IC$ 23.020.

30

January 2002 edition

Manufacture Non-destructive testing of welded joints Appendix 1 to
and testing of Minimum requirements for AD 2000-MerkbJatt
pressure vessels non-destructive testing methods HP 5/3 The AD 2000·Merkblatter are prepared by the seven associations listed below who together form the "Arbeitsgemeinschatt Druckbetielter" (AD). The structure and the application of the AD 2000 body of regulations and the procedural guidelines are covered by AD 2000-Merkblatt G 1.

The AD 2000-Merkblatter contain safety requirements to be met under normal operating conditions. If above-normal loadings are to be expected during the operation of the pressure vessel, this shall be taken into account by meeting special requirements.

If there are any divergences from the requirements of this AD 2000-Merkblatt, it shall be possible to prove that the standard of safety of this body of regulations has been maintained by other means, e.q. by materials testing, tests, stress analysis, operating experience.

Fachverband Dampfkessel-, BeMlter- und Rohrleitungsbau e. V. (FDBR), DOsseldorf Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e. V., Sankt Augustin Verband der Chemischen Industrie e. V. (VCI). Frankfurt/Main

Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und An/agenbau e. V. (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Verfahrenstechnische Maschinen und Apparate, Frankfurt/Main

Verein Deutscher EisenhOttenleute (VDEh), Dusseldorf VGB PowerTech e. V., Essen

Verband der Technischen Oberwachungs-Vereine e. V. (VdTOVj, Essen.

The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkblatter in line with technical progress. Please address any proposals for this to the publisher:

Verband der Technischen Oberwachungs-Vereine e.V., P.O. Box 103834, D-45038 Essen_

0>

~ . . .

o This AD 2000-Merkblatt describes the minimum require-

6 ments for non-destructive testing and gives several examp-

~ ~n les of the assessment of test results.

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~ ~ AD 2000-Merkblatter are protected by copyright. The rights of use, particularly of any translation. reproduction, extract oftigures, transmission by photo-

-.::: \!i mechanical means and storage in data retrieval systems, even of extracts, are reserved to the author. Carl Heymanns Verlag has taken all reasonable

8 .3 measures to ensure the accuracy of this translation but regrets that no responsibility can be accepted for any error, omission or inaccuracy. In cases of doubt or dispute. the latest edition of the German text only is valid.

o Foreword Preliminary remarks

123 Radiographic examination (D) Ultrasonic examination (US)

o Foreword

The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisfy the basic safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with Modules "G" and "B + F".

The AD 2000 body of regulations is structured along the lines of a self-contained concept. If other technical rules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related problems, it is assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account.

The AD 2000 body of regulations can be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as specified in the provisions of the relevant sector of the law.

Preliminary remarks

Contents

4 Magnetic particle examination (MP) 5 Penetrant examination (FE)

6 Other methods

I 2 Radiographic examination (0)

The requirements of DIN EN 1435 apply for carrying out the radiographic examination.

I The test categories specified in Tab.le.s 1 to 3 for the radiographic examination correspond to the categories given in DIN EN 1435.

I 3 Ultrasonic examination (US) 3.1 Butt welds

3.1.1 Test categories

In the test for longitudinal flaws according to test category A, it is usually sufficient to test the weld from one surface and one side of the weld only (positions 1, 2, 3 or 4 in Fig. 1) at one testing angle.

When testing for transverse flaws, scan from the surface of the weld (positions 1 and 2 in Fig. 2). If this is not possible because the final run is too rough, scan from the surface of the base metal (positions 3 and 4 or 5 and 6 in Fig. 2).

In test category B, the weld shall be tested from both sides (in positions 1 and 2 or positions 3 and 4 as shown in Fig.1

(

'-

Supersedes October 2000 edition; I = amendments to previous edition

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Page 2 AD 2000·Merkblatt HP 513 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition

when testing for longitudinal flaws and in positions 1 and 2 as shown in Fig,2 when testing for transverse flaws). If this is not possible because the final run is too rough, it is permissible to scan from the surface of the base metal (positions 3 to 6 in Fig.2),

In test category C, testing for longitudinal flaws shall be performed as in test category B and testing for transverse flaws shall be performed from the weld surface, i.e, from positions 1 and 2 in Fig,2, In some cases this may entail obtaining probe-to-specimen contact by machining the top bead run,

This operation shall take place prior to testing for longitudinal flaws. With wall thicknesses> 100 mm, an additional test shall be performed using a tandem scan for longitudinal or transverse flaws.

