CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă



CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92


INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3

.... writing . THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.. Read books and newspapers.What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? ..... How do you learn languages? . Purists of the French. listening .. sport. 4.... and the process is now being reversed.... cards.What advantages does the baby have? .. learning vocabulary . This will no doubt continue.What advantages does the adult have? 2. Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. speaking and being corrected ... Justify your order.....to be cleaned and dried. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives.......... A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd.... Geographically... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. and aviation. Work alone...... or drinks.. Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary. English is the most widespread language on Earth........ It is the language of business. 1 being the most important.. speaking and not being corrected all the time . reading .. ... we can talk about a round of golf.. Speaking 1. technology.. Prepositions too are flexible.. Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.. What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.. pronunciation practice 3. learning grammar ..... OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY...... 4 .. Compare your lists. Work in groups.. but remember that different people learn in different ways.

4. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. they sent each other games. 2. Other networks joined in. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. in fact. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. Crude as they were. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. uninvited but still welcome. invented e-mail. still the most popular use of the Net by far. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. to use the techy term. The Advanced Research Projects Agency. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet.I. they used it to swap gossip. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. and the Internet. Instead of using the network strictly for business. Amazingly. They started mailing lists. 5 . By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. each machine will have equal status. There will be no "command center". Instead. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. it worked. for it was they. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. They set up their own electronic mailboxes.). they opened newsgroups. 3. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1. the way they got there was unimportant. 37. swapped them (via the net. But then an odd thing started to happen. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab. They had. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. But they weren't interested in science or academia. 1. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. just kept on growing. as it came to be called. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government.. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language.. Because of the way the messaging system worked. by 1972. then news and eventually gossip. These packets could be sent independently over the network. no single computer that controls the rest of them. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible.

Here are five types of computers. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). a person who tries to discover something E. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life? 6 . The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. mainframe 5. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. notebook 3. mailbox. network. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. Computer sizes. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. along with IBM. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Over the last few years. a set of related computers C. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. Apple. cheaper and more reliable. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world. packet. desktop computer 2. supercomputer 4. Since then the computers (become) smaller. but the market (saturate) to some extent.2. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D. however. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. a series of bits being a part of message B. researcher A. but transistors soon (replace) them.

"We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. and connect to a server that presents information. a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. videotape of professor's lectures. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. Australia. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. Students can log onto the Internet. and the Americans. Within a few months. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. Use the elements to make complete sentences. offered by mail. and as with mail order programs. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall. click on the course they want. courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". University Online University online is for-profit organization that. learn the material.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. founder and president of University Online. There's a revolution happening in education. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. visit the school's We site. and interactive courseware. says Nat Kannan. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. all of which express personal opinions: 1. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program. online environment. the material would be available to students at their convenience. Europe. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7 . The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. rather than offering their own set of courses. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. 1. the Net will be alma mater. Using modern technology. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. Personally. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. use a bulletin board. It's called distance learning. For example.

at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam. we never believed it would be so successful.... to represent in a digital form 2. I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom... scientist . I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7..... . behavio(u)rism typist.. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. Fill the blanks in this passage with since.. state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal. a few months . independence employer. 6.. connector childhood.. boredom. possession magnetism.. 5. to give authority to 10. to reduce to the minimum 7. addressee audience. musician introduction. When we started. It was put on the market in 1994. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er. To my mind. the beginning of the experiment. 3. You have to follow a course ... University Online was originally tested over five years . operator voucher... to arrange in an optimal way 6. I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2... -or -hood -ian -ion.. to make use of a symbol for something 3... to give a linear form to 8... 4.5. -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. state condition. state condition. for and ago: 1. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. kingdom employee. over two years.. execution. so it has been tested . withdrawal clearance. in 1992 2.... condition belonging to act of. to take a material form 5. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. This University has only existed . four years . 1992 and it is already known worldwide.g. several new courses have been offered.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.. to write a summary of 3.

initial 12. personal 15. transform the following words into verbs. state condition. broad 2. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. condition. economical foolish useless porous. slavery. quality state. concentrate. analysis 11. generally.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. electric 17. condition place. lengthen classify. -ery -ship state. Now. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. happiness. local 9. behavio(u)r foundry. action condition of quality. computerize. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. weak 19. -ical -ish -less -ous. widen. state electricity. logical. auto 8. advertise Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. short 7. government business. tolerate shorten. interruptible environmental. long 13. 1. boldness labo(u)r. active 3. soft 10. loose 16. using the verb-forming suffixes above. simple 4. rivalry friendship. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online? 9 . furiously 4. mode 14. reality achievement. laborious Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. stimulus 20. hardship Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. standard 18. robot 6. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic. simplify customize. tight 5.

Java and Visual Basic developers. more manageable pieces. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. The same goes for NetWare Certification. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take.LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. Get a decent book on Windows programming. technology and people. you've run big projects. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. as does Novell. And there are lots of people who know it too. rolled out major solutions and are well known. 10 . A consultant is different. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. If you decide programming is really for you. They merely prove you can think. Here's the road map. By the age of 30. After a couple of hops like that. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. its positioning on the market. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. a week there. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. C++. For someone starting out. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. C++. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. Delphi. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. University degrees are useless. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. That's where the all-important experience comes in. However. an attention to detail. and so on. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. spend more money on a training course. so you have to be better than them. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. Visual Basic and Delphi. Qualifications are important. how it relates to other products and so on.

. 5..)... then you can forget being an IT manager... 1...... You .... It's worth paying for a training course if you get serious about this career.. have a degree but it . must. be able to show leadership. Most are between 30 and 45. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. You are responsible for developing and implementing the software a company needs to run its operations.. an IT manager will typically have over five years' experience in the industry........ Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS English words can often be divided into three parts: a prefix.. communicative and be able to earn the trust of your teams. 10.. a stem and a suffix. Look at the examples: 11 . suffixes change the part of speech (noun.... become an expert in too narrow a field. to make sensible statements...Medium to large companies are also likely to have an IT system manager..... Prefixes change the meaning of the word.. You . adjective. You . 6. verb. have worked with IBM mainframes for at least two years...... be in computing science.. 7.... 3. You need to be able to break down a problem into a number of smaller tasks. Companies will have two or three major systems that are probably bought off the shelf and then tailored by an in-house development team.. many of them don't have degrees in computing science. to have good communication skills to become an IT Manager. 1.. It's a good idea to buy books on languages such as C++. be an expert in hardware to become a programmer. 9.... For which of the careers described are these statements true? More than one career may match each statement.. They are responsible for developing and implementing computer software that supports the operations of the business. 6. More than one answer is possible in some examples. Your objective is to become self-employed. 2. You . If your personality is such that that you're unlikely to be asked to take responsibility for a small team or project... You ... etc..... Nearly all IT managers have at least a first degree if not a second one as well..... 4.. study BASIC.. They are responsible for multiple development projects and oversee the implementation and support of the systems.... You need to be bright. Interestingly... employers look for both of these factors in any potential recruit.. 5.. Apart from basic hardware and software expertise. 3.. Since IT managers have to take responsibility for budgets and for staff............ to have experience in JavaScript. 1. 8. 4. You may work for only a few days or a week for your company... You . Most of this can't be taught. so if you don't have these skills then divert your career elsewhere. 7. have to... 8.. You . In any case. Technical qualifications .. Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer is a useful qualification for your career.. You . These days you . 2........ be able to use C++. to be renewed at intervals to ensure they do not go out of date... It's important you have the right personality to lead a team. need to. 2.

foresee. into going away more than above too much beneath.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. location. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. involve output. unhealthy Study the following tables of prefixes. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand The following are prefixes of degree. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. misfortune nonsense unreal. external foreground. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). decode disagree. bystander input. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. semicolon . size. side in.

together new before for EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal 3. 1. that is already programmed 2. a program that is part of a larger program 6. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why? 13 . to convey data from one place to another 8. half manual 7. to grow larger 5. location.PREFIX subtransautoconeopro- MEANING under across for oneself joint. Now use the prefixes of degree. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. half automatic. size. after the war 4. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. to predict 3. not up to standard 10.

Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. you may group the FAQ. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. If you are committed to using frames on your site. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. and make necessary adjustments. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. include descriptive ALT text captions. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. and visitors may not know how to 14 . Besides content. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. to find their way around. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. For example. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them.

good reactivity. 15 . without wasting space. For most sites. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. 1.use yours effectively. password protected. However. you can add the suffix "er". a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). confusing. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. up to date. a user. helpful graphics. Logical. compatibility. contact information. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. well laid out. colorful. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". search facility. features. cluttered. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. Take notes on any special features. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. a visitor. (hot) links. nice design. structure connections. navigation. accuracy. ease of use. on-line support. especially those ending in "y" (see above). Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. Visit a website of your choice.

EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". This computer is the cheaper of the two. For the preceding sentence. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. 1. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. the slower the speed of execution. 4. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison... This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. indicated by the symbols. This microchip is > fast a conventional one. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. when preceded by "X times".. resolution was 16 . 2. The less sophisticated the software. 2. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. the comparative can be preceded by "the". the better he feels.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer. The less he works. 3. as". SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it. 3. the more I feel depressed. 2. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. 4. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. when buying a PC are often 5. John was the elder of the two boys. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as .. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. The higher the resolution. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. When comparing two items. the sharper the picture. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. "as .

ugly picture 9. cheap computer 3. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. reliable device 5. With short adjectives. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. inconsistent program 10. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website! 17 . big memory device 7. This is the most powerful computer available today. fast chip 4. 3. powerful computer 2. 1. expensive card 6. fuzzy image 8. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives.

.. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources.... simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. and overzealous at that.... There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it. 1... read the FAQ).. In practice... have to.. be thoroughly tested before it is marketed. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. 18 .. 4. When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong. Programs . Don't use a signature of more than four lines. A bug .. buy software packages like this at any local computer shop... a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette. if that happened.. You .. when to criticize and when to stay silent. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom. sometimes be useful when designing a program. (If you don't know what a FAQ is. cause unexpected results. You .. Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.. It doesn't work. Put the words back in the right order: 1..... The following sentences have been scrambled.. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2.... This means posting the same message to several different groups at once. make sure you spell correctly yourself.. rambling.. unwarranted abuse and long. break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. 6... This form of internal policing.. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. Don't criticize others for their misspellings.... Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can..LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5. nothing would ever be said on the Net at all. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering.. Conversely. 5. Don't cross-post messages. (A whole quarter second in some cases).. 2. on the Net or elsewhere.. may or could 1... A flowchart .. off-the-point arguments to see that. No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. The reason for this is never given.... no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message. 3. because it wastes people's time.. be debugged before being executed..... Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy. This piece of software .. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users.

.. de exemplu.. 7..... a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems .7. fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei.... Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E 1...... 3. If you do. Cind am incercat soft-ul..... 4.. de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata. Ar fi putut.......... 8. graphic . 19 . am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor. and computing. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici.. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text... They ... top to bottom. paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1... 3. Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. picture.. 10... opening page of a website .. work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week. 4.... (You can find the words left to right. You . 7..... Write them next to the correct definition.... 2. a measure of visits to a website . 9. also known as "favorites" . Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul.......... Daca as fi vrut. it will take up too much space in the computer memory. 2.. Cu toate acestea.. photo....... 8. 6. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own ...... write this program in a high-level language..... 6. Translate the following sentences into English. Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.. 3. the main.. 5... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages .. 5. email. a way of remembering addresses of websites you like.... and diagonally top to bottom). am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.... electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW . sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului...

....... the World Wide Web ...... Uniform Resource Locator.... 15........ 11... i.. a software package generally used to start you up for a program ..... a way of showing emotion in an email. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ..... a physical input / output point . unsolicited mail... something that automatically connects you to another page ... etc......9. an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet .... 13... 20 . a bug which infects data on your computer ....... 16.. email.... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 10. 18.. inappropriate use of a mailing list ........ :-) . the Internet equivalent of post . 22.... 14....e..g... ..... a search engine.... 12. abbreviation for the Internet .... e............... 17...... website address . 20....... 19............. a location on the WWW . 21....

Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. 1. Robert Schifreen 21 . As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. better known as Robert Schifreen. hacking has been criminalized. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld. Admittedly.Choose the ending (A.000 a year to repair. C. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. 1. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. B. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. But according to those who practice. MULTIPLE CHOICE . which is readily available. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. Today's hacker is not so lucky. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. hacking is still easy. and so. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act. has the security.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter.000. Hackers have their own code of conduct. Typically. the computer companies would have you believe. All the hacker needs is a modem. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. a basic computer and a bit of patience. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. The law was tightened up. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. had not been in trouble with the law before. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. Triludan. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". had knocked on this door. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. costing companies an average of $23. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. For some teenagers. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment.

3. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. D. According to the NNC A. 22 . Each side of a DVD can have two layers. the survival of hackers is threatened. You can download single tracks. h. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 33% of its members are hackers B. d. male criminals. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. merely curious. c. You can download a skin program. Match each cause and effect. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. is popular because it is romantic. Hacking A. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. B. D. This gives an enormous storage capacity.A. Then link them with an –ing clause. D. You can legally download some music. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. deliberately destructive B. C. 8. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. g. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. b. 4. costs about 48p a time C. C. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. You can create your own compilation. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. MP3 players contain several devices. B. is a form of escape from the everyday world. totally unaware of what they are doing. Effect a. outlaws hacking. 6. D. 2. f. 4. 2. 7. C. 5. Cause 1. 5. Each MP3 file has a tag. 3. has made hacking more difficult. e. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. has eliminated all computer security. B. This produces much smaller files.

3. 5. 1. 2. display. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. keyboard. 3. 10. 7. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. mouse and hard drives only. 6. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely 23 . A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. 9. 8. 4. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks.

The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15)..... 24 .. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless. Measuring drive performance 2.... literature and art... Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole. and because there's more space.. The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format. the applications are generally better.. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line.. Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard.. 1.. the equivalent of 300. Review criteria 4. Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992...... According to the market researcher Dataquest. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity.. but are spread throughout business. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5. Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. As with other areas of the computer industry... Put them back in the appropriate place.... floppy drive.... the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either... A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage. For example. along with the conventional 3.5in.. . But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs..5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. Mainstream applications 3..... many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.. word processor and database – comes on one CD. The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders. or were vast collections of specific information....... Applications are the key issue... Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass.... Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post.. 1. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space. but it's not the only one... CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits... with a further 1.. This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. and justify the cost of a drive... No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. Price points .

