CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

Geographically..... cards.. and the process is now being reversed. Work in groups. and aviation... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives... 4 . Prepositions too are flexible... sport. Compare your lists..... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement... Purists of the French. learning grammar .. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.. but remember that different people learn in different ways.. or drinks. It is the language of business........ How do you learn languages? ...... technology.....What advantages does the adult have? 2.. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. 4.... English is the most widespread language on Earth.. reading .. Read books and newspapers.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary...to be cleaned and dried. speaking and not being corrected all the time .. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. writing .. Work alone.. learning vocabulary . 1 being the most important...What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ... Speaking 1........ Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. speaking and being corrected .... listening . we can talk about a round of golf.... Justify your order... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance. pronunciation practice 3.. .....What advantages does the baby have? . second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. This will no doubt continue.

A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. they sent each other games. Other networks joined in. the way they got there was unimportant.. for it was they.. and the Internet. 37. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. uninvited but still welcome.).I. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. swapped them (via the net. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. There will be no "command center". In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. Instead. they opened newsgroups. invented e-mail. Crude as they were. as it came to be called. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. in fact. it worked. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. no single computer that controls the rest of them. by 1972. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. they used it to swap gossip. Because of the way the messaging system worked. They had. But they weren't interested in science or academia. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. 4. But then an odd thing started to happen. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. 3. Instead of using the network strictly for business. then news and eventually gossip. still the most popular use of the Net by far. 1. just kept on growing. 2. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. each machine will have equal status. They started mailing lists. Amazingly. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. to use the techy term. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. 5 . These packets could be sent independently over the network.

a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. a person who tries to discover something E. however. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. network. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. desktop computer 2. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. mainframe 5. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. cheaper and more reliable. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . a series of bits being a part of message B. a set of related computers C. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. notebook 3. supercomputer 4.2. Here are five types of computers. Computer sizes. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. mailbox. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). researcher A. along with IBM. but transistors soon (replace) them. Apple. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Since then the computers (become) smaller. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. packet. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Over the last few years. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. but the market (saturate) to some extent.

use a bulletin board. and as with mail order programs. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. all of which express personal opinions: 1. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. There's a revolution happening in education. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. visit the school's We site. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". Use the elements to make complete sentences. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. Using modern technology. Personally. Within a few months. online environment. Australia. videotape of professor's lectures. founder and president of University Online. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. For example. Europe. and connect to a server that presents information. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. It's called distance learning. Students can log onto the Internet. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". the Net will be alma mater. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. rather than offering their own set of courses. says Nat Kannan. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. learn the material. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. and interactive courseware. the material would be available to students at their convenience. 1. and the Americans. click on the course they want. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. offered by mail. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book.

.g. You have to follow a course . possession magnetism. condition belonging to act of. over two years. four years . addressee audience. musician introduction... for and ago: 1. the beginning of the experiment. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality..5.... Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. to make use of a symbol for something 3.. to put a story in the form of a drama 4.. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. 6. University Online was originally tested over five years . LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. state condition.... boredom.. To my mind. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. independence employer. to arrange in an optimal way 6... we never believed it would be so successful.. to take a material form 5. operator voucher. 3. It was put on the market in 1994.. behavio(u)rism typist. scientist . When we started... 5. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. state condition. in 1992 2... 1992 and it is already known worldwide. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. withdrawal clearance... I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2.. connector childhood. to write a summary of 3. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. to give authority to 10. kingdom employee. .. to give a linear form to 8. This University has only existed . -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. a few months . to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. execution.. -or -hood -ian -ion.. so it has been tested .. to reduce to the minimum 7. several new courses have been offered. to represent in a digital form 2. 4.. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9..

transform the following words into verbs. boldness labo(u)r. initial 12. lengthen classify. quality state. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. simple 4. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. economical foolish useless porous. using the verb-forming suffixes above. soft 10. happiness. simplify customize. state condition. Now. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . robot 6. local 9. reality achievement. personal 15. government business. concentrate. tolerate shorten. standard 18. tight 5. active 3. -ical -ish -less -ous. condition. short 7. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. loose 16. computerize. broad 2. widen. -ery -ship state. stimulus 20. logical. auto 8. condition place. interruptible environmental. 1.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. behavio(u)r foundry. long 13. generally. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. analysis 11. rivalry friendship. mode 14. weak 19. slavery. furiously 4. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. electric 17. action condition of quality. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. state electricity.

my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. For someone starting out. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. you've run big projects. Get a decent book on Windows programming. Visual Basic and Delphi. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. an attention to detail. so you have to be better than them. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. They merely prove you can think. Qualifications are important. Java and Visual Basic developers. Here's the road map. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. However. as does Novell. spend more money on a training course. how it relates to other products and so on. By the age of 30. Delphi. The same goes for NetWare Certification. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. University degrees are useless. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. a week there. rolled out major solutions and are well known. 10 . and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. C++. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. technology and people. If you decide programming is really for you. its positioning on the market. more manageable pieces. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. A consultant is different. That's where the all-important experience comes in. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. And there are lots of people who know it too. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. C++. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. and so on. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. After a couple of hops like that.

... have to.. Prefixes change the meaning of the word. Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team.. 6. 2. adjective...... many of them don't have degrees in computing science. to have experience in JavaScript. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff. 1... You ... You may work for only a few days or a week for your company. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams.. Most are between 30 and 45.. Your objective is to become self-employed. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date.. They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix.. then you can forget being an IT manager.... 9.. 4.. You ..... become an expert in too narrow a field..... They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business.. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks.. 10.... 2. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. 4. an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry. 7. be in computing science.... be able to show leadership. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well. 3........ Technical qualifications . Apart from basic hardware and software expertise... employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit... It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career...... In any case. You .. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere.... If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project.. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team... suffixes change the part of speech (noun. Look at the examples: 11 ..... You . For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement... Interestingly. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience.. 2.. 6.. need to. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years. 8... 8. 5. 3. 5.... More than one answer is possible in some examples.... a stem and a suffix.. verb. You ... You .... You .. study BASIC. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs. You need to be bright. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. 1. You .... to make sensible statements. These days you ... etc.Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager.. 7.)..... have a degree but it .. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. must. 1. be able to use C++... Most of this can't be taught.

The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. bystander input. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. size. semicolon . outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. side in. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. into going away more than above too much beneath. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. external foreground. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. location.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). misfortune nonsense unreal. foresee. involve output. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. decode disagree.

that is already programmed 2. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . Now use the prefixes of degree. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. to predict 3. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. to convey data from one place to another 8. half manual 7. half automatic. location. 1. to grow larger 5. after the war 4. size.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. not up to standard 10. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. a program that is part of a larger program 6.

but try to discourage its use as much as possible. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. to find their way around. you may group the FAQ. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. and make necessary adjustments. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. include descriptive ALT text captions. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. If you are committed to using frames on your site. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. and visitors may not know how to 14 . Besides content. For example. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function.

clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. helpful graphics. accuracy. navigation. ease of use. However. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). search facility. on-line support. you can add the suffix "er". 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. Visit a website of your choice. nice design. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. without wasting space. contact information. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". password protected. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. especially those ending in "y" (see above). compatibility.use yours effectively. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. features. 15 . 1. cluttered. up to date. Take notes on any special features. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. good reactivity. colorful. For most sites. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. structure connections. well laid out. a user. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. (hot) links. Logical. a visitor. confusing.

