UNIVERSITATEA "AL. I.

CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă

LAURA IOANA LEON

MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92

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INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

.. learning vocabulary .. Read books and newspapers. pronunciation practice 3... Compare your lists. Work in groups.. Geographically.... English is the most widespread language on Earth. Work alone. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. 1 being the most important.. but remember that different people learn in different ways..... learning grammar . 4 . This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.......What advantages does the adult have? 2...What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ..... or drinks.. This will no doubt continue. listening ... 4........to be cleaned and dried. Prepositions too are flexible.... Purists of the French. we can talk about a round of golf... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement. and aviation. cards. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.. It is the language of business.... .. speaking and being corrected ...... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH....... sport...... Speaking 1. How do you learn languages? ....What advantages does the baby have? . reading . technology. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.... speaking and not being corrected all the time . writing . second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY.. Justify your order. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance. and the process is now being reversed.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary...

The Advanced Research Projects Agency. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. 4. and the Internet. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. in fact. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. uninvited but still welcome. They started mailing lists. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. by 1972. for it was they. Instead. 5 . they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. 2. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. 1. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. they used it to swap gossip.). then news and eventually gossip. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. There will be no "command center". it worked. swapped them (via the net. invented e-mail. Crude as they were. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. 3. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. each machine will have equal status. Amazingly. to use the techy term. These packets could be sent independently over the network. 37. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. as it came to be called. no single computer that controls the rest of them. They had.. still the most popular use of the Net by far. But then an odd thing started to happen. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. Other networks joined in. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. the way they got there was unimportant.. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. they opened newsgroups. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. just kept on growing. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. Because of the way the messaging system worked. But they weren't interested in science or academia.I. they sent each other games. Instead of using the network strictly for business.

Here are five types of computers. cheaper and more reliable. notebook 3. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). network. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. but transistors soon (replace) them. a set of related computers C. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. mailbox. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. along with IBM. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. mainframe 5. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. a series of bits being a part of message B. a person who tries to discover something E. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. researcher A. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Apple. Computer sizes. desktop computer 2. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. but the market (saturate) to some extent. supercomputer 4. packet. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Since then the computers (become) smaller. however.2. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. Over the last few years.

click on the course they want. and the Americans. There's a revolution happening in education. rather than offering their own set of courses. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". the material would be available to students at their convenience. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. offered by mail. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. and as with mail order programs. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. and connect to a server that presents information. says Nat Kannan. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". videotape of professor's lectures. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. Australia. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. all of which express personal opinions: 1. Students can log onto the Internet. visit the school's We site. and interactive courseware. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. founder and president of University Online. Personally. Europe. For example. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. use a bulletin board. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. online environment. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . Within a few months. learn the material. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. 1. Using modern technology. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. Use the elements to make complete sentences.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. the Net will be alma mater. It's called distance learning. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide.

. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. to take a material form 5. This University has only existed .. operator voucher. University Online was originally tested over five years . performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. 4. for and ago: 1.. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. state condition. over two years... . boredom. neighbo(u)rhood electrician..... the beginning of the experiment. kingdom employee.. addressee audience. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. four years . connector childhood... to represent in a digital form 2. independence employer.. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. to make use of a symbol for something 3... so it has been tested . musician introduction. withdrawal clearance. -or -hood -ian -ion.. state condition. behavio(u)rism typist.. 6.. scientist . 5.. we never believed it would be so successful. 3. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. in 1992 2.. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. to reduce to the minimum 7. condition belonging to act of. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1.g. It was put on the market in 1994. to give authority to 10. execution.. possession magnetism... a few months . I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. You have to follow a course .. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8.. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. When we started... Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. several new courses have been offered... To my mind. to write a summary of 3.. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. to give a linear form to 8..5. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. to arrange in an optimal way 6.

initial 12. long 13. local 9. interruptible environmental. rivalry friendship. concentrate. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. active 3. standard 18. furiously 4. soft 10. lengthen classify. generally. short 7. action condition of quality. tight 5. auto 8. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. loose 16. state condition. tolerate shorten. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. broad 2. boldness labo(u)r. using the verb-forming suffixes above. widen.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. behavio(u)r foundry. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. condition. slavery. Now. mode 14. logical. quality state. transform the following words into verbs. simplify customize. analysis 11. electric 17. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. robot 6. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. happiness. computerize. reality achievement. government business. personal 15. -ical -ish -less -ous. -ery -ship state. economical foolish useless porous. weak 19. 1. stimulus 20. state electricity. simple 4. condition place. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic.

C++. They merely prove you can think. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. And there are lots of people who know it too. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. By the age of 30. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. how it relates to other products and so on. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Java and Visual Basic developers. technology and people. The same goes for NetWare Certification. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. That's where the all-important experience comes in. Qualifications are important. Visual Basic and Delphi. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. University degrees are useless. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. 10 . The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. Get a decent book on Windows programming. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. rolled out major solutions and are well known. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. Here's the road map. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. and so on. its positioning on the market. an attention to detail. more manageable pieces. A consultant is different. spend more money on a training course. you've run big projects. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. For someone starting out. Delphi. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. However. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. a week there. so you have to be better than them.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. as does Novell. After a couple of hops like that. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. If you decide programming is really for you. C++.

You may work for only a few days or a week for your company. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team.... be in computing science. If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project.. adjective.... 5. 6. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer.. need to. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. have to.... For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement. Interestingly.... More than one answer is possible in some examples... a stem and a suffix.. 7. become an expert in too narrow a field. have a degree but it ... It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. Most are between 30 and 45. study BASIC. 7... Prefixes change the meaning of the word. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business...... an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry........ LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix......... It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career.. 1...Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager.. 2. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager... be able to use C++. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff. They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems.. You need to be bright. You . 1. You ........ Technical qualifications .... Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team. Look at the examples: 11 .. You . to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date. 1. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career... 4. 4.. 2. employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit..... verb. You ... so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere... 6. Your objective is to become self-employed.. In any case... 3.. You . You . 8. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise.. 9.. 3.. 8.... Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well. Most of this can't be taught. 5. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks. You . many of them don't have degrees in computing science.. These days you .... You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. must... etc... Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs.. You . to have experience in JavaScript. suffixes change the part of speech (noun. 2.. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience..)... to make sensible statements.. be able to show leadership...... communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. 10. then you can forget being an IT manager.

unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. foresee. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. side in. semicolon . misfortune nonsense unreal. into going away more than above too much beneath. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. decode disagree. bystander input. location. external foreground.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). size. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. involve output.

a program that is part of a larger program 6. half manual 7. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. half automatic. to grow larger 5. Now use the prefixes of degree. not up to standard 10.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . size. to convey data from one place to another 8. to predict 3. after the war 4. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. location. 1. that is already programmed 2. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3.

Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. to find their way around. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. include descriptive ALT text captions. If you are committed to using frames on your site. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. and visitors may not know how to 14 . 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. you may group the FAQ. Besides content. For example. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. and make necessary adjustments. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible.

password protected. on-line support. you can add the suffix "er". Logical. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. contact information. search facility. cluttered. accuracy. colorful. especially those ending in "y" (see above).use yours effectively. (hot) links. 15 . ease of use. features. a user. For most sites. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. up to date. 1. navigation. helpful graphics. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. confusing. well laid out. a visitor. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. nice design. compatibility. structure connections. good reactivity. Visit a website of your choice. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. However. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. without wasting space. Take notes on any special features. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives").

. the better he feels. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. The less he works. Ten years ago screen < high it is today.. For the preceding sentence. 2. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as".. when buying a PC are often 5. 4. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. 1. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . 2. indicated by the symbols. The less sophisticated the software. John was the elder of the two boys. When comparing two items. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. 4. 3. This computer is the cheaper of the two. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. the slower the speed of execution.. the comparative can be preceded by "the". this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. the more I feel depressed. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. as". The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. 2. the sharper the picture. The higher the resolution. when preceded by "X times". 3. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. resolution was 16 . "as . Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison.

expensive card 6. big memory device 7.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. With short adjectives. powerful computer 2. 3. inconsistent program 10. fuzzy image 8. 1. reliable device 5. ugly picture 9. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . fast chip 4. cheap computer 3. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. This is the most powerful computer available today. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.

(If you don't know what a FAQ is.. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. This piece of software . Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. Put the words back in the right order: 1. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. Don't cross-post messages... 6. be debugged before being executed. This form of internal policing.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. sometimes be useful when designing a program.. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all.. It doesn't work. 1. You .. because it wastes people's time.. 5. 18 ... documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2.. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. cause unexpected results. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources..... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. A flowchart .... You .... make sure you spell correctly yourself... rambling.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. Don't use a signature of more than four lines...... off-the-point arguments to see that. The following sentences have been scrambled. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4... you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. when to criticize and when to stay silent. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. if that happened. Programs .. unwarranted abuse and long. (A whole quarter second in some cases). Conversely. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. 4. on the Net or elsewhere. 3..... and overzealous at that.. have to. 2.. may or could 1.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings. read the FAQ). Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program.. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can.. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind... In practice....... The reason for this is never given..... A bug . over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users.

... 8.. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... opening page of a website ...... Ar fi putut... 8...... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.. a measure of visits to a website . Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. (You can find the words left to right. and computing.. picture. and diagonally top to bottom).. 4... 6... 3. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .... 10..7.. 2..... H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. 4.. write this program in a high-level language. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. 7. 6.. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . 5....... photo.. graphic . the main. 5. 3. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW ... If you do.. Cu toate acestea.. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8..... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week. You .. Write them next to the correct definition. top to bottom.... They . Cind am incercat soft-ul..... am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like.. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. 3...... 2.. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii...... it will take up too much space in the computer memory.... de exemplu.. 19 .. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat... 9.... Daca as fi vrut.. email. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. 7. Translate the following sentences into English... also known as "favorites" .... paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.

................ a location on the WWW ......g. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ... inappropriate use of a mailing list ......... 16.... a search engine.. website address . abbreviation for the Internet . an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ... a physical input / output point .... 12. the Internet equivalent of post ........ 11...... 13. a way of showing emotion in an email. 14.. 22............. 20.... something that automatically connects you to another page ..... e..e. 15. i.... :-) ....... 20 .. etc..9..... 21......... unsolicited mail. email. .. a software package generally used to start you up for a program ....... 19..... a bug which infects data on your computer ........... 18.... Uniform Resource Locator. 10.... 17.. the World Wide Web ..

has the security. 1. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. had knocked on this door. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. Today's hacker is not so lucky. C. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Triludan. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging.000. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. had not been in trouble with the law before. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. a basic computer and a bit of patience. But according to those who practice. hacking has been criminalized. hacking is still easy. and so. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. Typically. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. The law was tightened up. the computer companies would have you believe. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. Robert Schifreen 21 . He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. All the hacker needs is a modem. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. MULTIPLE CHOICE . which is readily available. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. B. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Admittedly. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. Hackers have their own code of conduct. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. costing companies an average of $23. 1. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. For some teenagers. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people.000 a year to repair. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act.Choose the ending (A. better known as Robert Schifreen.

C. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. e. Effect a. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. 2. h. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. deliberately destructive B. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. B. C. outlaws hacking. 3. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. Each MP3 file has a tag. B. g. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. This produces much smaller files. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. You can create your own compilation. Hacking A. 22 . The majority of hackers are shown to be A. 4. 3. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. 8. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 7. B. male criminals. This gives an enormous storage capacity. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. D. Then link them with an –ing clause. According to the NNC A. MP3 players contain several devices. 2. f. c. b. Match each cause and effect. 4. the survival of hackers is threatened. You can download a skin program. 6. has eliminated all computer security. has made hacking more difficult. 5. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. Cause 1. merely curious. 5. D. totally unaware of what they are doing.A. is popular because it is romantic. 33% of its members are hackers B. costs about 48p a time C. You can legally download some music. C. You can download single tracks. D. D. d. Each side of a DVD can have two layers.

A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 3. 5. 9. 2. mouse and hard drives only. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. display. 6. keyboard. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 1. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. 4. 10. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network.3. 7. 8. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory.

.... floppy drive.. word processor and database – comes on one CD. Mainstream applications 3.....2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. or were vast collections of specific information......... No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.... Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore..000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.. 1. but it's not the only one. According to the market researcher Dataquest. with a further 1. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. the equivalent of 300. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. Applications are the key issue.. and justify the cost of a drive.. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage.. Review criteria 4.... The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.. Measuring drive performance 2.. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass.. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. and because there's more space. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post... 24 . Finally data access is relatively quick and painless..... Price points . 1. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. As with other areas of the computer industry.. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. the applications are generally better. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space.... but are spread throughout business. .. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis.. literature and art. For example. along with the conventional 3. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. Put them back in the appropriate place..5in... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine....LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.....

. As a result of this market maturity... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market. this excuse was taken too far. 1... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters... So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. give reasons for your choice.. access time.. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. Backing Store ........ but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk.... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search... 2. files.......... 5.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false.. however advanced.. 7... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.. pie chart... 9.... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time.. more faster.... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. .. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.. drawback.. more precise head positioning mechanism......... This is often confused with the average access searches. disk 25 . consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.. is still a read-only product.... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives........ 3.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. ..... 8........ Increased competition has now reversed the trend...But CD-ROM. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... 6. 2. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. while still developing rapidly. 10. The industry..... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more. ........ TRUE OR FALSE? .......... CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.. 1. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information..... 4..

