UNIVERSITATEA "AL. I.

CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă

LAURA IOANA LEON

MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92

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INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

.. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible.... speaking and being corrected . cards. or drinks. How do you learn languages? .. Geographically.. Purists of the French. 4 .. technology... OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY......to be cleaned and dried. This will no doubt continue............... Justify your order.What advantages does the baby have? .. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd...... learning vocabulary . speaking and not being corrected all the time . What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance. we can talk about a round of golf.... English is the most widespread language on Earth.. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement... Speaking 1......What advantages does the adult have? 2.. Read books and newspapers.. pronunciation practice 3..... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.. Work in groups.. listening ... sport. and the process is now being reversed..What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. It is the language of business.. writing . 1 being the most important.... 4.... Work alone. and aviation... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.... learning grammar .. . second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.. reading . Compare your lists. but remember that different people learn in different ways.. Prepositions too are flexible.

to use the techy term. they used it to swap gossip. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. 5 . built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. by 1972. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. as it came to be called. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. swapped them (via the net. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. 1. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. Crude as they were. They had. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. they opened newsgroups. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. Instead. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. 4. just kept on growing. Other networks joined in. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work.). But they weren't interested in science or academia.. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. invented e-mail. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. and the Internet. But then an odd thing started to happen. They started mailing lists. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. Instead of using the network strictly for business. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. These packets could be sent independently over the network. it worked. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. each machine will have equal status. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. in fact. Because of the way the messaging system worked. 3. 2. no single computer that controls the rest of them. they sent each other games. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. There will be no "command center". uninvited but still welcome. for it was they. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. then news and eventually gossip. They set up their own electronic mailboxes.. still the most popular use of the Net by far. Amazingly. 37.I. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. the way they got there was unimportant.

silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. Since then the computers (become) smaller. Apple. researcher A. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. notebook 3. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). a set of related computers C. desktop computer 2. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. but transistors soon (replace) them. along with IBM. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. cheaper and more reliable. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Computer sizes. but the market (saturate) to some extent. however. network. Here are five types of computers. mailbox. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946.2. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. mainframe 5. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. a person who tries to discover something E. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. Over the last few years. supercomputer 4. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. packet. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. a series of bits being a part of message B. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization.

Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. all of which express personal opinions: 1. use a bulletin board. the material would be available to students at their convenience. Students can log onto the Internet. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. Personally. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. Europe. It's called distance learning. and connect to a server that presents information. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. rather than offering their own set of courses. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. says Nat Kannan. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. click on the course they want. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. founder and president of University Online. and the Americans. Australia. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". For example. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. online environment.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. offered by mail. Use the elements to make complete sentences. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. Within a few months. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. There's a revolution happening in education. visit the school's We site. 1. videotape of professor's lectures. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. Using modern technology. and interactive courseware. and as with mail order programs. the Net will be alma mater. learn the material. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia.

I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. execution. connector childhood.. state condition. independence employer... the beginning of the experiment... several new courses have been offered. to give authority to 10.. You have to follow a course .. 4. boredom... University Online was originally tested over five years . musician introduction. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam... to write a summary of 3. scientist . . Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.. so it has been tested .. possession magnetism. state condition. to give a linear form to 8. to make use of a symbol for something 3. -or -hood -ian -ion... 5.. over two years. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. addressee audience. withdrawal clearance.. four years . kingdom employee. 3.g. to take a material form 5. This University has only existed .5. we never believed it would be so successful.... a few months . to represent in a digital form 2. To my mind.... state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal.. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. operator voucher.. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom.. to arrange in an optimal way 6. behavio(u)rism typist. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. for and ago: 1. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. neighbo(u)rhood electrician.. When we started. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. to reduce to the minimum 7.. 6. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. condition belonging to act of. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. in 1992 2. It was put on the market in 1994. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6....

active 3. initial 12. concentrate. tolerate shorten. 1. widen. robot 6. behavio(u)r foundry. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. simple 4. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. tight 5. soft 10. transform the following words into verbs. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. interruptible environmental. state condition. computerize. logical. auto 8. reality achievement. stimulus 20. government business. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. rivalry friendship. condition. broad 2. happiness. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. personal 15. loose 16. lengthen classify. action condition of quality. state electricity. Now. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . using the verb-forming suffixes above. economical foolish useless porous. simplify customize. quality state. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. analysis 11. -ery -ship state. generally. -ical -ish -less -ous. furiously 4. short 7. standard 18. local 9. weak 19. electric 17. mode 14. condition place. boldness labo(u)r. slavery. long 13.

Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Here's the road map. Get a decent book on Windows programming. its positioning on the market. an attention to detail. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. and so on. A consultant is different. a week there. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. Qualifications are important. C++. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. By the age of 30. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. Delphi. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. C++. as does Novell. That's where the all-important experience comes in. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. 10 . Java and Visual Basic developers.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. They merely prove you can think. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. University degrees are useless. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. And there are lots of people who know it too. After a couple of hops like that. you've run big projects. more manageable pieces. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. However. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. spend more money on a training course. how it relates to other products and so on. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. Visual Basic and Delphi. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. For someone starting out. technology and people. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. If you decide programming is really for you. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. rolled out major solutions and are well known. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. so you have to be better than them.

6. Prefixes change the meaning of the word.. a stem and a suffix.. Technical qualifications .. You ... You . 2. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++...... You may work for only a few days or a week for your company.. 10. If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project. 8. verb. be in computing science.. You need to be bright.. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience.... have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years..... In any case. Most of this can't be taught.. More than one answer is possible in some examples. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations...). Your objective is to become self-employed.. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer.. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks... You . You . 3.. etc. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise. You ... Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team. You ... 3. be able to use C++. Interestingly.. 2. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. Look at the examples: 11 ..... Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs..... You . have to.. 2.. study BASIC... 4. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date... Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well..... to make sensible statements. Most are between 30 and 45. 8.. 4....Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager.. suffixes change the part of speech (noun. then you can forget being an IT manager.... Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career...... You .. be able to show leadership. These days you ... They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems... 7.. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. 9... employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit... 1.... 6... to have experience in JavaScript.. 7. 5. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere... Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business..... an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team.... 1. adjective...... 5.. many of them don't have degrees in computing science. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix. have a degree but it . need to.. become an expert in too narrow a field. 1... must.

inaccurate irrelevant mislead. semicolon . location. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. external foreground. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. misfortune nonsense unreal. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. decode disagree. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. side in. bystander input. foresee. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. involve output. into going away more than above too much beneath.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. size.

to convey data from one place to another 8. to predict 3. after the war 4. Now use the prefixes of degree. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. not up to standard 10. half manual 7. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. a program that is part of a larger program 6. 1.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . location. size. to grow larger 5. half automatic. that is already programmed 2.

include descriptive ALT text captions. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. If you are committed to using frames on your site. to find their way around. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. For example. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Besides content.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. and make necessary adjustments. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. and visitors may not know how to 14 . And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. you may group the FAQ. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return.

colorful. structure connections. up to date. a visitor. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. Visit a website of your choice. For most sites. well laid out. good reactivity. contact information. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. cluttered. features. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. helpful graphics. compatibility. on-line support. 15 . Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. password protected. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). ease of use. without wasting space. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. However. especially those ending in "y" (see above). (hot) links. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. accuracy. confusing. Logical.use yours effectively. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. you can add the suffix "er". navigation. 1. a user. search facility. Take notes on any special features. nice design. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go.

the sharper the picture. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. the slower the speed of execution. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. indicated by the symbols. John was the elder of the two boys. when buying a PC are often 5. For the preceding sentence. as". There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. 1. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. "as . The less sophisticated the software. the more I feel depressed. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. the better he feels. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer.. resolution was 16 . 2.. 3. When comparing two items. 4. the comparative can be preceded by "the". The higher the resolution. 4.. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. when preceded by "X times". 2. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. This computer is the cheaper of the two. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. The less he works. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. 2.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer.. 3.

