CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

... Work alone.... writing .. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. Compare your lists... learning vocabulary .to be cleaned and dried. Read books and newspapers. speaking and being corrected . Work in groups.... 1 being the most important..... or drinks... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible..... English is the most widespread language on Earth... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.. listening ...What advantages does the baby have? . pronunciation practice 3. cards. Speaking 1.. Prepositions too are flexible....... How do you learn languages? .. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd. and the process is now being reversed.. learning grammar ...What advantages does the adult have? 2. and aviation. sport. 4.. speaking and not being corrected all the time . OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY.. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.. 4 . Justify your order...What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? .... Geographically. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement.. Purists of the French. ........... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. technology... reading .... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. but remember that different people learn in different ways...... we can talk about a round of golf... This will no doubt continue. It is the language of business....

The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. Other networks joined in. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. Because of the way the messaging system worked. 37. in fact. computers you could play games on and use unproductively.. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. the way they got there was unimportant. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. for it was they. just kept on growing. Amazingly. 3. each machine will have equal status. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. But then an odd thing started to happen. no single computer that controls the rest of them. Crude as they were. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. They started mailing lists. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. to use the techy term. Instead. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. and the Internet. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. They had. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. by 1972. still the most popular use of the Net by far. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. swapped them (via the net. There will be no "command center". uninvited but still welcome. they sent each other games. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. 1. they opened newsgroups. as it came to be called. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. then news and eventually gossip. 4. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. 2. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination.I. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. But they weren't interested in science or academia.. These packets could be sent independently over the network. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. Instead of using the network strictly for business. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. 5 . it worked. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. they used it to swap gossip. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route.). invented e-mail.

of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. mainframe 5. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). researcher A. a set of related computers C. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. however.2. packet. Computer sizes. Apple. network. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. desktop computer 2. Since then the computers (become) smaller. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. but the market (saturate) to some extent. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Here are five types of computers. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. a person who tries to discover something E. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. along with IBM. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. mailbox. but transistors soon (replace) them. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. supercomputer 4. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. cheaper and more reliable. notebook 3. a series of bits being a part of message B. Over the last few years.

Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. click on the course they want. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. and interactive courseware. videotape of professor's lectures. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. rather than offering their own set of courses. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. offered by mail. For example.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. and connect to a server that presents information. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. all of which express personal opinions: 1. use a bulletin board. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. and as with mail order programs. learn the material. founder and president of University Online. visit the school's We site. Use the elements to make complete sentences. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. the material would be available to students at their convenience. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. online environment. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Europe. says Nat Kannan. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. Australia. 1. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. It's called distance learning. Personally. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. There's a revolution happening in education. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. Students can log onto the Internet. Using modern technology. the Net will be alma mater. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. and the Americans. Within a few months.

. Fill the blanks in this passage with since.. four years . at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. connector childhood. to give a linear form to 8. state condition. we never believed it would be so successful.. 3.. . over two years.g. This University has only existed . for and ago: 1. It was put on the market in 1994. 5. neighbo(u)rhood electrician.... execution. condition belonging to act of. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition... to put a story in the form of a drama 4. so it has been tested .. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal... When we started. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2..... 1992 and it is already known worldwide. musician introduction. -or -hood -ian -ion. independence employer. in 1992 2.5. behavio(u)rism typist.. University Online was originally tested over five years .... the beginning of the experiment. to make use of a symbol for something 3. You have to follow a course . a few months . possession magnetism. state condition.... boredom.. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. operator voucher. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er.. addressee audience. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6.. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. to represent in a digital form 2. to write a summary of 3. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. several new courses have been offered. to take a material form 5.. withdrawal clearance. to give authority to 10... to reduce to the minimum 7.. 4. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. To my mind. scientist . kingdom employee.. to arrange in an optimal way 6. 6.

rivalry friendship. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. happiness. -ical -ish -less -ous. standard 18. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. electric 17. action condition of quality. auto 8. economical foolish useless porous. mode 14. furiously 4. quality state. boldness labo(u)r. reality achievement. robot 6. personal 15. 1. transform the following words into verbs. stimulus 20.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. analysis 11. short 7. widen. initial 12. government business. loose 16. interruptible environmental. tight 5. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . computerize. using the verb-forming suffixes above. simple 4. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. condition place. weak 19. Now. active 3. local 9. logical. -ery -ship state. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. state condition. broad 2. concentrate. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. behavio(u)r foundry. lengthen classify. condition. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. long 13. state electricity. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. generally. slavery. simplify customize. soft 10. tolerate shorten.

it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. so you have to be better than them. how it relates to other products and so on. Qualifications are important. The same goes for NetWare Certification. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. more manageable pieces. and so on.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. That's where the all-important experience comes in. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. For someone starting out. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. Delphi. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. Java and Visual Basic developers. Visual Basic and Delphi. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. 10 . spend more money on a training course. University degrees are useless. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. After a couple of hops like that. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. However. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. as does Novell. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. technology and people. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. C++. A consultant is different. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. If you decide programming is really for you. C++. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. And there are lots of people who know it too. They merely prove you can think. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. you've run big projects. Here's the road map. its positioning on the market. Get a decent book on Windows programming. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. rolled out major solutions and are well known. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. a week there. an attention to detail. By the age of 30.

. suffixes change the part of speech (noun... Technical qualifications . 3... Apart from basic hardware and software expertise. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. 8.. 9... 8..... 3.. In any case.... You . so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere.. Interestingly. to make sensible statements. Most are between 30 and 45.... 1. to have experience in JavaScript.. You need to be bright.. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career.... You . be in computing science.. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team. study BASIC.Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager. More than one answer is possible in some examples.... They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business.. 6.. 10. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date..... You . then you can forget being an IT manager... It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. You . many of them don't have degrees in computing science...... 2.. adjective. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company...... They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems... 4. You .. 1...... Your objective is to become self-employed. You .. 5.. employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit. an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. You ... You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks.. a stem and a suffix..... Look at the examples: 11 . 1. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff.. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. 5.. You . communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. Prefixes change the meaning of the word... need to. Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. have to.... 2.).. 6.. have a degree but it .. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix.. become an expert in too narrow a field.. 7.... 4.. be able to use C++... verb. These days you .. Most of this can't be taught. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs.. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager.. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well.... 2.... the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. must..... If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project. 7. be able to show leadership.. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career... For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement. etc.

involve output. size. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. decode disagree. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. bystander input. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. side in. foresee. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. location. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. into going away more than above too much beneath. inaccurate irrelevant mislead.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). semicolon . disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. misfortune nonsense unreal. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. external foreground. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug.

PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. 1. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . Now use the prefixes of degree. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. location. not up to standard 10. a program that is part of a larger program 6. size. after the war 4. to convey data from one place to another 8. that is already programmed 2. to grow larger 5. half manual 7. half automatic. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. to predict 3.