.. You should write between 150 and 200 words.... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders......... 9.... In this way only a small part of a . Hence files can be . (i....... disk.. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .... Hermetic data modules called ".. 3..... a disk must be . Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ... Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.. Disk have the advantage of being serial or . that is extremely slow because of . Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers... 8...... De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE). sequential access. floppy disk.... needs to be in main memory at any one time. storage areas are marked on the magnetic. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS... 10........ Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.... This technology is cheap and easy to use... Large systems often use cartridges or ...... If the disk is ..... magnetic tapes... 2.... 5....... 4.. and ..... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. database. a track and a sector number).. magnetic disks or diskettes... formatted (x3).. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta... where only one surface is .. of all the files on the disk... Most users are more familiar with the ..... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years.. though these are becoming .. 3. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.. it is called a ..drives.. directory. media and .. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle..... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.. address... THE PASSIVE ...... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.. erorile se pot corecta.... double-sided......... but has the ......" are also common.. Before being used. oxide-coated surface. both internal and external.......... 7.. so-called because of its flexibility. as opposed to a single-sided disk.. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ..... Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. direct-access...................... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a . read-write head. 26 . The . The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems..... on both surfaces. disk packs.......e... 6.... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. old-fashioned.Translate the following sentences into English: 1... i...... retrieved........e. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta.

especially in distant lands. An overview of lost techniques. Moreover. science. Within the last few years. fashion. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. public museums did not exist. A museum can best be defined as A. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. At the time of the Renaissance A. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. 1. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. C. beyond the straightforward museum visit. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. With reference to the information in the article. 3. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. B. military. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. will replace traditional museums. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. the patron goddesses of the arts. crafts. 2. Elizabeth Brown. B. a basis for study for future generations. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. With the internet. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. For many people. only aristocrats could go to museums. electronically. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. C. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. 27 . virtual museums A. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. and industry.

collection 5. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 5. C. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. object produced by human hands 3. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. 1. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . to establish 6. will organize visits to its storage spaces. something produced by creative talent E. to see. museum A. best work of an artist C. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. honored 5. 3. Museums maintain and display great works of art. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. article (in a magazine) 4. 6. The Web may transform our perception of art.B. Match the words and their definitions: 1. photo (taken quickly) 2. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. vast 4. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. work of art. 2. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. 2. to enjoy 10. will show works of art that do not exist. art work 2. B. to admire 3. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. disadvantage 7. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. Put the following sentences into the passive form. storehouse 8. 4. country 9. The National Museum of Art A. C. artefact 3. masterpiece 4. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. 4.

the merchant receives the payment. In many cases. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. With such a system. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. In a peer-to-peer system. To execute a real-time transaction. 29 . the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. Payment systems based on gold. currency. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. In a credit system.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. 4. or a dedicated payment client. Using a public key. and a bank does the accounting. A bank employee who pays out money. and the amount to be paid. 3. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. 2.e. The customer pays. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. users can act as both customers and merchants. you gather your money up front and then spend it. This might be a WWW browser. In a debit system. For the purposes of this discussion. for example). and the amount of money represented). Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. a bank redeems each note number only once. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. the name of the payer and the recipient. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. and credit cards are credit systems. both exist in the digital world as well. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. traveler's checks. the date and time of the transaction. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. paper currency. charge accounts. Checks. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. A person who receives (money. A person who buys goods or services from you. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. 1. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. The customer runs client software. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. 5. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems..

he ignored it. 6. 1. deposit.. The initial . The customer...... The man. . Stupid Computer Error A .. interest. To add money (to an account)... The first one has already been done for you.. to clear.. loan. to start.. receipt. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who.. A computer that can access a server.... remittance.. For $20 a month. 4. is used in electronic trade.. 5..... .. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. However. C . for their manager... overdraft.. the company can have access to a .. D .... wanted to buy some shirts.00.. . 30 . 7. The bank director.. 3.... The bank will send the company a weekly . accepts digital cash. whom.. Digital credit..... to open.....000.. statement... of which.. to sign.. will be $10. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday.. You will not need to use them all! account..... B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.. entered the virtual shop.. The site.. I met personally.00 stating that payment was now overdue.... The next month he got a bill for $0. were still new.. He ignored it and threw it away.... we found CD-ROMs on sale.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. withdrawal The Longstone company wish . The account will not produce any ...... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph... 2.. holder.. a current . agreed to honor my check.. whose. name is on the check... where.... He alone will be authorized .. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake... of account. He is the very man . balance. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled... 2. were found in the safe... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement... 3....00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.. cheques. safe. 8. which.00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it..6. will only be charged at 12%... is similar to traditional credit... some ...... A large number of banknotes.. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. bought her a typewriter instead..? The next day he got a bill for $0... Money used in a specific country.

After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. He called them and talked to them.? A week later.00. F .00. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.00 by return of post.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.? Finally giving in. G . and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too.E .

... more controversially. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. that didn't keep the crowds away. Christian Huitema. well. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings.. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. dipping even further into the future. What should concern us. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion.. said. he enthused. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. smells. exist. As he pointed out. computing. for all intents and purposes. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs.. experts expect that. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net.. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". came the issue of virtual reality.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. futurologists forecast. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum.. the current issue of security will only be short.. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. is high / low it is highly probable that . but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. 1. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. networks. "Sight. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. 32 . Dr. Lastly. So things have changed. satellite. dumb terminals. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. there was an inevitable blur of content. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. Huitema. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. he predicted. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. "At telecom 91. sound and feeling will arrive.. For sheer impact. And as for the taste. he said. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". was how online commerce will evolve.. Next came. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. Dr. the future. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. that probability that . said Dr. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. and the role of the providers. And needless to say. one can predict / foretell that... and. we'll have to work on that one". You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present.

. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.... HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. My boss is easygoing and .. indicated by a finger symbol. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). 4. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let.. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. 33 ... me to get a better job... 2. it is reasonable to think that... allow.. it hard for me to have a social life.... Reading Read the article.. enable. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.. there are grounds for believing that.. me to stay out later than 11. make..... I hope that doing the course . 5.. The term was first coined by William Gibson.00..... there are scientific arguments for..... Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient. permit 1.... me leave early every Friday afternoon.. Prepare to explain them to your partner. Being a single parent . Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage..it is a well-founded supposition that. A security password .. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. Sneaky. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete.. access to confidential files. 3..... 3... Keyword The word. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can..... 2.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to.. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer.. When I was young my parents never ..

It takes wit. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. contract and condense. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. It has an estimated 75 million users. or type the type. a new idiom has been born. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). every night. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). PBAB (please bring a bottle). all day at work. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). The solution is to abbreviate. Plenty of adults talk the talk. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). concentration and agile fingers. FWIW (for what is worth). teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. Across the world. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. Well. There's neither time nor space for exposition. GTG. sex and location. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). If something cracks you up. C-U-L8R 34 . It's brief: three or four words per exchange.

Spanish. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". For the purpose of this task.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. then write your own CV in the same way. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. e. Geography.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. which sounds very strange indeed.w. degrees and other qualifications.cair@btinternet. English. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. EH21 3TZ email p. Computer Studies. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.II. Science. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. Stonebridge.g. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally.

advising clients on IT issues and strategies .database design .1st line customer telephone support .Exchange Server 5. Thin.Windows 200 Server / Professional .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . IT Department. Novasystems 36 .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.TCP / IP Networking .Sage line 50 & 100 .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.5 . L.. Personnel Officer. 2000 .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .Office 97. Leith.network administration and implementation .Windows 95 / 98 .

