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CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
.. cards.. English is the most widespread language on Earth...... reading ... speaking and not being corrected all the time . sport... This will no doubt continue... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. technology. and the process is now being reversed.. Purists of the French.... but remember that different people learn in different ways.. Compare your lists. Geographically. pronunciation practice 3.. or drinks. Prepositions too are flexible. writing .. Read books and newspapers.... Speaking 1.... listening . although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.....to be cleaned and dried.. It is the language of business.What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ....... OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY... Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.. How do you learn languages? . A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement...... 1 being the most important... This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives..What advantages does the adult have? 2. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.What advantages does the baby have? ... we can talk about a round of golf.. learning vocabulary ..... Justify your order... speaking and being corrected .. and aviation. 4.. ... learning grammar .. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH. second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. 4 .. Work alone...... Work in groups...
in fact. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. Other networks joined in. But then an odd thing started to happen. each machine will have equal status. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. by 1972. uninvited but still welcome.. There will be no "command center". The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. for it was they. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. they opened newsgroups. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. 4. 3. to use the techy term. they used it to swap gossip. just kept on growing. But they weren't interested in science or academia. then news and eventually gossip.I. 2. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet.). These packets could be sent independently over the network.. 1. it worked. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. 5 . Instead of using the network strictly for business. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. Crude as they were. still the most popular use of the Net by far. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. Amazingly. Because of the way the messaging system worked. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. Instead. as it came to be called. invented e-mail. they sent each other games. the way they got there was unimportant. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. and the Internet. They had. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. They started mailing lists. no single computer that controls the rest of them. swapped them (via the net. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. 37.
however. desktop computer 2. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. Apple. a person who tries to discover something E. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Computer sizes. notebook 3. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. network. supercomputer 4. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. mainframe 5. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Over the last few years. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. but the market (saturate) to some extent. a set of related computers C.2. Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). along with IBM. but transistors soon (replace) them. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. cheaper and more reliable. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. packet. a series of bits being a part of message B. researcher A. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. Since then the computers (become) smaller. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. mailbox. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. Here are five types of computers.
"We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. learn the material. founder and president of University Online. and as with mail order programs. There's a revolution happening in education. Personally. and connect to a server that presents information. and the Americans. click on the course they want. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. online environment. Students can log onto the Internet. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. use a bulletin board. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. all of which express personal opinions: 1. For example. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". Using modern technology. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. says Nat Kannan. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. It's called distance learning. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. Australia. and interactive courseware. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . the material would be available to students at their convenience. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. the Net will be alma mater. offered by mail. Use the elements to make complete sentences. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. videotape of professor's lectures. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. visit the school's We site. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. Europe. rather than offering their own set of courses. Within a few months. 1.
.. to make use of a symbol for something 3. possession magnetism.. scientist . so it has been tested ... boredom.5.. we never believed it would be so successful..g. the beginning of the experiment. four years ... condition belonging to act of. to give a linear form to 8.. to give authority to 10. behavio(u)rism typist. to reduce to the minimum 7.. Fill the blanks in this passage with since.. kingdom employee. several new courses have been offered.. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. 1992 and it is already known worldwide... neighbo(u)rhood electrician.. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal... I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. to take a material form 5.. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam... operator voucher. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er.. execution... University Online was originally tested over five years . Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e. to represent in a digital form 2. state condition. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. state condition. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. a few months . I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8.. It was put on the market in 1994. to write a summary of 3. 6.. connector childhood. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. independence employer. You have to follow a course . addressee audience. When we started. This University has only existed . musician introduction. To my mind. for and ago: 1. 4.. 5.. withdrawal clearance.... -or -hood -ian -ion. in 1992 2. over two years. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. to arrange in an optimal way 6. 3.. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2.
soft 10. electric 17. reality achievement. active 3. government business. concentrate. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. personal 15. lengthen classify. local 9. economical foolish useless porous. logical. action condition of quality. stimulus 20. condition place. tight 5. computerize. simplify customize. broad 2. analysis 11. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . short 7. transform the following words into verbs. -ical -ish -less -ous. long 13. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. slavery. auto 8. standard 18. rivalry friendship. using the verb-forming suffixes above. furiously 4. condition. weak 19. interruptible environmental. -ery -ship state. tolerate shorten. initial 12. quality state. boldness labo(u)r. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. widen. 1. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. state condition. loose 16. generally.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. simple 4. mode 14. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. robot 6. behavio(u)r foundry. Now. state electricity. happiness.
10 . If you decide programming is really for you. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. By the age of 30. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. They merely prove you can think. rolled out major solutions and are well known. so you have to be better than them. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. C++. Java and Visual Basic developers. For someone starting out. A consultant is different. spend more money on a training course. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Here's the road map. University degrees are useless. technology and people. Visual Basic and Delphi.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. as does Novell. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. an attention to detail. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. how it relates to other products and so on. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. And there are lots of people who know it too. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. more manageable pieces. However. The same goes for NetWare Certification. its positioning on the market. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. and so on. After a couple of hops like that. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. That's where the all-important experience comes in. C++. Delphi. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. a week there. Get a decent book on Windows programming. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. you've run big projects. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. Qualifications are important.
location. involve output. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. semicolon . disable illiteracy impossible insufficient.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. into going away more than above too much beneath. bystander input. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. size. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. decode disagree. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. foresee. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. misfortune nonsense unreal. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. external foreground. side in.
PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. to grow larger 5. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. Now use the prefixes of degree. location. half manual 7. together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. that is already programmed 2. a program that is part of a larger program 6. after the war 4. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . not up to standard 10. size. to convey data from one place to another 8. 1. half automatic. to predict 3.
Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. to find their way around. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. For example. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. include descriptive ALT text captions. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. and make necessary adjustments. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. Besides content. If you are committed to using frames on your site. and visitors may not know how to 14 . If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. you may group the FAQ. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars.
add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". without wasting space. Logical. confusing. well laid out.use yours effectively. Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. ease of use. you can add the suffix "er". features. However. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. especially those ending in "y" (see above). clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. colorful. a visitor. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). compatibility. password protected. (hot) links. nice design. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). on-line support. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. accuracy. helpful graphics. cluttered. navigation. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. structure connections. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. Take notes on any special features. 1. Visit a website of your choice. good reactivity. For most sites. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. search facility. 15 . a user. contact information. up to date.
. For the preceding sentence. the more I feel depressed. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. 1. when buying a PC are often 5. When comparing two items. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models..A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. resolution was 16 . as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. 2. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. the comparative can be preceded by "the". EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". the better he feels. "as . There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. 3. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. The less he works. This computer is the cheaper of the two. as". indicated by the symbols. 4.. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. The higher the resolution. 3. the sharper the picture. John was the elder of the two boys. the slower the speed of execution. when preceded by "X times". It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. 2.. The less sophisticated the software. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. 2. 4. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer.