It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer.. as". the slower the speed of execution. This computer is the cheaper of the two. For the preceding sentence. resolution was 16 . indicated by the symbols. "as . the comparative can be preceded by "the". The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . 2. 4. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. the better he feels. 2. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. 3. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. 4.. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. when buying a PC are often 5. When comparing two items. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. The less he works. The higher the resolution. when preceded by "X times". as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 1. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. The less sophisticated the software. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. the more I feel depressed. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". 3.. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. the sharper the picture.. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. John was the elder of the two boys. 2.

fast chip 4. 3. inconsistent program 10. cheap computer 3. This is the most powerful computer available today. ugly picture 9. expensive card 6. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. fuzzy image 8.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. powerful computer 2. With short adjectives. reliable device 5. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. 1. big memory device 7.

.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. 2. This piece of software . because it wastes people's time. (A whole quarter second in some cases). and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. and overzealous at that....... a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette.... cause unexpected results.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is.. make sure you spell correctly yourself. off-the-point arguments to see that. You .. may or could 1.. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. Put the words back in the right order: 1. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. The reason for this is never given... sometimes be useful when designing a program. Don't cross-post messages. A flowchart . asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.. 6.. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop.... 3.. have to. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.. unwarranted abuse and long. read the FAQ)... You .. Conversely. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2... A bug ..LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. if that happened. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. 1.. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.... In practice. rambling.. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy.... The following sentences have been scrambled. It doesn't work. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3.. This form of internal policing... when to criticize and when to stay silent. on the Net or elsewhere.. 4. Programs .. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.... When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong.. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. 18 .. be debugged before being executed. 5. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions....

sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. email.... paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat.. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. 7...... picture....... Daca as fi vrut.. (You can find the words left to right.. de exemplu.... 3... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata..... Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul....... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii.... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.... write this program in a high-level language.. They .7......... 3. 8.. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .. and computing.. 3..... 5.. top to bottom. and diagonally top to bottom).. 10.. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like.... 2. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text... Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet... to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. 9..... Cu toate acestea. 2.. 19 ... 8.. 6. also known as "favorites" .. it will take up too much space in the computer memory...... opening page of a website .. Write them next to the correct definition... Cind am incercat soft-ul. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. 4. 6. Translate the following sentences into English. graphic . photo. 4.. Ar fi putut... 7. 5. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . You .. If you do. the main. a measure of visits to a website . a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .....

. etc.... 22......... abbreviation for the Internet .. e. an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ... 12. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ... something that automatically connects you to another page .... inappropriate use of a mailing list ......g. 16... a bug which infects data on your computer ....... a way of showing emotion in an email. 21. 11.... i. 14. a location on the WWW ........ the Internet equivalent of post . a physical input / output point .... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites............. the World Wide Web ... 15........ ............9..... Uniform Resource Locator.... unsolicited mail..... 20 ........ a software package generally used to start you up for a program .. 17.. email........ 10. 13.. 19........ 18.. 20.... a search engine. :-) ...... website address .....e.

Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. had not been in trouble with the law before. Typically. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. hacking is still easy. Hackers have their own code of conduct. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. But according to those who practice. For some teenagers. better known as Robert Schifreen. has the security. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. costing companies an average of $23. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Admittedly.Choose the ending (A.000 a year to repair. The law was tightened up. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. B. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. C. MULTIPLE CHOICE . had knocked on this door. 1. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. the computer companies would have you believe. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. which is readily available.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. Robert Schifreen 21 . and so. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Today's hacker is not so lucky. 1. hacking has been criminalized. Triludan. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text.000. All the hacker needs is a modem. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer.

merely curious. C. 3. is a form of escape from the everyday world. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 6. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. D. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. This produces much smaller files. 33% of its members are hackers B. C. is popular because it is romantic. According to the NNC A. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. the survival of hackers is threatened. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. 3. Cause 1. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. You can create your own compilation. B. You can download single tracks. Then link them with an –ing clause. You can download a skin program. d. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. D. B. 5. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 2. 4. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. Effect a. D. totally unaware of what they are doing. b. deliberately destructive B. This gives an enormous storage capacity. Match each cause and effect. 5. outlaws hacking. g. 4. B. has made hacking more difficult. 7. e. c. 2. C. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. f. has eliminated all computer security. costs about 48p a time C. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. h. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. male criminals. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. MP3 players contain several devices. You can legally download some music. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 22 . Each MP3 file has a tag. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. D.A. Hacking A. 8.

6. 1. 10. 4. display. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. keyboard. 3. 2. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. mouse and hard drives only. 8. 7. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 9. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 5. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network.3.

.. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. and because there's more space.. along with the conventional 3. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. For example... ..000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line. or were vast collections of specific information. Review criteria 4...5 million predicted to ship in that year alone.. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity...... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992... 1...... Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups..... but it's not the only one. literature and art....5in. As with other areas of the computer industry. Measuring drive performance 2. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. and justify the cost of a drive. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. Mainstream applications 3.. but are spread throughout business. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.... 24 . But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. Applications are the key issue. the applications are generally better..... word processor and database – comes on one CD. According to the market researcher Dataquest. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage.. floppy drive.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. Price points .. 1. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996.. the equivalent of 300.. with a further 1..... Put them back in the appropriate place..... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.... Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology..

. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. 7.. more faster. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future... 5. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use...... however advanced. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user.... This is often confused with the average access searches.... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader..Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. TRUE OR FALSE? . while still developing rapidly.... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.. files.. 9....Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.... is still a read-only product. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.. 1.... this excuse was taken too far.. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more.... As a result of this market maturity... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. pie chart. . consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system.. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.. Backing Store . 3. 8... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware... So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM... which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information... more precise head positioning mechanism... The industry.. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players..But CD-ROM........... 1..... access time. disk 25 . A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. 4... 2. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer. 10....... drawback..... The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search... ........... CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information..... ...... 2. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase.... as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files.... 6... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.. give reasons for your choice. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time....

