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CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
listening .. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time....What advantages does the adult have? 2. we can talk about a round of golf.... Justify your order.. Work alone. writing . Speaking 1......... OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.. 4. learning vocabulary .... Work in groups. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement.....What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. . 1 being the most important. It is the language of business. learning grammar ... Prepositions too are flexible.. Purists of the French.... cards.... This will no doubt continue. but remember that different people learn in different ways.. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible.... speaking and not being corrected all the time ... and aviation... technology.to be cleaned and dried.. reading ... pronunciation practice 3... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.. Read books and newspapers.. English is the most widespread language on Earth. Geographically.. speaking and being corrected .. 4 .What advantages does the baby have? ..... and the process is now being reversed... Compare your lists... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance. How do you learn languages? . This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. sport............. or drinks.
no single computer that controls the rest of them. Because of the way the messaging system worked. They had. for it was they. 5 . computers you could play games on and use unproductively.). users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. invented e-mail. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. But they weren't interested in science or academia. still the most popular use of the Net by far. the way they got there was unimportant. uninvited but still welcome. Instead of using the network strictly for business. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. Crude as they were. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. There will be no "command center". Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. they used it to swap gossip. it worked. But then an odd thing started to happen. swapped them (via the net. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. 1. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. as it came to be called. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. 2. in fact.I. then news and eventually gossip. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. to use the techy term. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. They started mailing lists. by 1972. The Advanced Research Projects Agency.. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. just kept on growing. Instead. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET.. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. 3. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. Other networks joined in. they sent each other games. and the Internet. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. 4. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. These packets could be sent independently over the network. Amazingly. each machine will have equal status. they opened newsgroups. 37.
Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. mainframe 5. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Over the last few years. notebook 3. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. along with IBM. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Here are five types of computers. however. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. a person who tries to discover something E. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. supercomputer 4. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. cheaper and more reliable. mailbox. Since then the computers (become) smaller. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. network. a set of related computers C. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). Apple. a series of bits being a part of message B. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946.2. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . researcher A. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. desktop computer 2. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. but the market (saturate) to some extent. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Computer sizes. but transistors soon (replace) them. packet.
and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. all of which express personal opinions: 1. Students can log onto the Internet. and the Americans. and connect to a server that presents information. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". For example. visit the school's We site. There's a revolution happening in education. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Australia. use a bulletin board.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. Within a few months. rather than offering their own set of courses. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. 1. Personally. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. It's called distance learning. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. and interactive courseware. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. learn the material. online environment. the material would be available to students at their convenience. Using modern technology. offered by mail. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. Use the elements to make complete sentences. and as with mail order programs. says Nat Kannan. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. click on the course they want. Europe. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. the Net will be alma mater. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. videotape of professor's lectures. founder and president of University Online. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course.
to arrange in an optimal way 6.. operator voucher.. You have to follow a course . To my mind.. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. state condition.. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. -or -hood -ian -ion. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. behavio(u)rism typist. to write a summary of 3. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. so it has been tested . in 1992 2.. to make use of a symbol for something 3. to give authority to 10. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. the beginning of the experiment. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. to represent in a digital form 2. withdrawal clearance. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. possession magnetism. 3.. This University has only existed . . state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. connector childhood. It was put on the market in 1994. we never believed it would be so successful.. state condition.. for and ago: 1.. to reduce to the minimum 7. kingdom employee... neighbo(u)rhood electrician.... From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. to take a material form 5. several new courses have been offered.5.. 5. scientist .. addressee audience. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. 6.. When we started.. boredom. 4.. University Online was originally tested over five years .. over two years... four years .. condition belonging to act of...g. independence employer. a few months .. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. execution. musician introduction.. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8.. to give a linear form to 8....
furiously 4. government business. widen. condition place. active 3. auto 8. mode 14. state condition. lengthen classify. rivalry friendship. long 13. stimulus 20. local 9. personal 15. tight 5. computerize. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. broad 2. simple 4. generally. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. -ery -ship state. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. boldness labo(u)r. standard 18. economical foolish useless porous. concentrate. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. analysis 11. slavery. short 7. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. 1. soft 10. simplify customize. tolerate shorten. quality state. electric 17. -ical -ish -less -ous. reality achievement. interruptible environmental. action condition of quality. Now. condition. loose 16. behavio(u)r foundry. transform the following words into verbs. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . using the verb-forming suffixes above. initial 12. happiness. robot 6. weak 19. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. logical. state electricity.
its positioning on the market. C++. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. and so on. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. C++. an attention to detail. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. That's where the all-important experience comes in. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. University degrees are useless. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. a week there. spend more money on a training course. Qualifications are important. And there are lots of people who know it too. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. 10 . it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. They merely prove you can think. Visual Basic and Delphi. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. However. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. as does Novell. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Here's the road map. technology and people. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. rolled out major solutions and are well known. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. Java and Visual Basic developers. so you have to be better than them. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. By the age of 30. how it relates to other products and so on. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. more manageable pieces. Get a decent book on Windows programming. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Delphi. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. A consultant is different. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. If you decide programming is really for you. you've run big projects. After a couple of hops like that. For someone starting out. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life.
useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). involve output. into going away more than above too much beneath. bystander input. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. location. decode disagree. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. size. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). side in. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. semicolon . foresee. misfortune nonsense unreal. external foreground. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug.
1. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. half manual 7. a program that is part of a larger program 6. not up to standard 10. that is already programmed 2. location.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. to convey data from one place to another 8. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . half automatic. size. to predict 3. to grow larger 5. after the war 4. Now use the prefixes of degree. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3.
If you are committed to using frames on your site. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. you may group the FAQ. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. include descriptive ALT text captions. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. and make necessary adjustments. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. For example. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. to find their way around. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. and visitors may not know how to 14 . but try to discourage its use as much as possible. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. Besides content.
compatibility. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). good reactivity. Visit a website of your choice. Take notes on any special features.use yours effectively. helpful graphics. navigation. you can add the suffix "er". use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. structure connections. ease of use. a user. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. confusing. search facility. on-line support. without wasting space. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. a visitor. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. cluttered. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. features. especially those ending in "y" (see above). add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. nice design. well laid out. Logical. 1. up to date. However. accuracy. password protected. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. (hot) links. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. contact information. colorful. For most sites. 15 .
The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". 4. the more I feel depressed. The less he works.. 2. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. resolution was 16 . the better he feels. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison.. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. 1.. 3. The higher the resolution. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. 2. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. 2. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. "as . especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. indicated by the symbols. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . John was the elder of the two boys. For the preceding sentence. as". 3. when preceded by "X times". 4. the slower the speed of execution. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. when buying a PC are often 5. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. When comparing two items. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. the comparative can be preceded by "the"..A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. This computer is the cheaper of the two. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. The less sophisticated the software. the sharper the picture.
fast chip 4. 3. 1. fuzzy image 8. ugly picture 9. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. With short adjectives. This is the most powerful computer available today. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . reliable device 5. expensive card 6. inconsistent program 10. cheap computer 3. powerful computer 2.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. big memory device 7.
Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. 1. because it wastes people's time...... when to criticize and when to stay silent.. on the Net or elsewhere. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. and overzealous at that... The reason for this is never given. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can.... (A whole quarter second in some cases). Don't criticize others for their misspellings. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups.. 4. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. have to... these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is..... Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream.. Don't cross-post messages. may or could 1. You ... you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. 18 . It doesn't work.. 2. be debugged before being executed... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop.. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. rambling. This form of internal policing.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.... Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions..... Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy... if that happened.. You . 5... In practice. The following sentences have been scrambled. cause unexpected results... documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2... read the FAQ). 6. A bug . be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.. A flowchart . When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong.. 3. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users... This piece of software . sometimes be useful when designing a program. off-the-point arguments to see that. Programs .. unwarranted abuse and long.. Put the words back in the right order: 1. Conversely. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program.. make sure you spell correctly yourself..
. a measure of visits to a website . 19 . am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor... Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici.. Write them next to the correct definition... write this program in a high-level language.. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. 3.. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW . 3.... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii.... a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .. 6. email..... to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .. You ..... They .7. 6... Daca as fi vrut........ (You can find the words left to right.. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... 8... as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. opening page of a website . 7...... Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.. 2. 4.. Cu toate acestea.. the main.. 9. 5.... 4... and diagonally top to bottom).. 2.. de exemplu... 3....... it will take up too much space in the computer memory. photo.. 10. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1.. Ar fi putut..... top to bottom... Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. 5.. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul.. If you do.. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like.... 7... Cind am incercat soft-ul.... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .. 8... also known as "favorites" . sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului.. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. picture. Translate the following sentences into English. and computing.. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet. graphic .
...... 12.......... the World Wide Web ... 13.... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ..... abbreviation for the Internet .....g.. 14. e......... a software package generally used to start you up for a program ......... 21... 20 . ... 22.. something that automatically connects you to another page ... Uniform Resource Locator. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ...... inappropriate use of a mailing list .. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 10.. the Internet equivalent of post ..... 15.............. :-) .... i.......... email... 19. website address .. 18.. 16.. etc.....e............ a way of showing emotion in an email. a physical input / output point ... a search engine.... 11.9... a bug which infects data on your computer ... 17. unsolicited mail.. a location on the WWW .. 20......
One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. a basic computer and a bit of patience. MULTIPLE CHOICE . The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. the computer companies would have you believe. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin.Choose the ending (A. For some teenagers. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Today's hacker is not so lucky. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. has the security. The law was tightened up. Admittedly. Typically. hacking is still easy. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. Triludan. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. costing companies an average of $23. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. had knocked on this door. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. hacking has been criminalized. which is readily available. B. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends.000. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. All the hacker needs is a modem. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. and so. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. 1. Robert Schifreen 21 . the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Schifreen's case is not that unusual. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld.000 a year to repair. better known as Robert Schifreen. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. But according to those who practice. Hackers have their own code of conduct. 1. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. had not been in trouble with the law before. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. C.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday.
This enables you to change the appearance of your player. e. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. B. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. totally unaware of what they are doing. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. c. male criminals. 2. 5. 33% of its members are hackers B. You can download a skin program. 5. is popular because it is romantic. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. costs about 48p a time C. f. 3. Match each cause and effect. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. You can legally download some music. B. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. C. d. Each MP3 file has a tag. b. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses.A. D. has made hacking more difficult. deliberately destructive B. is a form of escape from the everyday world. C. MP3 players contain several devices. Effect a. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 7. C. According to the NNC A. merely curious. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. the survival of hackers is threatened. D. 2. This produces much smaller files. This gives an enormous storage capacity. 22 . 4. 4. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. Hacking A. has eliminated all computer security. g. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. 8. 6. D. You can download single tracks. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. Then link them with an –ing clause. B. outlaws hacking. 3. You can create your own compilation. h. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. Cause 1. D.
A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 1. 5. keyboard. mouse and hard drives only. 8. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. 6. 2. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 4. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . display. 9. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 7. 3.3. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 10.
word processor and database – comes on one CD.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. For example... or were vast collections of specific information.. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups..... the applications are generally better. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. ..... and justify the cost of a drive. literature and art.... Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass... CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space... Review criteria 4... Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB...... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. According to the market researcher Dataquest. but are spread throughout business... the equivalent of 300. 1. As with other areas of the computer industry.5in... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5. Put them back in the appropriate place.. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line... and because there's more space.. Measuring drive performance 2........... Price points . 24 . floppy drive.... Mainstream applications 3.. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. with a further 1. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. along with the conventional 3.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology... Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post...LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage.. but it's not the only one.. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. 1.. Applications are the key issue. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996...
.. however advanced.. files. Backing Store . this excuse was taken too far.. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality... 3... disk 25 ......... which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk.. 2... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters... 10..Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false. while still developing rapidly..Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices.... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players..... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software..... The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase.... 2. more faster... The industry. drawback.......... as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.. 9. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. 7.. more precise head positioning mechanism. 1....... As a result of this market maturity.... The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. 5.. TRUE OR FALSE? . customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time..... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization... This is often confused with the average access searches. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. 1.. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.......... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use.. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format..But CD-ROM. 6..... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more. 4. ..... pie chart...... 8.......... .... Increased competition has now reversed the trend. give reasons for your choice. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. access time.. .. is still a read-only product.
..... i..... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.. disk packs..... on both surfaces... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. magnetic tapes..... old-fashioned.. 5.. disk.. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .. 7.. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ... Hence files can be ..." are also common... a track and a sector number).......... 9...... If the disk is .. and ....... it is called a .... Before being used........ Hermetic data modules called ". 3. The .. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre... but has the ... Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory........ 10.. though these are becoming . (i.... Most users are more familiar with the .... a disk must be ... You should write between 150 and 200 words. 2....... 4.. double-sided.. retrieved... 26 ... where only one surface is .... media and . both internal and external.............. address.... Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.... sequential access... database.... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an ........... floppy disk.... as opposed to a single-sided disk. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE). erorile se pot corecta... so-called because of its flexibility. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb. In this way only a small part of a .Translate the following sentences into English: 1. that is extremely slow because of . oxide-coated surface....... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta...... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. 6.. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.. magnetic disks or diskettes. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.. Disk have the advantage of being serial or .drives. storage areas are marked on the magnetic...... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years... directory..... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders..... read-write head... 8... direct-access... of all the files on the disk.... formatted (x3).......e...... needs to be in main memory at any one time. This technology is cheap and easy to use. 3.... Large systems often use cartridges or ... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... THE PASSIVE .. are now part and parcel of most computer systems... Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .e..