This is the most powerful computer available today. cheap computer 3. 1. ugly picture 9. big memory device 7. powerful computer 2.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. 3. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. fast chip 4. With short adjectives. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives. fuzzy image 8. inconsistent program 10. expensive card 6. reliable device 5. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.
. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. if that happened. 4... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. on the Net or elsewhere. sometimes be useful when designing a program... off-the-point arguments to see that.. 5. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4.. Put the words back in the right order: 1. Don't criticize others for their misspellings.. The following sentences have been scrambled. The reason for this is never given.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. 18 . make sure you spell correctly yourself. Programs . Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. This piece of software . Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups.......... Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. rambling.. 3.. In practice. be debugged before being executed.. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop.. You . documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. may or could 1.. read the FAQ). cause unexpected results. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. 1......... 6. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. A flowchart .. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5.... 2. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it.. This form of internal policing.. (A whole quarter second in some cases).... Conversely... Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream.. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3.. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. have to.. when to criticize and when to stay silent.. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. and overzealous at that. You .. It doesn't work. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind.... a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette.. Don't cross-post messages. A bug . unwarranted abuse and long.. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.. because it wastes people's time.
and computing.. Daca as fi vrut.. 6. the main.. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.. de exemplu.......... You . Write them next to the correct definition. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1.. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. 3. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own . de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. photo... 6.... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week.. opening page of a website .. 7...... Ar fi putut.. Cu toate acestea.. 3........ a measure of visits to a website ... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. 10..... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW . (You can find the words left to right. Translate the following sentences into English. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus. 5. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.... H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1. If you do.. 4. 2........ 8.. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul. Cind am incercat soft-ul... top to bottom. sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului..7. a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .. They ........... 3.. 8. write this program in a high-level language. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text... Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici.. 5... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. 7. 9... 4. 2... picture. email. 19 ..... graphic . and diagonally top to bottom). also known as "favorites" ..... it will take up too much space in the computer memory..
. 11. 13. 15. i.. 10. Uniform Resource Locator..... something that automatically connects you to another page ..........g. 20.9..e........ 21....... 14. 16. a way of showing emotion in an email..... 18. a location on the WWW . the World Wide Web ......... the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ......... a software package generally used to start you up for a program . a search engine.... a physical input / output point .. unsolicited mail...... inappropriate use of a mailing list ........... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites.. . :-) ... a bug which infects data on your computer ...... 20 ...... e...... 19... abbreviation for the Internet ........ 17.. email......... 22. 12................ website address .. the Internet equivalent of post ...... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet . etc..
C. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people.Choose the ending (A. B. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. For some teenagers. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. better known as Robert Schifreen. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. Typically. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. But according to those who practice. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. had not been in trouble with the law before. Today's hacker is not so lucky. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. Robert Schifreen 21 . The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Hackers have their own code of conduct.000. had knocked on this door. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends.000 a year to repair. 1. and so. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. a basic computer and a bit of patience. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. MULTIPLE CHOICE . infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. has the security. All the hacker needs is a modem. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. hacking has been criminalized. costing companies an average of $23. hacking is still easy. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. The law was tightened up. the computer companies would have you believe. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. Triludan. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. 1. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. Admittedly. which is readily available. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival.
C. C. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. C. costs about 48p a time C. 5. The majority of hackers are shown to be A.A. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. b. is popular because it is romantic. D. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. male criminals. merely curious. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. h. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. has made hacking more difficult. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. 8. 3. B. 6. 7. deliberately destructive B. This produces much smaller files. e. Each MP3 file has a tag. is a form of escape from the everyday world. 33% of its members are hackers B. Match each cause and effect. 5. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. MP3 players contain several devices. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. B. D. 4. According to the NNC A. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. 3. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 2. c. 4. This gives an enormous storage capacity. You can legally download some music. f. 22 . Then link them with an –ing clause. Effect a. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. You can download a skin program. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. totally unaware of what they are doing. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. Cause 1. 2. the survival of hackers is threatened. g. outlaws hacking. Hacking A. You can download single tracks. B. D. has eliminated all computer security. D. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. You can create your own compilation. d.
A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. display. mouse and hard drives only. 9. 4. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. 5. 7. 2. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. keyboard. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. 1. 6.3. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 10. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 3. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. 8.
. 1.5in. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.....2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992... No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB.. the equivalent of 300..... floppy drive. and justify the cost of a drive. Finally data access is relatively quick and painless..... CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. For example..... As with other areas of the computer industry.. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine...5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. Measuring drive performance 2. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. Review criteria 4.. The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. 1... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs...... word processor and database – comes on one CD.. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5.. 24 . with a further 1.. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage... but it's not the only one. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole... Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price. Mainstream applications 3. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. or were vast collections of specific information. and because there's more space.. Price points ... According to the market researcher Dataquest.. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily...LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15). Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. Put them back in the appropriate place. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. literature and art.. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either..... along with the conventional 3. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits.. Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass.... Applications are the key issue...000 pages of printed text – on a single platter.. . but are spread throughout business.. the applications are generally better.
... The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster.... When CD-ROMs appeared on the market..... 7... where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user..... files. 3.. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices..... access time. ...... 6. more faster. disk 25 .... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more.. however advanced. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. Backing Store . is still a read-only product. drawback.. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters. pie chart.. more precise head positioning mechanism. 1. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform. Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996..... Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks.. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives. give reasons for your choice..... The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware.. As a result of this market maturity... this excuse was taken too far... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time.. CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information. TRUE OR FALSE? .. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system..But CD-ROM. 2... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.... they were as overpriced as consumer CD players... 9. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use...... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. ..... 5.. 1.... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.. The industry......... while still developing rapidly.. 8...... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files.. 4.. This is often confused with the average access searches.. 10..Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false..... 2.. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM. customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer........ The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information......... ...
.. so-called because of its flexibility...... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use..... 4.... read-write head. floppy disk..... are now part and parcel of most computer systems..... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS. though these are becoming .. retrieved.... direct-access.. disk. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle...... 10.. Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.... 5. Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.. double-sided.. magnetic disks or diskettes. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an ............. Large systems often use cartridges or . 2. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse. it is called a . De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara.... 3.. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta... This technology is cheap and easy to use.. both internal and external...... (i...Translate the following sentences into English: 1.. address.. If the disk is ....... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .... Hence files can be ..........drives.. media and .. where only one surface is .. 8.... 6.... You should write between 150 and 200 words.... formatted (x3). old-fashioned. The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors...... storage areas are marked on the magnetic...e.. i.. Hermetic data modules called "...... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta...... 26 .. very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ...... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years..... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... as opposed to a single-sided disk. Most users are more familiar with the .......... of all the files on the disk. on both surfaces. 3.. that is extremely slow because of ... a disk must be . directory.. The ....... In this way only a small part of a .... Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre... THE PASSIVE .... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare........ a track and a sector number).." are also common. Before being used. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).... and ..... Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. needs to be in main memory at any one time. disk packs. 9. erorile se pot corecta. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as ... oxide-coated surface..... I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.... sequential access.... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as . magnetic tapes. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory......e.. database. but has the ...... 7.......... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ..
