Power systems.

Grounding systems. Control valves Interfaces

Control Valves IC3.7.1 Control valve basics. IC3.7.2 Principle of operation. IC3.7.3 Constructional features of control valve. IC3.7.4 Details of valve body types. IC3.7.5 Flow characteristics. IC3.7.6 Materials IC3.7.7 Sizing of Valves IC3.7.8 Actuators IC3.7.9 Sizing of actuators. IC3.7.10 Positioners IC3.7.11 Boosters IC3.7.12 Transducers

Control Valves Basics
• Most commonly used final control element . • Powered up by hydraulic, pneumatic & electric action. • It is expected to modulate continuously in response to signal to keep variable steady. Functions of control valve• To stop /allow flow in pipeline. • To act as safety device.(e.g.PRV,SRV) • To prevent back flow of fluids.(e.g. NRV,check valve)

In general a close relation exists pressure along pipe & flow rate . If mass flow rate is required then .so that if pressure is changed then flow rate also changes. If fluid is delivered from pipe then volumetric flow rate is: Q = velocity of fluid x area of pipe A control valve regulates flow in fluid flow system. .Control Valve Principles Flow rate in a process is expressed as volume per unit time. A control valve places a constriction in delivery system so as to produce a pressure drop.it can be calculated from particular fluid density. Q = k x √ (vP)/sg k = Proportionality constant vP= Pressure difference between inlet & outlet.

.Body Design Sliding stem valves Globe valve Angled globe valve Rotary shaft control valves Butterfly valve Ball valve conventional butterfly valve lined butterfly valve high performance butterfly valve conventional ball valve V notch ball valve Eccentric plug ball valve Single port globe valve Double port globe valve 3-Way double port valve Special control valves High pressure control valves. Small flow control valve. Large flow control valve. High temperature control valves. Cryogenic service control valve.

APPLICATION: Throttling purposes. .applicable over wide temperature range.05% for single port & upto 0. Difficult to manufacture in small sizes.diverting service.general purpose valve .simple .Globe valves FEATURES Tight shut off capability. Double seat valve. DISADVANTAGES : These are quite heavy as compared to butterfly & ball valves.Leakage less than 0. Throttling to control any desired degree of flow. VIEW DRAWING ADVANTAGES : Is fast to open or close. TYPES : Single seat valve.Most common. Has positive shut off.01% for double port valve of rated Cv. Three way valve for mixing/.

Globe Valve Schematics Single port split valve Double ported globe valve Singleport top guided Figure 1 .

such top guiding minimizes the effect of the weight effect on valve & increases resistance to trim vibration. Disadvantages •Requires large actuator since it is unbalanced •Low pressure recovery characteristics.Single seat globe valve Single seated globe valve are usually top guided .their use in small body sizes is due to simple design & because . Figure 1 Single port top guided .where tight shut off is needed. Advantages •High rangeability •Provides tight shut off •Reversible plug available •Used under application less than 2”.Their use in small body sizes . Most single seated valves are of unbalanced design tough balanced design are made.2” & below.They are used where tight shut-off is needed .for low flow unbalanced forces are not enough large to require large actuator sizes.

here practical leakage figure approaches 0. With the top & bottom guided construction . particularly when thermal expansion. •High rangeability. Disadvantages •High leakage rate. •Used for sizes greater than 2”. •Likely to erode by high pressure drop.5% of the rated Cv . the stroke direction can be reversed by simply inverting valve body.These are popular because of their balanced design. •Low pressure recovery characteristics.low pressure drop application Figure 2 .because it is nearly impossible to close both ports simultaneously.Double seated globe valve These are generally top & bottom guided . Advantages •High flow capacity compared to single port valves. The forces tending to close the valve are only available with reverse plugs -constructed so that increasing loading pressure moves the plugs into or out of the port . •Not good for high flow. •Balanced design require small actuator.

The body has a internal bridge to separate the right hand & lower outlet. Here two separate fluids enter through “L” & “U”.are combined in a desired ratio & leave through common port “C”.with lower plug seat opposite to the normal shut off position. B)Mixing service : Figure 3 illustrates 3-way valve used for combining service.3-Way double ported valve These 3 .to heat an independent process stream & then rejoins the bypass fluid stream from port “U”.these are available in two designs: A) Diverting service B) Mixing service A)Diverting service valve : It has a modified double ported body .The plugs are placed back to back in order for the flow direction will remain under its plug. The ratio control is achieved by proper plug position.either direct or reverse acting actuator is used depending on fail safe condition.A diverting valve may be used for heat exchanger bypass where heating medium enters port “C”.way valve are extension of typical double ported globe valve .respectively .Part of the fluid leaves port “U” to bypass the exchanger.the remaining portion of the fluid goes to the heat exchanger through port “ L”. . An upward movement of the plug decreases the flow passing through port “U”& at the same time increasing flow through “L”.

3-Way double ported valve Diverting service Figure 3 Mixing service .

spacers etc.bushing & cages.secondary trim parts are stem to plug attachments. seats.stem plug guide .A secondary function is to ensure tight shut off. packing retaining ring. spring . Plug Figure 4 Stem bonnet Seat ring .A valve trim consists of removable internal parts namely plug.seat to body seals . seat retaining rings .Globe valve design Trim design Trim is the heart of control valve.stuffing box components considered as trim are the packing follower.stem. Its primary function is to proportion the valve orifice area in such a manner that prescribed relationship exists between Packing flow capacity & plug lift.

Shutoff & opening capability are determined by diameter of the mean seat to plug seal contact .e. This is true only when pressure drop across valve is constant.this is known inherent flow characteristics the installed flow characteristics may differ considerably at much higher pressure drop . 3) How inherent flow characteristics is altered by varying flow. 2) Manufacturers inherent flow characteristics for different trim shapes.Factor affecting trim design • Temperature • Pressure • Flashing Fluids • Cavitation • Fluid Viscosity • Solid Contents in Fluid Each valve is given flow characteristic: i.flow is given percent of the full open flow.&plug lift & type . Maximum flow capacity depends upon seat port sizing.pressure differential & available actuator force.provided the stem design is adequate & allowance is made for seating force &packing friction . for a given percentage of total plug off the seat . Selection of valve trim is based upon 1) Knowledge of service pressure & flow conditions. body design .

In case of contoured & v-port shape aids in turning flow gradually & lifts for maximum are similar or slightly greater than for quick opening plugs . . Linear & equal percentage Linear & equal percentage characteristics requires a plug plug nose extending into the seat orifice and this must also be withdrawn to get full flow. usually .discharge flow area is equal to the orifice area at lifts of 1/4-seat diameter.The orifice should not be so large that valve body becomes a part of the total valve pressure drop & changes flow characteristics.Turning fluid past the plug nose causes flow resistance & an additional 10 .Trim design for Maximum flow Quick opening plug flow area Maximum flow capacity in globe valve design is achieved by using the largest possible flow orifice combined with a quick opening plug form. Thus total diameter is about 35% of orifice diameter to clear the plug out of the flow capacity than globe type with equal seat orifice diameter.15% lift is required to obtain maximum flow .about 45% of orifice diameter for top guided plugs.