De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.. so-called because of its flexibility. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. on both surfaces.........drives..... 6.. Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years...... disk. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as ...... 2.. 3.. media and ..... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.... Hence files can be ..... 4. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse....." are also common. 26 ..... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle... This technology is cheap and easy to use...... THE PASSIVE .. 8.. Disk have the advantage of being serial or ... oxide-coated surface. formatted (x3).. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .... Hermetic data modules called ".. If the disk is ... direct-access.. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre..e..... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.... as opposed to a single-sided disk..... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.... read-write head. needs to be in main memory at any one time. You should write between 150 and 200 words. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta..... magnetic disks or diskettes. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb..... both internal and external... are now part and parcel of most computer systems... In this way only a small part of a .. 10... 9. magnetic tapes.. sequential access.... old-fashioned............. directory. that is extremely slow because of .. double-sided...... floppy disk. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a . Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ... but has the . The . retrieved......... erorile se pot corecta......Translate the following sentences into English: 1... Large systems often use cartridges or . Before being used.. of all the files on the disk...... 5. a track and a sector number)... it is called a ..... (i....e.. database.. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use......... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory......... i. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)..... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... where only one surface is . and . 3........ 7.. disk packs. a disk must be . storage areas are marked on the magnetic.............. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS.... Most users are more familiar with the .... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. address. though these are becoming . Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare...

Moreover. B. science. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. a basis for study for future generations. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. 27 . aristocrats were Europe's best artists. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. Within the last few years. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. C. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. C. especially in distant lands. A museum can best be defined as A. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. With the internet. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. At the time of the Renaissance A. Elizabeth Brown.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. beyond the straightforward museum visit. will replace traditional museums. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. 3. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. fashion. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. crafts. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. public museums did not exist. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. 2. and industry. For many people. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. With reference to the information in the article. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. the patron goddesses of the arts. B. virtual museums A. military. An overview of lost techniques. 1. electronically. only aristocrats could go to museums.

Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. 3. museum A. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. will organize visits to its storage spaces. masterpiece 4. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. artefact 3. collection 5. something produced by creative talent E. to admire 3. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. 4. 2. photo (taken quickly) 2. honored 5. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. vast 4. Put the following sentences into the passive form. 4. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. 2. B. C. to see. Match the words and their definitions: 1. storehouse 8. The National Museum of Art A. Museums maintain and display great works of art. C. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 1. object produced by human hands 3. to enjoy 10. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. to establish 6. work of art. article (in a magazine) 4. The Web may transform our perception of art. will show works of art that do not exist. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. best work of an artist C. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. 5.B. art work 2. country 9. 6. disadvantage 7.

Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. 3. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. or a dedicated payment client. and a bank does the accounting. both exist in the digital world as well. a bank redeems each note number only once. A person who receives (money. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. In a debit system. Payment systems based on gold. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. you gather your money up front and then spend it. The customer pays. For the purposes of this discussion. 1. In many cases. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account.. and credit cards are credit systems. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. and the amount of money represented). Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. 4. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. In a credit system. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. This might be a WWW browser. 29 . Checks. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. In a peer-to-peer system.e. currency. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). To execute a real-time transaction. 5. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. the merchant receives the payment. and the amount to be paid. A bank employee who pays out money. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. paper currency. users can act as both customers and merchants. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. for example). you spend the money first and pay the bill later. 2. The customer runs client software. Using a public key. A person who buys goods or services from you. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. the date and time of the transaction. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. With such a system. charge accounts. the name of the payer and the recipient. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. traveler's checks.

. 2...00 stating that payment was now overdue... 5.? The next day he got a bill for $0..... holder. cheques... wanted to buy some shirts. For $20 a month.. 3. The initial . to clear. the company can have access to a ... of account. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out....... for their manager...... balance.. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.... were found in the safe. whose. The customer. Digital credit. is used in electronic trade. to start. will only be charged at 12%. He alone will be authorized .... interest... a current .... agreed to honor my check..6... C . is similar to traditional credit. where.... 1.. he ignored it. ... who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday. A large number of banknotes...... we found CD-ROMs on sale.... A computer that can access a server.. to sign. 3. to open.... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. He ignored it and threw it away... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. The account will not produce any . accepts digital cash.? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. which. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake. entered the virtual shop. will be $10. name is on the check.. whom. The next month he got a bill for $0. overdraft....00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt... You will not need to use them all! account. withdrawal The Longstone company wish . However. The man. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. loan.. The bank director. receipt. 30 ... The bank will send the company a weekly ............. 8... 2. of which. .. He is the very man . 4.. were still new. bought her a typewriter instead..... some . Money used in a specific country.. safe... in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.. Stupid Computer Error A . The site...00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.. 6.. The first one has already been done for you. I met personally.... D . deposit.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. 7.000..00. To add money (to an account)... remittance. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order... statement.. ..

The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too.00.00 by return of post. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. F .E .00. G .? Finally giving in.? A week later. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. He called them and talked to them.

said Dr. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. the current issue of security will only be short. experts expect that. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. smells. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Dr. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future.. dumb terminals. futurologists forecast. was how online commerce will evolve. and. Christian Huitema. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. one can predict / foretell that. he predicted. we'll have to work on that one". Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet.. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. And as for the taste. So things have changed.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet.. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion.. he enthused. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. said.. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer.. networks. computing. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. well. exist.. dipping even further into the future. he said.. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. and the role of the providers. 32 . ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. For sheer impact. is high / low it is highly probable that . but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend.. came the issue of virtual reality. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". the future. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. "Sight. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable.. Huitema. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. that didn't keep the crowds away. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. for all intents and purposes. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. sound and feeling will arrive. satellite. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. more controversially. Lastly. "At telecom 91... And needless to say. 1. Next came. there was an inevitable blur of content. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". As he pointed out. that probability that . What should concern us.. Dr.

... 2.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. Being a single parent .. My boss is easygoing and .. 33 .. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient.. indicated by a finger symbol. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let.... it is reasonable to think that. 2. me to stay out later than 11...... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete.... 3.. Sneaky.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. me leave early every Friday afternoon. enable. The term was first coined by William Gibson. 5. 3. access to confidential files.00. there are grounds for believing that... that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse........ it hard for me to have a social life.. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. 4. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made.it is a well-founded supposition that. Reading Read the article. make.. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. me to get a better job.. allow.. When I was young my parents never .. Prepare to explain them to your partner. there are scientific arguments for.... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer........ permit 1...... Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. Keyword The word.. I hope that doing the course ... A security password .

FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. If something cracks you up. all day at work. There's neither time nor space for exposition. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. GTG. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. or type the type. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. Well. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. It takes wit. concentration and agile fingers. PBAB (please bring a bottle). Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. It has an estimated 75 million users. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. sex and location. FWIW (for what is worth).ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. Plenty of adults talk the talk. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). contract and condense. The solution is to abbreviate. C-U-L8R 34 . teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. a new idiom has been born. Across the world. every night. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). And it requires tremendous linguistic economy.

date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing .com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. For the purpose of this task. e. then write your own CV in the same way. which sounds very strange indeed.II. English. Geography.g. EH21 3TZ email p. Spanish. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent.cair@btinternet.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . Computer Studies.w. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". Stonebridge. degrees and other qualifications. Science.

database design .Office 97. Novasystems 36 .network administration and implementation . L.1st line customer telephone support .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .TCP / IP Networking .Windows 200 Server / Professional ..5 . Leith.Sage line 50 & 100 .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. IT Department. Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . Thin.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification . 2000 .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows 95 / 98 .Exchange Server 5. Personnel Officer.