You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. to find their way around. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. Besides content. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. For example. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. and make necessary adjustments. and visitors may not know how to 14 . Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. If you are committed to using frames on your site. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. you may group the FAQ. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. include descriptive ALT text captions.

put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. 15 . good reactivity. on-line support. However. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. Visit a website of your choice. confusing. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. up to date. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. search facility. Take notes on any special features. a user. well laid out. 1. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. ease of use. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages.use yours effectively. you can add the suffix "er". Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". structure connections. especially those ending in "y" (see above). helpful graphics. without wasting space. compatibility. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). features. a visitor. Logical. colorful. For most sites. accuracy. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). navigation. password protected. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. contact information. nice design. cluttered. (hot) links.

the comparative can be preceded by "the". the slower the speed of execution. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. 1. 2. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer.. resolution was 16 . It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models..A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. 3. John was the elder of the two boys. as". the sharper the picture. 2. when buying a PC are often 5. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. When comparing two items. 4. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. The less he works. 3. "as . For the preceding sentence. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. 2.. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 4. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". the better he feels. The less sophisticated the software. This computer is the cheaper of the two. the more I feel depressed. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. indicated by the symbols. You will not find another processor as fast as this one.. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. The higher the resolution. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . when preceded by "X times".

fuzzy image 8. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . ugly picture 9. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. With short adjectives. cheap computer 3. fast chip 4. This is the most powerful computer available today. inconsistent program 10. 3. expensive card 6. 1. reliable device 5.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. big memory device 7. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. powerful computer 2.

. (A whole quarter second in some cases). be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. You .. A flowchart ..... no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. Don't use a signature of more than four lines.. 2. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. cause unexpected results. when to criticize and when to stay silent.. 3.. 5... Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is.. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom..... Put the words back in the right order: 1. The reason for this is never given. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. This piece of software .. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. Conversely.. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program.... A bug ...... You . Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. on the Net or elsewhere. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. 1. sometimes be useful when designing a program. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. have to. 4.. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop... and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.. off-the-point arguments to see that. In practice.. This form of internal policing... asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.. if that happened. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. Programs . and overzealous at that..... The following sentences have been scrambled. may or could 1. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all........ 18 . 6. read the FAQ).. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. make sure you spell correctly yourself. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. Don't cross-post messages.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. It doesn't work. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. because it wastes people's time... unwarranted abuse and long.. rambling. be debugged before being executed.

. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.... also known as "favorites" . Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul.... Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW ... Cu toate acestea.....7. graphic . top to bottom... 8...... 19 . sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. 4. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. Cind am incercat soft-ul. (You can find the words left to right.. Ar fi putut. email... 5.. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici... 10.. 2.. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .. the main.. 3.. photo... They . opening page of a website . Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . a measure of visits to a website . and diagonally top to bottom)... Translate the following sentences into English... 9. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1......... You .. 3... 4.. 3.... to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own . and computing... 6.. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week. 2.... a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. 7... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1..... picture.... 5. 7. it will take up too much space in the computer memory.. 6. 8.. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.. de exemplu......... write this program in a high-level language...... Write them next to the correct definition.... Daca as fi vrut... If you do..

.. something that automatically connects you to another page ..... Uniform Resource Locator. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net .g... unsolicited mail.......... 10... 11..... a physical input / output point ..... e... 14.. the World Wide Web .......... 16... a way of showing emotion in an email.. the Internet equivalent of post . :-) ... 17.......... 19.. abbreviation for the Internet . 12.. a software package generally used to start you up for a program ... 20.......... email.. 18...... 20 ... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet .. 15. website address ....... a location on the WWW ...... inappropriate use of a mailing list . ... a bug which infects data on your computer ..9.... i.......e. 21.. etc....... a search engine....... 22............... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.. 13.

or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. Hackers have their own code of conduct. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. Admittedly. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. had not been in trouble with the law before. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. But according to those who practice. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. MULTIPLE CHOICE . Triludan. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. C. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. hacking has been criminalized. had knocked on this door. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking".Choose the ending (A. The law was tightened up. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. hacking is still easy. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. which is readily available. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. For some teenagers. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. better known as Robert Schifreen. Typically. and so. All the hacker needs is a modem. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. has the security. Today's hacker is not so lucky. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest.000 a year to repair. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. B. 1. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock.000. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. 1. the computer companies would have you believe. costing companies an average of $23. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. Robert Schifreen 21 .

C. You can download a skin program. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. h. You can download single tracks. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. e. D. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. 4. male criminals. costs about 48p a time C. You can create your own compilation. is popular because it is romantic. 22 . B. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. merely curious. 6. D. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. has made hacking more difficult. 7. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. 33% of its members are hackers B. D. This gives an enormous storage capacity. totally unaware of what they are doing. c. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. 3. d. 3. Then link them with an –ing clause. f. 5. deliberately destructive B. outlaws hacking. Match each cause and effect. g. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. C. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 2. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. Cause 1. Effect a. This produces much smaller files. 5. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. You can legally download some music. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. 4. D. B. has eliminated all computer security. Each MP3 file has a tag.A. C. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. b. According to the NNC A. MP3 players contain several devices. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 8. B. the survival of hackers is threatened. Hacking A. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 2.

A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. keyboard. 8. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. mouse and hard drives only. 6. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . display. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets.3. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 10. 3. 2. 7. 4. 9. 1. 5.

. Measuring drive performance 2..... Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity... Review criteria 4. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.... Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996.. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless... This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.... Mainstream applications 3. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. but are spread throughout business.. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. along with the conventional 3. Applications are the key issue.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. 24 .. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line... No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. 1... Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. the equivalent of 300. 1... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.. floppy drive. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either..2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5. literature and art.... the applications are generally better..5in... Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.. .. but it's not the only one. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard....000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. and because there's more space. For example.... As with other areas of the computer industry..... word processor and database – comes on one CD...5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.. and justify the cost of a drive. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15)..... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.. According to the market researcher Dataquest. Price points .. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis... with a further 1. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format.. Put them back in the appropriate place. or were vast collections of specific information... Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post..

...... So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM...... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware.... Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase... give reasons for your choice.. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives... The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. disk 25 .. 5.. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.. drawback.. this excuse was taken too far... pie chart.. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search..Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. more faster.. while still developing rapidly...... .. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. access time... 1...... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. This is often confused with the average access searches.. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. 2. 2. 4.. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. ... As a result of this market maturity. 7.. more precise head positioning mechanism. 3.... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use.. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market..Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false..... The industry. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk...... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system......... 1.. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time. TRUE OR FALSE? .. files. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are..... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information.. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996... is still a read-only product.... .. 6.. 8. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future...... Backing Store ....But CD-ROM... Increased competition has now reversed the trend. 9..... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more...... 10. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster..... however advanced...

on both surfaces. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre. In this way only a small part of a ... address.. The .. where only one surface is .. Hermetic data modules called "..... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. This technology is cheap and easy to use.. but has the ......... so-called because of its flexibility.. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ............... magnetic disks or diskettes....... 5....e.. magnetic tapes........ Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS.. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as . i.. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta... 6. direct-access. a disk must be .. and .. disk. media and . Large systems often use cartridges or . These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .... erorile se pot corecta.. directory..... 10... 8.... Most users are more familiar with the ........ as opposed to a single-sided disk.... You should write between 150 and 200 words... are now part and parcel of most computer systems.. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb..... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. 9. floppy disk.......... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.. sequential access... though these are becoming ...Translate the following sentences into English: 1........ Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta... both internal and external. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).. retrieved.......e......... disk packs.. 26 ............... 3...... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as . De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.. of all the files on the disk..... 7..... database. Before being used... Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. If the disk is .. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .... 2. needs to be in main memory at any one time.. (i.. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.. read-write head...drives......." are also common.... old-fashioned.. Hence files can be .... THE PASSIVE .... oxide-coated surface. double-sided. it is called a . Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare.. 4.... that is extremely slow because of . formatted (x3)...... a track and a sector number). 3. storage areas are marked on the magnetic......

3. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. the patron goddesses of the arts. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. fashion. virtual museums A. only aristocrats could go to museums. C. Moreover. Within the last few years. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. a basis for study for future generations. 2. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. A museum can best be defined as A. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. For many people. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. B. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. will replace traditional museums.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. Elizabeth Brown. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. An overview of lost techniques. science. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. 1. With reference to the information in the article. crafts. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. With the internet. especially in distant lands. 27 . aristocrats were Europe's best artists. public museums did not exist. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. C. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. electronically. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. beyond the straightforward museum visit. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. and industry. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. military. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. At the time of the Renaissance A. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. B.

2. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. disadvantage 7. masterpiece 4. 2. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. The National Museum of Art A. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. The Web may transform our perception of art. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. photo (taken quickly) 2. 6. object produced by human hands 3. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. 3. B. 4. will organize visits to its storage spaces. 1. country 9. 4. C. to admire 3. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . art work 2. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. 5. vast 4. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. museum A. work of art. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. something produced by creative talent E. Put the following sentences into the passive form.B. to enjoy 10. best work of an artist C. storehouse 8. will show works of art that do not exist. article (in a magazine) 4. collection 5. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. to establish 6. artefact 3. Match the words and their definitions: 1. honored 5. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. Museums maintain and display great works of art. to see. C.

4. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. 5. users can act as both customers and merchants. you gather your money up front and then spend it.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. A person who receives (money. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. or a dedicated payment client.e. and a bank does the accounting. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. A bank employee who pays out money. and credit cards are credit systems. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. both exist in the digital world as well. Payment systems based on gold. paper currency. In a debit system. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. currency. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. Checks. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. The customer pays. 3. The customer runs client software. A person who buys goods or services from you. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. a bank redeems each note number only once. In a peer-to-peer system. the date and time of the transaction. In a credit system. With such a system. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. 29 . the merchant receives the payment. To execute a real-time transaction. traveler's checks. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. and the amount of money represented). a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. In many cases. 2.. Using a public key. for example). A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. 1. charge accounts. and the amount to be paid. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. For the purposes of this discussion. This might be a WWW browser. the name of the payer and the recipient. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments.

The site. The bank will send the company a weekly ... to clear... Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake..... the company can have access to a . who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday...... .. of which. For $20 a month.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.... He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it.. cheques... Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order.00 stating that payment was now overdue. 2.... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. The account will not produce any ... wanted to buy some shirts.. he ignored it... He is the very man . 6... in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. The man....... will only be charged at 12%. were still new.. a current . entered the virtual shop. He alone will be authorized .00. whose.? The next day he got a bill for $0..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. is similar to traditional credit. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. 8. ... some .? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. we found CD-ROMs on sale... 2... He ignored it and threw it away..... statement.. D . to sign.. accepts digital cash.6. Money used in a specific country. I met personally. 7..... The bank director.. 5... overdraft. 30 . withdrawal The Longstone company wish .. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. holder. The first one has already been done for you... name is on the check.. 3....? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card.. A computer that can access a server. deposit. receipt. to start. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. 3.... The customer...... You will not need to use them all! account. whom.. interest.. loan.. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out...... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement... were found in the safe.. to open.. where.. 1. Stupid Computer Error A .... agreed to honor my check. balance. which. bought her a typewriter instead..... However. Digital credit. of account. The initial ... remittance. A large number of banknotes. is used in electronic trade. 4.... C .. The next month he got a bill for $0.. safe. To add money (to an account)....... will be $10.000. for their manager.. ....

he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.E . The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.00 by return of post.? Finally giving in.? In April he received another and threw that one too.00. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. G . He called them and talked to them.? A week later. F . The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.00.

is high / low it is highly probable that . So things have changed. exist. futurologists forecast. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. As he pointed out. 1. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. the current issue of security will only be short. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. Huitema. more controversially. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. Dr. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". came the issue of virtual reality. Lastly. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around".. And needless to say. "At telecom 91. 32 . You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world.. And as for the taste. well. networks. dipping even further into the future. the future. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. he enthused. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum... Next came. that probability that . ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. What should concern us. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. that didn't keep the crowds away. he predicted. one can predict / foretell that. and. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. smells. sound and feeling will arrive. For sheer impact. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. "Sight.. computing. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. said Dr.... was how online commerce will evolve. but also immense excitement about the possibilities.. for all intents and purposes.. he said. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. experts expect that. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. and the role of the providers. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity".. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. Dr.. Christian Huitema. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. said.. there was an inevitable blur of content. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. satellite. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. we'll have to work on that one". dumb terminals.

me leave early every Friday afternoon.. me to stay out later than 11. access to confidential files. The term was first coined by William Gibson.it is a well-founded supposition that.. there are scientific arguments for. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete.. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Keyword The word.. A security password . Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.... Being a single parent ..... 2... huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient.... it is reasonable to think that..... Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... My boss is easygoing and .. 3...... enable... When I was young my parents never .. 2. make...00.... Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. Reading Read the article. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse... 33 . that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. Prepare to explain them to your partner. 5. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. I hope that doing the course . Sneaky..... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.... it hard for me to have a social life. indicated by a finger symbol. allow.. 4. there are grounds for believing that...... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. permit 1. me to get a better job... Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. 3.

every night. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It takes wit. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). contract and condense. sex and location. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. or type the type. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). If something cracks you up. It has an estimated 75 million users. a new idiom has been born. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. There's neither time nor space for exposition. The solution is to abbreviate. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. FWIW (for what is worth). Across the world. GTG. Plenty of adults talk the talk. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. all day at work. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. PBAB (please bring a bottle). C-U-L8R 34 . Well.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. concentration and agile fingers.

com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths.g. Science. LANGUAGE FOCUS A.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . English. EH21 3TZ email p. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. For the purpose of this task.cair@btinternet. then write your own CV in the same way. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.w. degrees and other qualifications. Geography. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. Stonebridge. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . which sounds very strange indeed.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. e. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. Spanish.II. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. Computer Studies.

