
84.7
94.5
49.6
99.7
95.0
96.2
53.2
92.0
48.7
100
100
100
84.6
88.7
91.9
91.3
84.4
89.0

51.7
89.0
98.6

Per capita health expenditures a

Private prepaid
plans as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
0
0
3.1
22.3
0
13.2
32.6
0
21.8
20.7
0.3
58.6
25.4
0.1
22.7
0.1
12.3
0
0.1
0
8.1
0
3.8
33.9
0.6
0
1.0
0.4
0
0
38.8
0.4
0
0.4
51.3
1.0
41.0
0
0
0
2.3
9.3
0
0
4.3
0

0
9.0
1.6

2007
0
0
5.1
23.1
0
13.5
51.7
0.2
24.1
19.3
1.0
58.2
12.8
0
19.3
0.1
22.5
0
5.0
0
15.4
0
5.2
39.4
0.5
0.8
2.0
0.2
0
0
42.6
0.3
0
0.4
46.8
7.1
51.3
0
0
0
9.0
11.3
8.1
0
10.8
1.5

0
10.5
1.4

Per capita total
expenditure
on health at
average exchange
rate (US$)

Per capita total
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

Per capita
government
expenditure on health
at average exchange
rate (US$)

Per capita
government
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2000

2007

2000

2007

2000

2007

2000

2007

9
76
63
1 289
15
411
689
40
1 728
2 335
31
1 072
483
9
639
66
2 061
123
16
41
61
94
145
267
541
95
11
8
17
27
2 082
57
10
10
324
43
161
10
22
178
265
32
375
184
744
361

10
2 478
44

42
244
173
2 948
86
627
663
133
3 986
4 523
140
1 535
902
15
932
302
4 056
174
32
75
69
397
372
606
753
384
29
17
36
54
4 409
132
16
32
615
108
284
23
52
474
488
41
1 009
585
1 778
1 141

9
5 551
71

16
267
188
2 057
55
597
815
130
2 263
2 824
105
1 374
800
22
841
328
2 518
183
55
129
183
280
357
506
1 247
372
41
22
52
73
2 516
100
26
49
615
108
388
27
60
252
468
82
842
375
1 889
980

8
2 378
91

83
505
338
3 004
131
946
1 322
246
3 357
3 763
284
1 987
1 199
42
1 263
704
3 323
279
70
188
200
767
762
837
1 176
835
72
51
108
104
3 900
148
30
72
863
233
516
37
90
381
899
67
1 398
917
3 034
1 626

17
3 513
148

<1
27
46
836
12
284
382
7
1 155
1 794
6
510
326
3
420
51
1 479
72
8
30
37
49
88
107
468
56
5
3
4
6
1 465
42
4
4
169
17
130
6
13
161
203
8
323
167
310
326

<1
2 043
30

10
101
141
2 057
69
435
336
63
2 691
3 456
38
783
628
5
596
226
3 005
113
17
60
47
225
278
252
613
220
16
7
10
14
3 086
99
6
18
361
49
239
13
36
435
356
10
878
558
811
972

2
4 690
54

<1
97
138
1 333
43
412
452
23
1 512
2 169
19
654
541
8
553
251
1 807
107
26
95
110
147
218
202
1 078
222
16
9
12
16
1 770
74
11
21
320
42
314
14
34
228
360
20
726
341
787
885

<1
1 960
61

20
208
276
2 097
105
656
671
117
2 266
2 875
76
1 014
835
14
808
528
2 461
182
36
151
138
436
568
348
958
477
40
19
31
27
2 730
110
10
40
507
104
435
21
63
350
656
16
1 216
875
1 383
1 385

4
2 968
113

131

Table 7

Health expenditure ratios a

7. Health expenditure
Health expenditure ratios a

Member State
Total expenditure on
health as % of gross
domestic product

2000
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinead,g,m
Eritreag
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabong
Gambiad
Georgian
Germany
Ghanad
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissaug,o
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
Indiad
Indonesiad
Iran (Islamic Republic of)p
Iraqg,q
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordand,r
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberiad,g
Libyan Arab Jamahiriyag,s
Lithuania
Luxembourg

5.9
6.3
4.2
5.5
8.0
1.9
5.5
5.3
4.3
4.7
7.2
10.1
4.5
5.8
7.4
10.3
7.2
7.9
6.1
6.2
5.3
6.2
5.5
6.3
5.3
7.0
9.6
4.4
2.0
5.9
1.4
6.3
7.7
8.1
5.5
7.7
9.8
4.2
4.5
10.8
3.0
4.7
3.2
6.0
10.9
6.7
9.2
3.7
6.5
5.8

2007
6.2
5.4
5.8
6.3
6.2
2.1
3.3
5.4
3.8
4.0
8.2
11.0
4.6
5.5
8.2
10.4
8.3
9.6
7.1
7.3
5.6
6.1
8.2
5.3
6.2
7.4
9.3
4.1
2.2
6.4
2.5
7.6
8.0
8.7
4.7
8.0
8.9
3.7
4.7
19.1
2.2
6.5
4.0
6.2
8.8
6.2
10.6
2.7
6.2
7.1

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
expenditure
on healthb
2000

2007

69.0
34.5
31.2
39.6
45.2
49.8
49.7
77.5
53.6
69.0
71.1
79.4
67.9
33.6
16.7
79.7
41.4
60.0
68.4
39.8
12.4
16.2
84.5
27.7
56.3
70.7
81.0
24.5
36.6
37.0
28.7
73.5
62.8
72.5
52.6
81.3
48.9
51.0
48.2
98.8
77.5
44.3
32.5
54.4
30.0
51.0
14.6
61.7
69.7
89.3

62.1
35.9
39.1
38.1
58.9
80.4
45.3
76.5
58.1
70.2
74.6
79.0
64.5
47.9
18.4
76.9
51.6
60.3
51.1
29.3
11.0
25.9
87.7
23.3
65.7
70.6
82.5
26.2
54.5
46.8
75.0
80.7
55.9
76.5
50.3
81.3
60.6
66.1
42.0
84.0
77.5
54.0
18.9
57.9
44.7
58.3
26.2
71.8
73.0
90.9

132

Private expenditure on
health as % of total
expenditure on healthb

2000
31.0
65.5
68.8
60.4
54.8
50.2
50.3
22.5
46.4
31.0
28.9
20.6
32.1
66.4
83.3
20.3
58.6
40.0
31.6
60.2
87.6
83.8
15.5
72.3
43.7
29.3
19.0
75.5
63.4
63.0
71.3
26.5
37.2
27.5
47.4
18.7
51.1
49.0
51.8
1.2
22.5
55.7
67.5
45.6
70.0
49.0
85.4
38.3
30.3
10.7

2007
37.9
64.1
60.9
61.9
41.1
19.6
54.7
23.5
41.9
29.8
25.4
21.0
35.5
52.1
81.6
23.1
48.4
39.7
48.9
70.7
89.0
74.1
12.3
76.7
34.3
29.4
17.5
73.8
45.5
53.2
25.0
19.3
44.1
23.5
49.7
18.7
39.4
33.9
58.0
16.0
22.5
46.0
81.1
42.1
55.3
41.7
73.8
28.2
27.0
9.1

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
government
expenditure
2000
8.6
15.9
6.4
7.3
14.3
7.8
4.0
4.1
8.5
10.3
10.6
15.5
14.0
8.8
6.4
18.2
10.8
10.1
13.2
16.7
4.0
2.3
10.0
16.0
15.1
10.6
18.4
3.8
4.5
9.6
1.3
14.7
10.2
12.7
6.6
16.0
11.3
9.2
11.6
8.7
6.7
8.3
5.1
8.8
7.8
6.5
9.0
7.2
11.6
13.9

2007
8.2
9.2
7.4
7.1
14.3
6.9
4.2
4.0
10.2
9.5
12.9
16.6
14.0
11.6
4.2
18.2
10.7
13.2
8.2
14.1
4.7
4.0
14.8
9.2
19.0
10.5
17.8
3.7
6.2
11.5
3.1
17.1
10.1
13.9
5.2
17.9
11.4
11.2
7.8
10.3
5.4
9.8
3.7
10.0
11.7
7.9
16.6
5.4
12.9
17.3

External resources for
health as %
of total
expenditure on health
2000
3.7
2.0
4.1
1.0
0.9
9.5
24.6
0.9
16.5
6.2
0
0
1.5
22.2
5.1
0
9.5
0
0
3.4
9.0
46.5
4.2
9.4
3.1
0
0
0.5
0
0
26.5
0
2.6
0
1.8
0
4.4
7.4
8.3
29.6
0
9.9
30.3
0.5
2.1
3.1
5.6
0
1.7
0

2007
3.9
3.2
0.8
1.1
3.7
4.8
46.5
1.1
43.9
5.8
0
0
1.5
24.3
10.6
0
10.3
0
0.2
1.4
10.8
35.0
25.0
37.7
4.9
0
0
1.4
1.7
0.1
25.3
0
2.3
0
1.8
0
4.7
0.4
24.1
30.5
0
11.3
14.5
0.2
4.9
11.5
57.7
0
2.5
0

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Social security
expenditure on health
as % of general
government
expenditure on health
2000
0
17.0
28.0
24.3
44.2
0
0
88.2
0
0
19.5
94.3
2.0
0
44.3
87.3
0
45.9
0
52.3
1.8
5.3
0
0
16.4
83.9
33.4
16.9
6.2
42.3
0
1.2
72.4
0.1
0
80.9
0.6
0
10.9
0
0
10.0
1.4
0
52.1
0
0
0
88.3
82.6

2007
0
17.2
40.1
26.8
43.5
0
0
84.7
0
0
19.5
93.4
2.0
0
60.0
88.3
48.6
51.8
0
37.3
1.5
3.0
0
0
25.1
82.5
32.7
17.2
16.0
41.0
0
0.8
72.8
0.1
0
78.7
0.3
0
8.3
0
0
59.9
12.1
0
51.2
0
0
0
81.3
77.2

Out-of-pocket
expenditure as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
88.9
71.9
85.3
94.1
94.6
89.5
100
88.5
79.2
79.1
77.0
34.4
100
53.7
93.4
55.1
79.6
94.5
100
89.7
99.5
61.4
100
69.7
86.9
89.8
100
92.2
72.9
95.9
100
41.2
78.5
89.1
65.0
90.1
74.9
99.0
80.1
100
93.9
89.3
91.8
96.8
80.1
73.2
52.2
100
86.2
65.2

2007
83.2
65.3
75.2
95.1
89.0
75.6
100
94.1
80.6
79.1
74.3
32.5
100
48.4
86.8
56.6
79.3
94.5
97.2
92.6
99.5
55.7
100
57.4
96.0
84.7
91.7
89.9
66.2
95.4
100
51.2
74.4
85.9
71.0
80.8
88.3
98.4
77.2
5.3
91.6
91.9
76.1
97.1
77.6
68.9
52.2
100
98.3
69.4

Per capita health expenditures a

Private prepaid
plans as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
11.1
18.7
4.8
0.4
5.4
0
0
0
0.5
15.0
8.8
61.6
0
2.3
0.5
40.8
6.1
5.5
0
4.2
0
0
0
0
5.8
0.6
0
1.0
6.4
3.2
0
28.4
10.4
3.2
30.0
1.7
5.3
0.1
7.1
0
6.1
0
0
3.2
17.3
0
0
0
0.3
10.1

2007
16.8
21.9
5.2
0.2
11.0
0
0
1.3
3.0
15.0
8.3
63.9
0
3.1
1.9
40.1
5.9
5.5
0
4.4
0
0
0
0
4.0
3.9
0
2.1
4.7
3.8
0
41.9
15.3
4.0
25.6
13.7
5.6
0.1
8.8
0
8.4
0
0.4
2.3
18.3
0
0
0
1.5
20.4

Per capita total
expenditure
on health at
average exchange
rate (US$)

Per capita total
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

Per capita
government
expenditure on health
at average exchange
rate (US$)

Per capita
government
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2000

2007

2000

2007

2000

2007

2000

2007

237
170
54
77
176
42
9
219
5
98
1 693
2 256
185
19
47
2 372
19
919
259
95
19
10
51
26
62
326
2 940
20
16
290
17
1 595
1 557
1 541
190
2 827
171
51
18
62
504
13
10
197
485
28
18
238
212
2 708

312
224
200
101
206
347
9
837
9
157
3 809
4 627
373
22
191
4 209
54
2 679
416
186
26
16
115
35
107
1 019
5 971
40
42
253
62
4 556
1 893
3 136
224
2 751
248
253
34
191
901
46
27
784
525
51
22
299
717
7 439

389
316
202
196
366
135
33
521
20
162
1 853
2 615
529
56
152
2 671
67
1 449
385
194
46
35
112
60
136
852
2 738
66
48
382
37
1 805
1 845
2 052
319
1 967
312
198
51
138
736
62
40
479
801
69
39
385
559
3 137

550
411
434
310
402
543
20
1 094
30
169
2 840
3 709
650
71
384
3 588
113
2 727
591
334
62
33
197
58
235
1 388
3 323
109
81
689
78
3 424
2 181
2 686
357
2 696
434
405
72
358
814
130
84
1 071
921
92
39
453
1 109
5 734

163
59
17
31
80
21
5
169
3
68
1 203
1 791
126
6
8
1 890
8
552
177
38
2
2
43
7
35
231
2 383
5
6
107
5
1 172
978
1 117
100
2 298
84
26
9
61
391
6
3
107
145
14
3
147
148
2 418

193
81
78
39
121
279
4
640
5
110
2 843
3 655
240
10
35
3 236
28
1 617
213
54
3
4
101
8
71
720
4 927
11
23
118
46
3 676
1 058
2 400
113
2 237
150
167
14
160
698
25
5
454
234
30
6
215
523
6 763

269
109
63
78
166
67
17
404
11
112
1 317
2 076
359
19
25
2 128
28
870
263
77
6
6
95
17
77
602
2 219
16
17
142
11
1 326
1 159
1 488
168
1 598
153
101
24
137
570
27
13
260
240
35
6
238
390
2 800

341
148
170
118
236
436
9
836
17
118
2 120
2 930
419
34
71
2 758
58
1 646
302
98
7
8
173
13
154
980
2 742
29
44
322
58
2 762
1 219
2 056
180
2 193
263
268
30
301
631
70
16
620
411
54
10
325
809
5 212

133

Table 7

Health expenditure ratios a

7. Health expenditure
Health expenditure ratios a

Member State
Total expenditure on
health as % of gross
domestic product

2000
Madagascar
Malawit
Malaysia
Maldivesd
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritaniag
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monacog
Mongolia
Montenegrou
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmarv
Namibiad
Nauruj
Nepald,j
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeriad
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistand,w
Palaud
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatard
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldovax
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoad
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabiad

3.7
6.1
3.2
9.6
6.3
6.8
20.3
2.8
3.8
5.1
8.4
4.6
4.9
8.3
4.2
5.9
2.1
6.1
11.3
5.1
8.0
7.7
6.6
3.5
4.6
8.0
8.4
3.1
3.0
9.5
7.8
4.0
9.2
4.7
3.4
5.5
8.8
2.3
4.7
5.9
5.2
5.4
4.2
5.4
5.4
5.7
5.6
7.5
10.2
3.7

2007
4.1
9.9
4.4
9.8
5.7
7.5
14.7
2.4
4.2
5.9
13.2
4.0
4.3
8.9
5.0
4.9
1.9
7.6
15.1
5.1
8.9
9.0
8.3
5.3
6.6
18.6
8.9
2.4
2.7
10.8
6.7
3.2
5.7
4.3
3.9
6.4
10.0
3.8
6.3
10.3
4.7
5.4
10.3
6.0
6.3
5.4
5.0
7.1
11.2
3.4

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
expenditure
on healthb
2000

