CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

. reading . 4 ... Justify your order. learning grammar . Purists of the French... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time..... Work alone.. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible.. English is the most widespread language on Earth. we can talk about a round of golf.... . technology. and the process is now being reversed. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement.. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives..... speaking and not being corrected all the time ..What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . cards.What advantages does the baby have? .. Speaking 1.......... and aviation..... 1 being the most important... Geographically.... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.. learning vocabulary ...... or drinks..... listening . 4... but remember that different people learn in different ways. Prepositions too are flexible. pronunciation practice 3.. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY.. sport. It is the language of business.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.... speaking and being corrected ..What advantages does the adult have? 2. Compare your lists.to be cleaned and dried. Work in groups. writing ......... This will no doubt continue... How do you learn languages? . Read books and newspapers.

They started mailing lists. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased.I. But then an odd thing started to happen. as it came to be called. Instead. just kept on growing. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. They had. they opened newsgroups. 3. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. There will be no "command center".. then news and eventually gossip. Other networks joined in. and the Internet. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. 2. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. no single computer that controls the rest of them. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net.. to use the techy term. in fact. 4. Instead of using the network strictly for business. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. the way they got there was unimportant. uninvited but still welcome. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. it worked. they used it to swap gossip. still the most popular use of the Net by far. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. each machine will have equal status. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. 37.). they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. swapped them (via the net. But they weren't interested in science or academia. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. Crude as they were. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. Amazingly. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. Because of the way the messaging system worked. for it was they. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. invented e-mail. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. 5 . 1. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. These packets could be sent independently over the network. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. they sent each other games. by 1972.

silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. but transistors soon (replace) them. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. along with IBM. packet.2. researcher A. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. cheaper and more reliable. Apple. however. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Since then the computers (become) smaller. a series of bits being a part of message B. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. network. notebook 3. desktop computer 2. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Computer sizes. a set of related computers C. supercomputer 4. Over the last few years. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. mainframe 5. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. a person who tries to discover something E. but the market (saturate) to some extent. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. Here are five types of computers. mailbox.

click on the course they want. Europe. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. and the Americans. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. and connect to a server that presents information. use a bulletin board. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. learn the material. Personally. the material would be available to students at their convenience. For example. all of which express personal opinions: 1. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. and as with mail order programs. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. videotape of professor's lectures. visit the school's We site. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. offered by mail. founder and president of University Online. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. rather than offering their own set of courses. Using modern technology. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. It's called distance learning. says Nat Kannan. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. Australia. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. Within a few months. online environment. There's a revolution happening in education. Use the elements to make complete sentences. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". and interactive courseware. the Net will be alma mater. Students can log onto the Internet. 1.

... several new courses have been offered. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality.. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8.. You have to follow a course . I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7.. 6. 1992 and it is already known worldwide.. we never believed it would be so successful.. 3. in 1992 2... 5. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. the beginning of the experiment. four years . behavio(u)rism typist. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2.... Fill the blanks in this passage with since.. kingdom employee. withdrawal clearance. It was put on the market in 1994. possession magnetism. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. to represent in a digital form 2. state condition... for and ago: 1. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom... LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. state condition... This University has only existed . state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. scientist .... addressee audience. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. to arrange in an optimal way 6. University Online was originally tested over five years . -or -hood -ian -ion. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. When we started.. to give authority to 10. musician introduction... To my mind. to put a story in the form of a drama 4.. connector childhood. to write a summary of 3. 4. to make use of a symbol for something 3.. condition belonging to act of. boredom. independence employer. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1.5.. . over two years. execution. a few months . at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. to take a material form 5. operator voucher.g. to reduce to the minimum 7.. so it has been tested . to give a linear form to 8. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e..

logical. computerize. short 7. furiously 4. Now. state electricity. tight 5. long 13. auto 8. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . rivalry friendship. transform the following words into verbs. reality achievement. condition place. mode 14. boldness labo(u)r. 1. tolerate shorten. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. government business. soft 10. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. broad 2. active 3. simple 4. condition. initial 12. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. -ical -ish -less -ous. using the verb-forming suffixes above. local 9. simplify customize. lengthen classify. action condition of quality. concentrate. happiness. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. interruptible environmental. widen. slavery. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. weak 19.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. quality state. standard 18. personal 15. economical foolish useless porous. generally. robot 6. analysis 11. state condition. behavio(u)r foundry. loose 16. stimulus 20. electric 17. -ery -ship state.

There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. and so on. And there are lots of people who know it too. spend more money on a training course. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. an attention to detail. For someone starting out. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. Here's the road map. A consultant is different. as does Novell. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. Qualifications are important. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. C++. Visual Basic and Delphi. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. you've run big projects. However. technology and people. C++. By the age of 30. 10 . so you have to be better than them. how it relates to other products and so on. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. Java and Visual Basic developers. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. Delphi. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. its positioning on the market. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. They merely prove you can think. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. If you decide programming is really for you. After a couple of hops like that. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. more manageable pieces. University degrees are useless. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. rolled out major solutions and are well known. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. Get a decent book on Windows programming. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. That's where the all-important experience comes in. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. a week there.

. 3.. have a degree but it ... 1. 9. need to. 1. More than one answer is possible in some examples.. 3. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix.. become an expert in too narrow a field.. You .. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.).. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs.. 8.. 5. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career.. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company.... Most of this can't be taught.... must.... 2. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. Your objective is to become self-employed. Prefixes change the meaning of the word. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date... In any case. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business. 4. These days you . the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. have to. You ...... Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff.... to have experience in JavaScript.... You . You .. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise. suffixes change the part of speech (noun.. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere. 7.. be able to use C++... then you can forget being an IT manager.. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer...... You ... If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project.....Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager. 6...... be able to show leadership... be in computing science.. Look at the examples: 11 .... 2. Technical qualifications .. 4. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations.. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well.. etc... You .. many of them don't have degrees in computing science. You . Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career. a stem and a suffix.. Interestingly. Most are between 30 and 45.. 2.. study BASIC.... Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team... have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. You need to be bright.. 10....... employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit..... It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams.... They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems. 8... 5. adjective. 7.. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks.. 6.... 1. You . It's important you have the right personality to lead a team... an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. to make sensible statements. verb.

below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. into going away more than above too much beneath. involve output. semicolon . bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). foresee. location. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. misfortune nonsense unreal.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. side in. external foreground. decode disagree. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. size. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. bystander input. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend.

size. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. location. that is already programmed 2. to predict 3. after the war 4. Now use the prefixes of degree. to convey data from one place to another 8. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . half manual 7. a program that is part of a larger program 6. 1. not up to standard 10.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. half automatic. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. to grow larger 5.

Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. to find their way around. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. For example. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. Besides content. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. and visitors may not know how to 14 . It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. and make necessary adjustments. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. include descriptive ALT text captions. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. If you are committed to using frames on your site. you may group the FAQ. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system.

confusing. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). password protected. (hot) links. a visitor. good reactivity. search facility. well laid out. colorful. 15 . structure connections. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. 1. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. a user. cluttered. on-line support. nice design. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. up to date. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want.use yours effectively. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). ease of use. For most sites. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. accuracy. without wasting space. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. Logical. helpful graphics. Take notes on any special features. compatibility. Visit a website of your choice. especially those ending in "y" (see above). contact information. features. However. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. navigation. you can add the suffix "er".

Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. The higher the resolution. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. When comparing two items. resolution was 16 . SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. 2. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. the comparative can be preceded by "the". as". especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. The less sophisticated the software. 2. the sharper the picture. 2. For the preceding sentence. This computer is the cheaper of the two. the more I feel depressed.. 1. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. John was the elder of the two boys. "as . Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. 4. when buying a PC are often 5...A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. indicated by the symbols. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models.. the slower the speed of execution. The less he works. 4. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. when preceded by "X times". The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. 3. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". the better he feels. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . 3. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design.

ugly picture 9. big memory device 7. With short adjectives. 3.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. 1. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. expensive card 6. fuzzy image 8. cheap computer 3. powerful computer 2. fast chip 4. This is the most powerful computer available today. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . inconsistent program 10. reliable device 5.

. This form of internal policing. sometimes be useful when designing a program.... have to.. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong..... The following sentences have been scrambled.. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3... It doesn't work... Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. make sure you spell correctly yourself. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users... is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.. Conversely.. on the Net or elsewhere. 4. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. You . because it wastes people's time.. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. 3.... nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. Don't use a signature of more than four lines.. Programs . 5. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. (If you don't know what a FAQ is... off-the-point arguments to see that... Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy... rambling. read the FAQ). 2. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. A flowchart . buy software packages like this at any local computer shop.. 18 ... when to criticize and when to stay silent. if that happened.. 6.. This piece of software . Put the words back in the right order: 1. A bug . be debugged before being executed. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream.. In practice.. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.. (A whole quarter second in some cases).... Don't cross-post messages........ cause unexpected results. You . 1. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. may or could 1. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. Don't criticize others for their misspellings... unwarranted abuse and long.. and overzealous at that. The reason for this is never given..LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4..

7. opening page of a website ... to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own . 10.. 9. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului......... 4. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor... Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text.......... graphic .. photo. 3. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.... write this program in a high-level language..... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .. 19 ... a measure of visits to a website .... fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. You .. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet. and diagonally top to bottom).... Cu toate acestea.. 7.. 6.. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1..... Write them next to the correct definition.. de exemplu. 8... a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . Daca as fi vrut. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.... 3.. 5. 6... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.. Translate the following sentences into English. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .. picture.. top to bottom. 5.. 8. 7... If you do.. email.... (You can find the words left to right... also known as "favorites" . Cind am incercat soft-ul. it will take up too much space in the computer memory. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. 2...... Ar fi putut.. They . 3... 2.. 4.. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. and computing. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici..... the main.......

21..... website address .. the Internet equivalent of post ........9. 17... a location on the WWW ..... 10.. a physical input / output point .... abbreviation for the Internet .... i..... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ...g. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.... 20 ... a search engine.... 13.... etc...... 18. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net .... 15. 16........ 11.......... unsolicited mail.... a bug which infects data on your computer ..... something that automatically connects you to another page ...................... the World Wide Web ... email...e.. inappropriate use of a mailing list . 20.. a software package generally used to start you up for a program .... :-) ... e.... 14..... . 12.... 22..... Uniform Resource Locator... 19. a way of showing emotion in an email......

Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. had knocked on this door.000. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. hacking has been criminalized. which is readily available. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. MULTIPLE CHOICE . the computer companies would have you believe. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Robert Schifreen 21 . He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO.000 a year to repair. Today's hacker is not so lucky. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. costing companies an average of $23. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. B. and so. C. has the security. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. The law was tightened up. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. Typically. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. Triludan. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. Hackers have their own code of conduct. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. For some teenagers. But according to those who practice. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. All the hacker needs is a modem. hacking is still easy. 1. Admittedly.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. 1. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. better known as Robert Schifreen. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. had not been in trouble with the law before. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. a basic computer and a bit of patience.Choose the ending (A.

33% of its members are hackers B. 4. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. You can legally download some music. C. deliberately destructive B. g. MP3 players contain several devices. D. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. has made hacking more difficult. 5. Then link them with an –ing clause. Each MP3 file has a tag. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 3. B. C. You can download single tracks. c. D.A. 4. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. costs about 48p a time C. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. merely curious. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 2. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. B. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. C. According to the NNC A. Match each cause and effect. d. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. 7. male criminals. the survival of hackers is threatened. 22 . has eliminated all computer security. is popular because it is romantic. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. Hacking A. This produces much smaller files. 2. 5. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. h. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. f. outlaws hacking. b. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. totally unaware of what they are doing. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. B. is a form of escape from the everyday world. e. D. 3. D. 8. You can create your own compilation. Effect a. You can download a skin program. This gives an enormous storage capacity. 6. Cause 1.

A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 6. 3. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. keyboard. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. 8. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 5. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 1. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 7. mouse and hard drives only. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server.3. 10. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 9. 4. display. 2. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 .

. with a further 1.. 24 ... According to the market researcher Dataquest. For example. the equivalent of 300...000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. and justify the cost of a drive. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.5in. along with the conventional 3... Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine... word processor and database – comes on one CD.. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. Applications are the key issue... but it's not the only one.. 1... Measuring drive performance 2....... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs.. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996.. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. but are spread throughout business... This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology... Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format...LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. Put them back in the appropriate place. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. and because there's more space..... the applications are generally better. 1.. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.. As with other areas of the computer industry.. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB... .... Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity.. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.. or were vast collections of specific information. Price points .. literature and art. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. floppy drive. Review criteria 4. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5......... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. Mainstream applications 3. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore...

...... disk 25 .... Increased competition has now reversed the trend.. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks.. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. As a result of this market maturity. 10.. Backing Store ......... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk........... TRUE OR FALSE? .. 1.. 5..... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more. more precise head positioning mechanism... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. more faster.. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.... access time. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search..... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer....But CD-ROM.. 9...... give reasons for your choice.. drawback.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false...... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. pie chart. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information.. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives. 8. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.... Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996.. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.. is still a read-only product........ While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. 1... .. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. files... this excuse was taken too far............ while still developing rapidly... 7. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use... 2. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. 2... The industry. . however advanced.. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future..... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware.. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader. 6. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. This is often confused with the average access searches... .... 3. 4...

