This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
..... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.. cards........ A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement. listening . speaking and being corrected ....... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary....... OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY... English is the most widespread language on Earth..... Compare your lists.. pronunciation practice 3. Work in groups.. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time. learning vocabulary ... Justify your order. How do you learn languages? . 4.. Purists of the French. Prepositions too are flexible.. reading .. Geographically.What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.to be cleaned and dried..... Work alone. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.. sport. It is the language of business... .... 1 being the most important. although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.... THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. Read books and newspapers.. speaking and not being corrected all the time ........ and aviation. or drinks. we can talk about a round of golf. technology..... 4 . and the process is now being reversed. This will no doubt continue..What advantages does the adult have? 2....... learning grammar . but remember that different people learn in different ways.. Speaking 1.What advantages does the baby have? . writing ..
just kept on growing. But then an odd thing started to happen. Instead. it worked. and the Internet. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. 1. 3. Instead of using the network strictly for business. for it was they. They had. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. Other networks joined in. to use the techy term.. uninvited but still welcome. 2. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. they sent each other games. swapped them (via the net. But they weren't interested in science or academia. 5 .. There will be no "command center". Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. the way they got there was unimportant. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. 37. no single computer that controls the rest of them. still the most popular use of the Net by far. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet.I. as it came to be called. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. Crude as they were. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. 4. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. Because of the way the messaging system worked. in fact. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. These packets could be sent independently over the network. invented e-mail. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net.). Amazingly. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. they opened newsgroups. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. each machine will have equal status. then news and eventually gossip. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. They started mailing lists. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. they used it to swap gossip. by 1972.
personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. Computer sizes. a series of bits being a part of message B. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Apple. packet. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. desktop computer 2. but the market (saturate) to some extent. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. a set of related computers C. Over the last few years. cheaper and more reliable. mailbox. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games.2. along with IBM. mainframe 5. Here are five types of computers. Since then the computers (become) smaller. but transistors soon (replace) them. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. supercomputer 4. however. notebook 3. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. network. a person who tries to discover something E. researcher A. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor.
check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. For example. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. founder and president of University Online. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. use a bulletin board. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. There's a revolution happening in education. online environment. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. Australia. all of which express personal opinions: 1. and the Americans. Use the elements to make complete sentences. 1. offered by mail.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. the material would be available to students at their convenience. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. videotape of professor's lectures. and connect to a server that presents information. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. visit the school's We site. says Nat Kannan. Students can log onto the Internet. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. rather than offering their own set of courses. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. Using modern technology. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. and as with mail order programs. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". Europe. learn the material. It's called distance learning. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. and interactive courseware. Within a few months. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. the Net will be alma mater. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. click on the course they want. Personally.
...... at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam.. 5... This University has only existed . withdrawal clearance.. When we started.. to give authority to 10. 3. It was put on the market in 1994. to represent in a digital form 2. behavio(u)rism typist. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. execution. condition belonging to act of.. so it has been tested . domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality.. state condition... I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. scientist . four years .. to make use of a symbol for something 3. . Fill the blanks in this passage with since. to give a linear form to 8. over two years... Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. independence employer. 1992 and it is already known worldwide.. You have to follow a course ... kingdom employee. addressee audience.. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. several new courses have been offered. to arrange in an optimal way 6. to take a material form 5. to reduce to the minimum 7. to put a story in the form of a drama 4.. connector childhood. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. University Online was originally tested over five years . a few months . I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. neighbo(u)rhood electrician.... we never believed it would be so successful... the beginning of the experiment. musician introduction.5. operator voucher. -or -hood -ian -ion.. in 1992 2. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. To my mind. 4..g. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. 6. state condition. possession magnetism. for and ago: 1. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6.. to write a summary of 3. boredom.
condition place. electric 17. broad 2. -ery -ship state. boldness labo(u)r. condition. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. personal 15. long 13. logical. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. widen. slavery. weak 19. state electricity. lengthen classify. state condition. tolerate shorten. loose 16. computerize. reality achievement. using the verb-forming suffixes above. simple 4. auto 8. happiness. stimulus 20. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. 1. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. robot 6. analysis 11. concentrate. generally. tight 5. -ical -ish -less -ous. active 3. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. quality state. Now. soft 10. government business. standard 18. mode 14. economical foolish useless porous. transform the following words into verbs. action condition of quality. local 9. initial 12. simplify customize. furiously 4. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. interruptible environmental. short 7. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. behavio(u)r foundry. rivalry friendship.
this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Delphi. Visual Basic and Delphi. A consultant is different. C++. and so on. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. as does Novell. University degrees are useless. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. technology and people. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. spend more money on a training course. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. rolled out major solutions and are well known. If you decide programming is really for you. a week there. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. an attention to detail. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. its positioning on the market. That's where the all-important experience comes in. However. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. so you have to be better than them. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. Here's the road map.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. By the age of 30. 10 . A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. After a couple of hops like that. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Java and Visual Basic developers. how it relates to other products and so on. C++. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. And there are lots of people who know it too. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. For someone starting out. They merely prove you can think. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. Qualifications are important. more manageable pieces. Get a decent book on Windows programming. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. you've run big projects.
to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. into going away more than above too much beneath. side in. size. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). foresee. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. semicolon . involve output. misfortune nonsense unreal. bystander input. decode disagree. location. external foreground.
to convey data from one place to another 8. size.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. after the war 4. half automatic. 1. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. to grow larger 5. location. Now use the prefixes of degree. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. to predict 3. that is already programmed 2. not up to standard 10. a program that is part of a larger program 6. half manual 7. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 .
LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. you may group the FAQ. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. include descriptive ALT text captions. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. For example. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. If you are committed to using frames on your site. and make necessary adjustments. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. to find their way around. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. Besides content. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. and visitors may not know how to 14 .
search facility. Logical. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. structure connections. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). Take notes on any special features. Visit a website of your choice. features. (hot) links. a visitor. especially those ending in "y" (see above). up to date. helpful graphics. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". 15 . 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. password protected. confusing. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. well laid out. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. you can add the suffix "er".use yours effectively. However. on-line support. good reactivity. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. For most sites. 1. contact information. cluttered. navigation. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. colorful. ease of use. a user. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. without wasting space. nice design. compatibility. accuracy. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing.
. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. the sharper the picture. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. 4. the comparative can be preceded by "the". as". when buying a PC are often 5. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. When comparing two items. This computer is the cheaper of the two. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as".. 3. 2. For the preceding sentence. 4. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. "as . when preceded by "X times". This microchip is > fast a conventional one. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . 1. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. Ten years ago screen < high it is today.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. the better he feels. 2. the slower the speed of execution.. indicated by the symbols. resolution was 16 . Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. The less sophisticated the software. 2. 3. The less he works. the more I feel depressed. The higher the resolution. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. John was the elder of the two boys. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models..
ugly picture 9. cheap computer 3. fast chip 4. big memory device 7. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . reliable device 5. 3. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. expensive card 6. With short adjectives. inconsistent program 10. This is the most powerful computer available today. fuzzy image 8. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. 1. powerful computer 2.