The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. 37 . and firm. how to begin a letter.state where you saw the job advertised .B. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . the name and address of the addressee. Reference number if there is one. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . the signatory's full name (typed). State when you are available for the interview 10. respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.state you qualifications in brief .should you feel I could be of use to your firm .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . and where to put the handwritten signature. State what job you are applying for 4.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . so read the advertisement carefully first 5.am currently studying for . Use the person's name if you know it .1. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".name and address of firm. B. Make the information you give relevant to the job. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Check your spelling and punctuation 9.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . how to end it.am available to start as from June 15 . Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. Write clearly 2."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . Give all the information you are asked for 8.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. Type your letter 6. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details).avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done .

Over the past year. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. My contact address until the end of July is as above. Alan Bannister 38 . as well as students. teachers and administrative staff. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. team leadership and team membership. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. In Malaysia I arranged. study tours for project personnel. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. Yours sincerely. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. for example. through the British Council.

Dress in a business-like way. experience.Don't smoke. 39 . . In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. 2.Do arrive in plenty of time. Which is more important to you. don't rush. . If you think you may have trouble finding the place. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. money or job satisfaction? 12. set out early. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. . In the past year. . . How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. walk to the door. Thank your interviewer.C. . You are likely to be found in the end. so much the better. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . 5.Do sit still.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. .Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. Describe your most recent accomplishments. .Do make a graceful exit. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. interests and hobbies.Don't let your clothes be too extreme.

or in sentences that are too long .. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. if you might be able to help me...not answering all the points raised by the sender ... the other informal..not bothering to correct spelling mistakes . Yours sincerely.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. I would be extremely . Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .D. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.. What do you use email for? 4. B... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using.not telling the reader what you expect them to do.writing everything in UPPER CASE . To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.. which I hope you will find interesting. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . I ... Could you email me details? 40 . I was wondering if . working on Lingo. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . One letter is formal. If you use email at work.writing too much. my recent paper.... Please find ... ... How are you? I bet you are . Dear James..... Dear Sir. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project... if you intend your comments to be humorous) . How often do you use email? 2.. Monica Ciampi P.sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.. future.. you in the .assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..... Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. how has it changed your working life? 3..Read these emails. or may not be able to open .. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am ..S.. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ..not making clear who you are and why you are writing ..

losing b... then c. thus d.. ask 2. currently b. soon d. attached b..In a . happy c. a. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . also b. as well c. together... I look forward to hearing news from d. wonder d. demand b. wasting d. Hope to hear from you . a. a. topic d. a.. couple b. and 13. pair d... near b. a. with d. I look forward to hearing from c. a. bracket 12. too d. love c. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .. glad 5. a. beforehand b.. a. Send my ... missing c. by 11.S. for b. presently d. respect d.. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. Monica P. a. drink b. from c. included d. match c. of weeks I'll be in England.. request c.. a. concerns b. dinner 14. Best wishes. close 8. a. a. enclosed c. a. additionally 4.. I look forward to news from b... lacking 10. meal c. before 15. early c. annexed 9. affair 6. pleases d topic d. to Peter 1... next c. so b. a.. grateful b. wishes 41 . matter c. supper d. actually 3. and thank you for your help. now c. business b.. a.

. in conclusion. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.. I'll quickly .... some of the problems we are having over the market share. that although turnover has risen. outline.. . with our plans for Europe.... pronunciation..... research Approach – message support and reinforcement.. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. on balance. handling Delivery – pace. some of the problems we are facing.. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it. referring. interesting... move on.. recommend... clarity. more . 42 . I'd like to . talked. then. I think our first .. you will notice... to Italy and Spain. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. subject knowledge. of course. concluding. ... Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation.. There is no benefit in using difficult language.. What is a presentation? 2.. Overall – clarity of message...... our profits have not increased at the same rate. to start with. interrupt... the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. enjoyable. with some recommendations.. variety.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that.. on those successes before we . expand. . bring you up to date.. humor Organization – coherence. about our current position in the UK and I've . .. Let me quickly . appropriacy. sum up. priority.. . ... and.. today is to ......... specifically. enthusiasm. you all for being here..are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already ... audibility. tell you.. options. illustrate......... clarity.. For what purpose are presentations made? 3.. intonation. about our corporate strategy for the next decade.. I'll . fluency. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. I've . Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. Now I'd like to .. I'll ... before .. finally.. accuracy. describe. relevance... I'd like to . Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. to . body language Language – clarity.. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years.. rapport / eye contact. I'm . thank. What makes a presentation effective? 4.. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. pointed out "Good afternoon. me if you have questions at any time... achievement of objectives... . Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next.. Please feel free to .... motivating Exercise ... draw your attention.... purpose.. everybody.. what ... confidence. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity..E.. informative... must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets... Well. My .. indicate. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with..

.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes...We should not forget the French market. . Are there any final questions?" 43 ... Spain and possibly Greece. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far..... I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience. though. . Thank you also for your pertinent questions....

However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. but it can also be very daunting. However.you can choose your own title . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. called a dissertation or long essay. which you research by yourself. A member of staff will supervise progress.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . try it out with your supervisor.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. In part-time degrees. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic.is the topic academic enough? . There are several criteria for your choice: .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . Like an essay. but there are a number of differences: . 44 . since you have more space. This means you have a whole year to write it. but is probably the most important. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . and be available to assist you.F. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic.

You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. This will be your title. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. ask yourself: . Introduction – 1. 000 words. 000 words Conclusion – 1. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . as you are reading through the material you have gathered.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. since you may need a few by your side. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. It is longer.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. since you have more to say. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. the first thing to do. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. Dissertations are usually 10.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. It's really cold. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing.1. 4. but you can never tell. 5. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. 49 . Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2.

................... lunch with Bob.............. 3. When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything........................................................................... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.. I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations.......... 6...... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid. River Thames........ long walk by ....................... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ........................... local pool and saw Bob McGraw....... .. 3... ............................ I've done that for you................................ I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon................................. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics...... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions...... I had ...... or no article.......... 2...................................... and she said that she hadn't had a chance... 4............................ ...........Test B A.............. I booked it last week.. In each case choose the most likely alternative... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details....... years............. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known............ I went for ........... 5....................... Then I went swimming at .................... 2..... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting.. 7..................... 8.................. lovely morning..... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup. After ... 1......... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.................... If you're too hot in here........... Grammar 1................ 50 ........... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning... Articles Complete this text with a / an................ 6................. bank to withdraw some cash.................. 1........... ......... the............ He's ....................... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year....................... Right.... First I went to ....... 4.. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation. professional musician and plays with ...... 3............... .................. Look at those clouds............................ ...... 5. .............. 9... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions..... 7........... .............................. They wondered how we had managed to do it..............................