Check your spelling and punctuation 9. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. You may find some of the following expressions useful: .am currently studying for . and where to put the handwritten signature.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . State what job you are applying for 4. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Make the information you give relevant to the job. respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. B. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .1. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.name and address of firm. Write clearly 2.state where you saw the job advertised . Use the person's name if you know it . Type your letter 6. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Reference number if there is one."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.B.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". how to end it.should you feel I could be of use to your firm . the name and address of the addressee. Give all the information you are asked for 8. 37 .am available to start as from June 15 .state you qualifications in brief . State when you are available for the interview 10. the signatory's full name (typed). and firm. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . how to begin a letter.

Over the past year. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. Yours sincerely. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. through the British Council. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. team leadership and team membership.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. for example. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. Alan Bannister 38 . I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. teachers and administrative staff. In Malaysia I arranged. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. study tours for project personnel. as well as students.

Dress in a business-like way.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. . What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. 5. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6.Do arrive in plenty of time. .C.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. Describe your most recent accomplishments. so much the better. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview.Don't smoke. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. You are likely to be found in the end.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. . experience. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. In the past year. Thank your interviewer. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. . don't rush. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . . . 2. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. Which is more important to you. interests and hobbies. money or job satisfaction? 12.Don't let your clothes be too extreme.Do make a graceful exit. . . Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. . set out early. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. walk to the door.Do sit still. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. 39 .

... or may not be able to open .writing everything in UPPER CASE .... How are you? I bet you are .. One letter is formal. Please find . if you intend your comments to be humorous) . you in the ... How often do you use email? 2. future. how has it changed your working life? 3. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . I was wondering if .. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are .. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .not making clear who you are and why you are writing . Monica Ciampi P. B.. or in sentences that are too long . the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender .Read these emails. working on Lingo. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .D.not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .... if you might be able to help me. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. Yours sincerely. which I hope you will find interesting.... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.. Dear Sir...... I would be extremely ..not answering all the points raised by the sender .. .not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.. I .not telling the reader what you expect them to do..... the other informal. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A. What do you use email for? 4.. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using..S... Dear James. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: ..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to ..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in. If you use email at work. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. Could you email me details? 40 .. my recent paper...writing too much..

. currently b. business b. annexed 9. bracket 12. happy c. near b. grateful b. for b.. by 11. attached b. wishes 41 . pair d. meal c.. request c. missing c. soon d. to Peter 1. I look forward to news from b. a. before 15. wonder d.. I look forward to hearing from c.. dinner 14. a. too d. early c. Send my .. ask 2. respect d. Monica P.S. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . I am looking forward to hearing from 7. a. supper d. a. a. a. as well c. a.. together. a. so b... from c. affair 6. and 13. pleases d topic d. close 8. wasting d. Hope to hear from you .. matter c.. next c.In a . a. presently d. and thank you for your help. additionally 4.. concerns b. losing b.. a. beforehand b. love c.. glad 5.. then c. match c.. I look forward to hearing news from d. included d... drink b. demand b.. of weeks I'll be in England. thus d. a. enclosed c.. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . a. lacking 10. a. topic d. Best wishes... a.. with d. now c. couple b. a. also b. actually 3.

.. pronunciation.... rapport / eye contact.. My . Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. ... outline. relevance... I'll . . accuracy. pointed out "Good afternoon... Well. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next.. that although turnover has risen. clarity. everybody... today is to . on those successes before we ....... appropriacy. 42 .. There is no benefit in using difficult language. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. I've ... enjoyable.. expand.. I'd like to . subject knowledge. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.. humor Organization – coherence.. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Overall – clarity of message.. I'll quickly . research Approach – message support and reinforcement. finally.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. I'm . audibility. confidence...... body language Language – clarity. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. indicate. what . then.... What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. . interesting. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already . describe... I'd like to . talked. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. informative... Please feel free to ... on balance.. our profits have not increased at the same rate. recommend.. you will notice.. fluency.. What is a presentation? 2. illustrate. before . I think our first .. specifically. referring... to . handling Delivery – pace. .. clarity. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. enthusiasm...... some of the problems we are having over the market share. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. variety... move on..... Let me quickly .. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation.. of course.. Now I'd like to . For what purpose are presentations made? 3... to Italy and Spain. in conclusion. sum up.... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. and.. . motivating Exercise . bring you up to date. to start with. achievement of objectives..E.. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy.. draw your attention. purpose.. with our plans for Europe.. tell you.. more .. me if you have questions at any time.. you all for being here.... ..... some of the problems we are facing. intonation......... concluding... I'll . What makes a presentation effective? 4.. . interrupt.. about our current position in the UK and I've .. options. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. priority.. thank.. with some recommendations.

. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far...... . I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . though.. Thank you also for your pertinent questions.We should not forget the French market. .. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy. Spain and possibly Greece. Are there any final questions?" 43 ...... but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes..

However. but there are a number of differences: . dissertations need to say a lot about a little. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. This means you have a whole year to write it.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). called a dissertation or long essay. and be available to assist you. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic.is the topic academic enough? . DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. A member of staff will supervise progress. since you have more space. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays.you can choose your own title . but is probably the most important.F. but it can also be very daunting. Like an essay. There are several criteria for your choice: .research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. try it out with your supervisor. 44 . you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. which you research by yourself.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay .is the topic relevant to your degree course? . In part-time degrees.

000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. since you may need a few by your side. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . 000 words Conclusion – 1. since you have more to say. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. ask yourself: . This will be your title. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. Introduction – 1. 000 words. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. the first thing to do. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. Dissertations are usually 10. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. As you are reading through the books on your topic. It is longer.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.

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III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

4. 49 . It's really cold. but you can never tell. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 5.1. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3.

........ bank to withdraw some cash................................ ......... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra........ 2..................... 1................ I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2................. 7.................. 5............. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known........ I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.. professional musician and plays with ........ I booked it last week....... 7. 1. I had ...... In each case choose the most likely alternative............ Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations.................. Grammar 1. When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything................... I went for ... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics.................................. 6. ................................... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions............... After ... 4........ 4..... 3... or no article......................... 5................................ I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup............................................ I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras.. 9................ Look at those clouds....... 2..... years.......... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit........ I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting... long walk by ...... ....................................... I've done that for you...................................... They wondered how we had managed to do it....... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.............................................................. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation................................. lovely morning.............................................. old school friend who I hadn't seen for ................. 3..... If you're too hot in here........ 3... and she said that she hadn't had a chance...... Articles Complete this text with a / an.......... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions. 6... 8............................. ....... the... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year...........Test B A.............. ....................... Right....... ........... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details..... lunch with Bob.. River Thames. He's ........ ....................... 50 ...... First I went to ............ ......... Then I went swimming at ..........

