UNIVERSITATEA "AL. I.
CUZA" IAŞI Facultatea de Informatică
Departamentul de Învăţământ la Distanţă
LAURA IOANA LEON
MANUAL DE LIMBA ENGLEZĂ
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION – English as a World Language ................................................ 3 I. LESSONS Lesson 1 – The Invention of the Internet ...................................................... 5 Lesson 2 – Professional and Educational Internet ....................................... 7 Lesson 3 – People in Computing .................................................................. 10 Lesson 4 – Designing a Webpage ................................................................. 14 Lesson 5 – Internet Ethics ............................................................................ 18 Lesson 6 – Computer Security ..................................................................... 21 Lesson 7 – Storage Devices ........................................................................... 24 Lesson 8 – Cyberculture ............................................................................... 27 Lesson 9 – Electronic Trade ......................................................................... 29 Lesson 10 – Futurology ................................................................................. 32 II. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Writing a CV ............................................................................................ 35 B. Writing Letters and Faxes ...................................................................... 37 B1. Writing a Letter of Application ............................................................ 37 C. Interviews .................................................................................................. 39 D. Writing Emails ......................................................................................... 40 E. Presentations ............................................................................................. 42 F. Dissertations and Long Essays ................................................................ 44 III. TESTS Test A ............................................................................................................. 47 Test B ............................................................................................................. 50 Test C ............................................................................................................. 53 Test D ............................................................................................................. 56 Test E ............................................................................................................. 59 Tests – Answer Key ...................................................................................... 61 IV. GRAMMAR REFERENCE .............................................................................. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... 92
INTRODUCTION ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE Do you think the following statements are true or false? 1. English was already an important world language four hundred years ago. 2. It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language. 3. One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English. 4. There are few inflections in modern English. 5. In English, many verbs can be used as nouns. 6. English has borrowed words from many other languages. 7. In the future, all other languages will probably die out. Skim reading Read the article on English as a world language. Find out the answers to the true/false statements. There is one statement for each paragraph. Discuss your answers in pairs. Then read the article in more depth. Today, when English is one of the major languages in the world, it requires an effort of the imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare's time, for example, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world. English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world. People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world's entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world's mail and 60% of the world's telephone calls are in English. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS SIMPLICITY OF FORM. Old English, like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections, and adjectives do not change according to the noun. FLEXIBILITY. As a result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five centuries, a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example swim, drink, walk, kiss, look, and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race; a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied, they need 3
....What are the differences between the ways a baby learns its first language and the ways an adult learns a second language? . Justify your order.... Can you think of some suggestions for effective language learning? Example Practice as much as possible. technology....What advantages does the baby have? ... Speaking 1. This involves the free admissions of words from other languages and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. we can talk about a round of golf.......... second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it.. THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH.... What is most important for you in learning a language? Put the list in order of importance.. 4.to be cleaned and dried.... although the proposition that all other languages will die out is absurd....... 1 being the most important. A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement.....What advantages does the adult have? 2.. but remember that different people learn in different ways.. reading . learning grammar . learning vocabulary . pronunciation practice 3... and aviation....... Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary. Work in groups. Compare your lists... or drinks...... listening . It is the language of business. OPENNESS OF VOCABULARY. speaking and being corrected . This will no doubt continue. How do you learn languages? . cards.. writing .. Work alone.. speaking and not being corrected all the time .
. Read books and newspapers........ Most world languages have contributed some words to English at some time.... English is the most widespread language on Earth.. Geographically.. Prepositions too are flexible. and the process is now being reversed. Purists of the French.. sport. .
The Advanced Research Projects Agency. Because of the way the messaging system worked. built a network consisting of supercomputers and modestly named it ARPANET. as it came to be called. no single computer that controls the rest of them. decided that it was a good thing and started joining in. LESSONS LESSON 1 – THE INVENTION OF THE INTERNET A blast from the past It's 1969 (. it worked. uninvited but still welcome. by 1972. to use the techy term. swapped them (via the net.
. of course) and encouraged other people to join in. Crude as they were. users began sending personal messages too – at first notes and theories on their work. By 1971 there were 15 computers on the Net. A department of the US Government decides to set up some sort of computer network enabling its scientists and researchers to exchange information easily even if they are miles apart – a sort of military chatline. But this network will have to be Cold Warproof. The clever folks at ARPA designed a system which broke up any message into bits – or packets. They started mailing lists. still the most popular use of the Net by far. each machine will have equal status. The way in which a message travels from one computer to another won't be important. machines that would sit on your desk rather than in your lab.I. Amazingly. Scientists rapidly exchanged their findings and productivity increased. just kept on growing. the way they got there was unimportant. In the mid-'80s came the rise of the personal computer. Other networks joined in. Each packet could travel to its destination by a different route. and the Internet. 1. for it was they. invented e-mail. they were interested in film and music and TV and the opposite sex and all sorts of fascinating topics. it didn't matter what sort of computer was used as long as it spoke the right language. There will be no "command center". 4. These packets could be sent independently over the network. You can use any type of computer to send a message on the Internet. They had. They didn't use the Net to swap research data. But they weren't interested in science or academia. 3. Enthusiastic amateurs knocked up programs for their own machines. Instead. The pioneering owners of these machines found out about the Net. A message always takes the shortest route to its destination. and as long as they were all reassembled at the other end in the right order.. Instead of using the network strictly for business. then news and eventually gossip. This blatant misuse of the US Government's funds continued throughout the '70s. 37. they were capable of far more interesting things that were ever dreamt possible. But then an odd thing started to happen. in fact. they used it to swap gossip. A message is cut into packets of bits to be a computer specialist any more to use the Internet. 2. they sent each other games. computers you could play games on and use unproductively. They set up their own electronic mailboxes. they opened newsgroups.). Say if each of these statements is right or wrong (according to the text): 1.. it will just take whatever route it can to reach its destination. The Internet is regulated and funded by the US Government.
notebook 3. but the market (saturate) to some extent. Find the correct definition for each of the following words: newsgroup. network. a set of related computers C. A computer that (fill) a room in the fifties (recently/be reduced) to the size of a notepad. a series of bits being a part of message B. Note that in the final two examples you also have to use a frequency adverb: Eckert and Machy (invent) the first modern computer in 1946. Apple. so that even IBM (have to) lay off some workers. Computer sizes. Miniaturization (be) a key word in the 1980s. The 1990s (continue) this trend towards miniaturization. a person who tries to discover something E. Both of these companies (set) standards that most software houses and computer manufacturers (adopt). Put the verbs in brackets in the following text into the appropriate tense (Past Tense or Present Perfect). mainframe 5. People (begin) to use their TV sets as computer monitors and software engineers (make) fortunes by selling arcade games. It is an undeniable fact that computer firms (always/to believe) that small is beautiful! Talking point How long have you been using the Internet? How much has it changed your life?
