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CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement. but remember that different people learn in different ways.. we can talk about a round of golf...... Purists of the French. writing ...What advantages does the baby have? ...... 4 . OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY... Work in groups...to be cleaned and dried......... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it....What advantages does the adult have? 2.... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. Read books and newspapers... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd... or drinks...... 4...... Work alone.. pronunciation practice 3.... Prepositions too are flexible. Speaking 1. .. Justify your order. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.... and the process is now being reversed.What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . It is the language of business. How do you learn languages? . technology. and aviation. speaking and being corrected . English is the most widespread language on Earth.. cards.. learning grammar .. learning vocabulary ... Compare your lists. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible.. Geographically. sport. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. speaking and not being corrected all the time .. listening . reading ...... 1 being the most important..... This will no doubt continue. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH..
just kept on growing. Crude as they were. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. they sent each other games. 2. to use the techy term. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work.). Because of the way the messaging system worked. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. and the Internet. still the most popular use of the Net by far. 3. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. Amazingly.. in fact. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. Other networks joined in. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. 37. each machine will have equal status. They had. the way they got there was unimportant. for it was they. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. They started mailing lists. These packets could be sent independently over the network. no single computer that controls the rest of them. uninvited but still welcome.. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. by 1972. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. they opened newsgroups. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. But they weren't interested in science or academia. Instead. 1. invented e-mail. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. 4. they used it to swap gossip. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. But then an odd thing started to happen. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. it worked. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. then news and eventually gossip. as it came to be called. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. Instead of using the network strictly for business. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. There will be no "command center". But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. swapped them (via the net. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. 5 .I. They set up their own electronic mailboxes.
mainframe 5. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. Apple. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). Since then the computers (become) smaller.2. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. cheaper and more reliable. but the market (saturate) to some extent. network. packet. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. Over the last few years. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. supercomputer 4. Here are five types of computers. a person who tries to discover something E. desktop computer 2. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. a series of bits being a part of message B. a set of related computers C. along with IBM. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. researcher A. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. mailbox. but transistors soon (replace) them. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Computer sizes. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. however. notebook 3. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1.
courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Using modern technology. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. For example. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. Europe. There's a revolution happening in education. visit the school's We site. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. all of which express personal opinions: 1. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. and connect to a server that presents information. click on the course they want. 1. the Net will be alma mater. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. videotape of professor's lectures. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. says Nat Kannan. offered by mail. founder and president of University Online. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. and interactive courseware. and the Americans. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. Students can log onto the Internet. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. use a bulletin board. learn the material. It's called distance learning. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. Within a few months. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. Personally. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". the material would be available to students at their convenience. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. and as with mail order programs. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. Use the elements to make complete sentences. online environment. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. Australia. rather than offering their own set of courses.
to make use of a symbol for something 3.. 6...... the beginning of the experiment. to reduce to the minimum 7. so it has been tested . to give authority to 10. When we started. It was put on the market in 1994. in 1992 2.. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom.. You have to follow a course . several new courses have been offered.5. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition.. behavio(u)rism typist.... From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6... to give a linear form to 8. 5.. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. state condition. over two years. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er.. to write a summary of 3.. musician introduction.. independence employer. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. to take a material form 5.. to represent in a digital form 2... to put a story in the form of a drama 4.. to arrange in an optimal way 6. we never believed it would be so successful. kingdom employee.. for and ago: 1. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. addressee audience. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. four years . condition belonging to act of. 4.... Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. connector childhood. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. 3. Fill the blanks in this passage with since.g. operator voucher. -or -hood -ian -ion. withdrawal clearance. execution. University Online was originally tested over five years . state condition. boredom.... This University has only existed . . To my mind. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. scientist . possession magnetism.. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. a few months ..
hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. generally. condition place. analysis 11. initial 12. computerize. mode 14. quality state. -ery -ship state. standard 18. slavery. concentrate. soft 10. 1. reality achievement. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. auto 8. using the verb-forming suffixes above. Now. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. state condition. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . loose 16. simple 4. government business. electric 17. tolerate shorten. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. short 7. condition.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. weak 19. state electricity. local 9. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. robot 6. action condition of quality. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. broad 2. personal 15. logical. active 3. furiously 4. stimulus 20. lengthen classify. tight 5. interruptible environmental. behavio(u)r foundry. -ical -ish -less -ous. transform the following words into verbs. happiness. boldness labo(u)r. rivalry friendship. long 13. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. economical foolish useless porous. simplify customize. widen.
Get a decent book on Windows programming. However. After a couple of hops like that. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. They merely prove you can think. Java and Visual Basic developers. spend more money on a training course. so you have to be better than them. Visual Basic and Delphi. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. A consultant is different. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. By the age of 30. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. For someone starting out. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. rolled out major solutions and are well known. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. And there are lots of people who know it too. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. you've run big projects. its positioning on the market. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. a week there. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. Qualifications are important. how it relates to other products and so on. The same goes for NetWare Certification. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. an attention to detail. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. That's where the all-important experience comes in. If you decide programming is really for you. more manageable pieces. Delphi. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. technology and people. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. C++. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. C++. and so on.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. Here's the road map. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. as does Novell. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. University degrees are useless. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. 10 . Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy.
involve output. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. external foreground. into going away more than above too much beneath. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. size. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). location. decode disagree. foresee. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. misfortune nonsense unreal. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. bystander input. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. semicolon . The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. side in. inaccurate irrelevant mislead.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes.
a program that is part of a larger program 6. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. that is already programmed 2. to predict 3. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. location. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . after the war 4. Now use the prefixes of degree. 1. to convey data from one place to another 8. to grow larger 5. half automatic. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. not up to standard 10. size. half manual 7.
And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. For example. and visitors may not know how to 14 . If you are committed to using frames on your site. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. Besides content. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. and make necessary adjustments. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. to find their way around. you may group the FAQ. include descriptive ALT text captions. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links.
helpful graphics. up to date. a user. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. well laid out. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. (hot) links. colorful. navigation. a visitor. cluttered. you can add the suffix "er".use yours effectively. structure connections. ease of use. contact information. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). nice design. on-line support. Visit a website of your choice. 1. Take notes on any special features. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. features. However. compatibility. Logical. good reactivity. especially those ending in "y" (see above). search facility. password protected. without wasting space. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. confusing. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". 15 . 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. accuracy. For most sites.
3. For the preceding sentence. 4. 1. The higher the resolution. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. "as . Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. 4.. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. John was the elder of the two boys. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as".. when preceded by "X times". The less he works. when buying a PC are often 5. the better he feels. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. resolution was 16 . as". It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. 3. 2. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. 2. the more I feel depressed. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. the comparative can be preceded by "the". When comparing two items.. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . the slower the speed of execution. indicated by the symbols. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models.. the sharper the picture. 2. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. This computer is the cheaper of the two. The less sophisticated the software.
SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. inconsistent program 10. fuzzy image 8. This is the most powerful computer available today. 3. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. fast chip 4. ugly picture 9. cheap computer 3. With short adjectives. 1. expensive card 6. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. reliable device 5. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. powerful computer 2. big memory device 7.
Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. A flowchart .. make sure you spell correctly yourself.. It doesn't work...LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. A bug . You . There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. and overzealous at that.... When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong...... Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups..... 2. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. (If you don't know what a FAQ is... off-the-point arguments to see that.. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. because it wastes people's time. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users.. on the Net or elsewhere. Don't cross-post messages.. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. 4... Conversely. Put the words back in the right order: 1.. 1.. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. In practice.. The reason for this is never given.. sometimes be useful when designing a program.... rambling.. Programs . Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. may or could 1... asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. The following sentences have been scrambled. read the FAQ).. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY... simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. 3.. This piece of software . Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once.. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all.. 5. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette.. 18 .. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. cause unexpected results. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2... if that happened. You . have to.... when to criticize and when to stay silent... be debugged before being executed. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. unwarranted abuse and long.. 6.. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program.. (A whole quarter second in some cases). This form of internal policing.. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2.
(You can find the words left to right.. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems ... Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8... photo........ 3. it will take up too much space in the computer memory... Ar fi putut. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. 9...... opening page of a website . 2. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat... 8.... top to bottom. You ... H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. Translate the following sentences into English. 10.. 6. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW ..... 5.... de exemplu. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.7.. Daca as fi vrut.. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. also known as "favorites" .. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .. Cind am incercat soft-ul........ write this program in a high-level language.. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.. graphic .. a measure of visits to a website . and computing. and diagonally top to bottom)........ paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet... 5........ 3. Write them next to the correct definition. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici.. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei.. email.. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .... 2. 8. 7... 4. 4. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. 19 ... They .... sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul....... Cu toate acestea... the main. 7. If you do. 6. 3. picture..
g.. abbreviation for the Internet ....9...... e... 15... 22. a physical input / output point .. email.... the World Wide Web .. unsolicited mail... 10....... 20.. a bug which infects data on your computer ...... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites. 19. inappropriate use of a mailing list . .......... 20 . a software package generally used to start you up for a program ......... 14......e....... i.... something that automatically connects you to another page ... Uniform Resource Locator...... 18....... 12..... the Internet equivalent of post ....... 16. etc. a way of showing emotion in an email.... a search engine...... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ........... 17.... 13... website address ... 21. :-) .... a location on the WWW . the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ............ 11..
Typically. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. 1. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. which is readily available.Choose the ending (A. Admittedly. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away.000. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. the computer companies would have you believe. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. B. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. For some teenagers. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. has the security. The law was tightened up. Hackers have their own code of conduct. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld.000 a year to repair. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. All the hacker needs is a modem. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. hacking has been criminalized. C. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. hacking is still easy. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Austin had brought with him several black binliners. and so. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. But according to those who practice. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. better known as Robert Schifreen. had not been in trouble with the law before. 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE . costing companies an average of $23. Triludan. Robert Schifreen 21 . Today's hacker is not so lucky. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. had knocked on this door.
f. Hacking A. According to the NNC A. b. D. deliberately destructive B. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. 22 . You can download a skin program. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 5. merely curious. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 2. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. has made hacking more difficult. You can legally download some music. MP3 players contain several devices. You can download single tracks. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. Match each cause and effect. B. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 6. g. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 5. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. 4. 3. B. costs about 48p a time C. B. has eliminated all computer security. 33% of its members are hackers B. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. the survival of hackers is threatened. d. Cause 1. male criminals. D. You can create your own compilation. c. 3. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. D.A. C. Each MP3 file has a tag. Effect a. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. is popular because it is romantic. Then link them with an –ing clause. outlaws hacking. 2. C. 7. C. e. 8. This produces much smaller files. h. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. 4. D. This gives an enormous storage capacity. totally unaware of what they are doing.
keyboard. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 6. 5. 1. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. display. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 2. 8. 9. 4. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 7. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets.3. 3. mouse and hard drives only. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 10. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks.
. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. Applications are the key issue. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. According to the market researcher Dataquest. As with other areas of the computer industry. 1.. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity..... The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore.... CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. Price points ... The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5. For example. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet. along with the conventional 3.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format..... the equivalent of 300.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992.. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either.. . many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. with a further 1.... word processor and database – comes on one CD.. but it's not the only one... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. and justify the cost of a drive... but are spread throughout business.... Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole..... Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.5in...... Measuring drive performance 2. the applications are generally better. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996... floppy drive.. Put them back in the appropriate place. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage.. and because there's more space. Review criteria 4. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups. or were vast collections of specific information.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15)... literature and art..... Mainstream applications 3. 1... The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line...... 24 .
.. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software. 2. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk... 4. pie chart.. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. ........... The industry... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players. 6.. files..... disk 25 .. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information.. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more.... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.. As a result of this market maturity.... Backing Store ....... TRUE OR FALSE? ... 8. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. 1...Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. 5. This is often confused with the average access searches.. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time. 9.. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. . 2. access time.. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.......... drawback.. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996........ While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. ... 7... as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format...... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information. give reasons for your choice...... while still developing rapidly. this excuse was taken too far.. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader... however advanced..But CD-ROM.. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality..... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user........... more precise head positioning mechanism.... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search...... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. 10. 1.... 3... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. more faster.. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. is still a read-only product.
.e. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an ... (i. 10... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... 8.. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare.. it is called a .. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara... database......... that is extremely slow because of . Before being used... i..... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders... storage areas are marked on the magnetic. but has the ............... so-called because of its flexibility......... Hermetic data modules called "...... directory............. disk packs... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS.... though these are becoming ........ disk. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. oxide-coated surface.... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.... read-write head.. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .......drives.. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle.. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb... and .. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta.. erorile se pot corecta. The ... 9. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... direct-access... 3... This technology is cheap and easy to use.. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.. a disk must be ... where only one surface is .. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.... formatted (x3). In this way only a small part of a ..e. media and .... both internal and external.... Hence files can be . You should write between 150 and 200 words.... 7. of all the files on the disk. magnetic disks or diskettes............ sequential access... old-fashioned.. 6. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .. are now part and parcel of most computer systems.. retrieved... address... needs to be in main memory at any one time. Disk have the advantage of being serial or .. as opposed to a single-sided disk... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. magnetic tapes.. on both surfaces. 4. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers........... 2. 5...... Most users are more familiar with the ..... If the disk is .. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a . double-sided. Large systems often use cartridges or .... THE PASSIVE ....... floppy disk. 3...... a track and a sector number)............... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. 26 ." are also common....