2007

66.5
43.8
52.4
51.6
32.9
72.5
98.0
71.2
52.0
46.6
93.9
75.3
80.1
58.1
29.4
71.9
13.4
68.9
72.7
24.9
63.1
78.0
53.5
54.4
33.5
98.2
82.5
81.8
21.3
89.1
68.1
81.7
40.2
58.7
47.6
70.0
72.5
68.8
44.9
50.3
67.7
59.9
39.2
60.3
58.5
64.0
70.9
86.0
35.7
81.7

66.2
59.7
44.4
65.4
51.4
77.5
97.4
65.3
49.0
45.4
95.8
74.8
81.7
57.2
33.8
71.8
11.7
42.1
70.9
39.7
82.0
78.9
54.9
52.8
25.3
98.9
84.1
78.7
30.0
78.4
64.6
81.3
42.4
58.4
34.7
70.9
70.6
75.6
54.9
50.8
80.3
64.2
47.0
57.8
54.2
61.3
84.5
85.5
47.1
79.5

134

Private expenditure on
health as % of total
expenditure on healthb

2000
33.5
56.2
47.6
48.4
67.1
27.5
2.0
28.8
48.0
53.4
6.1
24.7
19.9
41.9
70.6
28.1
86.6
31.1
27.3
75.1
36.9
22.0
46.5
45.6
66.5
1.8
17.5
18.2
78.7
10.9
31.9
18.3
59.8
41.3
52.4
30.0
27.5
31.2
55.1
49.7
32.3
40.1
60.8
39.7
41.5
36.0
29.1
14.0
64.3
18.3

2007
33.8
40.3
55.6
34.6
48.6
22.5
2.6
34.7
51.0
54.6
4.2
25.2
18.3
42.8
66.2
28.2
88.3
57.9
29.1
60.3
18.0
21.1
45.1
47.2
74.7
1.1
15.9
21.3
70.0
21.6
35.4
18.6
57.6
41.6
65.3
29.1
29.4
24.4
45.1
49.2
19.7
35.8
53.0
42.2
45.8
38.8
15.5
14.5
52.9
20.5

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
government
expenditure
2000
14.0
8.6
6.2
13.5
9.5
12.0
21.1
6.5
8.7
16.6
10.5
17.4
10.7
22.0
4.0
17.9
1.2
13.1
11.2
7.7
11.4
15.6
13.1
10.3
4.2
6.2
16.4
7.1
2.4
11.3
21.3
9.9
17.5
14.9
7.0
9.4
14.9
5.0
9.4
8.7
9.2
9.6
8.2
9.5
11.7
10.8
10.8
20.4
9.0
9.2

2007
14.8
11.9
6.9
10.5
11.8
13.7
14.6
5.3
9.3
15.5
18.9
15.6
9.1
26.4
6.2
12.6
0.9
11.1
32.1
10.9
16.2
18.0
16.3
12.4
6.5
15.1
18.3
5.2
3.5
12.6
11.6
7.3
11.9
15.6
6.7
10.8
15.4
9.7
12.1
12.5
10.3
10.2
19.5
8.0
11.2
7.6
12.8
13.6
13.2
8.4

External resources for
health as %
of total
expenditure on health
2000
20.1
26.9
0.6
2.0
7.8
0
36.9
23.6
1.4
1.0
71.6
0
27.5
0
0.8
26.4
1.1
3.8
9.8
15.2
0
0
7.8
40.2
16.2
4.5
0
0
0.8
38.9
1.0
23.8
2.8
1.1
3.5
0
0
0
0
16.7
5.7
0.2
52.0
5.4
0.4
0.2
17.3
0
28.6
0

2007
17.8
59.9
0
1.2
19.8
0
66.1
13.3
1.8
0
72.4
0
2.6
0.5
1.4
57.8
7.6
10.6
27.8
17.8
0
0
9.3
74.9
2.2
49.1
0
0
3.3
39.9
0.2
29.7
1.1
1.1
1.3
0.1
0
0
0
2.1
0
0
52.3
0
0
0
12.0
0
21.7
0

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Social security
expenditure on health
as % of general
government
expenditure on health
2000
0
0
0.6
0
0
0
35.0
0
0
67.6
21.4
98.5
24.5
98.8
0
0.3
3.1
1.8
0
0
93.9
0
27.0
2.7
0
0
17.1
0
6.2
0
50.0
0
53.0
49.5
14.7
82.6
1.3
0
79.5
0
89.4
40.3
6.4
0
4.9
0
0.3
100
0
0

2007
0
0
0.8
0
0
0
12.3
0
0
58.9
22.2
98.4
33.0
81.4
26.9
0.3
1.6
2.9
0
0
93.4
11.6
27.6
1.4
0
0
14.3
0
4.2
0
49.3
0
39.2
42.4
22.3
82.7
1.2
0
77.7
67.6
83.2
38.7
3.9
0
3.4
0
0.7
85.4
0
0

Out-of-pocket
expenditure as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
52.8
42.4
75.4
73.8
99.1
96.9
100
100
74.6
95.3
100
83.1
70.6
60.8
76.6
45.2
99.2
18.2
24.4
91.2
24.3
69.9
91.6
87.6
92.7
100
95.5
64.4
80.3
100
81.3
56.0
88.6
81.3
77.2
93.2
80.8
84.5
83.2
97.9
100
74.7
40.7
94.2
95.3
100
81.3
96.0
55.5
41.3

2007
67.9
28.4
73.2
72.0
99.5
89.2
100
100
81.5
93.1
100
81.4
84.4
57.1
86.3
42.1
95.1
5.8
84.4
90.8
33.5
71.7
93.0
96.4
95.9
100
95.1
61.3
82.1
40.3
82.7
41.3
97.0
75.3
83.7
83.2
77.5
88.2
79.2
97.6
98.8
83.0
44.4
94.4
94.4
100
76.1
96.3
58.9
32.2

Per capita health expenditures a

Private prepaid
plans as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000
10.8
9.1
11.9
0
0.1
3.1
0
0
8.3
4.7
0
16.9
0
0
23.4
1.0
0
77.3
0
0.1
43.0
28.5
0.6
11.3
5.1
0
0
21.3
0.2
0
18.7
5.5
10.9
15.0
11.1
0.8
11.1
0
8.5
0
0
8.1
0.9
5.8
4.7
0
0
4.0
0
18.3

2007
15.1
15.7
14.4
4.6
0.5
9.0
0
0
10.1
6.9
0
18.6
0
0
13.7
1.5
0
64.4
0
0.4
34.5
23.5
1.6
3.2
3.1
0
0
23.2
0.3
43.3
17.3
6.2
1.3
20.8
9.8
1.9
13.8
0
9.2
0.4
1.1
9.6
10.2
5.6
5.6
0
0
3.7
0
30.3

Per capita total
expenditure
on health at
average exchange
rate (US$)
2000
9
9
128
220
16
637
418
12
145
328
170
3 775
22
124
54
14
3
131
375
12
1 916
1 055
54
5
17
322
3 156
252
15
594
306
26
122
96
33
247
970
659
536
21
87
96
9
387
244
176
73
2 150
56
338

135

Per capita total
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2007

2000

2007

16
17
307
343
34
1 362
371
22
247
564
285
7 338
64
550
120
18
7
319
673
20
4 243
2 790
92
16
74
1 724
7 354
375
23
873
396
31
114
160
63
716
2 108
2 403
1 362
127
369
493
37
623
361
272
152
3 878
103
531

30
37
304
270
50
2 903
378
35
299
508
217
1 785
89
501
109
26
12
252
858
43
2 337
1 623
131
16
59
308
3 039
619
48
545
560
69
309
229
79
583
1 509
1 453
809
86
298
412
25
540
417
303
154
2 265

647

41
50
604
514
67
4 053
357
47
502
819
373
2 139
138
1 107
202
39
21
467
812
53
3 509
2 497
232
35
131
1 123
4 763
688
64
812
773
65
253
327
130
1 035
2 284
3 075
1 688
281
592
797
95
863
608
474
237
2 810
183
768

Per capita
government
expenditure on health
at average exchange
rate (US$)
2000
6
4
67
113
5
462
410
8
76
153
160
2 843
18
72
16
10
<1
90
273
3
1 209
823
29
3
6
316
2 604
206
3
529
208
21
49
57
16
173
704
453
240
10
59
57
4
233
143
113
52
1 849
20
276

Per capita
government
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2007

2000

2007

11
10
136
224
18
1 056
361
14
121
256
273
5 492
52
314
40
13
<1
134
477
8
3 481
2 202
51
9
19
1 706
6 184
296
7
685
256
25
48
94
22
507
1 489
1 816
748
65
296
316
18
360
195
166
129
3 317
48
422

20
16
159
140
16
2 104
370
25
156
236
204
1 345
71
291
32
19
2
174
624
11
1 474
1 266
70
9
20
303
2 507
506
10
485
381
57
124
134
37
408
1 095
1 000
363
43
202
247
10
326
244
194
109
1 948

529

27
30
268
336
34
3 140
348
31
246
372
357
1 601
112
633
68
28
2
196
575
21
2 878
1 971
127
18
33
1 111
4 005
542
19
637
500
53
107
191
45
733
1 613
2 324
927
142
475
512
45
499
330
290
200
2 404
86
610

Table 7

Health expenditure ratios a

7. Health expenditure
Health expenditure ratios a

Member State
Total expenditure on
health as % of gross
domestic product

2000

2007

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
expenditure
on healthb
2000

2007

Private expenditure on
health as % of total
expenditure on healthb

2000

2007

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
government
expenditure
2000

2007

External resources for
health as %
of total
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Senegal
Serbiau,y
Seychelles
Sierra Leoneg
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somaliag
South Africad
Spain
Sri Lankad
Sudand,g
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republicz
Tajikistan
Thailandd
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia

4.4
10.3
5.3
4.9
3.5
6.6
8.3
5.2
2.6
8.5
7.2
3.7
3.1
7.5
5.7
8.2
10.2
4.8
4.6
3.4
7.6

5.7
9.9
5.1
4.4
3.1
7.7
7.8
4.6

8.6
8.5
4.2
3.5
7.6
6.0
9.1
10.8
3.6
5.3
3.7
7.1

37.5
78.5
75.3
43.0
36.2
85.0
74.0
91.6
44.8
40.5
71.6
47.9
29.2
48.8
58.6
84.9
55.4
40.4
20.4
56.1
70.9

56.0
61.8
70.2
31.3
32.6
66.8
71.5
92.4

41.4
71.8
47.5
36.8
47.4
62.5
81.7
59.3
45.9
21.5
73.2
65.6

62.5
21.5
24.7
57.0
63.8
15.0
26.0
8.4
55.2
59.5
28.4
52.1
70.8
51.2
41.4
15.1
44.6
59.6
79.6
43.9
29.1

44.0
38.2
29.8
68.7
67.4
33.2
28.3
7.6

58.6
28.2
52.5
63.2
52.6
37.5
18.3
40.7
54.1
78.5
26.8
34.4

8.8
20.9
8.4
7.6
6.2
27.7
13.1
17.9
4.2
10.9
13.2
6.8
8.3
9.7
11.6
12.6
16.0
6.5
4.9
10.0
15.8

12.1
13.8
8.9
7.8
7.2
29.9
13.2
15.4

10.8
15.6
8.5
6.1
13.3
9.1
14.1
19.8
6.0
3.6
13.1
14.1

17.2
0.8
5.6
19.6
0
0
0.2
14.8
9.0
0.3
0
0.3
4.7
10.9
5.5
0
0
0.1
2.3
0
3.2

8.5
0.4
2.2
31.3
0
0
0
43.6

0.8
0
1.7
10.2
1.8
7.9
0
0
0.3
7.8
0.3
1.0

Timor-Lesteaa,ab,ac
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisiad
Turkey
Turkmenistang,ad
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzaniad
United States of America
Uruguayd
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemend
Zambia
Zimbabweg

8.8
4.8
5.6
3.9
6.0
4.9
3.9
12.4
6.6
5.9
3.2
7.0
3.8
13.4
11.2
5.7
3.7
5.7
5.4
4.5
5.7
10.0

13.6
6.1
4.4
4.8
6.0
5.0
2.6
9.8
6.3
6.9
2.7
8.4
5.3
15.7
8.0
5.0
3.6
5.8
7.1
3.9
6.2
8.9

70.9
29.9
71.9
42.8
54.9
62.9
81.7
99.8
26.8
48.9
76.6
79.3
43.4
43.2
54.6
44.1
74.4
41.5
30.1
53.8
51.3
53.0

84.6
24.9
70.3
56.1
50.5
69.0
52.1
99.8
26.2
57.6
70.5
81.7
65.8
45.5
74.0
46.1
76.3
46.5
39.3
39.6
57.7
46.3

29.1
70.1
28.1
57.2
45.1
37.1
18.3
0.2
73.2
51.1
23.4
20.7
56.6
56.8
45.4
55.9
25.6
58.5
69.9
46.2
48.7
47.0

15.4
75.1
29.7
43.9
49.5
31.0
47.9
0.2
73.8
42.4
29.5
18.3
34.2
54.5
26.0
53.9
23.6
53.5
60.7
60.4
42.3
53.7

12.7
8.0
15.2
5.7
8.1
9.8
13.7
5.9
7.3
8.4
7.6
14.3
9.1
17.1
20.5
6.0
9.8
8.0
6.6
8.3
9.4
10.7

14.9
7.7
9.7
9.4
9.1
10.3
10.3
16.3
9.8
9.2
8.9
15.6
18.4
19.5
17.3
7.9
11.4
7.1
8.7
4.5
14.5
8.9

52.7
6.6
26.3
4.7
0.9
0.1
1.4
43.9
28.3
0.5
0
0
27.8
0
0.1
6.2
2.7
0.7
2.5
8.0
17.8
1.3

35.0
10.1
20.3
0.1
1.4
0
0.3
6.1
31.6
0.3
0
0
49.9
0
0.1
1.6
15.4
0
1.6
7.4
33.1
0.2

136

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Social security
expenditure on health
as % of general
government
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Out-of-pocket
expenditure as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Per capita health expenditures a

Private prepaid
plans as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Per capita total
expenditure
on health at
average exchange
rate (US$)
2000

Per capita total
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2007

2000

2007

Per capita
government
expenditure on health
at average exchange
rate (US$)
2000

Per capita
government
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)

2007

2000

2007

8.5
59.5
5.0
0
4.8
86.5
93.9
0
0
3.3
9.6
0.3
8.2
40.7
0
0
72.8
0
0
9.4
97.5

4.0
93.4
3.7
0
15.3
89.9
92.7
0

3.0
7.0
0.1
11.3
41.7
0
0
72.2
0
0
9.7
92.2

91.7
84.7
63.0
75.2
97.0
76.4
44.1
66.7
100
25.0
83.1
83.3
100
44.0
42.4
91.1
74.0
100
99.0
76.9
100

78.5
91.7
62.5
58.8
93.9
79.1
48.6
66.7

29.7
74.6
86.7
100
60.2
42.3
87.0
75.0
100
94.4
71.7
100

7.1
0
0
3.0
0
0
51.0
0
0
69.9
13.7
12.2
0
0.8
18.9
1.2
23.8
0
0
12.8
0

17.9
0.5
0
3.8
2.8
0
45.3
0

66.2
20.8
9.1
0
0.8
17.4
1.1
22.6
0
0
19.5
0

21
71
402
7
803
248
707
42
8
251
1 036
33
11
152
78
2 280
3 529
240
6
67
136

54
408
564
14
1 148
1 077
1 836
54

497
2 712
68
40
361
151
4 495
6 108
68
29
136
277

57
443
856
18
1 167
720
1 447
81
18
551
1 536
102
37
350
203
2 283
3 217
159
41
159
452