This is the most powerful computer available today. powerful computer 2. cheap computer 3. fast chip 4. expensive card 6. reliable device 5. big memory device 7. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . inconsistent program 10.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. With short adjectives. 3. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. ugly picture 9. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. 1. fuzzy image 8.

.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. 5... nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. The reason for this is never given. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it... 1.. and overzealous at that. sometimes be useful when designing a program. The following sentences have been scrambled.. You . no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. A bug . You .. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. make sure you spell correctly yourself. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.. 3.. Don't cross-post messages.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. may or could 1. 18 .. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream....... Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. read the FAQ). a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. off-the-point arguments to see that... Don't use a signature of more than four lines.. (A whole quarter second in some cases). Put the words back in the right order: 1.. rambling. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. 4... when to criticize and when to stay silent. Don't criticize others for their misspellings..... if that happened.... Conversely. unwarranted abuse and long. A flowchart . break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy.. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. Programs . This piece of software .... documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2.. It doesn't work. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. because it wastes people's time... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop..... 2. This form of internal policing.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.... and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. have to.... be debugged before being executed. 6. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. In practice. on the Net or elsewhere.. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong... cause unexpected results. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.

6.. If you do... 8........ paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. and computing..... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW ...... am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.... de exemplu.. the main....... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. Cind am incercat soft-ul.. photo. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. 8.. You . a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems ... Translate the following sentences into English.... 3. 6.. 3.. graphic . Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet. picture.. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat........ 7.. 4.. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . also known as "favorites" . Write them next to the correct definition. 9. email... 5..... sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului.. They .... Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. 2. write this program in a high-level language.. Ar fi putut.... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus....... top to bottom.. 3..7..... Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. opening page of a website .. 7. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. 2. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1... Cu toate acestea... and diagonally top to bottom).. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own ... (You can find the words left to right.... a measure of visits to a website . 19 . Daca as fi vrut. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week. 10. 5... 4... it will take up too much space in the computer memory.

...................... 15.... 19.. inappropriate use of a mailing list ... 11................ 17. 20 .. 22.... 16..... unsolicited mail.... 13........................ 10.. a software package generally used to start you up for a program .. etc..9. :-) . the World Wide Web ........ a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 18.. 12... website address .... i.. a way of showing emotion in an email. . 21. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net .. 14.......g. 20......... something that automatically connects you to another page . the Internet equivalent of post . e. Uniform Resource Locator....... abbreviation for the Internet .e... a physical input / output point . a search engine. a location on the WWW .. email...... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet .. a bug which infects data on your computer .

000 a year to repair. Admittedly. the computer companies would have you believe. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. Robert Schifreen 21 . But according to those who practice. Triludan. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. has the security.000. C. Hackers have their own code of conduct. For some teenagers.Choose the ending (A. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. hacking has been criminalized. B. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. The law was tightened up. MULTIPLE CHOICE . had knocked on this door. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. better known as Robert Schifreen. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. which is readily available. and so. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. Today's hacker is not so lucky. 1. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. costing companies an average of $23. hacking is still easy. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. All the hacker needs is a modem. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. had not been in trouble with the law before. 1. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. Typically.

D. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. costs about 48p a time C. has made hacking more difficult. D. 8. This produces much smaller files. B. Hacking A. outlaws hacking. Effect a. is popular because it is romantic. the survival of hackers is threatened. C. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. Then link them with an –ing clause. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. 2. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. 33% of its members are hackers B. 3. B. This gives an enormous storage capacity. C. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. MP3 players contain several devices. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. male criminals. Cause 1. f. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. You can create your own compilation. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. B. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 22 . You can legally download some music. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. d. 5. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. You can download a skin program. D. 3. c. 7. 5. b. e. 4. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. According to the NNC A. D.A. is a form of escape from the everyday world. Each MP3 file has a tag. has eliminated all computer security. You can download single tracks. 2. 4. merely curious. deliberately destructive B. C. 6. g. Match each cause and effect. h. totally unaware of what they are doing.

A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. 10. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. mouse and hard drives only. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. display. keyboard. 4. 2. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 7. 1. 9. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 3. 8. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. 6.3. 5.

. word processor and database – comes on one CD.. and because there's more space. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. ..... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.... 24 . 1..5in. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity...... the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. but are spread throughout business.... The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). 1.... the equivalent of 300.. floppy drive.. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.. According to the market researcher Dataquest. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. Applications are the key issue. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.... with a further 1. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. For example. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5... and justify the cost of a drive. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. Price points . Measuring drive performance 2....... The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. the applications are generally better.. or were vast collections of specific information. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass... A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. but it's not the only one.. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. As with other areas of the computer industry.. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. literature and art. Mainstream applications 3.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter...... This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology..... along with the conventional 3..... Review criteria 4.. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. Put them back in the appropriate place.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone..

1.. 10... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. more precise head positioning mechanism. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality..Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices... The industry. .. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use.... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information.. 1.. 7.. is still a read-only product. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.. 9. disk 25 . So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. files. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user.. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market...... 3.. As a result of this market maturity. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader. pie chart.. 6. Backing Store .. 5. This is often confused with the average access searches.....But CD-ROM. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk......... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996..... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. while still developing rapidly.. TRUE OR FALSE? . So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information........... access time.. drawback....Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false... Increased competition has now reversed the trend... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer....... The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. . In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more...... consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. however advanced...... more faster.. .. 8... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.... 2... this excuse was taken too far. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization..... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. 4.... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware....... 2.... give reasons for your choice...........