...... 1.... is still a read-only product. ... The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality.. Increased competition has now reversed the trend.... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform... Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use... files. drawback.. As a result of this market maturity. So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM... more precise head positioning mechanism. which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk.. this excuse was taken too far. disk 25 .... CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information.. Backing Store ..... A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware. In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files......... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996... pie chart. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... give reasons for your choice.... however advanced. The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing.. they were as overpriced as consumer CD players.. 6..... Then translate the terms used: Winchesters... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information.. So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search.. .... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. 3. 5......... Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system..But CD-ROM. The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information.... 2... Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time.. 10. A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization........ more faster. This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false. The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader. The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are.. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks.... 1....... access time... 4. The industry. 7. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software. . When CD-ROMs appeared on the market.... 8..Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices. TRUE OR FALSE? ... This is often confused with the average access searches. while still developing rapidly..... 9...... As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.. 2...

.. erorile se pot corecta...... Large systems often use cartridges or ..e. 3..... 6.. disk packs........ database. both internal and external... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers..... as opposed to a single-sided disk.. double-sided. Hence files can be . 3.... Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS." are also common.... old-fashioned.. Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta.... Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta.. 2... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders.... directory........ Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta..... disk........ Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare. i..... These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a ... You should write between 150 and 200 words....... of all the files on the disk.. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara. it is called a ..... Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory.....e... In this way only a small part of a ..drives. though these are becoming . very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a ...... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors... on both surfaces... 10..... retrieved... Disk have the advantage of being serial or . I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb... address......... a track and a sector number)..... floppy disk. Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years.. are now part and parcel of most computer systems.. Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre. oxide-coated surface. where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .. Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.... Most users are more familiar with the .... 9. so-called because of its flexibility.... 4........ this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as ... sequential access. in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE)..... where only one surface is ..... The ....... THE PASSIVE . direct-access.... If the disk is .. read-write head........ Hermetic data modules called ".... a disk must be .. Before being used.. Each file that is to be stored is allocated an .. 26 ... This technology is cheap and easy to use..... that is extremely slow because of .........Translate the following sentences into English: 1. (i.... magnetic disks or diskettes.. but has the .. needs to be in main memory at any one time. storage areas are marked on the magnetic.. 5.. Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. 8. and .. magnetic tapes...... 7.. media and ..... (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use.. formatted (x3)...

imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. especially in distant lands. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. Elizabeth Brown. An overview of lost techniques. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. 3. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. Moreover. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. 2. 1. fashion. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. C. the patron goddesses of the arts. B. crafts. will replace traditional museums. C. beyond the straightforward museum visit. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files. and industry. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. For many people. With reference to the information in the article. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. virtual museums A. B. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. At the time of the Renaissance A.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. Within the last few years. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. a basis for study for future generations. public museums did not exist. military. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. A museum can best be defined as A. electronically. 27 . science. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. With the internet. only aristocrats could go to museums. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century.

5. Put the following sentences into the passive form. 2. object produced by human hands 3. The National Museum of Art A. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. Museums maintain and display great works of art. Match the words and their definitions: 1. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. 3. 1. 4. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. The Web may transform our perception of art. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. article (in a magazine) 4.B. will show works of art that do not exist. disadvantage 7. B. masterpiece 4. 6. best work of an artist C. museum A. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. work of art. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. 2. honored 5. 4. collection 5. to admire 3. Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet? 28 . Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage. artefact 3. will organize visits to its storage spaces. C. to see. storehouse 8. C. vast 4. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. country 9. art work 2. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. to enjoy 10. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. to establish 6. something produced by creative talent E. photo (taken quickly) 2. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B.

This might be a WWW browser. users can act as both customers and merchants. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account.. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. Checks. both exist in the digital world as well. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. A person who receives (money. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments.e. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. traveler's checks. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server. currency. 5. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. In a peer-to-peer system. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. To execute a real-time transaction. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. 2. charge accounts. In many cases. 3. and the amount to be paid. and a bank does the accounting. 4. The customer runs client software. the date and time of the transaction. In a debit system. The customer pays. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. paper currency. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. for example). A bank employee who pays out money. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. A person who buys goods or services from you. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. or a dedicated payment client. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. 29 . For the purposes of this discussion. In a credit system. and credit cards are credit systems. the name of the payer and the recipient. Using a public key. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world. and the amount of money represented). the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. With such a system. 1. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. a bank redeems each note number only once. Payment systems based on gold. the merchant receives the payment. you gather your money up front and then spend it.

. remittance... balance... will only be charged at 12%. The customer. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph. is used in electronic trade.. A computer that can access a server... . He is the very man ...00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. wanted to buy some shirts.. a current .. were found in the safe..00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.. which... Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake... To add money (to an account).....? The next day he got a bill for $0. is similar to traditional credit. The man.... one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement..... Stupid Computer Error A . cheques.. of which. For $20 a month... 6. The next month he got a bill for $0.. He ignored it and threw it away.00 stating that payment was now overdue... to clear. he ignored it... to open. 7..6...000.. 30 . were still new. whose.. He alone will be authorized . the company can have access to a .. will be $10. accepts digital cash. 1.. 2.. The initial . interest. withdrawal The Longstone company wish . Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order. for their manager.. name is on the check.. 8... The first one has already been done for you... we found CD-ROMs on sale.. Digital credit.. entered the virtual shop.. bought her a typewriter instead. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled. 4..... to start. loan. 5.. The bank director. safe............ 3... receipt. statement.. D . holder. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. However.. overdraft...... The site.. A large number of banknotes.... some .....? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday.... He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it... agreed to honor my check. figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. .00.. where.... deposit... You will not need to use them all! account. 3. . C .. Money used in a specific country..... of account... to sign.. The account will not produce any ..? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0. The bank will send the company a weekly . B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out... I met personally.. 2. whom.

E . The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.? Finally giving in.00 by return of post. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0.? In April he received another and threw that one too.00. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0. and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation? 31 . The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all. the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0.00. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. He called them and talked to them. F . G .? A week later.

So things have changed.. For sheer impact. the current issue of security will only be short. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. Dr. And as for the taste.. Next came. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings. dumb terminals. "At telecom 91. one can predict / foretell that. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. 1.. Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. futurologists forecast. "Sight.. and the role of the providers. sound and feeling will arrive. that didn't keep the crowds away. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. more controversially.. Christian Huitema. there was an inevitable blur of content. exist. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. for all intents and purposes. dipping even further into the future. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable.. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around". Lastly. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet". TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality.. ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. satellite. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world.. well. And needless to say. As he pointed out. computing. he said. and. Huitema.. 32 . Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. What should concern us. said Dr. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. that probability that . Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet.. networks. came the issue of virtual reality.. experts expect that. Dr. is high / low it is highly probable that . he predicted. said.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. smells.. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. we'll have to work on that one". was how online commerce will evolve.. he enthused. the future.

Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let. 2. 4. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient..... permit 1... When I was young my parents never ....... words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.... Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. allow. me to get a better job.it is a well-founded supposition that... 3.. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made... that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. The term was first coined by William Gibson. enable.. me leave early every Friday afternoon... My boss is easygoing and .. there are scientific arguments for. access to confidential files.. I hope that doing the course . Keyword The word. Reading Read the article. 3.. huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then)... it is reasonable to think that..... Being a single parent . make... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to... it hard for me to have a social life. me to stay out later than 11.. 2. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can... 33 .00... 5...... there are grounds for believing that. Prepare to explain them to your partner. that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.. A security password . Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet.. Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete... Sneaky.. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage.. indicated by a finger symbol..

Plenty of adults talk the talk. all day at work. It has an estimated 75 million users. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. every night. Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. FWIW (for what is worth). If something cracks you up. a new idiom has been born. There's neither time nor space for exposition. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. GTG. Across the world. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing).ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. or type the type. The solution is to abbreviate. PBAB (please bring a bottle). It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. Well. It takes wit. concentration and agile fingers. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. contract and condense. sex and location. C-U-L8R 34 . and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances.

Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. Stonebridge. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. Geography. then write your own CV in the same way.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing .w. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii. degrees and other qualifications. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35 .g. e. Computer Studies. English.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths.II. which sounds very strange indeed. Spanish. For the purpose of this task. EH21 3TZ email p. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent. LANGUAGE FOCUS A.cair@btinternet. "situatie familiala" as "family situation". WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. Science.

Novasystems 36 . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.Windows 200 Server / Professional .Sage line 50 & 100 . Thin.5 . IT Department.Windows NT4 Server/Workstation .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification .database design .Windows 95 / 98 .Office 97.network administration and implementation .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . Personnel Officer. 2000 . Leith. L.Exchange Server 5.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.TCP / IP Networking .advising clients on IT issues and strategies ..1st line customer telephone support .

avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Type your letter 6. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date.should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . B. se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages. Check your spelling and punctuation 9. Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details). the name and address of the addressee.name and address of firm.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1. so read the advertisement carefully first 5.am available to start as from June 15 .state where you saw the job advertised .should you feel I could be of use to your firm . the signatory's full name (typed). Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. how to begin a letter.state you qualifications in brief . how to end it. respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. State what job you are applying for 4. Write clearly 2.avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae . 37 . Keep your letter short and to the point 3.am currently studying for . Reference number if there is one. Give all the information you are asked for 8. and where to put the handwritten signature.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . State when you are available for the interview 10.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania ."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. Use the person's name if you know it . The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter. and firm. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely". Make the information you give relevant to the job.1.B. You may find some of the following expressions useful: .

In Malaysia I arranged. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. Alan Bannister 38 . I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. Yours sincerely. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. through the British Council. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. teachers and administrative staff. study tours for project personnel. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. as well as students. My contact address until the end of July is as above. Over the past year. team leadership and team membership. for example. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues.

money or job satisfaction? 12. (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. 5. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room. don't rush. set out early. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview .Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. . . Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. Describe your most recent accomplishments. . what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. Which is more important to you.Do arrive in plenty of time. 39 . In the past year. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9.Do sit still.Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information.C.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements.It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. . . . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. Why should you be employed by this company? 4.Don't smoke. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. . . . If you think you may have trouble finding the place. experience. Thank your interviewer. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. You are likely to be found in the end. so much the better. Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6.Do make a graceful exit. walk to the door. Dress in a business-like way. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. interests and hobbies.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education.Don't let your clothes be too extreme. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare. 2.

if you might be able to help me.. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are ... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher. .. How often do you use email? 2. or may not be able to open . I would be extremely .writing everything in UPPER CASE . Please find . the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor. working on Lingo. What do you use email for? 4..... Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this . how has it changed your working life? 3..... if you could give me some information about what software you have been using. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: . which I hope you will find interesting..not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to . WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1.sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in.not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example.. or in sentences that are too long . and how you yourself will proceed Exercise ..Read these emails.. I .. Could you email me details? 40 .. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5.D.not bothering to correct spelling mistakes . the other informal. One letter is formal. If you use email at work. if you intend your comments to be humorous) .not answering all the points raised by the sender .... working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project.. Yours sincerely. you in the . How are you? I bet you are . My name is Monica Ciampi and I am .... future..S.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender . B.not making clear who you are and why you are writing ... I was wondering if . Dear Sir..not telling the reader what you expect them to do........... my recent paper. Monica Ciampi P.writing too much. any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.. Dear James... Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.

a. currently b. soon d. I look forward to news from b. then c. with d. dinner 14.. pleases d topic d. happy c... together. a..In a . a. actually 3. meal c. I look forward to hearing from c. to Peter 1.. a. lacking 10. near b. glad 5. thus d. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . included d. missing c. bracket 12. demand b. Hope to hear from you . a. from c. matter c. before 15. wishes 41 . a.. early c. drink b. match c. a.... of weeks I'll be in England. additionally 4. Best wishes. a. a. beforehand b.. topic d. a. pair d. wonder d. close 8. a.. a. and 13.. couple b. enclosed c. a. ask 2. as well c. concerns b. grateful b.. so b. next c. a. wasting d... supper d. and thank you for your help. losing b. respect d. request c. for b. annexed 9. Monica P.. also b. attached b.. love c.. business b. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. by 11.... presently d. Send my . now c. too d... I look forward to hearing news from d. affair 6.S. a. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .

in conclusion.. finally.. sum up. clarity... referring.... bring you up to date. Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking... subject knowledge. .. our profits have not increased at the same rate. Please feel free to .. confidence..... to . Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts... . concluding. For what purpose are presentations made? 3. My .. then... Now I'd like to .. before . pointed out "Good afternoon. purpose. tell you. about our corporate strategy for the next decade... illustrate. you all for being here..... enthusiasm... Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it... enjoyable.. I think our first . to Italy and Spain. I'd like to . appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent... expand. accuracy. audibility... thank.E.. with our plans for Europe....... indicate... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.... handling Delivery – pace. with some recommendations.. Overall – clarity of message.. 42 ..... pronunciation.. recommend. that although turnover has risen. There is no benefit in using difficult language. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.... rapport / eye contact... draw your attention. What is a presentation? 2... clarity.. . appropriacy.. you will notice.. I'll quickly .Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that. I'll . and. what . Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next... What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. some of the problems we are facing. I'm . variety.... move on. body language Language – clarity. today is to . Let me quickly .. of course. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years... achievement of objectives.. more . interrupt. outline.. humor Organization – coherence.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already . . I'll .. informative. intonation. me if you have questions at any time... talked. interesting... describe...... . some of the problems we are having over the market share. I'd like to .. relevance.. to start with.. options.... fluency.. .. I've . motivating Exercise ... everybody. priority. . on those successes before we ... about our current position in the UK and I've .. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy.. research Approach – message support and reinforcement. Well. on balance. specifically.. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity.. What makes a presentation effective? 4.

. though. .... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy. Spain and possibly Greece.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes. Thank you also for your pertinent questions.... may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience.. I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly . Admittedly our results there have been poor so far. .We should not forget the French market..... Are there any final questions?" 43 ..

but is probably the most important. However. Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). A member of staff will supervise progress. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. since you have more space.is the topic academic enough? .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay .is the topic broad enough / too broad? . Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic. Like an essay. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. There are several criteria for your choice: . called a dissertation or long essay. 44 .is the topic relevant to your degree course? . In part-time degrees.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . but it can also be very daunting. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also. try it out with your supervisor. but there are a number of differences: . You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be.you can choose your own title . This means you have a whole year to write it.F.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. which you research by yourself. Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. and be available to assist you. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth.

000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45 . ask yourself: . but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. 000 words. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. you must work out the structure of the dissertation.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. It is longer. the first thing to do. As you are reading through the books on your topic. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. since you have more to say. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. 000 words Conclusion – 1. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. Introduction – 1. This will be your title. Dissertations are usually 10. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. since you may need a few by your side.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting.

- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.


III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47

1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................

2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48

That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. 49 . and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow. It's really cold. 5. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2.1. 4. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. but you can never tell.