An overview of lost techniques. Moreover. a basis for study for future generations. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. virtual museums A. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. 3. B. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. 1. the patron goddesses of the arts. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. Within the last few years. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. A museum can best be defined as A. and industry. military. B. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. beyond the straightforward museum visit. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. 2. science. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. Elizabeth Brown. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. With reference to the information in the article. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. With the internet. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. 27 . crafts. electronically. only aristocrats could go to museums. C. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. will replace traditional museums. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. C. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. For many people. At the time of the Renaissance A. especially in distant lands. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. public museums did not exist. fashion. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works.
The Web may transform our perception of art. honored 5. will show works of art that do not exist. to admire 3. object produced by human hands 3. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. something produced by creative talent E. C. to see. Museums maintain and display great works of art. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. photo (taken quickly) 2. will organize visits to its storage spaces. collection 5. The National Museum of Art A. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. B.B. Match the words and their definitions: 1. work of art. 2. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. article (in a magazine) 4. best work of an artist C. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. 4. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. 1. artefact 3. vast 4. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . masterpiece 4. museum A. 6. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. 2. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. to enjoy 10. 3. 4. to establish 6. C. Put the following sentences into the passive form. country 9. 5. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. disadvantage 7. storehouse 8. art work 2.
the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. 4. The customer runs client software. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. and a bank does the accounting. and credit cards are credit systems. the date and time of the transaction. A person who receives (money. the name of the payer and the recipient. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. or a dedicated payment client. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. To execute a real-time transaction. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. In a peer-to-peer system. the merchant receives the payment. users can act as both customers and merchants. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key.e. 2. In a credit system. For the purposes of this discussion. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. A bank employee who pays out money. for example).LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. In many cases. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. A person who buys goods or services from you.. traveler's checks. This might be a WWW browser. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. currency. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. Payment systems based on gold. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. charge accounts. The customer pays. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. 29 . A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. and the amount to be paid. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. both exist in the digital world as well. With such a system. Using a public key. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. Checks. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. paper currency. In a debit system. 1. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. 5. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. 3. and the amount of money represented). and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. you gather your money up front and then spend it. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. a bank redeems each note number only once.
.00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt... deposit.... bought her a typewriter instead. The next month he got a bill for $0. cheques... wanted to buy some shirts. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday. whom. of which... in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled... 2. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. The bank director. entered the virtual shop. . holder.... 2... ... to clear. A computer that can access a server..... He is the very man . the company can have access to a .. to sign. withdrawal The Longstone company wish .. The site. to start.... he ignored it........? The next day he got a bill for $0. 3....... agreed to honor my check... 8... were still new. for their manager. whose.. will be $10. balance..... is used in electronic trade. .... 30 . 4... statement..... C .. accepts digital cash. A large number of banknotes. 5. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake...00 stating that payment was now overdue. which.. name is on the check. The first one has already been done for you. is similar to traditional credit.. He alone will be authorized .? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. to open.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it... loan.. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who.. You will not need to use them all! account. we found CD-ROMs on sale. interest... The bank will send the company a weekly . 7.. However... The customer. To add money (to an account). Money used in a specific country... Stupid Computer Error A .. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. a current ....... 6.. will only be charged at 12%. overdraft.. For $20 a month.... of account... The account will not produce any . safe... trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.. remittance. He ignored it and threw it away. The initial ...... The man. receipt....? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. where..000. were found in the safe. 1. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order... I met personally.6. D ... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. 3. Digital credit. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament....00. some .
After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. He called them and talked to them.? A week later. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. F .E . the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail.00 by return of post.00. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. G .? Finally giving in.
the current issue of security will only be short. computing. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached.. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". Lastly. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. for all intents and purposes. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. he predicted. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. 32 . At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. experts expect that. there was an inevitable blur of content. smells. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. he said. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. futurologists forecast.. we'll have to work on that one". said. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. As he pointed out. was how online commerce will evolve. Huitema. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. said Dr. What should concern us. Christian Huitema.. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. dumb terminals.. 1.. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. And needless to say. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne.. Dr. and. that probability that . networks. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. satellite. one can predict / foretell that. I think the word Internet was uttered twice.. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. the future. Next came. well. And as for the taste. he enthused. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet".. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. So things have changed. Dr. that didn't keep the crowds away. exist. is high / low it is highly probable that . "At telecom 91.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not.. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. and the role of the providers.. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". more controversially. "Sight.. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. came the issue of virtual reality. For sheer impact... sound and feeling will arrive. dipping even further into the future.
......... that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse. me leave early every Friday afternoon. 2. 3. Reading Read the article.... Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient. access to confidential files.. Being a single parent . that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer.. it is reasonable to think that.. me to get a better job.... 4.. My boss is easygoing and ... The term was first coined by William Gibson. make. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. permit 1.... Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen......it is a well-founded supposition that.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). there are grounds for believing that. Prepare to explain them to your partner. me to stay out later than 11. Sneaky. it hard for me to have a social life. enable... Keyword The word. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made.00. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. When I was young my parents never ....... Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage... 3..... allow.. 5. A security password . 33 .. indicated by a finger symbol... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let.... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. there are scientific arguments for. 2. I hope that doing the course ..
GTG. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. C-U-L8R 34 . The solution is to abbreviate. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. sex and location. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. contract and condense. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. every night. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). Plenty of adults talk the talk. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. all day at work. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. Across the world. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. It takes wit. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). concentration and agile fingers. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). There's neither time nor space for exposition. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). PBAB (please bring a bottle). Well. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. or type the type. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. It has an estimated 75 million users. a new idiom has been born. If something cracks you up. FWIW (for what is worth).
LANGUAGE FOCUS A.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. EH21 3TZ email p.g. Geography. which sounds very strange indeed. Computer Studies. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification.II. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. English. then write your own CV in the same way. Spanish. For the purpose of this task. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .w. e. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. degrees and other qualifications. Science.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . "situatie familiala" as "family situation".cair@btinternet. Stonebridge.
Personnel Officer.Exchange Server 5.TCP / IP Networking .Office 97. IT Department.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification ..Sage line 50 & 100 .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . Thin. 2000 . Novasystems 36 .database design . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.5 . L.network administration and implementation .1st line customer telephone support .Windows 95 / 98 .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows 200 Server / Professional . Leith.
and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. B.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . and firm. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. how to end it. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.name and address of firm.state you qualifications in brief .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Write clearly 2.B. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it .avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . the name and address of the addressee.am available to start as from June 15 . the signatory's full name (typed). 37 . and where to put the handwritten signature.state where you saw the job advertised . Type your letter 6. Give all the information you are asked for 8."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. how to begin a letter. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Use the person's name if you know it . WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. State what job you are applying for 4. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . Reference number if there is one.should you feel I could be of use to your firm .state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Keep your letter short and to the point 3. State when you are available for the interview 10. Make the information you give relevant to the job.1. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.am currently studying for . Check your spelling and punctuation 9.
