CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

.What advantages does the baby have? ... English is the most widespread language on Earth. Purists of the French. Compare your lists. 4 . 4.. but remember that different people learn in different ways. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY... Work in groups. cards. speaking and not being corrected all the time .. 1 being the most important.. Work alone......... . and the process is now being reversed. listening . pronunciation practice 3... This will no doubt continue... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible.. Geographically. reading . technology.What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ........ Justify your order. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time... Prepositions too are flexible... learning vocabulary . How do you learn languages? . second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd. we can talk about a round of golf.... Read books and newspapers. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.. sport.. speaking and being corrected ... learning grammar . Speaking 1........ writing . What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance........ and aviation. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.....to be cleaned and dried..........What advantages does the adult have? 2. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement.. It is the language of business... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. or drinks.

each machine will have equal status. they sent each other games. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. There will be no "command center". Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. and the Internet. 4. Other networks joined in.). The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. just kept on growing. They had. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. to use the techy term. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. But they weren't interested in science or academia. in fact. as it came to be called. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. Instead. Because of the way the messaging system worked. by 1972.I. They started mailing lists. the way they got there was unimportant. for it was they. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. The Advanced Research Projects Agency.. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. still the most popular use of the Net by far. invented e-mail. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. no single computer that controls the rest of them. it worked. 3. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. they used it to swap gossip. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. swapped them (via the net. Amazingly. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. they opened newsgroups. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. 5 . By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. Crude as they were. Instead of using the network strictly for business. uninvited but still welcome. 1. 2. 37. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. These packets could be sent independently over the network.. then news and eventually gossip. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. But then an odd thing started to happen.

packet. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). mailbox. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. a set of related computers C. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. network. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. cheaper and more reliable. mainframe 5. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Over the last few years. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D.2. desktop computer 2. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. Here are five types of computers. Computer sizes. researcher A. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. however. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. a person who tries to discover something E. along with IBM. Since then the computers (become) smaller. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. supercomputer 4. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. a series of bits being a part of message B. but the market (saturate) to some extent. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). notebook 3. Apple. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. but transistors soon (replace) them. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers.

The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. Europe. Students can log onto the Internet. rather than offering their own set of courses. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. click on the course they want. says Nat Kannan. videotape of professor's lectures. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". There's a revolution happening in education. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. and as with mail order programs. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". Use the elements to make complete sentences. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. 1. For example. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. and connect to a server that presents information. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. the material would be available to students at their convenience. and interactive courseware. online environment. Within a few months. learn the material. offered by mail. Australia. It's called distance learning. use a bulletin board. founder and president of University Online. and the Americans. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. Using modern technology. all of which express personal opinions: 1. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. visit the school's We site. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. the Net will be alma mater. Personally. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia.

. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1.. we never believed it would be so successful. over two years... for and ago: 1.5. to reduce to the minimum 7. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. a few months . possession magnetism. It was put on the market in 1994. to give a linear form to 8.. withdrawal clearance. kingdom employee. scientist ... I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2.... This University has only existed . to give authority to 10. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition.. connector childhood. execution. neighbo(u)rhood electrician.. so it has been tested . boredom. 4.. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.. -or -hood -ian -ion.. 3.. University Online was originally tested over five years .. To my mind.g. behavio(u)rism typist.. addressee audience. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. to arrange in an optimal way 6. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. four years . operator voucher. to take a material form 5. When we started.. 1992 and it is already known worldwide... independence employer. state condition. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. condition belonging to act of. 6. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. the beginning of the experiment. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. 5. to represent in a digital form 2... state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal.... in 1992 2. musician introduction.. several new courses have been offered. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. to make use of a symbol for something 3. You have to follow a course . to write a summary of 3... state condition. Fill the blanks in this passage with since...

analysis 11. computerize. economical foolish useless porous. concentrate. long 13. simplify customize. active 3. happiness. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. mode 14. electric 17. lengthen classify. stimulus 20. broad 2. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. condition. interruptible environmental. widen. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. standard 18. initial 12. quality state. reality achievement. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. action condition of quality. soft 10. state condition. auto 8. state electricity. slavery. furiously 4. local 9. tolerate shorten. rivalry friendship. personal 15. boldness labo(u)r. logical. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . Now.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. condition place. -ical -ish -less -ous. generally. using the verb-forming suffixes above. transform the following words into verbs. 1. weak 19. tight 5. short 7. -ery -ship state. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. loose 16. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. behavio(u)r foundry. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. simple 4. robot 6. government business.

However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. By the age of 30. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. Get a decent book on Windows programming. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. And there are lots of people who know it too. If you decide programming is really for you. Here's the road map. Delphi. A consultant is different. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. how it relates to other products and so on. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. However. spend more money on a training course. After a couple of hops like that. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. Java and Visual Basic developers. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. Qualifications are important. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. Visual Basic and Delphi. That's where the all-important experience comes in. so you have to be better than them. They merely prove you can think. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. C++. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. technology and people. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. you've run big projects. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. For someone starting out. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. The same goes for NetWare Certification. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. 10 . a week there. an attention to detail. University degrees are useless. more manageable pieces. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. rolled out major solutions and are well known. and so on. its positioning on the market. C++. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. as does Novell. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software.

2. 4.... Look at the examples: 11 . 6.. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. Prefixes change the meaning of the word.. 6. Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team.. 1. a stem and a suffix.. For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.. have a degree but it . In any case.. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks... be able to show leadership.. 8... Your objective is to become self-employed. You . 5. employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit. verb. Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well.... to make sensible statements.. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations. Most of this can't be taught.... Most are between 30 and 45.. suffixes change the part of speech (noun.. etc... 2... You . You need to be bright... must. You . Interestingly. an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry... so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere..Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager. It's important you have the right personality to lead a team.... 2.. 4.. Technical qualifications .. 1... communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. 3. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise.... If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project. You . become an expert in too narrow a field.. 7....... have to........ many of them don't have degrees in computing science. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business.. 1. adjective.. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years...... LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix...... then you can forget being an IT manager. More than one answer is possible in some examples. 8...... be able to use C++........ 9. be in computing science.. These days you ....). need to. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company. You . It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career..... You . Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs.. You . They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems.. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. 10. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff.. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career. study BASIC. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++.... to have experience in JavaScript. You . 3.. 7.. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date... 5.

location. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. external foreground. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. bystander input. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. size. decode disagree. foresee. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. side in. misfortune nonsense unreal. into going away more than above too much beneath. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. involve output. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). semicolon .

together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. that is already programmed 2.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. half manual 7. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. to grow larger 5. to predict 3. a program that is part of a larger program 6. after the war 4. Now use the prefixes of degree. size. 1. half automatic. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. not up to standard 10. location. to convey data from one place to another 8.

1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. include descriptive ALT text captions. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. and make necessary adjustments. If you are committed to using frames on your site. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. to find their way around. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. you may group the FAQ. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. and visitors may not know how to 14 . rather than image maps or graphical buttons. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. Besides content. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. For example. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them.

