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Manual de limba engleza

Manual de limba engleza

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  • LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET
  • LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET
  • LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING
  • LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE
  • LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS
  • LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY
  • LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES
  • LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE
  • LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE
  • LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY
  • A. WRITING A CV
  • B. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES
  • C. INTERVIEWS
  • D. WRITING EMAILS
  • E. PRESENTATIONS
  • F. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS
  • Test A
  • Test B
  • Test C
  • Test D
  • Test E
  • IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE

UNIVERSITATEA "AL. I.

CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă

LAURA IOANA LEON

MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92

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INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

Read books and newspapers... Compare your lists. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. Work alone.... learning vocabulary . English is the most widespread language on Earth....What advantages does the adult have? 2.. pronunciation practice 3.. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd...... and aviation. Purists of the French. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.. technology... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.. but remember that different people learn in different ways. and the process is now being reversed...What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? .. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement............. .. cards...... Justify your order.... we can talk about a round of golf. 4.to be cleaned and dried. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. 1 being the most important. listening ... or drinks.. 4 ... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.... writing .... reading . speaking and being corrected ... This will no doubt continue.. It is the language of business. speaking and not being corrected all the time .... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance. How do you learn languages? ..... Speaking 1. sport. learning grammar .. Geographically.. Work in groups.. Prepositions too are flexible..What advantages does the baby have? ..

by 1972. it worked. They had. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. Amazingly. then news and eventually gossip. 3.. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. Because of the way the messaging system worked. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. each machine will have equal status. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. Instead. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important.. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. they used it to swap gossip. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. the way they got there was unimportant. to use the techy term. they sent each other games. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. Other networks joined in. still the most popular use of the Net by far. for it was they. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. They started mailing lists. 1. in fact. uninvited but still welcome. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. 5 . The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. 4. Crude as they were. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. But they weren't interested in science or academia. 37. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. 2. There will be no "command center". But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. But then an odd thing started to happen. These packets could be sent independently over the network. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. just kept on growing. they opened newsgroups. They didn't use the Net to swap research data.). invented e-mail.I. swapped them (via the net. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. as it came to be called. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. no single computer that controls the rest of them. and the Internet. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. Instead of using the network strictly for business. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language.

and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. cheaper and more reliable. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Over the last few years. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt).2. a series of bits being a part of message B. mailbox. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. but the market (saturate) to some extent. desktop computer 2. Since then the computers (become) smaller. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Apple. a person who tries to discover something E. mainframe 5. packet. notebook 3. but transistors soon (replace) them. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. along with IBM. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. network. Here are five types of computers. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . a set of related computers C. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Computer sizes. however. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. researcher A. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. supercomputer 4.

and as with mail order programs. and interactive courseware. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. online environment. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. It's called distance learning. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. the material would be available to students at their convenience. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. 1. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Europe. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. There's a revolution happening in education. Use the elements to make complete sentences. Within a few months. visit the school's We site. videotape of professor's lectures. rather than offering their own set of courses. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Students can log onto the Internet. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. and the Americans. learn the material. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. Australia. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. offered by mail. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. For example. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. founder and president of University Online. and connect to a server that presents information. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. the Net will be alma mater. Personally. says Nat Kannan. click on the course they want. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. all of which express personal opinions: 1. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". Using modern technology. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". use a bulletin board. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive.

to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.... I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. for and ago: 1. connector childhood.... at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. Fill the blanks in this passage with since... state condition. When we started.. four years . scientist . to arrange in an optimal way 6. 6. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. condition belonging to act of. the beginning of the experiment. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. . addressee audience. 3.. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. possession magnetism. in 1992 2..... execution. This University has only existed ... 4. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom.. we never believed it would be so successful. University Online was originally tested over five years .. to give authority to 10... -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. state condition.. several new courses have been offered.g. You have to follow a course . To my mind. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality.. withdrawal clearance. independence employer... 5. to make use of a symbol for something 3. over two years. a few months . to represent in a digital form 2. operator voucher... LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. to write a summary of 3... kingdom employee.. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7.. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. -or -hood -ian -ion. boredom. to reduce to the minimum 7. musician introduction. behavio(u)rism typist. so it has been tested . to take a material form 5. to give a linear form to 8. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal.5. It was put on the market in 1994.

auto 8. rivalry friendship. economical foolish useless porous. standard 18. behavio(u)r foundry. stimulus 20. computerize. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. local 9. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. slavery. lengthen classify. weak 19. 1. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. active 3. government business. long 13. short 7. transform the following words into verbs. action condition of quality. widen. condition place. boldness labo(u)r. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. tight 5. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. personal 15. initial 12. soft 10. electric 17. generally. state condition. -ery -ship state. interruptible environmental. logical. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. simplify customize. tolerate shorten. broad 2. robot 6. happiness. -ical -ish -less -ous. state electricity. simple 4.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. mode 14. analysis 11. reality achievement. quality state. condition. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . using the verb-forming suffixes above. loose 16. concentrate. Now. furiously 4.

so you have to be better than them.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. spend more money on a training course. By the age of 30. Delphi. Here's the road map. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. C++. A consultant is different. That's where the all-important experience comes in. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. Get a decent book on Windows programming. However. The same goes for NetWare Certification. 10 . However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. as does Novell. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. For someone starting out. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. C++. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. Qualifications are important. rolled out major solutions and are well known. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. They merely prove you can think. its positioning on the market. a week there. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. more manageable pieces. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. If you decide programming is really for you. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. and so on. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Visual Basic and Delphi. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. After a couple of hops like that. And there are lots of people who know it too. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. technology and people. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. University degrees are useless. Java and Visual Basic developers. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. you've run big projects. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. an attention to detail. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. how it relates to other products and so on.

5... be able to show leadership. Your objective is to become self-employed. to make sensible statements.. 6.. 2........... You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations.... 5. More than one answer is possible in some examples. You . 4.. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company.. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams.. 3. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere. If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project. become an expert in too narrow a field.... be an expert in hardware to become a programmer.. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date.... then you can forget being an IT manager. adjective. to have experience in JavaScript. an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry... 9.. Most are between 30 and 45... 7.. You . Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff. You .. 8. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs.. 1. be able to use C++. These days you ... 7.. must.. You .. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team. etc. Most of this can't be taught.. study BASIC.... employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit. In any case... Interestingly. It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career... They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business.... 2.. 3.. 1.).... Technical qualifications .. suffixes change the part of speech (noun. You . to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager..... 4. You need to be bright... Prefixes change the meaning of the word.... verb. 6. You .. 1.. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks... the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience.... Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team.. You . They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems.. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.. need to. many of them don't have degrees in computing science............ be in computing science. 8.... Apart from basic hardware and software expertise.... Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career... Look at the examples: 11 . LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix. 2.. have to. a stem and a suffix.. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. You . It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. have a degree but it ..Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager.. 10.