An overview of lost techniques. virtual museums A. With the internet. At the time of the Renaissance A. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. Moreover. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. military. With reference to the information in the article. the patron goddesses of the arts. Within the last few years. For many people. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. 27 . public museums did not exist. and industry. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. only aristocrats could go to museums. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. science. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. electronically. C. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. B. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. Elizabeth Brown. B.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. fashion. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. C. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. beyond the straightforward museum visit. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. 1. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. a basis for study for future generations. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. 3. will replace traditional museums. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. 2. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. A museum can best be defined as A. crafts. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. especially in distant lands.
group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. to establish 6. country 9. work of art. best work of an artist C. The National Museum of Art A. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. will show works of art that do not exist. something produced by creative talent E. 1. to admire 3. collection 5. photo (taken quickly) 2. to enjoy 10. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries.B. artefact 3. Put the following sentences into the passive form. art work 2. C. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. B. will organize visits to its storage spaces. 5. 3. article (in a magazine) 4. Museums maintain and display great works of art. 4. masterpiece 4. honored 5. The Web may transform our perception of art. storehouse 8. C. 2. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. disadvantage 7. 4. museum A. Match the words and their definitions: 1. vast 4. to see. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. 2. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. object produced by human hands 3. 6.
the name of the payer and the recipient. In many cases. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). 4. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. For the purposes of this discussion. 29 . Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. for example). and the amount of money represented). making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. users can act as both customers and merchants. Payment systems based on gold. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. the date and time of the transaction. 2. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. paper currency. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. A bank employee who pays out money. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. With such a system. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. and the amount to be paid.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. 3. In a credit system. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. 1. currency.e. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. A person who receives (money. and credit cards are credit systems. or a dedicated payment client. The customer runs client software. both exist in the digital world as well. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. you gather your money up front and then spend it. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. In a peer-to-peer system. A person who buys goods or services from you. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. the merchant receives the payment. charge accounts. a bank redeems each note number only once. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. 5. traveler's checks. and a bank does the accounting. Using a public key. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. In a debit system.. The customer pays. Checks. To execute a real-time transaction. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. This might be a WWW browser.
.. The bank will send the company a weekly . The man.? The next day he got a bill for $0.. Stupid Computer Error A .. entered the virtual shop... were still new. A large number of banknotes.... bought her a typewriter instead.. we found CD-ROMs on sale..... of which.. For $20 a month.... Money used in a specific country.00 stating that payment was now overdue.. receipt. cheques. balance......... 7. overdraft. a current . for their manager... remittance. He is the very man .. loan. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.. where. 3. safe. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. the company can have access to a .. 1..... The customer. The bank director.000... C . I met personally. which. holder... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. agreed to honor my check... The site. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. interest... 2. He alone will be authorized .. D . 6.... whom.......... to start. wanted to buy some shirts. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it... .. to sign.. were found in the safe... some . 30 .. The initial ... The account will not produce any ... .... . 2... he ignored it.. deposit... 8..6. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. is similar to traditional credit. A computer that can access a server.. name is on the check... trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. to clear.... Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake... He ignored it and threw it away. Digital credit. The next month he got a bill for $0.00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt. withdrawal The Longstone company wish .. To add money (to an account)... 5... The first one has already been done for you.. to open... However. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.. whose.. will be $10.. is used in electronic trade..00.. 3..? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card.... 4.. will only be charged at 12%. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. of account.... statement.. You will not need to use them all! account. accepts digital cash..
After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too. He called them and talked to them.? A week later. F . he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.E .00 by return of post. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it. G . the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.? Finally giving in.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.00.
"The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". sound and feeling will arrive. he said. more controversially. Dr. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. And needless to say. was how online commerce will evolve. networks.. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. smells. "At telecom 91. that probability that . well. What should concern us.. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. and. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable.. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". Next came.. there was an inevitable blur of content. said Dr. As he pointed out. Christian Huitema. experts expect that.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. the current issue of security will only be short. satellite. one can predict / foretell that. So things have changed. for all intents and purposes. Lastly. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. exist. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. said. and the role of the providers. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. 1. dumb terminals. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. computing. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Dr. came the issue of virtual reality. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board.. 32 . that didn't keep the crowds away. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet. Huitema. futurologists forecast. is high / low it is highly probable that . TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness.. he enthused.. For sheer impact. he predicted. the future. "Sight. I think the word Internet was uttered twice.. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future...... And as for the taste. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. we'll have to work on that one". dipping even further into the future.
. indicated by a finger symbol. Reading Read the article. there are scientific arguments for... 2.. My boss is easygoing and . me leave early every Friday afternoon... Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. I hope that doing the course .. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made.... it hard for me to have a social life.. Prepare to explain them to your partner. When I was young my parents never . 3.. that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to... Sneaky... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete..it is a well-founded supposition that. it is reasonable to think that.. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.... 2. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient. enable. 33 ..... that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.. there are grounds for believing that... A security password .. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then).. me to stay out later than 11. allow.. me to get a better job. permit 1...... The term was first coined by William Gibson. make.00... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.. access to confidential files.. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let.... Keyword The word... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer..... 5. Being a single parent . 4. 3.. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can.. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage...
ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. It takes wit. and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. sex and location. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. Plenty of adults talk the talk. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). every night. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. Well. If something cracks you up. a new idiom has been born. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. The solution is to abbreviate. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). FWIW (for what is worth). Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. C-U-L8R 34 . or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). all day at work. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. It has an estimated 75 million users. concentration and agile fingers. yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. or type the type. Across the world. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. PBAB (please bring a bottle). contract and condense. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. GTG. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. There's neither time nor space for exposition. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in).
w.g.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . English. For the purpose of this task. Spanish.cair@btinternet. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. Geography. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. Stonebridge. Science.II. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". which sounds very strange indeed. then write your own CV in the same way.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 . you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. EH21 3TZ email p. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. degrees and other qualifications. e. Computer Studies.
Thin. Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.network administration and implementation .1st line customer telephone support .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . L.Windows 95 / 98 . Novasystems 36 ..Office 97.Sage line 50 & 100 .Windows 200 Server / Professional .advising clients on IT issues and strategies . Personnel Officer.5 . 2000 .Exchange Server 5.PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .database design . Leith.TCP / IP Networking . IT Department.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.
how to begin a letter.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . 37 . Reference number if there is one.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application.state where you saw the job advertised . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Type your letter 6.please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . State when you are available for the interview 10. the name and address of the addressee. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . the signatory's full name (typed). Write clearly 2.1. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. State what job you are applying for 4. Give all the information you are asked for 8. B. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .state you qualifications in brief . Use the person's name if you know it .name and address of firm. so read the advertisement carefully first 5. and firm. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . and where to put the handwritten signature. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). Keep your letter short and to the point 3.B. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Make the information you give relevant to the job.am available to start as from June 15 .in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1.should you feel I could be of use to your firm . how to end it.am currently studying for ."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph .
I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. In Malaysia I arranged. My contact address until the end of July is as above. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. Over the past year. for example. study tours for project personnel. through the British Council. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. as well as students. Yours sincerely. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. team leadership and team membership. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. teachers and administrative staff. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. Alan Bannister 38 . I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues.
Don't let your clothes be too extreme. interests and hobbies. You are likely to be found in the end. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. . In the past year. Describe your most recent accomplishments. don't rush. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. 5. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. . Why should you be employed by this company? 4. . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. so much the better.C.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. experience. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview . Dress in a business-like way.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.Don't smoke. Which is more important to you. Thank your interviewer. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. money or job satisfaction? 12. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. If you think you may have trouble finding the place. .It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed.Do sit still. . 2. walk to the door. . What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9. . Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare.Do arrive in plenty of time. 39 . set out early.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. . Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. .Do make a graceful exit.
..assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ... if you might be able to help me. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5... I was wondering if .not answering all the points raised by the sender ... Yours sincerely.. if you intend your comments to be humorous) . Please find ..D...not telling the reader what you expect them to do.. WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1..S. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .. how has it changed your working life? 3. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A. Dear James.. ... future. you in the . B. One letter is formal.writing too much.. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .not making clear who you are and why you are writing . the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor.sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in. the other informal.. my recent paper.... working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. What do you use email for? 4.. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are .. I would be extremely .not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.... or in sentences that are too long .Read these emails.. which I hope you will find interesting.. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this ... or may not be able to open . I . if you could give me some information about what software you have been using..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to .. Could you email me details? 40 . Dear Sir. and how you yourself will proceed Exercise . How are you? I bet you are . working on Lingo.. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.. Monica Ciampi P.writing everything in UPPER CASE .. If you use email at work. How often do you use email? 2......
thus d.. a. with d.. before 15. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester . a. pair d. included d. together. now c. a. from c. near b. a. I look forward to news from b... and 13. business b. annexed 9. a.. missing c. ask 2. couple b.. a. wonder d.. attached b. wishes 41 . of weeks I'll be in England. matter c. lacking 10. request c.. actually 3.. close 8. a. dinner 14.. a. affair 6. glad 5. also b. match c. by 11. losing b. I look forward to hearing news from d. love c.. a.. a. concerns b. beforehand b.. Monica P. so b. enclosed c. currently b.. for b. next c. as well c.. to Peter 1. pleases d topic d. supper d.. presently d. and thank you for your help. respect d. too d. soon d. happy c.In a . a.. I look forward to hearing from c. a. Best wishes. meal c... bracket 12. wasting d. Send my . a.... perhaps we could meet up and go for a . Hope to hear from you . demand b. then c. early c. drink b. grateful b. a. a.S.. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. additionally 4. topic d.
appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. I'd like to . referring... ..E...... humor Organization – coherence... research Approach – message support and reinforcement. handling Delivery – pace. outline. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. finally. pointed out "Good afternoon.. body language Language – clarity. . 42 . draw your attention. of course. before . confidence.. everybody. briefly our current marketing policy in the UK. There is no benefit in using difficult language. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. priority. our profits have not increased at the same rate.. concluding.... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking. motivating Exercise .. What is a presentation? 2.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. thank. .... sum up. interesting. enjoyable.. Overall – clarity of message. I'd like to ........ then. to Italy and Spain. indicate. interrupt. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation.. with some recommendations.. clarity.. Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts... PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.. me if you have questions at any time. What makes a presentation effective? 4. subject knowledge..... with our plans for Europe.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already ... on balance. intonation.. some of the problems we are facing. what . I'll . options.... achievement of objectives.. For what purpose are presentations made? 3.. about our corporate strategy for the next decade.... and. purpose.. you will notice. fluency.. enthusiasm. rapport / eye contact... .. . My ..... I've .. to start with. appropriacy. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years.. I'm ........ describe.. move on.. on those successes before we . bring you up to date. specifically.. to . some of the problems we are having over the market share. pronunciation. more ... I think our first . informative. audibility. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets.. . that although turnover has risen.. today is to .. clarity. about our current position in the UK and I've . accuracy... .. expand... I'll . variety.. you all for being here. Now I'd like to .. tell you.. recommend. Please feel free to ... talked.. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century.. What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. Let me quickly .. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.. illustrate... I'll quickly . Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it... in conclusion.. Well..... relevance....
. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly .. though.. Thank you also for your pertinent questions.. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far. Spain and possibly Greece.. Are there any final questions?" 43 ..... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy... may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience.. ..We should not forget the French market. . but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes..
is the topic relevant to your degree course? .is the topic broad enough / too broad? . since you have more space.a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. which you research by yourself. However. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). There are several criteria for your choice: . but is probably the most important. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. called a dissertation or long essay. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. In part-time degrees.is the topic academic enough? . 44 . but there are a number of differences: . two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work .you can choose your own title . dissertations need to say a lot about a little.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. A member of staff will supervise progress.F. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. and be available to assist you. You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. Like an essay. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. but it can also be very daunting. This means you have a whole year to write it. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. try it out with your supervisor. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious.
000 words Conclusion – 1. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. It is longer. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. since you may need a few by your side. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. Dissertations are usually 10. since you have more to say. ask yourself: . What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. the first thing to do. you must work out the structure of the dissertation. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. 000 words. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. This will be your title.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. Introduction – 1. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2.1. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. 5. It's really cold. 49 . 4. but you can never tell. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper.
7.. After ..... ... so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.. In each case choose the most likely alternative.......................................... 9..................................... 7...................... 1....... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup......... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions......... bank to withdraw some cash....... I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday............................. long walk by . She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions................................. I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning........... Articles Complete this text with a / an................... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known.............................................................. lunch with Bob........... ............ and she said that she hadn't had a chance..........Test B A....................... 50 . .............. I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras... ......... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra....... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2.... years............. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details........................... First I went to .................... I had ........... lovely morning...... I went for ................................................ 2...... 3............... ... old school friend who I hadn't seen for ..................... or no article.. I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year... 8.............. Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations... I booked it last week......... Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics.. 1...... Then I went swimming at .. 2............ the... 4.. River Thames...... ....................................................... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.. If you're too hot in here.................. Right......... 5....................... He's . ............................. When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything...... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon........... 6....................................................... Grammar 1............. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting.................... 3.... They wondered how we had managed to do it....... ..... I've done that for you.... 3. Look at those clouds........................ 5.......... 6.......... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation........ 4.... professional musician and plays with ......