. a place on the Internet where people can discuss D.2. mailbox. cheaper and more reliable. researcher A. which (lead) to the mass production of the first personal computer by Apple. but transistors soon (replace) them. Here are five types of computers. Over the last few years. Can you order them from the largest to the smallest? 1. and computers (decrease) in size and price quite drastically. packet. a place on the Internet where messages are put and kept until read 4. however. personal digital assistant (DPA) 3. Te early computers (use) vacuum tubes. along with IBM. supercomputer 4. of course (be) a big name in computers since the seventies. desktop computer 2. In the 1970s Intel (produce) a microprocessor. Since then the computers (become) smaller. silicon chip technology (dominate) the computer world.
courses that may be well computerized by the time you read this include a University of Southern Carolina business program that would be offered in Virginia. is contracting with top-quality schools to convert their courses to an interactive. Kannan said his company hopes to offer courses from five major business schools. and a University of Carolina at Berkeley degree-program in English. Proctored final exams are given under reciprocal arrangements with schools in the student's area. online environment. In my opinion/real teachers/electronic conferences 3. offered by mail. all of which express personal opinions: 1. Using modern technology. then switches the student to a hypertext document that covers material for which the student needs more study. learn the material. who can thus oversee the education of many more than it would be possible without automation. Within a few months. As far as I am concerned/University Online/good idea 2. For example. check for FAQs on the questions that get asked over and over every year. Students can log onto the Internet. The site offers questions to test the student's proficiency. "We make it so students can dial up from their bedrooms. The complete distance-learning package generally includes a text-book. Use the elements to make complete sentences. The main idea is to replace existing for-credit degree-oriented programs that are available through the mail with equivalent computerized courses over the Internet. Australia. in addition to several large urban universities scheduled to go on like this fall.LESSON 2 – PROFESSIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERNET Wired U For many students. Personally. University Online University online is for-profit organization that. The professor would receive a royalty for every student who took this course. says Nat Kannan. There's a revolution happening in education. Originally tested in 1992 the company has been busily developing courseware for a rollout this fall. rather than offering their own set of courses. It's called distance learning. use a bulletin board. and as with mail order programs. "The typical course we do is one where about 700 students are trying to learn Economics 101". visit the school's We site. Europe. click on the course they want. and interactive courseware. and the Americans. and connect to a server that presents information. 1. and even conference with the teacher when necessary". a teacher who now conducts an introductory course for several hundred students in a huge amphitheatre can have the same material automated and delivered on demand to students worldwide. videotape of professor's lectures. I/campus life/bulletin boards 4. founder and president of University Online. the Net will be alma mater. The computer keeps track of each student's progress and an make reports available to the teacher. and its prime practitioners are using the techniques and technology of computerized networking to offer a wide range of degree and non-degree courses to students in Asia. the material would be available to students at their convenience. I would suggest/Internet/traditional universities 7
. University Online offers kinder-garden-through-8th-grade programs for the Calvert School and nationally accredited 9th-through-12th-grade programs from the North Dakota Independent Student Program.
state a person who 8 EXAMPLE terminal.. I consider/modern technology/efficient teaching aid 7. kingdom employee.5.. To my mind. When we started. to put a system on computer = to computerize) 1. It was put on the market in 1994. LANGUAGE FOCUS SUFFIXES: FORMING NEW WORDS Noun-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -al -ance -ary -asm -dom -ee -ence -er.. domain a person in a condition quality of a person who a thing which quality... I agree with the idea that/everybody/access to knowledge/Internet 8. performance corrolary enthusiasm wisdom. in 1992 2... musician introduction.. to take a material form 5.. at least two semesters to be allowed to sit for an exam.. boredom. Fill the blanks in this passage with since. scientist
. From my own point of view/to replace/university atmosphere 6. independence employer.. state condition. to make something according to a customer's individual specifications 9. 1992 and it is already known worldwide. four years . You have to follow a course ... connector childhood. execution. to put a story in the form of a drama 4. 3. withdrawal clearance. to give authority to 10. ...g.. Find the verb ending in –ize that corresponds that correspond to each of these definitions (e.. several new courses have been offered. so it has been tested .. University Online was originally tested over five years . -tion -ism -ist MEANING quality of state connected with condition.. possession magnetism. 4. state condition. we never believed it would be so successful... This University has only existed .. behavio(u)rism typist. for and ago: 1. 6.... -or -hood -ian -ion. to make use of a symbol for something 3. neighbo(u)rhood electrician. to write a summary of 3. to arrange in an optimal way 6. to represent in a digital form 2. the beginning of the experiment. addressee audience. a few months . I am convinced/University Online/successful venture 2. over two years.... to give a linear form to 8. operator voucher. to reduce to the minimum 7... condition belonging to act of.. 5.
happiness. loose 16. action condition of quality. generally. widen. 1. quality state. simplify customize. -ious MEANING capable of quality of quality of connected with without full of quality of like without full of EXAMPLE manageable. Now. auto 8. laborious
Adverb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ly MEANING in the manner of EXAMPLE actually. tight 5. mode 14. active 3. -ery -ship
state. initial 12. weak 19. state condition. reality achievement. -ical -ish -less -ous. long 13. logical. tolerate shorten. local 9. terminal planar binary bug-free useful automatic. boldness labo(u)r. concentrate. economical foolish useless porous. simple 4. broad 2. analysis 11. transform the following words into verbs. -ible -al -ar -ary -free -ful -ic.-ity -ment -ness -our (GB) -or(US) -ry. using the verb-forming suffixes above. state
Adjective-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -able. interruptible environmental. short 7. personal 15. robot 6. slavery. computerize. electric 17. furiously
4. computer Talking point What is your opinion about universities online?
. -ise MEANING to make to make to make to make EXAMPLE activate. lengthen classify. standard 18. behavio(u)r foundry. government business. rivalry friendship. condition place. soft 10. stimulus 20. hardship
Verb-forming suffixes: SUFFIX -ate -en -fy -ize. condition.