3.1.2 Beam angle

In the case of surfaces which are not curved in the direction of testing, the beam angle shall not be less than 45 degrees. For test categories A and B and in test category C in the wall thickness range < 40 mm, the beam angle shall be chosen so that the angles of incidence do not exceed 70 degrees on the surfaces to be tested,

Angles of incidence are the angles between the main sound beam and the normal of the surface at the point of incidence (example: angle (3, and (32 in Fig. 4). If necessary, in order to meet this condition for the angle of incidence, appropriate beam angles shall be used or the specimen shall be scanned from other test surfaces.

For wall thicknesses> 40 mm, an angle probe shall be used - if the geometry of the weld so permits - in order to test for longitudinal, oblique and transverse flaws with the angle probe making it possible to include zones near the surface at an angle of incidence < 60 degrees. Furthermore, in test category C with the said wall thicknesses, an angle probe shall be used having a main beam which impinges at right angles, if possible, upon zonal defects occurring at a right angle to the surface. If it is found that these conditions are best met with normal incidence, a normal probe shall be used for this purpose.

When testing for defects which are at a right angle or approximately at a right angle to the surface using a tandem scan, this testing replaces the additional beam angle required above.

3.1.3 Width of test surface

The width of the surface strip to be prepared as a test surface is determined by the requirement that, for each element of volume of the zone adjacent to the weld, testing for longitudinal flaws shall be performed in the range of at least two half skip distances unless the test is performed by scanning from another surface at a second appropriate beam angle.

For wall thicknesses> 40 mm and test category C, the width of the test surface is determined by the requirement that the evaluation range includes the entire skip distance in the case of the smaller beam angle and includes the half skip distance in the case of the large beam angle.

The zone adjacent to the weld includes the weld metal and the adjoining base metal on both sides to a width of:

- 10 mm each side for wall thicknesses :5 30 mm,

- tl3 of the wall thickness each side for wall thicknesses

> 30 to :5 60 mm,

- 20 mm each side for wall thicknesses> 60 mm.

3.2 Nozzle welds and connecting welds

3.2.1 The weld metal and the adjoining base metal shall be included during testing as far as possible.

3.2.2 When testing for longitudinal flaws, it is sufficient in test category A to test from one side of the weld with one beam angle (e.g. positions 1 or 2 in Fig.5).

In test categories Band C, testing is performed from both sides of the weld with one beam angle (e.g. positions 1 and 2 in Fig.5).

In addition, for wall thicknesses s > 40 mm in test category C, a further scan position is to be used (e.g. position 3 in Fig.5).

When testing for longitudinal flaws, the weld metal and the adjoining base metal shall be included in the complete skip distance as far as possible.

3.2.3 When testing for transverse flaws, it is sufficient in test categories A and B and in test category C for wall thicknesses s :5 40 mm to test at an acute angle at the half skip distance using one beam angle and from one surface (e.g. positions 4 and 5 in Fig. 5).

In test category C for wall thicknesses s > 40 mm, an additional test from a further surface is required (e.q, positions 6 and 7 in Fig. 5).

3.2.4 If, because of the geometrical configuration of the component, a scan position other than that shown in Fig. 5 is more favourable in terms of the test evidence it provides, this scan position shall be adopted.

3.3 Direction of testing

Apart from the directions of testing for longitudinal and transverse flaws which need to be applied carefully, all deflections in between these directions shall be taken into consideration with regard to the possible location of flaws and all directions of testing shall be applied to suit this purpose. In addition to moving the probe to and fro when testing for longitudinal and transverse flaws, it is sufficientto repeat this operation by turning the probe in a fanning movement.

In the case of curved su rfaces, adequate probe-to-specimen contact shall be ensured because ofthe continually changing contact conditions. In the case of large-scale pool welding (e.g. electroslag welds), an additional direction of testing for oblique flaws shall be applied at a side angle of 45 degrees (Fig. 3).

