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History

.

y Chi Square (chi, the Greek letter pronounced "kye´)

test is a Nonparametric statistical technique used to determine if a distribution of observed frequencies differs from the theoretical expected frequencies. y It was developed by Prof. Karl Pearson in 1900

Introduction

y The Relationship between two or more continuous variables can be studied by correlation and regression y But in medical research to test the association between two Discrete variables we use Chi-Square test. y Such as to see association between a continuous variable grouped into categories( Hb level: Mild ,Mod, Severe anemia) and a discontinuous variables( Socio economic status) or between two continuous variables grouped into categories (Hb Level: Mild ,Mod, Severe anemia and No of ANC visits i.e. None,1-3 or .3).

y Test of association. . y Goodness of Fit test.Application of Chi Square test y Test of proportions.

y For comparing values of two binomial samples even if they are small. . Yates correction is applied and expected value is not less than 5 in any cell.Test Of Proportion y As an alternative test to find the significance in two or more than two proportions . less than 30.) y For comparing the frequencies of multinomial samples.(provided correction factor.

y It measures the probability of association between two discrete variables. y Two possibilities: y Either influence each other ( Dependent) y Or not influencing each other( Independent) i.e.Test Of Association y Most important application of the test. y Can be used between two discrete events in binomial or multinomial samples. . No association is there.

y Added advantage : can be used to find association between two discrete variables when they are categorized into more than two classes as happens in multinomial samples.Contd. . that there is no association between two event.e.. y Thus Chi ± square test measures the probability(p) or relative frequency of association due to chance and also if the two events are dependant on each other or associated with each other. Null hypothesis. y Assumption of independence is made i.

y This goodness of fit test is used to determine whether population has certain hypothesized distribution. . expressed as a proportions of individuals in the population falling into various outcome categories.Test Of Goodness Of Fit y Idea behind is that Chi ±square goodness of fit test is to see the if samples comes from the Population with the Claimed distribution.

Hypothesizes for Goodness of Fit Test y Suppose that hypothesized distribution has K outcome categories. y Ha = the actual proportions are different from the hypothesized proportions y First calculate the chi-square value which has X2 distribution at ( k-1) degree of freedom. . y H0 = the actual population proportions are equal to the hypothesized proportions. y For test of H0 against alternative hypothesis at least two of the actual population proportions differ from their hypothesized proportions.

A specific chi square distribution is specified by one parameter is called degree of freedom.Chi .square distribution y Chi square distribution are family of distribution that take only positive values and are skewed to right. .

y Frequencies should be independent.Requirements y Requirements : y A random sample y Qualitative data y Lowest expected frequency in any cell should not be less than 5 (Chi ±square distribution) y If the smallest expected frequency is less than 5 then Fisher¶s exact probability test should be used. y Chi ± square should be calculated using the frequencies only and not with rates. . proportions or percentages.

row wise and then numbers in each group of the other event .column wise y Determine the expected number (E) in each group or cell of table on assumption of null hypothesis. y Calculate the X2 value.STEPS y Make a Contingency table and note the Observed frequency (0) in each class of one event . y Find the difference between the observed and the expected frequencies in each cell. (obs exp) ' !§ exp 2 2 .

Compare the calculated value with highest obtainable by chance at the desired degree of freedom given in the table under different probabilities such as 0. If calculated value of X2df is higher than the value given in the table .01. then its significant at that particular level of significance. X2df indicates the total X2 value at particular degrees of freedom. df = (c-1) × (r-1) Refer to Fisher¶s X2 table .y Sum the X2 values of all the cells to get the total chi y y y y ± square value. Calculates the degree of freedom.0. .001 etc.05.0.

. A survey was conducted with the following results: Twelve males preferred Cooked foods. Five females preferred Cooked foods. Eight males preferred Raw foods.example y A student wants to see whether the food preferences of y y y y males and females differed. He tried to see whether males or females had a general difference in the preference for cooked and raw foods. Five females preferred Raw foods.

Or y Food preference is affected by gender.Step 1: State the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. . y Ho: There is no significant difference between the food preferences of males and females. Or y Food preference is independent of gender. y Ha: There is a significant difference between the food preferences of males and females.

Step 2: State the level of significance.05 y 0.05 is the level of significance for most scientific experiments y . = 0.

