CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

... It is the language of business... Speaking 1...... Compare your lists... or drinks.. How do you learn languages? . but remember that different people learn in different ways.... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.. speaking and being corrected ..... .. Justify your order...... 1 being the most important. Work in groups..... pronunciation practice 3. English is the most widespread language on Earth.. listening . Read books and newspapers..What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . cards. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY...What advantages does the adult have? 2..... Prepositions too are flexible... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. writing .What advantages does the baby have? .. learning grammar .... and the process is now being reversed. and aviation.. speaking and not being corrected all the time .. learning vocabulary . What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance........... This will no doubt continue.... Purists of the French... we can talk about a round of golf.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement. Work alone. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.. 4 . technology...to be cleaned and dried. reading . Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. 4.. Geographically. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.... sport.

These packets could be sent independently over the network. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. each machine will have equal status. Instead. and the Internet. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. They had. 3. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work.). swapped them (via the net. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. still the most popular use of the Net by far. But they weren't interested in science or academia. no single computer that controls the rest of them. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. then news and eventually gossip. as it came to be called. Amazingly. They started mailing lists. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. 1. in fact. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. invented e-mail. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net.I. 5 . by 1972. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. to use the techy term. Instead of using the network strictly for business.. it worked. Because of the way the messaging system worked. 2. for it was they. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. the way they got there was unimportant. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. they opened newsgroups. they sent each other games. just kept on growing. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. they used it to swap gossip. 37. There will be no "command center". But then an odd thing started to happen. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. Other networks joined in. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. uninvited but still welcome.. Crude as they were. 4.

The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. a person who tries to discover something E. however. Since then the computers (become) smaller. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. mailbox. mainframe 5. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. researcher A. but transistors soon (replace) them. Apple. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. supercomputer 4. cheaper and more reliable. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. Here are five types of computers. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1.2. Computer sizes. network. packet. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Over the last few years. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . but the market (saturate) to some extent. a set of related computers C. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. desktop computer 2. notebook 3. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. a series of bits being a part of message B. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). along with IBM. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect).

There's a revolution happening in education. Personally. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. learn the material. the material would be available to students at their convenience. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. visit the school's We site. use a bulletin board.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. and interactive courseware. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. the Net will be alma mater. For example. founder and president of University Online. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. and as with mail order programs. It's called distance learning. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". offered by mail. rather than offering their own set of courses. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. and the Americans. and connect to a server that presents information. 1. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. all of which express personal opinions: 1. Australia. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. says Nat Kannan. click on the course they want. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Use the elements to make complete sentences. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. Students can log onto the Internet. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. Europe. online environment. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Within a few months. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. videotape of professor's lectures. Using modern technology.

to put a story in the form of a drama 4. To my mind. several new courses have been offered.. for and ago: 1. -or -hood -ian -ion. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom... -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition.. to make use of a symbol for something 3. four years .. so it has been tested . connector childhood. to represent in a digital form 2.5. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. to give a linear form to 8. execution. operator voucher. musician introduction. we never believed it would be so successful. to reduce to the minimum 7. to take a material form 5... University Online was originally tested over five years .. state condition. . to give authority to 10. to write a summary of 3.. condition belonging to act of... 6. You have to follow a course . 1992 and it is already known worldwide. 5.g. behavio(u)rism typist.. a few months .. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e..... independence employer. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal.. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7.. possession magnetism. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. withdrawal clearance. scientist .. kingdom employee. addressee audience.. This University has only existed .. the beginning of the experiment. It was put on the market in 1994. state condition. 3.. boredom. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. to arrange in an optimal way 6..... in 1992 2.... over two years. When we started. 4.

-ical -ish -less -ous. personal 15. mode 14. long 13. auto 8. widen. lengthen classify. Now. computerize. active 3. condition place.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. short 7. standard 18. concentrate. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. simple 4. state condition. action condition of quality. analysis 11. happiness. behavio(u)r foundry. electric 17. local 9. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. simplify customize. stimulus 20. initial 12. economical foolish useless porous. interruptible environmental. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. rivalry friendship. loose 16. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . -ery -ship state. 1. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. slavery. transform the following words into verbs. broad 2. robot 6. soft 10. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. quality state. boldness labo(u)r. generally. reality achievement. logical. using the verb-forming suffixes above. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. furiously 4. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. weak 19. tolerate shorten. state electricity. government business. tight 5. condition.

By the age of 30. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. rolled out major solutions and are well known. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. you've run big projects. technology and people. 10 . a week there. its positioning on the market. and so on. more manageable pieces. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. After a couple of hops like that. how it relates to other products and so on. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Here's the road map. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. Visual Basic and Delphi. They merely prove you can think.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. Qualifications are important. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. so you have to be better than them. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. Get a decent book on Windows programming. That's where the all-important experience comes in. A consultant is different. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. For someone starting out. And there are lots of people who know it too. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. spend more money on a training course. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. an attention to detail. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. as does Novell. However. Java and Visual Basic developers. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. If you decide programming is really for you. C++. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Delphi. C++. University degrees are useless. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller.

.. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs......... 7... They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business. You . Your objective is to become self-employed. 9. 3. be able to show leadership... many of them don't have degrees in computing science. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. adjective... have to.. 2. In any case.. become an expert in too narrow a field.. 3.. 1.... Most are between 30 and 45. More than one answer is possible in some examples.. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team... You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks.. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams... 8. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career. have a degree but it . be in computing science.Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager... 1.. 1. to have experience in JavaScript. You . 5. Interestingly........... Look at the examples: 11 . a stem and a suffix.. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career. Technical qualifications . etc.... You need to be bright... These days you . Most of this can't be taught... an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise.. employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit.. 5. need to. 6... 10... 2.. You .. They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems.. be able to use C++. 6. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff.. then you can forget being an IT manager... study BASIC... You may work for only a few days or a week for your company.......... Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team.... You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. verb.. 4. must... You ... You . For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.. You . If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project. You .. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date.. 8.. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager.). Prefixes change the meaning of the word... LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix... suffixes change the part of speech (noun. to make sensible statements. 7...... 2... You ... It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. 4..

side in. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. bystander input. foresee. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. size. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). semicolon . location.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. decode disagree. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. external foreground. involve output. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. into going away more than above too much beneath. misfortune nonsense unreal. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend.

devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . to predict 3. not up to standard 10. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. a program that is part of a larger program 6.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. to grow larger 5. size. that is already programmed 2. to convey data from one place to another 8. after the war 4. half automatic. Now use the prefixes of degree. location. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. 1. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. half manual 7.

Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. If you are committed to using frames on your site. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. and make necessary adjustments. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. to find their way around. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. include descriptive ALT text captions. and visitors may not know how to 14 . you may group the FAQ. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. For example. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. Besides content. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches.