The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. size. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. into going away more than above too much beneath. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. location. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. side in. involve output.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). misfortune nonsense unreal. decode disagree. bystander input. foresee. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. external foreground. semicolon .

to predict 3. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . size. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. half manual 7. after the war 4.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. that is already programmed 2. not up to standard 10. to convey data from one place to another 8. location. Now use the prefixes of degree. to grow larger 5. 1. half automatic. a program that is part of a larger program 6. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3.

the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. include descriptive ALT text captions. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. and visitors may not know how to 14 . Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. and make necessary adjustments. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. For example.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Besides content. If you are committed to using frames on your site. to find their way around. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. you may group the FAQ. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections.

You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. compatibility. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. up to date. search facility. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). Take notes on any special features. confusing. helpful graphics. especially those ending in "y" (see above). colorful. 1. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. navigation. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. cluttered. accuracy. contact information. password protected. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. good reactivity. nice design. However. a user. features. on-line support. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). For most sites. ease of use. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. Logical. you can add the suffix "er". Visit a website of your choice. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". a visitor. without wasting space. 15 . clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix.use yours effectively. structure connections. (hot) links. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. well laid out.

Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. 4. This computer is the cheaper of the two. the comparative can be preceded by "the". The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. 2. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. when buying a PC are often 5. when preceded by "X times". this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. 4. 2. 3. the sharper the picture. the better he feels.. The higher the resolution. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. 1. as". the more I feel depressed. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. the slower the speed of execution. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer.. The less sophisticated the software. 2. 3. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. When comparing two items. For the preceding sentence. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as".. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. The less he works. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . John was the elder of the two boys. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. indicated by the symbols. "as .. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. resolution was 16 .A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular.

big memory device 7.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. This is the most powerful computer available today. powerful computer 2. reliable device 5. inconsistent program 10. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. With short adjectives. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. 1. ugly picture 9. fast chip 4. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . cheap computer 3. 3. fuzzy image 8. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. expensive card 6.

have to. off-the-point arguments to see that... 18 ..LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.... A flowchart .. rambling... 2. Programs . cause unexpected results. You . When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong.. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering... A bug . a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. Don't cross-post messages. 4. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. when to criticize and when to stay silent.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. if that happened. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream.. 1.. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. You . 6. Don't use a signature of more than four lines.... In practice......... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can.. 5. Conversely.. It doesn't work. unwarranted abuse and long.. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. The reason for this is never given. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.. on the Net or elsewhere. This form of internal policing.. The following sentences have been scrambled. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all.. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.. because it wastes people's time.. (A whole quarter second in some cases). and overzealous at that.. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop..... Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. Don't criticize others for their misspellings. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.... 3. sometimes be useful when designing a program.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is.. may or could 1. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. be debugged before being executed... break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program... Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. make sure you spell correctly yourself.. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.. Put the words back in the right order: 1.. read the FAQ)... This piece of software .

picture.7.. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus... it will take up too much space in the computer memory.. Cind am incercat soft-ul.... a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . top to bottom..... as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. 4. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici.... 10.. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text.. If you do.. Daca as fi vrut. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week...... opening page of a website .. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... also known as "favorites" . They . 4. 6..... the main.. 6.. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8... 5. 19 .... a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. a measure of visits to a website ..... and diagonally top to bottom). 8.... am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor..... 7... Translate the following sentences into English.... H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1... 9. Ar fi putut.. 2... email. write this program in a high-level language. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . graphic . electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .. 5... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata.. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. 3..... de exemplu... Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. 3... (You can find the words left to right. You .. and computing....... Write them next to the correct definition. photo......... Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.... 8. 7. 2. 3. Cu toate acestea.

... 18... 20 . 13...... the Internet equivalent of post . a software package generally used to start you up for a program ... Uniform Resource Locator..... a physical input / output point .... 16.....e. abbreviation for the Internet ... 14. 20. unsolicited mail.9...... a bug which infects data on your computer . 12.. something that automatically connects you to another page . 22. 21... 10........ a way of showing emotion in an email. 19....g.. the World Wide Web . i.......... :-) ............... a location on the WWW ...... 11.. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 15.. a search engine....... the right way to behave when communicating on the Net .... e....... etc.. email............ 17... inappropriate use of a mailing list .. website address ... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ............... .....

They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. 1. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. which is readily available. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Admittedly. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. Robert Schifreen 21 . and so. C. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. Triludan. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. Today's hacker is not so lucky. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. had not been in trouble with the law before. has the security.000 a year to repair. hacking is still easy. the computer companies would have you believe. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. had knocked on this door. costing companies an average of $23. better known as Robert Schifreen. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. For some teenagers. The law was tightened up. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. hacking has been criminalized. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords.000. MULTIPLE CHOICE . 1.Choose the ending (A. All the hacker needs is a modem. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. But according to those who practice. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. B. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. Typically. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Hackers have their own code of conduct. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside.

Then link them with an –ing clause. g. has made hacking more difficult. 6. You can create your own compilation. D. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. D. c. D. 5. Each MP3 file has a tag. outlaws hacking. the survival of hackers is threatened. This produces much smaller files. merely curious. You can download single tracks. 33% of its members are hackers B. 2. D. Match each cause and effect. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. C. C. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. male criminals. 3. MP3 players contain several devices. According to the NNC A. This enables you to change the appearance of your player.A. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. 8. You can legally download some music. is popular because it is romantic. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 2. costs about 48p a time C. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. 7. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. 4. You can download a skin program. 5. Cause 1. B. Hacking A. totally unaware of what they are doing. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. Effect a. is a form of escape from the everyday world. C. f. B. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. has eliminated all computer security. e. deliberately destructive B. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. b. B. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. 4. d. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. h. 3. 22 . This gives an enormous storage capacity. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments.

4. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. keyboard.3. 2. 3. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. 1. 5. 10. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. mouse and hard drives only. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. display. 8. 7. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 9. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 6.

Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post... Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. the equivalent of 300... 1. Applications are the key issue. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. or were vast collections of specific information. Put them back in the appropriate place.......... Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. with a further 1...5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. the applications are generally better.. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity...... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. According to the market researcher Dataquest. literature and art.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis.. . Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.... and justify the cost of a drive. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.. Review criteria 4. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs... No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders.5in.... Measuring drive performance 2.. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. 24 . along with the conventional 3... Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line..... Price points .. 1.... the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. For example....... and because there's more space... floppy drive.. As with other areas of the computer industry. but are spread throughout business. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. but it's not the only one. word processor and database – comes on one CD.. Mainstream applications 3.

... ..... files.. 2.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster... Backing Store . 5....... access time.. drawback.. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. pie chart. while still developing rapidly... This is often confused with the average access searches. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM. disk 25 ... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information... but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software... this excuse was taken too far. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. however advanced.... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future....Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase.......... 7.... more precise head positioning mechanism.. 6. 9. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... The industry. is still a read-only product. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players... 1. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader....... 3. As a result of this market maturity. TRUE OR FALSE? .. more faster... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format...... . The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search........ This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer... The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are...... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use.. 8. 2. 4..But CD-ROM. . A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. 1...Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false..... consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system......... 10.. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files... Increased competition has now reversed the trend.. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information...... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time... give reasons for your choice........ When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.