(how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use........ on both surfaces.. that is extremely slow because of ..... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. 3. Large systems often use cartridges or ... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS...... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb..... double-sided....... 5.. Hermetic data modules called "... 2.. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .. 8. magnetic disks or diskettes... direct-access.e.... The ......... sequential access. 10.. i. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. disk.. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle..." are also common.e... 7.... 26 ... If the disk is . THE PASSIVE ... database..... storage areas are marked on the magnetic...... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre... 4.. Hence files can be .. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers... read-write head... floppy disk... media and ... old-fashioned. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an . so-called because of its flexibility.. 6. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .......... magnetic tapes.. (i.. though these are becoming .... You should write between 150 and 200 words.. address... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare...drives.. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)......... of all the files on the disk. 3.. needs to be in main memory at any one time.. erorile se pot corecta.... Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.... as opposed to a single-sided disk.. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors....... This technology is cheap and easy to use..... are now part and parcel of most computer systems... retrieved... it is called a . where only one surface is ... directory.. Before being used...... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta......... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.. formatted (x3)....... and . Disk have the advantage of being serial or ............. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta.. but has the . disk packs.. 9. a track and a sector number).. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders. oxide-coated surface...... a disk must be ........Translate the following sentences into English: 1.... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .. both internal and external....... Most users are more familiar with the . In this way only a small part of a ...... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .....

beyond the straightforward museum visit. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. will replace traditional museums. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. science. a basis for study for future generations. C. With the internet. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. Moreover. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. public museums did not exist. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. only aristocrats could go to museums. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. the patron goddesses of the arts. Elizabeth Brown. military. 3. virtual museums A. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. 1. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. crafts. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. For many people. C. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. 2. B. An overview of lost techniques. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. A museum can best be defined as A. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. and industry. Within the last few years. electronically. B. especially in distant lands. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. fashion. With reference to the information in the article. At the time of the Renaissance A. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. 27 .

will show works of art that do not exist. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. art work 2. photo (taken quickly) 2. storehouse 8. Put the following sentences into the passive form.B. object produced by human hands 3. 3. best work of an artist C. disadvantage 7. to establish 6. Museums maintain and display great works of art. will organize visits to its storage spaces. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. The Web may transform our perception of art. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. 2. country 9. museum A. masterpiece 4. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. collection 5. C. to enjoy 10. artefact 3. The National Museum of Art A. 5. Match the words and their definitions: 1. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. 4. to admire 3. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. something produced by creative talent E. vast 4. 4. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. 6. 1. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. B. C. article (in a magazine) 4. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . work of art. to see. honored 5. 2. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators.

3. currency. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. users can act as both customers and merchants. and the amount to be paid. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. a bank redeems each note number only once. for example). or a dedicated payment client.. Payment systems based on gold. 4. In many cases. the date and time of the transaction. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. This might be a WWW browser. and a bank does the accounting. the merchant receives the payment. A person who buys goods or services from you. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. To execute a real-time transaction. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. For the purposes of this discussion. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. traveler's checks. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. A person who receives (money. The customer runs client software.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. the name of the payer and the recipient. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. With such a system. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. charge accounts. 1. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). and credit cards are credit systems. In a debit system. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. 5. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. both exist in the digital world as well. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world.e. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. 29 . the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. you gather your money up front and then spend it. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. The customer pays. In a peer-to-peer system. 2. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. paper currency. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. Using a public key. and the amount of money represented). In a credit system. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. A bank employee who pays out money. Checks.

... For $20 a month.. 2... I met personally. 3..... is similar to traditional credit. he ignored it...... However... withdrawal The Longstone company wish . entered the virtual shop.. balance...000. were found in the safe......... C .00.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt... The bank will send the company a weekly . B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0... which. The man..6. Digital credit.. loan. a current .. receipt. whose.. Money used in a specific country. The site..... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. The customer. 4. The first one has already been done for you. to clear... The next month he got a bill for $0.. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday... agreed to honor my check. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who.00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.... trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.. . of account.? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0... overdraft...... in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. where. some ... will be $10.. .. 8. He alone will be authorized .. 6. of which.. whom...... interest. is used in electronic trade.. Stupid Computer Error A . 5. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. To add money (to an account).. 1.. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. bought her a typewriter instead.. the company can have access to a . wanted to buy some shirts. The account will not produce any . to start.. He ignored it and threw it away. You will not need to use them all! account.. 2.00 stating that payment was now overdue. to sign...? The next day he got a bill for $0.. holder.. A computer that can access a server. 7. cheques. accepts digital cash. A large number of banknotes. D ... will only be charged at 12%........ Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order.. name is on the check. deposit... were still new... to open.. for their manager. 3.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. The initial . remittance........ .... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament.. 30 . we found CD-ROMs on sale.. safe.. statement.... He is the very man . The bank director.

00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.? Finally giving in.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 .? A week later. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 by return of post.? In April he received another and threw that one too. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. G .E . He called them and talked to them. F .00.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.

This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs.. And as for the taste.. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. Dr.. experts expect that. was how online commerce will evolve. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum.. smells. exist. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. Christian Huitema.. Next came. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. sound and feeling will arrive. came the issue of virtual reality. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. there was an inevitable blur of content. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. Huitema. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net.. "At telecom 91.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. For sheer impact. As he pointed out. computing. said Dr. Lastly. satellite. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. dumb terminals. What should concern us. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. one can predict / foretell that. and.. "Sight. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. he predicted. he said. and the role of the providers. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. the current issue of security will only be short. that probability that . dipping even further into the future. futurologists forecast. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. networks. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet".. And needless to say. is high / low it is highly probable that ... 32 .. the future. So things have changed. Dr. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer.. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. he enthused. 1. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. we'll have to work on that one". who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. more controversially. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity".. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. for all intents and purposes. said. that didn't keep the crowds away. well.

me to get a better job.... it hard for me to have a social life..... Being a single parent .. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient..... it is reasonable to think that. 5. When I was young my parents never .. 2. 33 .. there are grounds for believing that..... Prepare to explain them to your partner. 4. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. My boss is easygoing and .... there are scientific arguments for.. allow... 2. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want..... enable.. I hope that doing the course .. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete.. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. me to stay out later than 11. 3. access to confidential files...it is a well-founded supposition that... make... The term was first coined by William Gibson.. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Keyword The word. 3. A security password .. Reading Read the article.. me leave early every Friday afternoon. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage.. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer... Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let. Sneaky... indicated by a finger symbol.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).. permit 1.00...

or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). contract and condense. all day at work. Plenty of adults talk the talk. FWIW (for what is worth). It takes wit. There's neither time nor space for exposition. sex and location. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). concentration and agile fingers. If something cracks you up. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). GTG. C-U-L8R 34 . every night. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. or type the type. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. Across the world. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in).ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It has an estimated 75 million users. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. PBAB (please bring a bottle). a new idiom has been born. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. The solution is to abbreviate. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. Well. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework.

English. "situatie familiala" as "family situation".cair@btinternet. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. Spanish. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. Geography. Computer Studies. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. which sounds very strange indeed. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing .g. degrees and other qualifications. Science. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. Stonebridge. e. For the purpose of this task.II. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification.w.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . EH21 3TZ email p. then write your own CV in the same way.