.............. it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest................... AK Hello...................................... is that right? AK Yes....................................... C Hello........ you're talking about............................. and they said they would get it to him by 10................. 2.... ..... P Yes........................... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering............. ? C ...00 ......... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e.... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily...... ........ fine................ Goodbye... AK Exactly.................. Sorry.......... OK... which is why I thought .... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time. C Paula......... then...... EJ ........................................... let me give you an example........... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9...................... EJ .. 51 .m....... yes. Wednesday at 9................ EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment............... So..................... ..... can I just interrupt you a second? b.. c......... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland........................ Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase..........00.... P OK....... EJ ............ I'm busy on Thursday.. at the latest.......................... a.. e........ 9.... I've got you..................... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski........... OK..... Good idea... EJ Oh............ It sounds useful...... and we told him that we could do it next week... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software....... d...................... .... Would Thursday morning at 10... B...............00 a.... ................. AK .. is that Paula.......8............. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert.... As we were leaving........ Functions 1.. hello....................... .......... 10...... right...... AK Yes.. EJ ... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary...................................... something for people who need English translations of words....00 ? P .. I'm not really with you................................. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.......

.... an important meeting in my life.............. 4..... the inconvenience caused.. I am not accustomed ....... 3....... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.. because of inefficiency.. 8... 3..... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss.C... miss... We need to concentrate .... the discussion today.. Oh... 1... 10.... the UK market for the time being... 1............ or waste....... I had three jobs to choose ..... I've never .......... I really .. The meeting coincided ..... 52 ..... A lot of company's resources are . 6. 9......... the beer festival.. 2....... me............... You can depend .. Thank you for taking part .. opportunity! 5...... no! I seem to have .. Don't worry.. Please listen . He apologized . You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a . it.. I'm allergic . 2. ............... Vocabulary 1.. 5.... Do you take credit cards? 4. sensitivity... 7....... lose. lose.... my money.. He is lacking .... my new job.......... me. 2... I can't eat seafood. my family when I was abroad on business for four months.....

.. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. Grammar 1. have become good friends. .. 2... is free. I'm doing many work at the moment. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.... work opposite us are not very friendly... I'm living in at the moment.. 3... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices... 10. or whom... 2.. 2.. e. 9. the majority of .. has just joined the company? b.. He gave us a lot of information about his company. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. I give / will give you a bonus. You can download software from many websites. 5. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. a.. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. 3. c. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. d. Nothing happened yesterday.. Complete the sentences. which... For three years she worked with her boyfriend ... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun).. that.... 7. One million dollars is plenty of for one person..... she later married. 1.. The reception area.. I like playing sport. My company does much business in Asia. 3... Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences... How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 2. who.. we hold meetings in.. you used to work? was also the year I got married..... 1.. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B.. 4. There's not much news to tell you. 6....... is on the fifth floor. using where. What's the name of the woman . Then complete them. so please hurry up.. You need to invest in some more machinery.. some of B. he bought shares in the company. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. is comfortable and spacious. but I don't spend a lot on equipments... A.. This is the room .. anticipating an increase in value.. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.. 53 .Test C A.. then correct the mistakes.

.................... .. 1........ Vocabulary 1........ and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things.. like e.................. Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ....... g.... It's such a bad line.. because of a.. He really gets . fraud still occurs.. a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online.... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server... whereas 6.......... (be excited by) 4.. Explaining consequences......................... .. on abusing the little power he has. what you're saying... e............. 1. so h......... due to the fact that 7........ is the answer to that. can we trust these servers to be secure? .g... Functions 1. while d.. as a result of 8.. To give you an example c.... He's always letting his colleagues ... ...... ... (indicate awareness of something) 3................. ..... (understand) 54 ...... 2. By secure. (compensate for) 6...... however f........... for example 2........... ........ can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'.......... . due to b.. The point is d...... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning..... thus C.................. e... He's not a very good team player.... ................ I had a day off work last week to make ... working at the weekend. a.......... trends.......... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.. So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem............. I can only just make ......... because c........ as 3..... (make depressed) 5............. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e............................. on the other hand 4............. I mean b.... Let me explain what I mean..... such as 5... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets. (disappoint) 2....B............

.....7......... (communicate) 9............. Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics..... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview... She called in sick so that she could get ....... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .................................. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London....... (avoid) 2..... The company really took .. last year when we broke into the German market. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties... She's very good at getting her ideas . It's good news......... 55 . the meeting... ? (invent) 10. (became very successful) 8....

........ I think we ............... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning................... 7.......... have kept some of it for herself........................... The optician tested my eyes yesterday. but I ............. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors........................... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6..... company profits ....................................................... 5. (you open) the door immediately? 56 .... ..... 9........ 6.............. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage............. 5........... .............................. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form......... ...................................................... He was only 42 years old........... ....................................................... ......................... well top $150 million this year......... 10................................... be a big shock...... 8........ (be) on fire? b..................................................... We're locked out! 4.................. 3............................... 1.......................... Companies usually provide managers with language training.. ...... but I'm not sure yet........ 2................................................ If someone ........................... no! I ..... Use have / get something done where appropriate....................................... Grammar 1........................................ .......... His colleague's death ............. ..................... 4............... 3................................................... Oh... be staying at the conference venue......................................... 7............................. We invite successful applicants to a second interview....... 1........................................... (you save) if your house ........................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me.. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive....... He ............ (knock) on your door at home .............. have left my keys in the restaurant....................................................................Test D A............ The head of department recommends candidates for promotion......... When I go to Barcelona I ............ have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months. According to Peter.............................. 2........ The store manager had only just moved to the branch.. ... ...... 3. What three things ....... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities................................................... be wrong.................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ........... 8......................................... 2......... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night....... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb.................. a.................................... Somebody stole my laptop computer.......... Conditionals 1...............

.... using the words a-e. ........ (give) you a ticket.. ....... . (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong. (not study) your subject at school / university.......... (not get) a job with your current company? h........... If you .. d.... (see) a UFO. (be) good this weekend what ....... Then b.. A: If you ... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description.. (you change) ? g... Functions 1. To manage interruptions 2.... I ..... a.... To ask for clarification 5. but I don't think they'd believe me.. whose life .. one candidate is chosen.. Can I finish what I was saying? d.............. A: If I .. Where .... (you do) ? e. 1... (go) to the police. A: If I .... (be) you.... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. To summarize a... However...... If you .. If the weather . c. we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed.. I ................. (go) to the police..... So............. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion....... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function......... (you work) if you ....... (you study) ? f....... Could you be more specific? b..... firstly e... What ......... If you ....c.... (happen) if ............... (be) you.. after lengthy discussion.. eventually d.. A: Careful! If .. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense....... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e... I know.... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards...... The interviews take place and ... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's.... B: Yes.. Would you like to come in here. B: Thanks for warning me.. c. basically what you're saying is.............. a. (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2........... Ella? 57 .............. what ........ To keep to the point 3................................ ............. (you park) your car there they ........ ultimately c................. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ..... (you choose) ? d. b............ 2. B........ what .. To ensure other people get to speak 4.