.. direct-access........ Hermetic data modules called "...... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. 10...e.. Most users are more familiar with the . Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare. 8.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems. disk packs... magnetic disks or diskettes.. media and ... read-write head........e........ De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)... 9.. address... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.......... 3..... If the disk is ... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre..... Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ...." are also common...... 6. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS. though these are becoming . 3.... storage areas are marked on the magnetic. where only one surface is ...... erorile se pot corecta. so-called because of its flexibility... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta. 2... i.. double-sided.. but has the .... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta..... that is extremely slow because of .. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors....... (i.. retrieved.... oxide-coated surface. Hence files can be ... magnetic tapes..... and ............ Large systems often use cartridges or ...Translate the following sentences into English: 1... 26 . floppy disk... needs to be in main memory at any one time.... a disk must be .. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as . Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. a track and a sector number).. The ....... on both surfaces.... database. of all the files on the disk..drives...... 5.. In this way only a small part of a .... sequential access. Disk have the advantage of being serial or ........ as opposed to a single-sided disk.. You should write between 150 and 200 words.. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .. This technology is cheap and easy to use...... Before being used... formatted (x3)............ where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle.. THE PASSIVE . 7.... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ..... 4. directory....... old-fashioned...... it is called a .... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. both internal and external. disk.

military. For many people. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. B. fashion. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. 2.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. An overview of lost techniques. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. the patron goddesses of the arts. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. 27 . choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. a basis for study for future generations. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. C. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. 3. Elizabeth Brown. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. B. Moreover. only aristocrats could go to museums. At the time of the Renaissance A. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. 1. With reference to the information in the article. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. crafts. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. electronically. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. will replace traditional museums. With the internet. especially in distant lands. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. C. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. Within the last few years. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. and industry. public museums did not exist. virtual museums A. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. A museum can best be defined as A. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. science. beyond the straightforward museum visit. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option.

2. museum A. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. artefact 3. 2. will organize visits to its storage spaces. to see. 6. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 .B. 3. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. C. 1. to admire 3. to establish 6. object produced by human hands 3. disadvantage 7. storehouse 8. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. art work 2. to enjoy 10. best work of an artist C. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. something produced by creative talent E. Museums maintain and display great works of art. honored 5. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. work of art. Match the words and their definitions: 1. The National Museum of Art A. collection 5. will show works of art that do not exist. C. masterpiece 4. B. country 9. 4. 4. The Web may transform our perception of art. article (in a magazine) 4. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. 5. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. vast 4. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. Put the following sentences into the passive form. photo (taken quickly) 2.

2. A person who buys goods or services from you. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world.e. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction.. the merchant receives the payment. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. and the amount to be paid.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. you gather your money up front and then spend it. The customer runs client software. Payment systems based on gold. Using a public key. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. and credit cards are credit systems. the date and time of the transaction. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. a bank redeems each note number only once. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. for example). and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. To execute a real-time transaction. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. In a debit system. users can act as both customers and merchants. 1. This might be a WWW browser. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. paper currency. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. 29 . 3. 4. In many cases. and a bank does the accounting. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. With such a system. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. currency. In a peer-to-peer system. A person who receives (money. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. 5. Checks. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. and the amount of money represented). The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. the name of the payer and the recipient. For the purposes of this discussion. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). or a dedicated payment client. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. charge accounts. In a credit system. traveler's checks. The customer pays. A bank employee who pays out money. both exist in the digital world as well. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network.

. He is the very man ........ Money used in a specific country... whose. For $20 a month... the company can have access to a . whom. 3. to open.. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.. 3.... we found CD-ROMs on sale.. A computer that can access a server... of account. A large number of banknotes.. The bank director.. He ignored it and threw it away......00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. deposit.. ... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. interest... The man. bought her a typewriter instead. 6.......... for their manager. 2. to clear. accepts digital cash. C . He alone will be authorized . 5. . loan.. will be $10. were found in the safe. remittance. of which. 2. entered the virtual shop.... 7.. withdrawal The Longstone company wish .? The next day he got a bill for $0.. The next month he got a bill for $0..00 stating that payment was now overdue. However. The site. will only be charged at 12%. balance... The first one has already been done for you..00.. overdraft..... statement.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.... wanted to buy some shirts. You will not need to use them all! account. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.. to start. The bank will send the company a weekly ...... 30 . 8. safe.... .. name is on the check.. I met personally. The account will not produce any . where... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. to sign. holder... a current ... D .... is similar to traditional credit... some ..... Digital credit. Stupid Computer Error A . cheques.... He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. is used in electronic trade. he ignored it... 1... agreed to honor my check. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order....6. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled..? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card... who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. were still new.. which... B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. The initial ... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. The customer.. To add money (to an account). 4.. receipt....000.

The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. He called them and talked to them.00 by return of post. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too.? Finally giving in. F .00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 .E . G .00.? A week later. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00.

"Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". Huitema. dipping even further into the future. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. that didn't keep the crowds away. and. he said. we'll have to work on that one". computing... TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. Dr. 32 . is high / low it is highly probable that .. So things have changed. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". and the role of the providers. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion.. Dr. well. Christian Huitema.. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. "Sight.. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. there was an inevitable blur of content. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness.. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Lastly. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. satellite. Next came. came the issue of virtual reality. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. said. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers.. dumb terminals. networks. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. he enthused. the future. one can predict / foretell that. 1. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around".LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. What should concern us. futurologists forecast. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. more controversially. smells. As he pointed out. And as for the taste. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. For sheer impact. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. was how online commerce will evolve.. he predicted.. said Dr. the current issue of security will only be short. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet.. for all intents and purposes. sound and feeling will arrive. experts expect that. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. And needless to say. exist.. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. that probability that . I think the word Internet was uttered twice.. "At telecom 91.

... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. 3. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let. 4.. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen......... 5. make... 33 . permit 1. enable.. My boss is easygoing and .. When I was young my parents never . 3.... The term was first coined by William Gibson. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to.. Reading Read the article. 2..... Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient. Sneaky.... there are scientific arguments for... it hard for me to have a social life.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then)... me to stay out later than 11... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.. A security password . access to confidential files.. allow.... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete.. indicated by a finger symbol.. I hope that doing the course . Prepare to explain them to your partner.. me to get a better job. Keyword The word. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse..it is a well-founded supposition that. there are grounds for believing that..... Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can..... 2.00.. me leave early every Friday afternoon. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made.. it is reasonable to think that. Being a single parent .

