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CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
..... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible..... It is the language of business... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.. 4... speaking and not being corrected all the time ..... Compare your lists. 1 being the most important. and aviation..... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. we can talk about a round of golf. . English is the most widespread language on Earth. learning grammar .. but remember that different people learn in different ways. This will no doubt continue. 4 ... Work alone. Read books and newspapers. learning vocabulary .. Geographically..What advantages does the baby have? ... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement..What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? .... Purists of the French...... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. speaking and being corrected . Speaking 1. or drinks.to be cleaned and dried.. writing . technology... sport...What advantages does the adult have? 2..... cards... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.. Prepositions too are flexible. Work in groups.... Justify your order.. pronunciation practice 3... and the process is now being reversed............ This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. How do you learn languages? . reading .. listening ..
computers you could play games on and use unproductively. invented e-mail.. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. swapped them (via the net. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. These packets could be sent independently over the network. But they weren't interested in science or academia. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. to use the techy term.I. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. 4. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET.. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. Instead of using the network strictly for business. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. There will be no "command center". 3. They had. and the Internet. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. 1. They started mailing lists. Crude as they were. 2. Because of the way the messaging system worked. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. just kept on growing. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. by 1972. no single computer that controls the rest of them. as it came to be called. 5 . By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. 37. the way they got there was unimportant. each machine will have equal status. in fact. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. Instead. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. But then an odd thing started to happen. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. still the most popular use of the Net by far. they used it to swap gossip. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. they opened newsgroups. uninvited but still welcome. they sent each other games. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. for it was they. it worked. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. then news and eventually gossip. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. Other networks joined in. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work.). Amazingly.
a set of related computers C. researcher A. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. desktop computer 2. notebook 3. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. cheaper and more reliable. Computer sizes. Here are five types of computers. Apple. mainframe 5. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). however. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. a series of bits being a part of message B. mailbox. along with IBM. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Since then the computers (become) smaller. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. but transistors soon (replace) them. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . but the market (saturate) to some extent. Over the last few years. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization.2. a person who tries to discover something E. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. supercomputer 4. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. packet. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. network. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple.
the material would be available to students at their convenience. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. the Net will be alma mater. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. videotape of professor's lectures. all of which express personal opinions: 1. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. online environment. learn the material. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. There's a revolution happening in education. It's called distance learning. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. and the Americans. visit the school's We site. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. rather than offering their own set of courses. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. offered by mail. and interactive courseware. Within a few months. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. Europe. says Nat Kannan. founder and president of University Online. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Students can log onto the Internet. For example. click on the course they want. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . Personally. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. and connect to a server that presents information. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. and as with mail order programs. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. and even conference with the teacher when necessary".LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. Using modern technology. Australia. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. use a bulletin board. Use the elements to make complete sentences. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. 1.
to give a linear form to 8.... -or -hood -ian -ion. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e..g.. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1.. state condition. to reduce to the minimum 7. addressee audience. in 1992 2.... 4. To my mind. state condition. condition belonging to act of. When we started.. we never believed it would be so successful. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. independence employer. 5. four years . behavio(u)rism typist. This University has only existed ... Fill the blanks in this passage with since. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. a few months . scientist . boredom. to make use of a symbol for something 3. to write a summary of 3..... over two years. possession magnetism. execution. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. withdrawal clearance.. .... operator voucher.... I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8... connector childhood. neighbo(u)rhood electrician... musician introduction. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. University Online was originally tested over five years .. for and ago: 1. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition.5. kingdom employee.. so it has been tested . to arrange in an optimal way 6. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. It was put on the market in 1994. to represent in a digital form 2. You have to follow a course . 3. the beginning of the experiment. several new courses have been offered. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. to give authority to 10. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal... to take a material form 5. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. 6.
standard 18. concentrate. robot 6. action condition of quality. computerize. reality achievement. condition. 1. state condition. tight 5. simple 4. simplify customize. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. state electricity. personal 15. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. electric 17. lengthen classify. behavio(u)r foundry. mode 14. short 7. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. condition place. interruptible environmental. transform the following words into verbs. auto 8. soft 10. -ical -ish -less -ous. -ery -ship state. rivalry friendship. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. weak 19. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. widen. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . using the verb-forming suffixes above. government business. initial 12. logical. quality state.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. tolerate shorten. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. stimulus 20. slavery. happiness. furiously 4. economical foolish useless porous. analysis 11. loose 16. broad 2. long 13. Now. generally. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. active 3. local 9. boldness labo(u)r.
There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Get a decent book on Windows programming. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. They merely prove you can think. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. an attention to detail.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. After a couple of hops like that. A consultant is different. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. And there are lots of people who know it too. Java and Visual Basic developers. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. technology and people. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. you've run big projects. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. C++. Visual Basic and Delphi. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. rolled out major solutions and are well known. If you decide programming is really for you. a week there. and so on. more manageable pieces. For someone starting out. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. its positioning on the market. 10 . a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. as does Novell. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. However. spend more money on a training course. C++. how it relates to other products and so on. Qualifications are important. By the age of 30. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. Here's the road map. That's where the all-important experience comes in. so you have to be better than them. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. University degrees are useless. Delphi. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal.
decode disagree. foresee. involve output. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. semicolon . usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. bystander input. size. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). external foreground. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. misfortune nonsense unreal. side in. location. into going away more than above too much beneath.
location. not up to standard 10. after the war 4. that is already programmed 2. to predict 3. size. Now use the prefixes of degree.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. half manual 7. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. to convey data from one place to another 8. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. a program that is part of a larger program 6. half automatic. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . 1. to grow larger 5. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3.
Besides content. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. and visitors may not know how to 14 . include descriptive ALT text captions. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. you may group the FAQ. For example. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. If you are committed to using frames on your site. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. to find their way around. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. and make necessary adjustments. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. rather than image maps or graphical buttons.
especially those ending in "y" (see above). features. helpful graphics. Logical. confusing. ease of use. accuracy. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). Visit a website of your choice. Take notes on any special features. For most sites. contact information. colorful. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. nice design. 15 . cluttered. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. a user.use yours effectively. However. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). you can add the suffix "er". good reactivity. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. up to date. password protected. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. navigation. search facility. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. 1. (hot) links. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. a visitor. on-line support. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. well laid out. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. structure connections. without wasting space. compatibility.
1. when buying a PC are often 5. 2. the slower the speed of execution.. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. as". There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. John was the elder of the two boys. 3. 2. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. For the preceding sentence. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. 4. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. The higher the resolution.. when preceded by "X times". 4. "as . However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. the more I feel depressed. the better he feels.. resolution was 16 . indicated by the symbols. The less sophisticated the software. the comparative can be preceded by "the". This computer is the cheaper of the two. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. The less he works. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. the sharper the picture. 3. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison.. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. 2. When comparing two items.
ugly picture 9. powerful computer 2. reliable device 5. 3. fuzzy image 8. fast chip 4.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. 1. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. expensive card 6. big memory device 7. cheap computer 3. With short adjectives. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. inconsistent program 10. This is the most powerful computer available today.