replaceable 3... 2.......... ....C.. legible 58 ..... create .. . Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs......... 4......... 3. humor .... 1.... 1............... criticize ..... understand ....... 2. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites... credible 4.. connect 5. . rely ......... 5... .... Vocabulary 1......... .... interested 2.......................

c... Grammar 1. .. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9...... By the time I retire I hope I ..... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House. e.... .. 1..... In three months' time I . Permission............. A: Great......... possibility. d..... I'm sure... if you'd like me to show you around Prague..... I . I .... 2...m. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. so don't forget to take waterproofs.... B: ... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.. Future Perfect.... requests.... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c..... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes.... Thank you.. Do you know what ...Test E A.. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.............. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form.......... it's no problem.... but ... Functions 1... Must I really go to the meeting? f.......00 p... necessity.... b. 6..... (live) in space... (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. and obligation 1. 4.......... 7... If you have time during your stay in Sydney.... thank you. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics............ Am I allowed to smoke in here? b. Do you think there ........... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. (finish) their meeting by 7... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May...... (work) from home....m........... 59 ..... otherwise I may / must / can forget it. tomorrow? We ...... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2...00 p........ (think) of you....... Good luck with your exam tomorrow......... Match each question with an appropriate category.. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like...... 2........ Invitations..... By 2050 people .... I'm sorry.. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase. 5. (do) at 8.. Will they . a....... I'd like that. Look..... Call me sometime over the weekend...... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful........ I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. Future Continuous.... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d....? 3..... I've got two tickets! B. I . 8...

.. carry off c. you're welcome e......... and take Complete the sentences with bring... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ..... B: You too............ thanking.... bring... I have to .... A: How did you . in your English test? B: Oh. get... or take.......... B: Thanks............ lead to.... ........ B: Yes.... Can I help you .. Concluding.... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. begin (a hobby) 2. 2....... A: Have you . cash-flow problems for small businesses............. Vocabulary 1....... B: ... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.. Well....... carry.. A: ... 1... not too bad............ C. Mark. 1............... her? 3........... 5... great. warm clothes.. and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e........... A: Oh..... 3...... bring about b... carry....... lead to..... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year..... employ (someone) 60 ... cause 4.. A: I've had a lovely evening.. 2.............. A: Well.......... 2. that .... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... .... A: So. Thanks for coming...... take up d.. with everything....... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning... a... Late payment often .....A: ... your bags? They look very heavy! 2.............. get... keep in touch d........... I'm starting a new job next week......... did you . I can't... succeed 3. best of luck b.. take on a.. Yes.... some research for my thesis..... too many mistakes........... hope to see you again sometime 1....... I don't think I . eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock. I hear this is your last day at work here.. I'm glad you enjoyed it c... Remember to ........ B: ............................................. ................... thank you for that lovely dinner once again............

. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1.. c – 7 4. going 1. competent 2. . a – 5 2. had been having 4. to entertain 3. hasn't stopped 1. had read / started 5. stubborn 5... outgoing 3. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. . used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today.. a .Tests .. sounds like 4. have been having 9. f – 6 7. d – 4 5.Answer key Test A A1 1. . . to turn off 5. watch 3. at the moment 2. woke up 1. seems 5. e – 1 6. 1. for a week 5. saying 2. had been sitting 6. g – 3 1. 5. always plays 7. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. used to have a Porsche. look like 2.. going 4. have eaten 10.. all my life 4. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. have never seen 8. have you been doing 6. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. 3.. . b – 2 3. meticulous 4. 4. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. was traveling / witnessed 3. 2.. arrived / had left 7. was living 2. recently 3.

' 6.' 7. That would be / Yes.. I haven't had a chance. 'Did you see anything?' 2. 5. 4. that's / That suits me 1. at the latest. the 8. 3. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. an 5. I'll just check / I'll call 5. from 7. wasted 5. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. Ø 9. on 8. Sorry. to 10.. OK. that / which / Ø d.m. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. in 5. a 7. a 10. a. who / that b. which e.' conditions. wasted 2. for 2. who / whom c. let me give you an example. 2. a. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. which 2.00 a. the 4. OK. B1 1. I'm afraid 4.' 9. How about / What about 5. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. 62 . 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. the 3. I'm playing 4. in 3. I'm not really with you. to 9. I was wondering whether 2. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. will win 9. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. to 6. I'm going to spend 8. the 1.2. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. I'm going to 3. you're talking about . missed C2 1. I've got you. missed 3. Are you doing A3 2. is going to rain 7. I'll turn on 6. Ø 6. So. with 4. lost 4. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. we can do it next week. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10.

until / are 1. arisen 2. Let me explain what I mean 2. I – plenty of 6. out 7. d. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. To give you an example 3. substantial 5. some of whom have become good friends. down 5. risen 3. sharply 4. which was also the year I got married. C 9. A2 1. by / will give 3. The point is 4. 63 . I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. I – a lot of good advice 1. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. I – information 2. I – quite a few 5. raise 6. up 10. I mean 5. rise 6. I – equipment 10.b. I've met a lot of people through work. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. off 4. across 9. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. e. I – a lot of 3. off 8. down 2. By secure. We started the company in 1999. on 3. as soon as 2. C 8. up for 1. C 4. I – a lot of 7.

Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. happens. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm.. arrived 2. humorous 3. was you / would go c. must 7. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. 7. Excuse me. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. uninterested 2. could / would you choose d. is / will you do e. 1. / I've had my laptop stolen. / Managers are provided with language training. must 4. 2. John? 4. 6. Would you like to say something about this. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . would you save / was b. can't / couldn't 5. Applications are passed on to universities. irreplaceable 3. 3. I had my eyes tested yesterday. 9. 10. 4. Can you be more specific? 5. a. a. I was in the middle of saying something. had been / would have gone b. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. could / may / might 8.2. might / may / could 3. saw / would you do d. should 2. Candidates are recommended for promotion. understandable 64 C2 1.. A2 1. So. could / might / may 1. My laptop has been stolen. should / must 6. reliable 2. basically what you're saying is . Language training is provided for managers. My eyes were tested yesterday. would happen / arrive. were / would you change g. incredible 4. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. knocked / would you c. 8. would you work / hadn't got h. 5. Miranda was asked to write the report. creative 4.

1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. have finished 3. Keep in touch 4. made 3. get 3. That's very kind of you 3. made 4. will have been working 4. will be 9. Shall we say 5. You're welcome 5. will speak 7. carry 2.5. will have earned 8. can't 3. best of luck 2. bring 4. Shall 4. we will be doing / will be taking 1. Hope to see you again some time 3. do 2. will be thinking 2. must 2. lead to 1. 1. will be living 6. can 4. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . I was wondering 2. critical Test E A1 1. take 5. illegible A2 1. would be fine / suits me fine 1. will be working 5. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. can't 5.