Sage line 50 & 100 .TCP / IP Networking .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation ..1st line customer telephone support .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .network administration and implementation .Windows 200 Server / Professional .Office 97. 2000 . Thin. L.Windows 95 / 98 . IT Department. Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.5 .Exchange Server 5. Leith. Novasystems 36 .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.advising clients on IT issues and strategies . Personnel Officer.database design .

State when you are available for the interview 10. the name and address of the addressee. Write clearly 2. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it .gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Make the information you give relevant to the job. and firm. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details)."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . and where to put the handwritten signature. Reference number if there is one.am available to start as from June 15 . how to end it.name and address of firm. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".please find enclosed my curriculum vitae .state where you saw the job advertised .B. 37 .1. the signatory's full name (typed). You may find some of the following expressions useful: . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Give all the information you are asked for 8.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.am currently studying for . State what job you are applying for 4.should you feel I could be of use to your firm . how to begin a letter.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. Type your letter 6. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Check your spelling and punctuation 9.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . B.state you qualifications in brief . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Use the person's name if you know it . Keep your letter short and to the point 3.

I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. as well as students. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. teachers and administrative staff. In Malaysia I arranged. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. Over the past year. study tours for project personnel. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. Yours sincerely. team leadership and team membership. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. through the British Council. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. for example. Alan Bannister 38 . 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian.

INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. 2. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. . If you think you may have trouble finding the place. money or job satisfaction? 12. don't rush.Do sit still. .C. You are likely to be found in the end. . Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. walk to the door. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. . set out early. . 39 . . 5.Do arrive in plenty of time. interests and hobbies. Which is more important to you. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. .Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Don't smoke. . Dress in a business-like way. Describe your most recent accomplishments.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. In the past year. so much the better. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. Thank your interviewer. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. .Do make a graceful exit. experience.

any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.not answering all the points raised by the sender .sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in... Please find . .not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .. How often do you use email? 2... Dear Sir.Read these emails.. Could you email me details? 40 ..writing everything in UPPER CASE ... What do you use email for? 4.. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are .. working on Lingo.writing too much.. the other informal...S. I was wondering if . future. Monica Ciampi P...not making clear who you are and why you are writing .. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A. I ..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . my recent paper..... Yours sincerely. B. How are you? I bet you are . and how you yourself will proceed Exercise .. if you might be able to help me. you in the .. or may not be able to open .. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. If you use email at work. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. One letter is formal.. how has it changed your working life? 3.not telling the reader what you expect them to do. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. I would be extremely ... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .....not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.D. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5... if you intend your comments to be humorous) . Dear James... or in sentences that are too long . the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor..... which I hope you will find interesting.

. a. annexed 9.. lacking 10. included d. beforehand b. as well c. demand b. a... glad 5. Send my . I am looking forward to hearing from 7.. a. pleases d topic d.. losing b. match c. too d. with d. so b. early c. missing c. attached b. wasting d.In a .. happy c. dinner 14. of weeks I'll be in England. Hope to hear from you . grateful b. Best wishes. enclosed c... I look forward to news from b.. I look forward to hearing from c. near b. topic d.. close 8. ask 2..S. next c. a.. a.. a. thus d. love c.. from c. respect d. a. additionally 4. now c. also b. a. couple b. before 15.. a. a. and thank you for your help. for b. together. pair d. a. then c. meal c. and 13. supper d. a. wishes 41 . request c. matter c. I look forward to hearing news from d. concerns b. business b. a.. actually 3. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . wonder d. a. currently b.. by 11.. drink b.. a. to Peter 1... affair 6.. soon d. presently d. bracket 12. Monica P. perhaps we could meet up and go for a .

... enthusiasm.. I'd like to . PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.. .... motivating Exercise .. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. I've ... There is no benefit in using difficult language... to ...... signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets.. Please feel free to .. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. you all for being here.. options. clarity.... thank. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.... confidence. intonation. tell you.. with some recommendations... enjoyable. bring you up to date... today is to .. indicate.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that.. My . . subject knowledge.. . rapport / eye contact. outline. ... our profits have not increased at the same rate. on balance.. humor Organization – coherence..... For what purpose are presentations made? 3. describe... interrupt. informative.. before ... clarity.... fluency.. interesting.. some of the problems we are having over the market share.. body language Language – clarity.. to Italy and Spain. variety.... Well... that although turnover has risen. recommend. finally. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy..are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. . relevance... concluding.. Let me quickly . pointed out "Good afternoon. audibility. on those successes before we .. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years..... illustrate. specifically.. accuracy.... pronunciation.. draw your attention.... to start with. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. I think our first .... you will notice. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. referring....... appropriacy. more . What is a presentation? 2.. then. I'd like to ... achievement of objectives. I'll quickly . about our current position in the UK and I've . Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. expand. . priority.E. talked.. what . appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. I'll . handling Delivery – pace... in conclusion. I'm . of course... move on. sum up. 42 .. me if you have questions at any time. Overall – clarity of message... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking.. some of the problems we are facing. I'll . Now I'd like to . and.. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation.. . everybody. purpose. What makes a presentation effective? 4. with our plans for Europe. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next..

. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly ... ...... Spain and possibly Greece. though.... Thank you also for your pertinent questions. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far.We should not forget the French market. Are there any final questions?" 43 .. . may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience..

Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). and be available to assist you.you can choose your own title . which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. but it can also be very daunting. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. This means you have a whole year to write it.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . A member of staff will supervise progress.F. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course.is the topic academic enough? . DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. try it out with your supervisor. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. 44 . but is probably the most important. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. called a dissertation or long essay. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. since you have more space. However. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. which you research by yourself.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . but there are a number of differences: . There are several criteria for your choice: . Like an essay. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. In part-time degrees.is the topic relevant to your degree course? .

000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. 000 words Conclusion – 1. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. 000 words. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. the first thing to do. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. ask yourself: . Introduction – 1. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will be your title. As you are reading through the books on your topic. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. since you may need a few by your side. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. It is longer. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. since you have more to say. Dissertations are usually 10. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 5. 49 .1. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. It's really cold. but you can never tell. 4.

....................... 2. ....... First I went to ................ 9. I went for ..... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations........ ................. I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday................................................................. 7............... Right............................. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details.............. 5............... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.................... Then I went swimming at ...... . bank to withdraw some cash.............. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit......... or no article.................................... 1........ Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics.... 4. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.............. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions.Test B A........ lovely morning............ years.. ........ 2......... Look at those clouds.. ... I booked it last week...... Grammar 1................ After ............ professional musician and plays with .... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid...... ........ River Thames.................. . I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup....... 3....... 5............................. I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year.............. long walk by .. 4....... 8.......... 7...... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra...... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation.. I've done that for you.......... lunch with Bob. ......... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras.. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known............... 3..................... 50 ....................... I had ............ In each case choose the most likely alternative.............................. If you're too hot in here...... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning........ the... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions................ He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting.................. 1................ I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon..................................................................... 3.......................................... 6................................................ Articles Complete this text with a / an........... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ....... 6...... They wondered how we had managed to do it............ He's ................... and she said that she hadn't had a chance..............