.................. He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting....... I went for ........ 4.......... or no article................ Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations....... 3........... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics...... Then I went swimming at .......... lovely morning.... local pool and saw Bob McGraw..Test B A...... professional musician and plays with ...................... ................. I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation...... ......... 4............................. I've done that for you.................. River Thames......... Grammar 1.. old school friend who I hadn't seen for ... ....... I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup........... 1. bank to withdraw some cash.... I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon..... I booked it last week. She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions.......................... 8.. 7. 2.. I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.............................. .... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning............ so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid........................................... After . I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras....................................................... 3..... .. long walk by .................................................. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known... 7...... He's . 5. I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details.. Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2..................... the....... When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything............................................................... 50 .............. 3. If you're too hot in here............. 9.... ........... 1.......................... I had ................................ ..................... years........................................ 6........... lunch with Bob...................... They wondered how we had managed to do it................................. and she said that she hadn't had a chance........ Right... Articles Complete this text with a / an....... . In each case choose the most likely alternative...................... Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.. 2........... Look at those clouds.......... The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions......... First I went to ....................... 6.................. 5................... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit......

.... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski........................ AK Hello................. ................ EJ ........... 9... is that Paula.................................................. B... C Hello.............. P Yes...... without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary.... which is why I thought .. OK...... Goodbye..... 10. Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e. I'm not really with you..... It sounds useful... AK .....00 a................00 ................ yes....8. Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert.......... As we were leaving.... ..... .......... EJ Oh......... you're talking about............. EJ ...................... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software............................. a............ .............. ? C .......... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest...... OK.......00 ? P ......................... I've got you..... So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9. is that right? AK Yes..............................00...... C Paula..... Good idea..... I'm busy on Thursday.... So....................... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment........... he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland........... .................... and we told him that we could do it next week.. AK Yes....................... .......... EJ ........ right...... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.............. something for people who need English translations of words.................... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily.......... 2... let me give you an example...... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase..... and they said they would get it to him by 10... EJ ... AK Exactly.... fine...........m............ Sorry........................................................ hello.... then.............. P OK.............. c.............. Would Thursday morning at 10. 51 .................... AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents........... at the latest.. Wednesday at 9. this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering... Functions 1............................. e................... can I just interrupt you a second? b....................... d.....

... Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition..... my money.. the UK market for the time being... an important meeting in my life.. I am not accustomed ........ the discussion today....... 2. opportunity! 5.. I really . A lot of company's resources are ........... He is lacking .................... sensitivity. He apologized ... We need to concentrate ............ 3.... or waste... my new job........ I'm allergic ........ 1....... 10.... Thank you for taking part ......... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a . Please listen ...... 8......... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss. 2.. the inconvenience caused. I can't eat seafood..... 4. 9... Don't worry......... 1. the beer festival...... . 52 ...... 6... 5. lose. my family when I was abroad on business for four months.... me.... Oh. me.. I had three jobs to choose ..C. miss.. You can depend .......... 2. 3..... I've never ..... The meeting coincided ... lose. it.. 7. Do you take credit cards? 4... Vocabulary 1... no! I seem to have . because of inefficiency..........

. then correct the mistakes. Then complete them..... I like playing sport... has just joined the company? b. 4..... is free. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.. which.. he bought shares in the company. have become good friends. There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. 53 .. 3. 6. you used to work? was also the year I got married. He gave us a lot of information about his company. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B.. some of B.. Nothing happened yesterday.... d.... that.. What's the name of the woman . 1. or whom.. I'm doing many work at the moment.. Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake.. using where.. 3.. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. Write C (correct) or I (incorrect)... The reception area. who... 5.. but I don't spend a lot on equipments. e. she later married. 2.. My company does much business in Asia... we hold meetings in. work opposite us are not very friendly.Test C A. There's not much news to tell you.. 7.. a. so please hurry up... I give / will give you a bonus. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun). In some cases more than one answer may be possible. anticipating an increase in value.. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here.. A.... 3. 2.. Grammar 1. This is the room .. I'm living in at the moment. c. You need to invest in some more machinery.. 2. You can download software from many websites. As soon as / Until the merger was announced.... For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. 9. is comfortable and spacious.. 1. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences.. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work.. If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday. is on the fifth floor. the majority of . Complete the sentences...... 2. Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. 10.... . How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8.

..... as a result of 8........... (indicate awareness of something) 3.. for example 2.... working at the weekend.. however f...... 1. is the answer to that. ............. The point is d. (make depressed) 5.... as 3................g..B......... 2..... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online... ....... on abusing the little power he has.. Let me explain what I mean.... what you're saying. To give you an example c......... He's not a very good team player. Explaining consequences.......... on the other hand 4.. so h.. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets..... He's always letting his colleagues ... because of a. e... ..................... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem............. (disappoint) 2...... while d...... I mean b.. I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer.................... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning.... I had a day off work last week to make ...... The problems with her job are really starting to get her ..... like e. ........ 1....................... He really gets . (understand) 54 .... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let .. because c............... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'.... (compensate for) 6....... g... Functions 1............. Vocabulary 1......... ........... trends... can we trust these servers to be secure? .. due to the fact that 7. a......... thus C....... Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e............... I can only just make ....... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server......... whereas 6........ due to b.......... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things................. .............. such as 5..... By secure..... e.... fraud still occurs. It's such a bad line............. .. ..... (be excited by) 4......

... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties..... It's good news........ A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London....... She called in sick so that she could get ......7. 55 .................. She's very good at getting her ideas ......... I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview.. last year when we broke into the German market.. the meeting.... (became very successful) 8............... I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ... Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics.. The company really took ..... (avoid) 2............. ? (invent) 10.. (communicate) 9........

...................... 3.................... 4. have kept some of it for herself...................................... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. (you save) if your house .................... I asked Miranda to write the report for me. 3... Use have / get something done where appropriate....... (you open) the door immediately? 56 ...... but I ..... 2......... company profits ......................... 2....... have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months....................................................... ..................................... be staying at the conference venue....... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6................................................. The storm blew a lot of trees down last night........................... 1. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning............. 8. What three things ................................................................... ....................... ..... but I'm not sure yet......................................... I think we ..... (knock) on your door at home ... 3.... ..................... ........ Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage.. We invite successful applicants to a second interview...................................................... Conditionals 1........................ be a big shock.................... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she .. .. 5................................. ........................... ..... Grammar 1.. If someone .......... 7......................................... 10...... 8........ When I go to Barcelona I ............................................... a............................................................ His colleague's death ................................................. Somebody stole my laptop computer.................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb........ The head of department recommends candidates for promotion................. He ...............................................................................Test D A.. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive... have left my keys in the restaurant............................................... well top $150 million this year....................................... .. The store manager had only just moved to the branch..................... People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.............. 5.......................... The optician tested my eyes yesterday.. 2........ Oh...... be wrong......... We're locked out! 4.... 6....... 7......................................................... He was only 42 years old....................... 9........................ (be) on fire? b.. Companies usually provide managers with language training.... The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities........................... no! I .......... ............................................. According to Peter....... 1................

(go) to the police. whose life ........ (happen) if ........ ....... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e. (give) you a ticket.......... what ....... what ........ Would you like to come in here.. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ........ (you choose) ? d. actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion............ Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense..... To manage interruptions 2.. A: If I . If you .... Can I finish what I was saying? d...... (not get) a job with your current company? h..... eventually d... ultimately c....... c...... b.. .......... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said... Then b. (can) exchange your life for anyone else's..... .... (be) good this weekend what .... a.. d.. To ask for clarification 5......... The interviews take place and ..... using the words a-e. firstly e................. (be) you........ I .. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview. (you work) if you ........... B: Thanks for warning me........... 2.... the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards.. I know. (see) a UFO......................... (you do) ? e.... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2... (you change) ? g....... To keep to the point 3. Ella? 57 ..... To summarize a... What ....... 1........... A: If I ... I . Where ....... basically what you're saying is. If the weather ... (you park) your car there they ... B. one candidate is chosen........ A: If you . (go) to the police.. c.... B: Yes....... A: Careful! If ....... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description....... So... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed. Functions 1......... Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function........ (you study) ? f.....c..... after lengthy discussion.... However....... If you . but I don't think they'd believe me... To ensure other people get to speak 4........... (be) you..... ........ (not study) your subject at school / university. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong........ Could you be more specific? b. a.. If you ............ (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs.....

Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites. 2..... credible 4.... 1..............C............. .... legible 58 ........ rely ................. criticize .. replaceable 3........ ...... ... humor .. . .. connect 5. interested 2.. understand ................. Vocabulary 1. 3. 1. Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs........ 4.... create ...... 2. 5.........

......... Do you know what ... 8.. If you have time during your stay in Sydney. (think) of you......Test E A.... (do) at 8....... thank you. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9......00 p..... Look............. Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c.. 6.. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d...... 5... (work) from home. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow.. 7...... possibility. (live) in space..... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2... Do you think there ... Match each question with an appropriate category. Future Continuous....... Functions 1.... 2...... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House.....m... By the time I retire I hope I ...... Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics. By 2050 people . you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful... In three months' time I ... and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase.. so don't forget to take waterproofs.. it's no problem..... I ..? 3.......m.. but .. Will they ......... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form............. 1.... I .... 4.. ......... d... a.... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b....... i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a. Invitations........ I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes.... (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.. A: Great...... tomorrow? We .. otherwise I may / must / can forget it........ Future Perfect.... It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary.. I've got two tickets! B... I'd like that.. Grammar 1. Permission. you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa... (finish) their meeting by 7. e.... b..... I'm sure.... I ...... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life. Good luck with your exam tomorrow...... 59 ... requests........ (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years. Thank you.. Can I open a window? It's very hot in here....... I'm sorry. B: . and obligation 1. 2. if you'd like me to show you around Prague... Call me sometime over the weekend............ necessity..... Must I really go to the meeting? f.......00 p.... .. c............

.... A: Have you . 5.. and take Complete the sentences with bring. 2............ B: .................... her? 3. Concluding............... A: Well.. A: How did you ...... hope to see you again sometime 1...... best of luck b.. eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock.. I'm starting a new job next week.... get.... carry. the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4.................. you're welcome e.. A: ...... I can't..... that ....... .. with everything. I don't think I . lead to......... cash-flow problems for small businesses. ...... B: You too................. carry............ Late payment often ... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e.... thanking................. any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No... lead to. keep in touch d....... 3... Mark............. It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year...... bring about b.. carry off c.... B: .... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning. Yes. B: Yes.. your bags? They look very heavy! 2..... A: Oh.......... cause 4.. C.......... I have to ...... I'm glad you enjoyed it c...... thank you for that lovely dinner once again.. did you .... warm clothes... ........... I hear this is your last day at work here....... Thanks for coming....................... succeed 3. Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and . Well.. some research for my thesis........A: ..... 2..... Remember to .... Can I help you . great..... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do. 2.... a.... take on a............ Vocabulary 1... or take. B: Thanks... A: So.... bring. A: I've had a lovely evening............. get... 1........... take up d... too many mistakes..... employ (someone) 60 .. 1......................... begin (a hobby) 2.... not too bad. in your English test? B: Oh.....

. had read / started 5... . 5. had been sitting 6. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. to turn off 5. have eaten 10. outgoing 3. . 4.. 1. arrived / had left 7. e – 1 6. look like 2. at the moment 2.Answer key Test A A1 1. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays.Tests . used to have a Porsche.. a – 5 2. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. going 4. g – 3 1.. saying 2. hasn't stopped 1. stubborn 5.. all my life 4. seems 5.. . going 1. recently 3. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. b – 2 3. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. . c – 7 4. meticulous 4. a . always plays 7. f – 6 7. 2. competent 2. was traveling / witnessed 3. to entertain 3. for a week 5. woke up 1. have been having 9.. I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. sounds like 4. have you been doing 6. was living 2. 3. had been having 4. have never seen 8. watch 3.. . looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1 A2 A3 A4 B1 C1 C2 Test B A1 1. d – 4 5.

I'll turn on 6. to 6. missed C2 1. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4. So. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. which 2. Sorry. who / that b. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. an 5.. I haven't had a chance. is going to rain 7. a 7. you're talking about . Ø 9. wasted 5. OK. wasted 2. OK. a. the 3. I was wondering whether 2. let me give you an example. 'Did you see anything?' 2. that's / That suits me 1.00 a. who / whom c. I'm afraid 4. on 8. for 2. in 3. I'm going to 3. I'm not really with you. That would be / Yes. on B2 C1 Test C A1 1. the 1. How about / What about 5. 4. lost 4. at the latest. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5.' conditions. to 10. I'm going to spend 8. a 10. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. which e. the 8. 3. I'll just check / I'll call 5.m. that / which / Ø d. we can do it next week.' 9.' 6. the 4. in 5. be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. Ø 6. to 9.. will win 9. from 7. a.2. I'm playing 4. 5. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. 62 . 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. 2. I've got you.' 7. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. missed 3. with 4. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. B1 1. Are you doing A3 2.

It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. down 2. I – quite a few 5. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. up for 1. I – a lot of 3. C 8. I – plenty of 6. risen 3. I – equipment 10. 63 . A2 1. on 3. I – a lot of 7. substantial 5. I mean 5. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. raise 6. which was also the year I got married. across 9. d. out 7. off 4. e. some of whom have become good friends. until / are 1.b. down 5. sharply 4. rise 6. C 9. By secure. I – a lot of good advice 1. C 4. To give you an example 3. out of A3 B1 B2 C1 C2 Test D A1 1. I – information 2. We started the company in 1999. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. The point is 4. Let me explain what I mean 2. I've met a lot of people through work. by / will give 3. up 10. off 8. arisen 2. as soon as 2.

/ Managers are provided with language training. a. understandable 64 C2 1. could / would you choose d. should / must 6. might / may / could 3. A2 1. 10. arrived 2. could / might / may 1. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. So. 3. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. 8. Would you like to say something about this. happens. had been / would have gone b. John? 4. / I've had my laptop stolen. disconnect A3 B1 B2 C1 . Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. humorous 3. knocked / would you c. would you save / was b. uninterested 2. can't / couldn't 5. My eyes were tested yesterday. 6. were / would you change g. saw / would you do d. incredible 4. would you work / hadn't got h. 7. could / may / might 8. irreplaceable 3. creative 4. reliable 2. Language training is provided for managers. must 7. would happen / arrive. should 2. Excuse me. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. My laptop has been stolen. basically what you're saying is .2.. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. Miranda was asked to write the report. is / will you do e.. 4. Can you be more specific? 5. 1. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. I was in the middle of saying something. I had my eyes tested yesterday. Applications are passed on to universities. 9. 2. must 4. 5. Candidates are recommended for promotion. was you / would go c. a.

must 2. can't 3. will be 9. have finished 3. I was wondering 2. do 2. get 3. critical Test E A1 1. bring 4. made 3. Keep in touch 4. Shall 4. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a B1 B2 C1 C2 C3 65 . will be thinking 2. made 4. That's very kind of you 3. will be living 6. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. will be working 5. Hope to see you again some time 3. can 4. will have been working 4. 1.5. can't 5. take 5. You're welcome 5. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. carry 2. best of luck 2. we will be doing / will be taking 1. lead to 1. will speak 7. Shall we say 5. would be fine / suits me fine 1. illegible A2 1. will have earned 8.