... let me give you an example.................. As we were leaving.. and we told him that we could do it next week... 51 ............... .... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software.. So..................... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment................ ? C .... ............ right....... EJ ................. ........... fine...... AK Yes....... B..... e........00 ..... I'm not really with you.......... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents...........00 ? P ............. C Paula....... AK Exactly........... can I just interrupt you a second? b. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e......... at the latest.. without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary.................... c....................... P OK.. So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9................. 10...................................... d. Wednesday at 9..................... hello............................ EJ ..... yes.. C Hello.......00......... It sounds useful................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily. EJ ...... is that right? AK Yes........... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time......m.............. EJ Oh.... 2.............. ....... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering................. OK.... Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert......... you're talking about..... ... AK Hello.. I'm busy on Thursday.............................................. 9....... ... I've got you....... is that Paula................... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase........ it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest.. Goodbye....... Functions 1. AK .................. Would Thursday morning at 10.............................................................. Sorry.................................. a........... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski. and they said they would get it to him by 10..... OK....... which is why I thought ........... Good idea....8.............. EJ ... then............................. something for people who need English translations of words................. he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland............. P Yes........00 a........
.................. I'm allergic ... 1. opportunity! 5. Thank you for taking part . the UK market for the time being.......... my new job.... He apologized ... Please listen ...... 10.. Don't worry.C.. me. because of inefficiency... 3.... I really .. my money.... 8..... miss.......... I am not accustomed . the discussion today.......... Oh. He is lacking .. it....... The meeting coincided ..... A lot of company's resources are ........ 6....... 9. me..... 2...... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a .. my family when I was abroad on business for four months... 52 .. Vocabulary 1..... Do you take credit cards? 4.. 2.... I've never . We need to concentrate .... no! I seem to have .. and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss. I can't eat seafood..... lose.. 2..... the inconvenience caused........ 5.... 3....... 4....... You can depend .... or waste. an important meeting in my life.. Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition. I had three jobs to choose ............. the beer festival...... lose. sensitivity.... 7.. . 1.........
.. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences..... c....... 6... Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B...... This is the room . The reception area.. some of B... have become good friends. 53 . is free. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices..... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1. we hold meetings in. I'm doing many work at the moment. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here.. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.. 1. or whom. What's the name of the woman ... In some cases more than one answer may be possible. so please hurry up. you used to work? was also the year I got married. 2. 7. You can download software from many websites.. 2. then correct the mistakes... 5. I like playing sport. 2.... d. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe. As soon as / Until the merger was announced. anticipating an increase in value.. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect). There's not much news to tell you. Then complete them. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. is comfortable and spacious. 4..... Grammar 1. using where.. the majority of . 10. I'm living in at the moment. You need to invest in some more machinery.... For three years she worked with her boyfriend . Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). 3. e.. work opposite us are not very friendly. has just joined the company? b. One million dollars is plenty of for one person... He gave us a lot of information about his company. but I don't spend a lot on equipments.. 3... that.. is on the fifth floor..... 9.. 1.. she later married... he bought shares in the company.Test C A.. 3. . A. I give / will give you a bonus. a. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake.. Complete the sentences.. who. 2. Nothing happened yesterday.. which.. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8. My company does much business in Asia.
.................. (indicate awareness of something) 3... thus C.. 1... I mean b............ Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let . Vocabulary 1......... e........ g... .... 2... for example 2.... due to the fact that 7..... (disappoint) 2.. ........ To give you an example c..B...... a..... what you're saying..... as 3.............. e...... ..... Explaining consequences.. so h...... I can only just make ... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem...... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online....... (be excited by) 4........... .... (understand) 54 ........ can we trust these servers to be secure? .. .............. Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server..... He's always letting his colleagues .... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning. can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'... ... on the other hand 4........ I had a day off work last week to make .. while d..................... on abusing the little power he has. trends................ Let me explain what I mean.. like e........ By secure....g.......................... . working at the weekend..... as a result of 8... because c........ He really gets ..... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ............................... however f....... It's such a bad line..... The point is d........ (make depressed) 5........ fraud still occurs...... Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e............ 1......... because of a. He's not a very good team player...... whereas 6...... is the answer to that. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets....... due to b.... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things.......... (compensate for) 6... ............. Functions 1.... such as 5.. I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer..
....... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it . A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.............. but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties............ The company really took ....... It's good news.. the meeting..7..... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview..... She's very good at getting her ideas ...... last year when we broke into the German market...................... (avoid) 2.. (became very successful) 8...... ? (invent) 10... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics......... She called in sick so that she could get .... 55 ... (communicate) 9...
.................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me............................. Somebody stole my laptop computer. no! I .....................Test D A........................ (you save) if your house ............................................................................................... His colleague's death .......................... 2.. company profits ....... Grammar 1................... 7................................. pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6... 6.... Oh..................................... (knock) on your door at home .. have kept some of it for herself..................... He ............................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb............... What three things . (be) on fire? b.......................... ................... Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive.......... well top $150 million this year... ................ a........... Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.................. .......................................................... The store manager had only just moved to the branch.......... 2............... be wrong.... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months............. but I ....... Conditionals 1....... I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning........... 5...... (you open) the door immediately? 56 .. We invite successful applicants to a second interview.... 3................................ . 7....................... We're locked out! 4................................................... He was only 42 years old......................................................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night....... Companies usually provide managers with language training......... 8........... 4..... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities... . 10........................................... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form................... When I go to Barcelona I ..................... I think we .................... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors........................ 1........... 2..... be a big shock... The optician tested my eyes yesterday................ have left my keys in the restaurant.............................. 5.. be staying at the conference venue........................... .............................. 3................................................................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ....... ............................. .................. If someone ........ The head of department recommends candidates for promotion............. 3................................................... but I'm not sure yet....................... ......... According to Peter...... ......................... 8................................ Use have / get something done where appropriate........................... 9..................................... 1...................
............ (you change) ? g... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2...... 2.. B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said. (be) you........... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed....... Can I finish what I was saying? d.. B: Thanks for warning me....... The interviews take place and . Where ..... c..... whose life ... To manage interruptions 2...c.. (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.... (you choose) ? d. (not study) your subject at school / university... (be) you..... (go) to the police. .. To summarize a. I .... d........... c. (you study) ? f................... To ask for clarification 5....... Would you like to come in here.. (happen) if ..... (see) a UFO................ I ... I know..... A: If I ......... firstly e. Ella? 57 ........... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's... To ensure other people get to speak 4.. after lengthy discussion...... . Then b....... (not get) a job with your current company? h...... If you ......... If you .. ultimately c..... a.. What ....... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards..... Could you be more specific? b........... one candidate is chosen... A: Careful! If ............... 1....... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e..... (go) to the police.. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. (be) good this weekend what ...... Functions 1. B: Yes. a............. To keep to the point 3... ...... but I don't think they'd believe me..... using the words a-e. b..... A: If you ... ....... However..... (you do) ? e. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things . Explaining stages in a process Complete the description.... If the weather . (give) you a ticket....... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense...... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion. what ....... A: If I ..... So.... If you .......... (you park) your car there they .............. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function............ B.... what . there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong... (you work) if you .. basically what you're saying is...... eventually d............