3.. 7... Hermetic data modules called ".. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).... Large systems often use cartridges or ...... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.Translate the following sentences into English: 1.... old-fashioned. 8. though these are becoming . 6....... 9............ both internal and external.. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as . it is called a ..e... that is extremely slow because of ..... so-called because of its flexibility. a disk must be . storage areas are marked on the magnetic... In this way only a small part of a . 5. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. a track and a sector number). Most users are more familiar with the . These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... media and .. direct-access.. You should write between 150 and 200 words.......... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders........ directory. 4....... 3. address. as opposed to a single-sided disk.. read-write head... magnetic tapes... Before being used. floppy disk. but has the .. of all the files on the disk. disk. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare.e....drives.... disk packs........... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta.... needs to be in main memory at any one time.. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta.. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.. i.. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors. and .... Hence files can be ...... retrieved.. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers... are now part and parcel of most computer systems..... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as ... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS.... double-sided...." are also common...... 2................ (i.... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. on both surfaces... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ... 10. The . Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .... database..... magnetic disks or diskettes... sequential access. This technology is cheap and easy to use...... where only one surface is .. erorile se pot corecta.... oxide-coated surface........... 26 .... Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb. If the disk is . THE PASSIVE . Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta..... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory................ formatted (x3)....

B. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. 27 . so art can fit into all kinds of experience. science. Moreover. C. military. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. public museums did not exist. especially in distant lands. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. a basis for study for future generations. crafts. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. An overview of lost techniques. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. the patron goddesses of the arts. 2. With reference to the information in the article. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. Within the last few years. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. Elizabeth Brown. virtual museums A. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. 1. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. At the time of the Renaissance A. beyond the straightforward museum visit. With the internet. B. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. fashion. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. electronically. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. only aristocrats could go to museums. C. will replace traditional museums. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. and industry. 3. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. A museum can best be defined as A. For many people. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries.

photo (taken quickly) 2. object produced by human hands 3. to see. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. honored 5. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. collection 5. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. best work of an artist C. to establish 6. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. something produced by creative talent E. will organize visits to its storage spaces. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. work of art. 1. Match the words and their definitions: 1. 4. The National Museum of Art A. 5. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. will show works of art that do not exist. 4. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. article (in a magazine) 4. 3. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. art work 2. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. Put the following sentences into the passive form. C. Museums maintain and display great works of art. 2. country 9. B. C. to admire 3. to enjoy 10. storehouse 8. artefact 3. disadvantage 7. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. 2. The Web may transform our perception of art.B. museum A. masterpiece 4. vast 4. 6.

Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. In a peer-to-peer system. traveler's checks. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. This might be a WWW browser. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. 1. The customer runs client software. A bank employee who pays out money. both exist in the digital world as well. In a debit system. you gather your money up front and then spend it. 5. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties.. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. and the amount to be paid. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. the date and time of the transaction. In a credit system. the name of the payer and the recipient. and a bank does the accounting. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. charge accounts. paper currency. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. the merchant receives the payment. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. a bank redeems each note number only once.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. A person who receives (money. Using a public key. A person who buys goods or services from you. With such a system. and the amount of money represented). 3. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. 4. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. For the purposes of this discussion. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. users can act as both customers and merchants. The customer pays. or a dedicated payment client. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. Payment systems based on gold. currency. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. In many cases.e. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. for example). Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. 2. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. and credit cards are credit systems. To execute a real-time transaction. 29 . Checks.

.? The next day he got a bill for $0.6... loan... B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. receipt. . overdraft.... 7.. For $20 a month. The site.. 8... However.. will be $10. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.000....... He is the very man . 6. entered the virtual shop.. A computer that can access a server.. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. A large number of banknotes.. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday... The initial .. for their manager. were found in the safe.00... trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.... 3. of which... which. Money used in a specific country... The next month he got a bill for $0. 30 .. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order.. to clear.... 1. he ignored it. to open.. statement. Stupid Computer Error A .. C . The customer. agreed to honor my check. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament.. balance...? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who.. You will not need to use them all! account. The bank director. D ... withdrawal The Longstone company wish ... 4. safe. The first one has already been done for you. to start... will only be charged at 12%. to sign.... interest... Digital credit... . Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph... a current ... He alone will be authorized ... where... He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it... of account....... 2.... deposit.. were still new. To add money (to an account)... name is on the check.. accepts digital cash.. the company can have access to a ..00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.. The man. The bank will send the company a weekly .. holder...? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.. cheques. remittance. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.. 3.. we found CD-ROMs on sale..... He ignored it and threw it away.. The account will not produce any .. some .. whom. is used in electronic trade. is similar to traditional credit...... bought her a typewriter instead.. 5. 2....00 stating that payment was now overdue.. I met personally.. whose. wanted to buy some shirts.

00. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. He called them and talked to them. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.? Finally giving in.00 by return of post.00. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.? A week later. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . G .? In April he received another and threw that one too.E .00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. F . he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.

The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. "Sight. that probability that ... or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future... "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". computing. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. for all intents and purposes. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. dipping even further into the future. "At telecom 91. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". said Dr. well.. networks. he enthused. he said. and. came the issue of virtual reality. Dr. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. smells. 32 .. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. was how online commerce will evolve. said. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. sound and feeling will arrive. 1. experts expect that.. For sheer impact. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around".. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. the future. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. Christian Huitema. Dr. that didn't keep the crowds away. is high / low it is highly probable that .LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not.. he predicted. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. And needless to say. satellite. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. more controversially.. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. futurologists forecast. Huitema. exist. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. As he pointed out. the current issue of security will only be short. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality... we'll have to work on that one". the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. So things have changed. there was an inevitable blur of content. one can predict / foretell that. dumb terminals. Next came. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion.. What should concern us. and the role of the providers. And as for the taste. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. Lastly.

..... permit 1.00. 2. Prepare to explain them to your partner. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... 33 .. I hope that doing the course . that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen... it is reasonable to think that. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made.. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete... Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. enable.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to... Sneaky.... make.. me to get a better job. 5.. me to stay out later than 11. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage...it is a well-founded supposition that.. 4..... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.... A security password . that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse... huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).... Reading Read the article.. Being a single parent ... 3.... me leave early every Friday afternoon. 2... allow... there are grounds for believing that... My boss is easygoing and .. 3.. When I was young my parents never . Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient. Keyword The word. it hard for me to have a social life.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. access to confidential files... there are scientific arguments for. The term was first coined by William Gibson. indicated by a finger symbol.

all day at work. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. FWIW (for what is worth). concentration and agile fingers. or type the type. It takes wit. It has an estimated 75 million users. sex and location. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. a new idiom has been born. Well. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). Plenty of adults talk the talk. There's neither time nor space for exposition. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. every night. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. C-U-L8R 34 . FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. contract and condense. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. If something cracks you up. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. PBAB (please bring a bottle). The solution is to abbreviate. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). GTG. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. Across the world.

e. then write your own CV in the same way.II.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . English. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification.g.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. degrees and other qualifications.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. "situatie familiala" as "family situation".cair@btinternet. which sounds very strange indeed. Stonebridge. Science. Geography. For the purpose of this task. Spanish. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. EH21 3TZ email p. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . LANGUAGE FOCUS A. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system.w. Computer Studies.