and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. electronically. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. and industry. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. a basis for study for future generations. 3. will replace traditional museums. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. public museums did not exist. crafts. fashion. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. 27 . It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. military. 1. virtual museums A. For many people. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. C. Moreover. science. An overview of lost techniques. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. beyond the straightforward museum visit. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. especially in distant lands. At the time of the Renaissance A. With the internet. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. B. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. Within the last few years. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. B. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. With reference to the information in the article. Elizabeth Brown. C. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. only aristocrats could go to museums. 2. A museum can best be defined as A. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. the patron goddesses of the arts. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history.
object produced by human hands 3. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. 4.B. The National Museum of Art A. Match the words and their definitions: 1. photo (taken quickly) 2. 5. C. disadvantage 7. art work 2. will show works of art that do not exist. country 9. collection 5. will organize visits to its storage spaces. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 2. to admire 3. 4. Put the following sentences into the passive form. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. to enjoy 10. to see. 6. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. honored 5. Museums maintain and display great works of art. article (in a magazine) 4. best work of an artist C. masterpiece 4. 3. 1. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. The Web may transform our perception of art. B. 2. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . to establish 6. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. artefact 3. storehouse 8. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. C. vast 4. something produced by creative talent E. work of art. museum A. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries.
and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. 1. 29 . users can act as both customers and merchants. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. A bank employee who pays out money. and the amount to be paid. the merchant receives the payment. Payment systems based on gold. With such a system. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. a bank redeems each note number only once. Using a public key. For the purposes of this discussion. Checks. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. currency. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. In a peer-to-peer system. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. 4. The customer runs client software. 5. you gather your money up front and then spend it. A person who receives (money. for example). such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). traveler's checks.e. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. or a dedicated payment client. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key.. both exist in the digital world as well. This might be a WWW browser. 3. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. The customer pays. paper currency. In a debit system. 2. A person who buys goods or services from you. In many cases. and a bank does the accounting. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. the name of the payer and the recipient. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. In a credit system. the date and time of the transaction. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. charge accounts. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. and the amount of money represented). a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. and credit cards are credit systems. To execute a real-time transaction. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments.
. 5. of which. D ... The site.... However..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. where. 3... You will not need to use them all! account. were still new. loan. The first one has already been done for you. to sign.. The initial .. is similar to traditional credit..00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. wanted to buy some shirts.. 2. cheques.. to clear.. 30 . ..... Digital credit. statement.. whose.. receipt. . 4.... safe.. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.. overdraft. .. withdrawal The Longstone company wish . of account.? The next day he got a bill for $0...... a current .. 3.. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament...00... bought her a typewriter instead. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.... balance...... name is on the check.. whom.. entered the virtual shop. The account will not produce any .. The man.... some ... interest.. To add money (to an account). will be $10. were found in the safe. accepts digital cash. 2.00 stating that payment was now overdue.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card.. He ignored it and threw it away.. holder. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. C .. The next month he got a bill for $0.? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0... A large number of banknotes.. agreed to honor my check... 6. deposit.. for their manager.. we found CD-ROMs on sale....... The bank director... Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. I met personally. to start.. 1. he ignored it. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday.... the company can have access to a .. 7... He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. For $20 a month............. He is the very man . is used in electronic trade.000. to open.6. remittance. Money used in a specific country. will only be charged at 12%.... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who......... The customer. He alone will be authorized .. A computer that can access a server. Stupid Computer Error A . which... B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0..... 8. The bank will send the company a weekly .
The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.? Finally giving in.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail.00.00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. G . he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.? In April he received another and threw that one too.E . He called them and talked to them.? A week later. F .00 by return of post.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.
said Dr. "At telecom 91. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. satellite. one can predict / foretell that. smells. well. Dr. that didn't keep the crowds away. For sheer impact. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world.. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum... we'll have to work on that one". Huitema. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. for all intents and purposes.. Next came. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. dipping even further into the future. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. that probability that . the current issue of security will only be short. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". he said. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. networks. Dr. experts expect that. What should concern us. there was an inevitable blur of content. and the role of the providers. 1.. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. was how online commerce will evolve. And needless to say. computing. he predicted. So things have changed. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". dumb terminals. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable.. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion... sound and feeling will arrive. And as for the taste. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. and.. "Sight. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. the future. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. said. As he pointed out. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. exist. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet.. futurologists forecast. Lastly.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. 32 .. came the issue of virtual reality. is high / low it is highly probable that .. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. he enthused. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. more controversially.. Christian Huitema. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality.
. enable. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to.. 2.... it hard for me to have a social life... huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).. there are scientific arguments for.. permit 1..it is a well-founded supposition that.. Prepare to explain them to your partner. 3....... The term was first coined by William Gibson. A security password .. I hope that doing the course ... me to stay out later than 11.. 2.... 33 .. Being a single parent . that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. access to confidential files. 3..... Reading Read the article. me to get a better job.. indicated by a finger symbol. Keyword The word. make... 5. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... it is reasonable to think that. When I was young my parents never .. allow.. Sneaky..... Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. me leave early every Friday afternoon.... there are grounds for believing that......00. 4.. My boss is easygoing and . Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient.. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet..
And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). a new idiom has been born. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. Plenty of adults talk the talk. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. contract and condense. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. If something cracks you up. Well. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. The solution is to abbreviate.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. sex and location. GTG. C-U-L8R 34 . And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. There's neither time nor space for exposition. all day at work. It has an estimated 75 million users. or type the type. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). It takes wit. FWIW (for what is worth). Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. Across the world. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. every night. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. concentration and agile fingers. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. PBAB (please bring a bottle).
LANGUAGE FOCUS A.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system.cair@btinternet. which sounds very strange indeed. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. Spanish. Stonebridge. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. Science. EH21 3TZ email p.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing .II. degrees and other qualifications. e. then write your own CV in the same way. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. Geography. English.w.g. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. Computer Studies.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. For the purpose of this task. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .
Office 97.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .. IT Department. Personnel Officer.advising clients on IT issues and strategies .database design .1st line customer telephone support .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. Novasystems 36 . Leith. Thin.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Windows 95 / 98 .Sage line 50 & 100 . L.PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . 2000 . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .Exchange Server 5.5 .TCP / IP Networking .network administration and implementation .
am currently studying for . State when you are available for the interview 10. Write clearly 2. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. Type your letter 6. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. how to begin a letter. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.B. Give all the information you are asked for 8.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae .gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. Reference number if there is one. how to end it.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". the name and address of the addressee. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Make the information you give relevant to the job. and firm. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . 37 . and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application.1.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .state where you saw the job advertised . Keep your letter short and to the point 3. Use the person's name if you know it .should you feel I could be of use to your firm . You may find some of the following expressions useful: . B."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.name and address of firm.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. the signatory's full name (typed).avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . and where to put the handwritten signature. State what job you are applying for 4.am available to start as from June 15 .state you qualifications in brief .
through the British Council. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. In Malaysia I arranged. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. Yours sincerely. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. team leadership and team membership. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. study tours for project personnel. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. teachers and administrative staff. Alan Bannister 38 . I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. My contact address until the end of July is as above. for example. Over the past year. as well as students. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars.