.......... interested 2........ 2.. legible 58 .... ... create .. 3... ....... Vocabulary 1..... understand .... 1.. connect 5. 1... replaceable 3......... 5......... criticize . credible 4.. ..... humor .C.... 2.......... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs................ ........... rely ... 4............. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites.. .
.. (work) from home. Future Perfect............. I'm sorry. Match each question with an appropriate category.. Am I allowed to smoke in here? b..... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life... Can I open a window? It's very hot in here..... tomorrow? We .... If you have time during your stay in Sydney................... 5......... Will they ... Thank you.....00 p... Do you know what .... but ...... I've got two tickets! B.......... (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9.. (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c...... it's no problem.00 p.. By the time I retire I hope I ........ I'm sure.. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.. b.. ........... Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d..... By 2050 people . (think) of you.... Call me sometime over the weekend................... Future Continuous....... 2.. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a....... I ..m. d. 6...... Good luck with your exam tomorrow....? 3........... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes.... (do) at 8...... . In three months' time I .. Do you think there .... Permission.... c. 59 ... requests..... Invitations.... and obligation 1......m. I .. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful.. if you'd like me to show you around Prague...... 2. Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2....... (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years.... e..... possibility... thank you.. 1.. I'd like that. A: Great. Functions 1...... I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary. I .. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa.. 4.. so don't forget to take waterproofs.....Test E A.. Look. 7... otherwise I may / must / can forget it. and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form. B: ....... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics.. (finish) their meeting by 7... 8..... Must I really go to the meeting? f... (live) in space. necessity.. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May... A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase....... Grammar 1... a.......
.... your bags? They look very heavy! 2......... ............... great. B: You too.. 2. A: So................ A: Have you . thank you for that lovely dinner once again..................... I'm glad you enjoyed it c. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ..... Can I help you ..... 1..... Well..... carry off c. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... lead to..... I don't think I .................. warm clothes..... B: .. and take Complete the sentences with bring............. 1.................. Vocabulary 1. ..... some research for my thesis. begin (a hobby) 2... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e........... Mark..... cause 4....... It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year... A: Well........ bring.... 3....... take up d.... B: Thanks. lead to.............. in your English test? B: Oh. ... B: Yes.. make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do.... I'm starting a new job next week. cash-flow problems for small businesses.... A: I've had a lovely evening. bring about b........................ a...... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning...... succeed 3............... or take........ carry.... keep in touch d. best of luck b..A: . employ (someone) 60 . Yes....................... take on a.. not too bad........ 5.... carry.. 2..... hope to see you again sometime 1.. get. I have to ... C. that ..... I can't.. Late payment often ....... thanking..... her? 3..... A: How did you .................... I hear this is your last day at work here.. with everything. did you .. B: . 2.......... Concluding....... Thanks for coming........... get. too many mistakes. you're welcome e.... the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4. A: ... Remember to ....... A: Oh....
. . used to have a Porsche. a – 5 2. c – 7 4... there didn't use to be many Internet companies. have you been doing 6.. 1. watch 3. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. d – 4 5.. . outgoing 3. hasn't stopped 1. 5. .. woke up 1. to turn off 5. . have eaten 10. look like 2. sounds like 4. was traveling / witnessed 3. going 1. saying 2. have never seen 8. a ... arrived / had left 7.Tests . meticulous 4. e – 1 6.Answer key Test A A1 1. at the moment 2. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. recently 3.. competent 2. had read / started 5. seems 5. was living 2. for a week 5. . all my life 4. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. always plays 7. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. b – 2 3. going 4. had been sitting 6. 4. 3. f – 6 7. 2. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. stubborn 5. have been having 9.. to entertain 3. g – 3 1. had been having 4. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1.
in 5. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. Ø 6. which e.. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. 5. the 3. I'm going to spend 8. wasted 5. I'm not really with you. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. So. will win 9. who / that b. I haven't had a chance. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. lost 4. a 10. 'Did you see anything?' 2. who / whom c. Are you doing A3 2. the 4. the 8. at the latest. wasted 2. to 9. with 4. we can do it next week. Ø 9. a. let me give you an example.00 a. I'm afraid 4. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5. that's / That suits me 1.. that / which / Ø d. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. That would be / Yes. I was wondering whether 2. the 1.' 7. 62 . which 2. missed 3. an 5. on 8. 2. a 7. I'm playing 4. is going to rain 7. in 3. Sorry. I've got you. B1 1. I'm going to 3.m. from 7. a. 4. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. for 2.' 6.' conditions. I'll turn on 6. OK. to 10. to 6. OK. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. How about / What about 5. you're talking about .' 9. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. I'll just check / I'll call 5. 3. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. missed C2 1. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4.2.
up for 1. C 4. by / will give 3. I – a lot of good advice 1. By secure. 63 . rise 6. e. I – a lot of 7. until / are 1. I – information 2. I – a lot of 3. To give you an example 3. The point is 4. substantial 5. sharply 4. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. d. some of whom have become good friends. as soon as 2. on 3. down 5. I've met a lot of people through work. I – equipment 10. I – quite a few 5. off 8. off 4. down 2.b. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. raise 6. I – plenty of 6. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. risen 3. arisen 2. across 9. I mean 5. C 8. A2 1. out 7. Let me explain what I mean 2. up 10. which was also the year I got married. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. We started the company in 1999. C 9.
uninterested 2. creative 4. 4. 2. A2 1.2. a. Language training is provided for managers. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . must 4. 6. 5. had been / would have gone b. could / may / might 8. humorous 3. Miranda was asked to write the report. was you / would go c. / I've had my laptop stolen. should / must 6. reliable 2. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. would happen / arrive. 3. would you work / hadn't got h. understandable 64 C2 1. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Applications are passed on to universities. saw / would you do d. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. 10. incredible 4. must 7. irreplaceable 3. Excuse me. 9. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. 1.. is / will you do e. 8. could / would you choose d. Can you be more specific? 5. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. My laptop has been stolen. can't / couldn't 5. 7. basically what you're saying is . a. John? 4. Candidates are recommended for promotion. I was in the middle of saying something. knocked / would you c. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. could / might / may 1. might / may / could 3. happens.. My eyes were tested yesterday. should 2. / Managers are provided with language training. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. So. Would you like to say something about this. would you save / was b. arrived 2. were / would you change g.
will have earned 8. must 2. illegible A2 1. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. You're welcome 5. That's very kind of you 3.5. will be 9. Shall 4. best of luck 2. can 4. do 2. Hope to see you again some time 3. Keep in touch 4. get 3. bring 4. I was wondering 2. 1. we will be doing / will be taking 1. lead to 1. have finished 3. will speak 7. would be fine / suits me fine 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will be living 6. take 5. made 3. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . made 4. can't 5. critical Test E A1 1. carry 2. Shall we say 5. will be working 5. will have been working 4. will be thinking 2. can't 3.
He knows a lot about music. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. He's knowing a lot about music. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. I'm going to the cinema every day. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. 66 . Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. She's working here until Christmas. He doesn't want to be in the school play. 2. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport.IV. She works here until Christmas. 1. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. 2. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences.