GTG. contract and condense. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). It has an estimated 75 million users. a new idiom has been born. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. Plenty of adults talk the talk. concentration and agile fingers. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. There's neither time nor space for exposition. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). Across the world.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. every night. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. It takes wit. Well. or type the type. FWIW (for what is worth). It's brief: three or four words per exchange. sex and location. If something cracks you up. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. The solution is to abbreviate. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. PBAB (please bring a bottle). say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). C-U-L8R 34 . America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. all day at work.

which sounds very strange indeed. Computer Studies. Science. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. Stonebridge. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". Spanish. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Geography. degrees and other qualifications.w.II. English.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. For the purpose of this task. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.cair@btinternet. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. e. EH21 3TZ email p.g. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . then write your own CV in the same way.

database design . Novasystems 36 .Office 97.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.1st line customer telephone support . Personnel Officer.5 . L. Leith.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .network administration and implementation .advising clients on IT issues and strategies . Thin.Exchange Server 5..Sage line 50 & 100 . 2000 . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y. IT Department.Windows 95 / 98 .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .TCP / IP Networking .

should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . Use the person's name if you know it . B. Type your letter 6. how to end it. Make the information you give relevant to the job. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. the name and address of the addressee. Keep your letter short and to the point 3.B. Give all the information you are asked for 8. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . Check your spelling and punctuation 9. State what job you are applying for 4. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.state where you saw the job advertised .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic ."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Reference number if there is one.name and address of firm.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .should you feel I could be of use to your firm . so read the advertisement carefully first 5.am available to start as from June 15 . and firm.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . You may find some of the following expressions useful: . 37 . the signatory's full name (typed).state you qualifications in brief . State when you are available for the interview 10. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). how to begin a letter. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. and where to put the handwritten signature.1.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . Write clearly 2.am currently studying for . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.

I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. teachers and administrative staff. as well as students. for example. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Alan Bannister 38 . as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. Yours sincerely. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. through the British Council. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. team leadership and team membership. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. In Malaysia I arranged. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. study tours for project personnel. Over the past year.

don't rush.Do sit still. . Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. 5. walk to the door. .C. 39 . what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. interests and hobbies. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. . Thank your interviewer. 2. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. experience.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. . Describe your most recent accomplishments.Don't smoke. . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. You are likely to be found in the end. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. so much the better. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. Dress in a business-like way. money or job satisfaction? 12. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. set out early. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. Which is more important to you. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview .Do make a graceful exit. .Do arrive in plenty of time. .Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. . . In the past year.

. Could you email me details? 40 .. I was wondering if .not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to . if you intend your comments to be humorous) . the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.S.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. or in sentences that are too long ... Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .... Yours sincerely.. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project...... How are you? I bet you are .not answering all the points raised by the sender . Dear James... One letter is formal.sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.. Monica Ciampi P. I would be extremely .. What do you use email for? 4. which I hope you will find interesting.not making clear who you are and why you are writing .. my recent paper. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.. How often do you use email? 2.not telling the reader what you expect them to do. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am ....Read these emails. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . I ..writing too much. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.. future. Dear Sir. you in the . if you might be able to help me. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.. Please find . . how has it changed your working life? 3. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . working on Lingo..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.... B..D....not bothering to correct spelling mistakes ... the other informal..... Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . or may not be able to open .writing everything in UPPER CASE . If you use email at work.

from c. attached b. and thank you for your help. a. a. couple b.. a.In a .. affair 6... as well c. love c. supper d... meal c.. Best wishes. Hope to hear from you .. a. missing c. and 13. wasting d. ask 2. with d. thus d.. wonder d. then c. a. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . I look forward to hearing news from d. annexed 9. bracket 12. happy c. too d. I look forward to news from b.. together. wishes 41 . match c. near b. business b. close 8. a. Monica P. Send my ... topic d. a. by 11. for b. a. beforehand b.. enclosed c. additionally 4.. matter c. a. a. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. currently b. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . a. dinner 14.. a. next c. losing b.. of weeks I'll be in England. glad 5. I look forward to hearing from c.. a. a. before 15. grateful b. also b.S. pair d. drink b. to Peter 1. pleases d topic d. demand b. included d. actually 3. so b... early c.. lacking 10. concerns b. request c. respect d. now c.. soon d... presently d. a.

.. recommend. describe. ... accuracy.. before .. What makes a presentation effective? 4..... that although turnover has risen... intonation.. subject knowledge..... Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. you will notice. then.. options. bring you up to date.... move on.. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. illustrate.... ... Overall – clarity of message... fluency. handling Delivery – pace. .. humor Organization – coherence. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. in conclusion. I'll . clarity.... confidence..... what . to Italy and Spain.. you all for being here. pointed out "Good afternoon... I think our first . on those successes before we .... variety.. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts.. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. ..... PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. audibility. pronunciation.. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Let me quickly . Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent... achievement of objectives. interrupt.. concluding.. draw your attention. .. priority. I'm ... There is no benefit in using difficult language. me if you have questions at any time.. more . to . our profits have not increased at the same rate..... referring. of course. with our plans for Europe. clarity. 42 . tell you. Please feel free to ... Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next.. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. enthusiasm. enjoyable.... body language Language – clarity... expand. My .. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. today is to ..Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. indicate.. on balance...are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. I've .... relevance. appropriacy.. and. with some recommendations. thank. motivating Exercise . I'd like to . to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years.. everybody.. sum up.. some of the problems we are having over the market share... finally. Well. to start with..E... some of the problems we are facing. I'll .. interesting.. about our current position in the UK and I've . talked. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. specifically.... . outline.. I'll quickly . Now I'd like to .. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. I'd like to . purpose.... informative. What is a presentation? 2.. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. rapport / eye contact. ...

. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. . Are there any final questions?" 43 .. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far..... Spain and possibly Greece. Thank you also for your pertinent questions....We should not forget the French market. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . though... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy. ....

44 . However. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. There are several criteria for your choice: . you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. but is probably the most important. and be available to assist you.you can choose your own title . dissertations need to say a lot about a little.is the topic academic enough? . DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. but it can also be very daunting. In part-time degrees. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic.F. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . Like an essay. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. but there are a number of differences: . Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. try it out with your supervisor. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be.is the topic broad enough / too broad? .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. which you research by yourself.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). A member of staff will supervise progress. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. called a dissertation or long essay. since you have more space. This means you have a whole year to write it. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic.

Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. since you have more to say. This will be your title. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. It is longer. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. since you may need a few by your side.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. Introduction – 1. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. 000 words. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. ask yourself: . as you are reading through the material you have gathered. the first thing to do. 000 words Conclusion – 1. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Dissertations are usually 10. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 .

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.

46

III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

49 . He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing.1. It's really cold. but you can never tell. 4. 5. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3.

... 2....................... After ............. local pool and saw Bob McGraw...... 3........... River Thames....... Grammar 1... First I went to .......... years. Look at those clouds.. ......................Test B A. 50 ....... ......... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions............ Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.. In each case choose the most likely alternative................. ...... professional musician and plays with ................... He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known........................... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit.. the................................ I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday........ Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations.................... Right........... ... 7............. I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning...................... .......... lovely morning........... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras....................................... .. 7..... 1............. 8............................................ I've done that for you........... 9............. They wondered how we had managed to do it........... bank to withdraw some cash..... 2........................ I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon....... ....... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting.......... 6..... 4................ I had ...... He's .. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.................... 4... 5.... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup... lunch with Bob.. Articles Complete this text with a / an... 3.................... 1............ I booked it last week..... I went for ............ If you're too hot in here.............. long walk by ......................... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid............... 3... or no article......... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything. and she said that she hadn't had a chance........... 5................................. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions.............. .................................................... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics................................................... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year.......... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation........... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details............. old school friend who I hadn't seen for ............... Then I went swimming at .............................. 6..........