. In practice.... nothing would ever be said on the Net at all.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. You . This piece of software .. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette... Put the words back in the right order: 1.. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. (A whole quarter second in some cases). Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups.. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. Don't use a signature of more than four lines.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. 6... 5. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program... because it wastes people's time... when to criticize and when to stay silent. The following sentences have been scrambled...... off-the-point arguments to see that..... Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. A bug .. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. The reason for this is never given. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. 2.... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop. A flowchart .... Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can.. on the Net or elsewhere.. 3. 4.. Programs . make sure you spell correctly yourself.. may or could 1. It doesn't work.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. unwarranted abuse and long. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.. have to.. Don't cross-post messages. Conversely. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. cause unexpected results. This form of internal policing. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. and overzealous at that.. 1. read the FAQ). be debugged before being executed.. if that happened.. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it.... sometimes be useful when designing a program. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users... No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.. 18 . When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. You . rambling.
Cu toate acestea.... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus... Ar fi putut.. 6....... to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own ... de exemplu....... sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului.. 9....... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. email. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.....7. write this program in a high-level language. (You can find the words left to right.. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8... 5.. 2... a measure of visits to a website .. the main. You .. 8... Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici... 3. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text.. photo. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems . top to bottom.... it will take up too much space in the computer memory.. Cind am incercat soft-ul... paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii... Translate the following sentences into English..... and computing. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet..... picture... 8.. 4. 5. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. graphic ..... Write them next to the correct definition..... If you do. 4.. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1.. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .. They .. 6. 3... fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.. opening page of a website .. a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages . 3.. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. and diagonally top to bottom). also known as "favorites" ... 7. 19 ... 10.. 2. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like... 7.. Daca as fi vrut..
.. 20. 13........... 21. inappropriate use of a mailing list . 11...... abbreviation for the Internet .. 17....... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.. a search engine..... the Internet equivalent of post . a way of showing emotion in an email.... ..e..... 15.... a software package generally used to start you up for a program ..... email..... 20 . something that automatically connects you to another page .. 14... :-) .... 22.g.. 18.. 19. etc....... a physical input / output point .....9.... a location on the WWW .. 12....... the World Wide Web . an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ..... a bug which infects data on your computer ........ e.......... Uniform Resource Locator....... i.... 10. 16....... website address .. unsolicited mail........ the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ........
or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. had knocked on this door. But according to those who practice. hacking is still easy. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. The law was tightened up. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside.000. Robert Schifreen 21 . A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Admittedly. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. All the hacker needs is a modem. has the security. 1. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. 1. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock.Choose the ending (A. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. Hackers have their own code of conduct. Typically. For some teenagers. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. hacking has been criminalized. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. and so. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. B. which is readily available. MULTIPLE CHOICE . costing companies an average of $23.000 a year to repair. the computer companies would have you believe. Today's hacker is not so lucky. had not been in trouble with the law before. C. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Triludan. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. better known as Robert Schifreen.
22 . totally unaware of what they are doing. 6. Then link them with an –ing clause. C. male criminals. According to the NNC A. Cause 1. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. 3. is popular because it is romantic. costs about 48p a time C. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. You can download single tracks. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. D. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. Effect a. deliberately destructive B. Match each cause and effect. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. e. B. 4.A. 8. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. Each MP3 file has a tag. f. You can create your own compilation. c. B. 2. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. Hacking A. D. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. This produces much smaller files. 5. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. is a form of escape from the everyday world. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. has made hacking more difficult. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. 7. MP3 players contain several devices. You can download a skin program. D. the survival of hackers is threatened. 5. 4. has eliminated all computer security. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. b. h. 2. outlaws hacking. C. merely curious. g. This gives an enormous storage capacity. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. You can legally download some music. 33% of its members are hackers B. d. 3. B. D. C. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD.
4. 5. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . 2. mouse and hard drives only. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 1. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 8. display. keyboard. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company.3. 10. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. 9. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. 7. 3. 6. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets.
and because there's more space. and justify the cost of a drive.. along with the conventional 3.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. .... Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996...... with a further 1. 1.. literature and art. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5....... Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. word processor and database – comes on one CD. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis... floppy drive. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.. 1. Review criteria 4.. As with other areas of the computer industry. For example. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. the applications are generally better.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line. But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity........ the equivalent of 300... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole...5in.. According to the market researcher Dataquest... but are spread throughout business.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone...... or were vast collections of specific information.... The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. but it's not the only one. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. 24 ..2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. Price points .. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage... CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. Applications are the key issue.. Measuring drive performance 2..LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).. Put them back in the appropriate place. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. Mainstream applications 3.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post...
Backing Store ... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware.. however advanced. 2. 9... This is often confused with the average access searches.. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.... while still developing rapidly.. The industry..... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user. access time... Increased competition has now reversed the trend..... files.But CD-ROM... 1... TRUE OR FALSE? ... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use... disk 25 . CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives........ more faster.. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more..... CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players. 3. . The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.. drawback... but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software.. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search.... 5..... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files.... 4. this excuse was taken too far.......Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices... As a result of this market maturity........ . pie chart.... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. 10.. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time.. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase.... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.. 2...... is still a read-only product... 8. 7...... 6.. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks..... give reasons for your choice.. more precise head positioning mechanism.. ... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader...Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false.. 1... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.
..." are also common.... THE PASSIVE . on both surfaces....e. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS. magnetic disks or diskettes. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use. The . Before being used. needs to be in main memory at any one time. direct-access.... Hence files can be ... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an ... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as . floppy disk.. both internal and external. directory... (i....... 26 . Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. disk packs... i... 9.. Hermetic data modules called ". Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta. of all the files on the disk. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta................. a track and a sector number).... 3. 8. where only one surface is .... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .. and ... 2.. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.............. 10.. storage areas are marked on the magnetic...... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ..drives.. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.... but has the ... sequential access..... You should write between 150 and 200 words.... magnetic tapes.... erorile se pot corecta... 6.... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)... though these are becoming .. address..... double-sided.. Large systems often use cartridges or .. disk.. it is called a .. 4.. In this way only a small part of a .. a disk must be . If the disk is ........... This technology is cheap and easy to use........ Disk have the advantage of being serial or ....... media and .. formatted (x3).......... as opposed to a single-sided disk... retrieved...... oxide-coated surface. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta. database.......... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare............ De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.... 7.Translate the following sentences into English: 1...e.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems.. Most users are more familiar with the ...... 3... so-called because of its flexibility. that is extremely slow because of .. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb. 5... read-write head.. old-fashioned...