Factors affecting maximum flow The break point in a flow curve .is due to . where increasing pressure drop does not increase flow my be due to.where increasing lift of plug of the seat orifice does not increase flow . 1) critical flow at sonic velocity after pressure drop becomes one half of upstream for gas service. 1) Plug is completely lifted out & orifice is primary flow restriction. 2) flashing flow chokes the body downstream of the seat joint with the vapor bubbles in liquid service . In cavitation no further reduction in pressure can be obtained at vena contracta to increase flow. 2) Body flow resistance is becoming a appreciable part of the total valve resistance Figure 5 Lift Effect of orifice & body on flow characteristics Lift Flashing effect flow stagnation The break point in the curve . .

machinability. Ductility. •Fabrication Castability. •Thermal Properties Creep. Cold Impact.Electrolytic Potential With Body.Scaling(oxidation ). Method for Hard Facing. Compressive .Hot Hardness. Shear . Hardness.rupture . •Corrosion Chemical Resistance . .Yield . •Environment Erosion Resistance.finishing Surfaces.Selection of Trim Material Property Consideration •Physical Properties Tensile . Density.

Application of Common Trim Materials Application •Mild Service •General Service •Severe Service Materials Bronze Type 316 SS 17-4 PH SS Type 410 SS Stellite . Colmonoy Type 440-c SS Hardened Tool Steel Tungsten Carbide Nickel Monel Inconel Hastelloy A/B Durimet Titanium • Very Erosive Service •Very Corrosive Service .

AVAILABLE BODY MATERIALS MATERIAL STANDARD METALS CAST IRON DUCTILE IRON GENERAL USE GENERAL SERVICE MILD CORROSION TO 650 °F TO 1000 PSI COST REDUCTION BRONZE(AL BRONZE) MILD SERVICE CRYOGENIC SERVICE OXYGEN ALUMINIUM LIGHT WEIGHT CRYOGENIC SERVICE STEEL GENERAL USE ALLOY STEEL HIGH TEMPERATURE 600°F-1050°F STAINLESS STEEL CRYOGENIC SERVICE 1050-1200°F CORROSIVE SERVICE GLOBE A A A A A A A A A A A A A A BUTTERFLY A A A A A VANES 12" VANES 12" VANES 12" A TO 12" TO 12" TO 12" BALL PLUG UPTO 12" A UPTO 12" A UPTO 12" A UPTO 12" A UPTO 12" A TO 4" TO 2" TO 4" TO 2" TO 4" TO 2" TO 4" TO 2" TO 4" TO 2" A A TO 16" TO 12" TO 16" TO 12" TO 16" TO 12" DIAPHRAGM A A A A A A A A A A A A A A LINING ELASTOMER PLASTIC TFE GLASS AVAILABLE LINING MATERIAL EROSIVE A TIGHT SHUT OFF A CORROSIVE SEVERELY CORROSIVE 1-2" 4-12" CORROSION RESISTANT BODY ALLLOYS CHEMICAL SERVICE 1-4" CHEMICAL SERVICE 1-4" CHEMICAL SERVICE 1-4" CHEMICAL SERVICE 1-4" CHEMICAL SERVICE 1-4" CHEMICAL SERVICE - 2-8" - A A A 2-12" - A A A A A INCONEL MONEL HSATELLOY ALLOY 20 TITANIUM GLASS TO 4" - - A =AVAILABLE IN ALL SIZES .

.Other factors are scaling . The design considerations include .The bonnet extension requires a longer stem to keep the packing cool.Clearances must be increased .High temperature trim design The material properties considered for high temperature application are tensile .All threaded seat ring must be seal welded to prevent loosening which will cause leakage & undercutting. Hot hardness is necessary to prevent galling & damage of seat.plug guides & posts must be hard faced tack welded . Above 1050 °F.clearances of moving parts & fitted parts as related to differential rate of thermal expansion of their respective parts .All guided bushing . Above 750 °F . Above 600 °F .hard faced .creep.compressive strength are lowered by high temperature . The yield.integral seat joints must be used .galling.creep & rupture . Above 900°F .yield . The following design changes are considered for corresponding temperatures Above 450°F .The plug & seat sealing areas must be hard faced .

. 4) Quick change design. 5) Simple design. 3) Minimum cool down mass. Hollow plug are used to prevent rapid heat transfer .is obtained by using TFE or KEL-F on the plug seal. 2) Minimum heat leak.is a must for in cryogenic service . 6) Differential thermal contraction of materials Bubble tight design . The stems are passed through extended bonnets to prevent freezing of atmosphere moisture.The void in the plug may be evacuated or filled with insulating material to reduce radiant or convective heat transfer.yet allow a large diameter plug plug for guiding & throttling stability.the plugs are hollow & seats are integral with body.both materials may also be used for the guide bushing & seat joint gaskets.Low temperature trim design The trim design for cold & cryogenic services is based on following requirements 1) Bubble tight sealing at low temperature . Valves are either installed vertically or at 45° from vertical to maintain low convective vapor lock in extended bonnet . The weight of parts should be kept minimum to reduce cool down of mass & boil-off loss of the liquefied gases entering the piping system.

installed back to back .Low temperature trim design(continued) The stuffing boxes are kept deep enough to accommodate a second or partial set of packing .to prevent leakage ion cool down if a vacuum should occur in line. Figure 6 .

seatring are of screwed design & are seal welded to prevent loosening & leakage. Hollow plug extension is used .Extension bonnet with long stem to prevent freezing . Cold valve service(-50 to -150 °F).Low temperature trim design(continued) Summary Low Temperature Ranges Trim design requirements Cold valve service (0 ° to -50 °F) . Cryogenic service(-150° to460°F) -a double extension bonnet with length 12” for 320°F nitrogen service.Extension bonnet with long stem. . Seat ring . Liquefied gases service .addition of ethylene glycol in packing follower .of screwed design are seal welded to prevent loosening & leakage.& longer for -450 °F hydrogen service. Refrigeration service -The guide bushing may be tack welded to prevent loosening from the differential thermal contraction of bushing & bonnet.The guide bushing may be either welded or (-259 to -450°F) the operating clearances for moving parts may be increased by 50% to prevent binding from differential thermal contraction.

The plugs are shaped to throttle the flow with a given characteristics such as quick opening. Figure 7 . equal percentage .throttling may be done by V-port plug or contoured plug.linear .Plug design Plug is moving component of the valve which throttles the flow by positioning itself within the seat orifice & shuts off flow by contacting the seat. Plug is moved against the dynamic fluid forces by stem force transmitted from the actuator.

Low Flow Plug Designs Figure 8 .

Regular Flow Plug Designs Figure 9 .

Regular Flow Plug Designs Figure 10 .