Are you writing a letter? Use She's liking sport. He knows a lot about music. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want She likes sport. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. 66 . Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. 1. 2. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. I'm going to the cinema every day. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. 2. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. She's working here until Christmas.IV. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. He's knowing a lot about music. She works here until Christmas.

) I've lived here for three years.) Present perfect. and present continuous Look at these sentences. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. (I've got a new car now.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. 3. (She isn't here now. I'm wanting to go out for dinner.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. 1. 67 .) I've been to Brazil three times. (Until now I've been there three times. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. He's seeming very tired. present simple. 4. I want to go out for dinner. 6. You haven't lived abroad.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. 2. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. He seems very tired. Some are right and some are wrong. Vegetarians don't eat meat. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. (He still works there now. we add –ed to the infinitive. To make regular past participles.3.) I've bought a new car. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. I have. 5. (I still live here now. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present.

. can be used to make comparisons. Sometimes. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. as . I'm working here since October.. Russia is bigger than Canada. 68 . as . normally. I work here since October. He's never here at 9. The film was much better than I expected. Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than. We often go to the park. but they usually go before the main verb.. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. 5.3. * I * have lunch in a restaurant *.. in front of the main verb. I don't usually get up late. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York? 4.00. Her house is as big as mine. The train is always on time.

2. Silver isn't so expensive as gold. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.. Alex 1.75m Alex is taller than his brothers. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. My exam results were worse than Andy's.. .Silver isn't as expensive as gold. He's so tall as his brother.92m Alex's brothers 1. The film was better that the book. The film was better than the book.. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. 6.. 3. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences. 4. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. is also possible. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. he was. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. Short answers Yes.85m 1. as . a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995.83m 1. all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. In the negative so . We weren't here yesterday. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. My exam results were more bad than Andy's. He's as tall as his brother. 1.

Used to can only be used to talk about the past.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. 7.) She went at four o'clock. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now.g. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. We use the past continuous tense to: 70 . last week).) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. I've lived here for five years. he was. He used to smoke. or past actions which were not habits.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. you must use the past simple tense. not the present perfect. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. She used to be a teacher. I went out this morning. She wasn't going to work. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. (She isn't here now. I've been there four years ago. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. but he gave up five years ago. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. We didn't use to live in London. not the effect. I did. (But I don't live there now. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke. For individual past actions. (I still live here. only the past simple can be used.) Before that I lived in Madrid. I went there four years ago. (We're interested in when the action took place. in 1993. It has no present form. two days ago. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. She's gone home. We went to the cinema twice last week.

describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71

1. 2. 3.

I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?

9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.

Short answers Yes, I will.


The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!


3. 4. 5.

10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73

He's the man who lives next door. I saw the man who lives next door. It might (not) rain today. I'd buy a house. I saw the man. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. It's likely to rain today. impossible. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. It could rain today. If I had the money. I would. She's probably coming this weekend. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. It probably won't rain today. We use who with people.) She'd be a good politician.) make polite offers. 74 least likely most likely . which with things. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11. It's unlikely to rain today. or imaginary situations. (But I haven't got the money. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. It may (not) rain today.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. They wouldn't steal from a friend. It'll probably rain today. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. Use Would has many uses. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. (But she works in a bank.

will she? It doesn't matter.. haven't you? It was raining.. 12. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. This chair's French.He's the man that lives next door. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. He's the man who/that lives next door. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. You're Italian.. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. He lives next door. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. didn't you? NOT . They aren't coming to the party. You knew about this yesterday. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. He's the man. She arrived yesterday. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. does it? You've finished. didn't she? You like fish. don't they? 75 . She married him. He's the man. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. which. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. Look at these sentences.. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. It isn't very warm. did not you? She can speak Russian. can't she? NOT . He's the man (who/that) she married. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. You can swim. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. or that. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted.

It is less direct than an ordinary question. These computers are made in Japan. We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. Someone has been arrested. 13. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. Fewer crimes would be committed. we don't know the agent. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). She must be told. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. It can't be done. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. To make the negative of the passive. We can use the passive in any tense.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. These houses were built in the 1930s. The car has been found. Cars shouldn't be parked there.) and is followed by a question mark (?). To make different tenses we change the verb to be. The man wasn't sent to prison. Thousands of cars are stolen. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. 76 . The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. This wine is produced in Portugal. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. The crime will be solved. we use the negative of the verb to be. The weapon hasn't been found. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (.

. If we had more money..) 77 .. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.) when the if clause is first.. If I had enough money . They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. NOT If it will rain. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. (I don't think I'll get the job. We usually use a comma (. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much.) If I got the job I'd earn more money.) 15. I'd buy that house. you'll miss the appointment. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future.) when the if clause is first. 14. or imaginary situations. If she eats all the ice cream. The suspect was identified by a witness. If it rains. If you get up late. but not when the main clause is first. we'd travel business class. but not when tha main clause is first. First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. we'll go to the cinema. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is. she'll feel terrible. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause.If we want to show the agent. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. NOT If I would have enough money . (There is a real chance that it will rain. we use by. If I get the job I'll earn more money. If I had enough money. We usually use a comma (. The car has been found by some children. we'll go to the cinema. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. Note: We do not use will in the if clause.) We won't go if it rains. unlikely.

up. as soon as. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts. Oil will run out in the next century. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. when she will arrive. She switched on the TV. e.. NOT . He saw the mouse and ran out. or She switched the TV on. I'll phone you when she arrives.16. look something up 78 . If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object).g. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. She switched it on. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema... until Phil will get back. Time clauses As in clauses with if. and after. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. 17.. Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. NOT . away. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back... She takes after her mother. NOT She switched on it. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. (transitive) The plane took off. He took off his jacket. before we would go to the cinema. until. He heard a helicopter and looked up. NOT . before. in. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. the verb is separable. on.

If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. is not normally used with stative verbs. I've been writing a letter. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. You're late. I've been waiting for an hour. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. I've been playing a lot of football this week.) focus on the process of an activity. the verb is inseparable. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. (focus on activity) I've played two matches.I looked up the word in the dictionary. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. like other continuous forms. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet.' emphasize the duration of an activity. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. 79 . come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. 18. (I haven't finished it yet. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. he has. I've lived here for ten years. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. or about past actions which have present results. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months.

object subject object Who did you tell? (I told my parents. imagine. remember. ask. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. using do/does in the present or did in the past.) object subject object Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. have no idea.) subject object subject Who told you? (My wife told me. question word(s) subject verb 80 . Can she swim? They've arrived. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Do they live here? You saw her. so we must provide one. a modal verb. or an auxiliary verb. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question. They live here. Did you see her? In Wh. decide. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. wonder. see. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question.questions. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20. Compare these questions.) subject object subject Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. know.19.

I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder where what what time why how much money he his name the bus she they lives. we say clothes shop and sports shop.. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I don't know if he's coming. 4. A shop that sells books is a bookshop. What kind of software? Software for computers. a computer software shop This is a shop. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software. 1. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. 81 . I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that. I've decided how much money do I need. The headword always goes at the end. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. football boots These are boots. I've decided how much money I need.. left.? Could you tell me where the post office is.. A shop that sells records is a record shop. arrives. Note: However. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . is. 3. please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. With Wh.questions we use the question word in the indirect question.? or Do you think you could tell me . Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. 've got. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English.. We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. I wonder why did he do that? 21. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. 2.