You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7.Do sit still. . walk to the door. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. 39 . . .It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. 5.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. You are likely to be found in the end. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . experience.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1.C. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. . . don't rush.Do arrive in plenty of time. . so much the better.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. Which is more important to you. Describe your most recent accomplishments. . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. set out early. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. Dress in a business-like way. . 2. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview.Don't smoke. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. interests and hobbies. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. . money or job satisfaction? 12.Do make a graceful exit. In the past year. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. Thank your interviewer.
not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.... future.. Yours sincerely.not telling the reader what you expect them to do.not answering all the points raised by the sender .... or in sentences that are too long . the other informal..... I . Dear James.. ..writing everything in UPPER CASE . How often do you use email? 2.. I would be extremely . I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ... how has it changed your working life? 3.not making clear who you are and why you are writing . How are you? I bet you are ..... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.writing too much.Read these emails.S.. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: . B. you in the ... WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. Could you email me details? 40 . my recent paper. which I hope you will find interesting..... working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.. if you might be able to help me.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.. I was wondering if .. What do you use email for? 4. Dear Sir.. One letter is formal.. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. Please find . Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to ...... or may not be able to open . working on Lingo.. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . My name is Monica Ciampi and I am . If you use email at work. if you intend your comments to be humorous) ..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.D. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . Monica Ciampi P.
a. losing b. love c. drink b. a. a. attached b.S. and 13. ask 2. wasting d.. Best wishes. with d. supper d. affair 6.. concerns b. and thank you for your help. enclosed c. a. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . together. pair d.. now c. a. annexed 9... grateful b. I look forward to hearing from c.. then c... a. to Peter 1.. match c. next c. a. happy c. soon d. also b.. near b.. Monica P. additionally 4. actually 3. a. as well c. early c. included d. a. I look forward to news from b. perhaps we could meet up and go for a .. pleases d topic d.. I am looking forward to hearing from 7.. of weeks I'll be in England. beforehand b. before 15.. dinner 14. a.. a. business b. bracket 12.In a ... a. a. close 8. meal c.. missing c. demand b. currently b.. Send my . from c. Hope to hear from you . a. presently d. wonder d. couple b.. a.. request c. wishes 41 . for b. respect d. lacking 10. so b.. matter c. topic d. I look forward to hearing news from d. glad 5. by 11. too d. thus d.
must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. me if you have questions at any time. confidence. of course. Please feel free to . Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking.. .. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. that although turnover has risen. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Now I'd like to ... .. to .. everybody.. about our corporate strategy for the next decade.. draw your attention......... I'd like to ... humor Organization – coherence.. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. you will notice... finally.. with some recommendations. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. interesting... Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. today is to . audibility. enjoyable. more . and. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century... Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next... recommend... tell you. relevance. I've .. pronunciation.. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. motivating Exercise . 42 ....... What is a presentation? 2.E. informative. interrupt. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts.. Overall – clarity of message.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. rapport / eye contact.... referring. Let me quickly .... about our current position in the UK and I've . enthusiasm. to Italy and Spain.. to start with. appropriacy. options. My . then...... concluding. indicate. . outline.. illustrate.. I'll quickly .. handling Delivery – pace... I'm . intonation.. I'll .. I think our first . achievement of objectives. pointed out "Good afternoon. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. you all for being here. ... There is no benefit in using difficult language. expand. purpose. some of the problems we are facing... What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. Well.. . I'll . body language Language – clarity. what . What makes a presentation effective? 4... signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. . some of the problems we are having over the market share. sum up. before .. specifically.... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.. in conclusion...... on those successes before we ... accuracy. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. thank..... I'd like to . priority. with our plans for Europe.. variety... talked. .... describe. on balance..Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that........ bring you up to date...... fluency. our profits have not increased at the same rate. clarity. subject knowledge. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. clarity. move on.
.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. .. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . though.. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy... .... Spain and possibly Greece. Are there any final questions?" 43 .. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience.. Thank you also for your pertinent questions..We should not forget the French market... Admittedly our results there have been poor so far.
is the topic broad enough / too broad? . you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time).F.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . In part-time degrees. However. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. since you have more space.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. A member of staff will supervise progress.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. 44 . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. There are several criteria for your choice: . Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. try it out with your supervisor.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. Like an essay. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. This means you have a whole year to write it. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work .is the topic academic enough? . and be available to assist you. dissertations need to say a lot about a little.you can choose your own title . but is probably the most important. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. but it can also be very daunting. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. called a dissertation or long essay. but there are a number of differences: . What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. which you research by yourself.
This will be your title. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . since you have more to say. 000 words. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. since you may need a few by your side. Dissertations are usually 10. It is longer.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. the first thing to do. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. Introduction – 1. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. ask yourself: .What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. 000 words Conclusion – 1. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 49 . He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. but you can never tell. 5. 4.1. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. It's really cold.
.... Look at those clouds. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details.......... 9...................... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2............ I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon............ .......... 3.......... After .............. 7.. ................................................ Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations......Test B A........ I went for ............................................. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known.... ... 5...... 2........ I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year................ so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid............ 2.............................. 3................ 50 .............................................. . He's .......... 7....... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.................... or no article... 1........... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics.................. old school friend who I hadn't seen for .. I booked it last week.... 5............ In each case choose the most likely alternative....... Grammar 1.. lovely morning........ I've done that for you.................. 1............................................................................ 6................................................. and she said that she hadn't had a chance. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra....................... First I went to ............. 4....... Then I went swimming at ... 4...... long walk by ........ local pool and saw Bob McGraw.... the.... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting......... River Thames............. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation........................... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup.................... bank to withdraw some cash. professional musician and plays with .. 3................................. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions........ The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions......... If you're too hot in here... They wondered how we had managed to do it........... I had ................. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit.... 6. ....... .. 8............ . When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything. lunch with Bob.................. years.......................... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning....................... Articles Complete this text with a / an...... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras................... .. Right.................
. a....... It sounds useful...................................m... and they said they would get it to him by 10..... EJ . AK Exactly. can I just interrupt you a second? b....... EJ ......... right..... 51 .... So............. I'm busy on Thursday.... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert............. B. e........... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase...... AK ........................... I'm not really with you......... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e.00................... P OK..... P Yes............... ............................. EJ Oh............. is that right? AK Yes...... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment............... let me give you an example.... EJ ....................... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland... OK.......... 10........... 9.. Wednesday at 9.... OK....... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary............... then............... EJ ...... ......................... is that Paula............................... fine...........00 a................................. Would Thursday morning at 10............8.........................................................................00 ....... C Hello................ I've got you.. ? C .. .. AK Yes.............................. AK Hello...................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily.... ........................................................ Functions 1.. c............00 ? P .................... Goodbye..... Good idea. d...... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski.. something for people who need English translations of words...................... hello....... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time...... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering.. you're talking about....... at the latest... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9. yes.... Sorry.... .... As we were leaving....... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents......... 2...... ...... which is why I thought ..... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software... and we told him that we could do it next week.............................. C Paula.