99
769
1 094
32
1 643
1 555
2 099
123

819
2 671
179
71
527
287
3 323
4 417
154
93
286
669

8
56
303
3
290
211
523
39
4
101
742
16
3
74
46
1 936
1 956
97
1
38
97

30
252
396
4
375
720
1 313
50

206
1 947
32
15
171
95
3 673
3 620
31
6
100
182

21
348
644
8
422
612
1 070
75
8
223
1 100
49
11
171
119
1 938
1 783
64
8
89
321

56
475
768
10
536
1 040
1 501
113

340
1 917
85
26
250
180
2 716
2 618
70
20
209
439

0
12.5
0
0
28.9
55.5
6.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
33.5
27.4
0
0
34.6
19.7
0
0
0

0
12.9
0
0
42.8
50.3
8.8
0
0
0.5
0
0
3.3
27.9
35.1
0
0
33.7
32.3
0
0
0

43.4
86.6
82.9
86.3
80.3
74.6
100
100
56.7
93.4
69.4
64.8
83.5
25.5
31.2
97.0
71.6
90.9
91.7
94.5
80.5
45.5

37.2
84.2
84.7
89.7
84.3
71.8
100
100
51.0
92.4
64.9
62.7
75.0
22.6
50.3
98.0
71.6
88.1
90.2
97.8
67.6
50.4

0
5.4
9.4
7.2
17.9
11.8
0
0
0.1
1.0
20.2
15.6
4.5
60.3
14.9
0
10.7
3.2
4.1
2.2
0.7
34.3

0
4.3
3.6
6.5
14.0
14.4
0
0
0.2
1.8
25.4
6.9
10.4
63.5
34.5
0
10.7
3.2
2.7
1.6
3.7
28.8

34
16
88
244
123
194
44
160
15
38
699
1 769
10
4 703
773
32
48
273
22
25
18
66

58
33
108
785
211
465
139
292
28
210
1 253
3 867
22
7 285
582
41
79
477
58
43
57
79

69
43
164
449
290
432
134
122
46
195
805
1 833
29
4 703
916
82
115
480
76
87
50
26

116
68
167
1 178
463
677
153
150
74
475
982
2 992
63
7 285
916
121
145
697
183
104
79
20

24
5
63
104
67
122
36
160
4
19
536
1 403
4
2 032
422
14
35
113
6
13
9
35

49
8
76
440
107
320
72
291
7
121
883
3 161
14
3 317
431
19
61
222
23
17
33
36

49
13
118
192
159
272
110
122
12
95
616
1 454
12
2 032
500
36
85
199
23
47
26
14

98
17
117
661
234
467
80
149
20
274
693
2 446
41
3 317
678
56
111
324
72
41
46
9

137

Table 7

Health expenditure ratios a

7. Health expenditure
Health expenditure ratios a

Member State
Total expenditure on
health as % of gross
domestic product

2000

2007

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
expenditure
on healthb
2000

2007

Private expenditure on
health as % of total
expenditure on healthb

2000

2007

General government
expenditure on health
as % of total
government
expenditure
2000

2007

External resources for
health as %
of total
expenditure on health
2000

2007

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

1.4
5.8
20.3

1.9
6.1
19.1

1.1
57.0
99.8

11.0
60.3
99.8

0.2
43.0
98.9

0.2
39.7
89.0

0.4
9.8
27.7

0.9
10.8
32.1

0
2.2
71.6

0
1.4
74.9

5.9
12.0
3.7
8.4
4.2
6.8

6.2
13.6
3.6
8.8
4.1
6.5

43.5
44.8
31.2
75.3
52.8
72.7

45.3
47.2
36.9
76.0
55.5
67.8

56.5
55.2
68.8
24.7
47.2
27.3

54.7
52.8
63.1
24.0
44.5
32.2

8.7
15.5
4.8
14.3
7.3
14.9

9.6
17.1
5.3
15.3
7.5
15.1

5.4
0.1
0.9
0.1
1.0
0.1

6.9
0
1.7
0
1.8
0.1

4.7
4.4
6.2
10.2

5.3
4.3
6.4
11.2

37.6
37.0
52.0
59.4

41.9
42.4
55.2
61.3

62.4
63.0
48.0
40.6

58.1
57.6
44.8
38.7

7.9
7.5
8.9
15.6

8.7
7.8
9.4
17.2

10.2
1.1
0.6
0

17.5
1.0
0.2
0

9.2

9.7

57.9

59.6

42.1

40.4

14.5

15.4

0.1

0.2

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP
Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

GLOBAL

138

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
Health expenditure ratios a

Social security
expenditure on health
as % of general
government
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Out-of-pocket
expenditure as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Per capita health expenditures a

Private prepaid
plans as %
of private
expenditure on health
2000

2007

Per capita total
expenditure
on health at
average exchange
rate (US$)
2000

2007

Per capita total
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)
2000

2007

Per capita
government
expenditure on health
at average exchange
rate (US$)
2000

2007

Per capita
government
expenditure
on healthc
(PPP int. $)
2000

2007

0
2.0
98.4

18.2
86.8
100

5.3
84.4
100

0
1.7
77.3

0
3.6
66.2

3
110
4 703

7
248
7 439

8
270
4 703

17
434
7 285

<1
62
2 843

<1
136
6 763

<1
142
2 800

2
263
5 212

7.1
31.9
12.1
52.9
9.9
72.6

8.3
26.0
13.8
49.5
14.0
63.0

53.0
30.1
88.9
65.6
84.4
88.4

60.1
28.0
86.9
66.5
85.7
81.6

39.1
56.8
2.7
25.5
7.2
4.3

32.5
59.4
3.4
24.3
7.6
11.7

35
1 849
20
931
68
291

76
2 911
41
2 035
133
416

86
1 983
61
1 220
180
298

137
3 046
104
1 875
271
531

15
829
6
701
36
212

34
1 374
15
1 546
74
282

38
896
18
901
85
190

63
1 437
36
1 401
137
330

3.8
37.1
41.1
48.4

11.0
37.2
38.0
41.8

85.6
92.8
70.7
38.2

83.1
90.5
69.0
36.1

3.9
2.5
24.0
49.1

3.7
5.3
26.4
51.4

14
34
221
2 657

27
80
488
4 405

37
97
454
2 745

67
181
757
4 145

5
13
115
1 577

11
34
269
2 699

14
35
243
1 631

28
76
419
2 492

47.6

41.2

44.2

43.9

44.2

45.0

481

802

568

863

279

478

320

493

Table 7

0
1.0
100

139

Table 8

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Health inequities
In general, the global reporting of health indicators focuses on national averages. However, data on the distribution
of health and health services within countries and between population subgroups are equally important (Figure 14
and Box 7). Such data help to identify health inequities – unfair and avoidable differences in health and health service
provision – that arise for example from socioeconomic factors (such as level of education, occupation and household
wealth or income), from geographical location, and from ethnicity and gender.
This section presents data from 87 countries using three health indicators – percentage of births attended by
skilled health personnel, measles immunization coverage among 1-year-old children, and mortality in children
under 5 years old (under-five mortality) – disaggregated according to urban or rural residence, household wealth and
maternal educational level.
The main sources of the data are the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster
Surveys (MICS), conducted between 2000 and 2008. For the disaggregations by household wealth, the total
population is classified into wealth quintiles based on relative differences in household wealth within the country
rather than an absolute wealth criterion. The estimates are subject to normal sample variability, which are usually
indicated by confidence intervals – however, only the point estimates are shown in this section.
The data presented refer to ratios and differences between the most-advantaged and least-advantaged groups.
However, these measures do not reflect the situation across all population groups (such as groups falling into the
middle of wealth or education distributions) for which other measures are used.

141

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 14: Urban–rural differences in the coverage of skilled attendant at birth and measles immunization in low-income
and middle-income countries – 2000–2008
Births attended by skilled health personnel
Low income

Measles immunization coverage among 1-year olds

Middle income

Low income

Middle income

100
96
90

81

80

80

85

83
77

70

70

Percentage

60

50

40
35
30

20

10

0

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Note: Solid horizontal lines indicate the median.

142

Rural

Urban

Rural

Urban

Table 8

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Box 7: Inequities in health service coverage

In Figure 14, each circle represents a country (note that circles may overlap). Three major conclusions can
be drawn from the data:
There are differences between rural and urban areas in coverage of key health services such as skilled
attendant at birth and measles immunization – these differences are more marked in low-income countries
compared with middle-income countries, and significantly more acute in relation to skilled attendant at
birth than to measles immunization.
In low-income countries, there are major differences between urban and rural areas in the coverage of
skilled attendant at birth – 80% of urban births take place with the assistance of skilled health personnel
compared with only 35% of births in rural areas. By contrast, urban–rural differences with regard to
measles immunization rates are less pronounced at 77% and 70%, respectively.
Within the low-income country group, there is very wide variation in both indicators – for example,
coverage of skilled attendant at birth in rural areas ranges from as low as 3% to as high as 100%.

143

8. Health inequities
Member State

Year

MDG 5

Births attended by skilled health personnel a,b (%)

2005

2006

2007

Difference highest–lowest

2005

Ratio highest–lowest

2005
2006
2004

Highest

2003
2005
2005
2004

Lowest

2008
2006

Difference highest–lowest

2006
2006

Ratio highest–lowest

2005

Highest

2007

Lowest

2006

Difference urban–rural

2005

Ratio urban–rural

2005
2006

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Afghanistan
Albaniaf
Algeriaf
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armeniag
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarusf
Belgium
Belizef
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)h
Bosnia and Herzegovinaf
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundif
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verdeh
Central African Republicf
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoiref
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark

Wealth
quintile

Rural

Place of
residence


100
92




98


81


13

100

93
74

51
100




31
32
39
44

64
35
6


77

74


40





63


100
98




99


97


37

100

99
86

88
100




88
75
70
84

91
83
46


97

97


84





91


1.0
1.1




1.0


1.2


2.8

1.0

1.1
1.2

1.7
1.0




2.9
2.4
1.8
1.9

1.4
2.4
7.1


1.3

1.3


2.1





1.4


0
6




1


16


23

0

7
12

37
0




57
43
31
40

27
48
39


20

23


44





28


99





93


78


5

100


56

38
99




39
25
21
29


27
4


72

67


29





59


100





100


100


51

100


97

99
100




91
55
90
95


89
55


99

98


95





98


1.0





1.1


1.3


10.3

1.0


1.7

2.6
1.0




2.3
2.2
4.3
3.2


3.3
15.4


1.4

1.5


3.3





1.7


1





7


22


46

0


42

61
0




52
30
69
65


62
52


27

32


66





39











83


5




72







33
30
22
23


34
9


67

62


47





59











89


33




98







95
84
80
92


88
67


97

93


87





89











1.1


7.4




1.4







2.9
2.8
3.6
4.0


2.6
7.2


1.4

1.5


1.8





1.5











5


29




26







62
54
58
69


55
57


30

30


40





29

144

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 4 Under-five mortality ratea,d
(probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Measles immunization coverage
among 1-year-olds a,c (%)

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Rural

Urban

Ratio rural–urban

Difference rural–urban

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Education level
of mothere

Lowest

Wealth quintile

Difference urban–rural

Place of
residence

Ratio urban–rural

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth quintile

Rural

Place of
residence








80


44


82

99

79
57

87
80




53
78
77
58

87

19


76

57


78





56








67


64


88

98

91
68

85
74




73
85
79
73

90

38


85

76


94





73








0.8


1.5


1.1

1.0

1.2
1.2

1.0
0.9




1.4
1.1
1.0
1.2

1.0

2.0


1.1

1.3


1.2





1.3








–13


20


6

–1

12
11

–2
–6




20
7
3
14

3

18


9

20


16





17








72


50


80

100


48

88
72




48
77
70
52



8


69

49


69





51








(62)


83


89

98


76

88
76




71
79
82
83



38


90

84


98





85








0.8


1.7


1.1

1.0


1.6

1.0
1.1




1.5
1.0
1.2
1.6



4.6


1.3

1.7


1.4





1.7








–11


34


9

–2


28

0
4




23
3
13
31



30


21

36


29





34











46


74




57







54
74
64
46



18


70

44


80





49











55


90




82







80
87
91
79



54


86

75


95





77











1.2


1.2




1.5







1.5
1.2
1.4
1.7



3.0


1.2

1.7


1.2





1.6











9


16




26







26
13
27
33



36


16

31


16





28


19





42


64


77



27
145

99





202
178
111
169

44
199
208


33

136








177


20





26


52


63



26
116

55





136
137
76
119

53
126
179


23

108








122


1.0





1.6


1.2


1.2



1.0
1.3

1.8





1.5
1.3
1.5
1.4

0.8
1.6
1.2


1.4

1.3








1.5


–1





16


12


14



1
30

44





65
41
35
50

–9
73
28


10

28








55








52


63


86




151

116





206
190
127
189


223
176


39

135








184








23


41


43




83

31





144
128
43
88


112
187


16

85








97








2.2


1.5


2.0




1.8

3.7





1.4
1.5
3.0
2.2


2.0
0.9


2.4

1.6








1.9








29


22


43




68

85





62
62
84
101


111
–11


23

51








87











68


93




143







198
195
136
186


187
200


51

202








209











58


52




78







108
55
53
93


107
143


20

101








112











1.2


1.8




1.8







1.8
3.5
2.6
2.0


1.7
1.4


2.5

2.0








1.9











10


41




65







90
140
83
92


80
57


30

101








97

145

Table 8

MDG 4

8. Health inequities
Member State

Year

MDG 5

Births attended by skilled health personnel a,b (%)

2005
2007
2006
2003

2006
2006

2004
2007

Difference highest–lowest

2006

Ratio highest–lowest

2005–2006
2007

Highest

2005
2006
2006
2005–2006
2005–2006

Lowest

2008

Difference highest–lowest

2000
2006
2005

Ratio highest–lowest

2005

Highest

2002

Lowest

2008

Difference urban–rural

2007

Ratio urban–rural

2006

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Djiboutif
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypth
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambiaf
Georgiaf
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissauf
Guyanaf
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraqf
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaicaf
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstanf
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstanf
Lao People's Democratic Republicf
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Wealth
quintile

Rural

Place of
residence

40

94

72


10

3



69
43
98

43



26
27
82
15
50


37
63

78



94

99
100
35


96
11


50
32

95

96

90


65

45



93
83
99

84



81
69
89
47
90


73
88

95



99

99
100
72


100
68


88
79

2.3

1.0

1.2


6.2

16.6



1.3
1.9
1.0

2.0



3.1
2.6
1.1
3.0
1.8


2.0
1.4

1.2



1.0

1.0
1.0
2.1


1.0
6.2


1.8
2.5

54

2

18


54

42



24
40
1

41



55
42
7
31
40


36
25

17



4

1
0
38


4
57


38
47



89

55


6

1



67
28
95

24



15
19
64
6
33


19
44







98
100
17


93
3


34
26



98

97


85

27



97
89
99

95



87
79
93
68
99


89
96







100
100
75


100
81


83
81



1.1

1.8


14.7

29.7



1.4
3.1
1.0

3.9



6.0
4.0
1.5
10.5
3.0


4.6
2.2







1.0
1.0
4.4


1.1
27.1


2.5
3.2



9

42


79

26



30
60
3

70



73
59
29
61
65


69
52







2
0
58


7
78


50
56



86

60


12

2



84
49


36



33
28

9
37


26
31

79





94

16



3


21
36



97

89


88

58



93
85


78



84
80

60
96


75
87

96





99

72



63


73
75



1.1

1.5


7.3

24.0



1.1
1.7


2.2



2.6
2.9

6.6
2.6


2.9
2.8

1.2





1.1

4.6



18.5


3.5
2.1



12

29


76

55



9
36


42



51
52

51
59


49
56

17





5

56



59


52
39

146

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 4 Under-five mortality ratea,d
(probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Measles immunization coverage
among 1-year-olds a,c (%)