...................... 10... OK.. fine............................ ...... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert.. The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily....... EJ . P Yes...... something for people who need English translations of words.................. is that Paula.. EJ .... d.......... OK.....00 .... 51 ........ Good idea.. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.................................................... at the latest.... AK ................................... AK Yes.... C Hello...... and we told him that we could do it next week............................. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment....... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9..... Would Thursday morning at 10. it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.. ? C ...... ....8. then... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering........ Sorry...... As we were leaving.....00 ? P ..... AK Exactly. yes........... let me give you an example........................................... hello.................................... So..... EJ .................... ..................................00. I've got you............ is that right? AK Yes........... B............. he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland......... ...................................... AK Hello..... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase........ EJ .... you're talking about....................... It sounds useful. c......... EJ Oh.......... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary.......... C Paula. and they said they would get it to him by 10.......... P OK.... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski........... e.......................... ........ He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software. ........ I'm not really with you. a......... 9....................... right.......... 2..................m. Goodbye......00 a........................................... Functions 1..... can I just interrupt you a second? b........ I'm busy on Thursday.. Wednesday at 9........ which is why I thought ......... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e......................................

2... 3.. me.. the UK market for the time being. 1.. I'm allergic ...... sensitivity....... or waste.... the beer festival............ ..... I really . my family when I was abroad on business for four months.... lose. 1.. because of inefficiency. Vocabulary 1. I am not accustomed .......... Thank you for taking part .. 5...C. me........ 52 .. Please listen . Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.... 6. Do you take credit cards? 4......... I've never . lose. He is lacking ... it..... 2.. miss.... 8...... my new job....... opportunity! 5... an important meeting in my life...... He apologized .. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a ........ You can depend . 10.... Don't worry.... I can't eat seafood...... 2..... A lot of company's resources are ...... no! I seem to have .......... the discussion today... I had three jobs to choose .......... 9. 4............ The meeting coincided ....... the inconvenience caused..... We need to concentrate ........... 3. 7.. my money.. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss..... Oh....

.. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. anticipating an increase in value. 3.. 4... Then complete them. 3.. 1... As soon as / Until the merger was announced.... then correct the mistakes. the majority of .. who.. 10. is comfortable and spacious..Test C A..... You need to invest in some more machinery. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences... so please hurry up.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments. d... Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). This is the room . What's the name of the woman . A. I'm doing many work at the moment. is free. There's not much news to tell you. e.... How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8... that. c. a. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake... we hold meetings in. some of B. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.. My company does much business in Asia.. Complete the sentences. You can download software from many websites. ..... 2. she later married.. have become good friends. 5. I give / will give you a bonus. 2. 53 .. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . you used to work? was also the year I got married. 9. He gave us a lot of information about his company... 1. 2. has just joined the company? b....... which... The reception area. Nothing happened yesterday... We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here... Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. 2. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. 3. or whom. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.... I'm living in at the moment. he bought shares in the company. I like playing sport.. 7. work opposite us are not very friendly. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. 6. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. using where.. is on the fifth floor... Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. Grammar 1...... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.

........ e......... so h.............. To give you an example c.. He really gets .... . can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'................ I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer...... fraud still occurs...... By secure...... I had a day off work last week to make ............ Vocabulary 1.. because c.... e.... 1.. and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning. ................ on abusing the little power he has..... a. such as 5..... Explaining consequences.. on the other hand 4........................ So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem.. trends...... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets........ .... as a result of 8. working at the weekend........... Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e......... (disappoint) 2..... what you're saying.. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server... for example 2... is the answer to that.... (compensate for) 6. 1.................. (understand) 54 .................... 2.... .. (be excited by) 4. I mean b...... ...... ........ can we trust these servers to be secure? ......... He's always letting his colleagues .... g....... ............. due to the fact that 7............ The problems with her job are really starting to get her ..................B..g. a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online... as 3... due to b.... whereas 6..... Let me explain what I mean................... thus C... like e. because of a........ (make depressed) 5....... The point is d.. I can only just make ........... (indicate awareness of something) 3... Functions 1.............. while d............ It's such a bad line.. ....... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let .. He's not a very good team player... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things........ however f.....

. (became very successful) 8....... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it .7... ? (invent) 10. Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics.. the meeting........................ She's very good at getting her ideas ................. (avoid) 2.. It's good news..... (communicate) 9..................... The company really took .... last year when we broke into the German market......... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview.. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties..... 55 . She called in sick so that she could get ....

.................... 5.................... ........... He ...................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ........... .................... be wrong...................... 2......... I asked Miranda to write the report for me................ What three things ..................... 6..... 1..... 8................................................. a..................... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors....................... His colleague's death . 8... Oh................. Conditionals 1................................ . The optician tested my eyes yesterday.......... (you save) if your house ............................ .................................. The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities... Companies usually provide managers with language training........................... 3. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.................................... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion... 3...... Somebody stole my laptop computer........... .................... 9..................... We invite successful applicants to a second interview........................... (be) on fire? b.. According to Peter........................... have kept some of it for herself.. have left my keys in the restaurant................... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form................................................................................................ Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive...................................... 5........... ............................................................................. Grammar 1............. I think we ..... .... but I ... We're locked out! 4.................................... 1....... 2........ Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.......... If someone ............................................. (knock) on your door at home ...................................... be staying at the conference venue.... ........................................ I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning......... When I go to Barcelona I . be a big shock.. but I'm not sure yet..... 2........ no! I ............................................................................. well top $150 million this year. .......... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb...................... (you open) the door immediately? 56 .... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night...... 4..... 10..................................... 3.................. 7..................... 7...................... company profits .................... He was only 42 years old..................................................................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months................ ...Test D A.................. Use have / get something done where appropriate............................ The store manager had only just moved to the branch..........

....... .... (be) you.. Could you be more specific? b. If the weather .. 1...... 2.. B: Yes... (you work) if you .... (not get) a job with your current company? h.................. I . using the words a-e. So..... a. ........... (you study) ? f................. ......... (happen) if ........... c. To keep to the point 3... Ella? 57 . firstly e........... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2......... (you do) ? e. A: If I ........... (go) to the police........ when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview..... (you choose) ? d... B.... a.... d..... (not study) your subject at school / university.... (go) to the police...... (you change) ? g..... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things .... but I don't think they'd believe me....... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said....... (you park) your car there they . The interviews take place and . Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards. Where . Functions 1. To summarize a..... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's..... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description...... Then b..... B: Thanks for warning me. one candidate is chosen......... (see) a UFO........... If you . (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.... To manage interruptions 2... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e..... what .......................... ultimately c..... after lengthy discussion. eventually d.. c.... To ask for clarification 5.....c..... What .. basically what you're saying is.............. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong.... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed. .......... To ensure other people get to speak 4.. A: If you .......... Can I finish what I was saying? d....... (be) you.. A: Careful! If . A: If I .. Would you like to come in here. If you ..... (be) good this weekend what ... I know. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion.................. whose life .... However.... I ........... what . (give) you a ticket......... b..... If you .