Logical. well laid out. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. ease of use. nice design. contact information. a user. helpful graphics. accuracy. navigation. (hot) links. However. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. For most sites. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. structure connections. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. cluttered. confusing. password protected. features. 1. you can add the suffix "er". search facility.use yours effectively. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). a visitor. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. good reactivity. Take notes on any special features. without wasting space. on-line support. 15 . SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. compatibility. especially those ending in "y" (see above). colorful. Visit a website of your choice. up to date.

4. 2. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . as".A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. when buying a PC are often 5. The less he works. the sharper the picture. indicated by the symbols. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. John was the elder of the two boys. 2. 4. 1. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. When comparing two items. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. the more I feel depressed. The less sophisticated the software.. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. The higher the resolution.. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. the slower the speed of execution. 3. resolution was 16 . The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. when preceded by "X times". especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. This computer is the cheaper of the two.. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. "as . the better he feels. the comparative can be preceded by "the". 2. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". 3. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. For the preceding sentence.. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors.

inconsistent program 10. This is the most powerful computer available today. fast chip 4. ugly picture 9. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. powerful computer 2. big memory device 7. cheap computer 3. fuzzy image 8. 3. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. reliable device 5. With short adjectives. expensive card 6. 1. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 .

........ Don't cross-post messages. Put the words back in the right order: 1.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.... 2.. (A whole quarter second in some cases). You .. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2..... The reason for this is never given. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings. off-the-point arguments to see that. if that happened. when to criticize and when to stay silent... be debugged before being executed... This means posting the same message to several different groups at once... break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program... is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. 18 ... In practice. on the Net or elsewhere.. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. Programs .... Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. This form of internal policing.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. This piece of software . make sure you spell correctly yourself. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. and overzealous at that. may or could 1. It doesn't work. read the FAQ). rambling... 3. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3... No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. Conversely. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom.. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop... 5. A flowchart . (If you don't know what a FAQ is. 4. The following sentences have been scrambled.. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. because it wastes people's time. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users... You . When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. sometimes be useful when designing a program...... 6. cause unexpected results. 1. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. Don't use a signature of more than four lines... have to.. unwarranted abuse and long. A bug .

3. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet... Ar fi putut.. 4.. 3. 8.... You .7. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. 6....... top to bottom. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like... Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8. and computing. 2... it will take up too much space in the computer memory. graphic .. Daca as fi vrut..... picture. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own . and diagonally top to bottom).... am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. 3...... sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1.. 19 .. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul.. Write them next to the correct definition..... 5. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. 7.. Cu toate acestea. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . opening page of a website . They ....... Cind am incercat soft-ul.. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .... Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. 2..... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. 8. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.. a measure of visits to a website .. write this program in a high-level language. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .... email. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. 4. 7.. 10... de exemplu. 9. 5. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii.......... photo....... 6.. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. also known as "favorites" ..... Translate the following sentences into English.. (You can find the words left to right... If you do.. the main.....

. 16...e. 13.. inappropriate use of a mailing list .. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites..... the right way to behave when communicating on the Net . abbreviation for the Internet . Uniform Resource Locator... 20 .. unsolicited mail.... 10...... a software package generally used to start you up for a program . :-) ... a location on the WWW .. a physical input / output point ........ 17....... the World Wide Web .... a bug which infects data on your computer . e.... 21..... 19..... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ........... website address .... 22. i..... 14. .............. 15..... 12... 18.. something that automatically connects you to another page .... 20...... 11.9. a way of showing emotion in an email........ email.. etc..... a search engine...... the Internet equivalent of post ..g..............

has the security. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. costing companies an average of $23. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. C. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. 1. hacking is still easy. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. hacking has been criminalized. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page.000 a year to repair. Admittedly. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival.Choose the ending (A. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. a basic computer and a bit of patience. B. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures.000. Today's hacker is not so lucky. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. had knocked on this door. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. 1. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. had not been in trouble with the law before. MULTIPLE CHOICE . Hackers have their own code of conduct. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Robert Schifreen 21 . The law was tightened up. Triludan. which is readily available. For some teenagers. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. All the hacker needs is a modem. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. and so. Typically. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. the computer companies would have you believe. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. But according to those who practice. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. better known as Robert Schifreen.

f. B. You can create your own compilation. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. male criminals. Each MP3 file has a tag. 5. D. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. 3. 5. has made hacking more difficult. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. is popular because it is romantic. is a form of escape from the everyday world. deliberately destructive B. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. 4. h. D. Match each cause and effect. C. totally unaware of what they are doing. This gives an enormous storage capacity. MP3 players contain several devices. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. B. b. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. You can download a skin program. g. outlaws hacking. Effect a. 22 . Then link them with an –ing clause. You can download single tracks. has eliminated all computer security. 3. costs about 48p a time C. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. 6. According to the NNC A. the survival of hackers is threatened. D. 8. C. 4. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. B. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. merely curious. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. D. e. You can legally download some music. Cause 1. 2. C. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 2. d. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. 33% of its members are hackers B. Hacking A.A. This produces much smaller files. 7. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. c.

A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. 2. mouse and hard drives only. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 8. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. 5. 9. 10. 7. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. 1. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. display. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. 3. 4. keyboard. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 6. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 .3. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate.

1... Mainstream applications 3. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either. As with other areas of the computer industry.... floppy drive. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity.. the applications are generally better... Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. Price points .. Review criteria 4...... ... The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders..... Applications are the key issue. word processor and database – comes on one CD.. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price..LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). but it's not the only one. According to the market researcher Dataquest.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.... or were vast collections of specific information.. Measuring drive performance 2. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs..000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. 1. with a further 1. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore.. along with the conventional 3. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. the equivalent of 300.. 24 .5 million predicted to ship in that year alone... literature and art.... Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.... For example. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily....2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. and justify the cost of a drive. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post....5in.. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space..... The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.. and because there's more space. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. Put them back in the appropriate place.. but are spread throughout business..

..Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false..... .. Backing Store .... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. give reasons for your choice. more faster...... 6... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996.. Increased competition has now reversed the trend.... however advanced.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster..... 1....Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. 8.... This is often confused with the average access searches. access time.But CD-ROM... Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software..... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.. A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. 4. 7....... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use... 5... drawback. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. TRUE OR FALSE? . While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files....... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer. is still a read-only product.. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. disk 25 .. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format. pie chart.. ... 9.. The industry. 10..... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. more precise head positioning mechanism. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.... ... which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more.. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user.... while still developing rapidly.... 3. 2... The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.... this excuse was taken too far.......... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.. 2... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time... files...... consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system... 1.. As a result of this market maturity..

.. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as . needs to be in main memory at any one time. You should write between 150 and 200 words.. retrieved. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors....... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory..... disk...... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.. If the disk is ......... double-sided. floppy disk.... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. that is extremely slow because of .... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare..... on both surfaces. media and .." are also common. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems................ directory. 5.. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. 7..... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders....... address........... Hence files can be ..... 9.. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta. 3.......... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ....... database....... it is called a . a track and a sector number)..... 26 . direct-access... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.. as opposed to a single-sided disk. a disk must be . 2....... so-called because of its flexibility......e. This technology is cheap and easy to use.drives... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.. Hermetic data modules called ".. oxide-coated surface. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta........ read-write head........... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers... old-fashioned..Translate the following sentences into English: 1. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ........ Large systems often use cartridges or ... Before being used... disk packs.. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .. 8. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. formatted (x3).... magnetic tapes... magnetic disks or diskettes.......... storage areas are marked on the magnetic. sequential access. In this way only a small part of a ... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)... 4.. 3... i.. where only one surface is . erorile se pot corecta. THE PASSIVE .. though these are becoming . (i. of all the files on the disk. 6..... but has the ..... 10.. and .e....... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years.. The . Most users are more familiar with the .. both internal and external.. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS..

a basis for study for future generations. With the internet. For many people. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. public museums did not exist. 1. only aristocrats could go to museums. and industry. Within the last few years. crafts. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. Elizabeth Brown. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. At the time of the Renaissance A. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. military. beyond the straightforward museum visit. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. virtual museums A. especially in distant lands. 2. science. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. will replace traditional museums. C. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. An overview of lost techniques. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. fashion. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. A museum can best be defined as A. C. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. 3. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. Moreover. the patron goddesses of the arts. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. With reference to the information in the article. B. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. 27 . While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. electronically. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. B.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history.

to admire 3. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. 3. vast 4. country 9. The National Museum of Art A. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. B. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. C. Match the words and their definitions: 1. 4. honored 5. C. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. something produced by creative talent E. art work 2. will show works of art that do not exist. will organize visits to its storage spaces. photo (taken quickly) 2. collection 5. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. work of art. storehouse 8. disadvantage 7. Put the following sentences into the passive form. The Web may transform our perception of art. 5. Museums maintain and display great works of art. museum A. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. masterpiece 4. object produced by human hands 3. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 2. best work of an artist C. to see. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. 6. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. to enjoy 10. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . 2. article (in a magazine) 4. artefact 3. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. 4. to establish 6. 1.B.

or a dedicated payment client. Using a public key. and credit cards are credit systems. In a credit system. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. currency. 3. for example). both exist in the digital world as well. the merchant receives the payment. A bank employee who pays out money. the date and time of the transaction. In a peer-to-peer system. This might be a WWW browser. and a bank does the accounting. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. users can act as both customers and merchants. In many cases. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. Payment systems based on gold. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. 2. With such a system. The customer pays. paper currency. charge accounts. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. you gather your money up front and then spend it. 4. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). In a debit system. 29 . Although users can make digital copies of such notes. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. To execute a real-time transaction. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. Checks. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. 1. For the purposes of this discussion. a bank redeems each note number only once. and the amount of money represented). you spend the money first and pay the bill later. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use.. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. A person who buys goods or services from you. A person who receives (money. and the amount to be paid. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. The customer runs client software. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account.e. the name of the payer and the recipient. 5. traveler's checks.

. 2... The site.... I met personally.. will be $10.. Money used in a specific country... is used in electronic trade. For $20 a month..... we found CD-ROMs on sale... to sign. 7.. The customer. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.... He alone will be authorized ... bought her a typewriter instead..... the company can have access to a ... whom. a current .... The initial . safe. name is on the check. cheques. Stupid Computer Error A . balance. 5. 2...00 stating that payment was now overdue. A computer that can access a server... . ... The bank will send the company a weekly ...00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. which.? The next day he got a bill for $0. 3. You will not need to use them all! account..... withdrawal The Longstone company wish . accepts digital cash.. A large number of banknotes.. whose.. where. receipt. to clear.? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. is similar to traditional credit... to open. entered the virtual shop. Digital credit.6.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it.. 6. were found in the safe.. He is the very man .00.. for their manager... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement... The man. The account will not produce any .. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. To add money (to an account)... 3..? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. interest. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who........ agreed to honor my check... remittance. he ignored it.. The first one has already been done for you... He ignored it and threw it away. of which... to start.. loan.... statement..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. 8.. of account. The bank director... were still new.... 1.. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake......... deposit. However.. holder.. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday.. 4.. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order... overdraft..000.. wanted to buy some shirts. 30 .. The next month he got a bill for $0. . some . Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. D .... C .... will only be charged at 12%. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament.

The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.E . and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.? Finally giving in. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. He called them and talked to them.00 by return of post.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0. G .00.? In April he received another and threw that one too.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.? A week later. F .00. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.

"At telecom 91.. well. Huitema. is high / low it is highly probable that . but also immense excitement about the possibilities.. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". he predicted. that didn't keep the crowds away.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. dumb terminals. he said.. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. satellite. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Christian Huitema.. What should concern us. dipping even further into the future. Lastly. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". Next came. And needless to say. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. said Dr.... These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. was how online commerce will evolve. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. sound and feeling will arrive. the current issue of security will only be short. came the issue of virtual reality. there was an inevitable blur of content. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. said. he enthused.. 32 . For sheer impact. smells. for all intents and purposes. and. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. And as for the taste. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend.. one can predict / foretell that. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. more controversially. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. and the role of the providers. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. Dr. computing. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". the future. 1. experts expect that. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. "Sight.. exist. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. networks. we'll have to work on that one".. that probability that . So things have changed. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board... As he pointed out. Dr. futurologists forecast. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached.

words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen... I hope that doing the course . permit 1. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).. 5.... 4. 2.... Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient...... Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage... allow... Keyword The word.. Being a single parent . Reading Read the article.. me leave early every Friday afternoon. 3... Sneaky. there are grounds for believing that. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete. 33 . A security password ......00. 2. When I was young my parents never . me to stay out later than 11.. access to confidential files..it is a well-founded supposition that.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. it hard for me to have a social life. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.. My boss is easygoing and ...... Prepare to explain them to your partner. me to get a better job. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. The term was first coined by William Gibson.. it is reasonable to think that...... make. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. enable.. indicated by a finger symbol....... there are scientific arguments for. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... 3..

It's brief: three or four words per exchange. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. C-U-L8R 34 . Well. The solution is to abbreviate. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. or type the type. Plenty of adults talk the talk. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). GTG. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. every night. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. If something cracks you up. all day at work. Across the world. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). a new idiom has been born. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. It has an estimated 75 million users. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). It takes wit. There's neither time nor space for exposition. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. sex and location. contract and condense. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. PBAB (please bring a bottle). or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). FWIW (for what is worth). the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. concentration and agile fingers.

then write your own CV in the same way. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. Spanish. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". For the purpose of this task. EH21 3TZ email p. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. degrees and other qualifications. Geography. Stonebridge.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system.w. which sounds very strange indeed. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent.cair@btinternet.g. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . Computer Studies. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. English.II. Science.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. LANGUAGE FOCUS A.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. e.