.Windows 95 / 98 . IT Department.network administration and implementation . 2000 .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .TCP / IP Networking . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.1st line customer telephone support .Office 97.Sage line 50 & 100 .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. L.advising clients on IT issues and strategies . Personnel Officer. Novasystems 36 . Thin.Exchange Server 5.Windows 200 Server / Professional . Leith.5 .database design .

and where to put the handwritten signature. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Use the person's name if you know it .state where you saw the job advertised . Check your spelling and punctuation 9. State what job you are applying for 4.name and address of firm. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . Make the information you give relevant to the job. how to end it. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Type your letter 6.state you qualifications in brief .should you feel I could be of use to your firm . how to begin a letter. and firm.B.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae .1. the name and address of the addressee. the signatory's full name (typed). You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Keep your letter short and to the point 3.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.am available to start as from June 15 . Give all the information you are asked for 8. Write clearly 2.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . 37 . so read the advertisement carefully first 5. State when you are available for the interview 10. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details).am currently studying for .state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. B."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Reference number if there is one. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".

as well as students. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. Alan Bannister 38 . I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. My contact address until the end of July is as above. Yours sincerely. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. In Malaysia I arranged. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. Over the past year. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. teachers and administrative staff. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. for example. through the British Council. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. team leadership and team membership. study tours for project personnel.

In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. 39 . Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. You are likely to be found in the end. walk to the door.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . 2. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. set out early. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. . In the past year. . Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses.Do sit still. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you.Do make a graceful exit.Do arrive in plenty of time. . experience. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. don't rush.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. Which is more important to you. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. . interests and hobbies.Don't smoke. Thank your interviewer. .C. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. . Dress in a business-like way. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. . money or job satisfaction? 12. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . Why should you be employed by this company? 4. 5. Describe your most recent accomplishments. so much the better. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.

Please find ... or may not be able to open ......Read these emails... My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .. I was wondering if .sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in...... I . the other informal.... working on Lingo. What do you use email for? 4..S... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. Could you email me details? 40 .. if you might be able to help me..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . How are you? I bet you are . Dear James. How often do you use email? 2.not answering all the points raised by the sender . Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.not making clear who you are and why you are writing . Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this ... any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. I would be extremely . One letter is formal..writing everything in UPPER CASE . Dear Sir.. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: . . if you intend your comments to be humorous) ... you in the .not telling the reader what you expect them to do. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise ... I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.writing too much. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. how has it changed your working life? 3.not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to . or in sentences that are too long .... which I hope you will find interesting.. If you use email at work... my recent paper... future.. B. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using.not bothering to correct spelling mistakes . Monica Ciampi P.D. Yours sincerely.

soon d... by 11. match c. early c. love c. and thank you for your help. included d. request c.. grateful b. a. a. so b. a.. Monica P. happy c.. a. a.. lacking 10. a. losing b. a. pleases d topic d. annexed 9.In a . bracket 12. business b. now c. demand b. supper d. Best wishes. enclosed c. wonder d.. a.S.. beforehand b. missing c. a. ask 2. as well c. wasting d. a. from c. additionally 4. too d.. next c. I look forward to hearing from c... meal c. of weeks I'll be in England. affair 6. before 15.. currently b. respect d. couple b. to Peter 1. concerns b.. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . dinner 14.. attached b. wishes 41 . a. then c. and 13. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . a. I look forward to news from b.... Hope to hear from you . close 8. drink b. glad 5.. together. a.. Send my . matter c. presently d. a. I look forward to hearing news from d. also b. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. actually 3. topic d... a. pair d. for b.. near b. with d. thus d..

I'm .. . subject knowledge. variety......E.. fluency... in conclusion... to .. options.... .. accuracy. audibility. with our plans for Europe.. today is to .. achievement of objectives.. specifically... sum up. informative. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. me if you have questions at any time... finally... pronunciation. to start with. body language Language – clarity.. some of the problems we are having over the market share. humor Organization – coherence. There is no benefit in using difficult language. that although turnover has risen. . appropriacy... research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. about our current position in the UK and I've . draw your attention. enjoyable.. rapport / eye contact.... Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it.. bring you up to date. describe.. then.... For what purpose are presentations made? 3.. I'll .. talked. Please feel free to . 42 . you all for being here. illustrate. to Italy and Spain. clarity.. thank. you will notice. indicate... Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation..... .are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already . on those successes before we .. referring. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century... . everybody. My . confidence.. and... move on. . intonation. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5... of course. enthusiasm.. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. concluding. before . recommend... with some recommendations. .. handling Delivery – pace. I'd like to .. expand. pointed out "Good afternoon.. tell you. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. more ...... priority... some of the problems we are facing. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. Let me quickly ..... I think our first . appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. outline. on balance.. Overall – clarity of message. I'd like to . I'll quickly .. Well... Now I'd like to . PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next.. clarity.... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. I'll ... purpose. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with...... interesting.. motivating Exercise ..... relevance. interrupt.. I've . appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets... what .... What makes a presentation effective? 4. What is a presentation? 2.. our profits have not increased at the same rate....

. Spain and possibly Greece. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes.We should not forget the French market.. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far... Thank you also for your pertinent questions. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly .... Are there any final questions?" 43 .... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy. .. .... may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. though.

This means you have a whole year to write it. There are several criteria for your choice: . A member of staff will supervise progress. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. but is probably the most important.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. since you have more space. try it out with your supervisor.is the topic academic enough? .is the topic relevant to your degree course? . dissertations need to say a lot about a little.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. Like an essay. In part-time degrees. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation.F. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. and be available to assist you. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. called a dissertation or long essay. which you research by yourself. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. but there are a number of differences: . but it can also be very daunting.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. 44 . It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic.you can choose your own title . However. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay.

the first thing to do. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. since you may need a few by your side. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. It is longer. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. ask yourself: . Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. This will be your title. Introduction – 1.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. 000 words Conclusion – 1. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . 000 words. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. Dissertations are usually 10. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. since you have more to say.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.

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III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

It's really cold. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper.1. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 5. 4. but you can never tell. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. 49 . and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow.

......... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation. .................. I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning.......... I've done that for you. ..... 3................. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known..................................... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything..... River Thames.................................................................. First I went to .............. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions..................... If you're too hot in here....... .........Test B A..... 7.......... professional musician and plays with .............................................................. 5.... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details. 7.... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. He's ..... ................................ or no article.................. bank to withdraw some cash..... . I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup.. local pool and saw Bob McGraw.... Look at those clouds.. I went for ........... Then I went swimming at .......................... 9.. . 50 .......... years................. 4............................ Grammar 1.............. 2..... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon.................... 3............................... ........................................................... 8. After ................ He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting... 1............................. 2....... 6......................... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit...... and she said that she hadn't had a chance...... I booked it last week......... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics..... old school friend who I hadn't seen for .................................... the.......... ....... Right........ The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions.... I had ... Articles Complete this text with a / an...... long walk by ................. lovely morning..... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year...... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras..................... 6............... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.... 1......... In each case choose the most likely alternative.............. 4.... 5...................... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday....... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2......... 3.. lunch with Bob..... They wondered how we had managed to do it....... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations..........................