. A flowchart .. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. 5... Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3.. have to. Put the words back in the right order: 1. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users.. 2.. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations.. and overzealous at that.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. off-the-point arguments to see that... No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.... unwarranted abuse and long... when to criticize and when to stay silent... When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. This form of internal policing. on the Net or elsewhere.. if that happened.. 3.. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it.. In practice. 1. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop.. (A whole quarter second in some cases)... Conversely. This piece of software .. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups.. because it wastes people's time... may or could 1. It doesn't work. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. rambling. The following sentences have been scrambled.. You . Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. 4. The reason for this is never given.. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program... Programs ... read the FAQ)... cause unexpected results... is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.. 6... a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. A bug . Don't use a signature of more than four lines. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. You . sometimes be useful when designing a program... Don't criticize others for their misspellings. Don't cross-post messages... documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2... make sure you spell correctly yourself. be debugged before being executed.. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once.... and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. 18 ..
2.. 6... write this program in a high-level language.. 5. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. 9.... am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet. a measure of visits to a website .. (You can find the words left to right. 3.. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. de exemplu. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text.. Cu toate acestea.. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.... email.. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW .. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.. If you do...... 4. also known as "favorites" ... Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul..7...... Daca as fi vrut. photo. 2... 6. 4..... a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems ..... 7....... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii... 5.. 10..... top to bottom. Translate the following sentences into English. 3. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului... opening page of a website ... Cind am incercat soft-ul. Ar fi putut..... and computing.. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week... 7. They . 3.. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own .... it will take up too much space in the computer memory. 8...... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages ... the main. Write them next to the correct definition. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like... graphic .. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. You .... picture. 8.. 19 ... and diagonally top to bottom)....
....e. a software package generally used to start you up for a program .. 18. 15.. a way of showing emotion in an email... email... website address .. 20.. 12..... ..... 13..... 16.. a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites. e... 22.... 19........ i. something that automatically connects you to another page .. unsolicited mail........ the World Wide Web .. 21.....9. a search engine.......... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet .. 20 ...... inappropriate use of a mailing list . Uniform Resource Locator...... 10.......... :-) . the Internet equivalent of post .... the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ..... etc... 11.g.... a physical input / output point ..... a bug which infects data on your computer ....... 17.. 14...... a location on the WWW ................. abbreviation for the Internet ....
has the security. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. 1. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. better known as Robert Schifreen. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12.000.Choose the ending (A.000 a year to repair. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. had not been in trouble with the law before. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Hackers have their own code of conduct. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. Robert Schifreen 21 . Austin had brought with him several black binliners. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. C. Today's hacker is not so lucky. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. a basic computer and a bit of patience. Triludan. the computer companies would have you believe.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. which is readily available. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. All the hacker needs is a modem. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. For some teenagers. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Admittedly. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. and so. Typically. had knocked on this door. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. hacking is still easy. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. costing companies an average of $23. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. But according to those who practice. hacking has been criminalized. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. The law was tightened up. B. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. MULTIPLE CHOICE . NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. 1. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text.
This gives an enormous storage capacity. B. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program.A. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. is popular because it is romantic. totally unaware of what they are doing. B. 4. 4. C. 6. 2. 3. g. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. MP3 players contain several devices. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. 5. e. D. 2. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. has made hacking more difficult. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. This produces much smaller files. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. the survival of hackers is threatened. You can create your own compilation. According to the NNC A. d. 3. b. 5. deliberately destructive B. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. Cause 1. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 8. Hacking A. has eliminated all computer security. costs about 48p a time C. Each MP3 file has a tag. You can download a skin program. 7. Effect a. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. merely curious. D. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. B. male criminals. 22 . D. outlaws hacking. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. h. You can legally download some music. C. C. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. f. You can download single tracks. D. c. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. Then link them with an –ing clause. Match each cause and effect. 33% of its members are hackers B. The majority of hackers are shown to be A.
mouse and hard drives only. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. display. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 4. keyboard. 6. 7. 10.3. 3. 2. 9. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. 5. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. 8. 1.
. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.. word processor and database – comes on one CD. literature and art. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either..5in. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.. Put them back in the appropriate place. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. According to the market researcher Dataquest. Applications are the key issue..2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine. along with the conventional 3. the equivalent of 300.. . many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis... Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post..... The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line....... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. or were vast collections of specific information. 1.. Review criteria 4.. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996...LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15).. and because there's more space. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price.... with a further 1.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format.. Price points ..... Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. Measuring drive performance 2. and justify the cost of a drive.... the applications are generally better. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore.. As with other areas of the computer industry. but it's not the only one. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. 1... CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. For example.. floppy drive.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass. but are spread throughout business.. Mainstream applications 3. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. 24 .. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity... CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space..........5 million predicted to ship in that year alone..
6. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system.. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.. 1. more precise head positioning mechanism. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. 8....... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information.. Increased competition has now reversed the trend... The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. 3... however advanced...... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives...... is still a read-only product. 7.. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use... The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. ..... access time...... pie chart. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software... had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform... 4. 9....... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.... which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk.. This is often confused with the average access searches... drawback........ The industry... So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM.. while still developing rapidly... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user.. As a result of this market maturity. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time. 2... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization. more faster.... give reasons for your choice. this excuse was taken too far.. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more. files... disk 25 .. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality..... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files. . As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format..... Backing Store ... 10....But CD-ROM. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. TRUE OR FALSE? .. 1.. 5........ CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. . Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks......... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search.. 2..Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996..
..... 7.. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory. both internal and external... old-fashioned. direct-access.. (i........ You should write between 150 and 200 words.. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.... This technology is cheap and easy to use. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ............. 5.drives...... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS.. that is extremely slow because of ... retrieved.. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.. 6.. Most users are more familiar with the .. it is called a . database..... formatted (x3). storage areas are marked on the magnetic........ Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ......... floppy disk.. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).. this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as ..... oxide-coated surface.. 3.. media and . read-write head... 9............ are now part and parcel of most computer systems...... The . 2.... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors.. though these are becoming .. 26 ... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years......... very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre..Translate the following sentences into English: 1. magnetic tapes. of all the files on the disk.. i.. Large systems often use cartridges or .... Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. but has the .. Hence files can be .. 10.. magnetic disks or diskettes.... needs to be in main memory at any one time. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare........ De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara........... 3.. directory... disk. sequential access... disk packs... 8..... so-called because of its flexibility. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare..... double-sided..... erorile se pot corecta.... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta....." are also common..e... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.... a disk must be ..... 4. In this way only a small part of a . Hermetic data modules called "... on both surfaces. and ....... a track and a sector number)... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers...... as opposed to a single-sided disk..... If the disk is . These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ..e.. address. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders. Before being used. THE PASSIVE .. where only one surface is ......
so art can fit into all kinds of experience. Elizabeth Brown. especially in distant lands. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. At the time of the Renaissance A. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. B. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. will replace traditional museums. fashion. virtual museums A. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. Moreover. C. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. C. B. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. a basis for study for future generations. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. aristocrats were Europe's best artists.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. and industry. 3. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. A museum can best be defined as A. only aristocrats could go to museums. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. With the internet. science. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. For many people. beyond the straightforward museum visit. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. public museums did not exist. military. An overview of lost techniques. Within the last few years. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. the patron goddesses of the arts. 27 . crafts. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. electronically. 1. 2. With reference to the information in the article.