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Rural

Urban

Ratio rural–urban

Difference rural–urban

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Education level
of mothere

Lowest

Wealth quintile

Difference urban–rural

Place of
residence

Ratio urban–rural

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth quintile

Rural

Place of
residence



81

98


79

32



37
93


88



49
72
96
56
86


54
73

60



95

91
99
70



38


84
56



78

98


94

65



61
91


93



55
83
95
62
84


72
82

76



88

95
100
86



54


91
77



1.0

1.0


1.2

2.0



1.6
1.0


1.1



1.1
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.0


1.3
1.1

1.3



0.9

1.0
1.0
1.2



1.4


1.1
1.4



–3

0


15

33



24
–3


5



6
11
–1
6
–2


18
10

16



–7

4
0
16



17


7
20



73

98


80

25



34
95


88



42
70
94
50
85


40
63







92
100
55



33


82
45



87

99


95

53



71
91


95



57
90
100
67
86


85
85







96
99
88



60


85
86



1.2

1.0


1.2

2.1



2.1
1.0


1.1



1.4
1.3
1.1
1.3
1.0


2.1
1.3







1.0
1.0
1.6



1.8


1.0
1.9



14

2


15

28



37
–3


7



15
20
6
17
0


45
22







4
–1
33



27


3
41



53

98


77

30



42
92


86



48
72

52
81


41
49

60





85

51



31


74
58



83

99


96

63



64
95


93



68
87

68
86


80
83

79





95

85



55


85
78



1.6

1.0


1.2

2.1



1.5
1.0


1.1



1.4
1.2

1.3
1.1


2.0
1.7

1.3





1.1

1.7



1.8


1.1
1.3



30

1


19

33



22
2


7



20
15

16
5


39
34

19





10

34



24


11
20

73

37

36


117

135



100
150
45

91



204
253
50
114
43


94
60

41



25

27
43
117


50



105
146

95

37

29


86

98



88
96
24

75



133
250
34
78
29


61
38

41



36

22
30
94


35



86
132

0.8

1.0

1.3


1.4

1.4



1.1
1.6
1.9

1.2



1.5
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.5


1.5
1.6

1.0



0.7

1.2
1.4
1.3


1.4



1.2
1.1

–22

1

8


31

37



12
54
21

16



71
3
16
36
14


33
22

0



–11

5
12
23


15



18
15



53

49


100

130



93
158


103



217


125
50


118
77







30

149






113
138



28

19


65

92



55
72


60



113


55
20


39
32







27

91






82
117



1.9

2.6


1.5

1.4



1.7
2.2


1.7



1.9


2.3
2.5


3.0
2.4







1.1

1.6






1.4
1.2



25

30


35

38



38
86


43



104


70
30


78
46







3

58






31
21



57

44


121

139



112
140


103



194


123
55


106
94

49







127






161
151



29

25


59

54



87
66


67



92


65
20


49
38

37







63






82
119



2.0

1.8


2.1

2.6



1.3
2.1


1.5



2.1


1.9
2.8


2.2
2.5

1.3







2.0






2.0
1.3



28

19


62

85



25
74


35



102


57
35


57
56

12







64






79
33

147

Table 8

MDG 4

8. Health inequities
Member State

Year

MDG 5

Births attended by skilled health personnel a,b (%)

2007–2008

Difference highest–lowest

2005

Ratio highest–lowest

2004–2005
2003

Highest

2006–2007

Lowest

2001
2006
2008

Difference highest–lowest

2006

Ratio highest–lowest

2006–2007

Highest

2005
2005
2003–2004
2003

Lowest

2007

Difference urban–rural

2006

Ratio urban–rural

2003–2004
2004

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritaniaf
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongoliaf
Montenegrof,g
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeriah
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peruh
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldovag
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwandah
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa

Wealth
quintile

Rural

Place of
residence



40
53


38


39




99
98
40
34

74

19


83
8
28



30




43
41




99


49





71
84


80


90




100
100
85
81

94

52


97
71
65



60




92
79




100


70





1.8
1.6


2.1


2.3




1.0
1.0
2.2
2.4

1.3

2.8


1.2
8.5
2.4



2.0




2.1
1.9




1.0


1.4





31
31


42


51




1
2
46
47

20

33


13
62
38



30




49
38




0


21





30
47


35


21




98
98
30
25

60

5


78
5
8



16




28
25




99


43





94
85


86


95




100
100
95
89

98

58


99
59
86



77




100
92




100


71





3.1
1.8


2.5


4.6




1.0
1.0
3.2
3.6

1.6

12.0


1.3
11.8
10.3



4.8




3.5
3.7




1.0


1.7





64
38


51


75




2
3
66
64

38

53


22
54
77



61




72
67




1


28





22
43


44


45






49
31

50

11


77
13




27





11




100


39





81
83


92


92






94
95

92

53


98
81




74





72




100


82





3.7
2.0


2.1


2.0






1.9
3.0

1.8

4.7


1.3
6.1




2.8





6.5




1.0


2.1





59
41


48


47






46
63

42

41


21
67




47





61




–1


43



148

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 4 Under-five mortality ratea,d
(probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Measles immunization coverage
among 1-year-olds a,c (%)

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Rural

Urban

Ratio rural–urban

Difference rural–urban

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Education level
of mothere

Lowest

Wealth quintile

Difference urban–rural

Place of
residence

Ratio urban–rural

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth quintile

Rural

Place of
residence



56
78


66


79




86
82
86
71

82

85


74
42
34



56




87
78




92


90





74
87


76


72




90
84
94
91

86

89


77
72
59



69




88
82




88


92





1.3
1.1


1.2


0.9




1.0
1.0
1.1
1.3

1.0

1.1


1.0
1.7
1.8



1.2




1.0
1.1




1.0


1.0





18
9


10


–7




4
3
8
20

4

4


3
30
25



13




1
4




–4


2





38
67


68


67




88
(83)
83
61

70

73


76
32
17



36




86
70




(91)


89





84
88


78


79




91
(78)
98
96

95

95


94
74
75



76




90
89




91


92





2.2
1.3


1.2


1.2




1.0
0.9
1.2
1.6

1.4

1.3


1.2
2.3
4.3



2.1




1.0
1.3




1.0


1.0





46
21


11


12




3
–4
15
36

25

21


18
41
58



39




4
20




0


3





36
72


66


70






88
66

57

78


69
43




51





46







86





85
94


90


80






96
99

91

99


73
84




81





83







95





2.4
1.3


1.4


1.1






1.1
1.5

1.6

1.3


1.0
2.0




1.6





1.8







1.1





49
22


24


10






9
34

34

21


3
42




31





38







9





120
164


234


127




69

69
192

76

84


55
231
191



100




52
52




30


142





73
116


158


114




31

38
143

60

47


34
139
121



78




31
30




20


87





1.6
1.4


1.5


1.1




2.2

1.8
1.3

1.3

1.8


1.6
1.7
1.6



1.3




1.7
1.7




1.5


1.6





47
48


76


14




38

31
49

16

36


21
91
70



21




21
22




9


55





142
183


233


144






78
196

92

98


64
206
219



121




63
66




29


161





49
111


124


87






26
108

30

47


19
157
87



60




11
21




17


84





2.9
1.6


1.9


1.6






3.0
1.8

3.1

2.1


3.3
1.3
2.5



2.0




5.7
3.2




1.7


1.9





92
72


110


57






52
88

63

51


45
49
132



61




52
46




12


77





149
183


223


118






63
201

79

93


72
222




102





105







174





65
86


102


89






27
86

54

32


25
92




62





29







43





2.3
2.1


2.2


1.3






2.3
2.3

1.5

2.9


2.9
2.4




1.6





3.7







4.0





83
97


122


29






36
115

25

60


47
130




40





76







131



149

Table 8

MDG 4

8. Health inequities
Member State

Year

MDG 5

Births attended by skilled health personnel a,b (%)

2002
2006
2007
2005–2006

Difference highest–lowest

2006

Ratio highest–lowest

2004–2005

Highest

2006
2007

Lowest

2006
2006
2003
2000

Difference highest–lowest

2006

Ratio highest–lowest

2006
2005
2005–2006
2005–2006

Highest

2006–2007

Lowest

2006
2003

Difference urban–rural

2008

Ratio urban–rural

Timor-Leste
Togof
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobagof,g
Tunisiaf
Turkeyh
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistanf
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nami
Yemenf
Zambia
Zimbabwe

2005
2005

Education level
of mothere

Urban

San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbiaf
Seychelles
Sierra Leoneh
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somaliaf
South Africah
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republicf
Tajikistanf
Thailandf
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedoniaf

Wealth
quintile

Rural

Place of
residence




33
99

33




15
85




70


88
81
97
98




85
99

67




65
94




88


98
89
99
98




2.5
1.0

2.0




4.5
1.1




1.3


1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0




51
0

34




51
9




18


9
8
3
0




20
98

28




11





51


78
70
93
95




89
100

71




77





92


99
91
100
100




4.4
1.0

2.5




7.2





1.8


1.3
1.3
1.1
1.0




69
2

43




66





42


21
21
7
5




42


36




25





57




81
89




88


73




73





84




99
100




2.1


2.0




3.0





1.5




1.2
1.1




45


37




48





27




18
11


40



69
97

38
98


47


100


82
26
31
58


93



90
98

80
99


83


100


99
62
83
94


2.3



1.3
1.0

2.1
1.0


1.8


1.0


1.2
2.3
2.7
1.6


54



21
2

43
1


36


0


17
35
52
36


30

98


97

28
97


39


100


58
17
27
46


97

100


98

77
99


90


100


100
74
91
95


3.3

1.0


1.0

2.7
1.0


2.3


1.0


1.7
4.3
3.4
2.1


67

2


2

48
2


51


0


42
57
64
49


44




93

26
100


40





42
27
24
35


89




97

76
99


89





94
61
73
81


2.0




1.0

2.9
1.0


2.2





2.3
2.3
3.1
2.3


45




5

50
–1


49





52
34
49
46

150

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 4 Under-five mortality ratea,d
(probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Measles immunization coverage
among 1-year-olds a,c (%)

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Rural

Urban

Ratio rural–urban

Difference rural–urban

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Education level
of mothere

Lowest

Wealth quintile

Difference urban–rural

Place of
residence

Ratio urban–rural

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth quintile

Rural

Place of
residence




71
89

58




23
68




91


91
90
96
88




77
85

65




40
59




95


94
96
96
89




1.1
1.0

1.1




1.8
0.9




1.0


1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0




6
–4

6




17
–9




4


3
6
0
2




71
87

56




22





89


89
89
96
80




81
84

68




47





93


97
96
99
93




1.1
1.0

1.2




2.1





1.0


1.1
1.1
1.0
1.2




10
–3

13




25





4


9
8
3
13




69


56




24





84




90
71




95


75




48





93




96
92




1.4


1.3




2.0





1.1




1.1
1.3




26


19




25





9




6
21




160


168




136
57




105


24
83

26




91


167




134
51




107


19
70

10




1.8


1.0




1.0
1.1




1.0


1.3
1.2

2.6




69


1




2
6




–2


5
13

16




183


211










118


22





64


144










101


20





2.8


1.5










1.2


1.1





119


67










17


2





152


170










150








60


130










95








2.5


1.3










1.6








92


40










55






61


97
69
92

67



78


98


81
59
84
63


67


99
84
82

77



90


97


94
80
89
72


1.1


1.0
1.2
0.9

1.1



1.2


1.0


1.2
1.4
1.1
1.1


6


2
15
–10

10



12


0


14
22
5
8


57

(98)


91

66



65


97


64
52
88
54


72

(85)


80

73



91


98


98
86
94
74


1.3

0.9


0.9

1.1



1.4


1.0


1.5
1.6
1.1
1.4


15

–13


–11

7



26


1


33
33
7
20


50




74

64



65





49
60
82
30


82




88

82



90





93
81
90
71


1.6




1.2

1.3



1.4





1.9
1.4
1.1
2.3


32




14

18



25





44
21
8
41


143



50
100

147
20


138


59


36
86
139
72


73



30
73

115
19


108


51


16
57
132
64


2.0



1.7
1.4

1.3
1.1


1.3


1.2


2.2
1.5
1.1
1.1


70



20
27

32
1


31


8


19
29
7
8


150




106

172
23


137


72


53
118
124
72


62




70

108
9


93


42


16
37
110
57


2.4




1.5

1.6
2.7


1.5


1.7


3.3
3.2
1.1
1.3


88




36

64
15


44


30


37
81
14
15


145




133

164



160





66

144
69


64




88

91



76





29

105
68


2.3




1.5

1.8



2.1





2.3

1.4
1.0


81




45

73



84





38

39
1

151

Table 8

MDG 4

8. Health inequities
Member State

Year

MDG 5

Births attended by skilled health personnel a,b (%)

Ratio urban–rural

Difference urban–rural

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth
quintile

Rural

Place of
residence

3
51
100

37
89
100





1
39
100

27
95
100





2
36
100

33
87
100





RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

152

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 4

MDG 4 Under-five mortality ratea,d
(probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births)

Measles immunization coverage
among 1-year-olds a,c (%)

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio highest–lowest

Difference highest–lowest

Rural

Urban

Ratio rural–urban

Difference rural–urban

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

Lowest

Highest

Ratio lowest–highest

Difference lowest–highest

19
78
99

38
84
100





8
70
100

38
86
100





18
62
98

48
85
99





19
94
253

10
73
250





22
120
233

9
61
187





44
139
223

20
65
143





Table 8

Highest

Education level
of mothere

Lowest

Wealth quintile

Difference urban–rural

Place of
residence

Ratio urban–rural

Education level
of mothere

Urban

Wealth quintile

Rural

Place of
residence

153

Table 9

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
This section presents data on demographic and socioeconomic factors that are major determinants of health. For
example, reductions in child mortality are closely associated with improvements in female education (Figure 15,
Box 8). The table includes three MDG-related indicators – adolescent fertility; primary school enrolment ratios; and
population living in poverty. The table also includes data on demographics (population size, growth, fertility rates
and urbanization); coverage of civil registration of births and deaths; adult literacy; and per capita gross national
income. In addition to their intrinsic value, such data are also important in making other statistics comparable across
countries. For example, data on disease incidence, prevalence and mortality rates, and on the availability of healthsystem resources all require reliable population-based denominators.
These demographic and socioeconomic data have been derived from a variety of national and international
sources. The latter include the World Bank, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the United Nations Department of Economic and
Social Affairs (UNDESA). Estimates are based on a combination of administrative records, population-based surveys,
censuses and civil registration data and on statistical modelling to account for missing values. For more information
on the sources and methods used for a particular indicator, please refer to the relevant footnotes and to the web site of
the responsible organization.

155

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Figure 15: Mortality rate in children under 5 years old against female net primary school enrolment rate

220

200
AFR
AMR
180

SEAR
EUR
EMR

Probability of dying by age 5 per 1000 live births, 2008

160

WPR

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Female net primary school enrolment rate, 1990–1999 (%)

156

80

90

100

Box 8: Correlation between female primary education and child mortality rates

In Figure 15, the available data from 120 countries is shown. Each shape represents one country coded
according to WHO region. Two conclusions can be drawn from the data:
High rates of child mortality are strongly associated with a lack of female primary education – in general,
countries with a higher rate of female primary education have lower levels of under-five mortality.
There is much more variation between countries in the WHO African Region than in other WHO regions
– where there are few outliers.