....................................... .... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest......................................... which is why I thought .. AK Exactly...................... Sorry................ ............. P Yes......... AK Yes. something for people who need English translations of words.00 .......................... yes..... let me give you an example........ ........ P OK..m.............. AK Hello................................ is that right? AK Yes. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.. you're talking about.00 a.............. So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time................. So.................. I've got you......... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland............. fine............. As we were leaving..... Goodbye.. B........ without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary..................................... ...........00 ? P ......... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase..................................................... d................. I'm not really with you...... 9............... a....... 10.............. is that Paula...................................... and they said they would get it to him by 10........ Functions 1.... 51 ....... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment............ OK............. c.. e.............. EJ Oh..... can I just interrupt you a second? b... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering................................ at the latest.... right............ EJ ................... C Paula............. AK ............. 2........................... and we told him that we could do it next week.. Wednesday at 9........... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software..8..... OK. hello. ? C ..... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski............. It sounds useful. ............... then.... ..............00...... Would Thursday morning at 10. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert. EJ .... C Hello..... EJ ..... EJ ... I'm busy on Thursday.......... Good idea......... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily.... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e....

... We need to concentrate ... 4... He is lacking . no! I seem to have .................. 52 ...... 2............. 3.. ............ The meeting coincided ...... it.. me.... the beer festival...C...... the UK market for the time being... Please listen ... an important meeting in my life....... 3...... opportunity! 5... sensitivity............. 2.... 7.. my money.... the discussion today................ I am not accustomed .. Vocabulary 1.... lose.. Don't worry... the inconvenience caused... because of inefficiency.. Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition...... 9. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss... Oh... my family when I was abroad on business for four months.. or waste.. 1.. my new job.. I've never . 8. I really ... lose.. Thank you for taking part . 6........... He apologized .. 1..... I had three jobs to choose .. 5... me. 10... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. miss.... Do you take credit cards? 4. You can depend . I'm allergic ........... 2.... I can't eat seafood... A lot of company's resources are .

but I don't spend a lot on equipments. Grammar 1. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. You can download software from many websites.. As soon as / Until the merger was announced...... My company does much business in Asia. Nothing happened yesterday.... He gave us a lot of information about his company. 2... 7..... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). 3.. has just joined the company? b... How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8.. I'm doing many work at the moment. using where. 53 .. the majority of .. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. d. A. some of B. 2. 4. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . What's the name of the woman .. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). There's not much news to tell you. have become good friends. I give / will give you a bonus. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. c.... 2.... You need to invest in some more machinery..... 3. which. a.. we hold meetings in. 9. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. 2.Test C A....... 1. I'm living in at the moment. or whom. that. Then complete them... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. anticipating an increase in value... so please hurry up.. 3.. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences... 10.. is free. Complete the sentences.... you used to work? was also the year I got married.. 6. who... he bought shares in the company. e... 5.. is on the fifth floor. she later married.. then correct the mistakes. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. . This is the room . is comfortable and spacious..... work opposite us are not very friendly. I like playing sport.. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday. The reception area. 1.

..... e............... as 3...... on abusing the little power he has.......... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem. for example 2.... 2... He's not a very good team player..... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ... fraud still occurs..... ....... is the answer to that. due to the fact that 7.... ............... I had a day off work last week to make . Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e... what you're saying............... while d. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'........ such as 5.. because c... Functions 1........ working at the weekend.............. trends.... as a result of 8.......... Let me explain what I mean............ e..... ...... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer..... By secure. ..... whereas 6.......... (indicate awareness of something) 3. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server...... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things.. . (understand) 54 .. He's always letting his colleagues . The point is d........ Vocabulary 1... I mean b.......... so h... .......... a..... 1.. . Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets....... however f... can we trust these servers to be secure? ................................... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online.. (disappoint) 2.......... (compensate for) 6................. He really gets .... To give you an example c.... g........g.. like e........... because of a. . It's such a bad line... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ........ thus C... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning..B... on the other hand 4.............. I can only just make ............ Explaining consequences........................... due to b.... (make depressed) 5...... (be excited by) 4..... 1..................

.. I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview......... (avoid) 2................ The company really took ........ A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics....... the meeting.............. last year when we broke into the German market... She's very good at getting her ideas .. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .............. 55 ..... (communicate) 9... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.. (became very successful) 8...... ? (invent) 10....7....... It's good news..... She called in sick so that she could get ..

.................... company profits .................... ................................. Conditionals 1...................... (be) on fire? b........ but I ....................... Companies usually provide managers with language training.......................... no! I .................................... have left my keys in the restaurant... a......... 2......... According to Peter........................ ................... 5............................................. 8................................ ..................... 10............................................... We're locked out! 4................ The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities............................ (you save) if your house ...................... What three things ...................................... 3............................................................ 3............. ............... ............. The store manager had only just moved to the branch......... Use have / get something done where appropriate.................................................................... I think we .. be wrong............................................................ ...................... 1................. The optician tested my eyes yesterday..... be a big shock..................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me............. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.. He was only 42 years old.................. 2........ but I'm not sure yet.............................................................. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion............ We invite successful applicants to a second interview............................................................. (knock) on your door at home ......................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months............... ........... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning...... well top $150 million this year......... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ... 6................................................ be staying at the conference venue.. 7...... 3.... ......................................... 5.. 9...................................... ................Test D A... Oh.......... have kept some of it for herself................ The storm blew a lot of trees down last night........ When I go to Barcelona I . (you open) the door immediately? 56 ........................................ 8..................................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb... 4..... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.... If someone ................. 7.... Somebody stole my laptop computer............ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form... 1. His colleague's death ................. He ......................... Grammar 1. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.... ............... 2..................

. B: Yes........ what ......... (you change) ? g.. ... whose life .......... c.. Ella? 57 .. a... one candidate is chosen. (you park) your car there they ...... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview...... (see) a UFO........... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e. 1. A: If I .... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things . However......... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion. (give) you a ticket... Would you like to come in here... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed....... If you .. a..... If the weather ..... A: If you ............. eventually d......... firstly e.............. Could you be more specific? b. To ensure other people get to speak 4.......... ............... Then b.... The interviews take place and ........ B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said............... but I don't think they'd believe me........ basically what you're saying is........... So.. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's.......... (you study) ? f. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.. (you choose) ? d.. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. ultimately c. (be) good this weekend what ..... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description. (you do) ? e..... A: Careful! If .......... To manage interruptions 2.. (happen) if ... 2.... what ....... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong. Where ....... To summarize a... (go) to the police.... A: If I ... (be) you..c. (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2. c....... B.... Can I finish what I was saying? d.... If you ........ after lengthy discussion. (not study) your subject at school / university. .. I . If you ..... B: Thanks for warning me. To keep to the point 3... (be) you.. using the words a-e.... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs....... b........................... (go) to the police............. d............ ..... I know. I ..... To ask for clarification 5.. Functions 1............ (not get) a job with your current company? h... (you work) if you ........ the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards... What ....