In the case of circumferential welds with a diameter :5 101,6 mm, no testing for transverse flaws is necessary.

3.4 Surface condition

Probe-to-specimen contact areas shall be free from bumps or depressions to allow the probe to make full contact everywhere and to prevent it from tipping as well as to make sure that the beam angle is clearly defined. The probe-to-specimen contact area shall be free from rust, scale, spatter and other contamination which might interfere with probe-to-spacimen contact. Grooves which are at a right angle to the main sound beam which might have a significant effect on the tests shall be removed.

3.5 Test frequencies

Generally speaking, a frequency of 4 MHz and a frequency of 2 MHz shall be used respectively for wall thicknesses :5 40 mm and wall thicknesses> 40 mm.

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3.6 Sensitivity adjustments 3.6.1 Recording limits 3.6.1.1 DGS method

The relevant echo heights for the disc-shaped reflectors given in Table 1 are applicable to echoes not due to external contours.

The echo height of a disc-shaped reflector of 6 mm diameter is applicable for a tandem scan.

Table 1. Recording limit as a function of welded wall thickness for longitudinal and transverse flaws

(1 )2) or a2) Diameter of disc-shaped reflector
mm mm
Ferrous materials Aluminium materials
Angular Normal Angular Normal
incidence incidence incidence incidence
:<; 15 1,0 2,0 1,0 2,0
> 15 to :<; 20 1,5 2,0 1,5 2,0
> 20 to:<; 40 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0
>40 3,0 3,0 2,0 3,0
1) See Figs. 1 to 3 of AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3.
2) In case of different wall thicknesses, the lesser thickness applies without tak-
ing the height of the bead into account. 3.6.1.2 Reference block or reference line technique An indication height of 50 % (gain allowance: 6 dB) of the echo height for the adjusting reflectors stated in Fig. 6 is applicable.

3.6.2 Lowering of recording limit when testing for

transverse flaws

If echo indications which cannot be separated (groups of indications) occur when testing for transverse ffaws, the test sensitivity shall be set so that indications are recorded which, when using the DGS method, exceed the echo height of a disc-shape reflector having a diameter of 1 mm or, when using the reference block or line technique, are up to 12 dB below the specified recording limit.

3.6.3 Transfer correction

The limit values for recordings given in 3.6.1 only apply after transfer correction in order to take into account changing probe-to-specimen contact and attenuation conditions in the test piece or the differences as compared with the .adjusting block. This correction shall be checked at various points, paying special attention to the sonic path lengths in the weld metal and the uniformity of the surface conditions.

Transfer corrections determined at comparable points on the component shall be used for the testing of nozzle welds and connecting welds.

3.7 Reflection points due to external contour

For shape echoes which may occur at the flanks of beads (Fig. 7, position 1), proof of this shall be considered as valid provided that no echo is indicated from the probable location of the reflection point when scanning from the other side of the welded joint (Fig. 7, position 2).

AD 20DO-Merkblatf HP 5/3 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition Page 3

A test block with the same thickness, sound velocity and, if applicable, curvature as the test object having a 1 x 1 mm rectangular notch shall be used to furnish proof of shape echoes in welds having a narrow root. Mark the location of the maximum echo height of the notch on the screen. Measure the reduced projection on the test block (Figs. sa and b). Scan the reflection points to be investigated in accordance with Figs. 8c and d so as to superimpose the base of the echo indications thus obtained - ignoring the maximum echo height - on the previously determined mark on the screen (Fig. Be), Mark the dimension for the reduced projection a' determined according to Fig.8a on the surface (Fig. 8c). Unless otherwise agreed, proof shall be considered as valid if both marks are at least 3 mm apart Otherwise the echo indications shall not be classified as shape echoes (Fig.8d).

The procedure is similar in the case of fillet welds with indications from the root opening unless the root opening has to be considered as an integration defect.

In nozzle welds with deliberately designed unwelded gaps, it is considered a defect if, on account of the haff-value tolerance, the test shows that the gap extends in depth more than 3 mm in excess of the intended as-designed dimension. It is advisable to use a suitable test piece.