Yours sincerely. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. Alan Bannister 38 . 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. In Malaysia I arranged. through the British Council.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. study tours for project personnel. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. as well as students. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. My contact address until the end of July is as above. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. for example. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. teachers and administrative staff. Over the past year. team leadership and team membership.
What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. . If you think you may have trouble finding the place. Dress in a business-like way. In the past year. Which is more important to you. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses.Do make a graceful exit. don't rush. 39 .Do arrive in plenty of time.C. Thank your interviewer. . what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. You are likely to be found in the end.Do sit still. . Describe your most recent accomplishments. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. so much the better. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. .Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer.Don't smoke. . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. 5. walk to the door. 2. experience.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . .Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. interests and hobbies. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. money or job satisfaction? 12. . . You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. .Don't let your clothes be too extreme. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. set out early.
One letter is formal. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.... How are you? I bet you are ....D... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.not making clear who you are and why you are writing . Dear Sir.. Could you email me details? 40 ...... Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: ..writing everything in UPPER CASE .. How often do you use email? 2.. Monica Ciampi P........ I would be extremely . Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . or may not be able to open . Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A..not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .writing too much. Please find .. If you use email at work.. if you intend your comments to be humorous) . Yours sincerely.not telling the reader what you expect them to do. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am . future... the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. I was wondering if . Dear James. B. if you might be able to help me..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.not answering all the points raised by the sender ... working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. What do you use email for? 4. which I hope you will find interesting.. my recent paper.not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to . the other informal.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender .. you in the .. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . working on Lingo... ..Read these emails. or in sentences that are too long . and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. I . how has it changed your working life? 3....S.. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.
and thank you for your help. a. business b. dinner 14. Best wishes. a. concerns b. as well c.. losing b. meal c. currently b. now c. actually 3. for b. bracket 12.. a.. a. missing c.. topic d. matter c. a. couple b. respect d. a. early c.. soon d. with d.. I look forward to hearing from c.. request c.. next c.... happy c. wasting d. enclosed c. additionally 4. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . thus d... supper d. and 13. also b. lacking 10. glad 5. presently d.S. a.... Monica P. before 15. beforehand b. Send my .. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. a. included d. too d. grateful b. demand b. a. a. to Peter 1. match c. ask 2. wonder d.. then c. a.. a. a... so b.. a. annexed 9. pair d. attached b. I look forward to hearing news from d. together. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . wishes 41 . from c.. near b. a.In a . affair 6. I look forward to news from b. pleases d topic d. by 11. of weeks I'll be in England. Hope to hear from you . drink b. close 8. love c.
.. I'd like to . outline. recommend.. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. My .. appropriacy. handling Delivery – pace. purpose. in conclusion. on balance..... achievement of objectives. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. I'm . of course... enjoyable.. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. that although turnover has risen.... pronunciation. everybody.. I'd like to . . specifically. some of the problems we are having over the market share.. fluency.. pointed out "Good afternoon.... For what purpose are presentations made? 3... accuracy.. to .. tell you.... I'll .Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. enthusiasm. with some recommendations..... Well...... illustrate.. Overall – clarity of message. with our plans for Europe. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent.... There is no benefit in using difficult language. I'll .. to start with. interesting..... I think our first . What is a presentation? 2... thank... 42 . move on. referring. . about our current position in the UK and I've . Now I'd like to . you will notice.. more .. Let me quickly ... today is to . you all for being here. variety... and. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.. finally. concluding.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already ... clarity. What makes a presentation effective? 4. humor Organization – coherence. clarity. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. what . appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy... sum up.. expand.... ... to Italy and Spain. confidence. relevance. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. audibility.. rapport / eye contact. subject knowledge... to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years... some of the problems we are facing.. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. informative. describe... I've .. priority. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.. motivating Exercise . bring you up to date... Please feel free to . . intonation... before ..E. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets... . options.. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. then. talked. interrupt. our profits have not increased at the same rate.. on those successes before we .... the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century... body language Language – clarity. me if you have questions at any time.. I'll quickly . ........ draw your attention.. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. .. indicate. research Approach – message support and reinforcement.
... Are there any final questions?" 43 . we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.... Thank you also for your pertinent questions.... Admittedly our results there have been poor so far.We should not forget the French market. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. Spain and possibly Greece. though. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. .... I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly ....
Like an essay.you can choose your own title . Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. 44 . two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . called a dissertation or long essay.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . try it out with your supervisor. This means you have a whole year to write it. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . since you have more space. but there are a number of differences: . However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. A member of staff will supervise progress. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. dissertations need to say a lot about a little.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. In part-time degrees. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). but it can also be very daunting. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth.F. There are several criteria for your choice: . and be available to assist you. which you research by yourself.is the topic academic enough? . but is probably the most important. However.
000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. ask yourself: .What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. since you have more to say. 000 words Conclusion – 1. the first thing to do. since you may need a few by your side. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . Dissertations are usually 10. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will be your title. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. 000 words. It is longer. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. Introduction – 1. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. as you are reading through the material you have gathered.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. As you are reading through the books on your topic.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
but you can never tell.1. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. 4. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. It's really cold. 5. 49 . That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper.
............... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning............ I booked it last week................... ............ I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year. 1........ I went for ...................................... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.......................... First I went to ........................ When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything....................... He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known......... 5....... After .. .. I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup.......... 8. lunch with Bob.............................................. 1..... and she said that she hadn't had a chance.. Grammar 1.... 9............. In each case choose the most likely alternative.................... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations...... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics.... lovely morning........... 2............................... He's ..... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............................... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions.......... 3......................................... 6....... 3...... ..... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon... bank to withdraw some cash............................. If you're too hot in here........ ............ long walk by ....... ......... Look at those clouds..... ..................... the.................................. 7..... 6.. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions........ Then I went swimming at ............. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details...... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.... ...... 3. I've done that for you..... Right...................... 2........................................ I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation................. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting..Test B A.......... Articles Complete this text with a / an. old school friend who I hadn't seen for ................. 5... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.............................................. 4..... years.... professional musician and plays with ................................. 50 .... They wondered how we had managed to do it..................................... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras. River Thames.. 4...... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid......... 7............ ........................................... or no article.. I had .
......................... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering............... can I just interrupt you a second? b...... EJ ........ I'm not really with you... at the latest....... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary... AK ........... C Paula........ is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski. EJ .. fine................ It sounds useful...... OK.......... AK Yes............... C Hello......... ..................... AK Hello........ Sorry..00. Goodbye..................... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.... c........................................ EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment... hello........ EJ ... Would Thursday morning at 10..................... something for people who need English translations of words.....00 ? P ................... 10.... Wednesday at 9.......00 ............. which is why I thought ..... let me give you an example......................... 9.. a.................................. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.... ? C ..........8............00 a........ EJ .......... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert................... right... I'm busy on Thursday.. Good idea......... then............................... ..... B..... As we were leaving... P Yes........................ and they said they would get it to him by 10........ Functions 1............... AK Exactly....... ....... So............... you're talking about................. yes.................... 2.............................. ..... P OK................................................ is that Paula.. ....m... I've got you...... and we told him that we could do it next week............... EJ Oh......... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software....... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e....... ..... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily....................... d....... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland. OK............ e...... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time........................ it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest. 51 ........ is that right? AK Yes............... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase.......