8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". helpful graphics. (hot) links. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. Take notes on any special features. accuracy. compatibility. 1. especially those ending in "y" (see above). a visitor. on-line support. confusing. good reactivity. For most sites. Logical. search facility. However. 15 . 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. cluttered. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). without wasting space. a user. you can add the suffix "er". Visit a website of your choice. up to date. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). colorful. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. navigation. features. structure connections. nice design.use yours effectively. password protected. well laid out. contact information. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. ease of use.

Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. This computer is the cheaper of the two. resolution was 16 .A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. the more I feel depressed. the slower the speed of execution. The higher the resolution. 2. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. The less he works. the comparative can be preceded by "the". when preceded by "X times". 3. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. when buying a PC are often 5. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. indicated by the symbols. When comparing two items. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. 4. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. 2. the better he feels. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 4. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that.. 1.. The less sophisticated the software. For the preceding sentence. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. John was the elder of the two boys. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". 2. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. the sharper the picture. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer... this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. "as . as". 3.

With short adjectives. inconsistent program 10. This is the most powerful computer available today. expensive card 6. cheap computer 3. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. powerful computer 2. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . 3. fuzzy image 8.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. big memory device 7. ugly picture 9. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. 1. fast chip 4. reliable device 5. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.

... break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. 18 . There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it... Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. 3........ these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. 4.. This piece of software . make sure you spell correctly yourself.. rambling. 5. off-the-point arguments to see that. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. and overzealous at that. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. be debugged before being executed.... You .. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. This form of internal policing. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. sometimes be useful when designing a program.. You .. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4... Conversely.... when to criticize and when to stay silent. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.... The reason for this is never given. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. may or could 1.. (A whole quarter second in some cases).......LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.. The following sentences have been scrambled. In practice. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once.. because it wastes people's time. A bug ... 6.. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2.. 1. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. cause unexpected results.. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. A flowchart . have to.. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette... read the FAQ). over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. It doesn't work. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. unwarranted abuse and long. Don't cross-post messages. Programs . 2. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. Put the words back in the right order: 1.. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3.... Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. on the Net or elsewhere.. if that happened.

Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. You .. 6. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .. They . as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. graphic . 2........ Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului.... the main...... 7....... 8.. Ar fi putut. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like..... paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. 5. Daca as fi vrut. and diagonally top to bottom). work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus... Write them next to the correct definition..... photo...... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... 10... Cind am incercat soft-ul... 4. de exemplu. also known as "favorites" ..... opening page of a website . 9.... 7. email. and computing. 8. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW ... 3..... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .7... 3. 2. write this program in a high-level language.. Cu toate acestea. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. 4. a measure of visits to a website . H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. 3. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own ..... am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor... Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. 5..... 6.. (You can find the words left to right. it will take up too much space in the computer memory.. If you do. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul.... 19 .. picture... Translate the following sentences into English... top to bottom......

. 11. abbreviation for the Internet .. a search engine..... 19...9. e...... 16... 14. a location on the WWW ..... a bug which infects data on your computer .... a physical input / output point ... 22........ etc.... 12...... the Internet equivalent of post . 21.. email. a software package generally used to start you up for a program ... 20 ... the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ...e........... inappropriate use of a mailing list .................. 10.... a way of showing emotion in an email.... Uniform Resource Locator........ the World Wide Web .. unsolicited mail..... :-) .... ..... website address . 18..... i... 20.... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 15......... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ...... 13.. 17.. something that automatically connects you to another page .g...

The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". a basic computer and a bit of patience.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO.000. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. which is readily available. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. hacking has been criminalized. 1. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. For some teenagers. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. and so. C. has the security. had knocked on this door. Admittedly. better known as Robert Schifreen.Choose the ending (A. Triludan. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. The law was tightened up. Robert Schifreen 21 . Hackers have their own code of conduct. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. costing companies an average of $23. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. hacking is still easy. had not been in trouble with the law before. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. MULTIPLE CHOICE . He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. But according to those who practice. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. B. Typically. All the hacker needs is a modem. Today's hacker is not so lucky. the computer companies would have you believe. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer.000 a year to repair. 1.

e. D. D. MP3 players contain several devices. C. is a form of escape from the everyday world. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. deliberately destructive B. 22 . is popular because it is romantic.A. 6. 4. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 5. b. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. 2. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. g. Cause 1. 5. c. has eliminated all computer security. 3. According to the NNC A. This produces much smaller files. has made hacking more difficult. 2. D. B. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. Then link them with an –ing clause. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. male criminals. 3. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 33% of its members are hackers B. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. Each MP3 file has a tag. f. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. the survival of hackers is threatened. totally unaware of what they are doing. 4. B. Hacking A. Effect a. You can download a skin program. Match each cause and effect. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. h. 7. C. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. outlaws hacking. You can download single tracks. C. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. costs about 48p a time C. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. merely curious. d. B. You can legally download some music. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. 8. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. You can create your own compilation. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. D. This gives an enormous storage capacity.

4. display. 10. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. 6. 2. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 7. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. keyboard. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. mouse and hard drives only. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 9. 3.3. 5. 8. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 1. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together.

literature and art. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. 1. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology...... The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.. and justify the cost of a drive. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage...... word processor and database – comes on one CD. 1. or were vast collections of specific information... and because there's more space. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996.. Measuring drive performance 2.. along with the conventional 3.. Price points .5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. with a further 1.. the applications are generally better. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. Review criteria 4.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis.... Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. .. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. Put them back in the appropriate place.. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet... According to the market researcher Dataquest.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992....... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.5in. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity..LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. Applications are the key issue... The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter........ but are spread throughout business... Mainstream applications 3. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. As with other areas of the computer industry... the equivalent of 300... For example.... but it's not the only one. 24 .... floppy drive..

.. 7.. files.. give reasons for your choice. . The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information....But CD-ROM.. 4... pie chart. ...... 3..... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.... drawback. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time.... Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase...... 1. 10. more faster... disk 25 . 8... This is often confused with the average access searches. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more. 2. however advanced.. 6... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. The industry. 9.... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files.. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM...Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false........ 1. more precise head positioning mechanism.... consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.......... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform...... while still developing rapidly. .... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.. 2.. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996.. TRUE OR FALSE? ... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use...... As a result of this market maturity... 5.. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. Backing Store . this excuse was taken too far.. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk.. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are......... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. access time......Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. is still a read-only product....... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters....

though these are becoming .. 5.. and ........... but has the ...Translate the following sentences into English: 1..... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse......... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.. disk. Most users are more familiar with the .. Hence files can be .. oxide-coated surface. You should write between 150 and 200 words. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as . Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... THE PASSIVE . If the disk is ... Disk have the advantage of being serial or .. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. media and . De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara..... old-fashioned....... it is called a ..... magnetic tapes...... floppy disk. of all the files on the disk. 10.............. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.. direct-access.... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.... a track and a sector number).. where only one surface is . Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare.... 8.. storage areas are marked on the magnetic.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems.. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta........ 26 ... This technology is cheap and easy to use........ so-called because of its flexibility. both internal and external....... 2..... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS." are also common.... 9.. formatted (x3)..... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors..... Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. address....... a disk must be ..... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers... In this way only a small part of a . 3... retrieved...... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory....drives... needs to be in main memory at any one time... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .. disk packs.................. directory. Before being used.. 6.. that is extremely slow because of .e...... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.. sequential access.e. 7.. erorile se pot corecta..... 3.. on both surfaces. (i.. i. magnetic disks or diskettes. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... The .. database... 4... Hermetic data modules called ".... Large systems often use cartridges or . read-write head... double-sided. as opposed to a single-sided disk. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).........