............. P OK............................. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e.... C Hello................ EJ ............... which is why I thought .......... .. without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary........ e........ right.. it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.....00.... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert....... 9................. He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software......................... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment.. C Paula............. 2........ So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9..... So...... AK ............ EJ ...00 ........... AK Hello.. fine.............. ................ yes.. EJ Oh................................... EJ ............... Sorry...... you're talking about..... AK Yes............ I'm busy on Thursday.............. he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland.. is that Paula......... is that right? AK Yes...............m.... ........... 51 ... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering.. Good idea.... ? C .. As we were leaving...................... Goodbye. P Yes......... ...................... and they said they would get it to him by 10... a......................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily.......... B......................... Would Thursday morning at 10..................... let me give you an example... OK......................... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents..... then.................................................. d....00 a........................................ is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski...... EJ ........................... at the latest........ It sounds useful..... hello.......... AK Exactly....... Functions 1.. can I just interrupt you a second? b..... ...............00 ? P ..... Wednesday at 9.......... 10............. c. I've got you........ and we told him that we could do it next week.............8.............. He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time............... something for people who need English translations of words.................... OK............... I'm not really with you.....

...... 2.. I had three jobs to choose . I'm allergic ...... an important meeting in my life.... 7..... opportunity! 5.... miss.. 5....... You can depend . 9...... 1... because of inefficiency.. He apologized .. the discussion today...... I am not accustomed .. sensitivity. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. . it.... Vocabulary 1.......... A lot of company's resources are ................ Please listen .. my family when I was abroad on business for four months........ 8...... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition....... 10. I really .. 52 ...... He is lacking .. 4..... or waste.... the inconvenience caused.... 6.. me. I've never .. the beer festival...... 1. me.... Thank you for taking part .......... 3. my new job... We need to concentrate ....... 2.. my money.. Don't worry.. 2.......... Do you take credit cards? 4... no! I seem to have ...C....... The meeting coincided .. 3............ the UK market for the time being.. lose. Oh..... I can't eat seafood......... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss... lose..

.. some of B. 2.. e.. c. .. He gave us a lot of information about his company.. that. 1.. Complete the sentences.. have become good friends.. 4. What's the name of the woman .. using where... If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. Then complete them. 3. A. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . a... or whom. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. This is the room .. Nothing happened yesterday.. he bought shares in the company. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. is comfortable and spacious... One million dollars is plenty of for one person. anticipating an increase in value. is free... 9. we hold meetings in. the majority of . who. 6..... You can download software from many websites. I like playing sport.. you used to work? was also the year I got married. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B.. The reception area. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect)... work opposite us are not very friendly.. 7... I'm doing many work at the moment......... d. 2. 10. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 1. then correct the mistakes. I give / will give you a bonus.. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. Grammar 1.. 3.... 5. is on the fifth floor.Test C A. has just joined the company? b. My company does much business in Asia... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun).. You need to invest in some more machinery. so please hurry up. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. 53 . 2.... but I don't spend a lot on equipments. she later married. which... There's not much news to tell you.. 3... As soon as / Until the merger was announced... I'm living in at the moment. 2.... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1...

................. The point is d. Functions 1........ (understand) 54 ...... (indicate awareness of something) 3.... whereas 6...g.... 1...... (be excited by) 4. ..... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets............. due to the fact that 7... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online...... Vocabulary 1...... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server.... He really gets .. g..... because of a.... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'................ for example 2................... trends... ....... fraud still occurs... e................ He's not a very good team player. e....... I had a day off work last week to make ....... I can only just make . ... 2... ............. By secure............. To give you an example c.... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let .. I mean b. and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning..... as 3.. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e......B. while d. such as 5......... so h....... as a result of 8......... because c. like e.... a.. ... ..................... Explaining consequences............. working at the weekend... (make depressed) 5...... . It's such a bad line........... is the answer to that......... Let me explain what I mean... .............. The problems with her job are really starting to get her .. on the other hand 4...... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem....... due to b................ (compensate for) 6............... 1. what you're saying.......... He's always letting his colleagues ........ (disappoint) 2... can we trust these servers to be secure? ................ on abusing the little power he has. I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer...... however f...... thus C..............

.. (became very successful) 8................. I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview..... 55 ..... (communicate) 9.... She's very good at getting her ideas . Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics..................... the meeting.. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ..... ? (invent) 10........7. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London...... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties... (avoid) 2........ last year when we broke into the German market. The company really took ...... It's good news................. She called in sick so that she could get .

....................................................................... ..............................Test D A....................... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities...... 3. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive........ ................ a.. 3..................... (knock) on your door at home ............................ be staying at the conference venue....... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning.......................................................................................... His colleague's death ................... 5............................................... have kept some of it for herself.... 10... Oh............................... Companies usually provide managers with language training. We're locked out! 4............. 3.......................... ... 4... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion...................................................... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form................. ... Grammar 1..................................................... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.. ................................ ... We invite successful applicants to a second interview................ The store manager had only just moved to the branch............ well top $150 million this year.............................................................. 1.......... but I'm not sure yet.................. I asked Miranda to write the report for me.................. He .......................... 8.. no! I ................................... have left my keys in the restaurant.......................................... He was only 42 years old........ 1............................. Conditionals 1......................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb........................................... 7....... I think we ...... Somebody stole my laptop computer............. 8.... 9........................ .................................................................................. The optician tested my eyes yesterday.. 6........ have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months. A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ...... 7........ What three things ...... ........................... 2..................................... 2............. (you open) the door immediately? 56 ....... 5........... 2........................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night. be a big shock.... ................... (you save) if your house .. be wrong. but I ............. .......... Use have / get something done where appropriate................... When I go to Barcelona I ........ company profits .................................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors..................... If someone .................... According to Peter..................... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6........... (be) on fire? b.................

I . (you do) ? e. whose life .. (you change) ? g.... To manage interruptions 2.......... ultimately c.......... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. If you .... (you choose) ? d. a.. A: If you ................ (be) you.. 2. What .... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. (you work) if you ......... b..... So..................... c.. what .. basically what you're saying is.......... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed...... firstly e. (see) a UFO..... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e...... Functions 1... c. but I don't think they'd believe me. Would you like to come in here... Could you be more specific? b...... . (happen) if .. d............... To ensure other people get to speak 4. (go) to the police. 1............ ... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things .......... If you ........................ a.... The interviews take place and .... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2. Where ..... If you .... using the words a-e. (go) to the police..............c.... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said..... (you park) your car there they ..... eventually d.... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs. I know.... (give) you a ticket.. after lengthy discussion. If the weather ......... what ............................... B...... (you study) ? f................. A: If I ..... (be) you... A: Careful! If . (not study) your subject at school / university..... B: Thanks for warning me.. .......... A: If I .. Then b. one candidate is chosen.. (not get) a job with your current company? h.. However. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong... (be) good this weekend what ......... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion.. I .. To summarize a.. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function.... Can I finish what I was saying? d....... ........ Ella? 57 ... To keep to the point 3... To ask for clarification 5......... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description..... B: Yes...... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards.....