5 . Personnel Officer.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .TCP / IP Networking . Leith.network administration and implementation .. IT Department. L.1st line customer telephone support .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows 95 / 98 . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y. Thin.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .Office 97.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. Novasystems 36 .database design .Windows 200 Server / Professional .Exchange Server 5.Sage line 50 & 100 . 2000 .

how to begin a letter. how to end it. so read the advertisement carefully first 5.1. You may find some of the following expressions useful: .B. 37 . State when you are available for the interview 10.am available to start as from June 15 .avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Reference number if there is one.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. and where to put the handwritten signature. Give all the information you are asked for 8. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. State what job you are applying for 4.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Type your letter 6. Write clearly 2.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . the signatory's full name (typed). The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . Keep your letter short and to the point 3. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Make the information you give relevant to the job. the name and address of the addressee. Check your spelling and punctuation 9.state where you saw the job advertised .am currently studying for . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". Use the person's name if you know it . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it .name and address of firm.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . B.should you feel I could be of use to your firm . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.state you qualifications in brief . and firm.

Yours sincerely. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. team leadership and team membership. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. through the British Council. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. In Malaysia I arranged. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. Alan Bannister 38 . I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. study tours for project personnel. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. for example. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. as well as students. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. teachers and administrative staff. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. Over the past year. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position.

5. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. Which is more important to you. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. You are likely to be found in the end. so much the better.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. don't rush. In the past year. . .Do make a graceful exit. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer.Do arrive in plenty of time. . .Don't let your clothes be too extreme. .C. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. money or job satisfaction? 12. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. experience. . Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. set out early. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. . . What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. walk to the door. 2. . Describe your most recent accomplishments. 39 . Dress in a business-like way.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Don't smoke. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. interests and hobbies. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. Thank your interviewer.Do sit still.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.

Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: . Dear James. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.writing too much. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . if you might be able to help me. Yours sincerely.. how has it changed your working life? 3. if you intend your comments to be humorous) .S... Dear Sir. ...not making clear who you are and why you are writing . or may not be able to open . I would be extremely ....... or in sentences that are too long ....Read these emails..not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to ...writing everything in UPPER CASE . One letter is formal.not bothering to correct spelling mistakes . How often do you use email? 2.. B. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.... How are you? I bet you are .. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.. working on Lingo..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..D.. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise ... my recent paper. Please find . if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. I was wondering if . which I hope you will find interesting. the other informal. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am ...sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in....not answering all the points raised by the sender . I . If you use email at work.. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. What do you use email for? 4.. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.not telling the reader what you expect them to do. Monica Ciampi P... future. you in the .... Could you email me details? 40 ..

missing c. a. also b. happy c. presently d. pleases d topic d. a... matter c. lacking 10. I look forward to news from b.. a.. dinner 14. Hope to hear from you . early c... wishes 41 . a... a. close 8. then c. too d. as well c. request c. together. of weeks I'll be in England. a. currently b. bracket 12. glad 5. pair d. concerns b. now c. couple b. Monica P. topic d.. thus d. a. a.In a . included d. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . soon d.. affair 6. ask 2.. drink b. a.. beforehand b. to Peter 1. wonder d. actually 3.. respect d.. annexed 9.S. with d. demand b... additionally 4. wasting d. meal c. near b. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . a. next c. I look forward to hearing from c. and 13. for b. supper d. business b. so b. losing b. a.. Best wishes. love c.. match c. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. a.. Send my .. from c. before 15. and thank you for your help. I look forward to hearing news from d. grateful b. a. enclosed c. a.... by 11. attached b. a.

. .. What makes a presentation effective? 4.... I think our first . specifically... Now I'd like to . then. purpose. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. more ... I'd like to ...... to Italy and Spain. Overall – clarity of message. tell you. accuracy.. relevance. in conclusion.. achievement of objectives. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking.. priority... finally.. pronunciation. with some recommendations. appropriacy. concluding. our profits have not increased at the same rate. .. humor Organization – coherence.. some of the problems we are facing. rapport / eye contact... today is to .. talked.. audibility. on those successes before we .... to . subject knowledge. me if you have questions at any time.... PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. I'll quickly .... handling Delivery – pace.. indicate. I'll . and.. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century.. illustrate... options. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity... intonation.. .. outline... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.... expand. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. enjoyable..... sum up.. motivating Exercise ... describe.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already . what .. informative...... you all for being here. variety. of course....... to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. bring you up to date.. referring. I'd like to . pointed out "Good afternoon.E... My ... Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. interrupt. clarity. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. I'm . Let me quickly . with our plans for Europe.. I'll .. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. ..Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. . Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation....... move on. everybody. I've .. thank. about our current position in the UK and I've . Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts... .. interesting. on balance.. clarity. draw your attention... There is no benefit in using difficult language.. confidence.. Please feel free to . fluency. recommend. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. body language Language – clarity... before . enthusiasm.. some of the problems we are having over the market share.. 42 . Well.. about our corporate strategy for the next decade.... you will notice. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. What is a presentation? 2. that although turnover has risen.. to start with. .

but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. Thank you also for your pertinent questions... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience....... Spain and possibly Greece. Are there any final questions?" 43 . I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly .. .We should not forget the French market.. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far... though.. .

A member of staff will supervise progress. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. In part-time degrees. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. but there are a number of differences: . you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. Like an essay. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . since you have more space. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. try it out with your supervisor. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation.is the topic academic enough? . which you research by yourself. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. 44 .is the topic relevant to your degree course? . There are several criteria for your choice: . It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. and be available to assist you.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . but is probably the most important. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time).is the topic broad enough / too broad? . but it can also be very daunting.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. called a dissertation or long essay. However. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. This means you have a whole year to write it.F. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.you can choose your own title .

is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. since you have more to say. Introduction – 1. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Dissertations are usually 10. the first thing to do. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. It is longer. 000 words. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. ask yourself: . 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. As you are reading through the books on your topic. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. since you may need a few by your side.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. 000 words Conclusion – 1. This will be your title. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 .

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. 49 . That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. 4. 5. but you can never tell. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. It's really cold.1.

...... ................. 4................... years.. I had ... and she said that she hadn't had a chance.................... 5........ I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation............................ I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year............. First I went to . I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details........................................................ Articles Complete this text with a / an........ 6.................................. . the.............. 2........ old school friend who I hadn't seen for .......... I booked it last week............. They wondered how we had managed to do it. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid...... ...... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions......... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics................ 6.......... 3... River Thames. ........ 50 .......... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions............................... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday............... or no article.. He's ... ................. 1........... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.......... Right.............. 4........................................................ long walk by . Then I went swimming at ............................................. professional musician and plays with . He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known..................... In each case choose the most likely alternative..... I've done that for you. .. 7.............. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra........................................ 8.. After ......................................... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup................ If you're too hot in here.............. lunch with Bob....................................................... ........................ lovely morning............ 7......... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything................................... 3..... ...... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras.. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations....... 9.... Look at those clouds.... 2.........................Test B A. I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon..... 5. I went for . I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning.... bank to withdraw some cash.............................. 3. 1.................. local pool and saw Bob McGraw. Grammar 1.....