The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. military. a basis for study for future generations. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. only aristocrats could go to museums. A museum can best be defined as A. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. C. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. With the internet. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. An overview of lost techniques. B. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. With reference to the information in the article. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. and industry. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. the patron goddesses of the arts. electronically. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. public museums did not exist. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. fashion. especially in distant lands. For many people. At the time of the Renaissance A. C. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. 2. 3. B. Moreover. Elizabeth Brown. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. crafts. beyond the straightforward museum visit. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. Within the last few years. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. will replace traditional museums. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. 1. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. virtual museums A. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. science. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. 27 .

work of art. 6. to admire 3. 2. 3. museum A. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. B. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. article (in a magazine) 4. storehouse 8. Museums maintain and display great works of art. photo (taken quickly) 2. 4. disadvantage 7. C. Put the following sentences into the passive form. masterpiece 4. object produced by human hands 3. artefact 3. The National Museum of Art A. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. Match the words and their definitions: 1. honored 5. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . to enjoy 10. 2. 4. to see. art work 2. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. The Web may transform our perception of art. will show works of art that do not exist. collection 5. best work of an artist C. 5.B. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. 1. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. C. to establish 6. vast 4. will organize visits to its storage spaces. something produced by creative talent E. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. country 9. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art.

In a peer-to-peer system. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. 5. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. A person who buys goods or services from you. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. Payment systems based on gold. In many cases. A bank employee who pays out money. and a bank does the accounting. and credit cards are credit systems. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. users can act as both customers and merchants. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. the name of the payer and the recipient. 4. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. To execute a real-time transaction. The customer pays. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. A person who receives (money. 2. 1. a bank redeems each note number only once. and the amount of money represented). paper currency. 29 . In a credit system. currency. 3. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. the merchant receives the payment. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server.e. Checks. traveler's checks. With such a system. This might be a WWW browser. you gather your money up front and then spend it. charge accounts. For the purposes of this discussion. Using a public key. or a dedicated payment client. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. The customer runs client software. and the amount to be paid. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. for example). the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. the date and time of the transaction. both exist in the digital world as well.. In a debit system. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server.

will be $10. accepts digital cash.. 8. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.... However... 30 .. will only be charged at 12%. 3. To add money (to an account). Digital credit. holder.... is used in electronic trade. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. 1. of which. balance. bought her a typewriter instead. of account. entered the virtual shop... to sign.... He alone will be authorized . whom..... The bank will send the company a weekly . He is the very man ... wanted to buy some shirts. statement.... overdraft. is similar to traditional credit. 2.. I met personally. to open... we found CD-ROMs on sale. The next month he got a bill for $0... Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order.... a current . A computer that can access a server........ deposit. he ignored it.. 6. interest.... receipt...? The next day he got a bill for $0. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. were found in the safe. C . where... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. The customer. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0..... to clear.. were still new.. For $20 a month. remittance. for their manager... A large number of banknotes. loan. name is on the check.. He ignored it and threw it away.... D .00. the company can have access to a ....00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt... 5...00 stating that payment was now overdue... whose. The site. The initial ..000. 7.. some ... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament... cheques. The man.. . The account will not produce any . 3...... You will not need to use them all! account.... which.. Stupid Computer Error A . ..? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.. agreed to honor my check. The first one has already been done for you... 4..... ... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. safe.. 2. Money used in a specific country... Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake. withdrawal The Longstone company wish . in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled... to start.6...00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt..... The bank director...

G .? Finally giving in.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.? A week later. F . He called them and talked to them.00.00 by return of post.00.E . the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail.? In April he received another and threw that one too. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.

As he pointed out. came the issue of virtual reality. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net... but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend.. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. Dr. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. And as for the taste.. futurologists forecast. he enthused. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. that probability that . These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. Dr. 32 . well. and... he said. the future... or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. exist. What should concern us. said Dr. dipping even further into the future. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. And needless to say. that didn't keep the crowds away. smells. dumb terminals. For sheer impact. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. networks. sound and feeling will arrive.. we'll have to work on that one". experts expect that. and the role of the providers. Huitema. satellite. "Sight. was how online commerce will evolve. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers... You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. computing. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. Lastly. Next came. Christian Huitema. one can predict / foretell that. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". the current issue of security will only be short. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. for all intents and purposes. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. "At telecom 91. 1.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. he predicted. So things have changed. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". there was an inevitable blur of content.. said. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet".. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. more controversially. is high / low it is highly probable that .

2.. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Prepare to explain them to your partner.. me to get a better job. The term was first coined by William Gibson... When I was young my parents never .. it is reasonable to think that.. allow.... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. it hard for me to have a social life.. 3.. Keyword The word... A security password ....... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer.... 33 ...... that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse..... permit 1.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.. 5... Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient... 2.it is a well-founded supposition that. My boss is easygoing and . I hope that doing the course .00. 3. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. me leave early every Friday afternoon.. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made... 4.. access to confidential files. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to.. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.. Being a single parent . huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). me to stay out later than 11. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... make. there are grounds for believing that...... there are scientific arguments for. enable. Reading Read the article.. indicated by a finger symbol. Sneaky...

It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). If something cracks you up. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. Well. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. Across the world. every night. The solution is to abbreviate. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). It has an estimated 75 million users. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). C-U-L8R 34 . It takes wit. a new idiom has been born. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. contract and condense.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. PBAB (please bring a bottle). Plenty of adults talk the talk. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. all day at work. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. sex and location. concentration and agile fingers. There's neither time nor space for exposition. FWIW (for what is worth). the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. GTG. or type the type.

Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. which sounds very strange indeed. degrees and other qualifications.II.cair@btinternet.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . Science. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. EH21 3TZ email p. Computer Studies. For the purpose of this task. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. then write your own CV in the same way.w. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. English. Spanish. e.g. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. Geography. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. Stonebridge. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification.