LESSON 3 – PEOPLE IN COMPUTING How to become a programming expert The primary requirements for being a good programmer are nothing more than a good memory. So what specific skills are employers looking for? The Windows market is booming and there's a demand for good C. it will count for a lot more than a string of academic qualifications. By the age of 30. you may be in a good position to move into a junior consultancy position in one of the larger consultancy companies. its positioning on the market. and in my experience these are very useful pieces of paper. Qualifications are important. but often for a core collection of companies that keep coming back again and again. Visual Basic and Delphi. Exams like Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer are well worth doing. However it's not enough just to turn up for a job's interview with a logical mind as your sole qualification. an attention to detail. Good contractors move from job to job every few months. An employer will want to see some sort of formal qualification and a proven track record. How to become an IT Manager IT managers manage projects. University degrees are useless. more manageable pieces. After leaving university you get a technical role in a company and spend your evenings and weekends learning the tools of your trade – and getting your current employer to pay for your exams. C++. That's where the all-important experience comes in. But if you can show someone on impressive piece of software with your name on it. Get a decent book on Windows programming. spend more money on a training course. Any large organization will have at least one IT manager responsible for ensuring that everyone who actually needs a PC has one and it works properly. A consultant very often works on very small timescales – a few days here. Avoid other languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL unless you want to work as a contract programmer. technology and people. 10
. And there are lots of people who know it too. C++. a logical mind and the ability to work through a problem in a methodical manner breaking tasks down into smaller. However you mustn't become an expert in too narrow a field. Get one or two of the low cost "student" editions of C++. You don't stay in one company for more than two years. Java and Visual Basic developers. so you have to be better than them. How to become a computer consultant The first key point to realize is that you can't know everything. Microsoft has a raft of exams you can take. For someone starting out. Delphi. Here's the road map. They merely prove you can think. and for staffing a help-desk and a support group. my best advice would be to subscribe to the programming magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal. The second key point is that you must be interested in your subject. a week there. However. rolled out major solutions and are well known. you've run big projects. This means taking responsibility for the maintenance of servers and the installation of new software. There's a lot of work out there for people who know Visual Basic. After a couple of hops like that. how it relates to other products and so on. The third key point is to differentiate between contract work and consultancy. Maybe then it's time to make the leap and run your own life. A consultant is different. and so on. The same goes for NetWare Certification. and will hopefully get you into a job where you can learn something useful. this won't guarantee an understanding of the product. If you decide programming is really for you. as does Novell.
. the best qualification for becoming a manager is experience. 6. 1. Most are between 30 and 45.. 5.. Technical qualifications .. Look at the examples: 11
side in. foresee. size. disable illiteracy impossible insufficient. decode disagree. PREFIX byinoutoverunderwithMEANING near. The first is a list of prepositions which also act as prefixes. They confer their prepositional meaning on to the stem. usefully (+suffix "-ly": adverb) Study the following table of prefixes which give a negative meaning: PREFIX antidedisiliminirmisnonunMEANING opposite reverse opposite not not not not wrong. forecast interface microminiaturisation macroinstruction peripheral postscript predict semiconductor.to plug in a device (stem) = to connect a device to the mains to unplug a device (+prefix "un-") = to disconnect a device from the mains use (stem: noun). semicolon
. time and order: PREFIX anteequiexforeintermicromacroperipostpresemiOther prefixes: 12 MEANING before equal out before between reduced enlarged around after before half EXAMPLE antecedent equivalent extend. unhealthy
Study the following tables of prefixes. external foreground. useful (+suffix "-ful": adjective). into going away more than above too much beneath. bad non not EXAMPLE antithesis debug. bystander input. inaccurate irrelevant mislead. involve output. below not enough away against EXAMPLE bypass. misfortune nonsense unreal. location. outlaw outperform overlay overestimate underscore underestimate withdraw withstand
The following are prefixes of degree.
MEANING under across for oneself joint. half automatic. Now use the prefixes of degree. devices that exist around a central computer Talking point What computing career would you choose and why?
. half manual 7. 1. location. to convey data from one place to another 8. after the war 4. to grow larger 5. time and order to find words equivalent in meaning to the following. together new before for
EXAMPLE subliminal transfer automaton cofounder neologism proclaim proposal
3. a program that is part of a larger program 6. to predict 3. size. that is already programmed 2. a form of computing when you dialogue with the computer 9. not up to standard 10.
Besides content. you may group the FAQ. and visitors may not know how to
. but try to discourage its use as much as possible. Most veteran browsers dislike them and they can be confusing for visitors who are suddenly presented with multiple scrollbars. If you are committed to using frames on your site. In addition to the graphical navigation buttons. Studies have shown that visitors will look at and try text links before clicking on graphical buttons. For example. but if visitors to the site can't easily find their way around its pages they may never return. The ALT text will make it possible for visitors who use text browsers such as Lynx or who browse with graphics turned off. If possible your navigation system should be based on text links. Contact and Troubleshooting pages so they're accessible from a Support page. 4 Forego Frames Avoid frames wherever possible. include descriptive ALT text captions. rather than image maps or graphical buttons. 7 Shun Search Most sites have a search function. Even the best search engines turn up irrelevant matches. 2 Next Best ALTernative If you must use a graphical navigation system. you'd better commit yourself to some extra work too. because you will have to create a no-frames version of your site for visitors whose browsers don't support frames. Unfortunately they may also be the most commonly neglected design consideration. Every page on your site should be accessible from every other one within four clicks. People come to your site to find information – don't make them dig for it. 1 Trust Text It's tempting to spice up pages with graphics –but sometimes even a little is too much. You should regularly reexamine your page structure and links. These nine site-design pointers will help you to build an effective navigation system. or the color of visited and notvisited links from page to page. It should be in outline form and include all the major sections of your site with key subpages listed beneath those sections. be sure to include text links at the bottom of every page that provide a clear route to the main areas of your site. And don't get clever with links and buttons that appear and disappear: turning things on and off is usually done as an attempt to let visitors know where they are at the site but more often than not it ends up confusing them. to find their way around. It's good idea to visit a few larger sites to get some ideas on designing an effective site map. and make necessary adjustments. 5 Consistency Counts Don't change the location of your navigation elements. the most important aspect of a website is its navigation scheme. 3 Map It A site map offers a god overview of your site and will provide additional orientation for visitors.LESSON 4 – DESIGNING YOUR WEBPAGE First paragraph Your website may be chock full of information about your company and its products. 6 Just a Click Away Keep contact close at hand.