1 gpm with pressure of 1 psi. The plug is designed to given flow characteristics using this data . One method of plug design to make a preliminary flow test using a rough shaped plug is designed to determined the flow efficiency curve from Cv minimum to Cv maximum for that body. When designing a flow characteristic for a plug. we need to know the efficiency of the annular seat plug orifice area .then it is flow tested & if necessary reshaped slightly to follow flow curve. To do so .Also. . designer must attain a specific flow .Designing a plug to a selected flow characteristics Theoretically Cv of a perfect orifice having one square inch are is 38.corresponding to specific lift .1 this means that an orifice with a efficiency of 100% would pass 38. No orifice has such efficiency .The efficiency varies with the flow rate & the length of the restricted flow path .& addition of valve plug further reduces the efficiency. the body -flow resistance is a factor accounted for high lifts & each type of body has different affect on resistance.

so in effect it is column loaded at both ends . Attachment to plug: stems are usually threaded & then pinned to prevent loosening . because of reduction of even minor bowing & vibration.& satisfactory life may be obtained by monel pins stainless pins may break from stress corrosion .& faster bearing Vs the effect of line pressure thrusting on the cross-sectional area of the stem.oil field designs have short stems which run very true & increase packing life .Pins are seal welded for high & low temperature application .is directly related to amount of packing friction.this design present a maintenance problem in replacing the plug .The stem may bottom in imperfect thread run out in plug to make a rigid connection & the pin is usually an upset design to anchor tightly. The designers choice of stem diameter is a compromise between stiffness to prevent bowing. balanced trim reduces stem thrust sufficiently in the the high pressure service to give a noticeable increase in packing life. Other designs use an elastic nut to hold the plug against a shoulder on the stem . The stem shoulder take care of the load . which causes ‘striction’ & results in shortened packing life .it will therefor bow if overloaded . Some close coupled . Some design are pinned with spring pins allowing repeated replacement.the stem size is reduced by using such trim.Valve stems The stem carries the load from the actuator to plug.Usually friction prevails the later consideration are counteracted by additional actuator force requirement. Cage guided .

High rangeability.posses a streamlined passage to prevent accumulation of solids on body wall. APPLICATION Hydrocarbon application .low pressure application.. DISADVANTAGES Cannot be used for high noise application .Used where turbulence .cavitation effects are to be minimized. ADVANTAGES Hydrocarbon application. Handles abrasive catalyst Used where self draining is required. Avoided for throttling application. Can handle erosive material.self draining design of radioactive materials.high temperature rating.Angle Globe Valve FEATURES Single seated valves with special body configuration to suit specific piping & flow requirements. may be used for abrasive catalyst application.specifically designed for coking hydrocarbons. VIEW DRAWING .

Angled Globe Valve Schematic Figure 11 .

Can be used for corrosive fluids. Used for high temp application. Fluid trapped in ball may cause corrosion. Small in size & lighter in weight. Quarter turn application.Ball Valve FEATURES Oldest of all valves. DISADVANTAGES Cannot be used for throttling application. flow control & shut off application . VIEW DRAWING . APPLICATION Pressure control . ADVANTAGES Low pressure drop Tight shut off. Avoided in quick opening application since it cause water hammer.cryogenic fluids. LPG application.applied for wide range of application.

Ball Valve Schematic Figure 12 .

Operation carried out by pneumatic. APPLICATION Low Pressure application where leakage is relatively unimportant.electric. DISADVANTAGES Seals may be damaged if velocity is used Require high actuating force. Low pressure drop. Compact & quick opening . VIEW DRAWING . Low weights & low cost. Elastomers limits temperature. Limited to low pressure application.manual operation.hydraulic.Conventional Butterfly Valve FEATURES Described as damper/throttle valve. ADVANTAGES Simple . Good controllability.

Butterfly Valve Schematic` Figure 13 .

2) Liner Anchored to Body This type of valve is anchored by a metal or rubber retaining ring that projects into groove in the valve body.It is generally used in small size valves & on some large valves only when application is critical.Lined Butterfly Valve Elastomer liner design (Bubble Tight Closure ) Six liner design types are utilized 1) Liner Bonded to Body: This type of liner is not replaceable in the field. Figure 14 .

the liner is readily replaceable in field .controlled compression is obtained by extension of rubber liner past the body flange face. Figure 15 Liner Wrapped Around Faces` Push in Liner . The grooves allow displacement of rubber liner on makeup of the valve in the piping without causing distortion & disc binding. only being surpassed by the bonded type.the design securely anchors the liner . This type of construction will provide stiffness for vacuum service & will prevent extrusion by differential pressure across the disc . 4) Push in Liner This type of liner is made from an elastomer ring that is bonded to a metal insert.3) Liner Wrapped Around Faces The liner is wrapped around the flange faces of body in order to anchor it in place & to from a gasket.

55 slurry with 85 psi shutoff pressure differential at 70°F.the liner may be replaced without removing the stem & disc.The relief on the outside of the liner allows for swelling .simply disconnect the disc from actuator & rotate it 180° .Lined Butterfly Valve (continued) 5) Clamped liner : for this type of liner a split clamp holds both liner & pipe ends together .This design is operating satisfactorily with 3.Seat tightness may be adjusted by varying the split clamp bolting torque. This type of liner is used in food industries special pipe hubs are welded to the pipeline which are serrated to fit raised concentric ends of the thicker liner . A lower torque is needed to seat the valve than with conventional liners.thus giving positive axial alignment of valve & piping. 6) Special liners The offset stem design of this valve allows two seating surfaces which are interchangeable when the valve stem is centered on pipe axis. Another type of design includes involves clamping a thin section liner by means of an extension flange . Piping must be moved aside to install & remove the liner .thicker lining allows deep penetration of the vane. To change seating surface.

Figure 16 Clamped liner: O ring Stem Seal Liner Figure 17 .

these valves are extremely versatile as they could be used to handle fluids for -45°C to 450°C .High Performance Butterfly Valve The high performance butterfly valve are valves with double eccentric seating geometry . This enhances the life of the seal & reduces the valve torque considerably. This design is hybrid between ball valve & butterfly valve.using variety of sealing system varying from synthetic rubber-to-Teflon to metal-to-metal seating . The fish tail disc changes the pressure distribution curve across it compared to conventional disc & move the resultant force closer to the valve thereby reducing the dynamic torque. By virtue of its double eccentricity the valve disc allows friction free contact between the disc & seat ring & as soon as the valve opens the disc moves away from seat ring without any further frictional contact with the seat. The fish tail design valves are specifically used for throttling application through 90° of rotation .new design with fish-tail disc profile have been developed to especially encounter high pressure drop application. .unlike conventional valves which are restricted to 60° opening . This results in greater capacity per valve size.

High Performance Butterfly Valve Figure 18 .

• Have high flow capacities & low pressure drops.Rotary Eccentric Plug Valve FEATURES • Rotates through 50° angle with full open position & cams into the seat. • Applicable for temperature from -320 to 750 °C. • Available from 1-24” in size. • The disc valve seals are highly reliable. • High pressure recovery makes valve susceptible for cavation • More expensive than butterfly valve. • Provides tight shut off. • Plugs are made up of hard stellite material • Because of seals temperature & pressure ranges are restricted. VIEW DRAWING . • Plug is free to rotate axially along its shaft to align with seat. • Requires low actuating force.

Rotary Eccentric Plug valve Schematic Figure 19 .