..... credible 4.. ... ....... . replaceable 3......... criticize .. legible 58 .. 2.... .............. 2....... create ....... .. 1.... connect 5............... interested 2...... understand . 3.. 5. 1.......... rely ....C.. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.......... 4........ Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites......... humor . Vocabulary 1...

...... (do) at 8............ Call me sometime over the weekend. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes....... Must I really go to the meeting? f... 4........ b....? 3............. Match each question with an appropriate category. so don't forget to take waterproofs.....m............ I'm sorry...... Grammar 1...... tomorrow? We ...... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2... 2....... In three months' time I . Future Perfect. By the time I retire I hope I . 6..... Permission............. ... requests. I . I'd like that.. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics... (think) of you...... By 2050 people . (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. (finish) their meeting by 7.. and obligation 1.......m..... B: .00 p.. (live) in space............ I'm sure.... A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form.Test E A. 59 . necessity.... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b... Do you think there ... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.. 2..... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa.... possibility..... 7.... e. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. if you'd like me to show you around Prague.. Functions 1.. 5... Good luck with your exam tomorrow. d.. (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life...... Will they ... ..... A: Great...... otherwise I may / must / can forget it.. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.. Thank you.... but ... 8........... Do you know what . If you have time during your stay in Sydney...... it's no problem...00 p.. I ... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May..... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here.... Invitations. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like......... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House..... Look... 1. Future Continuous.. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. thank you........... (work) from home....... a...... I .. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful...... I've got two tickets! B. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase. c.......... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a..

.......... that .... too many mistakes...... A: ..... take up d.............. I have to ..... 2.... in your English test? B: Oh.. Yes... or take.. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock... B: You too........ A: Oh.. thank you for that lovely dinner once again...A: .... begin (a hobby) 2......... .... Can I help you ... carry.......... B: Yes..... Late payment often ........... I hear this is your last day at work here...... get..... employ (someone) 60 .... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e.. you're welcome e..... I'm starting a new job next week................. her? 3........ any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No. with everything.. I'm glad you enjoyed it c.. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and .. 1.... Vocabulary 1........ bring about b. cash-flow problems for small businesses. not too bad. hope to see you again sometime 1.. lead to.......... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning............... I don't think I .. some research for my thesis... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4...... Concluding.. your bags? They look very heavy! 2....... cause 4.... did you .. .......... A: Well................... A: Have you ....... best of luck b... A: How did you .. succeed 3.. Mark................ C. Well... 1... great.. and take Complete the sentences with bring................. ...... keep in touch d......... B: .......... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year............. 3.. 5...... 2. A: I've had a lovely evening... take on a........................... I can't.. Thanks for coming.... carry off c.. Remember to .. lead to. thanking... carry. A: So. 2.................... warm clothes... B: ....... get..... bring.. a...... B: Thanks......

. f – 6 7. g – 3 1.. sounds like 4. woke up 1.. have been having 9. . used to have a Porsche. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. have never seen 8. had been having 4. 3. have eaten 10. c – 7 4. to turn off 5. outgoing 3. . for a week 5. to entertain 3.. saying 2.Tests .. 2. 1. hasn't stopped 1. a . meticulous 4. have you been doing 6. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. . was traveling / witnessed 3. a – 5 2.. recently 3. competent 2. at the moment 2. stubborn 5. seems 5. had read / started 5.. .. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. going 4. watch 3. e – 1 6. had been sitting 6. . look like 2.. was living 2. arrived / had left 7. b – 2 3. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. 5. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. d – 4 5. all my life 4.Answer key Test A A1 1. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. 4.. going 1. always plays 7.

.' conditions. let me give you an example. 62 . the 4. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. Ø 9.m. How about / What about 5.. that / which / Ø d. missed C2 1. who / whom c. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. OK. to 6. I'm not really with you. a. with 4. Are you doing A3 2. Ø 6. who / that b. in 5.' 9. a 7. I'm playing 4. we can do it next week. you're talking about . 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. will win 9. missed 3. at the latest. 2. I was wondering whether 2. That would be / Yes. which e. OK. a 10. the 1. is going to rain 7. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. I'm going to 3. I'll turn on 6. I've got you. the 8.2. lost 4. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. Sorry. an 5. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. a. I'm afraid 4. 3. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. the 3. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3.' 6. which 2.00 a. to 10. on 8. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. I'll just check / I'll call 5. I'm going to spend 8. from 7. wasted 5. So. that's / That suits me 1.' 7. 5. for 2. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. wasted 2. I haven't had a chance. to 9. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. 'Did you see anything?' 2. B1 1. in 3. 4.

as soon as 2. d. C 9. sharply 4. I – plenty of 6. on 3. down 5. until / are 1. substantial 5. e. I mean 5. I've met a lot of people through work. I – a lot of good advice 1. up for 1. off 8. arisen 2. To give you an example 3. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. I – a lot of 3. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. The point is 4. I – information 2. C 4. rise 6. out 7. some of whom have become good friends. which was also the year I got married. Let me explain what I mean 2. A2 1. We started the company in 1999. By secure. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. risen 3. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. off 4.b. raise 6. down 2. 63 . across 9. up 10. I – equipment 10. by / will give 3. C 8. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. I – a lot of 7. I – quite a few 5.

were / would you change g. 10. reliable 2. irreplaceable 3. So. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . A2 1. 8. saw / would you do d. humorous 3. incredible 4. Can you be more specific? 5. Miranda was asked to write the report. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. / I've had my laptop stolen. John? 4. would you save / was b. basically what you're saying is . I had my eyes tested yesterday. happens. was you / would go c. 7. My eyes were tested yesterday. 5. My laptop has been stolen. / Managers are provided with language training. must 4. must 7. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. Language training is provided for managers. Excuse me. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. Applications are passed on to universities. 4. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. uninterested 2. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. is / will you do e. Would you like to say something about this. could / would you choose d. 6.2.. had been / would have gone b. should 2. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. would you work / hadn't got h. knocked / would you c. 3. could / may / might 8. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. can't / couldn't 5.. might / may / could 3. 1. a. would happen / arrive. creative 4. 9. arrived 2. I was in the middle of saying something. understandable 64 C2 1. Candidates are recommended for promotion. could / might / may 1. 2. a. should / must 6.

illegible A2 1. have finished 3. take 5. will have earned 8. bring 4. will have been working 4. can't 5. can 4. made 4. I was wondering 2. get 3. will be working 5. Keep in touch 4.5. can't 3. critical Test E A1 1. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. best of luck 2. 1. must 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will be living 6. will be 9. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . Shall we say 5. You're welcome 5. lead to 1. will be thinking 2. Shall 4. would be fine / suits me fine 1. carry 2. made 3. do 2. will speak 7. That's very kind of you 3. Hope to see you again some time 3.