B. will organize visits to its storage spaces. 5. honored 5. 1. country 9. storehouse 8. object produced by human hands 3. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. article (in a magazine) 4. Museums maintain and display great works of art. masterpiece 4. The National Museum of Art A. art work 2. vast 4. to enjoy 10. something produced by creative talent E. will show works of art that do not exist. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. disadvantage 7. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. 3. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. 4. museum A. to see. work of art. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. artefact 3. The Web may transform our perception of art.B. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . Match the words and their definitions: 1. Put the following sentences into the passive form. C. C. photo (taken quickly) 2. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. to admire 3. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. 4. collection 5. 2. best work of an artist C. 6. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. 2. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. to establish 6.
Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. traveler's checks. a bank redeems each note number only once. The customer pays. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. and credit cards are credit systems.e. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. and the amount of money represented). the merchant receives the payment. or a dedicated payment client. In many cases. both exist in the digital world as well. A person who receives (money. charge accounts. This might be a WWW browser. Using a public key. you gather your money up front and then spend it. In a credit system. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. for example). For the purposes of this discussion. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. Checks. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. 2. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. The customer runs client software. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. 29 . A person who buys goods or services from you. 5. paper currency. the date and time of the transaction. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). and the amount to be paid. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. and a bank does the accounting. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. In a debit system. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. A bank employee who pays out money. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. the name of the payer and the recipient. users can act as both customers and merchants. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. In a peer-to-peer system. With such a system. 1. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. 4. 3..LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. Payment systems based on gold. currency. To execute a real-time transaction.
... 3. where... of which.. which. 6. receipt. . He alone will be authorized . for their manager. he ignored it... in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. He is the very man . He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it.... overdraft. I met personally. agreed to honor my check........ trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. to open.... .000.. 3..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.. wanted to buy some shirts. bought her a typewriter instead... 5. to sign. The customer.. holder.... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament.. to start.. 4... a current . safe.. were still new. entered the virtual shop.. A computer that can access a server. The next month he got a bill for $0. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement.. However...... whose.. ... who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday. For $20 a month. to clear... some . statement. name is on the check. 1... B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.. balance. of account.. The initial ........ Digital credit... C . will be $10... whom. 8. To add money (to an account). interest.. The man. the company can have access to a ...... You will not need to use them all! account. 30 ...00 stating that payment was now overdue.. were found in the safe.. is similar to traditional credit.. 2..... cheques.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt.? The next day he got a bill for $0.. The site. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order.. A large number of banknotes.... withdrawal The Longstone company wish . loan.. Money used in a specific country. will only be charged at 12%. The first one has already been done for you.. The bank will send the company a weekly . The bank director.... Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph... The account will not produce any . accepts digital cash.... Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake..? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. remittance.. is used in electronic trade.. 7... Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who... He ignored it and threw it away..00...6.... deposit.. we found CD-ROMs on sale. D ... 2.. Stupid Computer Error A .00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt..
G . The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 .00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. F . The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.? A week later.00. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. He called them and talked to them.? In April he received another and threw that one too. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00.E .? Finally giving in. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.00 by return of post.
. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring.. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs.. And as for the taste. there was an inevitable blur of content. exist. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board.. well. experts expect that. is high / low it is highly probable that . the current issue of security will only be short. Lastly. For sheer impact. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers.. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. And needless to say. satellite. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". he enthused. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. Dr. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. more controversially. came the issue of virtual reality. futurologists forecast. 1.. he said.. said. TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. "At telecom 91. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. we'll have to work on that one". Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. Christian Huitema. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. and. computing. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. Huitema. As he pointed out. Dr. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. he predicted. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity".. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. Next came.. dipping even further into the future.. 32 . and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. sound and feeling will arrive. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. What should concern us. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. that didn't keep the crowds away. the future.. smells. dumb terminals. for all intents and purposes.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not.. said Dr. one can predict / foretell that. that probability that . was how online commerce will evolve. and the role of the providers.. So things have changed. networks. "Sight.
. 3.... Being a single parent . 33 ...00. me to stay out later than 11. 2. there are grounds for believing that. Keyword The word.. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want... there are scientific arguments for... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to... The term was first coined by William Gibson.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can..... Sneaky.it is a well-founded supposition that.. My boss is easygoing and .. Reading Read the article... me leave early every Friday afternoon. permit 1. allow. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let.... 5.. it hard for me to have a social life. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete... indicated by a finger symbol. 4... 3. Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage. A security password ... When I was young my parents never ... it is reasonable to think that.. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient.. 2.. access to confidential files. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then). Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet...... Prepare to explain them to your partner.. I hope that doing the course . me to get a better job... make..... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer... enable...
FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. The solution is to abbreviate. contract and condense. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. all day at work. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. If something cracks you up. There's neither time nor space for exposition. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. It has an estimated 75 million users. a new idiom has been born. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). Well.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). FWIW (for what is worth). Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). It's brief: three or four words per exchange. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. It takes wit. sex and location. Plenty of adults talk the talk. Across the world. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. C-U-L8R 34 . And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. GTG. or type the type. PBAB (please bring a bottle). every night. concentration and agile fingers.
"situatie familiala" as "family situation". It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths.cair@btinternet. EH21 3TZ email p. e. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. Spanish. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. which sounds very strange indeed.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent.II. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. Science. English.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . then write your own CV in the same way.g. For the purpose of this task. Geography. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. degrees and other qualifications. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . Computer Studies. Stonebridge.w.
Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr. 2000 .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: ..network administration and implementation . Novasystems 36 .Windows 200 Server / Professional . Leith.Windows 95 / 98 .Office 97.1st line customer telephone support .database design . Personnel Officer. Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y. L.Exchange Server 5.configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .Sage line 50 & 100 . IT Department.5 . Thin.TCP / IP Networking .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .
Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. Type your letter 6. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it .am available to start as from June 15 . Reference number if there is one. how to begin a letter. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date.1.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . State what job you are applying for 4.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . Write clearly 2. and firm.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . the name and address of the addressee.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . Give all the information you are asked for 8.state where you saw the job advertised . Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". 37 .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details).should you feel I could be of use to your firm .B. the signatory's full name (typed).name and address of firm.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. and where to put the handwritten signature.state you qualifications in brief . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. how to end it. B."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. State when you are available for the interview 10. Make the information you give relevant to the job. so read the advertisement carefully first 5.am currently studying for . Use the person's name if you know it .avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Keep your letter short and to the point 3.