Thin.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .database design .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . 2000 .TCP / IP Networking . Novasystems 36 . Leith.5 .1st line customer telephone support ..Sage line 50 & 100 .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows 95 / 98 .network administration and implementation . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y. IT Department. L.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.Office 97.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .Exchange Server 5. Personnel Officer.

should you feel I could be of use to your firm . Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. the signatory's full name (typed). B. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). State when you are available for the interview 10. how to begin a letter.state where you saw the job advertised .name and address of firm. and where to put the handwritten signature. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. 37 .am currently studying for . Check your spelling and punctuation 9.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". and firm. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. Write clearly 2.B. Type your letter 6.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. Reference number if there is one.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph .state you qualifications in brief ."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . Keep your letter short and to the point 3. the name and address of the addressee. Use the person's name if you know it . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Give all the information you are asked for 8. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.am available to start as from June 15 . State what job you are applying for 4. Make the information you give relevant to the job.1.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . how to end it.

through the British Council. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. My contact address until the end of July is as above. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. In Malaysia I arranged. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. Over the past year. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. team leadership and team membership. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. study tours for project personnel. Alan Bannister 38 . I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. for example. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. teachers and administrative staff. as well as students. Yours sincerely.

walk to the door.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you.Do make a graceful exit. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. Dress in a business-like way. Which is more important to you.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. Thank your interviewer.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . experience. money or job satisfaction? 12. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. . You are likely to be found in the end. 2. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. 5. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. . so much the better. . What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. Describe your most recent accomplishments. .Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. 39 .Do sit still.Don't smoke.C. In the past year. .Do arrive in plenty of time. . Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. set out early. . interests and hobbies. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. . Why should you be employed by this company? 4. don't rush.

I would be extremely . If you use email at work.. How are you? I bet you are .....not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. .writing everything in UPPER CASE .. Yours sincerely. or in sentences that are too long . Please find ..D.... How often do you use email? 2.not making clear who you are and why you are writing . Dear James.. Could you email me details? 40 ... my recent paper. What do you use email for? 4. I ..writing too much.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . working on Lingo... future. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .. the other informal..Read these emails.. One letter is formal. you in the . if you intend your comments to be humorous) ....not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. if you might be able to help me.. Monica Ciampi P. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . which I hope you will find interesting. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.....not answering all the points raised by the sender ..not telling the reader what you expect them to do. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ..S... Dear Sir.. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.. I was wondering if . Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher... WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. or may not be able to open . B.. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .. how has it changed your working life? 3.. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.

concerns b. pair d. included d. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .. as well c. of weeks I'll be in England. and 13.. and thank you for your help. meal c. matter c.. a. before 15.. bracket 12. Monica P.. glad 5.S. so b. additionally 4. now c. pleases d topic d. demand b. Hope to hear from you .. beforehand b. supper d. next c. together... couple b.. a. Best wishes. with d. happy c. actually 3. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. annexed 9. a.. early c.In a .. a. love c... attached b.. a. by 11. topic d.. for b.. respect d. missing c. from c. a. affair 6. a.. soon d. thus d. dinner 14. a. near b. Send my .. lacking 10. presently d. ask 2. wishes 41 .. I look forward to hearing news from d.. a.. business b. perhaps we could meet up and go for a .. a. to Peter 1. currently b. wasting d. then c. a. a. losing b. a. too d. match c. I look forward to news from b. close 8. enclosed c. wonder d. request c. grateful b. I look forward to hearing from c. a. a.. also b. drink b.

.. . accuracy.. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. me if you have questions at any time. clarity... subject knowledge. about our current position in the UK and I've .. I'll quickly .. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. that although turnover has risen. informative. today is to .. on balance. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. you all for being here. motivating Exercise . Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. appropriacy. relevance. priority. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. I'd like to .. interrupt. our profits have not increased at the same rate. expand.... achievement of objectives..... options. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. .. fluency. There is no benefit in using difficult language... interesting.. on those successes before we . . what . confidence.. What makes a presentation effective? 4. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years... enthusiasm. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. before .. I'm .... thank. .. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK... recommend. Let me quickly . referring. in conclusion. more ..... ... I've ..... audibility. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. some of the problems we are facing. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. to Italy and Spain.. I'll ... rapport / eye contact....... handling Delivery – pace. illustrate. with some recommendations. I'd like to ....are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. pronunciation.. What is a presentation? 2. humor Organization – coherence. I think our first .E.. sum up. indicate.. to start with. finally... enjoyable.. draw your attention..... Overall – clarity of message. bring you up to date. clarity. talked. you will notice.. some of the problems we are having over the market share. pointed out "Good afternoon. intonation.. everybody.. 42 ... appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. Now I'd like to . of course. I'll . outline.. My . then.. Well. variety... Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it...... ......... purpose. Please feel free to .. specifically. tell you. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation.... to . concluding... ......Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. describe..... move on. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. and. body language Language – clarity. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. with our plans for Europe.

.... though. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . Thank you also for your pertinent questions. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.. ... Admittedly our results there have been poor so far....We should not forget the French market. Spain and possibly Greece. .. Are there any final questions?" 43 ..

but there are a number of differences: . DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.F. since you have more space. and be available to assist you. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. called a dissertation or long essay. There are several criteria for your choice: . 44 . It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. dissertations need to say a lot about a little.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . Like an essay. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be.you can choose your own title . You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. This means you have a whole year to write it. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work .will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. A member of staff will supervise progress. which you research by yourself.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . but is probably the most important. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. However. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence.is the topic academic enough? . What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. try it out with your supervisor.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. but it can also be very daunting. In part-time degrees.

but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. Dissertations are usually 10. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. since you have more to say. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. since you may need a few by your side. Introduction – 1. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. ask yourself: . What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. the first thing to do. 000 words Conclusion – 1. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. As you are reading through the books on your topic. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. It is longer. This will be your title. 000 words. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

1. but you can never tell. It's really cold. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. 49 . 4. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. 5. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper.

..................Test B A.. 2.... If you're too hot in here.. 3.............................. 9................................ ....... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning.. I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup........... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon.. 5. 8........ Grammar 1.......... 3. ............................... ............ 7.................................... 50 . 4. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details.... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday....... ............ I've done that for you..... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2......................... ........ 4.. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics....................................... 6................. so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.............. ......... They wondered how we had managed to do it.. First I went to .................... ....... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions. local pool and saw Bob McGraw. River Thames............................ long walk by ......... 5.......... In each case choose the most likely alternative...... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations. I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras................. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............ He's ... lovely morning......... He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known...................... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting.. 1............................................................................. I had . and she said that she hadn't had a chance............ old school friend who I hadn't seen for .. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra...... Look at those clouds.............. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation.............. After ............. Articles Complete this text with a / an... I went for . Then I went swimming at ...... 3.......... or no article.... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions..................... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year.......................................................................... years........ Right.. 2..... I booked it last week........... lunch with Bob................................................ ... professional musician and plays with ....... bank to withdraw some cash................................ the................................. 1............. 6......... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything........ 7..............