I'm going to the cinema every day. 2. He knows a lot about music. He's knowing a lot about music. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. 1. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. 2. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings.IV. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. She's working here until Christmas. He doesn't want to be in the school play. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. She works here until Christmas. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. 66 .

4. and present continuous Look at these sentences. To make regular past participles. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. Some are right and some are wrong.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. Vegetarians don't eat meat. (I still live here now.) I've bought a new car. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. You haven't lived abroad. He's seeming very tired.) I've lived here for three years. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. 67 . 2. I have. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. I want to go out for dinner. He seems very tired.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.3. (I've got a new car now. (She isn't here now. we add –ed to the infinitive. (Until now I've been there three times. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. (He still works there now. 5. present simple. 1. 6.) I've been to Brazil three times. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. 3.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. I'm wanting to go out for dinner.) Present perfect.

He's never here at 9. The train is always on time. as ..00. but they usually go before the main verb.. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. I work here since October. can be used to make comparisons.. normally. 5.3. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Russia is bigger than Canada. I'm working here since October. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. 68 . I don't usually get up late. The film was much better than I expected. Sometimes. in front of the main verb. We often go to the park. Her house is as big as mine.. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. as .

Short answers Yes. Alex 1. 6. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. . The film was better that the book. The film was better than the book. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world.. In the negative so . The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. as . In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 4. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. 3.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. We weren't here yesterday.92m Alex's brothers 1. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. 2. 1. He's as tall as his brother. My exam results were worse than Andy's. He's so tall as his brother. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. he was.83m 1.85m 1. is also possible.. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups..

he was. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. We went to the cinema twice last week. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. I went out this morning. (But I don't live there now.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. She wasn't going to work. or past actions which were not habits.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. I've been there four years ago. He used to smoke. not the present perfect. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. but he gave up five years ago. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. only the past simple can be used. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. you must use the past simple tense. I did. (She isn't here now. 7. (I still live here.) She went at four o'clock. She used to be a teacher. (We're interested in when the action took place. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. last week). in 1993. It has no present form. She's gone home. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. For individual past actions.g. I went there four years ago.) Before that I lived in Madrid. two days ago. We didn't use to live in London. I've lived here for five years. not the effect. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

They wouldn't steal from a friend. It may (not) rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. It'll probably rain today. impossible.) She'd be a good politician. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. If I had the money. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign.) make polite offers. It probably won't rain today. It might (not) rain today. (But she works in a bank.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. or imaginary situations. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. I'd buy a house. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. 74 least likely most likely . which with things. She's probably coming this weekend. It could rain today. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. I would. He's the man who lives next door. It's likely to rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. I saw the man. We use who with people. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. (But I haven't got the money. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. Use Would has many uses.

You're Italian. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. It isn't very warm. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. You knew about this yesterday. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. or that. does it? You've finished.He's the man that lives next door. She arrived yesterday. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. He's the man who/that lives next door. He's the man. She married him. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He lives next door. don't they? 75 .. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. This chair's French. 12. He's the man (who/that) she married. haven't you? It was raining. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. can't she? NOT . did not you? She can speak Russian. which. You can swim. didn't she? You like fish. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject... They aren't coming to the party. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. didn't you? NOT . Look at these sentences. He's the man.. will she? It doesn't matter. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause.

To make different tenses we change the verb to be. It can't be done. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. The weapon hasn't been found. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. we use the negative of the verb to be.) and is followed by a question mark (?). To make the negative of the passive. Someone has been arrested. It is less direct than an ordinary question. These houses were built in the 1930s. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. The car has been found. Cars shouldn't be parked there. we don't know the agent. The man wasn't sent to prison. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. 13. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. These computers are made in Japan. We can use the passive in any tense. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. She must be told. The crime will be solved. 76 . Thousands of cars are stolen. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. This wine is produced in Portugal. Fewer crimes would be committed. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action).

If I get the job I'll earn more money. but not when the main clause is first. NOT If it will rain. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause.. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event.If we want to show the agent.) 15.) when the if clause is first. I'd buy that house. We usually use a comma (. (There is a real chance that it will rain. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. unlikely. you'll miss the appointment. If I had enough money . Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. we'll go to the cinema.. she'll feel terrible.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. We usually use a comma (. If it rains. we'll go to the cinema.. The suspect was identified by a witness. If we had more money.) 77 . we use by. we'd travel business class. NOT If I would have enough money .. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. (I don't think I'll get the job. 14. If she eats all the ice cream. but not when tha main clause is first.) when the if clause is first. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. The car has been found by some children.) We won't go if it rains. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. If I had enough money. or imaginary situations. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. If you get up late.

.g. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. before we would go to the cinema. and after. until..16. e. He heard a helicopter and looked up. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. She switched it on. up. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. NOT She switched on it. He saw the mouse and ran out. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. NOT .. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. as soon as. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. NOT . He took off his jacket. Oil will run out in the next century. She takes after her mother. on. She switched on the TV. in.. until Phil will get back. look something up 78 .. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. before. I'll phone you when she arrives. NOT . Time clauses As in clauses with if. 17. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. when she will arrive. the verb is separable. (transitive) The plane took off. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. or She switched the TV on. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). If the object is shown between the verb and the particle.. away.

79 . 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. he has. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months.' emphasize the duration of an activity.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity.I looked up the word in the dictionary. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. I've been writing a letter. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. the verb is inseparable. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. I've been waiting for an hour. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. (I haven't finished it yet. is not normally used with stative verbs.) focus on the process of an activity. like other continuous forms. You're late. 18. I've been playing a lot of football this week. I've lived here for ten years. or about past actions which have present results.

decide. imagine. Do they live here? You saw her. ask. see. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. so we must provide one. wonder. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. a modal verb. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Compare these questions. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. They live here. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Can she swim? They've arrived.questions. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. or an auxiliary verb. using do/does in the present or did in the past.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. have no idea. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb.19.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. know. Did you see her? In Wh. remember.

. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. What kind of software? Software for computers. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. With Wh. The headword always goes at the end. Note: However. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. 1. 81 . I don't know if he's coming. left. 3.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. we say clothes shop and sports shop.. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular.. I've decided how much money do I need. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. I wonder why did he do that? 21.? Could you tell me where the post office is.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. football boots These are boots. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. a computer software shop This is a shop. I've decided how much money I need. arrives. 2. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. A shop that sells records is a record shop. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences.. is. 've got. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.? or Do you think you could tell me . 4. A shop that sells books is a bookshop.