1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. team leadership and team membership. study tours for project personnel. In Malaysia I arranged. Alan Bannister 38 . through the British Council. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. teachers and administrative staff. for example. Over the past year. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. Yours sincerely. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. as well as students. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. My contact address until the end of July is as above.
How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. If you think you may have trouble finding the place.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. .Don't smoke. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. . In what ways could you be described as creative? 10.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. . 2. experience. .Don't let your clothes be too extreme. don't rush. Describe your most recent accomplishments. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room.Do make a graceful exit. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. set out early. interests and hobbies.C. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. Thank your interviewer. money or job satisfaction? 12.Do sit still. . You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. . Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. In the past year. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. You are likely to be found in the end. . 5.Do arrive in plenty of time. walk to the door. Which is more important to you. so much the better. Dress in a business-like way. . 39 .
you in the . Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this .. If you use email at work..not making clear who you are and why you are writing ....not answering all the points raised by the sender .. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher..not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.Read these emails.. or in sentences that are too long . My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .. or may not be able to open ... which I hope you will find interesting. I would be extremely . working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.writing everything in UPPER CASE ..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .writing too much. I was wondering if . Please find .. future. working on Lingo.. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: . Could you email me details? 40 . Dear James.. if you might be able to help me. I . how has it changed your working life? 3. the other informal..S.... What do you use email for? 4. if you intend your comments to be humorous) ... To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise .. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project. my recent paper... How often do you use email? 2.... One letter is formal.. Dear Sir. B..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..not telling the reader what you expect them to do... How are you? I bet you are . I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ..not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. Monica Ciampi P.... . if you could give me some information about what software you have been using.D. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1...sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.. Yours sincerely...
demand b. meal c. a. bracket 12. actually 3. beforehand b. thus d. a. from c. topic d..S. of weeks I'll be in England. Best wishes. near b. pleases d topic d. I look forward to hearing news from d.In a . then c. ask 2... a.. a. for b. to Peter 1. Monica P. annexed 9.... soon d. so b. enclosed c. grateful b. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. glad 5. happy c. missing c. a. close 8. a. a.. additionally 4. with d. Send my . before 15. I look forward to news from b. losing b. couple b. a. a. as well c. respect d.. request c. together. match c. too d. now c. drink b. and 13. matter c. currently b. supper d. early c. wasting d. love c. a. lacking 10.. a.. concerns b. perhaps we could meet up and go for a .... dinner 14. next c. wishes 41 . a. presently d. included d. and thank you for your help.. attached b. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .. business b.... by 11. pair d. a. a. Hope to hear from you . a. wonder d.. also b.. I look forward to hearing from c.. affair 6..
... Well. 42 ... the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century..... what . expand... What makes a presentation effective? 4.. Now I'd like to ... audibility...E. What is a presentation? 2.. more . fluency. to start with. . achievement of objectives.. describe. There is no benefit in using difficult language.. everybody. Let me quickly .. body language Language – clarity... to ... recommend. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. some of the problems we are facing. ... talked. then. I'm . pronunciation. indicate. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. enjoyable. Overall – clarity of message. ... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. on those successes before we ... sum up.. referring.. Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it.. today is to ... on balance... about our current position in the UK and I've ...... tell you. thank. I'd like to . PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.... I'll quickly . I'll .. confidence. . pointed out "Good afternoon. handling Delivery – pace... variety. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years.... finally.. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. Please feel free to . I'd like to . . appropriacy.. motivating Exercise . of course.. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. interrupt... that although turnover has risen. you all for being here..... move on.. to Italy and Spain.. My . with some recommendations. clarity... I've .. specifically. you will notice.... with our plans for Europe. some of the problems we are having over the market share. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. rapport / eye contact. priority. clarity. outline. relevance. accuracy. intonation... humor Organization – coherence.... I think our first .. illustrate...... our profits have not increased at the same rate... purpose. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5...Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that.... in conclusion.. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. me if you have questions at any time. interesting... bring you up to date. concluding...are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already . draw your attention. and.... informative. subject knowledge. ... research Approach – message support and reinforcement. .. about our corporate strategy for the next decade. before . options.. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts... I'll . enthusiasm.
Are there any final questions?" 43 ..... Admittedly our results there have been poor so far. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience... . ... though. we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy.We should not forget the French market.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes.... Spain and possibly Greece. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . Thank you also for your pertinent questions...
DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. try it out with your supervisor. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay .F. This means you have a whole year to write it. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. but there are a number of differences: . but is probably the most important. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. In part-time degrees. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. and be available to assist you. Like an essay. called a dissertation or long essay. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). since you have more space. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. 44 .is the topic broad enough / too broad? .will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . A member of staff will supervise progress. There are several criteria for your choice: .is the topic academic enough? .you can choose your own title . Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. which you research by yourself. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. However.is the topic relevant to your degree course? . but it can also be very daunting. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence.
the first thing to do.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. It is longer. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. This will be your title. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Introduction – 1. As you are reading through the books on your topic. ask yourself: . 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . since you may need a few by your side. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. since you have more to say. Dissertations are usually 10. 000 words. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. 000 words Conclusion – 1.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
It's really cold. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow.1. but you can never tell. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 49 . 5. 4. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2.
............. Right........ lunch with Bob.............................. 3.............. 5........ 8... .............................................. so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid...... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon...... ..... I had ............ Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2............. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations....................... ....................... River Thames...................... 3........ The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions.................... 3............... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ............ There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit.. ..... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details....Test B A... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning..... If you're too hot in here........... He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known.................................. lovely morning.............. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation....... ..................... or no article................... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics............ 4...... I've done that for you............. I booked it last week..... and she said that she hadn't had a chance........ 2.............. long walk by .. professional musician and plays with .. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras........ 6.................... In each case choose the most likely alternative..... He's ... Articles Complete this text with a / an................ 5........... 50 ............... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year.................................................. 7. 4.................. First I went to ..................................... They wondered how we had managed to do it.................. .......... 1......................... Grammar 1. the.............................................. 2......... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.... Then I went swimming at ......... 6........ I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup...... 7............ Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything... After .................. ...... .. years........................................ He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting... 9.... Look at those clouds....... I went for . 1........................ bank to withdraw some cash.......... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.......................
................... Sorry. without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary........... is that right? AK Yes.. d..... Wednesday at 9..........................8.................... ............. AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents.......... C Hello. Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase......................... AK ....... ...... c................ and we told him that we could do it next week. you're talking about...........................m................................ hello........ I've got you............ P Yes......... P OK........... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily... AK Hello.. yes...... 51 ...................... EJ .00 a. As we were leaving........ a... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9.. He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.... ............. Functions 1.. 10......... I'm busy on Thursday..... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering. which is why I thought ....................................... something for people who need English translations of words................. fine....................................... Good idea.................................... OK.... B... and they said they would get it to him by 10.......... then... So.................. ? C ............. EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment.......... C Paula....... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski.......... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software.00.... Goodbye....... right...00 ? P .................00 ............. .... EJ .. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e.......... at the latest.............. ......................... AK Exactly...... EJ ... let me give you an example............... EJ Oh...................................... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert.................... 2.... It sounds useful.... 9. e....... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest....... OK.................................... AK Yes...................... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland............................ . EJ ...... can I just interrupt you a second? b..... Would Thursday morning at 10.. is that Paula.. I'm not really with you..........