... AK Yes............... ..00 a.......... yes..................................00 ............. it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.................... EJ ..... at the latest.................. Sorry. c............... 10.. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment. then........ It sounds useful... So...... 9.................8... 2........................ fine. is that right? AK Yes................................ P Yes.......................... you're talking about............................ e..m.... 51 . So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9............. let me give you an example..... P OK.... AK Hello.... something for people who need English translations of words.................... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary........................... C Paula. which is why I thought ...... a......... B........ AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.............. d........ right............. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert...... OK.. EJ Oh.... ...... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time..... ....... I'm not really with you............ I'm busy on Thursday..............................00..... is that Paula.. Goodbye..................... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software............. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase.................................... AK ................. he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland. As we were leaving............................. ................. EJ ...... OK. I've got you....... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e........ C Hello............................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily. Would Thursday morning at 10... and they said they would get it to him by 10......................................... EJ .............. hello..................... Wednesday at 9....... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering.... AK Exactly....... Functions 1............ and we told him that we could do it next week....... EJ ....00 ? P ... .............. is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski............... can I just interrupt you a second? b.... Good idea. ................... ? C .

. I am not accustomed .. 1....... ..... 10.... the UK market for the time being.. The meeting coincided ... 7. 2............C. A lot of company's resources are ..... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss... no! I seem to have ... my new job.......... 2... it.................. lose..... because of inefficiency.... Vocabulary 1..... I've never .... my family when I was abroad on business for four months.. 52 . 4.. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a . opportunity! 5. He apologized ... the beer festival. 3... I had three jobs to choose .. Oh... Please listen . I really .. me................. 8..... or waste. the inconvenience caused........... 3. 5..... an important meeting in my life.... I'm allergic ........ We need to concentrate ...... 2......... I can't eat seafood............ miss.. 6... 9............ Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.. He is lacking . Thank you for taking part . the discussion today.. sensitivity. You can depend . Don't worry...... me..... lose. Do you take credit cards? 4.. 1. my money...

If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.... some of B. My company does much business in Asia... One million dollars is plenty of for one person. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work..... I like playing sport. . Complete the sentences. which. have become good friends. has just joined the company? b. so please hurry up. 3... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1... d. anticipating an increase in value...... There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. c. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. 2. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. I'm doing many work at the moment. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. 7. 3... is comfortable and spacious. the majority of .. that.... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun).. Nothing happened yesterday. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). he bought shares in the company.... What's the name of the woman ...... who...Test C A... is free... or whom. 9. There's not much news to tell you.. 2... I'm living in at the moment. 10.. then correct the mistakes. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. using where. 53 ...... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B.. e. you used to work? was also the year I got married. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. 2. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 3. 6... Then complete them. 1. The reception area.. I give / will give you a bonus. You need to invest in some more machinery. but I don't spend a lot on equipments. she later married.. a.. 2. He gave us a lot of information about his company. You can download software from many websites.. 1.. we hold meetings in. This is the room . Grammar 1... work opposite us are not very friendly.... is on the fifth floor... 4. 5. A..

because of a..... due to b............... like e..... Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e........... Functions 1.... such as 5. for example 2. Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ........ a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online. He really gets .... I mean b... Let me explain what I mean. Vocabulary 1. can we trust these servers to be secure? . .. what you're saying........... I had a day off work last week to make .................. (be excited by) 4. e.. a.......... It's such a bad line. So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem...... because c. as 3.............................................. ............. g..... By secure..g......... ... (make depressed) 5...... He's always letting his colleagues . He's not a very good team player. I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.. The point is d................... trends.... while d......... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server.... so h... To give you an example c. (disappoint) 2...... working at the weekend.... ...... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'.. .... 1...... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning... e...... is the answer to that........... I can only just make ... 2.. ........ (indicate awareness of something) 3........ Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.... however f...........B.................... (understand) 54 ........ . due to the fact that 7. Explaining consequences...... fraud still occurs............ ............. The problems with her job are really starting to get her ........ on abusing the little power he has......... on the other hand 4................. thus C...... whereas 6.................... 1.... (compensate for) 6..... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things..... as a result of 8..

... the meeting.. ? (invent) 10........... 55 .. (became very successful) 8........... last year when we broke into the German market.... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview..7...... She called in sick so that she could get ......... The company really took ..... It's good news.... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ......... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics............. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.. (avoid) 2......... (communicate) 9. She's very good at getting her ideas ........... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.........

.................... well top $150 million this year...................... have left my keys in the restaurant........................ 8........................ ....................................... 7........ Conditionals 1........................................................ I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning........ We're locked out! 4......... 10.............. If someone ............. ................... 2......... We invite successful applicants to a second interview......... 1.. ............. 3.................. A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she .................... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive. Somebody stole my laptop computer............. Use have / get something done where appropriate................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me. 1............. The optician tested my eyes yesterday............................................... but I'm not sure yet............ 5............................................ be staying at the conference venue..... but I ..... be wrong.............................................. be a big shock........ According to Peter........................................................................ Companies usually provide managers with language training.... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities.... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.. What three things .................................................... Oh........................................... 6............... 7...... ..... .............. The store manager had only just moved to the branch........................... ............................... have kept some of it for herself................................................................................................ 9................... 2............................................. .................... 2.............. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors............. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form......... ..... 3................. (knock) on your door at home .......... (you save) if your house ........................................ 4.................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb........................................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night................. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion................... (be) on fire? b... He . I think we ..................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months.............................. (you open) the door immediately? 56 .Test D A........ a. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.. .................................... 5.. Grammar 1................. company profits .......... no! I ........ He was only 42 years old. ......................................... 8..... When I go to Barcelona I .. 3.......................... His colleague's death ...................................

. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview.. (not study) your subject at school / university.. ..... . A: If you ....... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e..... what ............. B: Yes.. What . To ask for clarification 5.. If you .. (not get) a job with your current company? h.............. To ensure other people get to speak 4.... (see) a UFO.... I know. Where ........ If the weather .. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion. ....... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2..... using the words a-e....... after lengthy discussion. I ........... (happen) if . Can I finish what I was saying? d.. To summarize a......... Could you be more specific? b... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed. Would you like to come in here...... a. 2.. (go) to the police..........c. If you ... A: If I .. However........ (go) to the police..... B: Thanks for warning me............ (you study) ? f......... firstly e. A: Careful! If .. Ella? 57 ....... A: If I ........ ......... To manage interruptions 2.............. (you do) ? e...... If you ........ (you change) ? g... c.... Then b............................ So... but I don't think they'd believe me. (be) you.......... (give) you a ticket....... eventually d...... ultimately c.. (you work) if you . one candidate is chosen... (be) you........ 1. c..... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense... whose life . Functions 1.......... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said....... a... B.... (be) good this weekend what .............. d...... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things .......... (you park) your car there they ..... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description..... basically what you're saying is.. To keep to the point 3........ The interviews take place and ...... b.... (you choose) ? d.... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards........... I .. what ...