.... ... create .......... ............... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites...... replaceable 3... Vocabulary 1.. 1... humor .... rely .. ... 5.. understand ........ 2. 1.C................ interested 2......... . connect 5... credible 4................ criticize . 3............ 4.. ... legible 58 ........ Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs. 2..

..... but .. 5... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.......... 7. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d..... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase........... Look..... Permission...m. Match each question with an appropriate category....00 p...... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics. (work) from home.. 2. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c... By 2050 people .. I'm sure........ Call me sometime over the weekend.. tomorrow? We ..... c... By the time I retire I hope I ..... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. I've got two tickets! B. Future Perfect. 1.. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a... Thank you........ Grammar 1.. Do you think there .. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.. possibility.m. Will they ...... (finish) their meeting by 7. I'd like that.. Do you know what ......... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here........ Good luck with your exam tomorrow.. otherwise I may / must / can forget it...... d.. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form... If you have time during your stay in Sydney......... Future Continuous. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.......... it's no problem..... I ....... 59 ........... 2... 6... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b. (do) at 8.... e.. a..... I'm sorry..... A: Great.... b...Test E A.... so don't forget to take waterproofs.... ... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.. Must I really go to the meeting? f... and obligation 1.. I . 4........... necessity.... ....... A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.... In three months' time I ........00 p..... Functions 1... (live) in space.. B: ... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary... I .? 3... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes..... if you'd like me to show you around Prague... requests. 8.............. (think) of you............ thank you.......... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May.... Invitations..

... thank you for that lovely dinner once again. succeed 3.. carry........ I'm glad you enjoyed it c. 3......... Thanks for coming............. 1... Well. C...... lead to.... warm clothes.. any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No. carry.... A: Have you . best of luck b....... take on a. Late payment often .............. I'm starting a new job next week.. 2... .. get. hope to see you again sometime 1............ A: ................ A: So....... that ................ ....... thanking...............A: . keep in touch d.......... employ (someone) 60 .. her? 3... 1. some research for my thesis....... . I hear this is your last day at work here..... Remember to .. 2.... bring.. Vocabulary 1. B: You too...................... B: ..... A: How did you ...... did you . in your English test? B: Oh. It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year.. 2.............. and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e............ not too bad..... too many mistakes.... begin (a hobby) 2. with everything.... A: Oh.. Yes. 5...... a........ lead to. I can't....... take up d.. bring about b.... A: I've had a lovely evening....... Concluding..... Mark... A: Well. your bags? They look very heavy! 2. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock... I have to .... Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ..... Can I help you ... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do........... B: Thanks....... cause 4......... you're welcome e................ B: . and take Complete the sentences with bring.............. cash-flow problems for small businesses............. or take................. get... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.................... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning... I don't think I .. B: Yes.... great.... carry off c..

a .. .. outgoing 3. to turn off 5. stubborn 5. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. have never seen 8. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. . for a week 5. all my life 4.Tests . at the moment 2. 3. d – 4 5. always plays 7. going 1. f – 6 7. hasn't stopped 1. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. . sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. saying 2. e – 1 6. going 4. arrived / had left 7. a – 5 2. 4. have eaten 10. woke up 1.Answer key Test A A1 1. had been sitting 6. there didn't use to be many Internet companies... to entertain 3. watch 3.. 5. seems 5. . had been having 4. meticulous 4.. . had read / started 5. look like 2. c – 7 4. have been having 9. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1.. sounds like 4. competent 2. used to have a Porsche. recently 3. 2... b – 2 3.. was living 2. have you been doing 6. was traveling / witnessed 3. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. 1. g – 3 1.

with 4. an 5. that / which / Ø d. 3. Are you doing A3 2. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. who / that b. to 6. to 10. you're talking about . Ø 9. So. 62 . the 1. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. in 3. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. the 3. in 5. missed C2 1. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. is going to rain 7. I'm playing 4. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. I'll turn on 6. Sorry. for 2.' 9. that's / That suits me 1. 2. I'm going to 3. from 7.m. I've got you. a. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. That would be / Yes. the 4. How about / What about 5. 5.00 a. 4. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3.. I'm going to spend 8. to 9. B1 1. missed 3. who / whom c. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. the 8. will win 9. a 7.' 7. I haven't had a chance. which 2. 'Did you see anything?' 2.' 6. I was wondering whether 2. I'm afraid 4. a 10. wasted 2. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. let me give you an example. OK. lost 4. a. which e. OK. Ø 6. wasted 5. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. I'm not really with you.2. on 8. at the latest. we can do it next week. I'll just check / I'll call 5. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. 'More and more women will move into top management posts.' conditions..

arisen 2. I – a lot of good advice 1. The point is 4. We started the company in 1999. I – quite a few 5. d. Let me explain what I mean 2. down 5. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. C 8. sharply 4. I – a lot of 7. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. out 7. A2 1. I – a lot of 3.b. I – plenty of 6. down 2. substantial 5. 63 . I – equipment 10. risen 3. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. raise 6. by / will give 3. some of whom have become good friends. C 4. By secure. until / are 1. To give you an example 3. across 9. C 9. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. up for 1. rise 6. I've met a lot of people through work. off 8. I mean 5. on 3. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. up 10. which was also the year I got married. I – information 2. as soon as 2. off 4. e.

/ Managers are provided with language training. 4. John? 4. 3. could / might / may 1. might / may / could 3. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. would you save / was b. 5. basically what you're saying is . was you / would go c. Candidates are recommended for promotion. 7. arrived 2. humorous 3. knocked / would you c.. happens. reliable 2. can't / couldn't 5. a. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. creative 4. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Miranda was asked to write the report. could / would you choose d. Language training is provided for managers. were / would you change g.. incredible 4. / I've had my laptop stolen. So. saw / would you do d. irreplaceable 3. Applications are passed on to universities. 8. Excuse me. should / must 6. I was in the middle of saying something. should 2. My laptop has been stolen. could / may / might 8. must 7. A2 1. 6. 1. understandable 64 C2 1. would you work / hadn't got h. 2. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . My eyes were tested yesterday. uninterested 2. a. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. is / will you do e. must 4. 10. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. Can you be more specific? 5. 9. Would you like to say something about this. had been / would have gone b. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. would happen / arrive.2.

made 3. Shall 4. That's very kind of you 3. will speak 7. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . best of luck 2. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. bring 4. can't 3. will be 9. You're welcome 5. illegible A2 1. Hope to see you again some time 3. have finished 3. would be fine / suits me fine 1. Shall we say 5. will have been working 4. carry 2. get 3. I was wondering 2. Keep in touch 4. will be living 6. 1. must 2. can't 5. will be thinking 2. will be working 5. critical Test E A1 1. take 5. do 2. made 4. can 4.5. will have earned 8. lead to 1.

Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport.IV. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. 2. He knows a lot about music. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. She's working here until Christmas. 1. 66 . He's knowing a lot about music. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. I'm going to the cinema every day. She works here until Christmas. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. 2.