put the word "more" before the adjective: expensive more expensive cumbersome more cumbersome With many two-syllable adjectives. A large number of choices is not necessarily a good thing. For most sites. accuracy. search facility. contact information.use yours effectively. on-line support. especially those ending in "y" (see above). use "more": dreadful more dreadful ideal more ideal Some two-syllable adjectives can take either form: clever cleverer clever more clever The second part of the comparison is introduced by "than": A 486 chip is faster than a 286. compatibility. You may refer to these seven points for evaluating a site: design. up to date. However. a pull-down navigation menu is an easy addition that offers an alternative route through your pages. you can add the suffix "er". password protected. 15
. clearly placed links are more likely to help visitors find what they want. nice design. 8 Passing Lanes Provide multiple paths through your site so visitors aren't restricted to one style of browsing. Visit a website of your choice. navigation. well laid out. Logical. if a two-syllable adjective already consist of a stem plus a suffix. LANGUAGE FOCUS COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 1. (hot) links. without wasting space. 1. a user. colorful. turn the "y" into and "i" and add "er": easy easier fuzzy fuzzier With adjectives of more than two syllables ("long adjectives"). cluttered. add the suffix "er" to the stem: cheap cheaper high higher With adjectives ending in "y". Here are some useful words and phrases for talking about websites: visually attractive. 9 Overwhelming Options Don't overwhelm visitors by presenting dozens of places that they can go. features. ease of use. helpful graphics. a visitor. SUPERIORITY With adjectives consisting of one and sometimes two syllables ("short adjectives"). structure connections. confusing. Take notes on any special features. good reactivity.
This microchip is > fast a conventional one. INFERIORITY Inferiority is sometimes expressed by placing "less" before the adjective and "than" after it: A minicomputer is less cumbersome than a mainframe computer. resolution was 16
. 1. You will not find another processor as fast as this one. 2. the sharper the picture. 4. The less he works. Some comparatives of superiority are irregular. EQUALITY Equality is expressed using the word "as". this would result in: A minicomputer is smaller than a mainframe computer. 4. the slower the speed of execution. The monitors supplied when < sharp more expensive models. the better he feels.. as" is preferred to "than" + a comparative: This car is ten times as fast as mine. "as . when buying a PC are often 5. the comparative can be preceded by "the". SPECIAL USES Comparatives are used for "parallel increase" or "parallel decrease" and are preceded by the definite article "the": The more I think about it.. John was the elder of the two boys. Compare the elements in the left-hand column with those in the right-hand column using the adjective and the appropriate comparison. The less sophisticated the software. There are not very many of them but they are very common: good better bad worse far further / farther little less Note that. 3. For the preceding sentence. the more I feel depressed. indicated by the symbols. as". The higher the resolution.. Ten years ago screen < high it is today. However you can also express inferiority by using "not as . 2. The picture on SVGA monitors is > sharp on VGS monitors. It is placed before and after the adjective: This device is as efficient as some much more expensive models. 2. especially with monosyllabic adjectives: A minicomputer is not as cumbersome as a mainframe computer. when preceded by "X times".. When comparing two items. This computer is the cheaper of the two. Inferiority can also be expressed using adjectives of opposite meaning in the superiority form. This computer is < powerful the NEXT design. 3.A laser printer is more expensive than a bubble-jet printer.
cheap computer 3. reliable device 5. 3. inconsistent program 10. "most" precedes the adjective: cumbersome most cumbersome reliable most reliable These adjectival forms are preceded by "the": These are the fastest machines on the market. fuzzy image 8. fast chip 4. This is the most powerful computer available today. With short adjectives. powerful computer 2. expensive card 6. ugly picture 9. significant bit Writing Write an advertisement for your website!
. Transform the following into their superlative forms and use the superlative form in a complete sentence. add "est" to the stem: short shortest easy easiest With long adjectives.SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES The superlative form is constructed in a similar way to the comparative form. 1. big memory device 7.
off-the-point arguments to see that... nothing would ever be said on the Net at all...... may or could 1. and/agreement/read/please/before installation/license/the/the README file 5... Don't type entirely in upper case BECAUSE IT'S MORE DIFFICULT TO READ COMFORTABLY.... and overzealous at that.. Conversely. unwarranted abuse and long. is supposed to ensure that Net users are polite and civil to each other while not wasting time and network resources. In practice.. 3. (A whole quarter second in some cases). sometimes be useful when designing a program.LESSON 5 – INTERNET ETHICS The 27th Commandments Though the Net is supposedly free of rules and regulations. There are other problems with Netiquette – not least being that those who force it most vociferously down others' throats tend to be the first to ignore it... (If you don't know what a FAQ is. have to..... A bug . Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate form of can. asking/it is/to read/a question/the FAQ/good Netiquette/before 4. The reason for this is never given.... be thoroughly tested before it is marketed.. Don't criticize others for their misspellings. 18
. Don't cross-post messages... make sure you spell correctly yourself. a set of guidelines unfortunately known as Netiquette...... break down a problem into every single step before writing the actual program. You . It doesn't work. because it wastes people's time. simultaneously/to/several newsgroup/the same message/is sending/cross-posting 3. 2... Programs ... 1. Don't use a signature of more than four lines. The following sentences have been scrambled. Had enough yet? For a system that's supposedly rule-free these are pretty damn heavy... Put the words back in the right order: 1. 4.. A flowchart .. cause unexpected results.. on the Net or elsewhere. Here are some of the "rules" in brief: Read the newsgroup FAQ before you post to avoid asking stupid questions.. rambling. Don't quote a long message just to add "I agree" or some such unenlightening comment at the bottom.. 5. you need only to look at some of the newsgroups with their constant petty bickering. over time a code of conduct has been developed by its users. This form of internal policing. no one checks their Netiquette checklists before sending an email or replying to a newsgroup message.. when to criticize and when to stay silent. This piece of software . if that happened. Ironically most of Netiquette deals with posting to these very same newsgroups. documents/answer/questions/are/the most common/that/FAQs 2. these/are/by/in practice/rules/most users/overlooked 2. be debugged before being executed.. Netiquette is something of an idealistic dream... buy software packages like this at any local computer shop... When Netiquette boils down to is: treat your communication on the Net as you would any other form of written or spoken contact and you won't go far wrong... read the FAQ)... You ... No intelligent adult needs to be told when to be polite and when to speak their mind. 6. This means posting the same message to several different groups at once.