) I've been to Brazil three times. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. You haven't lived abroad. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. and present continuous Look at these sentences.) I've bought a new car. 6. He's seeming very tired.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. 5. (She isn't here now. we add –ed to the infinitive. Vegetarians don't eat meat. 3. Some are right and some are wrong. 4.) Present perfect. (I still live here now.3. present simple.) I've lived here for three years. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. I want to go out for dinner. 1.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. To make regular past participles. 2. (I've got a new car now. 67 . A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. (He still works there now. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. (Until now I've been there three times. He seems very tired. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present. I have.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now.
5.3. He's never here at 9. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. 68 . I don't usually get up late. The film was much better than I expected. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. Sometimes. Russia is bigger than Canada. I work here since October. The train is always on time. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *. can be used to make comparisons. but they usually go before the main verb... How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4. in front of the main verb. I'm working here since October. as . as .. Her house is as big as mine. normally.00. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than.. We often go to the park.
We weren't here yesterday.83m 1. 3.. 4.. The film was better that the book. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. . We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world.. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. He's so tall as his brother.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. is also possible. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. My exam results were more bad than Andy's.. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. My exam results were worse than Andy's. 6. In the negative so . Silver isn't so expensive as gold. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 2. he was.Silver isn't as expensive as gold.92m Alex's brothers 1. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. He's as tall as his brother. 1. as . a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. The film was better than the book. Alex 1. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group.85m 1. Short answers Yes.
) She went at four o'clock. We didn't use to live in London. She's gone home.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. not the effect. last week).) Before that I lived in Madrid. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. I went out this morning. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. (She isn't here now. you must use the past simple tense. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. He used to smoke. not the present perfect. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. I did. We went to the cinema twice last week. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. She used to be a teacher. but he gave up five years ago. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop.g. It has no present form. he was. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. or past actions which were not habits. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. (But I don't live there now. I've lived here for five years. two days ago. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. She wasn't going to work. For individual past actions. in 1993. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. I went there four years ago.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. (I still live here. I've been there four years ago. (We're interested in when the action took place. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. 7. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. only the past simple can be used.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. It might (not) rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon.) She'd be a good politician.) make polite offers. (But she works in a bank. They wouldn't steal from a friend. Use Would has many uses. If I had the money. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. I'd buy a house. It may (not) rain today. impossible. She's probably coming this weekend. 74 least likely most likely . Expressing probability Look at these sentences. I saw the man. It could rain today. I would. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. or imaginary situations. He's the man who lives next door. It'll probably rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. which with things. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. It probably won't rain today. It's likely to rain today. (But I haven't got the money. We use who with people. I saw the man who lives next door. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party.
didn't she? You like fish. You can swim. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. didn't you? NOT . did not you? She can speak Russian. don't they? 75 . It isn't very warm. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. This chair's French. They aren't coming to the party. He's the man. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause.. can't she? NOT . are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. Look at these sentences.He's the man that lives next door. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. 12.. You knew about this yesterday. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. He's the man (who/that) she married. She married him. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who.. or that. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. You're Italian. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. will she? It doesn't matter. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. which. He's the man who/that lives next door. does it? You've finished. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. He's the man. She arrived yesterday.. haven't you? It was raining. He lives next door.
Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. These houses were built in the 1930s. Thousands of cars are stolen. we use the negative of the verb to be. The crime will be solved. We can use the passive in any tense. She must be told. This wine is produced in Portugal. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. we don't know the agent. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. Cars shouldn't be parked there. 76 . aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. These computers are made in Japan. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. Someone has been arrested. It is less direct than an ordinary question. The weapon hasn't been found. Fewer crimes would be committed. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. It can't be done. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree.) and is followed by a question mark (?). The man wasn't sent to prison. The car has been found. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). To make the negative of the passive. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. 13.
you'll miss the appointment.. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.. but not when the main clause is first. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. (There is a real chance that it will rain.) 77 . If she eats all the ice cream. NOT If it will rain. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. The car has been found by some children.) If I got the job I'd earn more money. The suspect was identified by a witness. Note: We do not use would in the if clause. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. If I had enough money .) when the if clause is first. If it rains.. If I get the job I'll earn more money.) when the if clause is first. NOT If I would have enough money . (I don't think I'll get the job. we use by.If we want to show the agent. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. we'll go to the cinema. she'll feel terrible. We usually use a comma (. 14. or imaginary situations. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. unlikely. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. If you get up late.) We won't go if it rains. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. We usually use a comma (. we'll go to the cinema.. but not when tha main clause is first. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much. If I had enough money. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. I'd buy that house. we'd travel business class. If we had more money.) 15.
He took off his jacket. in. He saw the mouse and ran out.. before. (transitive) The plane took off. She switched on the TV. NOT She switched on it.. as soon as. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. until Phil will get back. when she will arrive. He heard a helicopter and looked up. and after. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema. NOT . Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. NOT . until. Time clauses As in clauses with if.. before we would go to the cinema.. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. e. the verb is separable. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning.. away. She takes after her mother. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object).. I'll phone you when she arrives.g. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back. NOT . on. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts.16. up. look something up 78 . If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. or She switched the TV on. She switched it on. Oil will run out in the next century. 17.
I looked up the word in the dictionary. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. like other continuous forms.) focus on the process of an activity. I've been writing a letter. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. I've lived here for ten years. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. You're late. (I haven't finished it yet. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. I've been playing a lot of football this week. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. I've been waiting for an hour. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. is not normally used with stative verbs. he has. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. the verb is inseparable. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. 18.' emphasize the duration of an activity. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. 79 .) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. or about past actions which have present results.
We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Can she swim? They've arrived. They live here. know.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. have no idea. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. remember.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Did you see her? In Wh. so we must provide one. Do they live here? You saw her. a modal verb.questions. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. ask. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. wonder.19. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. Compare these questions. using do/does in the present or did in the past. see. decide. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. imagine.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. or an auxiliary verb.
we say clothes shop and sports shop. arrives. left.questions we use the question word in the indirect question. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. football boots These are boots.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. 4.? or Do you think you could tell me . I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that.. 3. a computer software shop This is a shop. I've decided how much money I need. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . What kind of software? Software for computers. is. A shop that sells records is a record shop. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. I wonder why did he do that? 21. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived.. With Wh. Note: However. 've got. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword.? Could you tell me where the post office is. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football.. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. 81 . I've decided how much money do I need. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I don't know if he's coming. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. The headword always goes at the end. 2. 1..