But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. B. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. C. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. will replace traditional museums. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. only aristocrats could go to museums. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. the patron goddesses of the arts. science. B. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. military. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. 27 . so art can fit into all kinds of experience. A museum can best be defined as A. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. electronically. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. crafts. For many people. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. public museums did not exist. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. Moreover. Elizabeth Brown. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. An overview of lost techniques. fashion. With reference to the information in the article. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. Within the last few years. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. a basis for study for future generations. 2. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. C. At the time of the Renaissance A. and industry. 1. 3. especially in distant lands. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. With the internet. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. beyond the straightforward museum visit. virtual museums A.
only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. photo (taken quickly) 2. Put the following sentences into the passive form. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . masterpiece 4. museum A. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. The Web may transform our perception of art. artefact 3. honored 5. vast 4. best work of an artist C. Match the words and their definitions: 1. 6. art work 2. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. The National Museum of Art A. collection 5. to establish 6. Museums maintain and display great works of art. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. 1. B. C. 4. storehouse 8. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. will organize visits to its storage spaces. 2. country 9. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. disadvantage 7. something produced by creative talent E. 2. to admire 3. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. object produced by human hands 3. will show works of art that do not exist. article (in a magazine) 4. C. 5. work of art.B. to see. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 3. 4. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. to enjoy 10.
A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. 29 . the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment.. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. and a bank does the accounting. Using a public key. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. charge accounts. a bank redeems each note number only once. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. for example). 3. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. and credit cards are credit systems. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. paper currency. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server.e. traveler's checks. the merchant receives the payment. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. In many cases. 4. the date and time of the transaction. Payment systems based on gold. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. 1. Checks. To execute a real-time transaction. A bank employee who pays out money. 5. or a dedicated payment client. the name of the payer and the recipient. 2. A person who buys goods or services from you. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. With such a system. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). In a peer-to-peer system. In a debit system. currency. The customer runs client software. In a credit system. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. The customer pays. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. and the amount of money represented). and the amount to be paid. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. This might be a WWW browser. users can act as both customers and merchants. A person who receives (money. For the purposes of this discussion. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. you gather your money up front and then spend it. both exist in the digital world as well. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments.
. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who... of account. Money used in a specific country... 2.. to start.. some . He alone will be authorized . whose.... name is on the check. balance.. of which.. 5.. deposit. the company can have access to a . wanted to buy some shirts. holder. A computer that can access a server.. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. a current ... He ignored it and threw it away........ The site.... The first one has already been done for you...00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt..00 stating that payment was now overdue.. 6... 3. entered the virtual shop. The account will not produce any . The bank will send the company a weekly .... The initial ... interest..... The man. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled... 1... we found CD-ROMs on sale. ... were still new.... bought her a typewriter instead. safe.. He is the very man ... 30 . cheques. To add money (to an account).... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. 8... to clear. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. remittance. receipt..000. whom. You will not need to use them all! account...... I met personally.. 2. accepts digital cash.. 3.? The next day he got a bill for $0.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. for their manager.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday.....6. withdrawal The Longstone company wish ...00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. is used in electronic trade. statement. to open.. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. C . agreed to honor my check... overdraft. Digital credit. which.. loan........ is similar to traditional credit. Stupid Computer Error A .....? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. 7. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. The bank director. to sign. he ignored it... The customer.. The next month he got a bill for $0. were found in the safe... will only be charged at 12%...... trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out.00.. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.. 4. D . . For $20 a month... ... will be $10.. A large number of banknotes... where... However.
00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 .00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. G .00. He called them and talked to them. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. F .? A week later. The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 by return of post.E .? Finally giving in.
smells.. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. and. said Dr. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer.. that probability that . who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Dr. futurologists forecast. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. the current issue of security will only be short. and the role of the providers. 32 . more controversially. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". For sheer impact. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. Lastly. As he pointed out. Christian Huitema. And needless to say. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable.. dipping even further into the future. So things have changed. What should concern us. Dr.. there was an inevitable blur of content. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. networks. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". computing.. said. dumb terminals.. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion... "Sight. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. is high / low it is highly probable that .. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. Huitema.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. And as for the taste. we'll have to work on that one".. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. the future. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. Next came. one can predict / foretell that. "At telecom 91. sound and feeling will arrive. well. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. was how online commerce will evolve. that didn't keep the crowds away. for all intents and purposes. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. satellite. he enthused. he said. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". experts expect that. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. he predicted. 1. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. came the issue of virtual reality... exist. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend..
. permit 1.. 33 ... 3... allow.. Prepare to explain them to your partner... The term was first coined by William Gibson. Being a single parent ... Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete... Keyword The word. 2.. indicated by a finger symbol. When I was young my parents never .. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer.. access to confidential files... me to stay out later than 11... 2.. it hard for me to have a social life.. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. enable..... 3.. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made...... 4.... me leave early every Friday afternoon. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can. 5. it is reasonable to think that... A security password . words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let... My boss is easygoing and .00. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse. me to get a better job. Reading Read the article..it is a well-founded supposition that.. I hope that doing the course .. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen.. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient...... Sneaky. make. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). there are grounds for believing that... there are scientific arguments for..
It has an estimated 75 million users. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. The solution is to abbreviate. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). all day at work. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). concentration and agile fingers. Plenty of adults talk the talk. sex and location. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). GTG. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in).ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. PBAB (please bring a bottle). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. contract and condense. every night. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. or type the type. a new idiom has been born. FWIW (for what is worth). America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. If something cracks you up. There's neither time nor space for exposition. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. C-U-L8R 34 . the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). It takes wit. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. Well. Across the world.
Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. degrees and other qualifications. Science. Spanish.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. which sounds very strange firstname.lastname@example.org Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. then write your own CV in the same way. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. For the purpose of this task. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally.w. Computer Studies. e. Geography.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . English. Stonebridge.g. EH21 3TZ email p. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .II.
network administration and implementation .5 . IT Department.. Personnel Officer. 2000 .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .1st line customer telephone support . L. Novasystems 36 .Windows 95 / 98 . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . Leith.advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Exchange Server 5.Windows 200 Server / Professional .database design .TCP / IP Networking . Thin.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.Sage line 50 & 100 .Office 97.
the signatory's full name (typed). how to begin a letter. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.am currently studying for . Write clearly 2.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . and where to put the handwritten signature. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . so read the advertisement carefully first 5.am available to start as from June 15 . WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). how to end it.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. Use the person's name if you know it .should you feel I could be of use to your firm .state where you saw the job advertised . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period.1. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. B.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Give all the information you are asked for 8. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".state you qualifications in brief . 37 .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . and firm. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references .B. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. Make the information you give relevant to the job.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Type your letter 6."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Reference number if there is one.name and address of firm. State when you are available for the interview 10. State what job you are applying for 4. the name and address of the addressee.
Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. Over the past year. Alan Bannister 38 . from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. My contact address until the end of July is as above. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Yours sincerely. for example. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. as well as students. through the British Council. team leadership and team membership. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. teachers and administrative staff. study tours for project personnel. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. In Malaysia I arranged. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21.
Thank your interviewer. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.Do make a graceful exit. You are likely to be found in the end. set out early. experience. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. . .Do arrive in plenty of time. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. .Don't let your clothes be too extreme. so much the better.Do sit still.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.C. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. interests and hobbies. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. . 2. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. 5.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. walk to the door. . Describe your most recent accomplishments. Dress in a business-like way. don't rush. money or job satisfaction? 12.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. .Don't smoke. . How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview .It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . Which is more important to you. 39 . In the past year.
which I hope you will find interesting. Dear Sir.... any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.. you in the .not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. . I . the other informal. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . how has it changed your working life? 3. Yours sincerely.. B. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are .. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .not making clear who you are and why you are writing .. or may not be able to open . What do you use email for? 4... Monica Ciampi P.... working on Lingo. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. I was wondering if .Read these emails. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.writing everything in UPPER CASE .S. I would be extremely ... Please find .. How often do you use email? 2..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this ....... future.. if you intend your comments to be humorous) . How are you? I bet you are .D. working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. my recent paper..... My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. if you might be able to help me. Dear James..not telling the reader what you expect them to do.... Could you email me details? 40 ..writing too much.. If you use email at work... or in sentences that are too long .. One letter is formal... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .not answering all the points raised by the sender ..
presently d. drink b. supper d. happy c.In a . before 15. bracket 12.. near b.. glad 5.. as well c. couple b. a. ask 2. wishes 41 . dinner 14.. love c. matter c. early c. respect d. a.. beforehand b. affair 6. meal c. a. concerns b. match c.. currently b. a. for b. lacking 10.. a. actually 3.. now c.. a. a. request c.. a.. by 11. from c. Send my . a.. missing c. close 8... a. Hope to hear from you . Best wishes. and 13. a. soon d.. losing b..S. Monica P... enclosed c. pair d. I look forward to hearing from c. wonder d. too d. a. included d. I look forward to hearing news from d. a. pleases d topic d. additionally 4. wasting d.. attached b. I look forward to news from b. business b.. demand b. then c. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . next c. thus d. also b. I am looking forward to hearing from 7.. of weeks I'll be in England. annexed 9. with d. a.. so b. together. grateful b. and thank you for your help.. topic d. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . a. to Peter 1.
. humor Organization – coherence. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.... appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. bring you up to date. pronunciation. priority.. outline... For what purpose are presentations made? 3. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. Please feel free to ..... My . enthusiasm. our profits have not increased at the same rate.. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1. describe. appropriacy. ...... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK... . 42 .. I'm . appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. I'll . What is a presentation? 2.. Well. finally.. body language Language – clarity. everybody.. informative.. with our plans for Europe. to Italy and Spain. I'd like to .. me if you have questions at any time. to .. tell you.... Now I'd like to ... thank. I'll quickly . Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts. . relevance.. some of the problems we are having over the market share. interrupt. confidence. about our current position in the UK and I've .Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. draw your attention.. in conclusion.... fluency.... options. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. .... on balance.... with some recommendations. you all for being here.. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. recommend.. There is no benefit in using difficult language. motivating Exercise . Overall – clarity of message... purpose.. I think our first .are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. .. sum up.. today is to ... move on... to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years. interesting. that although turnover has risen. pointed out "Good afternoon. what ... audibility. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.... then.. accuracy.. intonation. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. you will notice. to start with. before . and. rapport / eye contact. Let me quickly .. . I'd like to .. specifically. of course.. indicate.. . enjoyable. illustrate. variety. What makes a presentation effective? 4.... I've .... more .... the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. handling Delivery – pace. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it.... clarity. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. on those successes before we ... Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next.... expand. I'll . clarity...E.... concluding... achievement of objectives. talked..... some of the problems we are facing. subject knowledge. referring......
We should not forget the French market. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes... Thank you also for your pertinent questions. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy..... Spain and possibly Greece.. though... I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . . . Admittedly our results there have been poor so far..... Are there any final questions?" 43 .
a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay .is the topic relevant to your degree course? . two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . called a dissertation or long essay.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. There are several criteria for your choice: . DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . In part-time degrees. but it can also be very daunting. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation.is the topic academic enough? . and be available to assist you. 44 . but is probably the most important. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting.F. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. try it out with your supervisor. This means you have a whole year to write it. but there are a number of differences: . Like an essay. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays.you can choose your own title . dissertations need to say a lot about a little. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. However. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. since you have more space. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. which you research by yourself. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). A member of staff will supervise progress. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation.
Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. the first thing to do. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. This will be your title. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. since you have more to say. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. It is longer. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. ask yourself: . Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. since you may need a few by your side. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. 000 words. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. As you are reading through the books on your topic. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Introduction – 1. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. 000 words Conclusion – 1. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 .What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. Dissertations are usually 10.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 49 . He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. but you can never tell. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. 4. 5.1. It's really cold.
........ long walk by ........... 1....... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known............................. 50 ......... 3....... 5................ 7...................................... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details................ old school friend who I hadn't seen for .................... ... lovely morning..... 1. so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.......... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning........................... 9... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year..... I've done that for you........................... In each case choose the most likely alternative............... lunch with Bob... Articles Complete this text with a / an............. or no article. 3... They wondered how we had managed to do it... I had ....... 5............ 2............... .. 7.................. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting................................... ................ Grammar 1... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions... Right...... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras................... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon........... 8..... 6. .. and she said that she hadn't had a chance.............. After ...... ............ I booked it last week.......................... ...... 6..... 4...... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.. years....... He's ................... 4... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything....................... I went for .. professional musician and plays with .. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics..... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations........ local pool and saw Bob McGraw......................................Test B A. If you're too hot in here.......................... Then I went swimming at ............................ I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup.............................. 2..................................................... .................. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation................. Look at those clouds. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions. ........ There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit............. First I went to ..... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.............................. the.......................... bank to withdraw some cash.............. 3............................................... River Thames...............
... EJ ..... let me give you an example.. right. I'm busy on Thursday.............................. .............. EJ ............ EJ Oh.. is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski........................................... . without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary..... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering....... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software. P Yes. ..................... Sorry...................... 9..... Good idea........ EJ ........ d... AK Hello.................................................................. and we told him that we could do it next week.................................. OK......... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest. AK Yes.. ? C .. hello......... at the latest.. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert..................... Functions 1... C Hello................................................ The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily..... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase............. Would Thursday morning at 10.................. e........... yes. He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.......... As we were leaving.. B...... 51 .......m.. I've got you.. Wednesday at 9.... 10................. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e..00 ? P ........................... AK ....... C Paula........ he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland........... and they said they would get it to him by 10..... 2.. can I just interrupt you a second? b... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.................... OK.............. is that right? AK Yes.............................. It sounds useful... something for people who need English translations of words..... you're talking about... c.00 a. is that Paula..... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment.......... fine......8............................... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.......................... Goodbye. P OK....... ..................... I'm not really with you............................... EJ ................. a.00 ..... .............. AK Exactly........... So..... then................... which is why I thought ..........................00. ..