...... opportunity! 5. it. You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. 3....... Do you take credit cards? 4...... me............ 7... 1... the beer festival.. the discussion today.... I'm allergic .... no! I seem to have . an important meeting in my life.. me...... my new job.. 2........... 8. You can depend .. A lot of company's resources are ........... because of inefficiency. Don't worry. 9.. sensitivity..... the inconvenience caused...... He apologized ....... miss. .... Thank you for taking part . Vocabulary 1........ my family when I was abroad on business for four months... I had three jobs to choose ... Please listen .. 2. I've never . We need to concentrate .... The meeting coincided .. lose... lose..... I am not accustomed .... 10....... 52 ...... 5. I can't eat seafood.... 1.... 4. my money................ Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition....... Oh.... He is lacking ... 2.. or waste...... the UK market for the time being..... 3.. I really ... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss.........C..... 6......
A. some of B... have become good friends. 3. using where. has just joined the company? b. I give / will give you a bonus.. 2. 9.. This is the room .. 3... is free. He gave us a lot of information about his company. anticipating an increase in value. c. then correct the mistakes.. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). The reception area. 1....... 10. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. In some cases more than one answer may be possible. 5... If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday... 2. work opposite us are not very friendly. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. who. or whom. so please hurry up. is comfortable and spacious. e. 6. which... The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. 7... My company does much business in Asia.. 3.. 2. the majority of ... There's not much news to tell you.. is on the fifth floor.. you used to work? was also the year I got married..... Nothing happened yesterday.... but I don't spend a lot on equipments. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. I'm doing many work at the moment. he bought shares in the company. You need to invest in some more machinery....Test C A. she later married. a. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. that.. d... Write C (correct) or I (incorrect)...... Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake.. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. 1.... As soon as / Until the merger was announced.. Grammar 1.. 4. we hold meetings in.. For three years she worked with her boyfriend . Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. I'm living in at the moment. . 53 ... The consultant gave us a lot of good advices. You can download software from many websites. 2. I like playing sport... What's the name of the woman ... Then complete them. Complete the sentences. One million dollars is plenty of for one person......
.. trends............. on abusing the little power he has................... (understand) 54 ........ It's such a bad line.... ......... Vocabulary 1.... however f........ like e..... 1.... ... I had a day off work last week to make . ... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning............. whereas 6............ (be excited by) 4... He's always letting his colleagues . because c........ Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let ... ........ (make depressed) 5......... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ................. such as 5.... as a result of 8..... ... He's not a very good team player...... e... Explaining consequences................................. thus C.... e............. He really gets ...B. due to the fact that 7.. so h...... I can only just make .......... (indicate awareness of something) 3. ........ 1. can we trust these servers to be secure? ..... on the other hand 4. (compensate for) 6............... .... is the answer to that..... a.. By secure......................... as 3........... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem........ and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things... what you're saying. g................................. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server. working at the weekend........g. due to b... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online........... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.... The point is d.. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets......... 2.... (disappoint) 2... fraud still occurs.. Functions 1. because of a.. I mean b. Let me explain what I mean....... . can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'..... To give you an example c.. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e....... for example 2..... while d..........
... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview........... ? (invent) 10........ Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics... A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.. 55 ........... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties.................................. (avoid) 2....... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it . (became very successful) 8.......7. She called in sick so that she could get ..... (communicate) 9.... the meeting. The company really took ..... It's good news... last year when we broke into the German market.. She's very good at getting her ideas .....
................... 3.............. 7..... 2................ The storm blew a lot of trees down last night........ We invite successful applicants to a second interview..................... What three things ................. 2............................ The optician tested my eyes yesterday.............................................................. be wrong.................................................. .. (knock) on your door at home ...... 10................... ..... 3....................................... Companies usually provide managers with language training. (you open) the door immediately? 56 ..... 4...................................... 9....................... We're locked out! 4.... Grammar 1................................ .. ... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities...................................... 1.. (you save) if your house ....................... According to Peter. .... 8.............................. ............ have kept some of it for herself................... Somebody stole my laptop computer. have left my keys in the restaurant.................Test D A.... .. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning............................................................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.................................................... When I go to Barcelona I ................. well top $150 million this year....... He .................... 6................................................................. The head of department recommends candidates for promotion........... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form............................... 1. A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she .......................... The store manager had only just moved to the branch......................... a..................... .... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive.. be a big shock................ Oh.............................................................. ......... His colleague's death ....................... but I ............................... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.. 2.......... (be) on fire? b.... 8........................ but I'm not sure yet.............................................. Conditionals 1............. 5. I asked Miranda to write the report for me....... 7............... He was only 42 years old........................................... be staying at the conference venue............. 3.......... company profits .......... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6..... I think we ........ Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb....................... no! I ................. Use have / get something done where appropriate......................................................... ........ 5........ If someone ......................................................... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months................
...... (you study) ? f.................. Then b.... using the words a-e.............. (you choose) ? d... (give) you a ticket.......... ... What . Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. a.. To manage interruptions 2.. what .... A: Careful! If .. (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs...... To ensure other people get to speak 4.. ....... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description...... (be) you........ basically what you're saying is....... 1..... (not get) a job with your current company? h.. B: Yes................... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion... To summarize a. but I don't think they'd believe me....... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said. eventually d. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview...... there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong....... If you ..... (you change) ? g... I .... (you do) ? e... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's....... B: Thanks for warning me... If you . However.......... a...... (you work) if you .......... b....c.. B........ The interviews take place and .... To keep to the point 3....... To ask for clarification 5. (go) to the police... Could you be more specific? b..... Ella? 57 ......... If the weather ....... Where .... (you park) your car there they . (be) you.. c... whose life .. 2..... (be) good this weekend what ... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function......... Functions 1.......... (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ........ d... (not study) your subject at school / university. (happen) if ... If you .. I .... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e....... after lengthy discussion. we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed..... (go) to the police.. A: If I ....... firstly e. I know............ Would you like to come in here. (see) a UFO... one candidate is chosen.. (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2... So.. c........................... Can I finish what I was saying? d.............. ultimately c.... A: If you .... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards............ . A: If I . .. what ......
. interested 2..... .. .. .......... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs....... credible 4.. understand . connect 5................... 2. create ... legible 58 ... criticize ... Vocabulary 1... 1....... 4..................... 3.. rely ..C.... Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites......... 2.. .. 1. replaceable 3... 5.. humor .............. ..........