L.advising clients on IT issues and strategies . Personnel Officer. 2000 . Leith.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Office 97. Novasystems 36 .TCP / IP Networking .Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .5 .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .database design .Exchange Server 5.network administration and implementation ..1st line customer telephone support .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification . Thin. IT Department. Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.Windows 95 / 98 .Sage line 50 & 100 .

please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . and where to put the handwritten signature."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter.am available to start as from June 15 . how to begin a letter. Check your spelling and punctuation 9.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Write clearly 2. 37 .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . and firm.should you feel I could be of use to your firm . Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it .B.state you qualifications in brief . State what job you are applying for 4.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . State when you are available for the interview 10.state where you saw the job advertised .name and address of firm. the name and address of the addressee.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". how to end it. Type your letter 6. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Give all the information you are asked for 8. Make the information you give relevant to the job. Use the person's name if you know it .1. B. Reference number if there is one. Keep your letter short and to the point 3.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . the signatory's full name (typed).am currently studying for .

I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. Yours sincerely. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. teachers and administrative staff. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. In Malaysia I arranged. Over the past year. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. as well as students.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. for example. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. study tours for project personnel. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. Alan Bannister 38 . As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. team leadership and team membership. through the British Council. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian.

Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. . don't rush. INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview.Do make a graceful exit.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. Describe your most recent accomplishments.Do sit still.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3.Don't smoke. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. 5. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. Dress in a business-like way. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. 39 . Which is more important to you.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . experience. interests and hobbies. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . . Thank your interviewer. money or job satisfaction? 12. . .Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. . . . 2.Do arrive in plenty of time. . In the past year. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. set out early. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1.C. You are likely to be found in the end. walk to the door. so much the better.

sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in..not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example... WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. Dear James. If you use email at work. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. working on Lingo.. or in sentences that are too long ....not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. which I hope you will find interesting. One letter is formal. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am . Please find ... or may not be able to open .. .. if you might be able to help me. How often do you use email? 2. you in the . and how you yourself will proceed Exercise .. the other informal.. B. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ...D.. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: ....writing too much. how has it changed your working life? 3... my recent paper. Yours sincerely.not answering all the points raised by the sender ..S.... To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.not telling the reader what you expect them to do. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. I would be extremely .. Could you email me details? 40 .. I . Dear Sir... future. How are you? I bet you are .assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .writing everything in UPPER CASE . if you intend your comments to be humorous) . What do you use email for? 4....... Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A...Read these emails..not making clear who you are and why you are writing . I was wondering if .. Monica Ciampi P.

topic d.. a. for b. a. pair d.. presently d. match c. missing c..In a . wonder d. a. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester ... included d.. I look forward to hearing news from d. grateful b. losing b. a. a... lacking 10. ask 2. a. a. dinner 14.. next c. demand b. annexed 9. a.. I look forward to hearing from c. I look forward to news from b. a. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. attached b. actually 3. additionally 4. and thank you for your help. matter c. glad 5. wasting d. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . Send my .. supper d. love c. so b. meal c.S... close 8. Best wishes. concerns b. early c. as well c. Hope to hear from you . enclosed c. then c. respect d. bracket 12. to Peter 1. with d. business b. near b. before 15. a. a. a.. thus d. too d.. now c.. a. of weeks I'll be in England. affair 6.. pleases d topic d. soon d.. together. drink b. a. request c. also b.... happy c. from c. by 11. couple b. and 13. a.. Monica P. beforehand b.. wishes 41 . currently b.

.. in conclusion..are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .... Let me quickly . rapport / eye contact. .... on balance. enjoyable.. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. specifically... . indicate.. I'll .. clarity. motivating Exercise ... sum up. referring. finally.. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. interrupt. to Italy and Spain.. of course.. variety.. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. options... and. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking... describe.... some of the problems we are having over the market share.... to . appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy.. priority..... . What makes a presentation effective? 4... on those successes before we . I'd like to . to start with.. talked. I'm . pronunciation. outline. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century... move on..... pointed out "Good afternoon. 42 . subject knowledge. For what purpose are presentations made? 3.. My .. .. thank. with some recommendations. purpose. Overall – clarity of message.... interesting.. concluding. accuracy. recommend. I'll quickly . signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with...... about our corporate strategy for the next decade.... .. I'd like to .... PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. There is no benefit in using difficult language. relevance... expand. everybody.. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. body language Language – clarity. with our plans for Europe.... appropriacy. Well... tell you... bring you up to date. I'll . fluency.. audibility.. illustrate. achievement of objectives. clarity. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. . .. our profits have not increased at the same rate. some of the problems we are facing.. then. what . I've . Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.E.. What is a presentation? 2. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. Please feel free to .. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it.. before . you all for being here... enthusiasm. confidence... you will notice. I think our first . today is to ... more . informative.. draw your attention. intonation. handling Delivery – pace..... me if you have questions at any time.. humor Organization – coherence. about our current position in the UK and I've ..... Now I'd like to .. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets... to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years... that although turnover has risen.

may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience..We should not forget the French market.. Are there any final questions?" 43 .. . ... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.. Spain and possibly Greece..... though. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly .... but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. Thank you also for your pertinent questions..

which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation.you can choose your own title . dissertations need to say a lot about a little. and be available to assist you. called a dissertation or long essay. However. In part-time degrees. but it can also be very daunting. but there are a number of differences: . You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. A member of staff will supervise progress. try it out with your supervisor. since you have more space. Like an essay.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . There are several criteria for your choice: . What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth.F. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. which you research by yourself.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays.is the topic academic enough? .research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. but is probably the most important. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. This means you have a whole year to write it. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. 44 .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work .

What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. It is longer. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. 000 words. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. Introduction – 1. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. ask yourself: . the first thing to do. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. 000 words Conclusion – 1. since you may need a few by your side. This will be your title. As you are reading through the books on your topic. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. Dissertations are usually 10.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. since you have more to say. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. but you can never tell. 4. 49 . It's really cold. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3.1. 5.

3........ 1...................... or no article.................. 4............ Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics............. There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ..... 3.... long walk by . local pool and saw Bob McGraw......... 6.... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation............ Royal Philharmonic Orchestra........... the.... 5. ................ years.. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions......... I went for . I've done that for you........ He's ............................. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known............................. Grammar 1..... 3............... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details.......................... 50 ............................................... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup..................................................................... Look at those clouds....... lunch with Bob..................... If you're too hot in here....... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year. In each case choose the most likely alternative... 5................ 4.............. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions......... .... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything........ After ............. Then I went swimming at .................................. I had ... professional musician and plays with ..... 2......... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations........ lovely morning......... 7.... .......... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras.................. 2........ I booked it last week....... 6... Articles Complete this text with a / an.. and she said that she hadn't had a chance..... .............. They wondered how we had managed to do it.................................... 7.............................. ............................ bank to withdraw some cash....... .... First I went to ......... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.................. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting........................... 8................ I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning.......... ........... 9............................................. Right............................. I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon................Test B A.......... River Thames......... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2... . 1....