8.... Don't worry. or waste. it. 2. I had three jobs to choose ......... He apologized ... 52 ... 1.... Do you take credit cards? 4. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss...... my new job... my money.... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. We need to concentrate ...... The meeting coincided ....... Vocabulary 1....... I really . 7.... miss.. Thank you for taking part . the beer festival.. You can depend ..... sensitivity............ 3...C. 9.. an important meeting in my life... Oh....... opportunity! 5.... 10. me........... me.. my family when I was abroad on business for four months.... the discussion today...... A lot of company's resources are . I've never .. 4.... the UK market for the time being. lose...... the inconvenience caused.. I can't eat seafood. .. no! I seem to have . 6.... 3............... 1... Please listen .......................... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a . 5... 2............ He is lacking ... lose.. because of inefficiency. I'm allergic .. 2... I am not accustomed ..............
This is the room .. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. who. I'm doing many work at the moment.. 3... You can download software from many websites. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences.. Grammar 1.. the majority of . You need to invest in some more machinery. 10. using where.. 1. 2. is free. a. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B.. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. so please hurry up.. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. is comfortable and spacious..... Complete the sentences.. which.. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work... I'm living in at the moment. work opposite us are not very friendly. 7.Test C A. you used to work? was also the year I got married. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. some of B. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.... have become good friends.... is on the fifth floor..... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun).. My company does much business in Asia. The reception area. she later married.. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. 53 . d... anticipating an increase in value.. Nothing happened yesterday.. e. I give / will give you a bonus.. 4... What's the name of the woman ... We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here.... 9.. has just joined the company? b. He gave us a lot of information about his company. we hold meetings in. 6. 2. or whom. 5.... 1. 3. that.. 2. A. then correct the mistakes....... but I don't spend a lot on equipments.. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8.. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.. There's not much news to tell you.. c. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. 3.... Then complete them.. he bought shares in the company. 2.. .. I like playing sport.
..... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.. e. on abusing the little power he has. due to the fact that 7...... working at the weekend.. while d...... (make depressed) 5............ He's not a very good team player............. .. because c...... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer. (understand) 54 ....... He's always letting his colleagues ...... The point is d. I mean b........ (indicate awareness of something) 3........ By secure...... as a result of 8... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning... ......... Explaining consequences........... Vocabulary 1.. To give you an example c.... . for example 2........... 2................g.............. Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ........... due to b.................... (be excited by) 4.. fraud still occurs... such as 5........ can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'............ because of a.......... (compensate for) 6. I had a day off work last week to make .............. Let me explain what I mean... ............. what you're saying..... The problems with her job are really starting to get her .................. whereas 6. a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online...... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem. e. 1.......... as 3.... ..... g.......... .... however f.............. trends........ and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things.................. (disappoint) 2... ...... like e.. on the other hand 4. He really gets ............. can we trust these servers to be secure? .. I can only just make . Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e.......... a.. is the answer to that..... Functions 1. 1..... .......... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server...... It's such a bad line......... so h. thus C....B............
........... the meeting.. I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview..... The company really took ............ (avoid) 2..... ? (invent) 10......... last year when we broke into the German market. It's good news............... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ..... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics... She called in sick so that she could get .......... 55 .......7.... She's very good at getting her ideas ........ (became very successful) 8....... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London... (communicate) 9....
.. 5........................... The store manager had only just moved to the branch. He ............................ We invite successful applicants to a second interview........ company profits .................... 8.. 5..................... (knock) on your door at home ...... (you save) if your house .................................................... ... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form....................................................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me..................................... 6........... 2................ ... have kept some of it for herself........................ but I'm not sure yet........... be staying at the conference venue. Somebody stole my laptop computer........................ but I ....................... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.......................... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors........................................ ........ be wrong......... 1... Conditionals 1... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months................. If someone ....................... have left my keys in the restaurant............ 3.... I think we ...... When I go to Barcelona I ...... ..................................................................................... 4.................................. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion. 9...... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb.......... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.... Use have / get something done where appropriate...................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ........... We're locked out! 4.......... 2. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning................................................................. 3.............................. 7...................................................................... ..................... Oh.................. well top $150 million this year... no! I ............. 3..........Test D A..... According to Peter. He was only 42 years old................. 8........ 1... (you open) the door immediately? 56 .... 2................. The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities.................. His colleague's death ............................. 7................................... ............... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.............. Companies usually provide managers with language training.............. What three things ......................................... ....................................... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive................ be a big shock..... ......... .................................... Grammar 1...................................................... a.... The optician tested my eyes yesterday.................................... (be) on fire? b............................................................ 10................. ..........
................. Explaining stages in a process Complete the description............ To ensure other people get to speak 4... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2......... 1.... What ... but I don't think they'd believe me.. (you study) ? f......... Can I finish what I was saying? d... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards.... . If you .... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs....... Would you like to come in here..... B...... Functions 1......... (see) a UFO. (you do) ? e........ So........ Then b....... Ella? 57 ............... d....... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e.. ..... ..... (you work) if you ............ B: Yes..... (be) you. However. If you .............. Where ...... To keep to the point 3...... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. what ... a... ultimately c. (you change) ? g. (happen) if ........ (be) good this weekend what ...... A: Careful! If .. c. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense..... (you choose) ? d.. firstly e....... (go) to the police.. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion. The interviews take place and ..... I know.... To manage interruptions 2..c...... B: Thanks for warning me..... A: If I ........ (be) there the mayor of your town what three things .... Could you be more specific? b........ whose life .. A: If I .. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's.... c................ (be) you............. one candidate is chosen................. a........... I .. (give) you a ticket.... A: If you ..... 2. If you ......... after lengthy discussion... To summarize a...... basically what you're saying is. I ..... eventually d..... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong.. (you park) your car there they ... (not get) a job with your current company? h..... using the words a-e...... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed... (go) to the police. what ......... . b.. To ask for clarification 5. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said... (not study) your subject at school / university.... If the weather ..
criticize ....... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.... .. 4............ rely ... replaceable 3..C................. 1. connect 5....... ... legible 58 ....... 1..... credible 4................... 5. humor ... 2..... . .. interested 2. 3.... Vocabulary 1...... 2.. understand ................. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.. ...... create ..
. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.............. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics... (do) at 8. Do you think there .... otherwise I may / must / can forget it.? 3. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes... Future Perfect...... a......... (live) in space. Look. 8...... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d... 4. I'm sorry.... In three months' time I . By the time I retire I hope I . I'm sure. Thank you.. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.....00 p... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase... 1. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. Permission.. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. I .... requests....... it's no problem. (finish) their meeting by 7..............m........ Match each question with an appropriate category..... necessity..... Will they ... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a...... 2........... Call me sometime over the weekend.....m........ By 2050 people .. I'd like that... If you have time during your stay in Sydney............. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow..... 5.... d..... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May.. possibility..... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like. Invitations.... 7....... A: Great... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House... (work) from home. I've got two tickets! B.... 2........Test E A.. Good luck with your exam tomorrow... Grammar 1. Am I allowed to smoke in here? b. so don't forget to take waterproofs. e.. Functions 1..... Do you know what ......... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here... ....... if you'd like me to show you around Prague... thank you...... I .... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9......... Must I really go to the meeting? f... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form...... but ............ Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c........ I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary.. 6...... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.. I .. 59 ..... tomorrow? We ... Future Continuous.. c... (think) of you. and obligation 1..........00 p. . b.. B: .
. B: Thanks........ did you ..... with everything....... thanking.... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4. or take. Can I help you .................. Late payment often .... I have to ............. C.. your bags? They look very heavy! 2... and take Complete the sentences with bring.... 5........... bring......... take on a........... B: Yes. her? 3..... A: .. you're welcome e.. ... succeed 3.......... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning.. I hear this is your last day at work here.. warm clothes.. thank you for that lovely dinner once again. B: ......... hope to see you again sometime 1.. begin (a hobby) 2. ......... some research for my thesis....................... in your English test? B: Oh....... Mark... that ........ 1.. Yes..A: .... Concluding.... a...... carry.................. make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. carry... I'm glad you enjoyed it c...... cause 4.... bring about b...... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e.. A: Well... 1............ take up d.................... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock....... . B: You too.... Remember to . keep in touch d......... get.......... I don't think I .. Well. employ (someone) 60 .. A: How did you ... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... 2.................. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ..... Vocabulary 1. best of luck b.. lead to....... A: Oh........ A: So.. A: Have you . 3....... get..... cash-flow problems for small businesses...... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year........... lead to....... carry off c. A: I've had a lovely evening. Thanks for coming... I'm starting a new job next week.. not too bad................... I can't..... too many mistakes...... B: ....... great... 2........ 2..
used to have a Porsche.Answer key Test A A1 1. f – 6 7.. saying 2. . had been sitting 6. all my life 4. 2. . look like 2. g – 3 1. sounds like 4. a . 5. going 1. to entertain 3. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. b – 2 3.Tests . have eaten 10. e – 1 6. competent 2. always plays 7. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. going 4. a – 5 2. 1... 4. have been having 9.. for a week 5. ... 3. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. stubborn 5. arrived / had left 7. to turn off 5. hasn't stopped 1. had read / started 5. seems 5. was living 2. . there didn't use to be many Internet companies. d – 4 5. woke up 1. have you been doing 6. watch 3.. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays.. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. . at the moment 2. c – 7 4.. have never seen 8.. recently 3. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. meticulous 4. was traveling / witnessed 3. had been having 4. outgoing 3.
you're talking about . the 1. lost 4. 'Did you see anything?' 2. I was wondering whether 2. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. that's / That suits me 1. That would be / Yes. to 10. that / which / Ø d. 3. on 8. we can do it next week.' conditions. I'll just check / I'll call 5. I haven't had a chance.' 9. from 7. a. I've got you. I'm not really with you. at the latest. OK. wasted 5. So.. 2. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. will win 9. I'm going to spend 8. in 3. which 2. let me give you an example. How about / What about 5. missed 3. a. Ø 6. 5. who / whom c.2. to 9.' 6. B1 1. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. a 7. 4. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. which e. I'm going to 3. Sorry. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. who / that b. in 5. Are you doing A3 2..00 a. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. to 6. for 2. I'm playing 4. the 3. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5.' 7. OK. is going to rain 7. 62 . a 10. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3.m. Ø 9. wasted 2. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. with 4. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. the 8. I'll turn on 6. an 5. the 4. missed C2 1. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. I'm afraid 4.
rise 6. I – equipment 10. I mean 5. down 5. which was also the year I got married. C 4. A2 1. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. C 8. Let me explain what I mean 2. some of whom have become good friends. I've met a lot of people through work. I – a lot of good advice 1. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. I – information 2. e. I – a lot of 3. I – a lot of 7. risen 3. We started the company in 1999. across 9. off 4. up for 1. To give you an example 3. C 9. sharply 4. raise 6. I – plenty of 6. The point is 4. down 2. substantial 5. off 8. out 7. arisen 2. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. By secure. up 10. 63 . until / are 1. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. by / will give 3. d. on 3.b. I – quite a few 5. as soon as 2.
saw / would you do d. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. So. understandable 64 C2 1. My laptop has been stolen. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1.. Applications are passed on to universities. Candidates are recommended for promotion. a. John? 4. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. might / may / could 3. a. 8. 10. humorous 3. incredible 4. uninterested 2. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. knocked / would you c. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. 1. is / will you do e. would you save / was b. arrived 2. 3. I was in the middle of saying something. 4. Miranda was asked to write the report. reliable 2. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . I had my eyes tested yesterday. can't / couldn't 5. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. should / must 6. had been / would have gone b. 6. would you work / hadn't got h.2. would happen / arrive. Can you be more specific? 5. irreplaceable 3. basically what you're saying is . could / would you choose d. creative 4. / Managers are provided with language training. 5. / I've had my laptop stolen. 7. 2. Would you like to say something about this. 9. were / would you change g. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. was you / would go c. happens. must 7. A2 1. could / may / might 8. Language training is provided for managers.. could / might / may 1. must 4. should 2. Excuse me. My eyes were tested yesterday.
get 3. Keep in touch 4. Hope to see you again some time 3. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. best of luck 2. 1. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . will speak 7. would be fine / suits me fine 1. must 2. do 2. have finished 3. Shall we say 5. I was wondering 2. will be living 6. made 4. can 4. lead to 1. will be working 5. bring 4. will have been working 4. You're welcome 5. take 5. made 3. That's very kind of you 3. carry 2. illegible A2 1. will be 9. can't 5. will be thinking 2.5. we will be doing / will be taking 1. will have earned 8. can't 3. Shall 4. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. critical Test E A1 1.
We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play.IV. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. 2. 1. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. He's knowing a lot about music. She works here until Christmas. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. He knows a lot about music. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. I'm going to the cinema every day. 66 . 2. She's working here until Christmas. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1.