As pressure builds Oring tends to inflate creating a tight seal between body seat & seat ring.As pressure builds O -ring tends to allow line pressure to enter the hollow correction of the O-ring . & annealed steel SS316 for pressures upto 10. .the seat ring to body seal is made with retained.the exterior surface of the seat is plated with soft silver to assist in forming the seal.Pressure upto 50000 psig are not unusual. metallic .Packing compound is usually TFE compound impregnated with glass to make it more resistant to extrusion.well guided & plated with chrome to prevent galling by high pressure .at these high pressure the techniques & methods used to seal valve bodies are very important. Forging process provides bodies free of voids & can be heat treated to high strength Valve plug : The valve plug tip is made up of furnished tungsten carbide for resistance against corrosion & abrasion. The material is usually heat treated type 4340 steel for pressure upto 50000 psig. Stem packing material: Valve stem packing tolerances become more critical for high pressure units.The stem is short . Valve bodies Forged diecast bodies are used as high pressure bodies .Usually the valve is of two piece angle design with seat ring clamped between the two body halves .At high pressure elastomer packing can be extruded through very small clearances. Actuation done by piston & diaphragm actuators.High pressure control valves Modern process employ working pressure above 6000 psig (414bar).000 psig. Stem material: The stem of these control valves are also made of high strength material such as 4140 steel.hollow Oring .

High pressure control valves High pressure low noise angle valve Figure 20 .

elastomers & standard gaskets are insuitable & are to be replaced by more durable ones . Packing material: Semi metallic or laminated graphite packing spiral wound SS and asbestos gaskets are used. Valve body material: Chrome -Moly steels are used for temperatures above 1000°F. ASTM A351 grade CF 8M is applied for temperature 1500°F.metal to metal seating materials are always used. At elevated temperatures standard materials may be inadequate plastics. ASTM 4217 grade WC9 is used where there are chances of oxidation & scaling. ASTM 4217 grade C5 used for shortcoming above 1100°F. .High temperature control valve Control valves for service above 450°F must be designed & specified with temperature conditions in mind . Trim materials Chromeplated SS316 Cobalt based alloy 6 High vanadium High chromium steels for additional resistance to high temperatures.

Small flow control valves

Applied in small pilot laboratories ,pilot plant ,commercial process plants . These employ special trims for extremely small flow rates is necessary .The special trim parts used are normally only two parts - a reduced port seat ring & a valve plug with a tapered flat milled on one side . These parts are machined to very low tolerances and are usually made of a hardened stainless steel or hard faced with alloy 6 to minimize erosion.Using a 3/16 inch diameter port .

Seat ring

A

Figure 21

Angle flat “A” determines control of small flow rates

Small flow control valves
Low flow valves are those with Cv less than 0.05.There are many application calling for small ,accurate control .In low flow characteristics the selection criteria is quite different since there is absolutely negligible no frictional loss in valve & there is no unfavorable pump head characteristics . There is no need of equal percentage characteristics.From design stand point ,physical physical dimension of the required are very small indeed ,the problem incurred is high pressure drop with erosion problems .For such low flow rates a actuator with a short stroke is required .The actuator has a smooth throttling action for high pressure service .For less exacting services needles or pistons with milled notches or slots are generally used in orifices ranging from 1/8 “ to 1/4 “.The valve stroke is of order of 1/2 “ .The Cv required is calculated by conventional formulas & then next largest size trim is chosen. If the trim is too small then a capacity increase is possible simply by increase in valve stroke or slightly modifying valve plug.

Small flow control valves

Low flow valve with variable stroke

Compact valve suitable for pilot plant Figure 22

butterfly valve 72 “ fall in special valve category as valve size increases arithmetically the shutoff pressure increases geometrically . Consequently then shaft strength .eccentric plug valve larger than 24 “ . Over protection equipment must be included in downstream system to ensure that the body shell & outlet connection are not subjected to pressure in excess of rated capability.so naturally the actuator requirements are severe & long stroke . Installation & maintenance procedures are complicated .bearing loads unbalance forces & actuator forces become of greater significance.For keeping noise under control the valve bodies cage type .with usually long valve plug travel with large number of flow opening. double acting pneumatic piston or electric actuators are specified for large flow application.The fabricated valve body is designed for for high pressure .ball valves larger than 24” .Large flow control valves The globe style valve larger than 12” . For these type of valves the noise levels are carefully considered since noise level increases indirect proportion with flow volumes . . Normally maximum allowable pressure drop is reduced on larger valves to keep design & actuator requirement within limits even with lower pressure of the flow requirements are awesome .

Care is taken that no liquefied gas is trapped in bonnet space .the valve in this case may have exceptionally long .5% nickel steel (grade LC3) is used . Cryogenics is the term applied for process operating in temperature range below (-150°F). A special attention is paid to design bonnet. At cryogenic temperatures .In certain cases special designs are required .bronze. particularly on moderately cold services (to -150 °F). In temperature range (-20 to 150°F ) special impact resistant carbon steels are used for pressure containing parts.the commonly used parts are of carbon steel (grade LCB).the principle problem is selection of proper materials of construction .& to prevent packing box .The simple extension box is installed in upright position to minimize heat transfer in operating fluid .Cryogenic & cold service control valves When control valves are applied to operate at temperature below freezing point . monel. . Valves are generally equipped with plain extension bonnet . material of construction now exclude carbon steel & include austentic stainless steel .In these temperature range the primary objective is to reduce influx of heat system to reasonably low value . In temperature range (-20 to 50 °F)3. special precaution are taken .in all cases the valve is completely insulated the process piping & valves in cold section are often installed in “cold box”.plain extension bonnet . where vaporization could generate dangerously high pressures.

Figure 23 “cold box “ valve plug & seat arrangement .with seat ring & plug. without disturbing valve body.Cryogenic & cold service control valves (continued) A large diameter bonnet selection is fabricated from stainless steel & brought out through the cold box.This permits removal of trim.

Radiation losses are minimized by electropolished exterior & aluminium foil barrier.SS expansion bellows are provided on jacket to eliminate piping strain caused by differential expansion.hydrogen etc .Cryogenic & cold service control valves (continued) The figure below illustrates special cryogenic valve that has vacuum insulating jacket enclosing the entire body & extension body . Figure 24 Vacuum jacketed cryogenic valve for service on liquid He.In this type of valve weight is kept minimum .

figure below shows special design .with an offset vane & spherical seating arrangement. are often specified for cryogenic service where tight shut off is required .also are equipped with a extension bonnet .Cryogenic & cold service control valves (continued) Rotary valve . Figure 25 Offset vane cryogenic butterfly valve with elastomer lip seal for tight shut off .