157

Table 9

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

9. Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
Populationa

Member State

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Andorra
Angola
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bhutan
Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Costa Rica
Côte d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Denmark
Djibouti

Total
(000s)

Median
age

Aged
under 15
(%)

Aged over
60 (%)

2008

2008

2008

2008

27 208
3 143
34 373
84
18 021
87
39 883
3 077
21 074
8 337
8 731
338
776
160 000
255
9 679
10 590
301
8 662
687
9 694
3 773
1 921
191 972
392
7 593
15 234
8 074
14 562
19 088
33 259
499
4 339
10 914
16 804
1 344 920
45 012
661
3 615
20
4 519
20 591
4 423
11 205
862
10 319
23 819
64 257
5 458
849

17
29
25

17

30
32
37
41
28
29
28
24
37
38
41
22
18
23
21
39
22
28
27
41
17
20
22
19
39
20
19
17
31
33
26
21
19

27
19
41
37
36
39
33
16
40
21

46
24
28
14
45
27
25
21
19
15
25
26
27
32
18
15
17
36
43
31
37
16
34
26
27
13
46
39
34
41
17
37
41
46
23
20
30
38
41
33
26
41
15
18
18
14
22
47
18
37

4
13
7
22
4
12
14
14
19
23
9
10
4
6
14
18
23
6
5
7
7
18
6
10
5
24
3
4
6
5
19
6
6
4
13
12
8
5
6
8
9
6
23
16
18
21
14
4
23
5

158

Civil registration
coverage (%)

Annual growth rate
(%)
1988–
1998

1998–
2008

5.1
–0.4
2.1
2.6
2.9
1.5
1.3
–1.2
1.2
0.5
1.4
1.8
3.0
2.0
–0.2
0.0
0.3
2.9
3.3
0.0
2.2
–2.2
2.7
1.6
2.7
–0.9
2.8
1.6
3.0
2.7
1.1
2.2
2.5
3.1
1.7
1.2
1.9
2.4
2.4
0.0
2.5
3.3
0.2
0.6
1.4
0.0
1.4
3.4
0.3
3.2

3.2
0.2
1.5
2.6
2.9
1.6
1.0
–0.1
1.2
0.4
0.9
1.3
2.2
1.6
0.1
–0.5
0.4
2.3
3.2
2.6
1.9
0.8
1.5
1.3
2.1
–0.7
3.2
2.5
1.7
2.3
1.0
1.6
1.9
3.3
1.1
0.7
1.6
2.2
2.1
1.0
1.9
2.3
–0.4
0.2
1.2
0.1
0.6
2.8
0.3
2.1

Birthsb

Living in urban areas (%)

1990
18
36
52
95
37
35
87
67
85
66
54
80
88
20
33
66
96
47
34
16
56
39
42
75
66
66
14
6
13
41
77
44
37
21
83
28
68
28
54
57
51
40
54
73
67
75
58
28
85
76

2000
21
42
60
92
49
32
90
65
87
66
51
82
88
24
36
70
97
48
38
25
62
43
53
81
71
69
17
8
17
50
79
53
38
23
86
36
72
28
58
64
59
44
56
76
69
74
60
30
85
83

2008
24
47
65
89
57
30
92
64
89
67
52
84
89
27
40
73
97
52
41
35
66
47
60
86
75
71
20
10
22
57
80
60
39
27
88
43
74
28
61
74
63
49
57
76
70
73
63
34
87
87

Deathsc

2000–2008
6h
>90
>90
>90
29h

>90
>90
>90
>90
>90

>90
10h
>90
>90
>90
94h
60h

74h
>90
58h
89h,k
>90
>90
64h
60h
66h
70h
>90
>90
49h
9h
>90

90h
83h
81h,k
>90
>90
55h
>90
>90
>90
>90
99h
31h
>90
89h

<25
50–74
75–89
25–49
<25
75–89
90–100
50–74
90–100
90–100
50–74
90–100
75–89
<25
90–100
90–100
90–100
90–100
<25
<25
<25

<25
75–89
90–100
90–100
<25
<25
<25
<25
90–100

<25
<25
90–100
<25
90–100
<25
<25
>75
90–100
<25
90–100
90–100
90–100
90–100
<25
<25
90–100
<25

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 5
Adolescent
fertility rated

Adult literacy ratee
(%)

(per 1000 girls
15–19 years)

1990
8.0
2.9
4.7
1.3i
7.2

3.0
2.5
1.9
1.5
3.0
2.6
3.7
4.4
1.7
1.9
1.6
4.5
6.7
5.9
4.9
1.7
4.7
2.8
3.2
1.7
6.8
6.6
5.8
5.9
1.7
5.3
5.8
6.7
2.6
2.3
3.1
5.5
5.4

3.2
6.3
1.7
1.8
2.4
1.8
2.4
7.1
1.7
6.2

2000
7.7
2.2
2.6
1.4i
6.8
2.7i
2.5
1.7
1.8
1.4
2.0
2.2
2.6
3.0
1.5
1.2
1.6
3.6
6.0
3.8
4.1
1.4
3.4
2.4
2.5
1.2
6.3
5.8
3.9
5.0
1.5
3.7
5.4
6.6
2.1
1.8
2.6
4.3
4.8
3.2i
2.4
5.2
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.1
2.0
6.9
1.8
4.8

2008
6.6
1.9
2.4
1.3i
5.8
2.1i
2.2
1.7
1.8
1.4
2.1
2.0
2.3
2.3
1.5
1.3
1.8
2.9
5.4
2.6
3.5
1.2
2.9
1.9
2.1
1.4
5.9
4.6
2.9
4.6
1.6
2.7
4.8
6.2
1.9
1.8
2.4
4.0
4.4
2.6i
2.0
4.6
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.9
6.0
1.8
3.9

2000–2007
151
13
4
11
165
67
62
25
15
12j
44
43
15j
127
51
20
10
90
114
46
88
16j
51
56
26j
38
131
30
52
141
14j
92
133
193
49
5
96
95
132
47
63j
111
13j
42j
6j
11j

124
6j
27

Male
1990–
1999






96



99

84
35

100

70
27

80

69

88

13
37
67


63

12
94
78
91
63



36
97

94




2000–
2007
28
99
75

67
99
98
99


100

89
53

100


41
53
91
97
83
90
95
98
29
59
76
68

84
49
32
97
93
93
75


96
49
99
100
98


67

Gross national income
per capitaf
(PPP int. $)

MDG 2
Net primary school
enrolment ratee (%)

1990–
1999

Female
2000–
2009



93





94
97
88
89
95



99
89
66
59
95

80


98
41
39
87

99
100

63


93
70

87

63
86
97
95
96

33
97
32

159


91
96
81

75

73
97
97
97
89
98
85

93
98
98
99
82
93

85
93
93
95
64
100
90

99
85
68
72
95

90
79
79
69

62
91
99
99
91


95
48

1990–
1999


89





94
98
89
89
97



99
88
45
52
95

83


96
29
33
79

99
98

39


93
59

83

48
85
98
95
97

32
97
23

2000–
2009
0
91
94
79

73

75
97
98
95
92
98
86

96
98
98
86
84
94

87
92
93
94
56
99
87

100
84
50
50
94

90
67
75
66

50
90
99
99
94


96
43

1990

2000

2008


2 820
4 340

1 840
8 110
5 160
2 040
16 310
19 290


10 830
500

4 650
18 720
2 970
790
1 280
2 010

4 860
5 050
35 700
5 000
520
340

1 430
18 830
1 230
570
690
4 490
800l
4 120
880
2 060

4 340
1 170
9 530

10 690


400
18 030


4 370
5 120

1 850

8 860
2 090
24 920
28 570
2 080

20 030
820

5 120
28 150
4 630
1 130
2 330
2 930
4 910
8 310
6 810
42 070
6 000
790
310
860
1 520
27 630
2 080
640
770
8 910
2 330l
5 550
970
1 990

6 620
1 430
10 580

16 020
14 640

210
28 180
1 600


7 950
7 940

5 020
20 570
14 020
6 310
34 040
37 680
7 770


1 440

12 150
34 760
6 040
1 460
4 880
4 140
8 620
13 100
10 070

11 950
1 160
380
1 820
2 180
36 220
3 450
730
1 160
13 270
6 020l
8 510
1 170
3 090

10 950
1 580
18 420


22 790

290
37 280
2 330

MDG 1
Population
living on <$1g
(PPP int. $)
a dayg (%)
2000–2007

<2.0


54.3

4.5
10.6


<2.0


49.6

<2.0


47.3
26.2
19.6
<2.0

5.2

<2.0
56.5
81.3
40.2
32.8

20.6
62.4
61.9
<2.0
15.9
16.0
46.1
54.1

2.4
23.3
<2.0




59.2

18.8

Table 9

Total fertility ratea
(per woman)

9. Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
Populationa

Member State

Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kiribati
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Lao People's Democratic Republic
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Lithuania
Luxembourg

Total
(000s)

Median
age

Aged
under 15
(%)

Aged over
60 (%)

2008

2008

2008

2008

67
9 953
13 481
81 527
6 134
659
4 927
1 341
80 713
844
5 304
62 036
1 448
1 660
4 307
82 264
23 351
11 137
104
13 686
9 833
1 575
763
9 876
7 319
10 012
315
1 181 412
227 345
73 312
30 096
4 437
7 051
59 604
2 708
127 293
6 136
15 521
38 765
97
2 919
5 414
6 205
2 259
4 194
2 049
3 793
6 294
3 321
481


25
25
23
23
19
19
39
18
24
42
40
21
19
37
43
20
41
24
19
18
19
27
21
20
40
35
24
28
26
19
34
29
43
26
44
22
29
18

30
25
20
40
28
19
18
25
39
39

27
32
31
32
33
41
42
15
44
32
17
18
37
42
17
14
39
14
28
42
43
43
30
37
38
15
21
32
27
24
41
21
28
14
30
13
35
24
43
31
23
30
38
14
26
39
43
30
15
18

12
8
9
7
10
4
4
22
5
8
23
22
6
5
19
26
6
24
9
6
5
5
9
6
6
22
16
7
9
7
5
16
14
26
10
29
6
10
4
7
4
7
5
22
10
7
5
6
21
19

160

Civil registration
coverage (%)

Annual growth rate
(%)
1988–
1998

1998–
2008

–0.2
1.9
2.0
2.1
1.2
3.4
1.2
–1.2
3.2
0.9
0.4
0.4
3.0
3.8
–1.1
0.4
2.7
0.8
0.3
2.3
3.4
2.5
0.0
2.0
2.6
–0.2
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.9
3.0
0.5
3.0
0.0
0.8
0.3
4.5
–0.7
3.1
1.7
–0.4
1.2
2.6
–0.9
2.4
1.6
0.9
2.1
–0.3
1.3

–0.2
1.5
1.2
1.9
0.4
2.8
3.7
–0.4
2.6
0.7
0.3
0.6
2.1
3.1
–1.2
0.0
2.3
0.2
0.2
2.4
2.0
2.3
0.1
1.7
2.0
–0.3
1.3
1.6
1.3
1.2
2.6
1.8
1.9
0.4
0.7
0.1
2.8
0.2
2.6
1.7
4.0
1.2
1.8
–0.7
1.3
1.2
4.4
2.0
–0.7
1.2

Birthsb

Living in urban areas (%)

1990
68
55
55
43
49
35
16
71
13
42
61
74
69
38
55
73
36
59
32
41
28
28
30
29
40
66
91
26
31
56
70
57
90
67
49
63
72
56
18
35
98
38
15
69
83
14
45
76
68
81

2000
71
62
60
43
58
39
18
69
15
48
61
76
80
49
53
73
44
60
31
45
31
30
29
36
44
65
92
28
42
64
68
59
91
67
52
65
78
56
20
43
98
35
22
68
86
20
54
76
67
84

2008
74
69
66
43
61
39
21
69
17
52
63
77
85
57
53
74
50
61
31
49
34
30
28
47
48
68
92
29
52
68
67
61
92
68
53
66
78
58
22
44
98
36
31
68
87
25
60
78
67
82

Deathsc

2000–2008
>90
78h
85h
>90
>90
32h

>90
7h
>90
>90
>90
89h
55h
>90
>90
51h
>90

>90
43h
39h
93h
81h
94h
>90
>90
41h
55h
>90
95h
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
48h,k

>90
>90
72h
>90
>90
26h
4h,k

>90
>90

>75
50–74
50–74
75–89
75–89
<25
<25
90–100
<25
90–100
90–100
90–100
<25
<25
75–89
90–100
<25
90–100

75–89
<25
<25
50–74
<25

90–100
90–100
<25
<25
50–74
<25
90–100
90–100
90–100

90–100
25–49
75–89
25–49
>75
90–100
75–89
<25
90–100
<25
<25
<25
<25
90–100
90–100

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 5
Adolescent
fertility rated

Adult literacy ratee
(%)

(per 1000 girls
15–19 years)

1990

2000
i

3.0
3.5
3.7
4.6
4.0
5.9
6.2
1.9
7.1
3.4
1.7
1.8
5.2
6.1
2.2
1.4
5.6
1.4
3.8
5.6
6.7
5.9
2.6
5.4
5.1
1.8
2.2
4.0
3.1
4.8
6.0
2.1
3.0
1.3
2.9
1.6
5.5
2.8
6.0
4.6i
3.5
3.9
6.0
1.9
3.1
4.9
6.5
4.8
2.0
1.6

2008
i

2.3
2.9
3.0
3.3
2.9
5.8
5.4
1.3
6.2
3.1
1.7
1.8
4.1
5.6
1.6
1.3
4.7
1.3
2.6
4.8
6.0
5.9
2.5
4.3
4.0
1.3
2.0
3.3
2.5
2.2
5.0
1.9
2.9
1.2
2.6
1.3
3.9
1.9
5.0
4.3i
2.4
2.7
4.6
1.2
2.4
4.1
5.9
3.2
1.3
1.7

2000–2007
i

2.1
2.6
2.6
2.9
2.3
5.3
4.6
1.7
5.3
2.7
1.8
1.9
3.3
5.1
1.6
1.3
4.3
1.4
2.3
4.1
5.4
5.7
2.3
3.5
3.3
1.4
2.1
2.7
2.2
1.8
4.1
2.0
2.8
1.4
2.4
1.3
3.1
2.3
4.9
3.1i
2.2
2.5
3.5
1.4
1.8
3.3
5.1
2.7
1.3
1.7

48
98
100
27j
67j
128
85
20
109
30j
9j
8j

104
37
10j
74
11
53
92j
153
170
90
69
108
20j
14j
45
51
25
68
17
15j
7j
58j
5j
28
27
116
39
14j
28j
110
17j
18
98
137
4j
19j
10j

Male
1990–
1999


88
56
74



27



72




93

64





99

48
82
73




80


100


78
99
60



41
76

2000–
2007

89
84
66
82
87
64
100
36



86



65
97

73
29



84
99

66
92
82
74


99
86

91
100
74

94
99
73
100
90
82
56
87
100

Gross national income
per capitaf
(PPP int. $)

MDG 2
Net primary school
enrolment ratee (%)

1990–
1999

Female
2000–
2009

95
79
97
88


36
96
43
98
99
99

81

99
61
92

86
51
61



88
100


95
94
93
98
99
88

91

62

86
89
81
98
92
54
54

96
96

161

68
80
93
95
93
54
45
94
81
91
96
98
81
67
100
98
73
99
92
97
76
61
95

96
90
97
91
97
100
93
96
97
99
86

88
90
81

89
84
84
89
89
71
85

92
95

1990–
1999
93
80
98
82


31
95
30
99
98
99

71

99
58
93

78
35
43



88
98


91
81
94
98
99
89

91

63

87
87
74
96
89
61
42

95
98

2000–
2009
72
80
90
92
95
53
40
94
75
91
96
99
80
71
98
98
74
100
93
93
66
43
95

98
88
97
88
94
96
81
97
98
98
84

90
89
82

87
83
81
92
88
74
66

91
96

1990

2000

2008

4 080
2 610
3 510
2 240
2 600
1 330


390
2 370
17 220
17 800
9 700
760
3 900
18 630
630
13 080
3 410
2 360
620
490
730
1 170
1 760
8 390
20 640
860
1 430
4 510