8..... work hard if they want to finish by the end of the week... 6. also known as "favorites" ... 7... a program that is used to access the internet and read webpages ... Ei au putut profita de cele mai recente inovatii... 3.. (You can find the words left to right.. If you do. 2........ paying attention to the use of modal verbs: 1. to transfer files from someone else's computer to your own . fabricantul ar fi trebuit sa amelioreze calitatea documentatiei... sa accentueze aspectele de tehnoredactare computerizata ale pachetului... Daca as fi vrut. They .. 3. Nu a fost nevoie sa consult manualul de instructiuni nici macar o data! 8.. 4. H O M E P A G E X N A Y U V I R U S B E C D P R X M S M O T K B O E L A P I O I E I R W R I A L K Q R M T O N L M E M U W W W A A H W L I Y A E G L X I S O N R T E B S I T E A K T P R O V I D E R D E
1. Este posibil ca alte firme de soft sa fi copiat unele caracteristici. 3. it will take up too much space in the computer memory.. de exemplu.. 8. write this program in a high-level language. 9.. graphic .. electronic connections to sites within your website or else where on the WWW . opening page of a website ......... Optional activity – Word Search Find twenty-two words (including one abbreviation and two acronyms) associated with the Internet.. am putut aprecia usurinta folosirii pictogramelor.. Cind am incercat soft-ul.. 4. 7.... and diagonally top to bottom)... de cite ori am rut sa efectuez o operatie complicata.... a computer user who specializes in breaking into other people's systems ......... 5... 2. Compania trebuie sa fi facut multa munca de cercetare inainte de a-si fi lansat programul procesor de text. top to bottom... a way of remembering addresses of websites you like. Trebuie ca s-a gindit ca un bun program de verificare a ortografiei si un dictionar de sinonime erau suficiente pentru a vinde produsul... 5. am putut sa folosesc macroinstructiunile limbajului Powerplus.. as fi putut sa-mi constitui un dictionar personalizat. You .. Ar fi putut... 10.... the main.. 19
.... Translate the following sentences into English... 6.. and computing. Cu toate acestea.. photo.... email... Write them next to the correct definition. a measure of visits to a website ....7. picture..
...... a website point of entry with a catalogue of websites... 20. 22.. the right way to behave when communicating on the Net ... something that automatically connects you to another page . etc. 15.. 19....... 11. 16. unsolicited mail........ a bug which infects data on your computer . a way of showing emotion in an email....... website address . inappropriate use of a mailing list ........ i... 10. :-) .... email. a search engine.. 12. a location on the WWW ......... an ISP – a company that provides you with access to the Internet ..... a software package generally used to start you up for a program . abbreviation for the Internet ....... 21.... ... 13.. 17.....9. e....... 18. Uniform Resource Locator. the Internet equivalent of post ........... 14... the World Wide Web ......g... a physical input / output point .......
NASA and Royal Mailboxes needs rather more patience and expertise. As a journalist he had accidentally stumbled into hacking when he tried out a false password on a piece of software for the Micronet bulletin board.Choose the ending (A. the computer companies would have you believe. and so. The law was tightened up. Robert Schifreen 21
. MULTIPLE CHOICE . 1. One BT data network can be penetrated by trying out a series of four figure numbers after its three figure prefix. Code of Conduct Hackers tend to see themselves as shadowy romantic figures of the computer underworld.000. or being able to join the Legions of Doom (a US computer gang) means a break away from reality. NCC members put system problems caused by hacking as the highest threat. which is readily available. His first indication that he was doing something wrong was the policeman's knock. He was not found guilty on an appeal to the House of Lords. hacking is still easy. Typically. The Act made it an offence to gain unauthorized access to a computer. B. better known as Robert Schifreen. Damage caused by viruses fell well below this at an average of $12. Admittedly. He had a slight advantage because when he was tried there was no legislation in place against computer hacking.LESSON 6 – COMPUTER SECURITY The hacker attack Triludan the Warrior's parents were surprised when they looked at The Daily Telegraph they had bought on holiday. Austin had brought with him several black binliners. infect or damage the equipment deliberately – but see no harm in taking a look inside. Triludan. C. They consider it wrong to tamper with computers – to alter. It put this average loss to UK companies damaged in this way at $530 million. Hacking is a cheap for of entertainment. had knocked on this door. costing companies an average of $23. a basic computer and a bit of patience. All the hacker needs is a modem. but to the computer industry the hacker is seen as a threat to business survival. Following the Computer Misuse Act of 1990. For some teenagers. One-and-a-half hours of hacking around with a million pounds' worth of mainframe attached to your budget PC costs around 48 p. Hackers may be popular with other like-minded people. hacking has been criminalized. head of the computer crime unit at Scotland Yard. the chance to gain a title like Captain Crunch or the Warrior. A survey carried out by the National Computing Center (NCC) shows that a third of its members have suffered from security breaches such as hacking and viruses. But according to those who practice. Hacking seemed like a lot of fun and always impressed his friends. has the security. Triludan had been equally surprised a few hours earlier when John Austin. Ity also means the chance of respect and admiration from similar underground figures. 1. three police cars and a warrant for Triludan's arrest. Their 20-year-old son was on the front page. the more advanced stuff like hacking into NATO.000 a year to repair. or D) which seems to you to correspond most closely to the information given in the text. the hacker is male and quite possible unaware that he is carrying out anything illegal. The box of Triludan's hayfever tablets on the sideboard gave his alias away. had not been in trouble with the law before. The law covers both malicious alteration of data and tapping in and "just looking". The survey's findings are contrary to the hacker's perception of what is damaging. Today's hacker is not so lucky. Hackers have their own code of conduct. Schifreen's case is not that unusual. after the prosecution had tried to catch him under the Forgery Act.
male criminals. D.A. tried out a false password on a piece of Micronet software to impress his friends 2. Cause 1. C. requires a modem and a computer which can run a basic program. B. 6. 4. d. is popular because it is romantic. Hacking A. This enables you to change the appearance of your player. c. This permits extra information to be stored on the performer and other track details. You can download a skin program. 22
. hackers know very well that they cause damage C. has eliminated all computer security. was arrested and sent to prison because of hacking D. You can legally download some music. the survival of hackers is threatened. The majority of hackers are shown to be A. 33% of its members are hackers B. outlaws hacking. This gives an enormous storage capacity. is a form of escape from the everyday world. totally unaware of what they are doing. 5. g. chose his pseudonym because of medicine he was taking. 3. Effect a. This allows you to sample a new group before buying their CD. h. b. B. The Computer Misuse Act of 1990 A. Each side of a DVD can have two layers. C. e. B. 4. deliberately destructive B. 5. 2. hacking is about twice as expensive for firms as viruses. merely curious. 2. 8. has made hacking more difficult. D. 3. 7. Then link them with an –ing clause. According to the NNC A. These allow you to control the way the music sounds. MP3 players contain several devices. MP3 removes sounds we can't hear. f. This produces much smaller files. Each MP3 file has a tag. Match each cause and effect. You can create your own compilation. was used to convict Robert Schifreen. You can download single tracks. costs about 48p a time C. D. C. had a 20 year old son who was a journalist. D. This allows the music being played to be stored by the computer and displayed on the monitor. Computers with MIDI interface boards can be connected to MIDI instruments.