The quick opening characteristics provides large changes in flow for small changes in lift. The bulk of control applications use valves with linear. each with a characteristic relationship between fractional valve lift & the relative flow through the valve. The basic concept of choosing a characteristics lies in gain matching of the valve & the process. therefore it usually has too high a valve gain for use in modulating control.The proper selection of the flow characteristics is an important part of control valve application.1) In a control system valve gain (Kc) & process gain (Kp) are singular variables which must compensate each other if control loop has to remain stable. equal %. It is limited to on-off service such as sequential operation in either batch or semicontinues processes. The modified characteristics generally fall between the linear & equal% characteristics shown in fig1. This relationship is denoted as the flow characteristics. Fig.or modified flow characteristics.(Ref. . If the valve gain or sensitivity is defined as Kc= Change in flow/Change in lift.Control valve flow characteristics: The valve plugs for control valves described in earlier chapters are available in a variety of geometric shapes. then it is evident that slope of flow characteristic curve is the valve gain.

The linear characteristics would seem intuitively to be most desirable characteristic for control. The equal % characteristics produces a change in flow. Assign Linear valve characteristic to a control valve if. leads to considerations which generally make equal % the most widely applied characteristic. since it provides constant valve gain throughout the stroke at constant pressure drop. 1)Process is slow 2)Where more than 40 % of the system pressure drop occurs across the valve 3)When major process changes are a result of load changes .The linear characteristics provides a change in flow which is linear with valve lift & thus With signal to the valve. that is a constant % of the flow before the change was made. Assign equal % characteristics to a control valve if. 5)The major portion of control system pressure drop is not available through the control valve. Putting in simple terms. & control loop. However inclusion of the valve into a system . 1)Process is fast 2)High rangeability is desired 3)When system dynamics are not well known. 4)Control valve is required in an application like heat exchangers where an increase in product rate requires much greater increase in heating /cooling medium. with change in lift.with associated piping equipment.

Flow characteristics Figure 25 .

Control valve leakage classification .

C : UNSATISFACTORY .Material Compatibility Data MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY DATA SHEET C S C I SS BRONZEMON HASTE. DRY A A A A A A A A A A A A A PRODUCED WATER A A A A A A A A A A B B IL SEA WATER B B B B A A A A A A C C A SODIUM HYPO CHLORIDE C C C C B-C B-C C A B A IL C IL WELL STREAMS & SAND HIGH LIQUID PRESSURE A : RECOMMENDED .HASTEL.DURIMET TITAN-Cobase SS SS SS 17-4PH 304/302 EL LLOY A LLOY C 20 ium Al 416 440C SWEET NATURAL GAS & OIL A A A A A A A A A A A A A SOUR NATURAL GAS & OIL CARBONDIOXIDE .MODERATE EFFECT .WET C C A A B A A A A A A A A CARBONDIOXIDE . B: MINOR . I L : INFORMATION LACKING FLUIDS .

Stream temperature.viscosity of fluid.Control valve sizing: Factors to be considered •Flow application data: Maximum & minimum flow rates. Safety. Special requirements. •Fluid data: Name & properties of fluid. •Style of valve: Capacity . Phase of fluid . •Piping influences: Presence of reducers or other disturbances at valve .vapor pressure. •Sizing: Manufacturers sizing coefficient. . •System influences : Control dynamics.density of fluid . Rangeability Corrosion or erosion.upstream & downstream pressure. Economic factors .

Daniel Bernoulli discovered that as the liquid flows through the orifice .the square if fluid velocity is directly proportional to pressure difference across the orifice & inversely proportional to specific gravity of the fluid .greater the density lower the velocity. G =specific gravity of fluid.logically the liquid flow rate is calculated by multiplying the fluid velocity by area of flow . Cv provides both style & size . Now the basic liquid sizing equation can be written as follows: Q = Cv √(vP/G) where Q = capacity of gallons per minute.Sizing basics Sizing employs principle of conservation of energy.therefore greater the pressure differential pressure greater the velocity.also provides an index for comparing liquid capacities of valves under standard test of condition.There exists energy losses due to friction & turbulence . Cv = valve sizing coefficient . Cv is equal to number of US gallons of water flowing at 60°F through the valve in one minute when the pressure difference of one pound per square inch. vP=pressure differential in psi. .

It is also important to know why the ship responds the way it does. After passing the restriction. Incompressible fluids: (LIQUIDS) A fluid flowing through control valves follows the same laws of conservation of mass & energy as expressed in the equations of fluid mechanics. A2 is area at vena contracta. First conquered the flow of liquids. When any fluid flowing inside a pipe. p1 is upstream pressure. or the static head. . which essentially are incompressible fluids. the art of valve sizing goes hand in hand with the science of fluid mechanics. Neglecting friction & other non-ideal influences for a moment. Q = Cv √ (vP/G) where Q is flow of liquid through pipeline. For the same reasons. and p2 is downstream pressure & is density at operating conditions. After further simplification it works out to be. it must accelerate. Where Q is flow through control valve. The energy for this acceleration must be taken from the pressure of the fluid. the fluid slows down again & part of this head is recovered. passes through a narrow passage or restriction. G is operating density & vP is differential pressure across control valve. Bernoulli’s theorem gives us the equation.CONTROL VALVE SIZING: To be a good aircraft pilot it is necessary to have the seat of the pants feel of the ship.

But the moment the viscosity becomes low & flow starts getting laminar. we will have to apply correction to the Cv using viscosity correction factor. but in practice there are always reducers/expanders upstream/downstream of control valves & you have to correct for this change from ideal condition. We will now turn our attention to two important phenomena. namely Cavitation & Flashing. These phenomena are of significant interest in any comprehensive discussion of control valves since their occurrence will affect the valve sizing procedures. which are non-cavitating & non-flashing. which affect calculations of Cv for liquids 1)Piping geometry factor (Fp): Ideally we had considered same size of piping as that of a control valve. may introduce noise & vibration & also may limit the life expectancy of the valve components & immediate downstream piping. The calculation sheet enclosed gives details of these factors & also elaborates methods of calculations for these factors & their use in calculating corrected Cv. 2) Viscosity factor (F ): When flow is turbulent there is no problem & correction factor is not required. . Above we have seen the fundamentals of control valve sizing for liquids.We will have to consider two important factors.

Fig. requirement in the form of nucleating agents is mandatory. following criteria to be fulfilled. In short if cavitation has to take place following criteria to be fulfilled. only difference being that in cavitation the pressure recovery is full but in flashing outlet pressure remains below critical pressure of the fluid.What is cavitation: Cavitation is a two-stage phenomenon. these cavities try to implode back into liquid & temporary gaseous phase is eliminated. the first step of which is the formation of voids or cavities within the liquid system. 3) The valve outlet pressure must be either at or above the vapor pressure of the liquid. In short when pressure of liquid at the outlet of control valve goes below critical pressure the nuclei discussed above tend to form cavities & when it is recovered back. How cavitation takes place: For cavitation to take place. 2)The fluid at the inlet may be in either a saturated or a subcooled condition 3)The valve outlet pressure must be either at or below the vapor pressure of the liquid .while some vapor must be present at the valve outlet. What is Flashing: Flashing is similar to cavitation. The second stage is the collapse or implosion of these cavities back into an all-liquid state. 1)The fluid at inlet must be in all liquid condition . These tiny nuclei which which will contain either dissolved gases or vapors will enlarge into finite cavities within the liquid. 1) The fluid at both inlet & outlet to be in an all liquid state 2) The liquid must be in subcooled state at the inlet.1 shows the process of cavitation & flashing graphically. If flashing has to take place.