......... 1. Don't worry... Oh.........C...... or waste... an important meeting in my life...... lose........... 2................... miss... He apologized ... You can depend ... 6... 52 .......... 3.... 1.. 7. The meeting coincided ... 2.... the discussion today. 10.... 9... my money.. opportunity! 5.... the inconvenience caused....... the beer festival. He is lacking .. .. because of inefficiency... sensitivity............. 8. 5... A lot of company's resources are ................ my new job... Do you take credit cards? 4......... I'm allergic . lose. I really . me. I had three jobs to choose .. Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition... I can't eat seafood... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss.. the UK market for the time being. 3........ 2... no! I seem to have .......... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a . me. I've never . I am not accustomed ... Vocabulary 1..... We need to concentrate ........ Thank you for taking part .. it. 4. my family when I was abroad on business for four months..... Please listen .
Test C A. 2. who. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. My company does much business in Asia.. has just joined the company? b. then correct the mistakes.. I'm living in at the moment. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. 5... using where.... Nothing happened yesterday.. The reception area... 3. 2. that.. is free.. you used to work? was also the year I got married. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B... The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. 53 . 6. 1.. Complete the sentences... 3.. 9. I'm doing many work at the moment.. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices. 2. d....... she later married.. he bought shares in the company.. 2.. e. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). we hold meetings in.. Grammar 1... is on the fifth floor. which... 10. Then complete them. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences.. You need to invest in some more machinery. I give / will give you a bonus. a.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments....... is comfortable and spacious. A. I like playing sport. some of B. In some cases more than one answer may be possible.... 1. You can download software from many websites. have become good friends. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 3. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. This is the room . If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday..... c. .. One million dollars is plenty of for one person....... work opposite us are not very friendly. He gave us a lot of information about his company.. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. What's the name of the woman .. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. There's not much news to tell you. so please hurry up.... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). 7. 4.. anticipating an increase in value... the majority of . or whom..
. on abusing the little power he has..... a.... on the other hand 4.......... due to the fact that 7.. ..... fraud still occurs....... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'........... e................. such as 5.... He's always letting his colleagues ....... The point is d...... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online... (make depressed) 5.. however f.......g.. due to b.. ...B... so h..... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ....... 1. whereas 6................................ . 1.. He really gets ...... .. (understand) 54 ... Vocabulary 1.... working at the weekend. thus C... while d..................... Functions 1........................... because c... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ........... It's such a bad line.............. like e..... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.. .. I mean b........ is the answer to that..... I had a day off work last week to make ........ Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e....... (indicate awareness of something) 3..... can we trust these servers to be secure? .. trends. e.............. .... as a result of 8. what you're saying.......... (be excited by) 4.... ....... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning................ Let me explain what I mean.... (compensate for) 6............. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server... By secure... as 3.. He's not a very good team player. because of a...... ........... I can only just make ....... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer. 2.............. g........ for example 2................ So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem................ (disappoint) 2.... To give you an example c.. and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things..... Explaining consequences.
........................ She's very good at getting her ideas ... (became very successful) 8.............. (avoid) 2.. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London...... It's good news..... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties. Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics. (communicate) 9.. the meeting...... last year when we broke into the German market................7........... The company really took ...... ? (invent) 10... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview.. 55 .... She called in sick so that she could get ...
.............. I asked Miranda to write the report for me. Grammar 1...................................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.............. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form....................... 2....... have left my keys in the restaurant.......................................................... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities............. well top $150 million this year....... . (you save) if your house .. Companies usually provide managers with language training..............................Test D A.. ... Use have / get something done where appropriate................................ His colleague's death ..... He was only 42 years old........... When I go to Barcelona I .............. 1............... 6....................... ................................... ......................... 5..... He .... 3.......................... Somebody stole my laptop computer................... 3.......... ...... no! I .............. Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb........................................ I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning............................................. We invite successful applicants to a second interview............. (you open) the door immediately? 56 .......................................... 2........... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive........ What three things ......... 7................................... 8............... have kept some of it for herself.... The store manager had only just moved to the branch..... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage...... 10......................... Conditionals 1......... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months. be a big shock............................ ...... Oh.................................... be staying at the conference venue...... 9........................ .................. If someone ........ (knock) on your door at home ... The optician tested my eyes yesterday............ but I'm not sure yet......................................................................................... but I ........................................................................... be wrong...... 7..................................... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors....................... 5........ ........... 3.................... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion......................... company profits ......................... According to Peter.................................................................... . A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ............. (be) on fire? b..................... We're locked out! 4.. I think we ......................... ................. 8...... 2. 1........................... 4.... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6........................................................................... a........
What ... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards............. (you park) your car there they ...... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's...... basically what you're saying is....... (go) to the police.. eventually d. B: Thanks for warning me. B: Yes. To keep to the point 3......... what ....... However......... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said. I ..... (you choose) ? d. A: If I .... (happen) if ....... If you ..... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed..... whose life .. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion. b.. 1. (be) you.......... A: Careful! If .. If you ... d....... Ella? 57 .. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ...... If the weather ........ a................ (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs............. I know.. To ask for clarification 5................ (you study) ? f.. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong... (not get) a job with your current company? h... ... Functions 1. (you do) ? e.. (be) good this weekend what ....... ultimately c... after lengthy discussion... To manage interruptions 2........... (go) to the police.. Explaining stages in a process Complete the description. (be) you....... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2.... Can I finish what I was saying? d.... one candidate is chosen......... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview....... Then b.... c. To summarize a.... The interviews take place and .... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Would you like to come in here..... Could you be more specific? b....... I .... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e... a................. To ensure other people get to speak 4...... (see) a UFO........ firstly e........................ If you .................. (you change) ? g. A: If I ......... c... (not study) your subject at school / university.. .......... So... 2.. B. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function...... what .. Where . ............ (you work) if you ..... but I don't think they'd believe me.c..... (give) you a ticket. A: If you .... using the words a-e. ......
......... create .............. 2....................... legible 58 . ................ 1.. connect 5. 4.. credible 4.... humor .. 1. 2....... Vocabulary 1. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites........... replaceable 3....... 5..... understand ... . interested 2.. .. criticize .... .. rely . ... 3...C..........