.................................. 9.. is that right? AK Yes.. P Yes.......................................................... Goodbye.............................. C Hello....... I'm busy on Thursday.....................00 ? P . Functions 1.............. right............. c............................ AK ... I'm not really with you.......................... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert... something for people who need English translations of words............00 ..... C Paula... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering....... P OK............. EJ .... OK.. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment............. ......... is that Paula......................... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software....... let me give you an example......... hello........................ So.......... EJ ......... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9. yes......... AK Hello................. EJ Oh.... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e...... ...... d.. As we were leaving........ 51 .................................... you're talking about............. EJ ....... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland.................. ...................... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time. 10...8................... Wednesday at 9.... can I just interrupt you a second? b.00.............. I've got you........... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.m................ and we told him that we could do it next week................... Would Thursday morning at 10....... It sounds useful..00 a....... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.... Good idea. is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski................... and they said they would get it to him by 10.............. AK Exactly. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase....... fine............................. a. OK. at the latest...................... then..... e... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary................... 2...... which is why I thought ....... ................. Sorry........ AK Yes......... .. EJ ......... ....... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily............. B.......... ? C ........

. the inconvenience caused...... sensitivity.............. Oh.. Thank you for taking part .......... 1.. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss.. I'm allergic ......... I really .... A lot of company's resources are . Don't worry. 52 . I've never .. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a ... no! I seem to have ........ We need to concentrate .. my new job..... my family when I was abroad on business for four months......... 3......... lose..... He apologized ... 2... opportunity! 5...... lose... Do you take credit cards? 4... You can depend ..... Vocabulary 1.. Please listen ..... The meeting coincided . it... 2........ me. an important meeting in my life..... I am not accustomed ... 4............. ..... the discussion today... I had three jobs to choose . Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.. 2... 7.... 8... 9... 3...... my money.. 1.... the beer festival... miss.......... or waste. 6... the UK market for the time being.. I can't eat seafood.C.. 10... because of inefficiency.. 5..... He is lacking .... me..........

3. 2. 3.. Complete the sentences. the majority of . she later married... My company does much business in Asia.. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8... or whom... 2. 9.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday. we hold meetings in. 4. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. One million dollars is plenty of for one person.. You need to invest in some more machinery. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. 53 .... 5.. e.... which. 3. Grammar 1..... some of B... There's not much news to tell you. is comfortable and spacious.Test C A. I like playing sport. d. Then complete them. that.. Nothing happened yesterday. is on the fifth floor.. He gave us a lot of information about his company. he bought shares in the company.. is free... has just joined the company? b.. 1... 7. What's the name of the woman . As soon as / Until the merger was announced... 10. I'm doing many work at the moment. 6. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun)...... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices... work opposite us are not very friendly.. I give / will give you a bonus...... 1. you used to work? was also the year I got married.. A.. so please hurry up. In some cases more than one answer may be possible.... then correct the mistakes.. have become good friends. a. The reception area. I'm living in at the moment. c.. who. 2.... . You can download software from many websites. This is the room .. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.. 2. anticipating an increase in value. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake... using where.

.... Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e... fraud still occurs............... for example 2... as a result of 8............ as 3............ a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online..... .... ....... It's such a bad line...... Explaining consequences.. ....... ......... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning............ 1.. (indicate awareness of something) 3....... like e.......... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let . He's not a very good team player................... He really gets .... is the answer to that... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.. e....... Let me explain what I mean......... ...... because c... ............... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ... 1..... (disappoint) 2...... I can only just make ..... I had a day off work last week to make ........... (make depressed) 5.. on the other hand 4.g.. due to b..... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server.. He's always letting his colleagues ... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer..... The point is d.......... (compensate for) 6..... such as 5......... To give you an example c........ can we trust these servers to be secure? . So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem.. trends........ whereas 6.............. working at the weekend....... (understand) 54 .... while d. so h..............B.. 2.. on abusing the little power he has................................. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'.. what you're saying. a........ (be excited by) 4.. thus C........ because of a.. Functions 1................ ........... e...... . By secure........... I mean b........... g. due to the fact that 7..... Vocabulary 1.. and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things....... however f.........

...... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics... ? (invent) 10.7. (became very successful) 8.... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London..... last year when we broke into the German market..... She's very good at getting her ideas .. (avoid) 2........... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview............ (communicate) 9.. The company really took ...... 55 .......... She called in sick so that she could get ..... It's good news.......................... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .. the meeting..........

9................. 6.................... 3.... Conditionals 1............................ 5. What three things ....................... have kept some of it for herself.......................... be staying at the conference venue........ The storm blew a lot of trees down last night........................... .............. If someone .. ...................... 3......... When I go to Barcelona I .................................... We're locked out! 4.............................................. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. (knock) on your door at home ........ a.............. ...... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months.................. We invite successful applicants to a second interview................................... Oh..... Companies usually provide managers with language training........................................................................................... (be) on fire? b..... The optician tested my eyes yesterday...... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities. He .................. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive....................................... The store manager had only just moved to the branch.. 3.............................. .. ............................................................ (you open) the door immediately? 56 ... .. 10.......................................... Grammar 1..... 8..................... 7.................... 1.................................................. He was only 42 years old. 2........ I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning................. 2.................................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.......................................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb............... but I ........ ................................. 5.............................. 4........................ The head of department recommends candidates for promotion..... His colleague's death ........ no! I ........................................................ 8........... be wrong.... .... I asked Miranda to write the report for me..... (you save) if your house ..... Use have / get something done where appropriate............ 7... well top $150 million this year.......................................... but I'm not sure yet.............. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage....................... 1.............. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6..Test D A.. A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ................. I think we ...... .................................................................... have left my keys in the restaurant.................................................................. According to Peter..... be a big shock.......... ................. 2........................................ company profits ................ Somebody stole my laptop computer...................

............. (you do) ? e.. If you . A: Careful! If ...... ultimately c.... If the weather .... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e.... 2...... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's............ a. ............ Could you be more specific? b. (you change) ? g....c......... (you choose) ? d........ If you .......... Where .............. we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed.. eventually d.. .. What ..... (be) you..... b........ (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2...... A: If I ... whose life .... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ... what ...... (be) you.. To summarize a. Ella? 57 . I . 1.......... B: Thanks for warning me..................... Would you like to come in here...................... Can I finish what I was saying? d.. (not study) your subject at school / university..... (happen) if .... I ..... To keep to the point 3.. B: Yes......... The interviews take place and ........... If you ..... I know... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said.... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion......... Then b.... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview......... However... (not get) a job with your current company? h. Explaining stages in a process Complete the description.. (see) a UFO........ the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards.... So... B. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong... basically what you're saying is.... firstly e............... (be) good this weekend what ....... To manage interruptions 2... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.. (you park) your car there they ..... To ensure other people get to speak 4. c.. A: If you . .. d... To ask for clarification 5.... c... Functions 1......... (go) to the police. one candidate is chosen..... but I don't think they'd believe me. A: If I ........ using the words a-e........ ..... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function....... after lengthy discussion.... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense....... a. (go) to the police. (you study) ? f.......... what . (you work) if you .... (give) you a ticket.

............. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.... rely ... 2................ understand .... 1........... criticize ................. 3. create ... legible 58 . 2..... ... ...... 4. Vocabulary 1.... .. credible 4... 1... 5.....C. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.. humor ... ............. interested 2.. .... replaceable 3... connect 5........

By the time I retire I hope I .... possibility.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. otherwise I may / must / can forget it.. ...... I'm sure..... Grammar 1. d... Future Perfect........ Match each question with an appropriate category.... tomorrow? We ... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.m.......... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here........ Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics.. (work) from home........ so don't forget to take waterproofs.. A: Great.. Invitations. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a......... it's no problem...... In three months' time I .... 2...... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase...... (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years......... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa..... 59 .... I ....... thank you....... 1.. Do you know what .. (do) at 8..... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House......... Look..... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d..... if you'd like me to show you around Prague....... Future Continuous.... 5... B: . Permission.. I'm sorry... Thank you. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2. 2...... 6..... e. Must I really go to the meeting? f..... Call me sometime over the weekend.. c.. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.... but . Functions 1. I'd like that.... requests...... By 2050 people ..? 3...... (live) in space... 4. I .... 7.... 8.... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form........ Am I allowed to smoke in here? b..... ................. Do you think there . necessity.. a..... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes..... Will they ..m. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow..... I ..... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.Test E A...00 p..........00 p.......... b.. Good luck with your exam tomorrow... (finish) their meeting by 7......... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. (think) of you. and obligation 1... I've got two tickets! B.

...... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do... Yes................................... Remember to .... A: Well..... Can I help you . I'm starting a new job next week.......... C... you're welcome e... your bags? They look very heavy! 2....... in your English test? B: Oh.......... take on a...... carry............. or take... take up d............. begin (a hobby) 2. Late payment often ... B: You too. I hear this is your last day at work here............... her? 3. bring................ A: So... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning..... B: Thanks. Thanks for coming.. lead to....... A: How did you .. 2............. any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No.. best of luck b...... that ............ employ (someone) 60 . the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4. It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year.......... I have to ....... hope to see you again sometime 1. A: ..A: .... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock. thank you for that lovely dinner once again....... did you ........ too many mistakes............. B: .. warm clothes.. bring about b. a.. not too bad... 1..... B: ................ 2....... carry off c. carry............ 5........ great... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and .. lead to. I can't.... cash-flow problems for small businesses. A: I've had a lovely evening..... 1.. ... ........ 2.. succeed 3. Well...... I'm glad you enjoyed it c....... thanking.... Concluding.. .......... 3.... A: Oh...... I don't think I .. get......... B: Yes....... Vocabulary 1..... cause 4... A: Have you .. get.. with everything..... some research for my thesis....... keep in touch d... and take Complete the sentences with bring.............. and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e... Mark........

. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. 4. outgoing 3. 5.Tests . g – 3 1. had read / started 5. meticulous 4. had been having 4. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. competent 2.. at the moment 2. saying 2. 1. sounds like 4. d – 4 5. to turn off 5. stubborn 5. seems 5. always plays 7. have never seen 8. have been having 9.. was traveling / witnessed 3. b – 2 3. have eaten 10. used to have a Porsche. e – 1 6. look like 2. a . 3. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. going 1. a – 5 2. . recently 3.... for a week 5. .. f – 6 7. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. was living 2. going 4. woke up 1. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. had been sitting 6. c – 7 4. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. hasn't stopped 1. arrived / had left 7. to entertain 3. all my life 4. watch 3. 2. . have you been doing 6.. .Answer key Test A A1 1. ...

'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. Are you doing A3 2. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. to 10. 2. I'm playing 4. Ø 6. who / whom c. lost 4. that's / That suits me 1. I'll turn on 6. a. How about / What about 5. I haven't had a chance.. which 2. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. I'm going to 3. 62 . on 8. in 5. 3.m. a. Sorry. 5. to 6. you're talking about . I'm afraid 4. the 1. wasted 2.2. at the latest. OK. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. OK. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. the 4. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. 'Did you see anything?' 2. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. I'm not really with you. with 4. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. That would be / Yes. a 10. I've got you.' 7. that / which / Ø d. from 7. Ø 9. we can do it next week. B1 1. in 3.' 9. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. can I just interrupt you a second? 1.' 6. So. 4. the 8.00 a. will win 9. I'll just check / I'll call 5. let me give you an example. is going to rain 7. to 9. which e. missed 3. an 5. missed C2 1. I was wondering whether 2. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. for 2. I'm going to spend 8.' conditions. who / that b.. wasted 5. a 7. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. the 3.

substantial 5. A2 1. I – a lot of good advice 1. across 9. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. The point is 4. some of whom have become good friends.b. I – information 2. I – quite a few 5. arisen 2. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. I've met a lot of people through work. off 8. d. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. risen 3. I – plenty of 6. To give you an example 3. until / are 1. off 4. up 10. on 3. 63 . So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. by / will give 3. down 5. By secure. We started the company in 1999. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. up for 1. C 8. raise 6. rise 6. I – equipment 10. down 2. I mean 5. I – a lot of 7. C 9. e. as soon as 2. I – a lot of 3. sharply 4. which was also the year I got married. Let me explain what I mean 2. C 4. out 7.

2. I was in the middle of saying something. Applications are passed on to universities.. 4. Language training is provided for managers. arrived 2. A2 1. was you / would go c. might / may / could 3. must 4. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. were / would you change g. is / will you do e. a. Can you be more specific? 5. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Would you like to say something about this. / I've had my laptop stolen. had been / would have gone b. should / must 6. saw / would you do d. would you save / was b. creative 4. Excuse me. / Managers are provided with language training.2. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. My laptop has been stolen. humorous 3. Miranda was asked to write the report. would you work / hadn't got h. must 7. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. could / may / might 8. irreplaceable 3.. basically what you're saying is . incredible 4. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. So. can't / couldn't 5. Candidates are recommended for promotion. 9. would happen / arrive. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. 10. My eyes were tested yesterday. John? 4. should 2. understandable 64 C2 1. 1. knocked / would you c. a. 3. could / would you choose d. 7. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. 5. could / might / may 1. happens. uninterested 2. reliable 2. 8. 6. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 .

can 4. can't 3. That's very kind of you 3. we will be doing / will be taking 1. do 2. bring 4. made 4. lead to 1. will be working 5. 1. Shall we say 5. Hope to see you again some time 3. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will have been working 4. Shall 4. made 3.5. will have earned 8. best of luck 2. will be 9. get 3. I was wondering 2. You're welcome 5. take 5. illegible A2 1. have finished 3. critical Test E A1 1. will speak 7. Keep in touch 4. will be thinking 2. will be living 6. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. would be fine / suits me fine 1. carry 2. must 2. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . can't 5.