........................................................................................... Wednesday at 9. As we were leaving.................. is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski..................... AK . EJ . OK........................ hello..... EJ ............................... e............... OK... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase......00. B...... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e........... I'm not really with you.. ? C ............. Sorry............. 10........... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary............. EJ ... ...... ..... Goodbye............................................ he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland..................m. Good idea...00 . P OK..... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.................................. 51 ... EJ ... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.. 9..............8......... something for people who need English translations of words........... let me give you an example........ at the latest.............. C Hello....... AK Yes................. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment...................... is that right? AK Yes........ this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering.... So.......00 a.......... is that Paula........ C Paula..... you're talking about.......... a.............. Functions 1..... P Yes.. and they said they would get it to him by 10. ............ fine..... and we told him that we could do it next week........... 2.. can I just interrupt you a second? b.. Would Thursday morning at 10........ I'm busy on Thursday.... right.................00 ? P ... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.. So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9............ He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software..... yes..... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert. ................ AK Exactly.................. then................................. d.. which is why I thought ...... AK Hello...... c....... . ........................................................................ I've got you... EJ Oh.. It sounds useful.......................

1.. The meeting coincided . 8... because of inefficiency... my money................. 3...... I really ............ 7....... 6.. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. me.... no! I seem to have . 3....... I had three jobs to choose ... sensitivity... lose. or waste... 2.... I'm allergic ........ 9. lose.. Thank you for taking part .. the inconvenience caused... Oh.. 52 ...... Please listen .... 2..... We need to concentrate . 5... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.... miss...... an important meeting in my life...... opportunity! 5.... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss.............. Don't worry.....C. He is lacking .... the beer festival... the discussion today. my family when I was abroad on business for four months.. . 4... Do you take credit cards? 4... A lot of company's resources are ........ You can depend ......... 10..... Vocabulary 1... I am not accustomed ... me.. He apologized ... my new job.. I can't eat seafood....... 1... it........... the UK market for the time being. I've never ....... 2...

There's not much news to tell you.. has just joined the company? b... How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. we hold meetings in..... so please hurry up. 2. 3. but I don't spend a lot on equipments.. you used to work? was also the year I got married. using where. have become good friends. I'm doing many work at the moment.. some of B... Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. The reception area.. 9. Nothing happened yesterday. 3.... What's the name of the woman .. that. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake.. 10.Test C A. 2. You can download software from many websites.... The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.... is comfortable and spacious... . is free... who. 5. I like playing sport. One million dollars is plenty of for one person... Grammar 1..... 1. He gave us a lot of information about his company.. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). 2. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). My company does much business in Asia. then correct the mistakes... There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. the majority of .. In some cases more than one answer may be possible.. 1. 2. 4.. I'm living in at the moment. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. a... You need to invest in some more machinery. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. is on the fifth floor. she later married. e. 53 . I give / will give you a bonus. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday. A.. anticipating an increase in value.... Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences.. Then complete them. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices. he bought shares in the company..... c.. d. or whom. which... 6... For three years she worked with her boyfriend ... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. work opposite us are not very friendly..... 7... This is the room .. Complete the sentences. 3.

. I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.... however f..... Functions 1. .... like e......... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online.. The problems with her job are really starting to get her .. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.. e.. e.... The point is d..... a..... working at the weekend.. He's always letting his colleagues ................ So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem........ for example 2.... By secure.......... on the other hand 4..... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning.. To give you an example c................................................. (be excited by) 4............... Explaining consequences........... It's such a bad line.... due to b.... . such as 5....... Vocabulary 1.......... while d..... ...................g... ....... thus C................. Let me explain what I mean.. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e.......... trends...... is the answer to that... ... 1.......... . g........... (understand) 54 ...... He's not a very good team player. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'... as 3........ (make depressed) 5.. what you're saying.. (disappoint) 2............ whereas 6... so h.......... fraud still occurs.............. ...... He really gets .. as a result of 8..... 1... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things............. (compensate for) 6. on abusing the little power he has.............. due to the fact that 7...... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server... because c.......B.... can we trust these servers to be secure? ........ (indicate awareness of something) 3..... ................. I had a day off work last week to make ...... I can only just make . because of a. 2..... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let . I mean b..

... last year when we broke into the German market... (became very successful) 8......... She called in sick so that she could get . It's good news........ Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics........... (avoid) 2... She's very good at getting her ideas ....... ? (invent) 10......... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties........ 55 .7... (communicate) 9..... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London..... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview............... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ...... the meeting........ The company really took ........

................ Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage...................... I think we ....................... ................. 7..... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb......... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form..... 6..................... .. 3................... His colleague's death ................. (you save) if your house .................................. be a big shock.............. have left my keys in the restaurant............................... ....................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.... (knock) on your door at home ............................... (be) on fire? b.............................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors............ .............. be staying at the conference venue................................................. be wrong........................................... 3..................... What three things ............................... We invite successful applicants to a second interview....... ................. 4........ I asked Miranda to write the report for me...................................... Use have / get something done where appropriate.... 9....................... Oh................... but I ... ........ 5............... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities........................ Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive........................................... According to Peter................ When I go to Barcelona I ... 2...... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning...... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ......................................... 5..................................... 2.......... Companies usually provide managers with language training.............................Test D A........... If someone ............... a....... company profits ............... We're locked out! 4......................... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6............. 2........................... 3..................... Grammar 1.. 1....... The store manager had only just moved to the branch. but I'm not sure yet........ 8. 1................ have kept some of it for herself............................................. .... He ......... He was only 42 years old......................... 10............. The optician tested my eyes yesterday........... ... no! I ......... well top $150 million this year............................ The head of department recommends candidates for promotion....................................................................... Conditionals 1............... ............................... 8................ 7................................................................................ ..................................... Somebody stole my laptop computer............................. (you open) the door immediately? 56 .....

whose life .c....................... b..... 1.................. using the words a-e. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said. However. a. one candidate is chosen. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ... (you choose) ? d......... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description. Could you be more specific? b....... c... d......................... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong.... ultimately c..... (you park) your car there they .. Functions 1. (you study) ? f........ ..... I know............ What .... ...... To keep to the point 3. Can I finish what I was saying? d. Then b.. To summarize a................ Where ... eventually d. . I ....... what .... A: Careful! If ............. a. (you change) ? g.... B: Thanks for warning me.. after lengthy discussion... Would you like to come in here......... (you do) ? e. If the weather ... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview.................. (go) to the police........ To manage interruptions 2... (see) a UFO............................ A: If I .... I ............. (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2..... If you . (you work) if you .. Ella? 57 .. basically what you're saying is. A: If you ...... If you . 2.. firstly e...... A: If I .. To ensure other people get to speak 4.. Can we just stick to this for a minute? e. what ... So... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion..... To ask for clarification 5. . B.................. we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed.............. (be) you... but I don't think they'd believe me... (be) you. c.. (go) to the police.. (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.. The interviews take place and ... If you ............. (give) you a ticket...... (not study) your subject at school / university.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.. B: Yes...... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's... (happen) if . (not get) a job with your current company? h........ (be) good this weekend what .. the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards........