A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network. Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company. 8. 10. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic. 1. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked. mouse and hard drives only. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together. 9. 3. 5. 6. 7. display. 4. keyboard.3. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks. 2. Talking point Hackers are a menace to society and should be punished very severely
. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network.
. CD-ROMS can also store a variety of data formats successfully without clogging up hard disk space.... Price points .. The only printed instructions are on how to get into the product – the manual and help are all on-line... The extra space means that all the manuals can be placed on disk rather than in clumsy binders... Growth will be further boosted now that many PC manufactures are installing internal CD-ROM drives as standard......000 pages of printed text – on a single platter. Virtually everything you could possibly want it now available in CD-ROM format.... Early CD-ROM applications were limited to vertical markets such as finance or medicine.... Such a growth rate is rapidly bringing the installed base of CD-ROM drives up to a critical mass... many suppliers update their customer base on a regular basis. Applications are the key issue. As with other areas of the computer industry... with a further 1.. or were vast collections of specific information. and justify the cost of a drive. Mainstream application can now take advantage of CD-ROM storage capacity... The CD-ROM market has grown slowly but steadily. The first mainstream applications were little more than plain DOS versions ported onto CD at twice the price..... But CD standards now allow interleaved video and sound to breathe life into programs. floppy drive. word processor and database – comes on one CD...... and because there's more space.5in. No other medium offers publishers a cheaper way of distributing information or provides such storage space – 640 MB. CD-ROMS offer straightforward benefits. For example. Dataquest further predicts that five million drives will be shipping annually by 1996. 1. Short animated clips show you how to get the best form each module and how to use them together as an integrated whole.. Titles are no longer merely for minority interest groups.LESSON 7 – STORAGE DEVICES Information without limit The subtitles have been removed from the following passage and listed below (15)... literature and art..... Microsoft Works integrated package – which comprises a spreadsheet.. Mainstream applications 3. CD-ROM to finally take off? 5... along with the conventional 3. the leisure industry has provided much of the driving force behind CD-ROM technology The professional programmer has not been forgotten either.. Review criteria 4... The sheer quantities of material required for a modern software development kit have brought CD-ROM technology to the fore. but are spread throughout business.5 million predicted to ship in that year alone. Measuring drive performance 2.. 1.. . This is still a valuable use of CD-ROM technology.. Put them back in the appropriate place. According to the market researcher Dataquest... Finally data access is relatively quick and painless.2 million disk drives were installed worldwide at the beginning of 1992..
.. A spin-off benefit of CD-ROM's large capacity is that the smaller packaging means cheaper postage.. the equivalent of 300... Because such large amounts of information can be sent safely through the post. but it's not the only one. the applications are generally better..
This is often confused with the average access searches. access time... 2. Then translate the terms used: Winchesters.... Dataquest predicts that 5 million disk drives will have been sold before 1996. 8. consider how long it would take to manually check how many times the word "cat" appears in the Guiness Book of Records compared with the time it takes using a CD-ROM system.... CD-ROMs are the cheapest means of storing information..... The author uses the word "cat" to show just how fast hard disks are. A CD-ROM search must not only negotiate the interface with the PC hardware..But CD-ROM........ 1. disk 25
. . they were as overpriced as consumer CD players... which is vital so that sound and animation do not stutter and jerk... while still developing rapidly..... 5. drawback. As long as the drives conforms to this specification you should be able to access all CD-ROM titles that adhere to the ISO 9660 format.... give reasons for your choice... 10. The industry... The price of CDs themselves is also failing as the selection becomes broader.. When CD-ROMs appeared on the market... pie chart. 6.. 3. The drive must have an unchanging data transfer rate to avoid problems with its sound and picture quality. where the information on the disc cannot be changed by the user... In fact CD-ROM drives cost even more... This enables the drive to maintain an even flow of information into its buffer.. Microsoft's Works integrated package has no written instructions for use.... 2. as manufacturers claimed they had to equip CD-ROM drives with faster. 7...... So it is time for users to take a closer look at CD-ROM... 9.... files. this excuse was taken too far.. more precise head positioning mechanism....Complete the following passage by inserting the following words and expressions so as to form a coherent explanation of backing store devices... .. is still a read-only product... So while the results may not be as instantaneous as a hard disk search.... CD-ROM technology has now reached a stage where interesting and productive titles are available on reliable and relatively low-cost drives.Are the following statements true or false? If you think a statement is false.. Increased competition has now reversed the trend. As a result of this market maturity... A drive must have audio output through headphones or eternal RCA jacks and a data transfer rate of at least 150K per second at less than 40% CPU utilization.... more faster.. Performance differences between drives can be determined by measuring the data access time..... The first CD-ROMs were used mainly to store huge quantities of specific information... The use of CD-ROMs means the customers have more up-to-date information... . The author suggests manufacturers were not always honest about pricing. TRUE OR FALSE? .... 1. had settled on solid standards that provide a workable platform.. however advanced. Standards have developed to ensure that CD-ROMs are not just a passing phase.......... While data and video files are harder to error-correct than simple audio files.. but also frequently relies on archaic retrieval software..... customers can be confident that the CD-ROM drives they buy today will have a long-term future.. Some CD-ROMs are slower in access time than hard disks.. 4.. Backing Store ...........
.. as opposed to a single-sided disk...... erorile se pot corecta.... THE PASSIVE ... Most users are more familiar with the .. If the disk is ... Dintr-o greseala de manipulare datele au fost sterse.. disk packs.. double-sided. Aceasta depinde de fisierul la care se face referinta... of all the files on the disk.... 5. The . 2. it is called a . very quickly when the user has located them by consulting a .... Some cheap microcomputers still work with cassettes and cassette recorders. read-write head..... Large systems often use cartridges or ..... 10.... Writing Write a short account of how computers have developed over the last fifty years... this capacity can be greatly increased by backing store devices such as .... Despite the mushrooming storage capacity of modern computers.. Un nou tip de discheta este in curs de proiectare.e... database..... In this way only a small part of a . magnetic tapes.. Se asteapta ca noua unitate de disc sa fie si mai performanta.... are now part and parcel of most computer systems.................. media and .Translate the following sentences into English: 1..