11 950
12 580
17 360
3 880
18 870
2 280
5 120
990
2 070

1 810
680
7 810
4 640
1 110


9 000
28 900

5 350
4 810
4 430
3 570
4 500
5 330
600
9 430
460
3 510
25 470
26 380
9 940
920
2 150
25 670
900
18 440
5 560
3 470
850
530
1 910
1 060
2 510
11 730
28 030
1 500
2 240
6 790

24 590
21 480
25 370
5 560
25 910
3 260
4 460
1 130
3 820
35 010
1 250
1 130
8 010
7 510
1 330
290

8 460
46 690

8 300
7 890
7 760
5 460
6 670
21 700
630
19 280
870
4 270
35 660
34 400
12 270
1 280
4 850
35 940
1 430
28 470
8 060
4 690
1 190
530
2 510
1 180
3 870
17 790
25 220
2 960
3 830


37 350
27 450
30 250
7 360
35 220
5 530
9 690
1 580
3 660

2 140
2 040
16 740
10 880
2 000
300
15 630
18 210
64 320

MDG 1
Population
living on <$1g
(PPP int. $)
a dayg (%)
2000–2007

5.0
4.7
<2.0
11.0


<2.0
39.0



4.8
34.3
13.4

30.0


11.7
70.1
48.8

54.9
18.2
<2.0

41.6

<2.0




<2.0

<2.0
3.1
19.7


21.8
44.0
<2.0

43.4
83.7

<2.0

Table 9

Total fertility ratea
(per woman)

9. Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
Populationa

Member State

Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mexico
Micronesia (Federated States of)
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norway
Oman
Pakistan
Palau
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea
Republic of Moldova
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia

Total
(000s)

Median
age

Aged
under 15
(%)

Aged over
60 (%)

2008

2008

2008

2008

19 111
14 846
27 014
305
12 706
407
61
3 215
1 280
108 555
110
33
2 641
622
31 606
22 383
49 563
2 130
10
28 810
16 528
4 230
5 667
14 704
151 212
2
4 767
2 785
176 952
20
3 399
6 577
6 238
28 837
90 348
38 104
10 677
1 281
48 152
3 633
21 361
141 394
9 721
51
170
109
179
31
160
25 201

18
17
26
23
18
38

20
32
27
20

25
35
25
18
27
21

21
40
36
21
15
18

39
24
21

27
20
23
25
23
38
40
30
37
35
38
38
18

27
27
19

19
24

43
46
30
29
44
16
31
40
23
29
37
18
27
20
29
44
27
37
31
37
18
21
36
50
43
33
19
32
37
31
30
40
34
31
34
15
15
16
17
17
15
15
42
27
27
27
40
14
41
33

5
5
7
6
4
20
7
4
11
9
6
22
6
17
8
5
8
5
7
6
21
17
6
4
5
8
20
5
6
7
9
4
7
8
6
18
23
2
15
15
20
17
4
12
9
9
7
26
5
4

162

Civil registration
coverage (%)

Annual growth rate
(%)
1988–
1998

1998–
2008

3.0
2.5
2.6
2.6
1.9
0.8
1.6
2.7
1.2
1.9
1.6
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.6
1.4
2.9
1.4
2.5
0.6
1.3
2.2
3.3
2.5
–2.0
0.5
3.0
2.6
2.5
2.0
2.6
2.4
1.9
2.3
0.2
0.1
2.8
0.8
–0.2
–0.3
0.1
–0.3
0.9
1.4
0.1
0.9
1.1
2.0
2.7

2.8
2.9
2.0
1.5
2.3
0.6
1.6
2.7
0.9
1.2
0.3
0.4
1.2
–0.5
1.2
2.6
0.8
2.0
0.1
2.1
0.5
1.1
1.4
3.6
2.4
–2.7
0.7
1.8
2.3
1.0
1.8
2.5
2.0
1.3
1.9
–0.1
0.5
8.1
0.5
–1.5
–0.5
–0.4
3.6
1.3
1.1
0.1
0.3
1.7
1.7
2.5

Living in urban areas (%)

1990
24
12
50
26
23
90
65
40
44
71
26
100
57
48
48
21
25
28
100
9
69
85
52
15
35
31
72
66
31
70
54
15
49
69
49
61
48
92
74
47
53
73
5
35
29
41
21
90
44
77

2000
27
15
62
28
28
92
68
40
43
75
22
100
57
59
53
31
28
32
100
13
77
86
55
16
43
34
76
72
33
70
66
13
55
71
59
62
54
95
80
45
53
73
14
33
28
44
22
93
53
80

2008
29
19
70
38
32
94
71
41
42
77
22
100
57
60
56
37
33
37
100
17
82
87
57
16
48
39
77
72
36
80
73
12
60
71
65
61
59
96
81
42
54
73
18
32
28
47
23
94
61
82

Birthsb

Deathsc

2000–2008
75h

>90
>90
53h
>90

56h
>90


>90
>90
>90
85h
31h
65h,k
67h

35h
>90
>90
81h
32h
30h
>90
>90


>90
>90


93h
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
>90
82h

>90
>90
>90
>90
69h

<25
<25

75–89
<25
90–100

<25
90–100
90–100

>75
75–89


<25
<25
<25

<25
90–100
90–100
50–74
<25
<25
>75
90–100
50–74
<25

90–100

75–89
50–74
90–100
90–100
90–100
75–89
90–100
90–100
90–100
90–100
<25
>75
90–100
90–100

>75

25–49

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 5
Adolescent
fertility rated

Adult literacy ratee
(%)

(per 1000 girls
15–19 years)

1990
6.3
7.0
3.7
6.1
6.4
2.0
5.7i
5.9
2.2
3.4
5.0
1.1i
4.2
1.9
4.0
6.2
3.4
5.2

5.2
1.6
2.1
4.8
7.9
6.6

1.9
6.6
6.1
2.8i
3.0
4.8
4.5
3.8
4.3
2.0
1.5
4.4
1.6
2.4
1.9
1.9
6.8
2.6i
3.4
3.0
4.8

5.4
5.8

2000
5.6
6.2
3.0
2.8
5.8
1.6
4.4i
5.1
2.0
2.5
4.3
1.2i
2.2
1.8
2.7
5.7
2.5
4.0
3.7i
4.0
1.7
1.9
3.3
7.5
5.9

1.8
4.4
4.7
2.0i
2.7
4.5
3.7
2.9
3.5
1.3
1.4
3.1
1.4
1.6
1.3
1.2
5.9
2.2i
2.3
2.4
4.5
1.3i
4.6
4.2

2008
4.7
5.5
2.6
2.0
5.5
1.3
3.7i
4.5
1.8
2.2
3.6
1.5i
2.0
1.6
2.4
5.1
2.3
3.4
2.9i
2.9
1.7
2.0
2.7
7.1
5.3

1.9
3.0
4.0
1.9i
2.5
4.1
3.0
2.6
3.1
1.3
1.4
2.4
1.2
1.5
1.3
1.4
5.4
1.8i
2.0
2.1
4.0
1.5i
3.8
3.1

2000–2007
154
178
13j
8
190
17j
88j
88
35j
82j
51j

19j
16
18m
185m

74
69
106
4j
29j
109
199
126
28
9j
11
20
31
85
70
65
59
55
13
17j
16j
2j
25j
35j
28j
40
74
49
57j
29
1j
91
7n

Male
1990–
1999

64
83
96
19
88


51
88




42
39

76

33




55



43

89

90
87
94
99
88
83


97

58



98

73
71

2000–
2007
71
72
92
97
26
92

56
87
93


97

56
44
90
88

57


78
29
72


84
54

93
58
95
90
93
99
95
93

99
98
100
65



99

88
85

Gross national income
per capitaf
(PPP int. $)

MDG 2
Net primary school
enrolment ratee (%)

1990–
1999

Female
2000–
2009

66
99
99
98
52
94

62
90
97


92

76
58

85

73
100
99
76
30
66
99
100
81


96

96
98
90
96

90
98

96



94

92

86

163

98
88
98
97
86
92
67
77
93
98


89

92
82

87
72
79
99
99
92
55
64

98
67
72

99

92
97
89
95
99
95
100
84
94

95
86
92
98
91

98
85

1990–
1999
66
97
97
97
37
96

62
91
97


94

65
46

91

57
99
99
77
21
54
98
100
81


96

96
98
90
96

91
98

95



90

91

85

2000–
2009
99
93
97
95
71
91
66
82
94
98


88

87
77

91
73
76
98
99
92
43
58

98
69
60

98

93
97
91
96
98
94
97
82
94

97
88
91
92
91

97
84

1990

2000

2008

720
440
4 590

540
10 450

1 210
4 110
5 990


1 500

1 930
270

2 920

510
17 530
13 490
1 320
480
950

17 420
9 900
1 260

4 180
1 190
2 970
3 120
1 710
5 160
10 700

8 200
2 800
5 180
9 100
510
5 780
4 680
3 030
2 880


14 670

790
610
8 350
2 680
750
17 830

1 430
7 490
8 950
2 790

1 790
6 320
2 570
420

4 040

800
30 000
19 430
1 780
500
1 130

35 600
14 440
1 690

6 830
1 630
3 370
4 750
2 430
10 410
16 650

17 050
1 320
5 610
7 430
580
9 440
6 720
5 060
2 870


17 490

1 040
830
13 740
5 280
1 090



12 480
14 270
3 000

3 480
13 920
4 330
770

6 270

1 120
41 670
25 090
2 620
680
1 940

58 500

2 700

11 650
2 000
4 820
7 980
3 900
17 310
22 080

28 120
3 210
13 500
15 630
1 010
15 170
9 190
8 770
4 340

1 780

MDG 1
Population
living on <$1g
(PPP int. $)
a dayg (%)
2000–2007
67.8
73.9
<2.0

51.4


21.2

<2.0


22.4

2.5
74.7



55.1


15.8
65.9
64.4



22.6

9.5

6.5
7.9
22.6
<2.0



8.1
<2.0
<2.0
76.6






Table 9

Total fertility ratea
(per woman)

9. Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
Populationa

Member State

Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Spain
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
Tajikistan
Thailand
The former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Republic of Tanzania
United States of America
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Viet Nam
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Total
(000s)

Median
age

Aged
under 15
(%)

Aged over
60 (%)

2008

2008

2008

2008

Civil registration
coverage (%)

Annual growth rate
(%)
1988–
1998

1998–
2008

Birthsb

Living in urban areas (%)

1990

2000

2008

Deathsc

2000–2008

12 211
9 839
84
5 560
4 615
5 400
2 015
511
8 926
49 668
44 486
20 061
41 348
515
1 168
9 205
7 541
21 227
6 836
67 386
2 041

18
37

18
39
36
41
20
18
24
40
30
20
27
19
41
41
22
20
32
35

44
18
24
43
17
16
14
39
45
31
15
24
40
29
40
17
16
35
38
22
18

4
19
11
4
14
17
21
5
4
7
22
11
6
9
5
24
23
5
5
11
16

2.8
0.8
1.3
0.3
2.8
0.3
0.4
2.8
0.7
2.1
0.3
1.0
2.5
1.4
2.6
0.5
0.8
2.7
1.8
1.1
0.6

2.6
–0.4
0.6
3.2
1.9
0.0
0.2
2.6
2.5
1.3
1.1
0.8
2.2
1.3
1.2
0.4
0.6
3.0
1.3
0.9
0.2

39
50
49
33
100
56
50
14
30
52
75
17
27
68
23
83
73
49
32
29
58

41
51
51
36
100
56
51
16
33
57
76
16
36
72
23
84
73
52
26
31
63

42
52
54
38
100
56
48
18
37
61
77
15
43
75
25
85
73
54
26
33
67

55h
>90
>90
48h
>90
>90
>90

3h
78h,k
>90
>90
33h
>90
30h
>90
>90

88h
99h
>90

<25

>75
<25
75–89
90–100
90–100

<25
75–89
90–100
50–74
<25
75–89
<25
90–100
90–100
90–100
50–74
50–74
90–100

1 098
6 459
104
1 333
10 169
73 914
5 044
10
31 657
45 992
4 485
61 231
42 484
311 666
3 349
27 191
234
28 121
87 096
22 917
12 620
12 463

17
19
21
30
28
28
24

15
39
31
39
17
36
33
24
20
26
27
17
17
19

45
40
37
21
24
27
30
33
49
14
19
18
45
20
23
30
39
30
27
44
46
40

5
5
8
10
9
9
6
8
4
21
2
22
5
18
18
6
5
8
9
4
5
6

1.5
2.8
0.5
0.6
1.6
1.7
2.3
0.7
3.3
–0.3
5.5
0.3
3.1
1.2
0.7
2.1
2.5
2.2
1.8
4.1
2.9
2.2

2.9
2.7
0.6
0.4
0.9
1.4
1.4
0.5
3.2
–0.8
4.4
0.5
2.7
1.0
0.2
1.2
2.5
1.8
1.3
2.9
2.4
0.2

21
30
23
9
58
59
45
41
11
67
79
89
19
75
89
40
19
84
20
21
39
29

24
37
23
11
63
65
46
46
12
67
78
89
22
79
91
37
22
90
24
26
35
34

27
42
25
13
67
69
49
49
13
68
78
90
25
82
92
37
25
93
28
31
35
37

53h,k
78h

96h
>90
84h
96h

21h
>90

>90
8h
>90
>90
100h

>90
>90
22h
10h
74h

<25
<25

90–100
25–49
50–74

>75
<25
90–100
75–89
90–100
<25
90–100
90–100
75–89

90–100
<25
<25
<25
25–49

164

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 5
Adolescent
fertility rated

Adult literacy ratee
(%)

(per 1000 girls
15–19 years)

1990

2000

2008

2000–2007

Male
1990–
1999

2000–
2007

Gross national income
per capitaf
(PPP int. $)

MDG 2
Net primary school
enrolment ratee (%)

1990–
1999

Female
2000–
2009

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

1990

2000

2008

MDG 1
Population
living on <$1g
(PPP int. $)
a dayg (%)
2000–2007

6.7
2.1
2.7i
5.5
1.8
2.0
1.5
5.9
6.6
3.7
1.3
2.5
6.0
2.7
5.7
2.0
1.5
5.5
5.2
2.1
2.1

5.6
1.7
2.2i
5.4
1.5
1.3
1.2
4.6
6.5
2.9
1.2
2.2
5.1
2.7
4.2
1.6
1.4
3.8
4.0
1.8
1.7

5.0
1.6
1.9i
5.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
3.9
6.4
2.5
1.4
2.3
4.2
2.4
3.5
1.9
1.5
3.2
3.4
1.8
1.4

100
24
54
146
6j
21j
5j

123
54
12
28

63j
111
6j
4j
75
27
46
19



88

89

100


82
96









94

42

92
38
94

100


88
98
91
61
90
84


83
100
94
97

59





96


91
100



69

95
95


94

72
95
99


91
96
62

87
100
100
43
91
82
94
94
97
99

86

51





95


93
99



71

96
88


92

74
95
100


92
95
61

88
100
100
36
90
84
94
93
92
95

87



9 460
430
17 690
7 730



5 440
13 240
1 450
650
3 780
2 660
19 120
25 440
2 070
2 210
2 690
5 500


6 000
15 310
350
32 880
10 800
17 460


6 470
21 120
2 660
1 070
4 400
3 650
27 500
34 020
3 150
800
4 610
5 830

1 760
11 150
19 770
750
47 940
21 300
26 910
2 580

9 780
31 130
4 460
1 930
7 130
5 010
38 180
46 460
4 350
1 860
5 990
9 950

33.5


53.4


<2.0


26.2

14.0


62.9



21.5
<2.0
<2.0

5.3
6.3
4.6
2.4
3.6
3.1
4.3
3.8i
7.1
1.9
4.4
1.8
6.2
2.0
2.5
4.2
4.9
3.4
3.7
8.1
6.5
5.2