..... Vocabulary 1......................... create ....... . 4... criticize ...... legible 58 ......... credible 4.. 2.... 5.... ............ ..... understand ......... .. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites........ connect 5..... rely ..C. 3...... 1............. .. 2.... 1. replaceable 3. humor . interested 2.

8. c. otherwise I may / must / can forget it.. By 2050 people .. (finish) their meeting by 7.. .... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life...................... thank you........... (do) at 8.... If you have time during your stay in Sydney....? 3...... requests... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years......... 4.. 59 ... a........ d.. .... Match each question with an appropriate category.... so don't forget to take waterproofs. Look. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.......00 p. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2......... Thank you. Call me sometime over the weekend.. I'm sure.. 5. (work) from home..... Future Continuous................ I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. Do you know what ........... 2.. I've got two tickets! B. 6. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics.. I ..... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. (think) of you.. Future Perfect.. By the time I retire I hope I .00 p... Will they ..... Good luck with your exam tomorrow. Am I allowed to smoke in here? b. Permission. 1...... A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow........ necessity... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form...... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. Grammar 1.. e..... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. B: ... I . you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa.. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes.... but . Invitations..... 2....... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase......... I'd like that....... I'm sorry........ if you'd like me to show you around Prague...............Test E A..... and obligation 1... tomorrow? We .. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.. Do you think there ...... it's no problem. possibility... (live) in space..... In three months' time I . Must I really go to the meeting? f.. I .. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. Functions 1.. 7............m..............m. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. A: Great. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9........ b......

...... Late payment often .. B: You too. A: So.. Vocabulary 1....... 1........ and take Complete the sentences with bring.. cash-flow problems for small businesses....... did you .................... I hear this is your last day at work here....... ..... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning........ A: Have you ......... cause 4............. Well... keep in touch d................. lead to... thank you for that lovely dinner once again. A: I've had a lovely evening.. hope to see you again sometime 1.............. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ....A: ...... 3. I'm glad you enjoyed it c. any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No..................... take up d.... 2................ A: . that . bring. Can I help you ........ A: Oh... your bags? They look very heavy! 2.... thanking.... get... take on a.... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do........ I can't...... Mark............ with everything......... B: ....... begin (a hobby) 2........ carry................ in your English test? B: Oh.. Thanks for coming.......... a.. great............ B: Yes.. I don't think I ....... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e. or take............. .. I have to .. Remember to .. too many mistakes... C.... some research for my thesis..... 2..... best of luck b. B: Thanks... carry.. her? 3. B: .... 5......... carry off c.. employ (someone) 60 . not too bad.... succeed 3........ eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock........ It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year..... A: How did you . get.......... lead to.. 2..... Concluding.... . I'm starting a new job next week... bring about b..... 1.... warm clothes...... A: Well. you're welcome e.. Yes........ the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4..........

at the moment 2. outgoing 3. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1.. f – 6 7.... g – 3 1. c – 7 4. have been having 9. a – 5 2. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. have eaten 10. .. 1. used to have a Porsche. was traveling / witnessed 3. have you been doing 6. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. . b – 2 3.. e – 1 6. to turn off 5. sounds like 4. 5. 3. going 1. had been sitting 6.Answer key Test A A1 1.. 2. was living 2. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. recently 3. arrived / had left 7. had been having 4. meticulous 4.Tests . had read / started 5. 4. have never seen 8. a . seems 5. stubborn 5. competent 2. d – 4 5.. always plays 7. woke up 1. saying 2. for a week 5. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays.. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. going 4. all my life 4.. look like 2. . to entertain 3. . watch 3. . I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. hasn't stopped 1.

'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. I'm playing 4. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1.m. I'll just check / I'll call 5. the 1.' 6. I'm going to 3. B1 1. from 7. lost 4. at the latest. who / that b. will win 9. you're talking about . I'm afraid 4. for 2. in 5. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. wasted 2. we can do it next week. I'm not really with you. I haven't had a chance. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. that's / That suits me 1. I'm going to spend 8.00 a. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. to 6. missed 3. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. with 4. Sorry. which 2. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. that / which / Ø d. an 5. That would be / Yes.' conditions.' 9. let me give you an example. 62 . How about / What about 5. a 7. OK. 5. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. wasted 5. on 8. missed C2 1. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. in 3. who / whom c. to 9. the 4. So. the 8. OK. which e. to 10. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. I've got you. a. a. Ø 9. Ø 6. I'll turn on 6. a 10. Are you doing A3 2. 2. 4.2. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. 'Did you see anything?' 2.' 7. I was wondering whether 2. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. the 3. is going to rain 7. 3...

down 2. C 4. C 9. rise 6. Let me explain what I mean 2. I – a lot of 3. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. by / will give 3. up for 1. I – a lot of 7. I – a lot of good advice 1. substantial 5. We started the company in 1999. which was also the year I got married. arisen 2. C 8. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. off 4. raise 6. I – information 2. I – quite a few 5. A2 1. e. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. By secure. across 9. I – plenty of 6. as soon as 2. down 5. out 7. 63 . I've met a lot of people through work. I mean 5. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. off 8. To give you an example 3. some of whom have become good friends. risen 3. sharply 4. The point is 4. I – equipment 10.b. on 3. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. d. until / are 1. up 10.

humorous 3. arrived 2. must 4. I was in the middle of saying something. reliable 2. must 7. knocked / would you c. Applications are passed on to universities. 5. might / may / could 3. could / would you choose d. My laptop has been stolen. could / might / may 1. A2 1. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3.. 6. Miranda was asked to write the report. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. 10. was you / would go c. would you work / hadn't got h. can't / couldn't 5. My eyes were tested yesterday. 8. were / would you change g. a. / I've had my laptop stolen. is / will you do e. should 2. 1. happens. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. 4. saw / would you do d. / Managers are provided with language training. incredible 4. creative 4. Language training is provided for managers. 9. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. John? 4. would happen / arrive. basically what you're saying is . disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . So. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm.. could / may / might 8. 7. understandable 64 C2 1. Can you be more specific? 5. should / must 6. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. 3. had been / would have gone b. uninterested 2. irreplaceable 3. would you save / was b. Candidates are recommended for promotion. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview.2. 2. Would you like to say something about this. Excuse me. a.

have finished 3. critical Test E A1 1. made 3. will be living 6. Hope to see you again some time 3. Shall 4. will be working 5. can't 5. can't 3. That's very kind of you 3. will be 9. best of luck 2. take 5. Shall we say 5. can 4. You're welcome 5. must 2.5. Keep in touch 4. bring 4. get 3. 1. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . illegible A2 1. lead to 1. carry 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. do 2. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will be thinking 2. will speak 7. will have been working 4. I was wondering 2. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. made 4. will have earned 8. would be fine / suits me fine 1.

Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. He knows a lot about music. 1. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. She's working here until Christmas. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. He doesn't want to be in the school play.IV. She works here until Christmas. 2. He's knowing a lot about music. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. 66 . GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. 2. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. I'm going to the cinema every day.