IV. 2. She works here until Christmas. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. 2. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. He knows a lot about music. 1. 66 . She's working here until Christmas. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. He doesn't want to be in the school play. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. He's knowing a lot about music. I'm going to the cinema every day.

4. I have. I want to go out for dinner. 1. Some are right and some are wrong. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. (He still works there now.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. we add –ed to the infinitive. Vegetarians don't eat meat. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (I still live here now. He seems very tired. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. (She isn't here now.) Present perfect.) I've been to Brazil three times. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. 2. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 67 . and present continuous Look at these sentences. To make regular past participles. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. 3. 6.) I've bought a new car.3.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. 5. (I've got a new car now. (Until now I've been there three times.) I've lived here for three years. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. He's seeming very tired. present simple. You haven't lived abroad. I'm wanting to go out for dinner.

I'm working here since October. The film was much better than I expected.. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. 5. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. but they usually go before the main verb. I don't usually get up late.00. normally. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *.. The train is always on time.3. 68 .. We often go to the park. He's never here at 9. I work here since October. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Her house is as big as mine. Sometimes. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. Russia is bigger than Canada.. as . in front of the main verb. as . can be used to make comparisons.

3. 6. My exam results were worse than Andy's. Alex 1. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups.. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect.. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. We weren't here yesterday. is also possible. 4. 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.. The film was better than the book.85m 1. . My exam results were more bad than Andy's. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. he was.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. He's so tall as his brother. 2. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. In the negative so . He's as tall as his brother. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group.. as . Short answers Yes.92m Alex's brothers 1. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. The film was better that the book. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.83m 1.

I went there four years ago. We didn't use to live in London. (We're interested in when the action took place. only the past simple can be used.g. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. in 1993. but he gave up five years ago. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. not the effect. She wasn't going to work.) She went at four o'clock. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. She's gone home. I went out this morning. two days ago. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. last week).) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. or past actions which were not habits. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. not the present perfect. I did. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. For individual past actions. We went to the cinema twice last week. She used to be a teacher. He used to smoke. (I still live here. you must use the past simple tense. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. (But I don't live there now. (She isn't here now. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . I've lived here for five years. he was.) Before that I lived in Madrid. 7. It has no present form. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. I've been there four years ago.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party.) She'd be a good politician. I saw the man who lives next door. It probably won't rain today. impossible. or imaginary situations. She's probably coming this weekend.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. He's the man who lives next door. I saw the man. Use Would has many uses. I'd buy a house. (But I haven't got the money. I would. It could rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone.) make polite offers. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. It might (not) rain today. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. It's likely to rain today. (But she works in a bank. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. 74 least likely most likely . We use who with people. which with things. It's unlikely to rain today. If I had the money. They wouldn't steal from a friend. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. It'll probably rain today. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It may (not) rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes.

It isn't very warm. didn't she? You like fish. They aren't coming to the party. 12. He's the man who/that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. does it? You've finished.. You can swim. can't she? NOT . He's the man. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. didn't you? NOT . wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. will she? It doesn't matter. He's the man. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. She married him. did not you? She can speak Russian. You're Italian. This chair's French. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. which. haven't you? It was raining. don't they? 75 . don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause.. He's the man (who/that) she married.. Look at these sentences. He lives next door. You knew about this yesterday. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. or that. She arrived yesterday.He's the man that lives next door.. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun.

To make the negative of the passive. The weapon hasn't been found. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. The crime will be solved.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. 13. Thousands of cars are stolen. It can't be done. we use the negative of the verb to be. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. The car has been found. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question.) and is followed by a question mark (?). Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. we don't know the agent. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. These houses were built in the 1930s. This wine is produced in Portugal. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. We can use the passive in any tense. These computers are made in Japan. 76 . shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. Cars shouldn't be parked there. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. It is less direct than an ordinary question. The man wasn't sent to prison. Fewer crimes would be committed. She must be told. Someone has been arrested. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb.

The car has been found by some children. If I get the job I'll earn more money. we'll go to the cinema. The suspect was identified by a witness. we'd travel business class. but not when the main clause is first..) If I got the job I'd earn more money. If you get up late. NOT If I would have enough money .) 15.. If she eats all the ice cream. We usually use a comma (. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. If I had enough money.) 77 . If we had more money. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. you'll miss the appointment. NOT If it will rain.If we want to show the agent. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. or imaginary situations. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.) when the if clause is first.) We won't go if it rains. (There is a real chance that it will rain. but not when tha main clause is first. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. 14. she'll feel terrible. If I had enough money . unlikely. We usually use a comma (. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. we'll go to the cinema.. we use by. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. (I don't think I'll get the job. I'd buy that house. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. If it rains.. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.) when the if clause is first.

.. He heard a helicopter and looked up. e. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary... when she will arrive. as soon as. until. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. until Phil will get back. up. or She switched the TV on.16.. NOT . I'll phone you when she arrives. Oil will run out in the next century. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. She switched on the TV. He saw the mouse and ran out. 17. in. She switched it on. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. the verb is separable. and after. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). look something up 78 . I won't know the situation until Phil gets back.g. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. before we would go to the cinema. on. Time clauses As in clauses with if. before. NOT . NOT . away. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. She takes after her mother. (transitive) The plane took off. He took off his jacket. NOT She switched on it..

(permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. he has. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. I've lived here for ten years. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. the verb is inseparable. like other continuous forms. or I looked the word up in a dictionary.' emphasize the duration of an activity. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity.I looked up the word in the dictionary. is not normally used with stative verbs. or about past actions which have present results. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. 79 . I've been playing a lot of football this week. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on.) focus on the process of an activity. I've been writing a letter. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. (I haven't finished it yet. 18. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. You're late. I've been waiting for an hour.

or an auxiliary verb. decide. have no idea. a modal verb. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. using do/does in the present or did in the past. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. know. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. Do they live here? You saw her. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. wonder. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. They live here.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. imagine.) Prepositions go at the end of questions.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. Can she swim? They've arrived. ask. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Compare these questions. Did you see her? In Wh.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me.19. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. so we must provide one. see.questions. remember.

What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.. I wonder why did he do that? 21. 've got.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. With Wh. The headword always goes at the end. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. What kind of software? Software for computers. 3. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived.? or Do you think you could tell me . arrives.. we say clothes shop and sports shop. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences.. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. I've decided how much money I need. 4. Note: However. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. I've decided how much money do I need. is.. I don't know if he's coming. 2. left. 1. football boots These are boots. a computer software shop This is a shop.? Could you tell me where the post office is. 81 . A shop that sells records is a record shop. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives.

as adjectives.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. Others are written as two words. (New packets. subject Swimming is my favorite sport.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of.00. hear. (Empty packets. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. feel.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). He was driving at 120mph. I had the idea while driving home. I can hear someone coming. when the subject of both clauses is the same. or are hyphenated. (Empty bottles. I got dressed. After having a shower. notice. with after. I had the idea while I was driving home. object I don't enjoy cooking. I've been working since 7. stomach ache 22. We saw them leaving the house. before. etc. After I'd had a shower. 23. There's someone coming. -ing form or infinitive A. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. She's playing tennis. I could smell burning. 82 . a bathroom a coffee cup. smell. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. This is a really boring film. watch. a teacup. Compare these sentences.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses.). I got dressed. to describe what someone can sense (with see. There were two people waiting for you. I read a fascinating book the other week. a tennis racket a living-room. and while to replace a clause. Unfortunately there are no rules.