I had the idea while driving home. 82 . a teacup. I got dressed. object I don't enjoy cooking. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. There were two people waiting for you. a bathroom a coffee cup.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. feel. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. There's someone coming. I can hear someone coming.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. (Empty packets. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. I got dressed. to describe what someone can sense (with see. I could smell burning. I read a fascinating book the other week. when the subject of both clauses is the same. hear.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. notice. He was driving at 120mph. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. Unfortunately there are no rules. I've been working since 7.). as adjectives. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. (New packets. After I'd had a shower. Gerunds can be subjects or objects.00. 23. smell. and while to replace a clause. etc. She's playing tennis. We saw them leaving the house. a tennis racket a living-room. (Empty bottles. with after.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. Others are written as two words. stomach ache 22. Compare these sentences. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). before. After having a shower. I had the idea while I was driving home. -ing form or infinitive A. or are hyphenated. This is a really boring film. watch.

) I forgot to dance with him at the party. 83 . (he was doing something. I'm beginning to learn the piano. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (I had met her before and I remembered it. 1. consider.) try I tried to speak to her about it. but she still wouldn't listen. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. start. but she wasn't there. begin. (I spoke to her. feel like. I enjoy doing the gardening. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. but it didn't work. enjoy. B. She's considering emigrating to Australia.) C. continue It's just started raining. suggest.) I tried speaking to her about it. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I'd like to live abroad. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. love. (I had to meet her and I did. give up. remember. I like lying in bed late. (I was supposed to dance with him. (I wanted to speak to her. In British English. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. I began to realize how he felt. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. but I didn't.) He stopped to have a cigarette. and can't stand. Smoking is bad for your health.) stop He has stopped smoking. It's just started to rain. Some of the most common are finish. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. but I couldn't. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive.like.) I remembered to meet her. then he stopped in order to smoke. (British) I like to lie in bed late. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. hate. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. forget I remember meeting her. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. imagine.

I must remember to post this letter. Stop making so much noise. must. 4. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. too. There's someone that comes up the stairs. A I really love pizza. B Oh. could. B Me. would. I made a phone call. I could. need. too to agree with a positive statement. 5. B So do I. Before leaving the office. I made a phone call. will.) I + positive auxiliary verb. A I've never been to Ireland. There's someone coming up the stairs. Stop to make so much noise. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. I began to understand the problem. 24. neither to agree with a negative statement. I begun understanding the problem. may. Before to leave the office. B Me. 84 . 6. I would. should.) I + negative auxiliary verb. neither. ought to. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. shall. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. 25. B Nor/Neither have I. B Oh. A I couldn't read until I was seven. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. I'd love to go to New Zealand. and Me. I must remember posting this letter. might. I'd love going to New Zealand. To smoke is bad for your health. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. 3. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject.2. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. 7.

They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. He mights come later. (or I could find a new job. possibility. Past: He could speak French when he was four. I must to remember to post this letter. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. we can use could to talk about ability. They might not come to the party. or You don't need to come. For example.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. 4. would: I'd be able to find a new job. They have no infinitive or participle form. 85 . Modal verbs have no tense forms. You might go to London. will: I'll be able to find a new job. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. 3.) I must remember to post this letter. You shouldn't do that. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. and permission. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. 1. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. 2. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. He might come later. They ought to be more careful. Present: He can speak four languages. She should see a doctor. I couldn't believe what he told me. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I can swim. You don't should leave your car there.

which comes from 'outside' the speaker. I have to work on Saturday this week. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. The party's informal. from my doctor. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. You needn't wear a suit. Past: I had to find a new job.30. though could is more common. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. You shouldn't work so hard. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. would: I'd have to find a new job. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. You don't have to come if you don't want to.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. You ought not to carry so much cash. The firemen were able to save everyone. it is 'my' obligation. a driving instructor. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. The firemen could save everyone. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. The firemen managed to save everyone. You need to be at the station by 8. Have to is also used. will: I'll have to find a new job. we use was/were able to or managed to.Could. was/were able to./You don't need to wear a suit. Passengers must show their boarding cards. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. I must start taking more exercise. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. Have to is used to describe general obligation.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. I could drive when I was sixteen. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. Note: Must has no tense forms. 86 . (It is a general obligation. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. (I want to. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. (It is and 'outside' obligation.

26. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. 1. I will can go swimming every day next week. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. I painted my room. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. Compare these sentences. with we and I. 87 . 3. She might not be here tomorrow. could. 2. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. Could is more polite than can. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. might. Permission Can. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. and may are used to ask for permission. This means that I painted the room myself. Some are right and some are wrong. I had my room painted. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself.Probability May. I had the car fixed. She could not be here tomorrow. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. and may is the most polite and formal. 4. 5. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. I had my hair cut.

The car's really dirty. It needs cleaning. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. Need + -ing is more informal. It needs to be cleaned. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. said or told). Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. We can also use need with to be + past participle. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. would.g. because a different person is now speaking. The judge made the man apologize. Direct speech: I like cooking. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. 28. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. The car's really dirty. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. and modal verbs do not change. 29. David's father lets him use the car. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. 88 . My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day.27. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. I got the garage to service my car.

When we report questions. and verbs have a statement form. Helen: I'd like a coffee. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. 31. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. Andrea: I'm going out. Zoran: I had never been there before. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Andrea said (that) she was going out.. we make the following changes. 89 . Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. She told (them) jokes all night. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. We tell somebody something. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. NOT Andrea said me . Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. With Yes/No questions. Zoe said that they saw a great film. 30. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Monica: I might phone you later. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film.. The word order changes to a statement word order. Luke: I'll be away till March. NOT Andrea told (that) . Andrea told me (that) she was going out. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting.. say and tell We say something.. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. the reported question starts with whether or if. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. They told (us) a story.

Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. 'Please sit down.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. Reported speech Look at these sentences. you would have failed. She asked me where I lived. If you hadn't studied so hard. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. Some are right and some are wrong. They told me that the exam was very hard. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam.' He told me not to worry. and you crashed. persuade. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. 33. but not when the main clause is first. warn. 3. 1.) when if clause is first. (You were driving too fast. such as advise. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. and command. (I didn't work hard. 90 . she wouldn't have left. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 2. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. If I had told the truth. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. beg. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. We usually use a comma (. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. They said me that the exam was very hard. 3.32. an imaginary situation in the past. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. The instructor told me not to do that. 2. order.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. 'Don't worry. but other verbs can also be used.' The doctor asked me to sit down. 1. I'd lend you some money if I had any. and I didn't pass the exam. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 4. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. The instructor told me that I don't do that.

(I regret leaving at ten o'clock. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast.) They should have bought the house. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock.4.) 91 . If I knew the answer I'll tell you. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. 34. We shouldn't have stayed in bed.

& John McGwan. Engleza pentru internet. 5. 1992. Jane. Eric H. Brooks. 2002. Tom. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 2. Otman. 6. Glendinning. Ian Selwood. Writing for the Internet. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 8. Hutchinson. 2001. All Stars. Driscoll. 7. Oxford University Press. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 2001. Engleza pentru informatica. Chris Mitton. Life Lines. Steve & Peter Fox. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Oxford English for Information Technology. 92 . 1998. 2001. International Express.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gabriel. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Computer Studies Through Applications. 3. 2001. Dorner. 4. 2002. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Kennewell. Wallwork.

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