..... rely ....... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs..... 5........ create ..... replaceable 3. Vocabulary 1. ......... 4. criticize . credible 4............. 3. 1.. legible 58 ................... . humor ... ....... 1...............C....... connect 5... 2.... interested 2..... .. 2....... .. understand .....

.... necessity........ b. (work) from home.Test E A....... requests..... otherwise I may / must / can forget it.... I've got two tickets! B.......... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life....... d..... tomorrow? We .. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form.. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.. thank you.... Do you think there ..... e... 59 .. Grammar 1......... 2. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9. and obligation 1.... it's no problem. I ..... if you'd like me to show you around Prague..............m. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here... Functions 1... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. possibility. 4... 8.. Match each question with an appropriate category... Must I really go to the meeting? f..... I .. Do you know what ... so don't forget to take waterproofs.. Future Perfect.? 3........ By the time I retire I hope I . c. Look.... Call me sometime over the weekend.00 p. Permission..........00 p. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.............. Future Continuous................ By 2050 people .. B: . A: Great... 5.... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. Invitations........ a. (live) in space... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes......... but ........ (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.m............. I'd like that........ and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney.. Thank you....... (finish) their meeting by 7.. 7........ (do) at 8... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May... I'm sure. I'm sorry.. (think) of you...... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. 1... Good luck with your exam tomorrow..... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa......... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.. Will they . (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. 2..... 6. In three months' time I ..... I .... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d.... .. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics.............

. Thanks for coming... take on a........... or take. 2......... B: ........... carry off c.......... thanking. 1.... A: Oh. A: .. any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No.A: ......... carry...... Can I help you ...... Well....... did you ................ Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock.. A: I've had a lovely evening.. Remember to . A: So...... I hear this is your last day at work here............. Yes.... A: Have you .. thank you for that lovely dinner once again...................... with everything....... lead to........... ........ B: Thanks. and take Complete the sentences with bring. B: Yes........... I'm glad you enjoyed it c.. 5........................ ...... some research for my thesis......... get......... bring about b............. keep in touch d. take up d.. Vocabulary 1.. hope to see you again sometime 1......... get.... great... not too bad.. bring........ C...... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e... I don't think I .. a............. cause 4.. you're welcome e....... B: You too.... in your English test? B: Oh... I have to .... B: .. It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year.. that ..... A: How did you .... 2. carry... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do....... Late payment often .. her? 3... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ... too many mistakes. begin (a hobby) 2........... I can't....... warm clothes........... 1.... 2........ employ (someone) 60 . lead to..... cash-flow problems for small businesses.. your bags? They look very heavy! 2........ I'm starting a new job next week..... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4..... Concluding...... Mark......... succeed 3........... . A: Well.. best of luck b....... 3..

going 4. had been sitting 6. all my life 4. .Tests . have been having 9.. look like 2. . was living 2. stubborn 5. going 1. . was traveling / witnessed 3. 2.. hasn't stopped 1. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. ... I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1.. a – 5 2. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. always plays 7. meticulous 4. to entertain 3. e – 1 6. woke up 1.. used to have a Porsche. outgoing 3. at the moment 2. sounds like 4. 4. seems 5. have eaten 10. had read / started 5. arrived / had left 7. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. a .. have never seen 8. to turn off 5. . g – 3 1. 1. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. d – 4 5. for a week 5. f – 6 7. saying 2. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays.. 3.. recently 3. had been having 4.. have you been doing 6. watch 3. 5. c – 7 4. b – 2 3.Answer key Test A A1 1. competent 2.

from 7. I'm playing 4. I'm not really with you. wasted 5. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. in 3. who / that b. the 4. 2. OK.m. a 10. the 3. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. 4. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. which e. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes.' conditions. who / whom c. missed C2 1. with 4.2. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly.00 a.' 6. to 6. for 2. on 8. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. you're talking about . How about / What about 5. I'll turn on 6. Ø 9. I'm going to 3. in 5. a 7. Are you doing A3 2.' 7. wasted 2. a.. at the latest. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. B1 1. a. That would be / Yes. will win 9. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. the 1. I've got you. we can do it next week. the 8. is going to rain 7. an 5. to 10. which 2. lost 4. I'm afraid 4. I'm going to spend 8. I was wondering whether 2. 62 . 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. OK. that / which / Ø d. I'll just check / I'll call 5. that's / That suits me 1. let me give you an example.' 9. 5. I haven't had a chance. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. 'Did you see anything?' 2. Ø 6. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. 3. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. missed 3. So. Sorry.. to 9.

risen 3. d. off 4. C 4. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. rise 6.b. We started the company in 1999. I – equipment 10. out 7. I mean 5. The point is 4. I – a lot of 3. Let me explain what I mean 2. 63 . across 9. I've met a lot of people through work. up for 1. C 8. To give you an example 3. raise 6. by / will give 3. e. sharply 4. down 5. which was also the year I got married. I – a lot of 7. as soon as 2. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. A2 1. substantial 5. By secure. on 3. up 10. arisen 2. until / are 1. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. C 9. I – a lot of good advice 1. I – quite a few 5. I – information 2. down 2. some of whom have become good friends. I – plenty of 6. off 8. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.

4. would happen / arrive. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. was you / would go c. 6. must 4.2. 10. must 7. irreplaceable 3. would you work / hadn't got h. were / would you change g. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. 8. might / may / could 3. reliable 2. knocked / would you c.. happens. basically what you're saying is . 1. Language training is provided for managers. Excuse me. saw / would you do d. Can you be more specific? 5. creative 4. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . humorous 3. could / might / may 1. 9. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. / Managers are provided with language training. 2. could / would you choose d. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. My eyes were tested yesterday. / I've had my laptop stolen. can't / couldn't 5. a. So. should / must 6. a. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. understandable 64 C2 1. A2 1. uninterested 2. Would you like to say something about this. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. I was in the middle of saying something. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. My laptop has been stolen. incredible 4. should 2.. Miranda was asked to write the report. 3. Applications are passed on to universities. could / may / might 8. Candidates are recommended for promotion. arrived 2. is / will you do e. had been / would have gone b. 5. 7. would you save / was b. John? 4.

Hope to see you again some time 3. will be working 5. get 3. critical Test E A1 1. will speak 7. Keep in touch 4. must 2. I was wondering 2. lead to 1. made 3. will be thinking 2. have finished 3. bring 4. illegible A2 1. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . will have been working 4. can't 5. You're welcome 5. would be fine / suits me fine 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. That's very kind of you 3.5. 1. Shall 4. can't 3. carry 2. can 4. best of luck 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. do 2. will be living 6. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. will be 9. Shall we say 5. made 4. will have earned 8. take 5.

Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. 2. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. 66 . 2. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight.IV. 1. He knows a lot about music. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. She works here until Christmas. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. She's working here until Christmas. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. I'm going to the cinema every day. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. He's knowing a lot about music. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. He doesn't want to be in the school play.