) I've bought a new car. 1. You haven't lived abroad. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. I want to go out for dinner. (She isn't here now. Vegetarians don't eat meat. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. and present continuous Look at these sentences. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car.) I've lived here for three years. 3. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (Until now I've been there three times. 5.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'.3. He seems very tired. 2. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. He's seeming very tired. To make regular past participles. (I still live here now. (I've got a new car now. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 67 . 4. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. Some are right and some are wrong. (He still works there now.) I've been to Brazil three times. 6.) Present perfect. present simple. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. I have. we add –ed to the infinitive. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present.

Her house is as big as mine. The train is always on time. I work here since October. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than.. The film was much better than I expected. as . but they usually go before the main verb.00. Sometimes. Russia is bigger than Canada.. in front of the main verb. 68 . normally. He's never here at 9.. can be used to make comparisons. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. I don't usually get up late. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. We often go to the park. as .3. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. 5.. I'm working here since October.

We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group.83m 1. 3. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.75m Alex is taller than his brothers.85m 1.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups.. is also possible. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. In the negative so . a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. Alex 1. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. The film was better that the book. He's as tall as his brother. as .. We weren't here yesterday. My exam results were worse than Andy's. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. 1. Short answers Yes.. 6.92m Alex's brothers 1. he was.. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. He's so tall as his brother. The film was better than the book. 4. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 2. .

) She went at four o'clock. (She isn't here now. only the past simple can be used.) Before that I lived in Madrid.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. I went out this morning. two days ago. She's gone home. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. For individual past actions. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. She used to be a teacher. He used to smoke. I did. last week). It has no present form.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. (We're interested in when the action took place. I've been there four years ago. in 1993. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. (But I don't live there now. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. but he gave up five years ago. (I still live here. you must use the past simple tense. Last year he went on five foreign holidays.g. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. I've lived here for five years. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. We went to the cinema twice last week. We didn't use to live in London. not the effect. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. 7. I went there four years ago. She wasn't going to work. or past actions which were not habits. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. he was. not the present perfect. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

which with things. We use who with people. She's probably coming this weekend. He's the man who lives next door. 74 least likely most likely . (But I haven't got the money. It could rain today. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. It's likely to rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon.) make polite offers. It'll probably rain today. I would. Use Would has many uses. or imaginary situations. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. I saw the man. It might (not) rain today. It probably won't rain today. (But she works in a bank. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. It's unlikely to rain today. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. I saw the man who lives next door.) She'd be a good politician. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. If I had the money. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. I'd buy a house. It may (not) rain today. They wouldn't steal from a friend. impossible. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable.

did not you? She can speak Russian. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man who/that lives next door. haven't you? It was raining. didn't you? NOT . which. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. It isn't very warm. She arrived yesterday. She married him. can't she? NOT . He lives next door. You knew about this yesterday. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. or that.. will she? It doesn't matter. He's the man (who/that) she married.. 12. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. Look at these sentences. They aren't coming to the party. He's the man. don't they? 75 . wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary.. didn't she? You like fish. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. This chair's French. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. You can swim. You're Italian. He's the man. does it? You've finished. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun.He's the man that lives next door. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause.. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag.

The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. The car has been found. The weapon hasn't been found. 13. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. Cars shouldn't be parked there. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. Thousands of cars are stolen. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. These computers are made in Japan. Someone has been arrested. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. It is less direct than an ordinary question. These houses were built in the 1930s. We can use the passive in any tense. Fewer crimes would be committed. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). This wine is produced in Portugal. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. She must be told. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. The man wasn't sent to prison. It can't be done. we use the negative of the verb to be. 76 . The crime will be solved.) and is followed by a question mark (?). we don't know the agent. To make the negative of the passive. We use a modal verb + be + past participle.

We usually use a comma (.. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. we'd travel business class. If I had enough money .. but not when the main clause is first. I'd buy that house. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. If it rains.. she'll feel terrible. Use Second conditionals describe unreal.) 15. we use by. 14. you'll miss the appointment. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. (I don't think I'll get the job. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job.) when the if clause is first. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. If we had more money.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. We usually use a comma (.If we want to show the agent. If I get the job I'll earn more money. If she eats all the ice cream.) 77 .. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. we'll go to the cinema. (There is a real chance that it will rain. unlikely. NOT If it will rain.) We won't go if it rains. NOT If I would have enough money . Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. The suspect was identified by a witness. The car has been found by some children.) when the if clause is first. but not when tha main clause is first. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. we'll go to the cinema. or imaginary situations. If you get up late. If I had enough money. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.

Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle.g. look something up 78 .. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. when she will arrive. or She switched the TV on. up. Oil will run out in the next century. NOT . Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts.. NOT . 17. NOT She switched on it. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). as soon as. the verb is separable. (transitive) The plane took off. until.. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. until Phil will get back. and after. I'll phone you when she arrives. She switched on the TV. before. in. NOT . He heard a helicopter and looked up.. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. Time clauses As in clauses with if.. on. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. He took off his jacket. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. before we would go to the cinema. away. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. e. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle.16. She takes after her mother. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. She switched it on.. He saw the mouse and ran out.

The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. You're late. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action.' emphasize the duration of an activity. or about past actions which have present results. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. I've lived here for ten years.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. 18. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. I've been writing a letter. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. like other continuous forms. (I haven't finished it yet.) focus on the process of an activity. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. 79 . (focus on activity) I've played two matches. he has. I've been playing a lot of football this week. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. I've been waiting for an hour. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day.I looked up the word in the dictionary. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. the verb is inseparable. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. is not normally used with stative verbs.

using do/does in the present or did in the past. ask. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. decide. a modal verb.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. wonder. so we must provide one. They live here. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. see. remember. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. Do they live here? You saw her. have no idea. Compare these questions. Did you see her? In Wh. Can she swim? They've arrived. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents.19. or an auxiliary verb.questions. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. question word(s) subject verb 80 . know.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. imagine. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements.

left. 1. 2. 3. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. a computer software shop This is a shop. I've decided how much money I need. 've got. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences.? or Do you think you could tell me ... is. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. I don't know if he's coming. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. 81 .. The headword always goes at the end. I've decided how much money do I need. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. Note: However. we say clothes shop and sports shop. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. What kind of software? Software for computers. football boots These are boots. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. I wonder why did he do that? 21. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . With Wh. arrives.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 4. A shop that sells records is a record shop.? Could you tell me where the post office is. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software.. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived.