............ He is lacking ........ 52 . 7.... I can't eat seafood...... or waste....... Vocabulary 1. the inconvenience caused.. I had three jobs to choose .... me..... 8... 2. You can depend ... The meeting coincided ...... I'm allergic ..... He apologized .. 2.... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss...... it.. Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.... 1.... me..... 6. Don't worry... ..... lose. 10...... 2.....C.. 1.. because of inefficiency....................... my money..... I've never .. Thank you for taking part ...... A lot of company's resources are .. lose.. 9..... Oh.. the UK market for the time being... Please listen ..... sensitivity... opportunity! 5..... I really ..... no! I seem to have ...... 4. I am not accustomed ... my family when I was abroad on business for four months...... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. 5.. We need to concentrate ... the beer festival.... 3... miss.. 3. the discussion today..... my new job............ an important meeting in my life.. Do you take credit cards? 4..
We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. she later married. Grammar 1. 5. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . or whom.. Complete the sentences..Test C A.. This is the room . the majority of . The consultant gave us a lot of good advices... 4... using where. . 3. 2.. is comfortable and spacious. 9... he bought shares in the company. A... 2..... d. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8.. 10. I give / will give you a bonus. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. anticipating an increase in value.. I'm living in at the moment. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. has just joined the company? b... What's the name of the woman . 2. You can download software from many websites. I like playing sport. I'm doing many work at the moment. is free....... As soon as / Until the merger was announced. we hold meetings in. work opposite us are not very friendly. There's not much news to tell you.. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. e... My company does much business in Asia.... 1. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. then correct the mistakes. 2. Then complete them.. 3. 6.. that.. which.... 3.. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake... If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday...... You need to invest in some more machinery. have become good friends. He gave us a lot of information about his company...... you used to work? was also the year I got married.. a. c. Nothing happened yesterday... so please hurry up..... 1.. The reception area. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun)... some of B.. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. is on the fifth floor. 7.. 53 . who. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments.
... .......... (be excited by) 4..g.. He's not a very good team player...... as a result of 8... By secure........ Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e...... whereas 6... I mean b.............. Let me explain what I mean...... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ..... can we trust these servers to be secure? . g.......... The point is d. on abusing the little power he has.. e. (understand) 54 . on the other hand 4....... ......... due to b....... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server... so h.......... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things. The problems with her job are really starting to get her ..... (compensate for) 6..... as 3.... because c.......... ..... is the answer to that.. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'................... what you're saying......................... e........... fraud still occurs............ like e. Explaining consequences..... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer....... due to the fact that 7............ To give you an example c....... Functions 1...... 2.................... a........ ........ .. 1........ 1.... It's such a bad line...... thus C... trends.... I can only just make . Vocabulary 1....... He's always letting his colleagues .... however f. ......... such as 5................... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online.... I had a day off work last week to make . (make depressed) 5..... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem... Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets.......... ............ ... (indicate awareness of something) 3...... (disappoint) 2....... while d....... because of a. He really gets ................B........ for example 2....... working at the weekend........ and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning...
............. (became very successful) 8. (communicate) 9.. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ....... It's good news...7............ ? (invent) 10.. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties..... last year when we broke into the German market.... the meeting.............. The company really took ... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.. She called in sick so that she could get ....... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview......... (avoid) 2.................... She's very good at getting her ideas ..... 55 .
.... ..........Test D A... be wrong..... .......................... ............... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage............................................................................................................. 2....................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ................ 2............................. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive.......... no! I .. 2................................... 1............. ........... ... be a big shock.............. What three things ....... a................. 9....................... According to Peter.. 5....... 8................ 7.................... The optician tested my eyes yesterday........... Use have / get something done where appropriate... Somebody stole my laptop computer.................... We invite successful applicants to a second interview.. The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities............................................. 10........ Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb......... 3...................... well top $150 million this year.................................. His colleague's death ... (be) on fire? b..................................... have kept some of it for herself..................................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months............................. . I asked Miranda to write the report for me........ 7....... We're locked out! 4.. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6.............................. He .... I think we .................................. (you open) the door immediately? 56 ................. Companies usually provide managers with language training...................................................................... (you save) if your house ............... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors..... 3............................................................... 4...... ............................... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form................................................................... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning......................... Grammar 1...................................... He was only 42 years old..................................................... be staying at the conference venue............ ....... 5................... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion............. ............................... If someone ............. 1. The store manager had only just moved to the branch... ....... but I'm not sure yet. Oh.... 3........... 8............. but I .............. The storm blew a lot of trees down last night........................ Conditionals 1........................ company profits ....... (knock) on your door at home ................ 6.................................................. When I go to Barcelona I ......... have left my keys in the restaurant..................
........... Would you like to come in here. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said.. using the words a-e....... Ella? 57 ...... c..... To manage interruptions 2.. a....... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description. (give) you a ticket...... B: Yes... 2. If the weather . c..... basically what you're saying is. Then b...... I ... eventually d.............. ultimately c.. (happen) if ... If you ..... If you . Functions 1. what ...... What . what ... whose life .. (be) you. a..... To ensure other people get to speak 4......................... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ...... I know.. the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards... (you choose) ? d......... . (see) a UFO. (you study) ? f..... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion............... one candidate is chosen..... If you ...... (you work) if you .... when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. ............ . A: If you .. (not get) a job with your current company? h.............. (go) to the police....... To summarize a...... (not study) your subject at school / university. So...................... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs............ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2...c.... B..... (you do) ? e... I ........................ but I don't think they'd believe me. ...... B: Thanks for warning me..... 1.. A: If I ....... Where .... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e...... (you park) your car there they ...... Could you be more specific? b... However... (go) to the police.. To keep to the point 3. d.. (you change) ? g...... A: Careful! If .. b... The interviews take place and .. after lengthy discussion............ Can I finish what I was saying? d.............. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong.... firstly e.... To ask for clarification 5. (be) you.. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed...... (be) good this weekend what ..... A: If I ..........
credible 4.. rely . 2... criticize .... . 3......... Vocabulary 1... connect 5. interested 2.............. legible 58 .. 1.C..... humor ............. .... create ..... 2.......... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites....... ....... 5......... replaceable 3... ................... 1......... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.. 4. understand .. ....
.. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. so don't forget to take waterproofs.. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.......... (do) at 8. 5...... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes. B: . 59 ....... requests.. possibility. ...... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2........... I'm sorry.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney.. 1. necessity.... it's no problem...... if you'd like me to show you around Prague...... I've got two tickets! B..... Future Continuous.. d... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b.... I ......... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. Will they ..... tomorrow? We ....... By 2050 people . Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d.. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary.. Look. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful..... (finish) their meeting by 7. (think) of you... I .. By the time I retire I hope I . i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a.. I ... Grammar 1.......... but . Call me sometime over the weekend.00 p.. e... 7.. Do you know what ... (work) from home. In three months' time I .. I'm sure... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form. Good luck with your exam tomorrow...Test E A............. Invitations. I'd like that. Functions 1...m......? 3.... 2.. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.. Must I really go to the meeting? f..... Future Perfect. otherwise I may / must / can forget it....... a. 8....00 p........m....... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.... thank you........ 6........ b... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase........ Do you think there ...... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. ........ and obligation 1.... 4....... Permission. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.... c............. (live) in space..... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life. A: Great.................... 2................ Thank you. Match each question with an appropriate category..
............. A: How did you ................... I don't think I .... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... you're welcome e.... hope to see you again sometime 1... warm clothes...... keep in touch d........... A: So......... A: ........ carry.. her? 3. cash-flow problems for small businesses. I can't.... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do... 2.. Can I help you ............ and take Complete the sentences with bring.. I'm glad you enjoyed it c. I have to ... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock..... .. employ (someone) 60 ..... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4... Vocabulary 1............. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and .... Well... 1.. B: Yes. did you .. I'm starting a new job next week......... take on a.......... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning... ... B: Thanks.. best of luck b... B: ... A: Have you ... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year.... Mark.............. or take.... with everything.................. A: I've had a lovely evening..... in your English test? B: Oh..... Remember to .... 3........ thanking.. B: .. 2. 1..... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e. a............... 5......................... lead to............ begin (a hobby) 2... take up d.... carry off c.. Late payment often ........... 2..... great..... Thanks for coming... get... A: Well. I hear this is your last day at work here. not too bad................... your bags? They look very heavy! 2......A: .. A: Oh..... cause 4. some research for my thesis.. bring........... get. bring about b.. carry..... .. B: You too.............. C............. lead to... Concluding........ thank you for that lovely dinner once again...... too many mistakes... that .. succeed 3. Yes...........
. had been sitting 6. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1.. competent 2. 2. recently 3... outgoing 3. . used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. a – 5 2. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. g – 3 1. at the moment 2. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. . professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money.. had read / started 5. sounds like 4.. have eaten 10. was living 2. for a week 5. meticulous 4. a .Answer key Test A A1 1. woke up 1.. used to have a Porsche.. all my life 4. seems 5. to entertain 3. going 1. 4. e – 1 6. 5. have you been doing 6. always plays 7. b – 2 3. to turn off 5. .. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. 1. look like 2. . f – 6 7. arrived / had left 7. have never seen 8. stubborn 5.. have been having 9. was traveling / witnessed 3. d – 4 5. watch 3. saying 2.Tests . had been having 4. hasn't stopped 1. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. c – 7 4. going 4. 3. .
can I just interrupt you a second? 1. which 2. to 6.. the 8. wasted 5. 62 .00 a. B1 1. 3. lost 4. 5. the 1. at the latest. Sorry. I haven't had a chance. in 3.m.. OK. I'm going to spend 8. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. for 2. from 7. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. which e. Ø 9. who / that b. Ø 6. 'Did you see anything?' 2. I'm not really with you. I'll turn on 6. that / which / Ø d. let me give you an example. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes.' 6. an 5. I'll just check / I'll call 5.2. That would be / Yes. to 10. wasted 2. who / whom c. missed C2 1. OK. I'm going to 3. in 5.' conditions. a 7. 4. the 3. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. a. a.' 7. So. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. How about / What about 5. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. with 4. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. that's / That suits me 1. I've got you. on 8. 2. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. is going to rain 7. to 9. Are you doing A3 2.' 9. will win 9. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. I'm playing 4. I was wondering whether 2. the 4. missed 3. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. I'm afraid 4. a 10. you're talking about . we can do it next week.
What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. raise 6. I mean 5. C 9. I've met a lot of people through work. To give you an example 3. on 3. C 4. e. across 9. I – information 2. 63 . substantial 5. A2 1. some of whom have become good friends. I – a lot of good advice 1.b. The point is 4. out 7. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. off 8. up for 1. By secure. up 10. I – quite a few 5. off 4. arisen 2. down 2. down 5. I – a lot of 7. I – plenty of 6. which was also the year I got married. C 8. I – equipment 10. Let me explain what I mean 2. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. We started the company in 1999. d. I – a lot of 3. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. rise 6. by / will give 3. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. until / are 1. risen 3. as soon as 2. sharply 4.
John? 4. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . might / may / could 3. 3. 1. would you save / was b. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. Can you be more specific? 5. I had my eyes tested yesterday. / I've had my laptop stolen. incredible 4. reliable 2. Applications are passed on to universities. basically what you're saying is . Miranda was asked to write the report. 5. My laptop has been stolen. uninterested 2. had been / would have gone b. Excuse me.. irreplaceable 3. My eyes were tested yesterday. Would you like to say something about this. saw / would you do d. 8. would happen / arrive. a.. 9. would you work / hadn't got h.2. can't / couldn't 5. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. a. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. arrived 2. were / would you change g. must 7. is / will you do e. Language training is provided for managers. Candidates are recommended for promotion. humorous 3. should / must 6. 10. should 2. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. could / might / may 1. I was in the middle of saying something. was you / would go c. must 4. 2. creative 4. happens. knocked / would you c. A2 1. 7. 6. could / may / might 8. could / would you choose d. understandable 64 C2 1. 4. / Managers are provided with language training. So.
You're welcome 5. will be working 5. best of luck 2. Shall 4. take 5. critical Test E A1 1. 1. have finished 3. can 4. do 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. lead to 1. Hope to see you again some time 3. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . will speak 7. illegible A2 1. can't 3.5. bring 4. Keep in touch 4. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will be 9. would be fine / suits me fine 1. must 2. get 3. can't 5. will have been working 4. will have earned 8. made 3. will be thinking 2. I was wondering 2. will be living 6. Shall we say 5. made 4. That's very kind of you 3. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. carry 2.
He doesn't want to be in the school play. He knows a lot about music. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. She works here until Christmas. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. 66 .IV. 2. I'm going to the cinema every day. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. 1. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. 2. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. She's working here until Christmas. He's knowing a lot about music. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings.
Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. I want to go out for dinner. Vegetarians aren't eating meat.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. 1. 67 . (He still works there now. we add –ed to the infinitive. He seems very tired.) Present perfect. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. 6. To make regular past participles. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. 5. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. Vegetarians don't eat meat. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense.) I've been to Brazil three times. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (She isn't here now. present simple. I have. (I've got a new car now. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. (Until now I've been there three times. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. 3. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle.) I've bought a new car. 4. (I still live here now. He's seeming very tired. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. and present continuous Look at these sentences.3.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. 2. You haven't lived abroad. Some are right and some are wrong.) I've lived here for three years.
00. in front of the main verb. 68 . as .. Russia is bigger than Canada. can be used to make comparisons. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. He's never here at 9. I work here since October. Her house is as big as mine. 5. as ..3. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. but they usually go before the main verb. I don't usually get up late.. The train is always on time. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. Sometimes. I'm working here since October. normally. The film was much better than I expected. We often go to the park.. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence.
The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group.. In the negative so . The film was better than the book. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.85m 1. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week.. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. He's so tall as his brother. is also possible. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. He's as tall as his brother. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences.. 2. We weren't here yesterday. 4.. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995.83m 1.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. as . Alex 1.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. My exam results were worse than Andy's. . 3. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. Short answers Yes. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.92m Alex's brothers 1. he was. 1. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 6. The film was better that the book.
) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. two days ago. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense.) She went at four o'clock. or past actions which were not habits. I've lived here for five years. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. She wasn't going to work. She used to be a teacher. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. not the present perfect.) Before that I lived in Madrid. not the effect. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 .g. She's gone home. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. but he gave up five years ago. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. I went there four years ago. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. We went to the cinema twice last week. he was. you must use the past simple tense.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. 7. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. We didn't use to live in London.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. I went out this morning. last week). It has no present form. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. (But I don't live there now. He used to smoke. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. only the past simple can be used. For individual past actions. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. (I still live here. (We're interested in when the action took place. in 1993. I've been there four years ago.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. (She isn't here now. I did. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
I saw the man. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. impossible. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. or imaginary situations. They wouldn't steal from a friend. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. She's probably coming this weekend. It may (not) rain today. It'll probably rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. It probably won't rain today. which with things. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. I'd buy a house. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. 74 least likely most likely . If I had the money. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Use Would has many uses.) make polite offers. We use who with people. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It could rain today. I would. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. (But I haven't got the money. It's unlikely to rain today. It might (not) rain today. It's likely to rain today. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. Expressing probability Look at these sentences.) She'd be a good politician. (But she works in a bank. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. He's the man who lives next door.
did not you? She can speak Russian. She arrived yesterday.. 12. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive.. He's the man (who/that) she married. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here.He's the man that lives next door. haven't you? It was raining. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. can't she? NOT . wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. He's the man.. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man who/that lives next door. will she? It doesn't matter. Look at these sentences. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. or that. don't they? 75 . You're Italian. This chair's French. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. didn't she? You like fish. You knew about this yesterday. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause.. He lives next door. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. didn't you? NOT . He's the man. They aren't coming to the party. It isn't very warm. You can swim. which. She married him. does it? You've finished. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun.
we use the negative of the verb to be. The weapon hasn't been found. The car has been found. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. We use a modal verb + be + past participle.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. We can use the passive in any tense. It can't be done. These computers are made in Japan. These houses were built in the 1930s. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. This wine is produced in Portugal. we don't know the agent. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. To make the negative of the passive. The crime will be solved. Someone has been arrested. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. Fewer crimes would be committed. Thousands of cars are stolen. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. The man wasn't sent to prison.) and is followed by a question mark (?). We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. She must be told. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. 76 . shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. 13. It is less direct than an ordinary question. Cars shouldn't be parked there.
What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. we'd travel business class.) If I got the job I'd earn more money.) when the if clause is first. If you get up late. (There is a real chance that it will rain.If we want to show the agent. We usually use a comma (. you'll miss the appointment. she'll feel terrible. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause.. 14. If it rains.) 15. If she eats all the ice cream. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. or imaginary situations.. We usually use a comma (. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. If I had enough money . (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. If I had enough money. NOT If I would have enough money . we use by.. I'd buy that house. The suspect was identified by a witness.) We won't go if it rains. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus.. (I don't think I'll get the job. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.) 77 . unlikely. but not when tha main clause is first. NOT If it will rain. but not when the main clause is first. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. we'll go to the cinema. If I get the job I'll earn more money. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. If we had more money.) when the if clause is first. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. we'll go to the cinema. The car has been found by some children.
. NOT She switched on it.. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. He saw the mouse and ran out. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. NOT . (transitive) The plane took off. Oil will run out in the next century. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary.g. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. or She switched the TV on. away. before we would go to the cinema. and after. She switched it on. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. NOT . the verb is separable. NOT . up. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle.16.. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. Time clauses As in clauses with if. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. He took off his jacket. He heard a helicopter and looked up. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. on. She takes after her mother... Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. until. when she will arrive. 17. in. I'll phone you when she arrives. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. She switched on the TV. look something up 78 . before. as soon as. until Phil will get back. e..
'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running.) focus on the process of an activity. I've been waiting for an hour. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. 79 . is not normally used with stative verbs. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. I've been playing a lot of football this week. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. You're late. the verb is inseparable. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. he has. I've lived here for ten years. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle.' emphasize the duration of an activity. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on.I looked up the word in the dictionary. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. or about past actions which have present results. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. like other continuous forms. 18. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. (I haven't finished it yet. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. I've been writing a letter.
) Prepositions go at the end of questions. They live here. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Do they live here? You saw her. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives.questions.19. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. or an auxiliary verb. imagine. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Can she swim? They've arrived.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. so we must provide one. decide. wonder. Compare these questions. Did you see her? In Wh.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. a modal verb. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. using do/does in the present or did in the past. ask.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. know. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. see. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. remember. have no idea.
Note: However. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. 've got. With Wh. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. a computer software shop This is a shop.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. The headword always goes at the end.. football boots These are boots. 3. I don't know if he's coming. left.. I wonder why did he do that? 21. we say clothes shop and sports shop.? or Do you think you could tell me . In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I've decided how much money do I need. I've decided how much money I need.. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. 81 . A shop that sells books is a bookshop. A shop that sells records is a record shop. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me .? Could you tell me where the post office is. 2. 4.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. arrives.. is. 1. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. What kind of software? Software for computers.
After having a shower. a tennis racket a living-room. There's someone coming. hear. Compare these sentences.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. (Empty bottles. notice. We saw them leaving the house. when the subject of both clauses is the same. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. I got dressed. I had the idea while I was driving home.). watch. etc. a bathroom a coffee cup. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. I could smell burning. I got dressed. After I'd had a shower. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. I've been working since 7. Unfortunately there are no rules. Others are written as two words. -ing form or infinitive A.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. smell. She's playing tennis. There were two people waiting for you. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. before. I read a fascinating book the other week. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. feel. object I don't enjoy cooking. with after. or are hyphenated. I had the idea while driving home. 23. I can hear someone coming. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. (New packets. (Empty packets. stomach ache 22. 82 .00.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. to describe what someone can sense (with see. This is a really boring film. He was driving at 120mph. as adjectives. a teacup.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. and while to replace a clause.