... interested 2........ . credible 4. 3.... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.... 1........... understand .... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs....... . connect 5... 5............C. create ... .. 1...... 4.... .. 2. rely ............ ............. legible 58 ..... replaceable 3... 2...... humor .... Vocabulary 1....... criticize .............

............... so don't forget to take waterproofs.. I ........... Future Continuous. A: Great..m. 6.. Future Perfect. tomorrow? We .... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful... I'd like that.. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. Look..... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. but . 5...? 3... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c... 1. and obligation 1................ (do) at 8.... .... I .. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form.. Good luck with your exam tomorrow...... 2........ Am I allowed to smoke in here? b.. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase... Do you know what .. (live) in space.. necessity. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. If you have time during your stay in Sydney. Must I really go to the meeting? f... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes. In three months' time I .. Invitations............. ... a... Grammar 1. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow. (work) from home....... otherwise I may / must / can forget it.. By the time I retire I hope I . 59 ....... Will they .. 4.. e............. 8....00 p........ (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9....... b.. Functions 1. I'm sorry.Test E A. Call me sometime over the weekend.....00 p.. 2. Permission...... requests..... I've got two tickets! B. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics........ (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.......... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d... d. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House........... possibility... Do you think there ................ (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.. if you'd like me to show you around Prague..... Thank you..... B: .......... 7.. Match each question with an appropriate category..... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. I .... (think) of you.... it's no problem........ you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa.............. (finish) their meeting by 7. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2. thank you.. By 2050 people . I'm sure... c...m.....

.... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No.................... too many mistakes.. Can I help you . I can't.. Remember to ......... best of luck b.......... I'm starting a new job next week.. hope to see you again sometime 1... B: Yes.. succeed 3...... employ (someone) 60 ....... Concluding...................... or take.... great.......... Well.... 3.... Yes... did you ......... warm clothes.. thank you for that lovely dinner once again.... get.............................. a.. bring about b.............. B: ..... Mark..... lead to...... 2...... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.......... Late payment often ... C......A: . 1.. 5. take up d....... A: I've had a lovely evening. her? 3.. A: Have you ......... you're welcome e.. lead to. I'm glad you enjoyed it c.......... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ........ cash-flow problems for small businesses... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do..... A: How did you ...... keep in touch d.... ......... B: ...... some research for my thesis. with everything.... get.... A: ......... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e. I don't think I .... 2. carry off c.... that ... not too bad.... Vocabulary 1..... ................ your bags? They look very heavy! 2..... A: Oh...... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning. cause 4.... bring... and take Complete the sentences with bring... Thanks for coming.......... carry......... I hear this is your last day at work here.... thanking.............. in your English test? B: Oh... carry..... A: Well.......... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year.... A: So.. 1....... .... 2........ take on a... I have to ... begin (a hobby) 2.. B: You too. B: Thanks. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock.....

5. .. used to have a Porsche. meticulous 4.. have you been doing 6. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1.Answer key Test A A1 1.. to turn off 5. f – 6 7. 1. was living 2. 2. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. have never seen 8. had been having 4. had read / started 5. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. c – 7 4. 4. . for a week 5. recently 3. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. at the moment 2. e – 1 6. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. was traveling / witnessed 3. stubborn 5. . d – 4 5.. hasn't stopped 1. outgoing 3.. watch 3. woke up 1. to entertain 3. going 4. a ..Tests . always plays 7. seems 5. had been sitting 6.. have eaten 10... 3. look like 2. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. all my life 4. saying 2. competent 2.. . sounds like 4. have been having 9. . g – 3 1. going 1. arrived / had left 7. a – 5 2. b – 2 3.

I'll turn on 6. who / whom c. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. is going to rain 7.. which 2. I've got you. Ø 9. in 3. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. a 10.. I'm playing 4. on 8. for 2. with 4. I'm afraid 4. an 5. Sorry. let me give you an example. 'More and more women will move into top management posts.00 a.2. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. who / that b. 62 . I haven't had a chance. That would be / Yes. the 1. I was wondering whether 2. the 3.' 9.' conditions. that's / That suits me 1. 'Did you see anything?' 2. How about / What about 5. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. wasted 2. I'm going to 3. to 9. at the latest. Ø 6. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. a 7. we can do it next week. lost 4. missed 3. which e. missed C2 1. that / which / Ø d. to 10. a. So.' 7. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. 4. B1 1. the 8. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. the 4.' 6. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. I'm going to spend 8. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. in 5. a. will win 9. to 6. OK. from 7. OK. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. wasted 5. 2. Are you doing A3 2. 5. I'll just check / I'll call 5. I'm not really with you. 3. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3.m. you're talking about .

down 5. I – equipment 10. I – quite a few 5. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. I – a lot of 3. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. I – a lot of 7. I've met a lot of people through work. out 7. on 3. some of whom have become good friends. rise 6. I – information 2. off 4. A2 1.b. Let me explain what I mean 2. down 2. By secure. up for 1. We started the company in 1999. To give you an example 3. The point is 4. raise 6. I – a lot of good advice 1. e. by / will give 3. sharply 4. until / are 1. C 9. d. substantial 5. arisen 2. I – plenty of 6. which was also the year I got married. off 8. C 4. risen 3. as soon as 2. 63 . C 8. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. up 10. I mean 5. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. across 9.

had been / would have gone b. could / may / might 8. 5. might / may / could 3. 1. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. 8. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. I was in the middle of saying something. uninterested 2. is / will you do e. can't / couldn't 5. Excuse me. understandable 64 C2 1. must 7. basically what you're saying is . would happen / arrive. Would you like to say something about this.2. John? 4. would you work / hadn't got h. 3. incredible 4. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. 2. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. 6. My eyes were tested yesterday. must 4.. arrived 2. irreplaceable 3. could / would you choose d. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. Candidates are recommended for promotion. Miranda was asked to write the report. was you / would go c. 4. / I've had my laptop stolen. would you save / was b. humorous 3. should 2. a. knocked / would you c. Applications are passed on to universities. A2 1. should / must 6. 9. Can you be more specific? 5. reliable 2. were / would you change g. happens. I had my eyes tested yesterday. So. 10. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. My laptop has been stolen. a. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. Language training is provided for managers. saw / would you do d. could / might / may 1. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . / Managers are provided with language training. creative 4.. 7.

1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. have finished 3. can't 5. bring 4. will speak 7. can't 3. made 4. do 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. Keep in touch 4. get 3. take 5. 1. carry 2. illegible A2 1. must 2. best of luck 2. That's very kind of you 3. Shall 4. can 4. will have earned 8. Shall we say 5. will be living 6. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1.5. I was wondering 2. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . Hope to see you again some time 3. will have been working 4. lead to 1. will be 9. You're welcome 5. critical Test E A1 1. will be thinking 2. made 3. will be working 5. would be fine / suits me fine 1.

a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. 2. He's knowing a lot about music. He doesn't want to be in the school play. 66 . describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. I'm going to the cinema every day. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. She works here until Christmas. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport.IV. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. She's working here until Christmas. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. 1. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. He knows a lot about music. 2. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1.