..e. These sectors therefore cut up the circular disk in the same fashion as a .... Mai mult de 15 milioane de unitati CD-ROM au fost vindute anul acesta...... This technology is cheap and easy to use........ 3... magnetic disks or diskettes. 7..... floppy disk. 4............... where a number of circular disks are stacked on a single spindle.. (how long this transfer takes) is of paramount importance when choosing the type of storage device to use..... Before being used.. retrieved...... The read-write head moves radially along a track that is divided into sectors. I s-a spus ca acest CD poate stoca 1080Mb.. Gratie unui sistem denumit CIRS. both internal and external.. 8.... i. a disk must be . oxide-coated surface...... (i. Data is stored in groups that are referred to as .......... address. Hence files can be . disk.. 9......drives. though these are becoming .... Vechiul fisier este in curs de actualizare.... that is extremely slow because of ... but has the .. and .. Hermetic data modules called ".... You should write between 150 and 200 words... 6.. De acum in 5 ani casetele nu vor mai fi folosite ca memorie auxiliara. storage areas are marked on the magnetic.... old-fashioned... formatted (x3). where only one surface is ... 3. needs to be in main memory at any one time... directory.. Before a file can be opened it must be transferred to the main memory...... direct-access. a track and a sector number)... so-called because of its flexibility..... Disk have the advantage of being serial or ......." are also common... Each file that is to be stored is allocated an . Un sector este alcatuit din 98 de cadre.......... sequential access..... in the disk drives moves radially either to detect magnetized areas (READ) or create them (WRITE).. on both surfaces..
it's simply too difficult to get to many museums and galleries. Within the last few years. B. in a paper called Embracing the Electronic Future. Moreover. and industry. it does provide an intriguing and valuable option. crafts. electronically. we can open a window into our storage spaces and research files.LESSON 8 – CYBERCULTURE Visiting Museums Virtually Throughout their history. the patron goddesses of the arts. so art can fit into all kinds of experience. With the internet. providing an invigorating context for visitors on-site and distant. science. The word "museum" is taken from the ancient Greek name for the temple of the Muses. But for all the improvements to museums and their increasing popularity. A museum can best be defined as A. 2. With reference to the information in the article. especially in distant lands. For many people. a basis for study for future generations. They are institutional repositories that provide a snapshot and timeline of humanity's achievements in all facets of civilization – the arts. While the advent of virtual museums will never replace visiting a physical site and experiencing artifacts in person. C. An overview of lost techniques. 27
. 1. The explosive growth of the World Wide Web – with its multimedia and hypertext capabilities – is transforming the creation and presentation of art in digital age. It was not until the Renaissance that efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. public museums did not exist. choose the most appropriate ending for each sentence: 1. and public art museums only were founded in the 18th century. director of Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American Art. will replace traditional museums. military. fashion. It's where great works of art and historical artifacts are maintained and displayed for future generations to study and appreciate. a storeroom of mankind's accomplishments. and in doing so are undergoing a revolution in the way they perceive themselves. imaging and scanning technology and the Internet have combined to bring museums closer to people who may never have had the opportunity to view many of the great works. virtual museums A. At the time of the Renaissance A. Only a small percentage of our extensive collections can e displayed in our galleries. The National Museum of Art is as committed to sharing what we have and what we know with people who may never come to our front door as we are to enhancing the experience of visitors in our galleries. the Internet is providing a pipeline for people to display all kinds of artworks. wrote: "The new electronic media give at last the tools needed to reach people everywhere. C. museums have been accorded a revered status in society. 3. B. Elizabeth Brown. the main drawbacks to visiting them have been geographical and logistical. aristocrats were Europe's best artists. Museums of every type are responding to the new opportunities presented by the Internet. only aristocrats could go to museums. many of which will probably never hang in a traditional museum. beyond the straightforward museum visit.
Talking point Would you rather pay a traditional visit to a museum or visit it via the Internet?
. will organize visits to its storage spaces. honored 5. museum A. will show works of art that do not exist. country 9. collection 5. 5. Match the words and their definitions: 1. The National Museum of Art A. Museums maintain and display great works of art. Efforts were made by Europe's aristocracy to collect art. only exhibits a fraction of its treasures in its galleries. Electronic media will reach people everywhere. Find a synonym in the article for each of these words: 1. article (in a magazine) 4. storehouse 8. reserves its virtual museums for people who never visit the museum. art work 2. disadvantage 7. something produced by creative talent E. 2. Museums often keep valuable works of art in storage.B. 2. C. photo (taken quickly) 2. 6. Put the following sentences into the passive form. B. C. 4. 3. best work of an artist C. as in the example: Europe's aristocracy made efforts to collect art. institution devoted to the exhibition of works of art B. work of art. to see. 4. vast 4. group of objects kept in a museum because of their significance and value D. 1. The Web may transform our perception of art. Certain governments founded public art museums in the 18th century. to admire 3. to enjoy 10. object produced by human hands
3. will be a valuable addition to traditional museums. The Internet offers new opportunities to museum curators. to establish 6. artefact 3. masterpiece 4.