...... Match each question with an appropriate category.... (work) from home......... it's no problem... I'd like that.... possibility.. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years..... I .. Do you think there ........................... Invitations..... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9...... e..... A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow..... 1......m.... 8.. 2... 2. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2.. Am I allowed to smoke in here? b.. (live) in space.... B: .. 4........ I'm sure......... you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes....m. Call me sometime over the weekend.... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form.. Will they ........... c. ...... b.. (think) of you....... If you have time during your stay in Sydney.. Grammar 1... 6..... a........... if you'd like me to show you around Prague.Test E A. tomorrow? We ... so don't forget to take waterproofs... requests... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. 7.... I .. Must I really go to the meeting? f..... (finish) their meeting by 7.. I .... and obligation 1.. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House........... Look..00 p. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. Good luck with your exam tomorrow....... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase.... necessity.. Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics.... (do) at 8. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here.00 p.... thank you... Functions 1... but .. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May.. Future Perfect. 5.. Thank you......... d... I've got two tickets! B.. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a.. Do you know what ...... In three months' time I ... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like...... otherwise I may / must / can forget it... Permission. 59 ......... .. I'm sorry. (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life.? 3. A: Great.. Future Continuous.. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c............. By 2050 people ............ By the time I retire I hope I ....
. cause 4........... B: ... I don't think I .. and take Complete the sentences with bring.. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ........ A: So................ best of luck b................ .. did you . ........ take on a.... A: I've had a lovely evening....... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year....... get. Mark................ great............. succeed 3................ thanking..... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e......... her? 3...... Yes. 2........... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. Well.. I'm starting a new job next week.... hope to see you again sometime 1..... Thanks for coming..... a... lead to......... 2.... your bags? They look very heavy! 2. lead to.... carry... C.. B: .... not too bad....... A: Have you .. I have to .. begin (a hobby) 2... Remember to . keep in touch d... I hear this is your last day at work here...... too many mistakes............... or take.... thank you for that lovely dinner once again.... you're welcome e. employ (someone) 60 ................ bring... B: You too..... some research for my thesis....... B: Yes...... ............ A: Oh.. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock......A: ....... A: Well.... take up d.. cash-flow problems for small businesses..... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No.. Can I help you ............ Late payment often ....... carry.................. I can't...... bring about b... 1............ 5..... 2. with everything... I'm glad you enjoyed it c...... in your English test? B: Oh...... 1.. B: Thanks...... warm clothes.... Concluding. A: ... get.. carry off c.. Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning. Vocabulary 1.............. 3... A: How did you ...... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4... that ...
Answer key Test A A1 1. woke up 1. seems 5. e – 1 6. was traveling / witnessed 3. to turn off 5. for a week 5. hasn't stopped 1. d – 4 5. recently 3. going 4. . used to have a Porsche.. 1. had been sitting 6. had been having 4. a . would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. was living 2. have eaten 10. b – 2 3. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. have never seen 8. .. competent 2.. 3.. outgoing 3. g – 3 1.. stubborn 5. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. . a – 5 2. always plays 7. have been having 9. at the moment 2.Tests . f – 6 7.. to entertain 3. . meticulous 4. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. watch 3. arrived / had left 7. 4. going 1. all my life 4. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. c – 7 4. have you been doing 6. look like 2. . 2. had read / started 5. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1.. saying 2... sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. sounds like 4.. 5.
the 4.. a 10. OK. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. will win 9.' 6. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. the 3. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. which e. on 8. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. a. that / which / Ø d. I'm playing 4.' 7. I'll turn on 6. I'm going to spend 8. OK. from 7. Sorry. an 5. at the latest. who / that b. who / whom c. wasted 2.00 a. wasted 5. a 7. the 8. I'll just check / I'll call 5. How about / What about 5. lost 4. in 3. I'm going to 3. I was wondering whether 2. to 10. missed 3. 'Did you see anything?' 2. I haven't had a chance. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. So. I'm not really with you. 62 . 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5.2. with 4. which 2. Are you doing A3 2. let me give you an example.' conditions. the 1. 4. I've got you. that's / That suits me 1. Ø 9. missed C2 1. Ø 6. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. to 6.' 9. you're talking about . we can do it next week. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. for 2. 5. 2. to 9. is going to rain 7. That would be / Yes. 3. in 5.m. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. I'm afraid 4.. B1 1. a. can I just interrupt you a second? 1.
We started the company in 1999. The point is 4. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. substantial 5. e. I mean 5. A2 1. rise 6. By secure. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. arisen 2. up for 1. raise 6. on 3. which was also the year I got married. down 5. by / will give 3. To give you an example 3. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. C 9. some of whom have become good friends.b. I – a lot of 7. off 8. up 10. I – plenty of 6. I've met a lot of people through work. 63 . I – a lot of good advice 1. C 4. I – a lot of 3. d. I – equipment 10. risen 3. down 2. Let me explain what I mean 2. off 4. until / are 1. as soon as 2. across 9. I – information 2. C 8. out 7. I – quite a few 5. sharply 4.
is / will you do e. arrived 2. would you save / was b. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . hadn't studied / would you have studied f. was you / would go c. 1. I had my eyes tested yesterday. 8. My eyes were tested yesterday. could / might / may 1. Language training is provided for managers. could / would you choose d. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. saw / would you do d. were / would you change g. must 4. would happen / arrive. a. / I've had my laptop stolen.. a. must 7. reliable 2. might / may / could 3. My laptop has been stolen. creative 4. 10. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. basically what you're saying is . Applications are passed on to universities. 5. irreplaceable 3. 6. I was in the middle of saying something. A2 1. Miranda was asked to write the report. 3. So. could / may / might 8. / Managers are provided with language training. Candidates are recommended for promotion. happens. can't / couldn't 5. Would you like to say something about this. incredible 4. humorous 3. 2. Can you be more specific? 5. knocked / would you c. should 2. should / must 6. understandable 64 C2 1. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm.2. had been / would have gone b. uninterested 2. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. would you work / hadn't got h. 4. 7. Excuse me. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. John? 4.. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. 9.
can't 3. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . made 4. we will be doing / will be taking 1. Shall we say 5. have finished 3. Keep in touch 4.5. critical Test E A1 1. lead to 1. Hope to see you again some time 3. illegible A2 1. bring 4. get 3. take 5. will speak 7. would be fine / suits me fine 1. will have been working 4. carry 2. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. I was wondering 2. can't 5. 1. will be living 6. best of luck 2. can 4. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. must 2. will be working 5. will be 9. will have earned 8. do 2. That's very kind of you 3. Shall 4. made 3. will be thinking 2. You're welcome 5.
IV. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. 66 . 2. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. 1. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. He knows a lot about music. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. I'm going to the cinema every day. 2. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. She's working here until Christmas. She works here until Christmas. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. He's knowing a lot about music. He doesn't want to be in the school play. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight.