I want to go out for dinner. present simple. You haven't lived abroad. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. He's seeming very tired.3. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. and present continuous Look at these sentences. Vegetarians don't eat meat.) I've been to Brazil three times. To make regular past participles. (He still works there now.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years.) I've bought a new car.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. Some are right and some are wrong. He seems very tired. 4. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. (I still live here now. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 6. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. 2.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. (I've got a new car now. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. we add –ed to the infinitive. I have. 5. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. 67 . We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home.) Present perfect. (Until now I've been there three times. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner.) I've lived here for three years. 1. (She isn't here now. 3.

68 . Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. The film was much better than I expected. He's never here at 9.. Russia is bigger than Canada. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. normally. can be used to make comparisons. The train is always on time. Sometimes. but they usually go before the main verb.. We often go to the park. I'm working here since October. as . * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. in front of the main verb.3. I don't usually get up late. 5. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be.. Her house is as big as mine. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. as ..00. I work here since October.

a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. .85m 1.. he was.83m 1. The film was better than the book. He's so tall as his brother.. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. The film was better that the book. 6. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. We weren't here yesterday. 3. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. is also possible.92m Alex's brothers 1.. Short answers Yes. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. 2. as . The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. In the negative so . 1. He's as tall as his brother. My exam results were more bad than Andy's.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. My exam results were worse than Andy's. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.. 4. Alex 1. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.

I did. or past actions which were not habits. only the past simple can be used. I went there four years ago. not the present perfect.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. She wasn't going to work.) Before that I lived in Madrid. but he gave up five years ago. (She isn't here now. We didn't use to live in London.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. 7. I've lived here for five years. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. not the effect.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. two days ago. I went out this morning. (But I don't live there now. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. It has no present form. he was. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday.g. We went to the cinema twice last week. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. describe a habit in the past which is not true now.) She went at four o'clock. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. (We're interested in when the action took place. in 1993.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. She's gone home. last week). To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. For individual past actions. you must use the past simple tense. (I still live here. She used to be a teacher. I've been there four years ago. He used to smoke. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

impossible. (But I haven't got the money. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. We use who with people. She's probably coming this weekend. It may (not) rain today. which with things.) She'd be a good politician. It's unlikely to rain today. If I had the money. I'd buy a house. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. He's the man who lives next door. I saw the man who lives next door. I would. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. They wouldn't steal from a friend. It probably won't rain today. It's likely to rain today. Use Would has many uses. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon.) make polite offers. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. It might (not) rain today. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. It could rain today. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. (But she works in a bank. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. 74 least likely most likely . or imaginary situations. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It'll probably rain today. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. I saw the man.

. which. 12. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. You knew about this yesterday. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. They aren't coming to the party. He's the man (who/that) she married. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. don't they? 75 .. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. can't she? NOT . or that. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. You can swim. did not you? She can speak Russian. She married him. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. will she? It doesn't matter. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. He's the man. does it? You've finished. This chair's French. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense.. Look at these sentences. He lives next door. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. haven't you? It was raining.He's the man that lives next door. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. He's the man. didn't you? NOT . is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. She arrived yesterday.. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. didn't she? You like fish. You're Italian. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. He's the man who/that lives next door. It isn't very warm.

The man wasn't sent to prison. The weapon hasn't been found. Someone has been arrested. These houses were built in the 1930s. She must be told. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. It is less direct than an ordinary question. we use the negative of the verb to be. 76 . We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag.) and is followed by a question mark (?). aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. This wine is produced in Portugal. It can't be done. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. Fewer crimes would be committed. Thousands of cars are stolen. These computers are made in Japan. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. The car has been found. we don't know the agent. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. Cars shouldn't be parked there.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. The crime will be solved. We can use the passive in any tense. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. To make the negative of the passive. 13.

They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. We usually use a comma (. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. we'd travel business class. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. The car has been found by some children. If she eats all the ice cream. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is.) 15. she'll feel terrible. unlikely. If I had enough money . I'd buy that house. If you get up late. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. If I get the job I'll earn more money. NOT If I would have enough money .) when the if clause is first. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event.. If we had more money.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. we'll go to the cinema.. but not when the main clause is first. If it rains.) 77 . or imaginary situations.) We won't go if it rains. (There is a real chance that it will rain. but not when tha main clause is first. We usually use a comma (. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. (I don't think I'll get the job. 14. you'll miss the appointment.If we want to show the agent. NOT If it will rain. The suspect was identified by a witness. If I had enough money. we'll go to the cinema.. we use by. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.) when the if clause is first..

She switched on the TV.. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. until... 17. or She switched the TV on. (transitive) The plane took off. in... I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. He took off his jacket. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. the verb is separable. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. and after. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle.. She takes after her mother. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. when she will arrive. on. up. Oil will run out in the next century. until Phil will get back. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. He saw the mouse and ran out.g. NOT . as soon as. I'll phone you when she arrives. look something up 78 . NOT . away. She switched it on. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. before we would go to the cinema. NOT . Time clauses As in clauses with if. before.16. He heard a helicopter and looked up. e. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). NOT She switched on it.

) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. is not normally used with stative verbs. (I haven't finished it yet. 79 . NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. I've been playing a lot of football this week. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. I've lived here for ten years. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete.I looked up the word in the dictionary. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. or about past actions which have present results. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. like other continuous forms. I've been waiting for an hour.' emphasize the duration of an activity. 18. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. the verb is inseparable. he has. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. I've been writing a letter.) focus on the process of an activity. You're late.

Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. have no idea. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. ask. Do they live here? You saw her. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. remember.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. or an auxiliary verb.19. a modal verb. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. imagine. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. know.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. so we must provide one.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them.questions. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. Compare these questions.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. see. wonder. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. They live here. Can she swim? They've arrived. using do/does in the present or did in the past. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. decide. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. question word(s) subject verb 80 . we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. Did you see her? In Wh. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents.

've got. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. I've decided how much money do I need. What kind of software? Software for computers. The headword always goes at the end.? Could you tell me where the post office is... Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. Note: However.? or Do you think you could tell me . I wonder why did he do that? 21. 4. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. arrives. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. 3. football boots These are boots. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. 81 . I don't know if he's coming. left. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me ..questions we use the question word in the indirect question. With Wh. 1. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun.. we say clothes shop and sports shop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. a computer software shop This is a shop. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. is. A shop that sells records is a record shop. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I've decided how much money I need. 2.