Step 3: Set up a contingency table Preference Cooked Raw Total (Column) Male 12 8 20 Female 5 5 10 Total (row) 17 13 30 .

67 (13) (10) / 30 = 4.Step 4: Compute for the expected frequencies The chi-square test for independence usually uses the third method of getting expected frequencies. Preference Cooked food Male (20) (17) /30 = 11.33 10 Total (row) 17 Raw food 13 Total ( column) 20 30 .33 (13) (20) / 30 =8.67 female (10) (17) / 30 =5. Expected Frequency = R1 X C1 N This expected frequency is computed for EACH cell.

y Where O is the observed frequencies E is the expected frequencies And x2 is the chi-square value .

0518 0. male Raw food.0396 0.Step 5: Rearrange the table to show the observed and expected frequencies on the columns. Female Total Observed 12 5 8 5 expected 11.0792 0.1037 0. female Raw food.67 4.67 8.square 0. Preference Cooked food.33 Chi .33 5. and the subcategories on the rows. Male Cooked food .2793 .

Step 6: Determine the degrees of freedom y The degrees of freedom is: y df = (Rows 1)(Columns 1) df = (2 1)(2 1) = 1 .

05 is 3.Step 7: Check the tabular Chi-squared value with your df and level of significance. food preference is independent of gender. . we would reject the null hypothesis. null hypothesis is accepted. we see that the tabular chi- squared value for df = 1. y Checking the table. y Hence. y If it were greater.841. means there is the difference is not significant . its due chance . y Since our calculated chi-square is less than this. and = 0.

y Example 2: Attack rates among the vaccinated and unvaccinated against measles . Protective value of Vaccination?? Results Group Attacked Vaccinated Unvaccinated Total 10 26 36 Not-attacked 90 74 164 100 100 200 Total .

While the alternate hypothesis(Ha) states that there is significant difference in attack rates in two groups. Group Attacked Vaccinated Observed Expected Unvaccinated Observed Expected Total 10 18 26 18 36 Not-attacked 90 82 74 82 164 200 100 100 Total .Null Hypothesis(Ho) states that there is no difference in attack rate between two groups.

Chi square value : 8. Table value of chi square at the df 1. and 5% significance level=3. .84 Calculated value of Chi Square is greater than table value.670 df = 1. Null hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted.G 2 « (O E ) ! §¬ E 2 » ¼ ½ After putting these values. Hence its significant.

Find if the observed distribution fits the hypothetical(expected) distribution. Blood group A Observed Expected 23 42 B 35 9 AB 5 3 O 37 46 .Test Of Goodness Of Fit: example y Ques:In a sample of 100 persons. blood group proportions as observed and expected are given below.

8 ' ! 7. Hence df=k-1. The observed distribution does not fit to the hypothetical distribution.001.82 at 5% level of significance At the calculated value 86. P is far less than 0. 2 3 . df=3 (obs exp) ' !§ exp 2 2 Chi Square value calculated = 86. the value is highly significant. Hence .8.There are 4 classes (k).

In tables larger than 2 X 2 . The X2 test applied in a four fold table. 3. Yates correction is necessary. Even if Yates correction.( Subtract 0.Limitation of Chi Square test: 1. In such cases .) 2. . the test may be misleading if any expected frequency is much below 5.5 from the absolute difference between the Observed and Expected numbers and square it to divide by expected number.to apply chi square test. will not give a reliable result with df 1 if the expected value in any cell is less than 5. Yates correction cannot be applied. If any frequency is less than 5. this small frequency can be combined with that in next group or class.

Contd. 4. The statistical finding or relationship. does not indicate the cause and effect . Interpret X2 test with caution if sample total or total of values in all cells is less than 50. X2 test tells the presence or absence of an association between two events but does not measures the strength of association.. 5. . 6.

Alternate formulae for calculation Chi .Square value Group Vaccinated Unvaccinated Total Results(Measles) Attacked a c a+c Not-attacked b d b+d Total a+b c+d a+b+c+d « ( ad bc) (a b c d ) » G ! §¬ ¼ (a b)(c d )(a c)(b d ) ½ 2 2 .

« » (ad bc ) X N G ! §¬ ¼ (a b)(c d )( c)(b d ) ½ Formulae with Yates correction: « ( ad bc N/2) X N » G ! §¬ ¼ (a b)(c d )(a c)(b d ) ½ 2 2 .

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