Vegetarians aren't eating meat. 3. Some are right and some are wrong. 5. (He still works there now. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. 6. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. present simple.) I've lived here for three years. 2.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. (She isn't here now. He seems very tired. You haven't lived abroad. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. (Until now I've been there three times. Vegetarians don't eat meat. and present continuous Look at these sentences.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. I want to go out for dinner. we add –ed to the infinitive. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. I have. (I've got a new car now. 1. He's seeming very tired.3.) I've been to Brazil three times. 4. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. To make regular past participles. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle.) I've bought a new car.) Present perfect. (I still live here now. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. 67 .
. Russia is bigger than Canada. but they usually go before the main verb. can be used to make comparisons. as . He's never here at 9. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. normally. in front of the main verb. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4.00.. The train is always on time..3. Her house is as big as mine. I don't usually get up late. Sometimes. 5. 68 . I work here since October. We often go to the park.. The film was much better than I expected. as . and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. I'm working here since October. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *.
The film was better that the book. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. We weren't here yesterday. Alex 1. 6. . Silver isn't so expensive as gold.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. 4. The film was better than the book. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 1. is also possible.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. Short answers Yes.83m 1. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. In the negative so . The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. My exam results were more bad than Andy's... He's as tall as his brother.92m Alex's brothers 1. he was.. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. as . In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 2.85m 1. 3. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. My exam results were worse than Andy's.. He's so tall as his brother. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995.
last week). Last year he went on five foreign holidays.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. It has no present form. two days ago. She's gone home. He used to smoke. but he gave up five years ago. you must use the past simple tense. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. I went out this morning. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. he was.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. We didn't use to live in London. I did.) She went at four o'clock. We went to the cinema twice last week. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. only the past simple can be used. (But I don't live there now. I went there four years ago. I've lived here for five years. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes.) Before that I lived in Madrid. 7. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. (She isn't here now. in 1993. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . I've been there four years ago. She wasn't going to work. not the present perfect. She used to be a teacher. (We're interested in when the action took place. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense.g. (I still live here.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now. or past actions which were not habits. For individual past actions. not the effect.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
which with things. It might (not) rain today. It may (not) rain today. I'd buy a house. (But she works in a bank. 74 least likely most likely . It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. He's the man who lives next door. or imaginary situations. impossible. If I had the money.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. Use Would has many uses. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone.) She'd be a good politician. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign.) make polite offers. They wouldn't steal from a friend. We use who with people. It's likely to rain today. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. (But I haven't got the money. I would. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It probably won't rain today. I saw the man. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. It could rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. I saw the man who lives next door. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It'll probably rain today. She's probably coming this weekend.
are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. You knew about this yesterday.. can't she? NOT . You're Italian. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. did not you? She can speak Russian.. He lives next door. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man.. She arrived yesterday. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. He's the man. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. It isn't very warm. don't they? 75 . Look at these sentences. This chair's French. She married him. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. haven't you? It was raining. which. does it? You've finished. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. He's the man who/that lives next door. 12. didn't you? NOT . He's the man (who/that) she married. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. They aren't coming to the party. so we can leave out the relative pronoun.. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. will she? It doesn't matter. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. or that. You can swim. didn't she? You like fish.He's the man that lives next door. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun.
These houses were built in the 1930s. Cars shouldn't be parked there. The car has been found. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. She must be told. It is less direct than an ordinary question. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. 76 . The man wasn't sent to prison. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. To make the negative of the passive. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. Thousands of cars are stolen. It can't be done.) and is followed by a question mark (?). 13. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. Fewer crimes would be committed. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). This wine is produced in Portugal. The weapon hasn't been found. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. The crime will be solved. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. we use the negative of the verb to be. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. We can use the passive in any tense. Someone has been arrested. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. These computers are made in Japan. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. we don't know the agent.
) 15. or imaginary situations. we use by.If we want to show the agent. If she eats all the ice cream. we'll go to the cinema. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. 14. (I don't think I'll get the job. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. NOT If it will rain. we'll go to the cinema. We usually use a comma (.) when the if clause is first. If it rains. we'd travel business class. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.) We won't go if it rains. If you get up late.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. she'll feel terrible. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. The car has been found by some children.. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. NOT If I would have enough money .) 77 . First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. but not when tha main clause is first. If I get the job I'll earn more money. (There is a real chance that it will rain. I'd buy that house. If I had enough money . They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. you'll miss the appointment.. unlikely.) when the if clause is first. but not when the main clause is first.. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. We usually use a comma (. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.. If I had enough money. The suspect was identified by a witness. If we had more money.
as soon as. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. before we would go to the cinema.. NOT She switched on it.. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object). up. until Phil will get back. on. She switched on the TV. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. 17. I'll phone you when she arrives. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. in. Time clauses As in clauses with if. when she will arrive. until. He saw the mouse and ran out. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. She switched it on. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. before.. He took off his jacket. look something up 78 . Oil will run out in the next century. the verb is separable. or She switched the TV on. He heard a helicopter and looked up. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. NOT . Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated.. She takes after her mother. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning.g. NOT .. e. NOT . away. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary.16.. and after. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. (transitive) The plane took off.
NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. he has. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. I've lived here for ten years. the verb is inseparable. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. You're late. 79 . (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. I've been waiting for an hour. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. 18. like other continuous forms. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action.) focus on the process of an activity. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. or about past actions which have present results.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. (I haven't finished it yet. I've been playing a lot of football this week. I've been writing a letter. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. is not normally used with stative verbs.I looked up the word in the dictionary.' emphasize the duration of an activity. (focus on activity) I've played two matches.
Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. or an auxiliary verb. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. decide. have no idea. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. question word(s) subject verb 80 . know. so we must provide one. wonder. Did you see her? In Wh. Can she swim? They've arrived.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. ask. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question.19. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20.questions.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. a modal verb. imagine.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. using do/does in the present or did in the past. Compare these questions. see. remember. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. Do they live here? You saw her.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. They live here.
A shop that sells books is a bookshop. 2. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. is. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. 3. I've decided how much money I need. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . I wonder why did he do that? 21. With Wh. I don't know if he's coming. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. a computer software shop This is a shop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software.? or Do you think you could tell me . 4. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. 81 . The headword always goes at the end. left. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives.? Could you tell me where the post office is.. arrives.. What kind of software? Software for computers. I've decided how much money do I need. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. 've got. we say clothes shop and sports shop. 1.. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English.. Note: However. football boots These are boots. A shop that sells records is a record shop.