object I don't enjoy cooking. hear. stomach ache 22. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. After having a shower. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun).) He bought three packets of cigarettes. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. as adjectives.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. There's someone coming. -ing form or infinitive A. (Empty bottles. before. a teacup. watch. I got dressed. Unfortunately there are no rules. I've been working since 7. She's playing tennis. After I'd had a shower. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. I can hear someone coming. 82 . feel.) Some compound nouns are written as one word.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. a tennis racket a living-room. smell. There were two people waiting for you. Others are written as two words. I had the idea while driving home. and while to replace a clause. notice. Compare these sentences.). or are hyphenated. This is a really boring film. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. I got dressed. (New packets. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. to describe what someone can sense (with see.00. 23. a bathroom a coffee cup. etc. with after. We saw them leaving the house. He was driving at 120mph. when the subject of both clauses is the same. (Empty packets. I read a fascinating book the other week. I could smell burning. I had the idea while I was driving home.

start.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. (I wanted to speak to her. It's just started to rain. (he was doing something. love.) I remembered to meet her. 1. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. (I was supposed to dance with him. (I had met her before and I remembered it.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. suggest. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. hate.) try I tried to speak to her about it. begin. imagine. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. but I couldn't. but she wasn't there.) I tried speaking to her about it. B. consider. I enjoy doing the gardening. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. (British) I like to lie in bed late. feel like. Smoking is bad for your health. In British English. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. I like lying in bed late. but she still wouldn't listen. give up. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. (I spoke to her.like. continue It's just started raining. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. I'd like to live abroad. -ing forms Look at these sentences. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. then he stopped in order to smoke.) stop He has stopped smoking.) C. Some of the most common are finish. forget I remember meeting her. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. 83 . I'm beginning to learn the piano. and can't stand. but it didn't work. enjoy. I began to realize how he felt. (I had to meet her and I did. She's considering emigrating to Australia. but I didn't. remember.) He stopped to have a cigarette.

Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. B Me. A I couldn't read until I was seven. Stop to make so much noise. might. 3. B Oh. Before leaving the office. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject.) I + negative auxiliary verb. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. too. I'd love to go to New Zealand. B Nor/Neither have I. neither. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. would. I begun understanding the problem. B Me. There's someone that comes up the stairs. too to agree with a positive statement. will. I began to understand the problem. Stop making so much noise. could. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. 84 . There's someone coming up the stairs. I made a phone call. I would. I must remember posting this letter. I must remember to post this letter. I made a phone call. 25. neither to agree with a negative statement. B Oh. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. need. To smoke is bad for your health.) I + positive auxiliary verb. A I really love pizza. shall. B So do I. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. ought to. 6. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. I could. and Me. must. 24. 7. 5. I'd love going to New Zealand. Before to leave the office.2. 4. should. may. A I've never been to Ireland.

In each pair one is right and one is wrong. She should see a doctor. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. possibility. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. You shouldn't do that. I couldn't believe what he told me. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. Modal verbs have no tense forms. They ought to be more careful. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. I must to remember to post this letter. 2. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. I can swim. He might come later. (or I could find a new job.) I must remember to post this letter. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. You don't should leave your car there. 3. Present: He can speak four languages. would: I'd be able to find a new job. 4. They might not come to the party.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. 85 . What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. or You don't need to come. we can use could to talk about ability. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. They have no infinitive or participle form. will: I'll be able to find a new job. He mights come later. For example. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. Past: He could speak French when he was four. 1. and permission. You might go to London. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb.

You ought not to carry so much cash. You don't have to come if you don't want to. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. (It is and 'outside' obligation. it is 'my' obligation.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. 86 . Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice.Could. I could drive when I was sixteen. would: I'd have to find a new job. Past: I had to find a new job. You need to be at the station by 8.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. (I want to. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. The firemen could save everyone. from my doctor. was/were able to. I have to work on Saturday this week. The firemen were able to save everyone. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. Note: Must has no tense forms. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. Have to is also used. Passengers must show their boarding cards. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. we use was/were able to or managed to. a driving instructor. will: I'll have to find a new job. You shouldn't work so hard./You don't need to wear a suit. Have to is used to describe general obligation. The party's informal. You needn't wear a suit. though could is more common.30.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. (It is a general obligation. I must start taking more exercise. The firemen managed to save everyone.

I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. could. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. and may are used to ask for permission. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Some are right and some are wrong. and may is the most polite and formal. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. This means that I painted the room myself. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. She could not be here tomorrow. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. 2. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. 3. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. She might not be here tomorrow. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Compare these sentences. I will can go swimming every day next week. I had my hair cut. Could is more polite than can. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I had the car fixed. with we and I. 4. 87 . The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. 1. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. might. I painted my room. I had my room painted. 5. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. 26. Permission Can.Probability May.

28. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. 29. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. would. because a different person is now speaking.g. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. I got the garage to service my car. Direct speech: I like cooking. and modal verbs do not change.27. The car's really dirty. David's father lets him use the car. It needs to be cleaned. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. The car's really dirty. The judge made the man apologize. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Need + -ing is more informal. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. 88 . It needs cleaning. said or told). We can also use need with to be + past participle.

Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. They told (us) a story. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. We tell somebody something. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. the reported question starts with whether or if. With Yes/No questions. NOT Andrea told (that) . particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting.. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. NOT Andrea said me . Luke: I'll be away till March. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. Monica: I might phone you later. say and tell We say something. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. The word order changes to a statement word order. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Zoran: I had never been there before. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. and verbs have a statement form. 89 . Zoran said (that) he had never been there before.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. When we report questions.. Zoe said that they saw a great film. Tom: I don't want to stay here. we make the following changes. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. She told (them) jokes all night.. 31. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Andrea said (that) she was going out.. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. 30. Andrea: I'm going out. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Helen: I'd like a coffee.

If you hadn't studied so hard. 'Don't worry. such as advise. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. Reported speech Look at these sentences. I'd lend you some money if I had any. but not when the main clause is first.32. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. Some are right and some are wrong. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 1. 1.' He told me not to worry. warn.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. order. 2. They told me that the exam was very hard. The instructor told me not to do that. and I didn't pass the exam. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. 2. she wouldn't have left. and command. beg. you would have failed. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. persuade.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. They said me that the exam was very hard. 3. She asked me where I lived. 'Please sit down. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. and you crashed. but other verbs can also be used. (I didn't work hard. 4. 3. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. If I had told the truth. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 90 . The instructor told me that I don't do that. 33.' The doctor asked me to sit down. We usually use a comma (. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film.) when if clause is first. (You were driving too fast. an imaginary situation in the past. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis.

We can also use this structure in the continuous form. 34.) They should have bought the house. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism.) 91 .4. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision.

2001. Kennewell. Writing for the Internet.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Otman. All Stars. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Driscoll. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Steve & Peter Fox. Life Lines. Hutchinson. Eric H. Dorner. Glendinning. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. & John McGwan. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. International Express. Tom. Gabriel. 2001. Ian Selwood. 4. 2001. 7. 2002. Brooks. 6. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 2002. 8. 3. Oxford English for Information Technology. Chris Mitton.Oxford. Computer Studies Through Applications. 1998. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5. Wallwork. 2001. 92 . Engleza pentru informatica. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 2. 1992. Engleza pentru internet. Jane.

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