A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. He was driving at 120mph. before. I can hear someone coming.00. 82 . This is a really boring film.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. when the subject of both clauses is the same. I could smell burning. -ing form or infinitive A. I had the idea while I was driving home. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. After having a shower. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. a tennis racket a living-room. I read a fascinating book the other week. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. hear. (Empty packets. I've been working since 7. (New packets. She's playing tennis. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. or are hyphenated. as adjectives. We saw them leaving the house. I had the idea while driving home. 23. Unfortunately there are no rules. I got dressed. After I'd had a shower. a bathroom a coffee cup. object I don't enjoy cooking. etc. There were two people waiting for you. with after. I got dressed. There's someone coming. Others are written as two words. notice. and while to replace a clause. to describe what someone can sense (with see. feel. stomach ache 22. Compare these sentences. watch. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). (Empty bottles.) He bought three packets of cigarettes.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. smell.). How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. a teacup.

She's considering emigrating to Australia. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. imagine. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. In British English. I began to realize how he felt. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. Some of the most common are finish. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. (I had met her before and I remembered it. then he stopped in order to smoke. but I couldn't. begin. but it didn't work.) I remembered to meet her. feel like. consider. but I didn't. hate. 1. I'm beginning to learn the piano. I enjoy doing the gardening. enjoy. B. Smoking is bad for your health. continue It's just started raining. I'd prefer to go to the cinema.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. I'd like to live abroad.) C.) I tried speaking to her about it. It's just started to rain. and can't stand. (he was doing something. 83 . start. (I spoke to her. remember. -ing forms Look at these sentences. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. (I was supposed to dance with him. give up. (I wanted to speak to her. (British) I like to lie in bed late. love. (I had to meet her and I did. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now.) stop He has stopped smoking. forget I remember meeting her. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.) He stopped to have a cigarette.like. but she wasn't there. but she still wouldn't listen. suggest.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. I like lying in bed late.) try I tried to speak to her about it.

6. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. may. There's someone that comes up the stairs. too. would. To smoke is bad for your health. I made a phone call. 25. neither. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. 3. Stop making so much noise. Before to leave the office. A I couldn't read until I was seven. I would. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. must. A I really love pizza.) I + negative auxiliary verb. 7. B Oh. B So do I. ought to. 5. 4. should. neither to agree with a negative statement. might. I must remember to post this letter. B Nor/Neither have I. I begun understanding the problem. I made a phone call. B Oh. and Me. I'd love to go to New Zealand. I'd love going to New Zealand. B Me. I must remember posting this letter. A I've never been to Ireland. 84 . could. There's someone coming up the stairs. I could. I began to understand the problem. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. Stop to make so much noise.) I + positive auxiliary verb. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. Before leaving the office. will.2. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. need. 24. too to agree with a positive statement. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. shall. B Me. Note: In informal speech we can use Me.

Present: He can speak four languages. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb.) I must remember to post this letter. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. Past: He could speak French when he was four. Modal verbs have no tense forms. 3. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. we can use could to talk about ability. I must to remember to post this letter. You don't should leave your car there. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. and permission. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. They might not come to the party. They ought to be more careful. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. For example. They have no infinitive or participle form. (or I could find a new job. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. 85 . possibility. will: I'll be able to find a new job. He might come later. 4. 2.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. I can swim. 1. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. He mights come later.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. You might go to London. She should see a doctor. You shouldn't do that. I couldn't believe what he told me. would: I'd be able to find a new job. or You don't need to come.

(I want to. Note: Must has no tense forms. (It is and 'outside' obligation.30. we use was/were able to or managed to. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. Past: I had to find a new job. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. would: I'd have to find a new job. You ought not to carry so much cash. Have to is also used. I could drive when I was sixteen. The party's informal. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. will: I'll have to find a new job. The firemen could save everyone. The firemen managed to save everyone. was/were able to. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something.Could. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. a driving instructor. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. from my doctor. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. Have to is used to describe general obligation. Passengers must show their boarding cards. You shouldn't work so hard. though could is more common.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. (It is a general obligation. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. I must start taking more exercise. You don't have to come if you don't want to. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. You needn't wear a suit.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. 86 . I have to work on Saturday this week. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice./You don't need to wear a suit. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. it is 'my' obligation. You need to be at the station by 8. The firemen were able to save everyone. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous.

might. Could is more polite than can. and may are used to ask for permission. 87 . 2. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. She might not be here tomorrow. Some are right and some are wrong. I will can go swimming every day next week. Compare these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. and may is the most polite and formal.Probability May. She could not be here tomorrow. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. I had the car fixed. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. I had my hair cut. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. I had my room painted. 4. 5. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. I painted my room. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. 26. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. Permission Can. 1. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. with we and I. 3. This means that I painted the room myself. could.

Direct speech: I like cooking. and modal verbs do not change. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. would. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. 88 . Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. I got the garage to service my car. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. It needs to be cleaned. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. The car's really dirty. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. 29. The judge made the man apologize. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing.g. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes.27. We can also use need with to be + past participle. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. because a different person is now speaking. The car's really dirty. Need + -ing is more informal. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. It needs cleaning. said or told). David's father lets him use the car. 28.

Andrea said (that) she was going out.. say and tell We say something. Helen: I'd like a coffee. The word order changes to a statement word order. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. NOT Andrea told (that) . Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Zoran: I had never been there before. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. 30.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Monica: I might phone you later. Tom said that he doesn't want to go.. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. NOT Andrea said me . 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. They told (us) a story. we make the following changes. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Andrea: I'm going out. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. She told (them) jokes all night. 31. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question.. Zoe: We saw a great film last week.. and verbs have a statement form. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. the reported question starts with whether or if. Zoe said that they saw a great film. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. With Yes/No questions. 89 . Andrea said (that) she was going out. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. We tell somebody something. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. When we report questions. Luke: I'll be away till March.

3. 4. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. an imaginary situation in the past. but other verbs can also be used. but not when the main clause is first. If you hadn't studied so hard. 1. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. you would have failed. order.32. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. They said me that the exam was very hard. and you crashed. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. Reported speech Look at these sentences. 'Don't worry. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. 90 . such as advise. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. They told me that the exam was very hard.' He told me not to worry. If I had told the truth. and I didn't pass the exam. The instructor told me that I don't do that. The instructor told me not to do that. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. 1. (You were driving too fast. I'd lend you some money if I had any. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. Some are right and some are wrong. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. 3. 'Please sit down. warn.' The doctor asked me to sit down.) when if clause is first. She asked me where I lived. (I didn't work hard. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. and command. 2. she wouldn't have left. persuade. 2. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. We usually use a comma (. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 33. beg.

I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.4. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.) They should have bought the house. 34.) 91 . I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast.

Tom. 7. 8. Gabriel. 2002. 1992. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Glendinning. 6. 2. 2001. 4. Brooks. Otman. 2001. Ian Selwood. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Dorner. Hutchinson.Oxford. Engleza pentru internet. 3. Wallwork. 5. Jane. 2001. Eric H. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 2001.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Chris Mitton. Steve & Peter Fox. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. Oxford English for Information Technology. Driscoll. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. 92 . All Stars. Kennewell. & John McGwan. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 1998. Life Lines. Writing for the Internet. Engleza pentru informatica. International Express. Computer Studies Through Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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