7.1
5.1
4.2
1.6
2.1
2.4
2.8
3.6i
6.8
1.1
2.7
1.7
5.7
2.0
2.2
2.8
4.5
2.8
2.3
6.3
6.2
3.9

6.5
4.3
4.0
1.6
1.8
2.1
2.5
3.2i
6.3
1.3
1.9
1.8
5.6
2.1
2.1
2.3
4.0
2.5
2.1
5.2
5.8
3.4

59

16
35
6j
51
20
22j
159
30
23
26
139
41j
63
26

91
35
80
146
101



99
97

79
99

56





97

66
90
90
37
68
84


53
99
99
78
89
100

74
100
90

72

98
97
78
95

59
71
91


93
90
89
96





79
100
48
94


92
85

70
71
83

77
89
97
94
97
95


94
89
92
97
100
91
97
91
87
90
96
79
95
89


73
86
89
94





78
100
50
94


91
86

41
68
83

74
78
96
93
98
92


97
89
91
98
99
92
98
89
86
90
91
66
96
91


600
1 980
6 770
2 810
4 210
2 710

400
5 950
40 090
15 860
590
22 940
5 090

2 520
6 800
610
1 270
820

790
690
2 960
10 670
4 590
8 720
1 930

680
3 170
41 500
25 590
750
35 190
8 170
1 420
2 930
8 360
1 390
1 710
840

4 690
820
3 880
23 950
7 070
13 770
6 210

1 140
7 210

36 130
1 230
46 970
12 540
2 660
3 940
12 830
2 700
2 210
1 230

52.9
38.7


2.6
2.7


51.5
<2.0


88.5

<2.0
46.3

3.5
21.5
17.5
64.3

165

Table 9

Total fertility ratea
(per woman)

9. Demographic and socioeconomic statistics
Populationa

Member State
Total
(000s)

Median
age

Aged
under 15
(%)

Aged over
60 (%)

2008

2008

2008

2008

Civil registration
coverage (%)

Annual growth rate
(%)
1988–
1998

1998–
2008

Birthsb

Living in urban areas (%)

1990

2000

2008

Deathsc

2000–2008

RANGES OF COUNTRY VALUES
Minimum
Median
Maximum

2
6 836
1 344 920

15
25
44

13
30
50

2
8
29

–2.2
1.6
5.5

–2.7
1.3
8.1

5
49
100

8
53
100

10
57
100

3
>90
100



804 865
915 430
1 760 486
889 170
580 208
1 787 321

19
31
25
37
22
33

42
25
31
18
35
21

5
13
8
19
6
12

2.7
1.5
1.8
0.3
2.5
1.2

2.5
1.2
1.5
0.2
2.1
0.8

29
72
26
68
44
34

34
77
29
69
47
41

37
80
32
70
49
47











Low income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
High income

975 322
3 770 921
954 057
1 037 180

21
27
30
39

38
28
25
18

6
9
11
21

2.5
1.6
1.2
0.7

2.1
1.3
0.8
0.7

23
31
68
73

26
37
72
76

29
41
75
77







GLOBAL

6 737 480

29

27

11

1.5

1.3

43

47

50

WHO REGION
African Region
Region of the Americas
South-East Asia Region
European Region
Eastern Mediterranean Region
Western Pacific Region

INCOME GROUP

166

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010
MDG 5
Adolescent
fertility rated

Adult literacy ratee
(%)

(per 1000 girls
15–19 years)

Male
2000–
2007

Gross national income
per capitaf
(PPP int. $)

MDG 2
Net primary school
enrolment ratee (%)

1990–
1999

Female
2000–
2009

1990

2000

2008

2000–2007

1990–
1999

1.1
3.7
8.1

1.1
2.7
7.7

1.2
2.4
7.1

1
43
199

12
80
100

26
89
100

30
92
100

43
92
100

21
90
100

6.2
2.7
3.8
1.9
5.5
2.4

5.4
2.4
3.0
1.6
4.0
1.9

4.9
2.2
2.6
1.6
3.4
1.8

118
61
55
23
35
11

51

52

53
79

63
91
71
98
66
93

61
94

98

80
93
91
96
82

54
94

98
79

5.4
3.4
2.8
1.8

4.5
2.7
2.2
1.7

4.0
2.5
2.0
1.7

110
35
51
21

51
66
89

60
81
93

56

94
96

85
87
94
94

48

94
96

80
83
93
94

594
1 208
5 796
18 302

835
2 173
7 347
27 417

1 372
4 363
12 337
37 750

47.6
26.1
4.4

3.3

2.7

2.5

47

68

81

89

85

4 862

6 940

10 290

25.6

167

1990–
1999

2000–
2009

MDG 1
Population
living on <$1g
(PPP int. $)
a dayg (%)

1990

2000

2008

2000–2007

0
91
100

270
3 000
40 090

210
4 460
46 690

290
6 290
64 320

<2.0
19.6
88.5

76
93
89
95
70

1 319
11 833
994
11 546
2 981
2 824

1 506
17 520
1 670
15 193
4 313
4 918

2 279
24 005
3 043
22 849
3 805
8 958

52.8
6.5
40.5
4.2
11.8
16.7

Table 9

Total fertility ratea
(per woman)

Footnotes
These summary tables represent the best estimates of WHO – based on evidence available in 2009 – rather than the
official estimates of Member States. These estimates have been computed using standard categories and methods
to enhance cross-national comparability. Therefore, they are not always the same as official national estimates, nor
necessarily endorsed by specific Member States.
For indicators with a reference period expressed as a range, figures refer to the latest available year in the range; except
in Table 8. Health inequities, where the figures refer to the period specified. For more information on specific years,
indicator definitions and metadata, please refer to www.who.int/whosis.
... Data not available or not applicable.
The global, regional and income aggregates for rates and ratios are weighted averages when relevant, while for absolute
numbers they are the sums. Aggregates are calculated only if data are available for 50% of the population within the
group. Income-group aggregates are calculated using the 2009 World Bank list of economies1 unless otherwise noted.

Table 1
a

Life tables for WHO Member States. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (http://www.who.int/whosis/database/
life_tables/life_tables.cfm).

b

Healthy life expectancy (HALE) estimates use methods described in the statistical annex to The world health report 2004
– Changing history. Estimates for 2007 have been revised to take into account the Global Burden of Disease estimates
for Member States for the year 2004 and may not be entirely comparable with those for 2002 published in World Health
Statistics 2007. Income-group aggregates are based on the 2008 World Bank list of economies.

c

Mortality data. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/mortality/en/).

Table 2

1

Mortality and burden of disease

Cause-specific mortality and morbidity

a

Sources: Towards reaching health-related Millennium Development Goals: Progress report and way forward. Report of
the regional director. Brazzaville, WHO Regional Office for Africa, 2009. See Annex 3; PAHO basic indicators 2009.
Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organization, 2009 (www.paho.org/English/SHA/coredata/tabulator/
newTabulator.htm); European health for all database (HFA-DB). Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2009
(http://data.euro.who.int/hfadb); Country health information profiles (CHIPS). Manila, WHO Regional Office for the
Western Pacific, 2009 (www.wpro.who.int/countries/countries.htm); Core health indicators and MDGs. New Delhi, WHO
Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2008 (http://203.90.70.117/esidas/CoreHealthData.asp). Additional data compiled
by the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

b

Maternal mortality in 2005: estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and the World Bank. Geneva, World Health
Organization, 2007 (www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/maternal_mortality_2005/mme_2005.pdf ). Incomegroup aggregates are based on the 2005 World Bank list of economies.

c

Based on the 2008 report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva, UNAIDS and World Health Organization, 2008. See
Annex: HIV and AIDS estimates and data, 2007 and 2001 (http://data.unaids.org/pub/GlobalReport/2008/jc1510_2008_
global_report_pp211_234_en.pdf ). Ranges of estimates are available from this document. WHO regional and global
figures are updates for the year 2008. Income-group aggregates are based on the 2008 World Bank list of economies.

d

World malaria report 2008. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008 (www.who.int/malaria/wmr2008). See Annex 1:
Estimating the numbers of malaria cases and deaths by country in 2006.

e

These are classified as deaths from tuberculosis (A15–A19, B90) according to the International statistical classification of
diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992. Global tuberculosis control: A
short update to the 2009 report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.426) (www.who.int/tb/
publications/global_report). WHO region, income group and global aggregates include territories.

World Bank list of economies (July 2009). Washington, DC, World Bank, July 2009: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/CLASS.XLS

168

f

Mortality and burden of disease estimates for WHO Member States in 2004. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009
(www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/statistics/bodgbddeathdalyestimates.xls). Communicable diseases include maternal causes,
conditions arising during the perinatal period and nutritional deficiencies. Income-group aggregates are based on the 2004
World Bank list of economies.

g

Rates are age-standardized to WHO’s world standard population. Ahmad OB et al. Age standardization of rates: a new
WHO standard. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (GPE Discussion Paper Series No. 31) (www.who.int/
healthinfo/paper31.pdf ).

h

Individual percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding.

i

Mortality data. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/mortality/en/).

j

Data are for all forms of tuberculosis including tuberculosis in people with HIV infection. Global tuberculosis control: A
short update to the 2009 report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.426) (www.who.int/tb/
publications/global_report). WHO region, income group and global aggregates include territories.

k

The number of deaths is estimated at less than 0.05 per 100 000 population.

l

The Ministry of Health and Social Services Seychelles reported 1 maternal death in 2008.

Table 3

Selected infectious diseases

a

Cholera: global surveillance summary, 2008. Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 31, 2009, 84:309–324 (www.who.int/
wer).

b

WHO/UNICEF estimates of disease incidence. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/immunization_
monitoring/data/en/).

c

Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO. Geneva, World Health
Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2009_12_30/en/index.html). All dates
refer to onset of illness. WHO reports only laboratory-confirmed cases.

d

Global leprosy situation, 2009. Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 33, 2009, 84:333–340 (www.who.int/wer).

e

World malaria report 2009. Annex 3.A: Reported malaria cases, 1990–2008. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009
(www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2009/en/index.html).

f

Suspected meningitis cases reported to WHO Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) in African countries
under enhanced surveillance up to 29 November 2009.

g

Human plague: review of regional morbidity and mortality, 2004–2009. Weekly Epidemiological Record, No. 6, 2010,
85:37–48 (www.who.int/wer).

h

Data from World Health Organization, Polio Eradication Initiative, as of 12 January 2010. Updated information can be
found at: www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/en/diseases/poliomyelitis/case_count.cfm Confirmed polio cases refer
to any circulating polioviruses (wild poliovirus and circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus – cVDPV). Figures include 2
cVDPVs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and India; 1 cVDPV in Ethiopia and Guinea; and 148 cVDPVs in
Nigeria. Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan are currently endemic countries. For non-endemic countries, cases are the
result of importation.

i

Number of new smear-positive cases notified to WHO. Global tuberculosis control: A short update to the 2009 report.
Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.426) (www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report).
WHO regional, income group and global figures exclude territories and may differ from those in the publication.

j

Number of cases reported up to 05 July 2009.

k

Number of cases reported up to 05 October 2009.

l

Number of cases reported up to 26 July 2009.

m

Number of cases reported up to 09 November 2009.

n

Data represent only 15 northern states of Sudan.

169

Footnotes

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Footnotes
Table 4

Health service coverage

a

UNICEF global database on maternal health. New York, UNICEF, 2010 (www.childinfo.org/antenatal_care_country.php –
January 2010 update).

b

WHO global database on maternal health indicators, 2009 update. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.
int/reproductive-health/global_monitoring/index.html). In order to enhance comparability over time, the reported figures
are derived, to the extent possible, from broadly comparable data sources. Therefore, reported figures may not refer to the
most recently available data. Refer to the source for more complete information on time trends and metadata.

c

Proportion of neonates protected at birth against neonatal tetanus through maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid,
based on a mathematical model taking into account the mother’s immunization in infancy, during pregnancy and
in tetanus campaigns. The model is described in: Griffiths UK et al. Incremental cost-effectiveness of supplementary
immunization activities to prevent neonatal tetanus in Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2004, 82:643–
651. WHO/UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.
int/immunization_monitoring/routine/immunization_coverage/en/index4.html).

d

Measles = measles-containing vaccine (MCV); DTP3 = 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine; HepB3 = 3 doses
of hepatitis B vaccine; Hib3 = 3 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. WHO/UNICEF estimates of national
immunization coverage. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/immunization_monitoring/routine/
immunization_coverage/en/index4.html). Estimates based on data available up to December 2009. For countries
recommending the first dose of measles vaccine in children older than 12 months of age, the indicator is calculated as the
proportion of children less than 24 months of age receiving one dose of measles-containing vaccine. Complete coverage
estimates are available online.

e

Data compiled by WHO from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)
January 2010 (www.measuredhs.com; and www.unicef.org/statistics/index_24302.html).

f

World malaria report 2009. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2009/en/
index.html). See Annex 6.

g

World contraceptive use 2009. New York, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nation
Secretariat, 2009 (POP/DB/CP/Rev2009).

h

PMTCT = prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Point estimates are published only for countries with a generalized
epidemic. Regional and level-of-income aggregates are based on data for all low-income and middle-income countries when
available. Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report, September
2009. Geneva, World Health Organization, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Children’s
Fund, 2009. See Annexes 3 and 4.

i

Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report, 2008. Geneva, World
Health Organization, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Children’s Fund, 2008. WHO
regional and global figures are updates for the year 2008. Income-group aggregates are based on the World Bank 2008 list
of economies.

j

The case-detection rate is the number of new smear-positive cases reported to WHO divided by the estimated number of
new smear-positive cases. Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009 report. Geneva, World Health Organization,
2009 (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.426) (www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report). WHO region, income group and global
aggregates include territories.

k

The treatment-success rate is the percentage of new smear-positive patients registered for treatment who were cured (with
laboratory confirmation) or who completed their course of treatment. Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009
report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (WHO/HTM/TB/2009.426) (www.who.int/tb/publications/global_
report). WHO region, income group and global aggregates include territories.

l

Composition of methods might be slightly different based on country context.

m

Includes <5% of deliveries by cadres of health workers other than doctors, nurses and midwives.

n

Data pertain to sexually active women of reproductive age.

o

Institutional births.

p

Includes deliveries by cadres of health workers other than doctors, nurses and midwives – range not available.

q

Includes >15% of deliveries by cadres of health workers other than doctors, nurses and midwives.
170

r

Includes 5–15% of deliveries by cadres of health workers other than doctors, nurses and midwives.

s

Data pertain to men and women of reproductive age.

t

5 or more visits.

u

Estimate.

v

Adjusted.

w

3 or more visits.

x

Data pertain to nationals of the country.

y

Excluding the Northern Province.

z

Based on the Sudan Household Health Survey in Northern Sudan only.

aa

6 or more visits.

ab

Excluding Northern Ireland.

ac

Data pertain to men and women of reproductive age who are married or in union.