4. present simple. we add –ed to the infinitive. (He still works there now. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. 6.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. and present continuous Look at these sentences. I have.) I've lived here for three years.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. (Until now I've been there three times. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. He seems very tired. I want to go out for dinner. (She isn't here now. (I've got a new car now. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (I still live here now. You haven't lived abroad. He's seeming very tired. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. 3.3. 1. 5. 67 .) Present perfect. To make regular past participles. Some are right and some are wrong. Vegetarians aren't eating meat.) I've bought a new car. 2.) I've been to Brazil three times. Vegetarians don't eat meat. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle.

We often go to the park. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. Russia is bigger than Canada. I don't usually get up late. as . The train is always on time.. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. in front of the main verb. as . normally. Sometimes. Her house is as big as mine. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. can be used to make comparisons. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence.00.. The film was much better than I expected. I'm working here since October. but they usually go before the main verb. I work here since October. 5. 68 ... He's never here at 9.3.

as .. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. He's as tall as his brother.83m 1. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.92m Alex's brothers 1. Short answers Yes. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. He's so tall as his brother. . is also possible.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. 4. Alex 1. My exam results were worse than Andy's. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. We weren't here yesterday. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. 1. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world.85m 1.. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. 3.. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.. 2. The film was better than the book. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. In the negative so . The film was better that the book. 6. he was.

Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. She used to be a teacher. (She isn't here now. (We're interested in when the action took place. (I still live here. We went to the cinema twice last week. he was.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. We didn't use to live in London. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. It has no present form. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. For individual past actions. I went out this morning. two days ago.) She went at four o'clock.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. in 1993. She's gone home. not the effect. 7. (But I don't live there now. He used to smoke.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. or past actions which were not habits. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. you must use the past simple tense. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. I've been there four years ago.) Before that I lived in Madrid. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . not the present perfect. She wasn't going to work. but he gave up five years ago. last week). I went there four years ago. only the past simple can be used. I did. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. I've lived here for five years. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past.g. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

If I had the money. It may (not) rain today. It's likely to rain today. (But she works in a bank. which with things. I saw the man. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. (But I haven't got the money. He's the man who lives next door. Use Would has many uses. 74 least likely most likely . impossible. We use who with people. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. It probably won't rain today. or imaginary situations. It could rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It's unlikely to rain today. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun.) make polite offers. She's probably coming this weekend. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. It might (not) rain today. They wouldn't steal from a friend. I would. I'd buy a house. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. I saw the man who lives next door.) She'd be a good politician. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. It'll probably rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. Expressing probability Look at these sentences.

He's the man who/that lives next door. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. She married him. He lives next door. didn't you? NOT . You knew about this yesterday. can't she? NOT . so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. haven't you? It was raining. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. This chair's French. It isn't very warm. didn't she? You like fish. He's the man.. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. don't they? 75 . which. He's the man (who/that) she married. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. will she? It doesn't matter.He's the man that lives next door. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. Look at these sentences. or that. They aren't coming to the party. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. You're Italian. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. did not you? She can speak Russian. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. You can swim. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. 12. He's the man.. She arrived yesterday.. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow.. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. does it? You've finished. so we can leave out the relative pronoun.

It is less direct than an ordinary question. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. These computers are made in Japan. The crime will be solved. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. Someone has been arrested. Thousands of cars are stolen.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. It can't be done. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. To make the negative of the passive. 76 . We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. The man wasn't sent to prison. The weapon hasn't been found. we don't know the agent. This wine is produced in Portugal. We can use the passive in any tense. Cars shouldn't be parked there. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. She must be told. we use the negative of the verb to be. Fewer crimes would be committed. 13.) and is followed by a question mark (?). Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. These houses were built in the 1930s. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. The car has been found.

. We usually use a comma (. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. If I had enough money .If we want to show the agent. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. unlikely. or imaginary situations. If I had enough money. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. we'll go to the cinema. The car has been found by some children. we'll go to the cinema. If it rains. but not when the main clause is first. (There is a real chance that it will rain. We usually use a comma (. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. If she eats all the ice cream.) when the if clause is first.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. NOT If it will rain. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late.) 77 . Note: We do not use would in the if clause... but not when tha main clause is first. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. she'll feel terrible. we'd travel business class. (I don't think I'll get the job. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.) when the if clause is first.. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. we use by. If we had more money. 14. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. you'll miss the appointment. If you get up late. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. I'd buy that house. NOT If I would have enough money . The suspect was identified by a witness.) 15.) We won't go if it rains. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. If I get the job I'll earn more money.

. before. away. and after. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. before we would go to the cinema. I'll phone you when she arrives.. Oil will run out in the next century. He saw the mouse and ran out. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs.16. He took off his jacket. (transitive) The plane took off. in. She switched on the TV. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when.. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. He heard a helicopter and looked up. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. She takes after her mother. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. e. until Phil will get back. She switched it on. or She switched the TV on. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. look something up 78 . NOT ... NOT She switched on it. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary.g. NOT . the verb is separable. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. up. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. on. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. until. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). when she will arrive. as soon as.. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. NOT . Time clauses As in clauses with if. 17.

but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. 79 . 18. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. You're late.I looked up the word in the dictionary. is not normally used with stative verbs. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. like other continuous forms. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. or about past actions which have present results. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. I've been writing a letter. I've been waiting for an hour. He hasn't been waiting for an hour.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet.' emphasize the duration of an activity. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. I've been playing a lot of football this week. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. he has. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. (I haven't finished it yet. the verb is inseparable. I've lived here for ten years.) focus on the process of an activity. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running.

see.questions. question word(s) subject verb 80 . We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Do they live here? You saw her. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. Can she swim? They've arrived. decide. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. know.19. We use indirect questions after verbs like know.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. have no idea. Did you see her? In Wh. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. remember. using do/does in the present or did in the past. or an auxiliary verb. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. so we must provide one. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. a modal verb. imagine. ask. wonder.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Compare these questions. They live here.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me.

A shop that sells records is a record shop.? Could you tell me where the post office is. I've decided how much money I need. Note: However.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. I don't know if he's coming. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. I've decided how much money do I need.. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. What kind of software? Software for computers. 81 .questions we use the question word in the indirect question. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. 4. 3.. 1. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword.. arrives. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. we say clothes shop and sports shop. I wonder why did he do that? 21. The headword always goes at the end. left. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun.? or Do you think you could tell me . is. 've got. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. 2. With Wh. a computer software shop This is a shop.. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. football boots These are boots. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English.

Compare these sentences. 23. watch. We saw them leaving the house. when the subject of both clauses is the same. smell. She's playing tennis. 82 . etc. He was driving at 120mph. I got dressed. (New packets. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. to describe what someone can sense (with see. I had the idea while I was driving home. I could smell burning. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. (Empty packets. a teacup. with after. I had the idea while driving home. object I don't enjoy cooking. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). before. feel. There were two people waiting for you. After having a shower. There's someone coming. and while to replace a clause. I can hear someone coming. a tennis racket a living-room. Others are written as two words. stomach ache 22. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. a bathroom a coffee cup. I read a fascinating book the other week.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets.00.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. or are hyphenated. This is a really boring film. as adjectives. I've been working since 7.). After I'd had a shower. I got dressed. hear.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. -ing form or infinitive A. (Empty bottles.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. Unfortunately there are no rules. notice.