) I've been to Brazil three times. Vegetarians don't eat meat. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. To make regular past participles.) I've lived here for three years. 67 .) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now.) I've bought a new car. 3. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. we add –ed to the infinitive. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. 1. I have. (I've got a new car now. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. (She isn't here now. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. 5. (Until now I've been there three times. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. and present continuous Look at these sentences. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. 4. 6. (I still live here now.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. present simple. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. He seems very tired.) Present perfect. I want to go out for dinner. You haven't lived abroad. He's seeming very tired. Some are right and some are wrong. (He still works there now. 2. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car.3.

as . as . 5. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. Russia is bigger than Canada. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. He's never here at 9.. but they usually go before the main verb. The train is always on time. The film was much better than I expected. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. Her house is as big as mine. I'm working here since October.. 68 . in front of the main verb.00. Sometimes.3. We often go to the park.. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *.. I work here since October. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. I don't usually get up late. normally. can be used to make comparisons.

.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. 6.85m 1. is also possible. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. 2.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. He's so tall as his brother. as . We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. Alex 1. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. He's as tall as his brother. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect.92m Alex's brothers 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. We weren't here yesterday. Short answers Yes.. . all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. My exam results were worse than Andy's. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. 3. The film was better than the book. In the negative so .83m 1. he was. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences.. The film was better that the book. 4. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday.. 1. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world.

I've lived here for five years. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. It has no present form. (I still live here.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. She's gone home. We went to the cinema twice last week.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action.) Before that I lived in Madrid. last week). Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. I went out this morning. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. For individual past actions.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. you must use the past simple tense. I've been there four years ago. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. not the effect. I went there four years ago. We didn't use to live in London. but he gave up five years ago. She wasn't going to work. (We're interested in when the action took place. Last year he went on five foreign holidays.) She went at four o'clock. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. only the past simple can be used. He used to smoke. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. not the present perfect. I did. in 1993. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. he was. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. two days ago. (She isn't here now. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. or past actions which were not habits. 7. (But I don't live there now. She used to be a teacher.g.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.

72

The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!

2.

3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It may (not) rain today. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things.) make polite offers. It probably won't rain today. or imaginary situations. I saw the man who lives next door. It could rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. I saw the man.) She'd be a good politician. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It might (not) rain today. It'll probably rain today. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. 74 least likely most likely . They wouldn't steal from a friend. We use who with people. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. She's probably coming this weekend. (But I haven't got the money. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Use Would has many uses. If I had the money. I'd buy a house. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. (But she works in a bank. I would. impossible. It's likely to rain today. which with things. He's the man who lives next door.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon.

haven't you? It was raining. He's the man who/that lives next door. He's the man. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. She married him. don't they? 75 . aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. will she? It doesn't matter. or that. He lives next door. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. can't she? NOT . wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. It isn't very warm. didn't you? NOT .. didn't she? You like fish. which. This chair's French. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. You can swim. Look at these sentences. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun.He's the man that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. He's the man. They aren't coming to the party. She arrived yesterday. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag.. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. He's the man (who/that) she married. does it? You've finished. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. You're Italian. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. did not you? She can speak Russian. You knew about this yesterday. so we can leave out the relative pronoun.. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject.. 12. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause.

This wine is produced in Portugal. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. We can use the passive in any tense. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. Fewer crimes would be committed. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. It can't be done. we use the negative of the verb to be. we don't know the agent. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. These computers are made in Japan. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. To make the negative of the passive. Cars shouldn't be parked there. Thousands of cars are stolen. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle.) and is followed by a question mark (?). To make different tenses we change the verb to be. Someone has been arrested. The weapon hasn't been found. The crime will be solved. 76 . The car has been found. These houses were built in the 1930s. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. The man wasn't sent to prison. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. It is less direct than an ordinary question. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). 13. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. She must be told. We use a modal verb + be + past participle.

. or imaginary situations.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. 14. we'll go to the cinema. If it rains. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event.) 15. NOT If it will rain.) when the if clause is first.) 77 . The suspect was identified by a witness. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. (I don't think I'll get the job. We usually use a comma (.If we want to show the agent. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. I'd buy that house. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. If I had enough money. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. If I had enough money .. we use by. unlikely. If we had more money. but not when tha main clause is first.) We won't go if it rains. you'll miss the appointment. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.. The car has been found by some children. NOT If I would have enough money . (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. we'll go to the cinema. but not when the main clause is first. (There is a real chance that it will rain. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. If you get up late. she'll feel terrible. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause.) when the if clause is first. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. We usually use a comma (.. we'd travel business class. If she eats all the ice cream. If I get the job I'll earn more money.

or She switched the TV on. I'll phone you when she arrives. He saw the mouse and ran out. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. in. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. NOT She switched on it. Oil will run out in the next century.. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. She takes after her mother. away. NOT .. NOT . before.16. 17. e. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. up. (transitive) The plane took off. until Phil will get back. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). the verb is separable.g.. look something up 78 . Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. as soon as.. and after. He took off his jacket. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. She switched on the TV. on. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. She switched it on. until.. when she will arrive. before we would go to the cinema. NOT . Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. Time clauses As in clauses with if. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. He heard a helicopter and looked up..

'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action.' emphasize the duration of an activity. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. I've been playing a lot of football this week. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. the verb is inseparable. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet.) focus on the process of an activity. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. is not normally used with stative verbs. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. I've been waiting for an hour. (I haven't finished it yet. 18. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. like other continuous forms. I've been writing a letter. You're late.I looked up the word in the dictionary. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. or about past actions which have present results. 79 . The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. I've lived here for ten years. he has. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many.

object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be.19. remember. wonder. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Do they live here? You saw her. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Did you see her? In Wh. using do/does in the present or did in the past. They live here. know.questions. or an auxiliary verb. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question.) Prepositions go at the end of questions.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. have no idea. decide. imagine. Compare these questions. a modal verb. ask. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. so we must provide one. Can she swim? They've arrived.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. see.

we say clothes shop and sports shop. 81 . 4. left. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. What kind of software? Software for computers.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun..? Could you tell me where the post office is. is. I've decided how much money do I need. a computer software shop This is a shop. football boots These are boots. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.? or Do you think you could tell me . arrives. 1. I wonder why did he do that? 21. Note: However. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. I've decided how much money I need. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. With Wh..questions we use the question word in the indirect question. The headword always goes at the end. A shop that sells records is a record shop. 2. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me .. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. 3. I don't know if he's coming. 've got. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. A shop that sells books is a bookshop..

watch. I got dressed. Unfortunately there are no rules. before. or are hyphenated. There were two people waiting for you.00. I read a fascinating book the other week. 23. I had the idea while driving home. as adjectives. (Empty bottles. I had the idea while I was driving home. He was driving at 120mph. 82 .A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. feel. There's someone coming. I can hear someone coming. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). She's playing tennis. and while to replace a clause.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. smell. I got dressed. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. stomach ache 22. Compare these sentences. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. This is a really boring film. -ing form or infinitive A. etc. (Empty packets. Others are written as two words. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. We saw them leaving the house. (New packets. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. a bathroom a coffee cup.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. to describe what someone can sense (with see. with after. I've been working since 7. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. a tennis racket a living-room. hear. notice.). object I don't enjoy cooking.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. I could smell burning. After having a shower. a teacup. when the subject of both clauses is the same. After I'd had a shower.