3.8 Extension of reflection points

When the recording limit is exceeded, the length of reflection paints is indicated by the distance of the probe when the echo heights dropped below the recording limit as specified in 3.6.1 by the dB values stated in Table 2.

Where recording lengths are more than 10 mm, the lengths shall be stated. Point-like recordable indications are Jogged as zs tn mrn,

If a plateau is clearly recognisable in the echo envelope curve when the probe is moved or if other signs give an indication of a zonal characteristic, this shall be stated in the test report.

Table 2_ Echo height undershoot for determining the recording lenqtht)

tor a2) Echo height undershoot
mm below registration limit
dB
:s 10 0
--
> 10 to s; 40 6
>40 12
') The accuracy of measurement of the recording length may be increased by
means of additional probes taking into account the sound beam opening, e.g.
probes with higher test limits or focusing probes.
2) See Figs. 1 to 3 of AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3. 4 Magnetic particle examination (MP)

The magnetic particle examination shall be carried out as a wet test in accordance with DIN EN 1290 and the supplementary requirements of 4.1 and 4.2.

Page 4 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition

4.1 Surface preparation

If cracks are suspected, or have already appeared, the examinations shall be carried out on surfaces that have been ground.

5 Penetrant examination (FE)

The examination shall be carried out as specified in DIN EN 571-1. The penetrant and penetrant system is checked in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3452-21)

4.2 Contact points in the case of self-magnetiziation 4.2.1 If the examination is carried out by means of selfmagnetization, consumable electrodes (e.g. lead-tin alloys) shall be used if possible. Ensure that overheating of the material under test is avoided in the contact areas.

4.2.2 However, if overheated areas arise, they shall be marked, g rou nd after campi eti on of the exam ination and sub-

jected to a magnetic particle examination using yoke magne- ') Transitional ruling: model test certificates as specified in DIN 54142 Part 2 are

tization. valid for up to two years after the publication of DIN EN ISO 3452-2 (July 2000).

6 Other methods

If methods other than those covered in clauses 4 and 5 are used, the requirements shall be agreed with the parties concerned.

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Pos.1 Pos.2

I2?D{:1

Pos.4

Fig. 1. Probe positions when testing for longitudinal

flaws

Test category A: pas. 1, 2, 3 or 4 Test category B

and C: pas. 1 and 2 or pas. 3 and 4

Pos.1

Po sA

Weld

Fig. 2. Probe positions when testing for transverse flaws Test category A: pas. 3 and 4 or pas. 5 and 6 if pas. 1 and 2 not possible

pas. 3 to 6 jf pas. 1 and 2 not possible

Test category B:

TestcategoryC:

pos. 1 and 2

~;;~ PosA
EJ
Pas \ !
'....
Pos.1
[[]-- Fig. 3.

Probe positions when testing for longitudinal, oblique and transverse flaws

Pas. 1 : Longitudinal flaws

Pos.2: Oblique flaws

Pas. 3 or 4:

Transverse flaws

AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition Page 5

Fig. 4. Angle of incidence where geometry of material is curved in direction of testing

I~

@) ® Testing for transverse flaws in two opposite

® rJ) directions of testing with angle of impingement relative to the weld

Test Wall thickness Scan position
category t, t, Testing for Testing for
mm longitudinal flaws transverse flaws
A all CD or Ql @and®
B all
CD and e @and®
:s 40
C
> 40 G) and@and 0 @and ® and
@and0 I Fig. 5. Scan positions for ultrasonic examination of nozzle welds and connecting welds

Page 6 AD 2000-Merkblatt HP 5/3 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition

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4 Fig. 6. Adjusting or comparison block for sensitivity adjustment in case of oblique incidence

C = 25m"" X ), [mm] Sma,: maximum sound path to the reference reflector [mm]

o I,: wavelength [mm]

0: transducer size transverse to the direction of scan

AD 2000·Mer1<blatt HP 5/3 Appendix 1, 01.2002 edition Page 7

Pas. 1:

Echo Indication

Pos.2:

No echo Indication

Fig. 7. Example of proof of shape echo

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a)

d)

PoS.1

Pos. 2 and 3

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a'

b)

a

e)

Fig. 8. Proof of shape echoes by comparison with the echo indication for a groove

Publisher:

Source of ,uPP'~arl ~ Heymanns

Verlag

Luxemburger StraBe 449, 0-50939 Koln Telefax: 0221-9 4373603

E-Mail: verkauf@heymanns.com

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Verband der

Technischen UberwDchungs-Vereine e. V.