He's knowing a lot about music. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. I'm going to the cinema every day. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term.IV. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. 2. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. She's working here until Christmas. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. 66 . We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. He doesn't want to be in the school play. He knows a lot about music. She works here until Christmas. 2. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1.

we add –ed to the infinitive. (I've got a new car now. You haven't lived abroad. 1. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 6. He's seeming very tired. He seems very tired. (She isn't here now. To make regular past participles. I have.3.) I've been to Brazil three times.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. Vegetarians don't eat meat. (Until now I've been there three times. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. present simple. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. Some are right and some are wrong. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car.) Present perfect. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. 2. (He still works there now. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. 67 . (I still live here now.) I've bought a new car. and present continuous Look at these sentences. I want to go out for dinner. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. 4. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. 5. 3. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner.) I've lived here for three years.

68 . 5. We often go to the park. can be used to make comparisons. Her house is as big as mine. He's never here at 9. I work here since October. Russia is bigger than Canada... as . but they usually go before the main verb. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. The film was much better than I expected. in front of the main verb. normally. Sometimes. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. I don't usually get up late. I'm working here since October. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4.. The train is always on time.3.00. as ..

as .92m Alex's brothers 1. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. We weren't here yesterday. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.75m Alex is taller than his brothers..83m 1. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. 1.. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week.Silver isn't as expensive as gold.. 3. The film was better that the book. 4. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. My exam results were worse than Andy's. Alex 1. 6. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. In the negative so . . He's as tall as his brother. He's so tall as his brother. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. is also possible. 2. Short answers Yes. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995.85m 1. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. he was. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences.. The film was better than the book.

Last year he went on five foreign holidays. I did. I went out this morning. he was. (She isn't here now. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. I went there four years ago. (I still live here. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. She used to be a teacher. (But I don't live there now.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. not the effect.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. We didn't use to live in London.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e.) Before that I lived in Madrid. It has no present form. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. I've been there four years ago. you must use the past simple tense. but he gave up five years ago. two days ago. She's gone home. only the past simple can be used. 7. She wasn't going to work. not the present perfect.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. He used to smoke. I've lived here for five years. in 1993. last week). I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now.) She went at four o'clock. For individual past actions. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. We went to the cinema twice last week. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. or past actions which were not habits. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 .g. (We're interested in when the action took place.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.

72

The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!

2.

3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

(But I haven't got the money. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. We use who with people. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't.) She'd be a good politician.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. She's probably coming this weekend. It may (not) rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. If I had the money. (But she works in a bank. They wouldn't steal from a friend. It'll probably rain today. It's likely to rain today. which with things. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11.) make polite offers. or imaginary situations. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. impossible. I saw the man. It could rain today. It might (not) rain today. I would. 74 least likely most likely . He's the man who lives next door. I'd buy a house. It probably won't rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Use Would has many uses. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. It's unlikely to rain today. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone.

so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. haven't you? It was raining. don't they? 75 . we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. It isn't very warm. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. didn't you? NOT . In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. He's the man. so we can leave out the relative pronoun.. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause.He's the man that lives next door. She arrived yesterday. can't she? NOT . You can swim. which.. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. She married him. He's the man. He's the man (who/that) she married. did not you? She can speak Russian.. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. You knew about this yesterday. didn't she? You like fish. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. You're Italian. They aren't coming to the party. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. or that. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. 12.. He's the man who/that lives next door. will she? It doesn't matter. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. does it? You've finished. This chair's French. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. He lives next door. Look at these sentences. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject.

13. Thousands of cars are stolen. These houses were built in the 1930s. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. Someone has been arrested. we use the negative of the verb to be. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. Cars shouldn't be parked there. It is less direct than an ordinary question. To make the negative of the passive.) and is followed by a question mark (?). Fewer crimes would be committed. It can't be done. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). She must be told. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. we don't know the agent. The man wasn't sent to prison. The weapon hasn't been found. 76 . We use a modal verb + be + past participle. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. These computers are made in Japan. The car has been found. This wine is produced in Portugal. We can use the passive in any tense. The crime will be solved.

If we had more money. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus.. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. but not when tha main clause is first.) 77 .) 15. we'd travel business class. (There is a real chance that it will rain. unlikely.) We won't go if it rains.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. you'll miss the appointment. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. NOT If it will rain. We usually use a comma (. We usually use a comma (. she'll feel terrible. (I don't think I'll get the job.. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. If you get up late.) when the if clause is first.. we'll go to the cinema. or imaginary situations. I'd buy that house. If I had enough money. If I had enough money . (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. we'll go to the cinema. but not when the main clause is first. 14. NOT If I would have enough money ..) when the if clause is first. If it rains.If we want to show the agent. The suspect was identified by a witness. The car has been found by some children. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. If she eats all the ice cream. we use by. If I get the job I'll earn more money. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.

g. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary.. as soon as. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. She switched it on. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. before. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back.. NOT She switched on it.16. or She switched the TV on. 17. NOT . Time clauses As in clauses with if. look something up 78 . NOT . we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). before we would go to the cinema. NOT . in. He saw the mouse and ran out. and after. until Phil will get back. (transitive) The plane took off. the verb is separable. up. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. He heard a helicopter and looked up. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. e. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. when she will arrive. I'll phone you when she arrives. on. Oil will run out in the next century. away.. He took off his jacket. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs.... (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. until. She switched on the TV. She takes after her mother.

If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. I've been playing a lot of football this week. or about past actions which have present results. 79 . but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. I've lived here for ten years. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. You're late. I've been waiting for an hour. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many.' emphasize the duration of an activity. 18. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. like other continuous forms. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself.) focus on the process of an activity. (I haven't finished it yet. I've been writing a letter.I looked up the word in the dictionary. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. is not normally used with stative verbs. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. the verb is inseparable. he has.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. (temporary) The present perfect continuous.

or an auxiliary verb. using do/does in the present or did in the past. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. question word(s) subject verb 80 . have no idea. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. a modal verb. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. Did you see her? In Wh.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. so we must provide one. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. see. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. wonder. decide. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements.questions.19. remember. ask. Do they live here? You saw her. Can she swim? They've arrived. know. Compare these questions. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. They live here.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. imagine.

Note: However. I've decided how much money do I need. I've decided how much money I need. A shop that sells records is a record shop. What kind of software? Software for computers. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. The headword always goes at the end. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. I wonder why did he do that? 21. 1. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. left. we say clothes shop and sports shop.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. is.. arrives. With Wh. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software.. 2. I don't know if he's coming. 've got. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular.. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. a computer software shop This is a shop. 4. 3. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. 81 . football boots These are boots.? or Do you think you could tell me .? Could you tell me where the post office is. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that.