start. consider. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I began to realize how he felt. (I wanted to speak to her. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. I enjoy doing the gardening. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. feel like.) C. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. enjoy. and can't stand. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. begin.) He stopped to have a cigarette. I'm beginning to learn the piano. (I danced with him and I won't forget it.) stop He has stopped smoking. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. In British English. I'd like to live abroad. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. (I had to meet her and I did. but it didn't work. then he stopped in order to smoke. continue It's just started raining.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. give up. but she still wouldn't listen. imagine. (I spoke to her.) try I tried to speak to her about it. She's considering emigrating to Australia. hate.) I remembered to meet her. love. but she wasn't there. It's just started to rain. I'd prefer to go to the cinema.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. Smoking is bad for your health. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. I like lying in bed late. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. 1. remember. (British) I like to lie in bed late. but I couldn't. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. Some of the most common are finish. 83 . suggest. but I didn't. (I had met her before and I remembered it.like. (I was supposed to dance with him. B. (he was doing something. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. -ing forms Look at these sentences. forget I remember meeting her.) I tried speaking to her about it.

I could. may. should. need. I'd love to go to New Zealand. could. A I've never been to Ireland. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. B So do I. 6. To smoke is bad for your health. 5. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. too. A I couldn't read until I was seven. Before to leave the office. Stop making so much noise. too to agree with a positive statement. neither to agree with a negative statement. 7. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. and Me. Before leaving the office. might. There's someone that comes up the stairs. I made a phone call. I begun understanding the problem. 3. 25. B Nor/Neither have I. I'd love going to New Zealand. There's someone coming up the stairs. Stop to make so much noise. I would.) I + positive auxiliary verb. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh.2. will. must. B Oh. neither. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. 84 . I made a phone call. 4. A I really love pizza. 24. I must remember posting this letter. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. B Me. B Me. would. I must remember to post this letter. I began to understand the problem. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. shall. ought to.) I + negative auxiliary verb. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. B Oh.

They ought to be more careful. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. (or I could find a new job. They have no infinitive or participle form. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. I couldn't believe what he told me. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. we can use could to talk about ability. Past: He could speak French when he was four. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. I can swim. 2. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. You might go to London. You shouldn't do that. or You don't need to come. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 4. He mights come later. Present: He can speak four languages.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). I must to remember to post this letter. would: I'd be able to find a new job. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. will: I'll be able to find a new job. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. 1. 85 . Modal verbs have no tense forms. possibility. They might not come to the party.) I must remember to post this letter. She should see a doctor. He might come later. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. You don't should leave your car there. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. For example. 3. and permission. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not.

I was able to drive when I was sixteen. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous./You don't need to wear a suit. it is 'my' obligation. will: I'll have to find a new job.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. though could is more common. You need to be at the station by 8.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. The firemen managed to save everyone. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. we use was/were able to or managed to. (It is a general obligation. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Note: Must has no tense forms.Could. The firemen could save everyone. (It is and 'outside' obligation.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. 86 . or to say what we think is the best thing to do. You needn't wear a suit. Passengers must show their boarding cards. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. The party's informal. was/were able to. would: I'd have to find a new job. I could drive when I was sixteen. The firemen were able to save everyone. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. You ought not to carry so much cash. Past: I had to find a new job. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. Have to is also used. I must start taking more exercise. Have to is used to describe general obligation. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. from my doctor. (I want to.30. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. You shouldn't work so hard.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. I have to work on Saturday this week. You don't have to come if you don't want to. a driving instructor. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something.

He had his jacket dry-cleaned. I painted my room. 5. Compare these sentences. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. This means that I painted the room myself. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. She might not be here tomorrow. 1. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 4. 87 . Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. I will can go swimming every day next week. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. 26. I had my room painted. 3. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. Could is more polite than can. and may is the most polite and formal. Permission Can. could. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. with we and I. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. might. She could not be here tomorrow. and may are used to ask for permission. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work.Probability May. I had the car fixed. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. I had my hair cut. 2.

said or told). It needs cleaning. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. 29. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. The car's really dirty. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. David's father lets him use the car. Direct speech: I like cooking. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. because a different person is now speaking. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Need + -ing is more informal. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. would.g.27. I got the garage to service my car. 28. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. and modal verbs do not change. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. The car's really dirty. It needs to be cleaned. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. 88 . The judge made the man apologize.

There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Andrea: I'm going out. Monica: I might phone you later. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. We tell somebody something. Helen: I'd like a coffee. and verbs have a statement form. She told (them) jokes all night. They told (us) a story. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film.. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. say and tell We say something. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. With Yes/No questions. NOT Andrea said me . we make the following changes.. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. the reported question starts with whether or if.. 31. 30. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. NOT Andrea told (that) . Luke: I'll be away till March. The word order changes to a statement word order.. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Tom: I don't want to stay here. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Zoran: I had never been there before. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. 89 . Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. When we report questions. Zoe said that they saw a great film. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.

'Don't worry. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. 2. 1. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film.' The doctor asked me to sit down. and I didn't pass the exam. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. and command. Reported speech Look at these sentences.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis.32. We usually use a comma (. If I had told the truth. I'd lend you some money if I had any. 'Please sit down. she wouldn't have left. beg. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. an imaginary situation in the past.' He told me not to worry. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 90 . If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. (I didn't work hard.) when if clause is first. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. (You were driving too fast. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. order.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. 1. She asked me where I lived. such as advise. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. 33. 2. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. persuade. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. They told me that the exam was very hard. but other verbs can also be used. The instructor told me not to do that. 4. They said me that the exam was very hard. but not when the main clause is first. 3. The instructor told me that I don't do that. Some are right and some are wrong. and you crashed. If you hadn't studied so hard. warn. you would have failed. 3.

If I knew the answer I'll tell you. 34. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock.4. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. She should have been wearing a seatbelt.) They should have bought the house. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. We can also use this structure in the continuous form.) 91 . Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism.

Eric H. Otman. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. 2002. Chris Mitton. Computer Studies Through Applications. 2001. International Express. 7. 2. Wallwork. Oxford English for Information Technology. Gabriel. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3. Dorner.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 6. 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. All Stars. 2002. 2001. Engleza pentru informatica. 2001. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. 92 . Engleza pentru internet. 8. Hutchinson. Ian Selwood. 5. Life Lines. Kennewell. Jane. 2001. Brooks. Driscoll. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Tom. Michael & Francois Lagoutte.Oxford. Glendinning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Steve & Peter Fox. Writing for the Internet. 1998. 1992. & John McGwan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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