) I've been to Brazil three times. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. 6.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'.) I've lived here for three years. I want to go out for dinner. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. 3. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. and present continuous Look at these sentences. Vegetarians don't eat meat. To make regular past participles. He seems very tired. 5. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.3. 67 . I'm wanting to go out for dinner. 4. You haven't lived abroad.) Present perfect.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. we add –ed to the infinitive. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. He's seeming very tired. 2. 1. (Until now I've been there three times. present simple. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. (She isn't here now. I have. (I still live here now.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. (He still works there now. Some are right and some are wrong. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (I've got a new car now. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense.) I've bought a new car.
I work here since October. as . He's never here at 9. can be used to make comparisons. We often go to the park.. normally.00. The train is always on time. I don't usually get up late. as . The film was much better than I expected.. Sometimes. Russia is bigger than Canada. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. in front of the main verb. but they usually go before the main verb. 5. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be...3. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. Her house is as big as mine. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. 68 . Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. I'm working here since October.
We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. Alex 1.92m Alex's brothers 1. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences.83m 1.75m Alex is taller than his brothers.. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. My exam results were worse than Andy's. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. he was. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. ... 2. We weren't here yesterday. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995..85m 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. as . In the negative so . The film was better that the book. The film was better than the book. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. 3. He's so tall as his brother. He's as tall as his brother. 6. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. is also possible.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. 1. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. 4. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. Short answers Yes. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
not the effect. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . It has no present form. (We're interested in when the action took place. (But I don't live there now. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. I did. you must use the past simple tense. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. only the past simple can be used. last week). (I still live here. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. Used to can only be used to talk about the past.) She went at four o'clock. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. (She isn't here now.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. He used to smoke. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. two days ago.g. She wasn't going to work. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. She's gone home. We didn't use to live in London. Last year he went on five foreign holidays.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. I went out this morning. I've been there four years ago. We went to the cinema twice last week. but he gave up five years ago. She used to be a teacher. in 1993. I went there four years ago. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. 7. I've lived here for five years. For individual past actions. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. not the present perfect. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. he was.) Before that I lived in Madrid. or past actions which were not habits. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. describe a habit in the past which is not true now.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
(But she works in a bank. Use Would has many uses. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. impossible. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't.) make polite offers. I would. It's unlikely to rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. He's the man who lives next door. We use who with people. They wouldn't steal from a friend. It may (not) rain today. If I had the money. or imaginary situations. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. I saw the man. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. which with things. It might (not) rain today. (But I haven't got the money. It'll probably rain today. I'd buy a house. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. It probably won't rain today. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. She's probably coming this weekend. It could rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. It's likely to rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. 74 least likely most likely .) She'd be a good politician. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign.
Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. She married him. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. can't she? NOT . are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. He lives next door. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause.. He's the man. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. He's the man. He's the man who/that lives next door. They aren't coming to the party. didn't you? NOT . will she? It doesn't matter. haven't you? It was raining. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun.. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause.. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. You're Italian. which. or that. This chair's French. did not you? She can speak Russian. You knew about this yesterday. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. don't they? 75 . It isn't very warm. She arrived yesterday. You can swim. Look at these sentences. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. 12.He's the man that lives next door. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. does it? You've finished. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause.. He's the man (who/that) she married. didn't she? You like fish.
we don't know the agent. Thousands of cars are stolen. The man wasn't sent to prison. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. These computers are made in Japan. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. The weapon hasn't been found. We can use the passive in any tense. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. 13. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza.) and is followed by a question mark (?). The car has been found. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). To make the negative of the passive. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. 76 . we use the negative of the verb to be. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. Cars shouldn't be parked there. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. Fewer crimes would be committed. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. It can't be done. Someone has been arrested. The crime will be solved. This wine is produced in Portugal. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. These houses were built in the 1930s. It is less direct than an ordinary question. She must be told.
Use Second conditionals describe unreal. (I don't think I'll get the job. If I get the job I'll earn more money. We usually use a comma (. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. we use by. you'll miss the appointment. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.If we want to show the agent.) 15. The car has been found by some children. If we had more money. we'll go to the cinema. If she eats all the ice cream.) when the if clause is first.) We won't go if it rains..) If I got the job I'd earn more money. NOT If it will rain.) 77 .) when the if clause is first. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. or imaginary situations. but not when the main clause is first. We usually use a comma (. but not when tha main clause is first. If I had enough money .. If I had enough money. The suspect was identified by a witness. I'd buy that house. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. (There is a real chance that it will rain. NOT If I would have enough money . They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. she'll feel terrible. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event.. If it rains. If you get up late.. unlikely. we'd travel business class. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. we'll go to the cinema. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. 14. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.
Oil will run out in the next century.g. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. I'll phone you when she arrives. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. NOT . Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. until Phil will get back. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated.. NOT She switched on it. e.. She switched on the TV. before we would go to the cinema. before. (transitive) The plane took off. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. look something up 78 .16. NOT . He took off his jacket. in. and after.. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema.. away. up. He saw the mouse and ran out. He heard a helicopter and looked up. 17. or She switched the TV on. NOT . Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. She takes after her mother. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning... She switched it on. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. the verb is separable. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). as soon as. until. Time clauses As in clauses with if. on. when she will arrive.
) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. I've been playing a lot of football this week. You're late. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. (I haven't finished it yet. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. 18. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many.I looked up the word in the dictionary.) focus on the process of an activity.' emphasize the duration of an activity. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. I've been writing a letter. I've been waiting for an hour. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. the verb is inseparable. I've lived here for ten years. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. he has. like other continuous forms. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. 79 . (temporary) The present perfect continuous. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. or about past actions which have present results. is not normally used with stative verbs.
have no idea. a modal verb. ask. wonder. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. imagine. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. decide. know. They live here. Do they live here? You saw her. see. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. question word(s) subject verb 80 .) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. We use indirect questions after verbs like know.) Prepositions go at the end of questions.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. so we must provide one. or an auxiliary verb.19. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question.questions.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. remember. using do/does in the present or did in the past. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Compare these questions. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Did you see her? In Wh. Can she swim? They've arrived.
A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. A shop that sells records is a record shop. football boots These are boots. 've got. we say clothes shop and sports shop.. I've decided how much money I need. left. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. I don't know if he's coming. a computer software shop This is a shop. 81 . 4. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. arrives.. 2. The headword always goes at the end.? Could you tell me where the post office is.. is.. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. What kind of software? Software for computers. I wonder why did he do that? 21.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. 1. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me .questions we use the question word in the indirect question. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun.? or Do you think you could tell me . Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. 3. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. Note: However. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. I've decided how much money do I need. With Wh. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software.
as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). I could smell burning. before.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. (Empty bottles. Unfortunately there are no rules. There were two people waiting for you. notice. with after. smell.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. hear. watch. when the subject of both clauses is the same. This is a really boring film. stomach ache 22. (New packets. I got dressed. -ing form or infinitive A. (Empty packets. I got dressed. I had the idea while I was driving home. I read a fascinating book the other week.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. feel.).00. I can hear someone coming. a tennis racket a living-room. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. We saw them leaving the house. as adjectives. object I don't enjoy cooking. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. a teacup. I had the idea while driving home. etc. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. a bathroom a coffee cup. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. to describe what someone can sense (with see. or are hyphenated. There's someone coming. and while to replace a clause. After I'd had a shower. I've been working since 7. He was driving at 120mph. Compare these sentences.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. 82 . Others are written as two words. 23. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. After having a shower. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. She's playing tennis.