Table 5

Risk factors

a

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Geneva, World Health Organization and
UNICEF, 2010 (www.wssinfo.org/en/welcome.html).

b

WHO household energy database. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.who.int/indoorair/database). These
estimates use methods developed and implemented by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply
and Sanitation. Where solid fuel use information is available for two or more separate years (spaced at least five years apart)
linear regression is performed. The linear regression line is extrapolated up to two years after the latest survey point and up
to two years before the earliest survey point. Outside these time limits, the extrapolated regression line is flat for four years
in either direction. Where coverage reaches 0% or 100%, a horizontal line is drawn from the year before coverage reaches
0% or 100%. For countries with solid fuel use at less than <5%, 0% is assumed for the calculation of regional or global
aggregates; for countries with >95%, 95% is assumed in the calculation of the aggregate.

c

UNICEF global database on low birthweight. New York, UNICEF, 2009 (www.childinfo.org/low_birthweight_table.php –
November 2009 update).

d

WHO global data bank on infant and young child feeding. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/
nutrition/databases/infantfeeding/en/index.html).

e

Global database on child growth and malnutrition. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/
database/en). Prevalence estimates are based on WHO standards.

f

Comparisons between countries may be limited owing to differences in sample characteristics or survey years. Source:
Global database on body mass index (BMI). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.who.int/bmi).

g

Global information system on alcohol and health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.who.int/globalatlas/
DataQuery/default.asp).

h

Based on WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2009: Implementing smoke-free environments. Geneva, World Health
Organization, 2009. See Appendix VII, Age-standardized prevalence estimates for WHO Member States, 2006. Definition:
smoking at the time of the survey of any form of tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, etc. and excluding
smokeless tobacco. These figures represent age-standardized prevalence rates for smoking tobacco and should only be used
to draw comparisons of prevalence between countries and between men and women within a country. They should not be
used to calculate the number of smokers in a country, region, income group or globally.

i

WHO/CDC global youth tobacco survey (GYTS). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010 (www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/
GYTS/results.htm). Data relate to tobacco use in any form in the past 30 days.

j

Percentage of women and men aged 15–49 years who had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months reporting
the use of a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Data is from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and
excludes country-reported data. 2008 report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva, Joint United Nations Programme on
HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, 2008. See Annex 2: Country Progress Indicators.
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Footnotes
k

Percentage of young men and women (aged 15–24 years) who both correctly identified ways of preventing the sexual
transmission of HIV and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission. The data are derived from
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and exclude country-reported
data. 2008 report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, World Health
Organization, 2008. See Annex 2: Country Progress Indicators.

l

Solid fuel use information is available for a single year; thus a horizontal line is drawn six years into the past and six years
into the future.

m

City surveys were extrapolated into country figures reported here.

n

For those upper-middle or high-income countries with a GDP of more than US$ 10 500 per capita in any given year, solid
fuel use is assumed to be less than 5% (Rehfuess, Mehta & Prüss-Üstün 2006).

o

Estimate includes significant tourist consumption.

p

Lower limit is greater than 15.

q

Upper limit is 49.

r

Upper limit is greater than or equal to 65.

s

Self-reported data.

t

Solid fuel use information is available for two or more separate years spaced four or fewer years apart; thus an average is
calculated. This average is extrapolated six years into the past and six years into the future.

u

Data not approved by national authorities.

v

Upper limit is between 54 and 65.

w

A horizontal line at 95% coverage or above, or at 5% coverage or below, can be extrapolated without limitations up to the
years 1990 and 2015 respectively.

x

Upper limit is 44.

Table 6

Health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines

a

Source: WHO global atlas of the health workforce. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/globalatlas/
autologin/hrh_login.asp). Please see this source for the latest updates, time-trend statistics and disaggregated data, as well
as metadata descriptors. In general, the denominator data for health workforce density (i.e. national population estimates)
were obtained from the World population prospects database of the United Nations Population Division (see Table 9
footnotes below). In some cases, official reports provided only workforce density indicators, from which estimates of the
absolute numbers were calculated. Depending on the organization of national health systems and means of monitoring,
data may not be exactly comparable across countries. Data from the years prior to 2000 were excluded from this edition.

b

Sources: PAHO basic indicators 2009. Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organization, 2009 (www.paho.org/
English/SHA/coredata/tabulator/newTabulator.htm); European health for all database (HFA-DB). Copenhagen, WHO
Regional Office for Europe, 2009 (http://data.euro.who.int/hfadb). Country health information profiles (CHIPS). Manila,
WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2009 (www.wpro.who.int/countries/countries.htm). Core health indicators
and MDGs. New Delhi, WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2008 (http://203.90.70.117/esidas/CoreHealthData.
asp). Additional data compiled by the WHO Regional Office for Africa and WHO Regional Office for the Eastern
Mediterranean.

c

Source: Surveys of medicine prices and availability using WHO/HAI standard methodology conducted between 2001 and 2008
(www.haiweb.org/medicineprices/). In individual surveys, availability is reported as the percentage of medicine outlets in
which a medicine was found on the day of data collection. As baskets of medicines differ by individual country, results are
not exactly comparable across countries. Median availability is determined for the specific list of medicines in each survey,
and does not account for alternate dosage forms or strengths of these products or therapeutic alternatives. Public-sector
data may be limited by the fact that the list of survey medicines may not correspond to national essential medicines lists
(EMLs) where these exist, and some public-sector facilities may not be expected to stock all of the survey medicines. This
has been addressed in the revised edition of the survey tool, which allows public-sector data to be analysed by EML status
and level of care.

d

Consumer price ratio = ratio of median local unit price to the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) international
reference price of selected generic medicines. Source: Surveys of medicine prices and availability using WHO/HAI standard
172

methodology conducted between 2001 and 2008 (www.haiweb.org/medicineprices/). Data are unadjusted for differences
in the MSH reference price year used, exchange rate fluctuations, national inflation rates, variations in purchasing power
parities, levels of development or other factors. In each survey, median consumer price ratios are obtained for the basket of
medicines surveyed and found in at least four medicine outlets. As baskets of medicines differ by individual country, results
are not exactly comparable across countries. However, data on specific medicines is publicly available on the HAI web site
above, and matched basket comparisons on a subset of medicines can be made.
e

Hospital beds include inpatient and maternity beds, but not cots and delivery beds.

f

Did not survey public-sector medicine outlets.

g

Availability data were excluded as they were assessed using different methods to those used in the current WHO/HAI
methodology.

h

Refers to the public sector only.

i

Simple average of two surveys of medicine prices and availability in Shandong and Shanghai provinces, China.

j

Restricted to reimbursed medicines available through public-sector outlets.

k

Medicines are provided free to patients in the public sector.

l

Simple average of seven surveys of medicine prices and availability in India (Chennai, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra
(12 districts); Maharashtra (4 regions); Rajasthan; and West Bengal).

m

Refers to tertiary public-hospital beds only.

n

Based on a survey of medicine prices and availability in Gauteng province, South Africa.

o

Simple average of four surveys of medicine prices and availability in Sudan (Gadarif; Khartoum; North Kordofan; and
Northern states).

Table 7

Health expenditure

a

Source: WHO National Health Accounts (NHA) Country health expenditure database. Geneva, World Health
Organization, February 2010 (www.who.int/nha/country/). The regional, income and global figures are calculated using
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms. When the number is smaller than 0.05% the percentage may appear as zero. For per
capita expenditure indicators, this is represented as <1. In countries where the fiscal year begins in July, expenditure data
have been allocated to the later calendar year (for example, 2008 data will cover the fiscal year 2007–08). Absolute values
of expenditures are expressed in nominal terms (current prices). National currency unit per US$ are calculated using the
average exchange rates for the year. For 2008, the use of yearly average exchange rates (compared to year-end exchange
rates) may not fully represent the impact of the global financial crisis. GDP = gross domestic product.

b

In some cases the sum of general government and private expenditures on health may not add up to 100% because of
rounding.

c

A new PPP series resulting from the 2005 International Comparison Project (ICP) estimated by the World Bank has been
used since World health statistics 2008. In countries where this is not available, PPPs are estimated by WHO.

d

A new basis for these estimates was provided by new NHA reports, surveys, National Accounts series, accessed information
and/or country consultations.

e

Non-profit institutions (such as nongovernmental organizations) serving households are accounted for in “external
assistance” and recorded under government expenditure.

f

GDP includes both licit and illicit GDPs (for example, opium). Government expenditures include external assistance
(external budget).

g

Estimates should be viewed with caution as these are derived from scarce data.

h

About 30% of the expenditure in residential facilities for care of the aged has a health purpose, but this is difficult to
estimate routinely and so is not included under health at present. Such health-purpose expenditure was about US$ 2.1
billion in 2005–06 or 0.2% of GDP. The data for 2007 correspond to the fiscal year 2007–08 starting on 01 July 2007. All
2008 entries are estimates made by WHO unless otherwise specified.

i

Adjustments for currency change (from old to new manat) were made for the entire Azerbaijan series starting from World
health statistics 2008.
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2010

Footnotes
j

Fiscal year starts in July and expenditure data have been allocated to the later calendar year (i.e. 2007 data cover the fiscal
year 2006–07).

k

Funds previously included in social security were reclassified.

l

A recent census in the country has shown differences in population data. However, the per capita levels used here are
estimated based on United Nations Population Division data.

m

Increases in government expenditure on health are due to investment in capital expenditures.

n

As a result of recent health-care reforms in Georgia, public compulsory insurance has since 2008 been implemented by
private insurance companies. The voucher cost of this insurance is treated as general government health expenditure.

o

Government expenditures show fluctuations due to variations in capital investment. Private-sector fluctuations are due to
the large share of nongovernmental organizations, which are linked to external funding.

p

Exchange rate changed in 2002 from multiple to a managed floating exchange rate. Inter-bank market rate used prior to
2002.

q

The estimates do not include expenditures for Northern Iraq.

r

The public expenditure on health includes contributions from the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine
Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) made to refugees from West Bank and Gaza Strip residing in Jordanian territories.

s

Government expenditures in 2002 show a large increase due to capital investment.

t

Revision of the General Government Expenditure series can explain changes in public expenditure ratios.

u

After the declaration of independence on 03 June 2006, Serbia and Montenegro are now separate states. Health
expenditures for the previous years have been estimated separately for each of the two countries.

v

The market exchange rate is used to estimate the per capita figures.

w

Total level of government expenditure on health increased due to the inclusion of local government expenditure, as well as
a more-comprehensive estimation of regional expenditure on health.

x

The health expenditure data as well as the population data after 2000 do not include Transdniestria. Data on GDP and
private final consumption expenditure exclude Transdniestria from 1995.

y

The estimates do not include the expenditures of the provinces of Kosovo and Metohia, which are under the administration
of the United Nations.

z

The exchange rate used for the Syrian Arab Republic is the rate for non-commercial transactions from the Central Bank of
Syria.

aa

GDP does not include the income from petroleum.

ab

The country became independent in 2002. However, NHA estimates have been produced for previous years based on the
available macro data.

ac

Until 2007 the fiscal year ended in June. There was then a transition period in the second quarter of 2007 to make the
fiscal year equal to the calendar year. Expenditure data have been allocated exceptionally to the previous calendar year (i.e.
2005 data cover the fiscal year 2005–06).

ad

On 01 January 2009 Turkmenistan introduced the new manat ISO code TMT. The exchange rate between the old and the
new currency is 1 TMT = 5000 TMM. The entire health expenditure series has been adjusted.

Table 8
a

Health inequities

Sources: Unless otherwise stated, data are derived from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted since 2000. The
DHS figures were extracted using STATcompiler software (www.measuredhs.com/ – accessed 08 January 2010). When not
available using STATcompiler software, figures were extracted directly from DHS reports. For some countries and some of the
indicators there were differences in the figures extracted from the country reports and STATcompiler. In these cases, following
discussions with staff from the MEASURE DHS implementation group (ICF Macro), data from the country reports were
used. Further information regarding the source of individual country data can be obtained on request from WHO. Figures in
the “difference” columns may be affected by rounding.

174

b

Data derived from DHS relate to births occurring in the five years preceding the survey, unless otherwise stated. Data derived
from MICS relate to births occurring in the two years preceding the survey.

c

The data refer to coverage of measles or MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine at 12, 15, 18, 24 or 30 months depending
on the country.

d

For all countries where the source is DHS, the under-five mortality rate relates to the decade preceding the survey, except for
Turkey where it relates to the five-year period preceding the survey.

e

Lowest educational level achieved by mother is “no education”; highest level is “secondary or higher”.

f

Data are derived from MICS (round 3). All MICS figures were extracted from country reports available on the UNICEF web
site (www.childinfo.org/ – accessed 13 February 2009; updated 08 January 2010).

g

The figures in parentheses are based on small numbers of cases (25–49 unweighted cases).

h

The figures were extracted directly from DHS reports as they were not available through STATcompiler software (www.
measuredhs.com/ – accessed 08 January 2010).

i

Data for “births attended by skilled health personnel” relate to births occurring in the three years preceding the survey.

Table 9

Demographic and socioeconomic statistics

a

World population prospects: the 2008 revision. New York, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
United Nations Secretariat, 2009.

b

United Nations demographic yearbook 2007. New York, United Nations Statistics Division, 2009 (http://unstats.un.org/
unsd/Demographic/Products/dyb/dyb2007.htm).

c

WHO mortality database: tables. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (www.who.int/healthinfo/morttables).

d

World fertility data 2008. New York, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations
Secretariat, 2009 (POP/DB/Fert/Rev.2008).

e

UNESCO Institute for Statistics data centre. Montreal, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007 (http://stats.uis.unesco.org –
accessed 18 December 2009).

f

PPP int. $ = Purchasing Power Parity at international dollar rate. World development indicators database, 2009. Washington,
DC, World Bank, 2009 (www.worldbank.org/data).

g

World development indicators database, 2009. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2009 (www.worldbank.org/data). These
figures reflect the World Bank default poverty line.

h

The standard definition includes the percentage of children less than 5 years of age who were registered at the moment of
the survey. The numerator of this indicator includes children whose birth certificate was seen by the interviewer, or whose
mother or carer says the birth has been registered. The state of the world’s children 2009: Maternal and newborn health. New
York, United Nations Children’s Fund, 2009.

i

International data base (IDB). Washington, DC, US Census Bureau, 2009 (www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb – accessed 12
January 2010).

j

The number of women by age were estimated by the United Nations Population Division and published in the World
population prospects revision 2006.

k

Differs from the standard definition.

l

For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions of
China.

m

Data pertain to nationals of the country.

n

Data pertain to Saudi women only.

175

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WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

Footnotes
WHO regions2
WHO African Region: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central
African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea*,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South
Africa, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
WHO Region of the Americas: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia (Plurinational State
of ), Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada,
Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of ).
WHO South-East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives,
Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste*.
WHO European Region: Albania, Andorra*, Armenia*, Austria, Azerbaijan*, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina*,
Bulgaria, Croatia*, Cyprus, Czech Republic*, Denmark, Estonia*, Finland, France, Georgia*, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan*, Kyrgyzstan*, Latvia*, Lithuania*, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro*,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova*, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia*,
Slovakia*, Slovenia*, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan*, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*, Turkey,
Turkmenistan*, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan*.
WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran (Islamic Republic of ), Iraq, Jordan,
Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab
Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.
WHO Western Pacific Region: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Japan, Kiribati, Lao
People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Marshall Islands*, Micronesia (Federated States of )*, Mongolia, Nauru*, New
Zealand, Niue*, Palau*, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga,
Tuvalu*, Vanuatu, Viet Nam.

Income groups3
Low income: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chad,
Comoros, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,
Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,
Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tajikistan, Togo, Uganda,
United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Lower middle income: Albania, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia (Plurinational State of ), Cameroon,
Cape Verde, China, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras,
India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of ), Iraq, Jordan, Kiribati, Lesotho, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Micronesia
(Federated States of ), Mongolia, Morocco, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines,
Republic of Moldova, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syrian Arab Republic,
Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu**, Ukraine, Vanuatu.

2

Member States indicated with an * may have data for periods prior to their official membership of WHO.

3

World Bank list of economies (July 2009). Washington, DC, World Bank, July 2009: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/CLASS.XLS
Member States marked with an ** have been classified into income groups using gross domestic product.
176

Upper middle income: Algeria, Argentina, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Colombia,
Cook Islands**, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Gabon, Grenada, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia,
Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Montenegro, Namibia, Nauru**, Niue**, Palau,
Panama, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Serbia, Seychelles, South Africa, Suriname, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela
(Bolivarian Republic of ).
High income: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Brunei
Darussalam, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand,
Norway, Oman, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America.

177

Footnotes

WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS
2010

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