). and while to replace a clause. or are hyphenated. I got dressed. We saw them leaving the house. He was driving at 120mph. I read a fascinating book the other week. There's someone coming. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. feel. After I'd had a shower.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. I got dressed. a teacup. I can hear someone coming. (New packets. (Empty bottles.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. After having a shower. (Empty packets. Unfortunately there are no rules. as adjectives. watch. a tennis racket a living-room. smell. notice. I've been working since 7. hear. 23. with after. This is a really boring film. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. Others are written as two words. a bathroom a coffee cup. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. stomach ache 22. when the subject of both clauses is the same. -ing form or infinitive A. I could smell burning. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. There were two people waiting for you. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. I had the idea while driving home. to describe what someone can sense (with see. etc. She's playing tennis. Compare these sentences. I had the idea while I was driving home. object I don't enjoy cooking. 82 .00. before. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun).) Some compound nouns are written as one word.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets.

love. I enjoy doing the gardening.like. 83 . I began to realize how he felt.) He stopped to have a cigarette. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. (I spoke to her. Some of the most common are finish. 1. enjoy. In British English. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. but I didn't.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. imagine. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. -ing forms Look at these sentences. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. give up. (I wanted to speak to her. (I had met her before and I remembered it. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia.) try I tried to speak to her about it.) I tried speaking to her about it. but it didn't work. B. I like lying in bed late. continue It's just started raining. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. feel like. It's just started to rain. but I couldn't. suggest. (British) I like to lie in bed late.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. (I was supposed to dance with him. but she still wouldn't listen. forget I remember meeting her. begin. start. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.) stop He has stopped smoking. consider. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. She's considering emigrating to Australia. I'd like to live abroad. then he stopped in order to smoke. hate. (he was doing something. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive.) C. I'm beginning to learn the piano.) I remembered to meet her. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. (I had to meet her and I did. but she wasn't there. and can't stand. Smoking is bad for your health. remember.

Note: In informal speech we can use Me. 3. I began to understand the problem. I begun understanding the problem. and Me. Before to leave the office. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject.) I + negative auxiliary verb. would. There's someone that comes up the stairs. I'd love to go to New Zealand. B So do I. too. might. B Me. I must remember posting this letter. B Oh. neither to agree with a negative statement. 7. I made a phone call. 5. 24. need. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. 84 . B Nor/Neither have I. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. ought to. Stop making so much noise. will. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. A I couldn't read until I was seven. A I've never been to Ireland. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. B Me. I must remember to post this letter.2. shall. must. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. neither. B Oh.) I + positive auxiliary verb. too to agree with a positive statement. I could. I would. Before leaving the office. may. 4. could. Stop to make so much noise. A I really love pizza. should. I'd love going to New Zealand. To smoke is bad for your health. There's someone coming up the stairs. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. 25. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. 6. I made a phone call.

85 . and permission. Present: He can speak four languages.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). He might come later. You don't should leave your car there. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. Modal verbs have no tense forms. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Past: He could speak French when he was four. I must to remember to post this letter. 2. we can use could to talk about ability. You might go to London. 1. or You don't need to come. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. will: I'll be able to find a new job.) I must remember to post this letter. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. 3. I couldn't believe what he told me. would: I'd be able to find a new job. I can swim. They have no infinitive or participle form. For example. They ought to be more careful. You shouldn't do that. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. 4. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. They might not come to the party. (or I could find a new job.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. He mights come later. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. possibility. She should see a doctor. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.

we use was/were able to or managed to. You ought not to carry so much cash. You need to be at the station by 8. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor.Could. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. it is 'my' obligation. The firemen managed to save everyone. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. You don't have to come if you don't want to. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. I have to work on Saturday this week. Passengers must show their boarding cards. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. (It is a general obligation. 86 .30. The party's informal. (I want to./You don't need to wear a suit. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. You needn't wear a suit. You shouldn't work so hard.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. will: I'll have to find a new job. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. I must start taking more exercise. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Note: Must has no tense forms. would: I'd have to find a new job. Past: I had to find a new job. The firemen could save everyone. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Have to is used to describe general obligation. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. (It is and 'outside' obligation. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. The firemen were able to save everyone. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. I could drive when I was sixteen. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. though could is more common. Have to is also used. was/were able to. a driving instructor.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. from my doctor. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses.

This means that I painted the room myself. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. 26. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. I will can go swimming every day next week. She could not be here tomorrow. I had the car fixed. 3. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. 5. 1. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. Compare these sentences. 4. I had my hair cut. She might not be here tomorrow. with we and I. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. Permission Can. and may is the most polite and formal. I painted my room. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. and may are used to ask for permission. Yesterday I must get the bus to work.Probability May. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. might. 87 . could. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Could is more polite than can. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. Some are right and some are wrong. 2. I had my room painted. He had his jacket dry-cleaned.

David's father lets him use the car. Need + -ing is more informal. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something.27. The car's really dirty. 28. I got the garage to service my car. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. would. Direct speech: I like cooking. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. We can also use need with to be + past participle. and modal verbs do not change. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. It needs cleaning. 88 . said or told). Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to.g. 29. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. The car's really dirty. because a different person is now speaking. It needs to be cleaned. The judge made the man apologize. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense.

. we make the following changes. 30. With Yes/No questions. Andrea said (that) she was going out. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. They told (us) a story.. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Luke: I'll be away till March. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. She told (them) jokes all night. When we report questions. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Zoe said that they saw a great film. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Andrea said (that) she was going out. 31. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. and verbs have a statement form. NOT Andrea told (that) . Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Andrea: I'm going out. the reported question starts with whether or if.. The word order changes to a statement word order. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Monica: I might phone you later. say and tell We say something. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. We tell somebody something. Helen: I'd like a coffee.. Zoran: I had never been there before. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. 89 . Zoe: We saw a great film last week. NOT Andrea said me . Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee.

3. such as advise.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. (I didn't work hard. but not when the main clause is first. 4. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. 'Please sit down. persuade.32. order.' He told me not to worry. They told me that the exam was very hard. 2. 2. and you crashed. If you hadn't studied so hard. 'Don't worry. Reported speech Look at these sentences. 1. The instructor told me that I don't do that. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. I'd lend you some money if I had any. 1. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. warn. 33. The instructor told me not to do that. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. beg. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. She asked me where I lived. an imaginary situation in the past. 3. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. and command. We usually use a comma (. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.) when if clause is first. she wouldn't have left. If I had told the truth. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. Some are right and some are wrong.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast.' The doctor asked me to sit down. you would have failed. and I didn't pass the exam. 90 . Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. but other verbs can also be used. They said me that the exam was very hard. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. (You were driving too fast.

We shouldn't have stayed in bed. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.4. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. 34.) They should have bought the house. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.) 91 . (I regret leaving at ten o'clock.

4. 2001. Otman. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford English for Information Technology. Hutchinson. & John McGwan. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Dorner. 2002. All Stars. 5. 92 . 2001. 7. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. 1998. International Express. 3. Ian Selwood. Tom. Gabriel. Brooks. 2001. 2001. Driscoll. Wallwork.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 1992. 2002. 8. Engleza pentru internet. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall.Oxford. Jane. Computer Studies Through Applications. Eric H. 2. Kennewell. Oxford University Press. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Engleza pentru informatica. Life Lines. 6. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chris Mitton. Writing for the Internet. Steve & Peter Fox. Glendinning.

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