How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away. when the subject of both clauses is the same. I had the idea while I was driving home. feel. (Empty bottles. I've been working since 7. After I'd had a shower.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. -ing form or infinitive A. After having a shower. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. smell. 82 . a bathroom a coffee cup. with after. Others are written as two words. and while to replace a clause. or are hyphenated. as adjectives. Unfortunately there are no rules. watch. She's playing tennis. 23.00. I had the idea while driving home. notice. a teacup.). hear. with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. (Empty packets.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. This is a really boring film. before. We saw them leaving the house. etc. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). object I don't enjoy cooking. a tennis racket a living-room. I read a fascinating book the other week.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. (New packets. I got dressed. I can hear someone coming. I could smell burning. to describe what someone can sense (with see.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. Compare these sentences. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses. I got dressed. There were two people waiting for you. He was driving at 120mph. There's someone coming. stomach ache 22. subject Swimming is my favorite sport.

(I had met her before and I remembered it. enjoy. B. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. (British) I like to lie in bed late. I'd like to live abroad. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.like. (I danced with him and I won't forget it.) stop He has stopped smoking. I like lying in bed late. but she still wouldn't listen.) I tried speaking to her about it. imagine. -ing forms Look at these sentences. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. 83 . but she wasn't there.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. It's just started to rain.) C. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. remember. (I wanted to speak to her. love.) I remembered to meet her. start. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. consider. (he was doing something. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now.) try I tried to speak to her about it. feel like.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. but I didn't. Smoking is bad for your health. forget I remember meeting her. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. She's considering emigrating to Australia. hate. but it didn't work. but I couldn't. (I was supposed to dance with him. give up. suggest. and can't stand. I enjoy doing the gardening. I'm beginning to learn the piano. (I spoke to her. (I had to meet her and I did. begin. I began to realize how he felt. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening. 1. continue It's just started raining. In British English. Some of the most common are finish. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia.) He stopped to have a cigarette. then he stopped in order to smoke.

To smoke is bad for your health. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. Before to leave the office. need. A I've never been to Ireland. neither. B Me. There's someone coming up the stairs. I must remember to post this letter. and Me. too to agree with a positive statement. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. neither to agree with a negative statement. 24. There's someone that comes up the stairs. 4. shall. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. 5. I made a phone call. I begun understanding the problem. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. would. will. B Oh. B Oh. B Me. must. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. 25. 3.) I + positive auxiliary verb. Stop making so much noise. should. 7. Before leaving the office. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. might. too. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. Stop to make so much noise. 84 . I must remember posting this letter. I made a phone call. I'd love to go to New Zealand. B So do I. I'd love going to New Zealand. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. I would.2. A I really love pizza. 6. A I couldn't read until I was seven. ought to. could. may. B Nor/Neither have I. I could. I began to understand the problem.) I + negative auxiliary verb.

) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. I couldn't believe what he told me. I must to remember to post this letter. 3. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. They might not come to the party. and permission. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. For example. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. You might go to London. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. Present: He can speak four languages. She should see a doctor. Modal verbs have no tense forms. He might come later. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. You shouldn't do that. 4.) I must remember to post this letter. 2. will: I'll be able to find a new job. we can use could to talk about ability. You don't should leave your car there. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. 1. They have no infinitive or participle form. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. or You don't need to come. possibility. He mights come later. 85 . (or I could find a new job. I can swim. In each pair one is right and one is wrong.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). They ought to be more careful. would: I'd be able to find a new job. Past: He could speak French when he was four. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late.

we use was/were able to or managed to.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. You needn't wear a suit. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. The party's informal. I could drive when I was sixteen. (It is and 'outside' obligation. You need to be at the station by 8. The firemen managed to save everyone. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. The firemen could save everyone. You ought not to carry so much cash. Past: I had to find a new job. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. which comes from 'outside' the speaker. from my doctor. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. I have to work on Saturday this week. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. You don't have to come if you don't want to. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. (It is a general obligation.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. Have to is also used. 86 . we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. The firemen were able to save everyone.30. I must start taking more exercise. Passengers must show their boarding cards. though could is more common. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. Have to is used to describe general obligation. (I want to. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. would: I'd have to find a new job.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test./You don't need to wear a suit. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. You shouldn't work so hard. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. a driving instructor. was/were able to. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. it is 'my' obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something.Could. will: I'll have to find a new job. Note: Must has no tense forms.

I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. could. 26.Probability May. I will can go swimming every day next week. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. Permission Can. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. 3. She might not be here tomorrow. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. I had my room painted. I had my hair cut. Compare these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. and may are used to ask for permission. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers. 4. 87 . with we and I. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 5. and may is the most polite and formal. This means that I painted the room myself. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. 1. She could not be here tomorrow. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. I had the car fixed. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. 2. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. might. Could is more polite than can. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. I painted my room. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today.

Direct speech: I like cooking. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. It needs cleaning. and modal verbs do not change. because a different person is now speaking. The car's really dirty. Need + -ing is more informal. 28. said or told).g. I'll get my secretary to type the letter.27. The judge made the man apologize. We can also use need with to be + past participle. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. The car's really dirty. I got the garage to service my car. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. Get is followed by the infinitive with to. It needs to be cleaned. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. David's father lets him use the car. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. would. 29. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. 88 .

Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. NOT Andrea said me .. we make the following changes. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. 31. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. She told (them) jokes all night. 89 . Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Zoe said that they saw a great film. We tell somebody something. They told (us) a story. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. With Yes/No questions. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed. Andrea said (that) she was going out. say and tell We say something.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book.. Tom said that he doesn't want to go.. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements.. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. NOT Andrea told (that) . 30. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Luke: I'll be away till March. Andrea: I'm going out. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Helen: I'd like a coffee. The word order changes to a statement word order. Zoran: I had never been there before. and verbs have a statement form. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. the reported question starts with whether or if. When we report questions. Monica: I might phone you later. Tom: I don't want to stay here.

) Conditionals Look at these sentences. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. 3. warn. order. but not when the main clause is first.) when if clause is first. 'Please sit down. 33. Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. I'd lend you some money if I had any. 1. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that.' The doctor asked me to sit down. and I didn't pass the exam. but other verbs can also be used.' He told me not to worry. They said me that the exam was very hard. 2. 2. 4. She asked me where I lived. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis. Reported speech Look at these sentences. (I didn't work hard. and command. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. If I had told the truth. The instructor told me that I don't do that. (You were driving too fast. 'Don't worry. If you hadn't studied so hard. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 90 . and you crashed. beg. you would have failed. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. an imaginary situation in the past. The instructor told me not to do that. 3. she wouldn't have left. They told me that the exam was very hard. such as advise. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. We usually use a comma (. persuade. Some are right and some are wrong.32. 1.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you.

(I regret leaving at ten o'clock. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision. If I knew the answer I'll tell you. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.4.) They should have bought the house. 34. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone.) 91 .

Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Brooks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. 2001. Writing for the Internet. Ian Selwood. Computer Studies Through Applications. Eric H. 2001. Liz & Paul A Davies & Simon Greenall. Hutchinson. 1998. Kennewell. Chris Mitton. Otman. 2002. 5. Tom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. All Stars. Engleza pentru internet. 2001. & John McGwan. Jane. Driscoll. Oxford English for Information Technology. 2. 1992.Oxford. 2001. 8. 7. Oxford University Press. International Express. Michael & Francois Lagoutte. Dorner. Oxford: Oxford Univeristy Press. 6. Bucuresti: Editura Teora. Engleza pentru informatica. 3. Gabriel. 92 . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Life Lines. 4. Glendinning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Adrian & Nicjolas Sheard.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Wallwork. Steve & Peter Fox.

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