(I wanted to speak to her. forget I remember meeting her. It's just started to rain. I began to realize how he felt. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used.) He stopped to have a cigarette. continue It's just started raining. feel like. give up. Smoking is bad for your health. I like lying in bed late. 83 . NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. imagine. then he stopped in order to smoke.) stop He has stopped smoking. I'm beginning to learn the piano.) I tried speaking to her about it. I'd like to live abroad. In British English. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. Some of the most common are finish.like. (I spoke to her. enjoy. but it didn't work. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. (I was supposed to dance with him. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. but she still wouldn't listen.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. (British) I like to lie in bed late. but I couldn't. love. and can't stand. 1. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. but I didn't. I enjoy doing the gardening. consider.) I remembered to meet her. suggest. She's considering emigrating to Australia. hate. B. remember.) try I tried to speak to her about it. (I had met her before and I remembered it. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia.) C. but she wasn't there. (I had to meet her and I did. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. start. (he was doing something. begin. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now.

will.) I + positive auxiliary verb.2. 25. A I couldn't read until I was seven. I must remember posting this letter. I could. B Me. B Nor/Neither have I. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. should. B So do I. shall. To smoke is bad for your health. B Oh. too. 6. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. There's someone coming up the stairs. neither. A I really love pizza. I begun understanding the problem. I must remember to post this letter. 7. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. I began to understand the problem. would. Stop to make so much noise. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. Before leaving the office. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. I made a phone call. 5. ought to. I made a phone call. need. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. Stop making so much noise. 24. neither to agree with a negative statement. B Me. may.) I + negative auxiliary verb. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. B Oh. I'd love to go to New Zealand. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. I would. and Me. must. too to agree with a positive statement. I'd love going to New Zealand. A I've never been to Ireland. 3. 84 . There's someone that comes up the stairs. 4. might. could. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. Before to leave the office.

would: I'd be able to find a new job. 85 . Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. Present: He can speak four languages. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. You might go to London. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. They have no infinitive or participle form. I couldn't believe what he told me. 1. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. I can swim. Can and could become be able to in other tenses.) I must remember to post this letter. 3. 4. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. You don't should leave your car there. (or I could find a new job. and permission. I must to remember to post this letter. possibility. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. They ought to be more careful. You shouldn't do that. we can use could to talk about ability. He might come later. will: I'll be able to find a new job. 2. They might not come to the party. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. Past: He could speak French when he was four. or You don't need to come. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. She should see a doctor. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. Modal verbs have no tense forms. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. He mights come later. For example.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to).

If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. You needn't wear a suit.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. a driving instructor. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. was/were able to. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. I must start taking more exercise. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. The firemen were able to save everyone. Have to is also used. Have to is used to describe general obligation. The firemen could save everyone. You ought not to carry so much cash. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. You need to be at the station by 8. (It is a general obligation.Could. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. (It is and 'outside' obligation.30. from my doctor. though could is more common. I have to work on Saturday this week. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. You shouldn't work so hard. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. (I want to. I could drive when I was sixteen. Past: I had to find a new job. would: I'd have to find a new job. You don't have to come if you don't want to. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. we use was/were able to or managed to. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. will: I'll have to find a new job. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'./You don't need to wear a suit. it is 'my' obligation.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. Note: Must has no tense forms. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. 86 . Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. Passengers must show their boarding cards. The firemen managed to save everyone. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. The party's informal.

This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 3. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. could. and may are used to ask for permission. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. This means that I painted the room myself. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. Some are right and some are wrong. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today.Probability May. Could is more polite than can. 87 . Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. She might not be here tomorrow. Permission Can. I had the car fixed. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. I had my room painted. with we and I. I will can go swimming every day next week. She could not be here tomorrow. I had my hair cut. 4. 26. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. might. 5. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Compare these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. and may is the most polite and formal. 1. I painted my room. 2.

Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes.27. 28. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. said or told). Need + -ing is more informal. would. The car's really dirty. The car's really dirty. 29. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. The judge made the man apologize. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. It needs cleaning. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. 88 . It needs to be cleaned. Direct speech: I like cooking. David's father lets him use the car. I got the garage to service my car. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. and modal verbs do not change. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. because a different person is now speaking. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to.g.

Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Tom: I don't want to stay here. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Luke: I'll be away till March. Monica: I might phone you later. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Zoe said that they saw a great film. the reported question starts with whether or if. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Andrea: I'm going out.. She told (them) jokes all night. We tell somebody something. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. With Yes/No questions. The word order changes to a statement word order. Helen: I'd like a coffee. NOT Andrea said me . say and tell We say something. 89 . The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. They told (us) a story. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. When we report questions. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. 31. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. NOT Andrea told (that) . Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. we make the following changes... Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. 30. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Zoran: I had never been there before. Tom said that he doesn't want to go..Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. and verbs have a statement form.

If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. The instructor told me that I don't do that. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. such as advise. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. They told me that the exam was very hard. 'Please sit down. I'd lend you some money if I had any. order. They said me that the exam was very hard. an imaginary situation in the past. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. but not when the main clause is first. She asked me where I lived. but other verbs can also be used. and I didn't pass the exam.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast.' The doctor asked me to sit down. she wouldn't have left. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. (I didn't work hard. beg. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. (You were driving too fast. warn. Some are right and some are wrong. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. 90 . We usually use a comma (. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. 3. 4. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. The instructor told me not to do that. Reported speech Look at these sentences. 'Don't worry. 2. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. and you crashed. If you hadn't studied so hard. 1. 3. 1. 2. you would have failed. If I had told the truth.32. persuade.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. I'd lend you some money if I would have any.) when if clause is first.' He told me not to worry. and command. 33.

Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone.4. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision.) 91 . We shouldn't have stayed in bed. 34. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.) They should have bought the house.

Tom. 6. 92 . Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 5. Oxford English for Information Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Dorner. Eric H. Kennewell. Steve & Peter Fox. 3. Oxford University Press. 2002. International Express. 1998. 2001. Gabriel. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 2001. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Hutchinson. Brooks. Writing for the Internet. Otman. Engleza pentru internet. 8. Wallwork. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001. 2. 7. Ian Selwood. Driscoll. 1992. Life Lines. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Engleza pentru informatica. Jane. Computer Studies Through Applications. Glendinning. & John McGwan. 4. All Stars.Oxford. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Chris Mitton. 2002. Bucuresti: Editura Teora.

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