In British English. but I couldn't.) I remembered to meet her. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. love. suggest. 83 . but I didn't. imagine. begin. Some of the most common are finish. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. but she wasn't there. and can't stand.) C. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. (I had met her before and I remembered it. give up. I'd like to live abroad. -ing forms Look at these sentences.) He stopped to have a cigarette. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. start. consider. (British) I like to lie in bed late.) I tried speaking to her about it. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. (I was supposed to dance with him. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. feel like.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. but it didn't work. 1. (I spoke to her.like. I enjoy doing the gardening. I began to realize how he felt. (I had to meet her and I did. (I wanted to speak to her.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. forget I remember meeting her. (he was doing something. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. It's just started to rain. B. continue It's just started raining. I like lying in bed late. enjoy. but she still wouldn't listen. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. She's considering emigrating to Australia.) stop He has stopped smoking. I'm beginning to learn the piano. Smoking is bad for your health. then he stopped in order to smoke. hate. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. remember.) try I tried to speak to her about it. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.
To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. I made a phone call. I'd love to go to New Zealand. 7. I begun understanding the problem. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. need. could. I must remember to post this letter. I'd love going to New Zealand. will. neither to agree with a negative statement. neither. 5. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. too to agree with a positive statement. Before leaving the office. too.) I + positive auxiliary verb. might. B Oh. I would. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. 6. Stop to make so much noise. There's someone that comes up the stairs. B Me. A I couldn't read until I was seven. 4. 3. B So do I. I made a phone call. I began to understand the problem. and Me. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. shall. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. I could. There's someone coming up the stairs. 25.2. B Me. should. I must remember posting this letter. A I've never been to Ireland. A I really love pizza. B Nor/Neither have I. B Oh.) I + negative auxiliary verb. 84 . Note: In informal speech we can use Me. would. To smoke is bad for your health. must. Before to leave the office. Stop making so much noise. ought to. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. 24. may.
Modal verbs have no tense forms. He mights come later. or You don't need to come. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. 4.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. You shouldn't do that.) I must remember to post this letter. They have no infinitive or participle form. You might go to London. 85 . I couldn't believe what he told me. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. 2. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. For example.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). I must to remember to post this letter. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. possibility. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. (or I could find a new job. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. He might come later. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. we can use could to talk about ability. You don't should leave your car there. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. Present: He can speak four languages. They ought to be more careful. will: I'll be able to find a new job. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. Past: He could speak French when he was four. 3. and permission. 1. They might not come to the party. She should see a doctor. I can swim. would: I'd be able to find a new job. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late.
though could is more common. Have to is used to describe general obligation. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. will: I'll have to find a new job. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. I have to work on Saturday this week. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. Note: Must has no tense forms. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job./You don't need to wear a suit. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. 86 . You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. would: I'd have to find a new job. You shouldn't work so hard. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. You don't have to come if you don't want to. it is 'my' obligation. was/were able to.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. The party's informal. Passengers must show their boarding cards. I could drive when I was sixteen. The firemen could save everyone. You need to be at the station by 8. (It is and 'outside' obligation. (I want to. The firemen were able to save everyone. Have to is also used. but it is also used to describe strong obligation.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test.30. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past.Could. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. (It is a general obligation.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. You needn't wear a suit. The firemen managed to save everyone. we use was/were able to or managed to. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. a driving instructor. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. I must start taking more exercise. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Past: I had to find a new job. You ought not to carry so much cash. from my doctor. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity.
2. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Compare these sentences. I had my hair cut. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. 3. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. might. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. and may is the most polite and formal. with we and I. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. I had the car fixed.Probability May. 1. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. 87 . The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. I had my room painted. I will can go swimming every day next week. and may are used to ask for permission. She could not be here tomorrow. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. Could is more polite than can. 26. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. could. She might not be here tomorrow. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 4. 5. This means that I painted the room myself. I painted my room. Permission Can. Some are right and some are wrong.
because a different person is now speaking. Direct speech: I like cooking. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. The car's really dirty. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. The car's really dirty. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. I got the garage to service my car. It needs to be cleaned.27. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. Need + -ing is more informal. said or told). Get is followed by the infinitive with to. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. and modal verbs do not change. 88 . make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. David's father lets him use the car. 28. 29. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change.g. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. It needs cleaning. would. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. The judge made the man apologize. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. When we report something with a past tense verb (e.
Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Andrea: I'm going out. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. 30.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies.. 31. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Tom: I don't want to stay here.. With Yes/No questions. When we report questions. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. say and tell We say something. 89 . Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Andrea said (that) she was going out. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Helen: I'd like a coffee. Andrea said (that) she was going out. The word order changes to a statement word order. She told (them) jokes all night. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements.. NOT Andrea said me . Zoe said that they saw a great film. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked.. the reported question starts with whether or if. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Luke: I'll be away till March. NOT Andrea told (that) . Zoran: I had never been there before. They told (us) a story. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Monica: I might phone you later. we make the following changes. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. We tell somebody something. and verbs have a statement form.
' The doctor asked me to sit down. 4. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. 3. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. and you crashed. and I didn't pass the exam. 33.' He told me not to worry. she wouldn't have left. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.) when if clause is first. Some are right and some are wrong. but not when the main clause is first. (I didn't work hard.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. and command. 1. 'Don't worry. 'Please sit down. beg. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. 2. Reported speech Look at these sentences. If you hadn't studied so hard. 2. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. The instructor told me that I don't do that. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. They told me that the exam was very hard. such as advise. (You were driving too fast. She asked me where I lived. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If I had told the truth. 3. 90 . 1.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. an imaginary situation in the past. persuade. The instructor told me not to do that. They said me that the exam was very hard. I'd lend you some money if I had any. warn. you would have failed.32. but other verbs can also be used. We usually use a comma (. order.
Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. 34. She should have been wearing a seatbelt.) They should have bought the house.4. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.) 91 .
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 7. 1992.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Steve & Peter Fox. 2002. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Oxford University Press. Life Lines. Tom. 2001. 3. 2001. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 1998. 8. Glendinning. 4. Kennewell. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Jane. 6. Engleza pentru informatica. 92 . Wallwork. Dorner. All Stars. Chris Mitton.Oxford. Ian Selwood. Driscoll. 2001. & John McGwan. 2. Otman. Oxford English for Information Technology. Engleza pentru internet. International Express. 2002. Computer Studies Through Applications. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Writing for the Internet. 2001. Hutchinson. Eric H. Gabriel. Brooks. 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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