(He used to smoke but he doesn't now.) stop He has stopped smoking. (I was supposed to dance with him.) I tried speaking to her about it. She's considering emigrating to Australia. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. but it didn't work. begin. forget I remember meeting her. enjoy. suggest. continue It's just started raining. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. I like lying in bed late. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I enjoy doing the gardening. B. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.) I remembered to meet her. (I had to meet her and I did. imagine. then he stopped in order to smoke. but she still wouldn't listen. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. give up. I'm beginning to learn the piano. Some of the most common are finish. remember. (I wanted to speak to her.) C. (I spoke to her.) He stopped to have a cigarette. I began to realize how he felt. Smoking is bad for your health. In British English. (I danced with him and I won't forget it.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. (he was doing something. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. (I had met her before and I remembered it. but I didn't. but I couldn't. 1. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. I'd like to live abroad. but she wasn't there. It's just started to rain. feel like. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. consider. -ing forms Look at these sentences. start. hate.like. 83 .) try I tried to speak to her about it. love. and can't stand.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. (British) I like to lie in bed late.

I must remember to post this letter. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. Stop to make so much noise. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. B Oh. should. 24. I begun understanding the problem. must. B Me. Before leaving the office. neither to agree with a negative statement. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. I would. B So do I. I'd love going to New Zealand. 25. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. may. would. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. 84 . I began to understand the problem. might. A I couldn't read until I was seven. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. I made a phone call. B Oh. neither. 5. and Me. too to agree with a positive statement. A I've never been to Ireland. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. I could.) I + negative auxiliary verb. There's someone coming up the stairs. 6. ought to. To smoke is bad for your health. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema.) I + positive auxiliary verb. I must remember posting this letter. Before to leave the office. There's someone that comes up the stairs. I made a phone call.2. 3. B Nor/Neither have I. B Me. 7. need. A I really love pizza. will. shall. too. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. I'd love to go to New Zealand. 4. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. Stop making so much noise. could.

3. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. possibility. Present: He can speak four languages. I couldn't believe what he told me. (or I could find a new job. For example.) I must remember to post this letter. Modal verbs have no tense forms. He mights come later. They ought to be more careful. I must to remember to post this letter. we can use could to talk about ability. and permission. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. 4. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. I can swim. I couldn't read until I was eight years old.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. 2. They have no infinitive or participle form. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. would: I'd be able to find a new job. will: I'll be able to find a new job. They might not come to the party. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. Past: He could speak French when he was four. You don't should leave your car there. You might go to London. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. He might come later. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 1. She should see a doctor. or You don't need to come. You shouldn't do that. 85 .

) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. Passengers must show their boarding cards. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. it is 'my' obligation. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. I must start taking more exercise. The party's informal. 86 . To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. (It is and 'outside' obligation. I could drive when I was sixteen. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. (I want to. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. You need to be at the station by 8.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. You don't have to come if you don't want to. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. (It is a general obligation. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. The firemen could save everyone. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'./You don't need to wear a suit. You needn't wear a suit. The firemen were able to save everyone. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. Have to is used to describe general obligation. or to say what we think is the best thing to do.Could. The firemen managed to save everyone. would: I'd have to find a new job.30. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. a driving instructor. You ought not to carry so much cash.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. Have to is also used. was/were able to. Note: Must has no tense forms. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. from my doctor. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. Past: I had to find a new job. though could is more common. we use was/were able to or managed to. I have to work on Saturday this week. You shouldn't work so hard. will: I'll have to find a new job.

Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. I had the car fixed. Could is more polite than can. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. with we and I. and may are used to ask for permission. 5. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. She might not be here tomorrow. Some are right and some are wrong. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. and may is the most polite and formal. I had my room painted. I painted my room. 26. I will can go swimming every day next week. I had my hair cut. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself.Probability May. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. Permission Can. 2. could. Compare these sentences. 87 . and could are used to describe probability and possibility. 4. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. 3. This means that I painted the room myself. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. might. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. She could not be here tomorrow. 1.

g. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. The judge made the man apologize. Direct speech: I like cooking. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. It needs to be cleaned. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. The car's really dirty. said or told). 28. It needs cleaning. 88 . Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. 29. David's father lets him use the car. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. I got the garage to service my car. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. because a different person is now speaking. We can also use need with to be + past participle. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. The car's really dirty.27. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. Need + -ing is more informal. would. and modal verbs do not change. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense.

'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. 31. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question.. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. Zoe said that they saw a great film. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. the reported question starts with whether or if.. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. and verbs have a statement form. we make the following changes. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. We tell somebody something. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. 89 .. Andrea: I'm going out. say and tell We say something. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. With Yes/No questions. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. When we report questions. Andrea said (that) she was going out. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Monica said (that) she might phone us later..Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. She told (them) jokes all night. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. They told (us) a story. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Monica: I might phone you later. Zoran: I had never been there before. NOT Andrea said me . Tom said that he doesn't want to go. 30. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Helen: I'd like a coffee. NOT Andrea told (that) . Luke: I'll be away till March. The word order changes to a statement word order. Zoe: We saw a great film last week.

3. Some are right and some are wrong. she wouldn't have left. 33. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. I'd lend you some money if I had any. but not when the main clause is first. and command. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. order. 2. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. (I didn't work hard. She asked me where I lived.32. and I didn't pass the exam. 90 .' The doctor asked me to sit down. beg. 3. The instructor told me that I don't do that. 4. They told me that the exam was very hard. Reported speech Look at these sentences. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. 1. 1. but other verbs can also be used. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. I'd lend you some money if I would have any.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. 'Don't worry. 'Please sit down.) when if clause is first. If I had told the truth. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. warn. They said me that the exam was very hard. (You were driving too fast. an imaginary situation in the past. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. The instructor told me not to do that. persuade. We usually use a comma (. If you hadn't studied so hard.' He told me not to worry. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. such as advise. you would have failed. 2. and you crashed. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film.

) 91 . should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. 34.) They should have bought the house.4.

Michael & Francois Lagoutte. 2001. International Express. 2002. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 2. 92 .Oxford. 6. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 7. Otman. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Computer Studies Through Applications. Writing for the Internet. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. 2001. 2001. 5. All Stars. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. & John McGwan. Glendinning. Chris Mitton. Driscoll. Hutchinson. Wallwork. Eric H. Brooks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 3. Engleza pentru internet. 1998. Engleza pentru informatica. 4.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Steve & Peter Fox. Ian Selwood. Gabriel. Tom. 2001. 1992. Life Lines. Oxford English for Information Technology. Jane. 8. Dorner. Kennewell.

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