(New packets.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. There were two people waiting for you. Compare these sentences. with after. hear. Unfortunately there are no rules. There's someone coming.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. After I'd had a shower. to describe what someone can sense (with see. object I don't enjoy cooking. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. (Empty bottles. I got dressed. He was driving at 120mph.). as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). We saw them leaving the house. This is a really boring film. subject Swimming is my favorite sport. -ing form or infinitive A. After having a shower. I had the idea while I was driving home.00. I had the idea while driving home. watch. a tennis racket a living-room. and while to replace a clause. I've been working since 7. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. or are hyphenated. as adjectives. before. I can hear someone coming. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. notice. I got dressed. a teacup. I read a fascinating book the other week. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. etc. stomach ache 22.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. She's playing tennis. feel.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. (Empty packets. 82 . 23. a bathroom a coffee cup. when the subject of both clauses is the same. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. Others are written as two words. smell. I could smell burning.
I like lying in bed late. 83 . suggest. (he was doing something. (I wanted to speak to her. but I didn't.) I tried speaking to her about it. I enjoy doing the gardening. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. hate. remember. I'm beginning to learn the piano. In British English. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. consider. Some of the most common are finish. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. give up. imagine. continue It's just started raining. I began to realize how he felt. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (I spoke to her. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. begin. She's considering emigrating to Australia. 1. forget I remember meeting her. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive.) C. (I was supposed to dance with him.) He stopped to have a cigarette. B. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. feel like. and can't stand. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. but it didn't work. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night.like.) I remembered to meet her.) try I tried to speak to her about it. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form. but I couldn't. love. (I had met her before and I remembered it. (I had to meet her and I did. Smoking is bad for your health. then he stopped in order to smoke. but she still wouldn't listen. but she wasn't there.) stop He has stopped smoking. It's just started to rain. I'd like to live abroad. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. start. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. enjoy. (British) I like to lie in bed late.
need. A I really love pizza. A I've never been to Ireland. 24.2. I made a phone call. might.) I + positive auxiliary verb. B So do I. must. Stop making so much noise. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. 4. A I couldn't read until I was seven. I'd love going to New Zealand. 84 . A I'd love to go to New Zealand. To smoke is bad for your health. B Oh. I must remember posting this letter. too. I must remember to post this letter. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. 7. I began to understand the problem. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. could. and Me. shall. B Oh. 6. neither. B Me. would. I would. I begun understanding the problem. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. B Me.) I + negative auxiliary verb. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. Before to leave the office. neither to agree with a negative statement. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. may. I could. too to agree with a positive statement. will. 5. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. Stop to make so much noise. There's someone that comes up the stairs. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. There's someone coming up the stairs. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. 25. Before leaving the office. 3. should. I'd love to go to New Zealand. ought to. I made a phone call. B Nor/Neither have I.
possibility. Modal verbs have no tense forms. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. and permission. They have no infinitive or participle form.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). He mights come later. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. For example. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. You don't should leave your car there. You might go to London. He might come later. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. 2. She should see a doctor.) I must remember to post this letter. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. (or I could find a new job. I couldn't believe what he told me. 4. They ought to be more careful. or You don't need to come. Present: He can speak four languages. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. They might not come to the party. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. You shouldn't do that. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. 85 . I can swim. would: I'd be able to find a new job. 1. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. will: I'll be able to find a new job. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. Past: He could speak French when he was four. 3. I must to remember to post this letter. we can use could to talk about ability.
Past: I had to find a new job. You needn't wear a suit. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Note: Must has no tense forms.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. You need to be at the station by 8. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. The party's informal. though could is more common. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. we use was/were able to or managed to. a driving instructor.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. You ought not to carry so much cash. I must start taking more exercise. (It is and 'outside' obligation. Have to is also used. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. The firemen were able to save everyone. (It is a general obligation. You mustn't park on double yellow lines.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test.30. it is 'my' obligation. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. will: I'll have to find a new job. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. Have to is used to describe general obligation. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. I have to work on Saturday this week. (I want to. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. I could drive when I was sixteen. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. 86 . Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. You shouldn't work so hard. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. Passengers must show their boarding cards. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. was/were able to. You don't have to come if you don't want to.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something.Could. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. The firemen could save everyone. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful./You don't need to wear a suit. The firemen managed to save everyone. would: I'd have to find a new job. from my doctor.
I painted my room. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. could. 26. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. Some are right and some are wrong. Permission Can. I had my room painted. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. and may are used to ask for permission. I had the car fixed. Compare these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. 1. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. with we and I. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. 87 . Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. She might not be here tomorrow.Probability May. 4. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 3. and may is the most polite and formal. I will can go swimming every day next week. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. 2. This means that I painted the room myself. I had my hair cut. might. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. 5. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. Could is more polite than can. She could not be here tomorrow.
Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. I got the garage to service my car. 29. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. The car's really dirty. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to.g. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing.27. The car's really dirty. The judge made the man apologize. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. would. It needs to be cleaned. because a different person is now speaking. 88 . Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. Need + -ing is more informal. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. said or told). The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. It needs cleaning. 28. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. Direct speech: I like cooking. and modal verbs do not change. David's father lets him use the car.
They told (us) a story. say and tell We say something. NOT Andrea said me .. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. 31.. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. Helen: I'd like a coffee. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. the reported question starts with whether or if. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. She told (them) jokes all night. Luke: I'll be away till March. 30.. Zoe said that they saw a great film. NOT Andrea told (that) . Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. The word order changes to a statement word order. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. We tell somebody something. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. Andrea: I'm going out. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. 89 . Tom said that he doesn't want to go. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. When we report questions. Monica: I might phone you later. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. and verbs have a statement form. Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements.. Zoran: I had never been there before. we make the following changes.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. With Yes/No questions.
Some are right and some are wrong. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. If you hadn't studied so hard. but other verbs can also be used. I'd lend you some money if I had any. such as advise. Reported speech Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. She asked me where I lived. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. 1. 'Please sit down. 33. We usually use a comma (.) when if clause is first. If I knew the answer I'd tell you.' He told me not to worry. and command. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that.' The doctor asked me to sit down. The instructor told me not to do that. They said me that the exam was very hard. 2. she wouldn't have left. you would have failed. persuade. order.32. 1. The instructor told me that I don't do that. 4. 3. but not when the main clause is first. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. They told me that the exam was very hard. warn.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. an imaginary situation in the past. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. If I had told the truth. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. 2. 90 . 'Don't worry.) Conditionals Look at these sentences. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. and you crashed. (You were driving too fast. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. (I didn't work hard. beg. and I didn't pass the exam. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. 3.
I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.) They should have bought the house. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone.) 91 . (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. 34.4. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism.
2. Oxford English for Information Technology. Oxford University Press. Engleza pentru informatica. Brooks. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Steve & Peter Fox. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chris Mitton. & John McGwan. Dorner. 1992. 92 .Oxford. Tom. Writing for the Internet. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 5. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 2001. Jane. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hutchinson. 2001. Computer Studies Through Applications. 2002. Otman. 2001. 6. 7. 2001. Gabriel. 1998. 2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. 8. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. 4. Eric H. Driscoll. Wallwork. Ian Selwood. Engleza pentru internet. Life Lines. Kennewell. 3. All Stars. International Express. Glendinning.
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