This is a really boring film. -ing form or infinitive A. before.).) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. Unfortunately there are no rules. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). I read a fascinating book the other week. (Empty bottles.00. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. smell. We saw them leaving the house. There's someone coming. stomach ache 22. After having a shower. After I'd had a shower. to describe what someone can sense (with see. object I don't enjoy cooking. hear. and while to replace a clause. I had the idea while driving home. Compare these sentences. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. 23. I had the idea while I was driving home. There were two people waiting for you. as adjectives. etc. Others are written as two words.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. when the subject of both clauses is the same. (New packets. a teacup. I could smell burning.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. with after. feel. He was driving at 120mph. I've been working since 7. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. She's playing tennis. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. (Empty packets. I got dressed. a bathroom a coffee cup. or are hyphenated. watch.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. 82 . Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. I got dressed. I can hear someone coming. a tennis racket a living-room. notice.
remember.) try I tried to speak to her about it. but she still wouldn't listen.) stop He has stopped smoking. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. I like lying in bed late. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. but it didn't work. give up. enjoy. It's just started to rain. She's considering emigrating to Australia.like. suggest. start. consider. I'd like to live abroad. I enjoy doing the gardening. love. (British) I like to lie in bed late. and can't stand.) C.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different.) I tried speaking to her about it. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. begin. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. B. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. then he stopped in order to smoke. -ing forms Look at these sentences. imagine. 83 . Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. but she wasn't there. continue It's just started raining. Some of the most common are finish. (I spoke to her. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. 1. (I was supposed to dance with him. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. I'm beginning to learn the piano. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. but I couldn't. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. but I didn't. forget I remember meeting her.) He stopped to have a cigarette. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. (he was doing something. In British English. I began to realize how he felt. I'd prefer to go to the cinema.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. feel like. hate.) I remembered to meet her. Smoking is bad for your health. (I had met her before and I remembered it. (I wanted to speak to her. (I had to meet her and I did.
could. Stop to make so much noise. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. should. too. neither. 24. B Me. Before to leave the office. 5. A I've never been to Ireland. B So do I. I must remember posting this letter. neither to agree with a negative statement. A I couldn't read until I was seven. I begun understanding the problem. 7. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. I must remember to post this letter. need. I'd love going to New Zealand. B Nor/Neither have I. 25. B Oh. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. will. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. To smoke is bad for your health. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. I made a phone call. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. might. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. There's someone that comes up the stairs. I could. 84 . To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. B Oh. too to agree with a positive statement. A I really love pizza. B Me. I made a phone call.2. Before leaving the office. 3.) I + positive auxiliary verb. I began to understand the problem. Stop making so much noise. shall.) I + negative auxiliary verb. 4. ought to. must. There's someone coming up the stairs. I would. and Me. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. I'd love to go to New Zealand. 6. may. would.
In each pair one is right and one is wrong. or You don't need to come. He mights come later. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. we can use could to talk about ability. 3. Present: He can speak four languages. You might go to London. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. For example.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. Modal verbs have no tense forms. They might not come to the party. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). They have no infinitive or participle form. 2. You shouldn't do that. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. will: I'll be able to find a new job. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. 4. I can swim. 85 . possibility. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. (or I could find a new job. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. Past: He could speak French when he was four. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. She should see a doctor. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. I couldn't believe what he told me. and permission.) I must remember to post this letter. I must to remember to post this letter. 1. would: I'd be able to find a new job. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. You don't should leave your car there. They ought to be more careful. He might come later.
(The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. (It is and 'outside' obligation.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. would: I'd have to find a new job. from my doctor. The firemen were able to save everyone. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. (I want to. I could drive when I was sixteen. You needn't wear a suit. The party's informal.30./You don't need to wear a suit. Note: Must has no tense forms. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. The firemen could save everyone. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. (It is a general obligation. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. will: I'll have to find a new job. was/were able to. 86 . and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. Past: I had to find a new job. it is 'my' obligation. You don't have to come if you don't want to. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. You ought not to carry so much cash. a driving instructor. The firemen managed to save everyone. You shouldn't work so hard. You need to be at the station by 8. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. I must start taking more exercise. Have to is used to describe general obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. Have to is also used. we use was/were able to or managed to. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test.Could. I have to work on Saturday this week. though could is more common. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. Passengers must show their boarding cards.
26. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. I had the car fixed. 1. 5. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. 4. Permission Can. 2. might. with we and I. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. and may is the most polite and formal. She might not be here tomorrow. I had my hair cut. Some are right and some are wrong. She could not be here tomorrow. I had my room painted. I painted my room. could. 87 . I will can go swimming every day next week. Compare these sentences. Yesterday I must get the bus to work.Probability May. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 3. This means that I painted the room myself. and may are used to ask for permission. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. Could is more polite than can. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers.
and modal verbs do not change. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. The car's really dirty. 29.g. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. David's father lets him use the car. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. 28. because a different person is now speaking. It needs to be cleaned. said or told). Need + -ing is more informal. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. would. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. We can also use need with to be + past participle.27. The car's really dirty. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. The judge made the man apologize. 88 . I'll get my secretary to type the letter. I got the garage to service my car. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. Direct speech: I like cooking. It needs cleaning.
Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Monica: I might phone you later.. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Zoe said that they saw a great film. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. When we report questions. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. We tell somebody something. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. 31. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. NOT Andrea said me . Luke: I'll be away till March. Andrea said (that) she was going out. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. we make the following changes. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. They told (us) a story. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Tom: I don't want to stay here. 30. With Yes/No questions. say and tell We say something. She told (them) jokes all night. Helen: I'd like a coffee. and verbs have a statement form... Zoran: I had never been there before. NOT Andrea told (that) .Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. the reported question starts with whether or if. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. 89 . The word order changes to a statement word order. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting.. Andrea: I'm going out.
Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. If I had told the truth. 33. and you crashed. order. 1.) when if clause is first. but other verbs can also be used. 4. 'Don't worry. 'Please sit down. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. 1. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. They said me that the exam was very hard.' He told me not to worry. such as advise.32. persuade. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. They told me that the exam was very hard. 2. If you hadn't studied so hard. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that. Reported speech Look at these sentences. but not when the main clause is first. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. (You were driving too fast. I'd lend you some money if I had any. The instructor told me that I don't do that. beg. We usually use a comma (. and I didn't pass the exam. she wouldn't have left. and command.' The doctor asked me to sit down. an imaginary situation in the past.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. you would have failed. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. Some are right and some are wrong. 3. (I didn't work hard. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. The instructor told me not to do that. 3. She asked me where I lived. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. 2. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. 90 . warn.
(I regret leaving at ten o'clock. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. 34. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast.) They should have bought the house.4. If I knew the answer I'll tell you.) 91 . I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.
Wallwork. Otman. Dorner. & John McGwan. 2002. 92 . Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Tom. International Express. Chris Mitton. 2002. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 7.Oxford. Kennewell. Ian Selwood. 2001. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. Hutchinson. Computer Studies Through Applications. Glendinning. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 2001. Engleza pentru internet. Jane. Gabriel. Engleza pentru informatica. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. 1992. 6. Oxford English for Information Technology. Driscoll. 5. Brooks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 8. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2001. 3. Life Lines. Eric H. 1998. 4. All Stars. 2001. Steve & Peter Fox. 2.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Writing for the Internet. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.