As cavitation intensity increases due to increasing pressure differentials. more vibrations emanating from control valve. 3) Pressure balancing of trim is to be done to improve throttling stability. there is serious damage to the valve internals Cavitation control: 1)Generally control valves with high recovery of pressure drop are more prone to cavitation than low recovery valves.Cavitation evidences: 1) Noise: In a control valve the evidence of cavitation is usually a hissing sound . 3) Material damage: due to cavitation. 2) Use hard trim to avoid material damage to the control valve trim. 7) Flow may be jetted against flow & swirled to create a massive turbulence & internal friction to dissipate the energy as heat. Stelliting of trim is a standard procedure to delay effects of cavitation. 4) 90 degree bends in flow path create a series of velocity head losses reducing pressure gradually. 2)Vibration: more noise due to cavitation. the sound level also increases. 6) A combination of 4) & 5) above having multiple small differential pressures rather than one larger differential pressure to keep the liquid above its vapor pressure so that cavitation does not occur. Hence globe valves are less prone to cavitation than butterfly/ ball valves. . 5) Pressure drop may be divided across a series of orifices.

It has been observed that if pressure drops of above 5~10 psi are considered while carrying out the valve capacity experiment.This ratio is called cavitation index & is given as below. Cavitation index: A dimensionless ratio. . so that increasing pressure drop results in no increase in flow rate. then it is observed that above 5~10 psi range. it can be observed that the flow rate is proportional to the square root of pressure drop & that the constant of this proportionality is liquid flow coefficient Cv. It is observed that with sufficient pressure drop the flow becomes FULLY CHOKED.. the flow of fluid through control valve tends to decrease rather than following standard flow & square rooted v P relationship. This indicates incipient cavitation of the main flow stream.Cavitation & Flashing both produce a decrease in ability of the valve to convert pressure drop across it into a mass flow rate. experimentally determined from plot of q versus squareroot of vP at fixed values of inlet pressure & valve opening is used to describe the point of initial departure from a proportional relationship.Cavitation & flashing phenomenon the control valve sizing also gets affected & the deviations from standard formula for control valve sizing for liquids is discussed below. further decrease in in valve outlet pressure (increased pressure drops) results in increased vaporization.. Increasing the pressure drop after choked flow has been reached will result in increased amounts of cavitation damage until the valve outlet pressure is decreased to to the value that will permit flashing. increased cavitation intensity & further decreases in the apparent liquid flow coefficient. Kc= P1-P2/ P1-Pv = vP/P1-Pv After cavitation has has begun. Referring to basic equation for liquid sizing.

Valve recovery coefficient: An additional experimental coefficient is determined by flow test to approximate the point above which no increase in flow rate is achieved for an increase in pressure drop. The procedure for sizing for choked flow condition is given in accompanying procedure for Cv calculations. . it is clear that Km represents the fraction of the difference between inlet pressure & choked flow vena contracta pressure that may be taken as pressure drop across the valve. This coefficient is called valve recovery coefficient Km= vPm /P 1-Pvc From the definition. before choked flow occurs.

00865(SI) Fp= piping correction factor Cv=control valve coefficient vP= differential pressure Gf =specific gravity Wf = N6 FLP Cv √(vPγ) N6 =63.00 (US) =0.3 (US)=2.Sizing for turbulent & noncavitating liquids Formulae to be used: Q = N1FpCv √(vP/G f) Q= volumetric flowrate N1=1.73(SI) FLP=combined pressure & piping loss Cv=control valve coefficient vP =differential pressure γ=specific weight .

0[1-(d/D)2 ]2 •KB1 = KB2 = 1-(d/D) •Ki= K1 + KB1 .Calculation for piping correction factor (Fp) & Calculation for correction factor (FLP) Fp = [ ∑K/N2 (Cd)2 ] -1/2 FLP = [ 1/ (FL )2 Ki/N2 (Cd)2 ] -1/2 •N2= 890 (US) =0.00214(SI) ∀∑K=sum of coefficient heads =K1 +K2+KB1+KB2 •K1=0.5[1-(d/D)2 ]2 •K2 = 1.

28 √(Pv/Pc) Pv=vapor pressure of liquid.9996-0. .Control valve sizing for choked flow Formulae for Cv calculation: Q = N1FLPCv √(P-Pvc)/G f Wf=N6FLPCv √(P-Pvc)/G f where : Pvc= Ff*Pv Ff =critical liquid pressure ratio factor. =0. FLP =combined pressure & piping factor. Pc=thermodynamic critical pressure.

Sizing of gas application Formulae W=N6FpCvY √(xp1γ1 ) Q=N7FpCvp1Y √x/GgT1Z Expansion Factor Y= 1-x/3FkXt Sp.ht.ratio factor Fk = k/1.40 Manufacturers factor xT = (C1)2/1600 .

152(IS) for X> XTP (choked flow) W=NFpCvp1√(XTP ) N=2 (US)=0.Y.304(IS) Fp= Piping correction factor X=Ratio of differential pressure to absolute pressure . Xt=Ultimate value of X used ti establish expansion factor.Sizing of steam(dry & saturated) application Formulae for X< XTP W=NFpCvp1(3-X/XTP )√(X) N=1 (US)=0. .

Actuators •Pneumatic/Diaphragm actuators •Piston actuators •Electric actuators Positioners Boosters .

Liquid ring avoid both oil & particulate problems.The air should be dried to a dew point at least 10°F below the ambient temperature.The reason for their wide application is use of compressed air which is very good source of power for actuators .Upto a point high pressure air is more effective than low pressure air as far as actuators are concerned .The energy stored in compressed air provides a large reservoir of readily available power to meet the needs of the actuators. Taking economic factors into consideration . .Many plants are expected to run 100% of the time without failure . The reservoir formed by the air receiver & the distribution system will supply power during short periods of power interruptions.Suitable air quality standard should be adopted for the purpose. natural gas is often used on outdoor installation. The quality of compressed is a important factor to be considered for safety .other gas which is used is dry nitrogen which is to be used should be oil free.the optimum system pressure is between 60 to 120 psig. for instance .Even control rooms can be hazardous if ventilation fails.Pneumatic Actuators Probably 90% of the actuators in the process are pneumatic.Great care is to be taken to avoid the hazard if pilots are located in closed areas where air can be displaced by nitrogen. reliability & maintenance cost .The compressor should be non lubricated so there is no oil present .If cylinder actuated valves are used in plants economy dictates that the pressure be at least 80 psig. Other compressed gases may be used in place of air .yet many pumps in less critical service are spared.

Diaphragm materials: Neoprene diaphragm with fiberglass. placed between two stampings or cast ”casing”& at least one section is made pressure tight .usually employ a flexible diaphragm. Application Widely used for proportional control.& hysterisis forces in valve body.least expensive in market. Reverse acting .large casting.of sizes. Cotton /nylon-for ambient conditions. Advantages: Good adaptability.available in wide no. Silicones. Types of pneumatic actuators: Direct acting .imposes stresses on valve. Pneumatic Actuators . forces of actuator spring . Fiber glass fabric.The control air signal is connected to pressure air tight chamber & an increase or decrease in pressure result in force which is used to overcome the pressure -drop forces within valve body.not fast.Air tight chamber is above diaphragm.Air tight chamber is below chamber.polyacrylics with Dacron for high temperatures.Also called diaphragm actuators.The size of the actuator depends on the pressure drop in the valve.the sole purpose of actuator is to move the valve in response to error correcting signal. Disadvantages: Employ large diaphragm.viton.the actuator generally has a “range “ spring opposing the force generated within actuator.

Pneumatic / Diaphragm Actuators Figure 26 .

large ball valves . .There must be an unusual requirement for high performance valve actuation to justify this expenditure. The hydraulic actuators are likely to be found where there are a number of large & heavy dampers. Hydraulic fluid from a external source is admitted to one side of the piston & exhausted from the other side of the 4 way pilot valve /jet type arrangement. The selection of right hydraulic fluid is an important point to be considered for high temperature application. since the remote motor & pump furnishing the power can be as large as is necessary to match performance needs .The system also requires filters.relief valves & other accessories.Piston Actuators/ Electro Hydraulic Actuators The usual form of of a hydraulic actuator is a double acting cylinder . there is greater incentive to consider hydraulic power .An actuator of this type has the potential to exert enormous forces & to drive the valve at high speed . If these devices are to be moved at high speed . Hydraulic actuators form an expensive system.alternatively an accessory lock up relay will hold the valve in last position.large butterfly valve with high torque. This pilot valve is governed by a control signal & a position feedback from stem.or are used in control system loop requiring superior performance . Hydraulic fluid is virtually incompressible so the actuator is extremely stiff .It can be made fail safe by by installing a trip valve & an accumulator on the hydraulic fluid line to store energy for use when the supply source fails .

the piston cylinder used is made of cast/wrought iron withstanding high pressure than stamped or cast casing.Due to high pressure rating the actuators are able to provide more force for smaller diameters. High reliability Exact positioning relative to control signal. Relatively fast response Safe in electrically hazardous location. Good frequency response.These are used along with positioners .It is considered as effective means of coping pressure drops. More expensive than spring & diaphragm type. Cumbersome to achieve fail safe condition . Disadvantages: Requires high pressure air supply.Piston actuators These are available from most manufacturers. Application Proportioning or positioning control valves. Advantages: Provide high thrust.when used along with actuators.

Piston Actuator Figure 27 .

it is an electrical terminal that tells the servo where the actuator is positioned . The comparator circuit compares the signal & actuator feedback signal.20 mA DC . 2) For identical signal .the comparator activates neither circuit . The actuator signal comes from a potentiometer other resistive element .& fully open at 20 mA signal for direct acting . It tells actuator where the actuator should be positioned . Supply Input signal comparator Logic ckt open close Motor open winding Motor open winding Valve position Figure 28 .but could be no of other values .Electric Actuator Actuator operation The command signal for an electronic positioner is often 4. 1) If the signals are different then the comparator activates either the “open” or “close” to minimize the difference . 3) The comparator should never activate both circuits at a time.When actuator is closed at 20mA & fully open at 4mA the actuator id reverse acting .the switching elements are relays or TRIAC’s. The output circuit features some form of switching element to connect the power supply to motor leads. The actuator is usually designed to go fully closed at 4mA.

Ensures accurate positioning of valve.Electric Actuator •Advantages: Extremely fast response. Develops maximum power for actuation. •Disadvantages Expensive More difficult to maintain Figure 29 .

the rate of force change of the actuator with stroke should be at least twice the rate of change of line pressure unbalances in within the valve acting on the plug & stem.this is achieved by a high rate mechanical spring . 4) The required actuating action upon failure of powering medium . 2) Thrust requirement for the maximum pressure operation & tightness of shutoff required to overcome friction versus the size available for each type of actuator. 6) Temperature limits of elastomer diaphragm material.hydraulic fluid loading . . air rotary. close.air piston. valve fails open. 5) Adequate frequency response to satisfy process dynamic and /or safe emergency full open or closing times . silicone(-30 to 300°F). hold position.Selection of Actuators Selection criteria : 1) Availability of powering source viz. valve fail close. electric & electrohydraulic type. Hydraulic. Viton(-10 to 350 °F) metal bellows (> 350°F) 7) Actuator cost escalting in this order Air diaphragm type. pneumatic. Neoprene(-20 to 180°F).electric mechanical.low case air volume. 3) The availability of the actuator to hold the plug in a fixed position(stiffness) through surges of line pressure .

•Adjustibility for travel . •Speed of response required .split ranging . •Reliability . •duty cycle limits.Actuator Sizing When one selects an actuator following points should be weighed carefully •Torque required . . •Price of installation cost. •Maintenance cost. •Energy Costs. •Space requirement & weight.or other loops needs.

Soft seated valves require fairly high seat loads to get tight shut off.Even on balanced valve there is difference in the opposing areas.The double port valve has unequal seat areas .It should be able to move the valve mechanism to specified position with specified tolerance . To meet the leakage tolerance the plug valve must be seated with appropriate force.The direction of force depends on direction of flowing fluid .Another static forces is the stem force .max drop of TFE is 400 psi. TFE requires a forces of 30 lbs plus a force of 22lb/in for each 100 psi differential pressure drop across it.Actuator Sizing Static Forces The static forces are those forces that exist with the valve under pressure but with no fluid flow .An ideal actuator should be able to overcome all the forces associated with the valve .On single ported . stiffness & good frequency response qualities suitable for application.In other words it should have power .despite the varying forces exerted b the flowing fluid . . The static imbalance is a major force .It is measured b the area of the stem multiplied by the pressure in the valve body.This force varies from about 20 lb per lineal inch of seat circumference for class II leakage rate to about 80 lbs per lineal inch for the larger size valves Class V valves require a seating force that increases with shut off pressure differential across seat.unbalanced globe valves this force is measured by the area of the seat multiplied by the differential pressure.To account for these forces the areas of the seat & pistons must be known.

the forces are measured in torque units .First Off . Ball & other symmetric valves have no unbalanced forces .The torque required to cope up these forces are “breakaway “or “breakout “torque. .These valves have extremely high seat frictional forces at all opening .Actuator Sizing Static forces of rotary motion valves manifest themselves in a entirely different manner .The other rotary valve incur sealing forces only at small angles of opening .Ball valve plugs are often designed so that closure member is always in contact with the seat.

In flow to close direction . Figure 30 Fluid force -Quick opening valve . up to about 2.Actuator Sizing Dynamic forces Dynamic forces are those forces created by fluid by the fluid flow through the valve.then the force decreases linearly to about 25% of its closed value.For some valves these forces are very complex .with one port flow to open & one port flow to close .has a fluid force it fairly balanced .5 % of seat diameter.The double ported . Quick opening .the stem force on this valve increases slightly as the plug moves off the seat . flow to open .

Figure 31 Fluid force -Quick opening Flow to close Figure 32 Fluid force -Quick opening Double port valve .

Figure 32 Fluid force countered plug FTO & FTC .