E-Mail: vdtuev.essen@t-online.de http://www.vdtuev.de

October 2000 edition

ICS 23.020.30

Manufacture and Heat treatment AD 2000-Merkblatt
testing of
pressure vessels General principles HP 7/1 The AD 2000-Merkblatter are prepared by the seven associations listed below who together form the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft DruckbehMter" (AD). The structure and the application of the AD 2000 body of regulations and the procedural guidelines are covered by AD 2000-Merkblatt G 1.

The AD 2000-Merkblatter contain safety requirements to be met under normal operating conditions. If above-normal loadings are to be expected during the operation of the pressure vessel, this shall be taken into account by meeting special requirements.

If there are any divergences from the requirements of this AD 2000-Merkblatt, it shall be possible to prove that the standard of safety of this body of regulations has been maintained by other means, e.g. by materials testing, tests, stress analysis, operating experience.

Fachverband Dampfkessel-, BeMlter- und Rohrleitungsbau e. V. (FDBR), Dusseldorf Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften e. V., Senkt Augustin Verband der Chemiscnen Industrie e. V. (Vel), Frankfurt/Main

Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau e. V. (VDMA), Fachgemeinschaft Verfahrenstechnische Maschinen und Apparate, Frankfurt/Main

Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute (VDEh), Dusseldorf VGB PowerTech e. V., Essen

Verband der Technischen Oberwachungs-Vereine e. V. (VdTOV), Essen.

The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkblatter in line with technical progress. Please address any proposals for this to the publisher:

Verband der Technischen Oberwachungs-Vereine e. V., P.O. Box 103834, D-45038 Essen.

:5 This AD 2000 ... Merkblatt specifies the prerequisites and types ::.:::

~ of heat treatment for pressure vessels or pressure vessel

en components after cold-forming, hot-forming and types of

~

o postweld heat treatment. Tests after forming are dealt with in

~ ~ AD 2000-Merkblatter HP 8/1 and HP 8/2.

~:

~~ r---------------------------------~----------------------------------------------------------_,

~U5 fii 05

~~ ~--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_l

OJ .c AD 2000-Merkblatter are protected by copyright The rights of use, particularly of any translation, reproduction, extract of figures, transmission by photo-

=: ~ mechanical means and storage in data retrieval systems, even of extracts, are reserved to the author. Carl Heymanns Verlag has taken all reasonable

~ .3 measures to ensure the accuracy of this translation but regrets that no responsibility can be accepted for any error, omission or inaccuracy. In cases

@ of doubt or dispute, the latest edition of the German text only is valid.

o Foreword Scope

o Foreword

The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisfy the basic safety requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with Modules "G" and "8 + F".

The AD 2000 body of regulations is structured along the lines of a self-contained concept. If other technical rules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related problems, it is assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account.

The AD 2000 body of regulations can be used as appropriate for other modules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsibility for testing is as specified in the p rovis ions of the reI evant sector of the law.

1

Scope

Contents

2 Principles of heat treatment 3 Certificates

2 Principles of heat treatment

2.1 Manufacturers shall have the necessary equipment to enable the heat treatment processes in question to be carried out properly. Equipment not owned by the manufacturer may be used provided it meets these prerequisites.

2.2 The equipment used in heat treatment shall make it possible to maintain sufficient accuracy and uniformity of temperature in the workpiece when applying the chosen type of heat treatment. This applies, in particular, to materials where the range of temperature allowed in heat treatment is small.

Skilled personnel shall be employed in the operations of heat treatment and temperature measurement.

In the case of stationary equipment used in heat treatment, the temperature curve shall be recorded throughout by recording instruments with an adequate number of measuring points to suit the size of the equipment or the workpiece. Where, in the case of movable equipment for heat treatment, no recording instruments are used, the measured results shall be noted down.

2.3 The temperature measuring equipment shall be checked at reasonable intervals with data on check-ups

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