.. Grammar 1. (live) in space. if you'd like me to show you around Prague...... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase... I'd like that.......00 p... (do) at 8... B: ..m............. b. 4........ (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life. a..... Good luck with your exam tomorrow.... Future Perfect.. Do you think there ....... Will they ..................? 3.. 8.. I . it's no problem... In three months' time I ...... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form... 6......... If you have time during your stay in Sydney...... A: Great..... . I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b.. 5..... By the time I retire I hope I . (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.... Do you know what .... Thank you...... Match each question with an appropriate category. so don't forget to take waterproofs..... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.......... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful............. (think) of you... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes. I'm sure. (finish) their meeting by 7........ otherwise I may / must / can forget it.. d. possibility. 1. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. c....... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House. I've got two tickets! B...... I ..... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics....... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d...............Test E A...... Must I really go to the meeting? f.... Future Continuous. . Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c. 2... Permission. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May..... By 2050 people . Invitations. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here..... I'm sorry.. 59 . e.. Functions 1. and obligation 1... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9. (work) from home.. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow...... tomorrow? We .....00 p.. thank you.... but ... requests........ I ... Call me sometime over the weekend... 7..... Look.. necessity..... 2.......m.. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a.................
..... A: I've had a lovely evening.......... warm clothes... cash-flow problems for small businesses... B: .... Mark... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do...... take up d.... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock... get.. Thanks for coming.... her? 3.. Vocabulary 1....... best of luck b....... hope to see you again sometime 1... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.......... begin (a hobby) 2.. B: Yes... C... I can't........... Remember to ................ or take........ Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning... lead to.... I don't think I . B: . 1................ A: .......... 2...... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No.. Yes.. and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e.. 3.... B: Thanks.. employ (someone) 60 ........... thanking...... A: Have you .. 2... with everything.............. get... Late payment often .. some research for my thesis........... carry off c...... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ...... A: So.. succeed 3.... cause 4............ I hear this is your last day at work here......... you're welcome e........ It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year..... ... A: Well. keep in touch d. in your English test? B: Oh........ carry........... A: How did you ... your bags? They look very heavy! 2... carry.................... a........ thank you for that lovely dinner once again.. I'm glad you enjoyed it c... Well.. 1. A: Oh... bring about b. I have to . .................. bring. 2... 5. take on a... Concluding...................... too many mistakes..... B: You too.. and take Complete the sentences with bring......A: ............. ................. not too bad... did you . I'm starting a new job next week. Can I help you . that ............... lead to..... great...
competent 2. have never seen 8. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. was living 2. watch 3. . c – 7 4.. a . f – 6 7. recently 3. sounds like 4. have eaten 10. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. e – 1 6. have you been doing 6. 1. all my life 4. at the moment 2. saying 2. going 1... outgoing 3. . have been having 9. look like 2. going 4.Answer key Test A A1 1.. woke up 1. always plays 7. had been sitting 6. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1.. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money.. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. hasn't stopped 1. 3. . had read / started 5. 4.. had been having 4. . for a week 5. a – 5 2. stubborn 5. 2. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. b – 2 3. . to entertain 3. was traveling / witnessed 3.. meticulous 4. seems 5. d – 4 5..Tests . to turn off 5. 5. g – 3 1. arrived / had left 7. used to have a Porsche. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1..
you're talking about . an 5. OK. that's / That suits me 1. I'm afraid 4. 'Did you see anything?' 2. 2.2. 62 .' conditions. to 9.00 a. at the latest. I'm playing 4. who / whom c. to 6.' 7. wasted 5. I'm not really with you. Are you doing A3 2. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. let me give you an example. I'll just check / I'll call 5. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. B1 1. 3. a 7. I'm going to 3. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. in 5. wasted 2. 4. I haven't had a chance. for 2. the 3.' 9. 5. Sorry. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. That would be / Yes. which e. missed C2 1. is going to rain 7. Ø 9.m. How about / What about 5. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. I'll turn on 6. missed 3. which 2. that / which / Ø d. I'm going to spend 8.' 6.. with 4. to 10. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. I was wondering whether 2. lost 4. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. who / that b. from 7. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. we can do it next week.. the 4. the 8. on 8. So. the 1. a 10. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. will win 9. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. a. in 3. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. I've got you. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. Ø 6. a. OK.
I mean 5. up 10. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. as soon as 2. by / will give 3. We started the company in 1999. C 9. By secure. I – quite a few 5. 63 . out 7. I've met a lot of people through work. rise 6. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. Let me explain what I mean 2. A2 1. off 8. across 9. some of whom have become good friends. The point is 4. on 3. I – a lot of good advice 1. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. e. raise 6. I – a lot of 7. To give you an example 3. C 8. up for 1. I – a lot of 3. I – equipment 10. off 4. d. I – plenty of 6. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. down 5. until / are 1. C 4. risen 3. down 2.b. arisen 2. which was also the year I got married. I – information 2. sharply 4. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. substantial 5.
/ I've had my laptop stolen. Would you like to say something about this. reliable 2. 7. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . could / may / might 8. 3. is / will you do e. So. I had my eyes tested yesterday. uninterested 2. incredible 4. could / might / may 1. John? 4. should / must 6. I was in the middle of saying something. A2 1. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. understandable 64 C2 1. could / would you choose d. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. arrived 2. were / would you change g. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. knocked / would you c. saw / would you do d. basically what you're saying is . Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. Applications are passed on to universities. 9. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. can't / couldn't 5. 8. Candidates are recommended for promotion. a. must 4. My laptop has been stolen. creative 4. humorous 3. 10. had been / would have gone b. would you work / hadn't got h. should 2. Miranda was asked to write the report. 1.. Excuse me. My eyes were tested yesterday. 6. was you / would go c. Can you be more specific? 5. would you save / was b. 4.2. Language training is provided for managers.. would happen / arrive. might / may / could 3. 5. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. happens. / Managers are provided with language training. must 7. a. 2. irreplaceable 3.
we will be doing / will be taking 1. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will have been working 4.5. will be working 5. critical Test E A1 1. get 3. will be 9. Shall we say 5. made 4. illegible A2 1. can 4. You're welcome 5. do 2. would be fine / suits me fine 1. have finished 3. Shall 4. must 2. take 5. will have earned 8. made 3. will be thinking 2. 1. will be living 6. best of luck 2. That's very kind of you 3. can't 3. Hope to see you again some time 3. Keep in touch 4. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. lead to 1. can't 5. will speak 7. bring 4. carry 2. I was wondering 2.
2. She works here until Christmas.IV. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. She's working here until Christmas. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. He's knowing a lot about music. He doesn't want to be in the school play. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. 2. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 66 . Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. He knows a lot about music. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. I'm going to the cinema every day. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. 1.
Some are right and some are wrong. 1.) I've bought a new car. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. 67 .) I've been to Brazil three times. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. 3.) Present perfect. Vegetarians don't eat meat. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. 5. 6.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. (She isn't here now. You haven't lived abroad. To make regular past participles. (I've got a new car now.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now.) I've lived here for three years. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. and present continuous Look at these sentences. (I still live here now. He's seeming very tired. He seems very tired. we add –ed to the infinitive. present simple. I want to go out for dinner.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. I have. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 2. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. 4.3. (Until now I've been there three times. (He still works there now. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense.