As dynamic torque increases .Consider first aligned disk with centered stem. When the valve is closed there is no torque due to differential pressure . The other factors affecting the torque curve for this type of valve are : •The quality of bearings •Lubricity of fluid •Fitting adjacent to valve •Free discharge •Choked flow •Compressible fluids . This adds to friction caused by packing & seal .But the thrust caused by the differential pressure on disk creates a substantial friction on bearings.The torque is proportional to pressure drop & cube of diameter of disk.the actuator must oppose the torque that tend to close the valve the torque reaches the maximum value when valve is 60° to 80 ° open. thrust on the bearings is affected by lifting forces on the disk.changing torque requirement of the actuator.For Butterfly ValveThe fluid forces acting on butterfly valves differ widely in design of the disk & orientation of the stem .As the valve opens the vane .

Figure 33 Torque curve for a butterfly valve .

the actuator must be stiff enough to to resist motion.These are known as buffeting forces & constitute a disturbance to the position .The plug force is a proportional to the effective plug area (Ap) & the effective pressure drop(vP).flow tending too open with open with the packing on downstream side.The proportionality factor (Kh)is the fluid force coefficient .Negative fluid force gradient It is required for an actuator is to have enough power to overcome the forces Both valve & actuator have distinctive dynamic properties .P2 As & Kh = (F + P2 As)/ (vP Ap ) .with a turned plug . consider first the single ported globe valve . To understand force gradients.If the valve is to remain steady under this condition .Besides the steady state forces caused by fluid turbulence. A second factor affecting stability is negative fluid force gradient .The stem force is produ of the stem area(As) & P2(psig) F=Kh vP Ap .It varies with the fractional valve travel (h).

rapid valve movement caused by fluid forces on actuator in a manner to increase the effective spring rate .at frequencies greater than (τ ) -1 radians/sec .If the plug moves fast & holes are small .On balanced cage guided valves balancing piston is connected to the body pressure by holes through the plug leading to balancing chamber.this pressure difference in effect changes the shape of the force curve & can create excessive negative fluid force & instability.This is a snubber & acts as an additional spring force .40) p = average air pressure .sq.cu.When the valve is in motion there are certain factors that assume importance relative to valve stability .inches .fluid must flow through these passages . On the other hand .psia Ad= Area of diaphragm.thus increasing stability .The effective air spring rate is Kp = k p (Ad)2 / V Where k = ratio of specific heats (sir=1.This pressure .If the valve time constant is τ . Movement of diaphragm or piston in the actuator causes air to flow in or out of actuator case through small opening .inches V =Volume .there are will be substantial pressure drop across the passages . When plug moves moves .

the valve manufacturer adopts certain design procedures to overcome the lack of complete information.Friction is dominant at natural frequency . One method is to list for each valve style & stem travel a factor to define the slope of the negative gradient the factor is called Kn Kn = (dF / dH)/(psi) -inches The spring rate must be greater than (vP Kn). Above natural frequency inertia serves to increase the stiffness still further .44 Fk XT P1 In order to cope up with the problem caused by negative fluid gradient . . For choked flow there may be little or no pressure recovery.In that case the vP used in equation Kh = (F + P2 As)/ (vP Ap ) Is to be replaced by vP e vP e= FL(P1-FFPV) For gas or vapor the effective pressure drop vP is vP e=Yx P1 And for choked flow vP e=0. The operating pressure is taken as vP .At these frequencies less then natural frequencies the air spring effect diminishes rapidly unless the valve is equipped with positioner. As the frequencies approaches (τ ) -1 radians/sec stiffening effect diminishes to that of a valve without positioner.Because of its high gain the positioner enables an actuator to resist fluid forces that act at lower frequencies.

Summary of actuator sizing To be able to properly size a control actuator . •Valve Body Force or Torque Characteristics . It is also necessary to know the limits of the various components like •Seat Force •Spring Load •Spring Adjuster Travel •Actuator Casing Pressure Limits.. •Spring Rates Available.one must have access to all the necessary parameters . •Actuator Force Characteristics. . •Packing & Seal Friction Factors.

Positioner
It is a device which precisely positions ,by use of air ,the moving part or parts of a pneumatically operated valve in accordance with a pneumatic signal. Principle of operation A typical controller output varies from a minimum 0 psig to maximum 20 psig. The most common valve spring operates at 3-15 psig.the air pressure above 15 psig is used to close valve against upstream pressure . The figure below shows a valve with a positioner in addition to controller. The signal from controller in this case goes to positioner instead of directly to control valve. The positioner compares signal with the stem position .if the position is not proper the positioner adds or exhausts air from the valve actuator until desired position is obtained. Application: To overcome friction. To increase shut-off rating of single seated valves. To increase speed of response of control valve. Split range operation. To change flow characteristics. To get wide proportional band. Limitation: •Hampers quality in fast process.so,boosters are used in modern day application

Boosters
Volume boosters: A volume booster can be used to increase the speed of operation of diaphragm control valve .A volume booster being used in conjunction with controller & pneumatic valve.the controller applies its output signal to booster instead of to the control valve .Only about 1 cubic inch of air is required to position the pilot in the booster , thus the volume of air moved through the connecting tubing is small .The air that operates the valve comes through the pilot in booster .The pilot has large capacity the stroking time is substantially reduced .
exhaust 20 psig

booster

controller

35 psig Figure 34 Volume booster in control valve loop

Boosters
Pressure boosters : They are also volume boosters ,however their main function is to increase the pressure from controller to above 20 psig. In certain valve application. A booster may be preferred over positioner because of its lower cost. Also a booster does not close the loop around the valve. It also enhances stability in fast response systems.

exhaust

20 psig

2:1
A-T-O 6 - 30 psig 35 psig

controller

Figure 35 Pressure booster in control valve loop

In emergency signal is applied to relay to close controller signal & open exhaust . The 35 psig allows the single seated valve to close against high pressure line than would be possible with 20psig output from controller. exhaust 20 psig ON_OFF controller A-T-C 6 .Transducers On -off relay s: Applicable where the maximum output of controller is insufficient to operate a diaphragm valve.the relay applies 35 or 0 psig to diaphragm valve to open or close valve.as shown above.30 psig 35 psig Figure 35 Throttling The figure shows on-off pneumatic relay .in this application the relay is normally positioned such that the exhaust port is closed & path through the relay & diaphragm valve is kept open. . The pneumatic relay is used a throttling controller where the relay is used in emergency service.

Transducers Solenoid valves On-Off control Used in combination with diaphragm valve.30 psig Figure 36 On off service 20 psig 35 psig 35 psig A-T-C 6 .In emergency the solenoid coil is activated & controlled is blocked & exhaust port is opened & valve is closed .30 psig Figure 37 Throttling service Throttling .Depending on size the arrangement may be considered less expensive & faster response. It is used to supply or exhaust air from diaphragm control valve to achieve on-off control. exhaust exhaust SOV SOV A-T-C 6 . Throttling control The solenoid valve is used with throttling control valve in emergency service . The solenoid valve is positioned such that exhaust port is closed & path between controller & diaphragm is open .

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