I'd prefer to go to the cinema. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. suggest. I like lying in bed late. feel like. (I was supposed to dance with him. give up. love.) stop He has stopped smoking. (I had met her before and I remembered it. Smoking is bad for your health. consider. In British English. imagine. but she wasn't there. (I had to meet her and I did. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. It's just started to rain. (I spoke to her. and can't stand. but I didn't. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening.) I tried speaking to her about it. but I couldn't. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. enjoy.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. continue It's just started raining.like.) C. hate. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. but she still wouldn't listen. remember. begin. She's considering emigrating to Australia. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. 83 . In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I'd like to live abroad.) He stopped to have a cigarette. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. Some of the most common are finish. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (he was doing something. I'm beginning to learn the piano. start. I enjoy doing the gardening. but it didn't work.) try I tried to speak to her about it. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. 1. (British) I like to lie in bed late.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia.) I remembered to meet her. then he stopped in order to smoke. (I wanted to speak to her. B. forget I remember meeting her. I began to realize how he felt.
too. There's someone that comes up the stairs. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. need. Before to leave the office. A I really love pizza. may. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. I'd love going to New Zealand. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. I made a phone call. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. A I've never been to Ireland. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema.) I + negative auxiliary verb. 24. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. neither. will. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. To smoke is bad for your health. could. I began to understand the problem. ought to. must. 3. Stop to make so much noise. B So do I. 25. too to agree with a positive statement. B Nor/Neither have I. B Oh. I could. 84 . Stop making so much noise. shall. I must remember posting this letter. might. B Oh. 7. I would.2. A I couldn't read until I was seven.) I + positive auxiliary verb. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. B Me. I must remember to post this letter. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. would. I made a phone call. neither to agree with a negative statement. Before leaving the office. I begun understanding the problem. 4. 6. 5. and Me. I'd love to go to New Zealand. should. There's someone coming up the stairs. B Me.
Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. Present: He can speak four languages. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. (or I could find a new job. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. I couldn't believe what he told me. I can swim. Past: He could speak French when he was four. possibility. 85 . You don't should leave your car there. would: I'd be able to find a new job.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. will: I'll be able to find a new job. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. They ought to be more careful. They might not come to the party. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. He mights come later. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. She should see a doctor.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late.) I must remember to post this letter. we can use could to talk about ability. 1. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. or You don't need to come. You shouldn't do that. They have no infinitive or participle form. I must to remember to post this letter. 2. He might come later. Modal verbs have no tense forms. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. 3. For example. You might go to London. and permission. 4. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.
I could drive when I was sixteen. You don't have to come if you don't want to. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. from my doctor. You shouldn't work so hard. would: I'd have to find a new job./You don't need to wear a suit. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. I must start taking more exercise. You mustn't park on double yellow lines.30. (It is a general obligation. I have to work on Saturday this week. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. (I want to.Could. it is 'my' obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. The firemen were able to save everyone. Note: Must has no tense forms. You need to be at the station by 8. Past: I had to find a new job. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. The firemen could save everyone. The party's informal. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. You needn't wear a suit. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. (It is and 'outside' obligation.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. 86 . To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. You ought not to carry so much cash. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. we use was/were able to or managed to. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. was/were able to.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. Have to is also used. a driving instructor. Passengers must show their boarding cards. will: I'll have to find a new job. though could is more common. Have to is used to describe general obligation. The firemen managed to save everyone.
The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 26. Permission Can. 87 . I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. with we and I. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. I had my room painted. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. and may are used to ask for permission. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. I had my hair cut. and may is the most polite and formal. I will can go swimming every day next week. I had the car fixed. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. 5. 3. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. 4. Could is more polite than can. could. might.Probability May. She could not be here tomorrow. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. I painted my room. 2. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. She might not be here tomorrow. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Compare these sentences. This means that I painted the room myself.
make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. The car's really dirty. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. 29. When we report something with a past tense verb (e.27. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. because a different person is now speaking. The car's really dirty. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. The judge made the man apologize.g. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. would. said or told). My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Need + -ing is more informal. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. I got the garage to service my car. 88 . 28. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. It needs to be cleaned. Direct speech: I like cooking. and modal verbs do not change. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. David's father lets him use the car. It needs cleaning.
. the reported question starts with whether or if. They told (us) a story. say and tell We say something. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. With Yes/No questions. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements.. Andrea: I'm going out. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. The word order changes to a statement word order. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. We tell somebody something. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Luke: I'll be away till March. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Zoran: I had never been there before. 30. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Helen: I'd like a coffee. Zoe said that they saw a great film. NOT Andrea said me . we make the following changes. Monica: I might phone you later.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book.. Tom: I don't want to stay here. and verbs have a statement form. She told (them) jokes all night. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. When we report questions. 89 . Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.. 31. Andrea said (that) she was going out. NOT Andrea told (that) . particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Monica said (that) she might phone us later.
If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. such as advise. Reported speech Look at these sentences. 'Please sit down. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. 2. They said me that the exam was very hard. and I didn't pass the exam. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. she wouldn't have left. and you crashed. an imaginary situation in the past.32. 3. I'd lend you some money if I had any. persuade. 33. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. warn. 90 . 1. order. If I had told the truth. (You were driving too fast. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. 2. The instructor told me not to do that.' He told me not to worry. you would have failed.' The doctor asked me to sit down. (I didn't work hard. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. Some are right and some are wrong. The instructor told me that I don't do that.) when if clause is first. but not when the main clause is first. We usually use a comma (. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. beg. and command. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. She asked me where I lived.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. 1. 4. 3. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. They told me that the exam was very hard. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. 'Don't worry.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. but other verbs can also be used. If you hadn't studied so hard. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen.
I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock.4. 34. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast.) They should have bought the house. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. We can also use this structure in the continuous form.) 91 .
8. Driscoll. 5. & John McGwan. International Express. Engleza pentru informatica. 4. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Wallwork. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford English for Information Technology. 2002. Kennewell. 92 . 2002. 7. Ian Selwood. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Engleza pentru internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Otman. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2. Dorner. 1992. 2001. 1998. 2001.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Chris Mitton. Computer Studies Through Applications. All Stars. Tom. Writing for the Internet. 6. Life Lines. 3. Eric H. 2001. Jane.Oxford. Brooks. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Glendinning. Hutchinson. Steve & Peter Fox. Gabriel. 2001. Oxford University Press.
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