. It sounds useful................. is that Paula......................... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering. let me give you an example.. yes....... then...00 a...................... C Hello.............. I'm not really with you. P Yes................ fine............... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest. AK Hello..00... you're talking about........ ..........8........ ......................... EJ .................................... ? C ......... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert. EJ . which is why I thought ... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily. and we told him that we could do it next week..................... Goodbye. AK Exactly. ...........00 ........................ Wednesday at 9......... a................... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment. EJ ......... and they said they would get it to him by 10....... 51 ............... AK Yes....... is that right? AK Yes........................................................................... 2................. So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.............. OK.............................. C Paula.... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e...................... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software.............................. d........... ................ AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.......... So...... 10.................................... EJ Oh............... c............... can I just interrupt you a second? b... e........ EJ ... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland........ I'm busy on Thursday.... AK ................. P OK.............. without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary................... 9.................. B............ Would Thursday morning at 10....... Good idea... Functions 1...................... I've got you.. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase....... at the latest....... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski.. ..... something for people who need English translations of words... .. hello.... Sorry..............00 ? P .m................ right... As we were leaving.. OK....

...... I'm allergic .... my family when I was abroad on business for four months.. I can't eat seafood.......... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a ...... Please listen ..... He is lacking ... miss. me. Thank you for taking part .. 1... my new job.... no! I seem to have .... opportunity! 5........ 4. me. Don't worry.. lose. I've never .. The meeting coincided . the inconvenience caused...... Oh....... I really ..... 8..... the beer festival. because of inefficiency............ I am not accustomed .............. 2........ the UK market for the time being........... my money....... You can depend ...... Vocabulary 1..... an important meeting in my life...... lose..... 7. or waste...... 2...... 52 ... 3.... sensitivity. 10. ... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.... I had three jobs to choose .......... it. A lot of company's resources are .C...... the discussion today... 2... Do you take credit cards? 4.. 6. We need to concentrate ...... 5. 9.. 3. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss. 1. He apologized .........

He gave us a lot of information about his company. is on the fifth floor.. using where.. What's the name of the woman . This is the room .. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun)... . The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.. You can download software from many websites. 2. 1. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. you used to work? was also the year I got married. e.. 5. has just joined the company? b. d... 4. I like playing sport. Complete the sentences. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . 2... 3.. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here.. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B... A. which. a.Test C A.. is comfortable and spacious. My company does much business in Asia. Then complete them. that. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices...... 53 .. so please hurry up.. some of B. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 6... There's not much news to tell you.. I'm living in at the moment. Grammar 1. 2. the majority of . she later married... I give / will give you a bonus.. who.... There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1... Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake. 3. 2. 3... Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. The reception area. 9. work opposite us are not very friendly. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. we hold meetings in. 10. then correct the mistakes. he bought shares in the company... I'm doing many work at the moment... 7...... but I don't spend a lot on equipments.. or whom. have become good friends.. 1. In some cases more than one answer may be possible... is free.. You need to invest in some more machinery.... Nothing happened yesterday... c.. anticipating an increase in value.... If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday......

... e... He's always letting his colleagues .... fraud still occurs. 2.......... (be excited by) 4........ . .................. So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem.......... .......... To give you an example c........... for example 2.......... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ............... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online. .. while d..... He really gets ........................... however f..... 1.... Functions 1.. because c............. (compensate for) 6... I had a day off work last week to make ......... I mean b... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ..... g......... . ........ and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning.... so h................... due to the fact that 7. working at the weekend........ like e... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things....... Let me explain what I mean....g.... Vocabulary 1. such as 5..... what you're saying................. due to b............ I can only just make ..... He's not a very good team player....... a...... because of a.. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e.... (make depressed) 5.... whereas 6...... as 3.. (understand) 54 .............. on abusing the little power he has..................... can we trust these servers to be secure? .. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server........... 1.B... (disappoint) 2.................... The point is d.... e..... It's such a bad line....... ...... thus C..... as a result of 8. on the other hand 4.... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets........ can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'.. Explaining consequences.. (indicate awareness of something) 3.... is the answer to that. By secure.... trends.......... .... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.

. She called in sick so that she could get .............. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London....... the meeting..............7. It's good news. She's very good at getting her ideas ...... (communicate) 9.......... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics..... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview...... 55 ........ last year when we broke into the German market.. ? (invent) 10... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.. (became very successful) 8..... (avoid) 2....... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .... The company really took .................

............... be wrong........ I asked Miranda to write the report for me.. If someone .... (you open) the door immediately? 56 .. .. 2.. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6............................................ no! I ............................................................................. We invite successful applicants to a second interview.. ......................................................... 9..... (be) on fire? b.......... Grammar 1...................................... have left my keys in the restaurant................. Oh... Conditionals 1............................................................................................... His colleague's death ....................................................... 2............. He . We're locked out! 4................................................. (knock) on your door at home .......... .................. 8............................................ ..... 7.... 10........ Companies usually provide managers with language training................................ The store manager had only just moved to the branch..... What three things ................................... 3.. 1.................. but I'm not sure yet....... ........ be a big shock......................................... 3... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion.... but I .............................................................................................. 1...... The optician tested my eyes yesterday.... 5.............................. Somebody stole my laptop computer.............................. According to Peter................. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning. Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb........... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ..............Test D A............. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive........... 7... 6....................... 5. ......... company profits ....... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form............ ................................ 2..................................................................................... (you save) if your house .. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors................ a. have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months...... be staying at the conference venue............. The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.................................. well top $150 million this year....................... ................. have kept some of it for herself....... 8............................................ ......... He was only 42 years old......... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities.......... Use have / get something done where appropriate........... 4......................... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage........................ 3................ .... When I go to Barcelona I ................................ I think we ..

. To ensure other people get to speak 4.. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview............... (be) you.... but I don't think they'd believe me.... one candidate is chosen........ ultimately c. A: If I ...c............ (you choose) ? d...... (see) a UFO... . c. (be) good this weekend what ......................... (go) to the police. Would you like to come in here.... What ......... Then b.. To keep to the point 3.. To ask for clarification 5.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense...... Functions 1. A: Careful! If ............... I . 1. If the weather ... B: Yes.. However................. Ella? 57 ... (you park) your car there they ........ B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said...... A: If you ....... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description......... (you do) ? e......... firstly e.............. Can I finish what I was saying? d. (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2.. I know..... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs..... a...... (you work) if you . If you . (give) you a ticket. (you study) ? f.. b..... .... B: Thanks for warning me..... d.. a.................... A: If I .... B......... whose life ........... eventually d..... .. basically what you're saying is............ Can we just stick to this for a minute? e..... (not get) a job with your current company? h...... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion..... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed....... (you change) ? g. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's.. Could you be more specific? b. (go) to the police......... If you .... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong.... If you .... (not study) your subject at school / university......... To summarize a.... To manage interruptions 2. 2.. c. So. The interviews take place and ......... (be) you..... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards... I . (happen) if ......... Where .... .... after lengthy discussion. what ...... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. using the words a-e.... what ..........