* I * have lunch in a restaurant *. Her house is as big as mine. The film was much better than I expected. 5. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence.. Russia is bigger than Canada. as . as .00.. I work here since October. We often go to the park. He's never here at 9.3. can be used to make comparisons. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. normally. but they usually go before the main verb.. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. 68 . The train is always on time. in front of the main verb. I don't usually get up late. Sometimes.. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. I'm working here since October.
Silver isn't as expensive as gold. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week.83m 1. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group...85m 1. 6. He's as tall as his brother. My exam results were worse than Andy's. 4. is also possible. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. He's so tall as his brother. 1. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. In the negative so . The film was better than the book. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. We weren't here yesterday..75m Alex is taller than his brothers. he was. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. 3.92m Alex's brothers 1. . Short answers Yes. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. The film was better that the book.. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. Alex 1. 2. as . all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.
I went there four years ago. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. I went out this morning. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. in 1993. I did. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. 7. he was.g. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. two days ago. He used to smoke. I've been there four years ago. or past actions which were not habits. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action.) She went at four o'clock. (I still live here. (She isn't here now. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. We went to the cinema twice last week. but he gave up five years ago. not the present perfect. I've lived here for five years.) Before that I lived in Madrid. last week). only the past simple can be used. She's gone home. She wasn't going to work. (But I don't live there now.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. She used to be a teacher. not the effect. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. We didn't use to live in London. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. It has no present form. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. (We're interested in when the action took place.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. you must use the past simple tense. For individual past actions.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
They wouldn't steal from a friend. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. He's the man who lives next door. 74 least likely most likely . I would. It may (not) rain today. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. I saw the man who lives next door. It's likely to rain today. It'll probably rain today. Use Would has many uses. It might (not) rain today. We use who with people. It probably won't rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. I'd buy a house. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. (But I haven't got the money. impossible. It could rain today. She's probably coming this weekend. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. I saw the man.) make polite offers. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It's unlikely to rain today. If I had the money. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't.) She'd be a good politician. or imaginary situations. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. (But she works in a bank. which with things.
We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. didn't you? NOT . is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject.. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive.He's the man that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He lives next door. didn't she? You like fish. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man who/that lives next door. He's the man. did not you? She can speak Russian. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. He's the man (who/that) she married.. or that.. You knew about this yesterday. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. It isn't very warm. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here.. does it? You've finished. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. She arrived yesterday. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. Look at these sentences. haven't you? It was raining. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. don't they? 75 . Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. You can swim. They aren't coming to the party. which. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. 12. She married him. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. will she? It doesn't matter. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. can't she? NOT . This chair's French. He's the man. You're Italian.
This wine is produced in Portugal. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). Cars shouldn't be parked there. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. Thousands of cars are stolen. She must be told. The car has been found. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. It can't be done. These houses were built in the 1930s. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. We can use the passive in any tense. The crime will be solved. These computers are made in Japan. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. we use the negative of the verb to be. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. Someone has been arrested.) and is followed by a question mark (?). It is less direct than an ordinary question. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. 76 . The man wasn't sent to prison. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. The weapon hasn't been found. To make the negative of the passive. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. 13. Fewer crimes would be committed. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. we don't know the agent.
If we had more money. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. We usually use a comma (.) We won't go if it rains. 14. we'll go to the cinema. (I don't think I'll get the job. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. We usually use a comma (. I'd buy that house. The suspect was identified by a witness. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.. NOT If it will rain. we'd travel business class. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job.) 15.) If I got the job I'd earn more money.) when the if clause is first. we'll go to the cinema. but not when the main clause is first. you'll miss the appointment. (There is a real chance that it will rain. If I had enough money.. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus.If we want to show the agent. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. The car has been found by some children. NOT If I would have enough money . First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is.) 77 . she'll feel terrible. but not when tha main clause is first.) when the if clause is first. If it rains. If you get up late. unlikely.. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.. If I had enough money . or imaginary situations. If she eats all the ice cream. we use by. If I get the job I'll earn more money. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.
e. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object).16.. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. and after. He took off his jacket. on. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. or She switched the TV on. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. 17.. up. He saw the mouse and ran out. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. before. She takes after her mother. I'll phone you when she arrives. in. NOT . NOT She switched on it.. Oil will run out in the next century. (transitive) The plane took off.g. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle.. NOT . as soon as.. NOT . until Phil will get back. He heard a helicopter and looked up. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. until. before we would go to the cinema.. She switched it on. away. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. Time clauses As in clauses with if. the verb is separable. She switched on the TV. when she will arrive. look something up 78 . I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema.
I've lived here for ten years. is not normally used with stative verbs. 79 . The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. (I haven't finished it yet. the verb is inseparable. You're late. 18. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action.) focus on the process of an activity. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. I've been writing a letter. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. he has.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. or about past actions which have present results. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. I've been playing a lot of football this week. like other continuous forms.' emphasize the duration of an activity.I looked up the word in the dictionary. I've been waiting for an hour.
We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. They live here. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. ask.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. Compare these questions. so we must provide one. know.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. a modal verb. see. Did you see her? In Wh. decide. question word(s) subject verb 80 . imagine. remember. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Can she swim? They've arrived. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements.questions. or an auxiliary verb. have no idea.19. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Do they live here? You saw her. using do/does in the present or did in the past. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. wonder. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be.
3. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. I wonder why did he do that? 21. is.? Could you tell me where the post office is. 81 . We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. left. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. A shop that sells records is a record shop. arrives. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. a computer software shop This is a shop. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.. In each pair one is right and one is wrong... we say clothes shop and sports shop. 've got..? or Do you think you could tell me . Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . I don't know if he's coming. I've decided how much money I need.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. 1. 4. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. What kind of software? Software for computers. 2. The headword always goes at the end. I've decided how much money do I need. Note: However. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. With Wh. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. football boots These are boots.
-ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. a teacup. etc. a bathroom a coffee cup. hear. (Empty packets.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. a tennis racket a living-room.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. After I'd had a shower. Gerunds can be subjects or objects.). There's someone coming. We saw them leaving the house. I had the idea while driving home. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. watch. -ing form or infinitive A. Unfortunately there are no rules. I've been working since 7. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). I had the idea while I was driving home.00. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. 23. After having a shower. with after. She's playing tennis. or are hyphenated. (Empty bottles.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. and while to replace a clause. before. I could smell burning. I got dressed. This is a really boring film. He was driving at 120mph. I read a fascinating book the other week. when the subject of both clauses is the same. object I don't enjoy cooking. Compare these sentences. There were two people waiting for you. stomach ache 22. I can hear someone coming. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. as adjectives. (New packets. 82 . smell. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. I got dressed. feel. to describe what someone can sense (with see.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. Others are written as two words. notice.
like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. feel like. (I danced with him and I won't forget it.) stop He has stopped smoking. imagine. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. suggest. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. remember. 83 .) He stopped to have a cigarette. enjoy. continue It's just started raining. and can't stand. (I had to meet her and I did.) I tried speaking to her about it. I began to realize how he felt. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening.) I remembered to meet her. but she wasn't there. (I wanted to speak to her. She's considering emigrating to Australia. (I had met her before and I remembered it. (I was supposed to dance with him. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. I enjoy doing the gardening. but it didn't work. start. B. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. but I didn't. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. I like lying in bed late. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. (he was doing something. It's just started to rain. forget I remember meeting her. hate. -ing forms Look at these sentences. consider. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. I'd like to live abroad. love. begin. 1. but I couldn't. Smoking is bad for your health. then he stopped in order to smoke.) C. Some of the most common are finish. (I spoke to her.) try I tried to speak to her about it. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. In British English.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night.like. (British) I like to lie in bed late. I'm beginning to learn the piano. give up. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. but she still wouldn't listen.
Stop making so much noise. neither to agree with a negative statement. B So do I. I began to understand the problem. shall. B Me. A I couldn't read until I was seven. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. I could. A I've never been to Ireland. B Nor/Neither have I. need. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. 7. B Me. I'd love to go to New Zealand. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. A I really love pizza. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. and Me. I must remember to post this letter. I made a phone call. 3. B Oh. To smoke is bad for your health.) I + positive auxiliary verb. might. ought to. neither.) I + negative auxiliary verb. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. should. I must remember posting this letter. 25. must. may. I made a phone call. There's someone coming up the stairs.2. Stop to make so much noise. 4. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. will. could. too. 84 . B Oh. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. 24. too to agree with a positive statement. 6. I'd love going to New Zealand. There's someone that comes up the stairs. I would. Before to leave the office. I begun understanding the problem. 5. would. Before leaving the office.
You don't should leave your car there. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. (or I could find a new job. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come.) I must remember to post this letter. or You don't need to come.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). For example. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. 85 . Past: I could play the piano when I was six. They might not come to the party. He might come later. Past: He could speak French when he was four. 3. I must to remember to post this letter. You shouldn't do that. and permission.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. will: I'll be able to find a new job. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. They ought to be more careful. would: I'd be able to find a new job. possibility. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. 2. He mights come later. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. They have no infinitive or participle form. I can swim. I couldn't believe what he told me. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. 4. Modal verbs have no tense forms. Present: He can speak four languages. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. we can use could to talk about ability. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. You might go to London. She should see a doctor.
or to say what we think is the best thing to do. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. I could drive when I was sixteen. will: I'll have to find a new job. The firemen could save everyone. I must start taking more exercise. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. (I want to. but it is also used to describe strong obligation.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. The party's informal. You ought not to carry so much cash. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. I have to work on Saturday this week. You needn't wear a suit. You don't have to come if you don't want to.Could. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. would: I'd have to find a new job. You shouldn't work so hard.) In Britain you have to drive on the left.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. The firemen managed to save everyone. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. Have to is also used. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. Passengers must show their boarding cards. Note: Must has no tense forms. Past: I had to find a new job. (It is and 'outside' obligation. (It is a general obligation. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. 86 . Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. Have to is used to describe general obligation. a driving instructor. it is 'my' obligation. we use was/were able to or managed to. was/were able to. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb./You don't need to wear a suit.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job.30. You need to be at the station by 8. from my doctor. though could is more common. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. The firemen were able to save everyone. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to.
and may are used to ask for permission. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. might. She could not be here tomorrow. This means that I painted the room myself. 3. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 87 . 2. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. with we and I. 26. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. 5. I painted my room. Could is more polite than can. He had his jacket dry-cleaned.Probability May. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Compare these sentences. I had my room painted. 4. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. I had the car fixed. 1. Some are right and some are wrong. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. and may is the most polite and formal. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. could. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. I will can go swimming every day next week. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. I had my hair cut. Permission Can. She might not be here tomorrow.
It needs cleaning. Direct speech: I like cooking. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. The car's really dirty. said or told). 29. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. I got the garage to service my car. would. It needs to be cleaned.27. and modal verbs do not change. The judge made the man apologize. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. The car's really dirty. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. 28. because a different person is now speaking. David's father lets him use the car. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something.g. Need + -ing is more informal. 88 . When we report something with a past tense verb (e. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. I'll get my secretary to type the letter.
. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Helen: I'd like a coffee. With Yes/No questions.. Monica: I might phone you later. NOT Andrea said me . 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book.. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. They told (us) a story. 89 . She told (them) jokes all night. Zoran: I had never been there before. Zoe said that they saw a great film. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. Andrea said (that) she was going out. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. We tell somebody something. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Tom: I don't want to stay here. 30. 31. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Luke: I'll be away till March. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. we make the following changes. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. NOT Andrea told (that) . and verbs have a statement form. When we report questions. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. the reported question starts with whether or if. The word order changes to a statement word order. Andrea: I'm going out. Andrea said (that) she was going out.. say and tell We say something. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question.
If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. but not when the main clause is first. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. 3. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. 2. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam.32. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. Reported speech Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. she wouldn't have left. such as advise. (I didn't work hard. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. but other verbs can also be used. 1.' The doctor asked me to sit down.' He told me not to worry. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. 2. 'Please sit down. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. I'd lend you some money if I had any. They said me that the exam was very hard. (You were driving too fast. The instructor told me that I don't do that. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. They told me that the exam was very hard. She asked me where I lived. We usually use a comma (. 33. Some are right and some are wrong. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. The instructor told me not to do that. and command.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. warn. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. persuade. beg. and I didn't pass the exam. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. order. 'Don't worry. an imaginary situation in the past. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. If I had told the truth. 1. and you crashed. 3.) when if clause is first.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. you would have failed. 90 . 4. If you hadn't studied so hard.
We shouldn't have stayed in bed.4. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock.) 91 . should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. 34. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision.) They should have bought the house. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.
Wallwork. Ian Selwood. 6. Life Lines. 5. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 8. 2001. 2002. 2. All Stars. Driscoll. Gabriel. 2001. Kennewell. 4. 2001. Dorner. Jane. 2002. Writing for the Internet. 3. Brooks.Oxford. 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chris Mitton. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. 92 .BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Glendinning. Eric H. Otman. Oxford University Press. Computer Studies Through Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Engleza pentru informatica. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 7. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 1992. & John McGwan. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. 2001. Engleza pentru internet. Steve & Peter Fox. Hutchinson. International Express. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Oxford English for Information Technology. Tom. Michael & Francois Lagoutte.
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