.... connect 5.. 4..... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.. 2... credible 4........... replaceable 3.. 3............. .. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs....... rely .... 1... ......... .... legible 58 .......... 5... humor ..... Vocabulary 1... understand ... criticize ......... create ... 1........... ......C.......... . 2..... interested 2.

. A: Great... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here..... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.....00 p..... a.. 59 ....m. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics. I've got two tickets! B. (think) of you.......... I'm sure.. 7. thank you.. and obligation 1.. .... Must I really go to the meeting? f. B: .. (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life..... 2. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow. Thank you. but .. Do you know what ....... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes....Test E A.. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.... tomorrow? We ... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase........? 3....... e..... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b.. Do you think there ..... 5.. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.... requests... 8..... b. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form. Call me sometime over the weekend. Future Continuous.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney......... d. necessity. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c. By 2050 people .......................... I ... I .. I ... Good luck with your exam tomorrow. otherwise I may / must / can forget it... (finish) their meeting by 7........... if you'd like me to show you around Prague... Will they .. In three months' time I ... 6. I'd like that....... By the time I retire I hope I .... Grammar 1. Future Perfect.. c. .m..... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa.... 1... Permission..... so don't forget to take waterproofs..... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.............. Look........... I'm sorry... (live) in space... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. Functions 1.. Match each question with an appropriate category.......... (do) at 8... it's no problem....00 p.................. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a.. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. possibility....... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May.. Invitations..... 2... 4.... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary.. (work) from home...................

.. . Late payment often .......... bring about b.. C... lead to... A: Well.. 5... carry.. Can I help you .... thank you for that lovely dinner once again.. make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do.... B: .... cash-flow problems for small businesses............... 1...... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year........ Well...... 3........ B: Yes.......... in your English test? B: Oh.. and take Complete the sentences with bring....... A: Have you . warm clothes.... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.. great..... Remember to .......... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No. hope to see you again sometime 1........ I can't.................. carry..... you're welcome e.............. your bags? They look very heavy! 2... that . I have to ... B: ... A: Oh.. get........ employ (someone) 60 .. ..... A: So........... begin (a hobby) 2.............. Mark........ cause 4...... I'm starting a new job next week................ Yes.. not too bad............... best of luck b.... A: How did you .. take on a... or take.... 2. I'm glad you enjoyed it c..... 1........ with everything... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and .... .......... A: I've had a lovely evening........ Thanks for coming.. B: Thanks.... carry off c........ I hear this is your last day at work here.............. Concluding. 2..... B: You too.. A: . a.. get..... too many mistakes............ some research for my thesis...... I don't think I ..... succeed 3.. lead to. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock.... her? 3........ keep in touch d... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e... bring............ 2............. thanking... did you ....... Vocabulary 1... take up d...........A: .... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning...

Tests . sounds like 4. stubborn 5. for a week 5.Answer key Test A A1 1. arrived / had left 7. c – 7 4. e – 1 6. to entertain 3. had read / started 5. meticulous 4. f – 6 7. have eaten 10. 3. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. going 1. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1.. outgoing 3.. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. have you been doing 6. going 4. . watch 3. woke up 1. saying 2. recently 3. 5.. all my life 4... professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. a – 5 2. competent 2.. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. had been having 4.. have never seen 8. hasn't stopped 1. 1. . seems 5. at the moment 2. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. . a . was living 2. have been having 9. to turn off 5. used to have a Porsche. look like 2. had been sitting 6. b – 2 3. . 4. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today.. d – 4 5. 2.. always plays 7. was traveling / witnessed 3.. . g – 3 1.

OK. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. an 5. wasted 2. for 2. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. 'Did you see anything?' 2. Ø 6. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. the 4. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. I was wondering whether 2. I'll just check / I'll call 5. to 9. Ø 9. I'll turn on 6. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. that / which / Ø d. I'm afraid 4. you're talking about . a. which e. missed 3. to 10. I'm playing 4. which 2. 4. a 7. who / that b. will win 9. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. Sorry. I haven't had a chance.' 7. to 6.. I've got you. with 4. in 3.' 6.2. a 10. we can do it next week. How about / What about 5. in 5. a. missed C2 1. lost 4. is going to rain 7. That would be / Yes. I'm not really with you. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. I'm going to 3. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. the 3. from 7. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. OK. So. at the latest.. who / whom c.00 a.m. I'm going to spend 8. let me give you an example. 62 . the 8. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. on 8. that's / That suits me 1.' 9. wasted 5. 5.' conditions. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. 2. 3. the 1. Are you doing A3 2. B1 1.

some of whom have become good friends. sharply 4. C 9. across 9. I – quite a few 5. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. by / will give 3. rise 6. down 2. risen 3. down 5. 63 . off 4. on 3. I've met a lot of people through work. I – a lot of 3. out 7. Let me explain what I mean 2. I – a lot of 7. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. I – a lot of good advice 1. I – information 2. C 4. which was also the year I got married. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. We started the company in 1999. off 8.b. C 8. e. d. until / are 1. To give you an example 3. I mean 5. I – equipment 10. arisen 2. A2 1. The point is 4. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. up for 1. as soon as 2. raise 6. substantial 5. I – plenty of 6. up 10. By secure.

park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. should / must 6. happens. basically what you're saying is . must 4. 1. a. would you save / was b. incredible 4. would you work / hadn't got h. knocked / would you c. Applications are passed on to universities. were / would you change g. 4. 6. My laptop has been stolen. Miranda was asked to write the report. / I've had my laptop stolen.. creative 4. So. understandable 64 C2 1. can't / couldn't 5. 3. / Managers are provided with language training. had been / would have gone b. humorous 3.. saw / would you do d. Can you be more specific? 5. would happen / arrive. John? 4. might / may / could 3. 9. a. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. I was in the middle of saying something. uninterested 2. 5. My eyes were tested yesterday. was you / would go c. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. irreplaceable 3. arrived 2. 10.2. must 7. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . could / might / may 1. 2. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. Language training is provided for managers. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. is / will you do e. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. could / may / might 8. A2 1. 8. could / would you choose d. 7. Candidates are recommended for promotion. reliable 2. should 2. Would you like to say something about this. Excuse me.

made 3. bring 4. will be 9. Shall we say 5. carry 2. Hope to see you again some time 3. we will be doing / will be taking 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. 1. That's very kind of you 3. illegible A2 1. would be fine / suits me fine 1. will have been working 4. must 2. have finished 3. can 4. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. critical Test E A1 1. best of luck 2. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . take 5.5. I was wondering 2. You're welcome 5. do 2. will have earned 8. will be working 5. will be thinking 2. lead to 1. can't 3. Keep in touch 4. made 4. Shall 4. can't 5. get 3. will speak 7. will be living 6.

Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. 2. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. She's working here until Christmas. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. He knows a lot about music. 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. She works here until Christmas. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. I'm going to the cinema every day. 2. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. 66 . describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. He's knowing a lot about music. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play.IV.

1. You haven't lived abroad. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (He still works there now. and present continuous Look at these sentences. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. I want to go out for dinner. (I've got a new car now. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. To make regular past participles. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. 2. Vegetarians don't eat meat. 4. I have.) I've bought a new car. 3. 6.3.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. 5.) I've been to Brazil three times. (I still live here now. (She isn't here now. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. Some are right and some are wrong. He's seeming very tired.) I've lived here for three years.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. 67 . Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. (Until now I've been there three times. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. we add –ed to the infinitive. present simple. He seems very tired.) Present perfect.

He's never here at 9.3. The film was much better than I expected. Russia is bigger than Canada. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. We often go to the park. I work here since October. I'm working here since October. as . 68 .. can be used to make comparisons. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. The train is always on time... * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. as . How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than.. normally. Sometimes.00. but they usually go before the main verb. 5. in front of the main verb. Her house is as big as mine. I don't usually get up late.

85m 1. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. . 2. as . The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. The film was better that the book. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.92m Alex's brothers 1. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. 4. he was. Alex 1. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. We weren't here yesterday.. He's as tall as his brother. 6. In the negative so . The film was better than the book. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday.. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. 1. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week.83m 1. is also possible.. 3. My exam results were worse than Andy's. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. He's so tall as his brother. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995.. Short answers Yes.

'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. (I still live here. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. (But I don't live there now. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. We went to the cinema twice last week. not the present perfect. I went there four years ago. We didn't use to live in London.g. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. For individual past actions. not the effect.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. I've lived here for five years. or past actions which were not habits. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. She's gone home. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. (We're interested in when the action took place. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. She used to be a teacher. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. She wasn't going to work. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. I did. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. you must use the past simple tense.) Before that I lived in Madrid. only the past simple can be used. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. but he gave up five years ago. (She isn't here now. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. I've been there four years ago. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 .' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. It has no present form. last week).) She went at four o'clock. He used to smoke. two days ago. in 1993. he was. 7. I went out this morning.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.

72

The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!

2.

3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

It probably won't rain today. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. She's probably coming this weekend. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. It could rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things.) She'd be a good politician. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. I saw the man. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It's likely to rain today. It might (not) rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign.) make polite offers. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. We use who with people. If I had the money. He's the man who lives next door. I'd buy a house. 74 least likely most likely . It's unlikely to rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. It may (not) rain today. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It'll probably rain today. (But she works in a bank. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. (But I haven't got the money. or imaginary situations. Use Would has many uses. impossible. I would. They wouldn't steal from a friend. which with things.

Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. which. You're Italian. He's the man who/that lives next door. This chair's French. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. 12. He lives next door. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. didn't she? You like fish. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary.He's the man that lives next door. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. They aren't coming to the party. It isn't very warm. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. Look at these sentences. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. did not you? She can speak Russian. or that. will she? It doesn't matter... can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. You knew about this yesterday. don't they? 75 . In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. can't she? NOT .. He's the man. He's the man. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. She arrived yesterday. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. She married him. He's the man (who/that) she married. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. didn't you? NOT . You can swim.. does it? You've finished. haven't you? It was raining.

) and is followed by a question mark (?). We can use the passive in any tense.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. The crime will be solved. This wine is produced in Portugal. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). To make the negative of the passive. Someone has been arrested. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. we use the negative of the verb to be. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. She must be told. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. 76 . We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. The weapon hasn't been found. 13. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. It is less direct than an ordinary question. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. These houses were built in the 1930s. The man wasn't sent to prison. Cars shouldn't be parked there. we don't know the agent. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. The car has been found. Thousands of cars are stolen. Fewer crimes would be committed. These computers are made in Japan. It can't be done.

The suspect was identified by a witness. we use by. If it rains. NOT If it will rain. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. you'll miss the appointment. we'd travel business class. 14. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job..If we want to show the agent. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. If I get the job I'll earn more money.) We won't go if it rains. but not when tha main clause is first. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. The car has been found by some children. If we had more money. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause... unlikely. I'd buy that house. If I had enough money . NOT If I would have enough money . (There is a real chance that it will rain. If I had enough money. but not when the main clause is first.) 15. or imaginary situations. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is.) when the if clause is first. we'll go to the cinema. we'll go to the cinema. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. We usually use a comma (. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. she'll feel terrible.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. (I don't think I'll get the job.. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. If she eats all the ice cream. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. We usually use a comma (.) 77 . If you get up late.) when the if clause is first. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much.

(transitive) The plane took off. She takes after her mother.16. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle... e. until Phil will get back. NOT . before we would go to the cinema. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs.. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. He saw the mouse and ran out. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. I'll phone you when she arrives. Oil will run out in the next century. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning.g. and after. up. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. look something up 78 . the verb is separable. 17. NOT . She switched it on. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. when she will arrive. until. away. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. She switched on the TV. NOT . We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). as soon as. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle.. He took off his jacket.. or She switched the TV on. in. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. NOT She switched on it. Time clauses As in clauses with if.. on. He heard a helicopter and looked up. before.

(permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. I've been writing a letter. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. You're late. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. or about past actions which have present results. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. I've lived here for ten years. he has. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. 18. is not normally used with stative verbs. (I haven't finished it yet.I looked up the word in the dictionary. I've been playing a lot of football this week. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete.' emphasize the duration of an activity. like other continuous forms. the verb is inseparable. I've been waiting for an hour. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity.) focus on the process of an activity. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. 79 .

questions. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. Did you see her? In Wh. imagine. or an auxiliary verb. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. wonder. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb.19. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. They live here. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. Do they live here? You saw her.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. question word(s) subject verb 80 . we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. ask. Compare these questions. know. Can she swim? They've arrived. remember. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. a modal verb. see. using do/does in the present or did in the past.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. have no idea. so we must provide one. decide.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20.

football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. What kind of software? Software for computers. 've got. Note: However. 4. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. 81 . A shop that sells records is a record shop. a computer software shop This is a shop. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer.. I've decided how much money do I need.? Could you tell me where the post office is. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me .. is. I've decided how much money I need.. we say clothes shop and sports shop.. 3. arrives. football boots These are boots. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. With Wh. 2. 1. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. I wonder why did he do that? 21.? or Do you think you could tell me . In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. The headword always goes at the end. left. I don't know if he's coming.

a teacup. before. -ing form or infinitive A. I got dressed. 23. or are hyphenated. Unfortunately there are no rules.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. I had the idea while I was driving home. a bathroom a coffee cup. and while to replace a clause. stomach ache 22. notice. I read a fascinating book the other week. smell. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. She's playing tennis. Compare these sentences. I could smell burning. This is a really boring film. After I'd had a shower. to describe what someone can sense (with see. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). I've been working since 7. 82 . object I don't enjoy cooking. He was driving at 120mph. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. feel. with after.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. when the subject of both clauses is the same. (Empty packets. I got dressed. I can hear someone coming.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. Others are written as two words. After having a shower.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. a tennis racket a living-room. I had the idea while driving home. hear. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away.00. There were two people waiting for you. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. (Empty bottles. etc. (New packets. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. watch. There's someone coming. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening.). We saw them leaving the house. as adjectives.

Some of the most common are finish. I enjoy doing the gardening. I began to realize how he felt. feel like. forget I remember meeting her. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. but it didn't work. hate. enjoy. but I couldn't. then he stopped in order to smoke.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night.) I tried speaking to her about it. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. but she wasn't there. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. (he was doing something.) C. continue It's just started raining. start.) He stopped to have a cigarette. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. (British) I like to lie in bed late. but I didn't. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. (I had to meet her and I did. give up. She's considering emigrating to Australia. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. but she still wouldn't listen. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. suggest. love. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (I spoke to her. I'm beginning to learn the piano. (I was supposed to dance with him. consider. It's just started to rain. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. I'd like to live abroad. In British English.) try I tried to speak to her about it. I like lying in bed late. (I wanted to speak to her. 1. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. imagine.) I forgot to dance with him at the party.) I remembered to meet her. remember. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. and can't stand. (I had met her before and I remembered it.) stop He has stopped smoking. Smoking is bad for your health. begin. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. 83 . B.like. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.

A I really love pizza. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. I could. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. B Me. B Oh. need. should. A I've never been to Ireland. 5. I'd love going to New Zealand. B Oh. B Me.) I + positive auxiliary verb. 24. I began to understand the problem. I begun understanding the problem. I made a phone call. neither to agree with a negative statement. I must remember to post this letter. Before to leave the office. I must remember posting this letter. neither. I made a phone call. too. 25. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. There's someone that comes up the stairs. would.) I + negative auxiliary verb. I'd love to go to New Zealand. could. might. may. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. Stop making so much noise. must. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. too to agree with a positive statement.2. 7. Stop to make so much noise. ought to. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. B Nor/Neither have I. shall. 3. 84 . I would. 6. There's someone coming up the stairs. will. and Me. A I couldn't read until I was seven. Before leaving the office. 4. To smoke is bad for your health. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. B So do I.

Past: He could speak French when he was four. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. would: I'd be able to find a new job. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. Modal verbs have no tense forms. You shouldn't do that. I couldn't believe what he told me. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. 3. or You don't need to come.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). He mights come later. 85 . (or I could find a new job. They might not come to the party. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. possibility. will: I'll be able to find a new job. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. 4. For example. They have no infinitive or participle form. He might come later. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. we can use could to talk about ability. Present: He can speak four languages. 1. 2. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. You don't should leave your car there. You might go to London. I can swim. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. and permission. She should see a doctor. I must to remember to post this letter. They ought to be more careful. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings.) I must remember to post this letter. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.

) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. (It is a general obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. a driving instructor. Note: Must has no tense forms. (It is and 'outside' obligation. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. which comes from 'outside' the speaker.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. The firemen were able to save everyone. I could drive when I was sixteen.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. but it is also used to describe strong obligation./You don't need to wear a suit. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. You shouldn't work so hard. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. The firemen could save everyone. 86 . You ought not to carry so much cash. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. (I want to. Have to is also used. from my doctor. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. The firemen managed to save everyone. will: I'll have to find a new job. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Passengers must show their boarding cards. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. though could is more common. would: I'd have to find a new job. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses.30. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. You don't have to come if you don't want to. You need to be at the station by 8. we use was/were able to or managed to. I must start taking more exercise. was/were able to. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something.Could. I have to work on Saturday this week. it is 'my' obligation. Have to is used to describe general obligation. Past: I had to find a new job. You needn't wear a suit. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. The party's informal.

Compare these sentences. 4. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. 2. This means that I painted the room myself. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. 5. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. Some are right and some are wrong. Permission Can. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. 3. Could is more polite than can. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog.Probability May. I had my hair cut. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. with we and I. 1. might. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. and may is the most polite and formal. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. 26. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I painted my room. 87 . I will can go swimming every day next week. and may are used to ask for permission. She might not be here tomorrow. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. She could not be here tomorrow. could. I had my room painted. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. I had the car fixed.

The car's really dirty. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Direct speech: I like cooking. The judge made the man apologize.27. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. 29. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. I got the garage to service my car. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. It needs to be cleaned. and modal verbs do not change. Need + -ing is more informal. because a different person is now speaking. The car's really dirty. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. It needs cleaning. 88 .g. said or told). would. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. David's father lets him use the car. 28. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to.

They told (us) a story. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Monica: I might phone you later. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Luke: I'll be away till March. Andrea said (that) she was going out. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. say and tell We say something. The word order changes to a statement word order. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. the reported question starts with whether or if. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Zoran: I had never been there before. 30. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. NOT Andrea said me . 31. Helen: I'd like a coffee. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. we make the following changes. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Tom: I don't want to stay here. She told (them) jokes all night.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Tom said that he doesn't want to go.... NOT Andrea told (that) . Andrea: I'm going out. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question.. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Zoe said that they saw a great film. We tell somebody something. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. With Yes/No questions. 89 . When we report questions. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. and verbs have a statement form. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object.

I'd lend you some money if I had any. The instructor told me that I don't do that. and I didn't pass the exam. but other verbs can also be used. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. 1.) when if clause is first. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. She asked me where I lived. If I had told the truth. 90 . If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. and command. warn. 'Don't worry. 3.32.' The doctor asked me to sit down. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. 33. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. If you hadn't studied so hard. such as advise. beg. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 2. We usually use a comma (. 3.' He told me not to worry. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. order. she wouldn't have left. an imaginary situation in the past. 4. persuade.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. They told me that the exam was very hard. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. 'Please sit down. (I didn't work hard. and you crashed.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. 2. The instructor told me not to do that. 1. (You were driving too fast. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. They said me that the exam was very hard. you would have failed. Some are right and some are wrong. but not when the main clause is first. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. Reported speech Look at these sentences.

(I regret leaving at ten o'clock. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.) They should have bought the house. 34. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision.) 91 .4.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. 92 . Engleza pentru informatica. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. International Express. Engleza pentru internet. 2001. Gabriel. Writing for the Internet. Chris Mitton. Steve & Peter Fox. 5. Life Lines. 2001. Eric H.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Kennewell. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. 2001. Glendinning. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. 1992. Oxford University Press. 4. All Stars. 3. Tom. 8. Dorner. Wallwork. Ian Selwood. Hutchinson. Brooks. Computer Studies Through Applications. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 6. Jane. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. 2002. 2. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. 7. Otman.Oxford. Oxford English for Information Technology. & John McGwan. 1998. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. Driscoll. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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