5. the payer creates a voucher record that contains a description of the transaction. traveler's checks. In a debit system. A huge computer which gathers applications and information and can be accessed through a network. and the amount of money represented). 3. For the purposes of this discussion.. It allows you to make deposits and withdrawals from a bank. Although users can make digital copies of such notes. and the amount to be paid. a token or note issued and signed by a bank or other institution with its name a random and unique identifying note number. Payment systems based on gold. Digital cash is the digital equivalent of a cashier's check or a bearer bond (i. and signed checks and vouchers – simply don't work in cyberspace. The customer runs client software. With such a system. Using a public key. Just as cash and credit coexist in today's business climate. and credit cards are credit systems. Users can buy these notes from a bank (which makes it a debit system) and then redeem them later for real cash. such as Netscape or Mosaic with S-HTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol). The customer pays. A bank employee who pays out money. This might be a WWW browser. The payer signs this voucher with his or her private key.LESSON 9 – ELECTRONIC TRADE Cash on the Wire Traditional forms of payment – barter. currency. the name of the payer and the recipient. In many cases. charge accounts. which authorizes the payment and credits the merchant's bank account. In a credit system. users can act as both customers and merchants. for example). a payment service can act like a bank even if it's not legally considered to be one. the merchant receives the payment. you spend the money first and pay the bill later. the merchant generally forwards information to the payment server.e. 4. Making payment possible across the Internet – and the WWW (World Wide Web) in particular – is the goal of a new breed of electronic payment systems that are just coming into use. Debit and Credit All systems for making payments – digital or otherwise – fall into one of two different classes: debit and credit. 1. 29
. 2. In a peer-to-peer system. The Mechanics of Payment Systems An on-line payment transaction generally involves three parties. or a dedicated payment client. the recipient of a voucher can read the record and verify that it was signed and obliged by the possessor of the private key. making sure that money from the customer ends up in the merchant's account. paper currency. you gather your money up front and then spend it. the merchant software is integrated in the WWW server. The recipient can submit the voucher to a clearing system and have legal grounds for collecting payment. A person who buys goods or services from you. The merchant runs merchant software on its server to request and process payments. Find the word in the text corresponding to each of these definitions: 1. a bank redeems each note number only once. A person who receives (money. To execute a real-time transaction. and instant-debit ATM (automatic teller machine) cards are debit systems. both exist in the digital world as well. Checks. the date and time of the transaction. A payment server is the bank's POP (point of presence) on the network. and a bank does the accounting. Digital credit is similar to the credit systems used in the business world.
... Digital credit. The bank will send the company a weekly . 7.. . bought her a typewriter instead. He alone will be authorized . he ignored it... The account will not produce any ..... 3. to start..00.... for their manager. 5... holder. 4. The man. The next month he got a bill for $0. interest. To add money (to an account).. who had been considering buying his wife a computer for her birthday... 1.. He is the very man ... will only be charged at 12%. to open.. A computer that can access a server. we found CD-ROMs on sale.. safe......? The following month the man received a letter from the credit card company claiming that his check had bounced and that he now owed them $0.. remittance... The bank director.6..... agreed to honor my check... 8..... 6... 2.? The next day he got a bill for $0.... were found in the safe. deposit. to sign... of which... which.. whom. Money used in a specific country. where.. wanted to buy some shirts.. cheques.00 stating that he had 10 days to pay his account or the company would have to take steps to recover the debt.. Stupid Computer Error A ... ... the company can have access to a . entered the virtual shop. . of account.. statement. 30
. A large number of banknotes. The site. 2... loan. I met personally. Choose words from the list below to complete the paragraph.? The following month he decided that it was about time that he tried out the troublesome credit card........ whose.. You will not need to use them all! account.... name is on the check..000.... The first one has already been done for you.. trusting that the company would be as good as their word and sort the problem out. in the first store that he produced his credit card in payment for his purchases he found that his card had been cancelled.. Assuming that having been spoken to the credit card company only the previous day the latest bill was yet another mistake.. He ignored it and threw it away. withdrawal The Longstone company wish ... some .. were still new. The customer.00 stating that payment was now overdue.. He called the credit card company who apologized for the computer error once again and said that they would take care of it.. accepts digital cash.. balance.. one foot large by two deep in the bank's basement. However.. is used in electronic trade.. to clear. B – 1 In March 1992 a man living in Newtown near Boston Massachusetts received a bill for his yet unused credit card stating that e owed $0.. receipt.. 3... overdraft. will be $10.. Use each of the relative pronouns in the list to complete the sentences: who. Reading – Getting it right! Read this article and put the paragraphs in the correct order... D ... figuring that f there were purchases on his account it would put an end to his ridiculous predicament. a current ... is similar to traditional credit.......00 and unless he sent a check by return of post they would be taking steps to recover the debt. C .. The initial . For $20 a month....
the man's bank called him asking him what he was doing writing a check for $0. The computer dully processed his account d returned a statement to the effect that he now owed the credit company nothing at all.? A week later. F .E . The following month the credit card company sent him a very nasty note stating they were going to cancel his card if he didn't send them $0.00 by return of post. The bank could not now process ANY checks from ANY of their customers that day because the check for $0.? Finally giving in. G . and they said it was a computer error and told him they'd take care of it.00 check had caused their check processing software to fail. he though he would pay the company at their own game and mailed them a check for $0. After a lengthy explanation the bank replied that the $0.00.? In April he received another and threw that one too.00. He called them and talked to them.00 had crashed their computers How would you have dealt with the situation?
Next came. Sing of the times Although the two days were ostensibly divided into three sessions covering the present. and. or virtual reality using the following expressions: in the near future. As he pointed out. network computing – the connection of lots of computers via the Net to do the otherwise impossible job of one computer. smells.LESSON 10 – FUTUROLOGY What the future holds for the Internet Four years ago – the last time the prestigious International Telecommunication's Union's Telecom event was held – the Internet did not. So things have changed. Huitema's concerns expressed as they were with classic Gallic expansiveness. Make sentences or write a short paragraph on the future of the Internet.. Aspects of the Internet Commerce came first. every bank is now looking seriously at the Net. dumb terminals. and his overall categorization of the progress of the Internet into four parts set a loose agenda for the rest f the proceedings.. Christian Huitema. we'll have to work on that one". ITU secretary-general Pekka Tarjanne. well. that didn't keep the crowds away. is high / low it is highly probable that . Not only did the Telecom 95 organizers set aside two days for Internet discussion. were fair reflection of those of the majority of the other speakers. computing. futurologists forecast. You will be able to do a virtual handshake with special gloves with your business partner on the other side of the world. 1. Dr.. more controversially. And needless to say. I think the word Internet was uttered twice. and the role of the providers. he enthused. he predicted. there was an inevitable blur of content.. satellite. said Dr. For sheer impact. TVs or will virtually every electrical appliance in the home be attached. At his opening address at this year's Internet forum. Huitema. with "intelligent" fridges and phones? Huitema next touched on multimedia and broad band access. the current issue of security will only be short.. networks. 32
. the future.. said... TV or phone lines dominate? Huitema made the point that the new version of IP will dramatically improve video and audio and that audio would soon develop into hi-fi quality. These issues were to figure largely in subsequent discussion – would cable. came the issue of virtual reality. The tone of the entire event was one of humble ignorance as to what exactly the coming years will bring. And as for the taste. exist.. but also immense excitement about the possibilities. the prime speaker had to be chair of the Internet Architecture Board. who radiated enthusiasm on the subject of the Internet. "The Internet will be the next generation of supercomputer solving problems for humanity". "Someone will eventually enable us to send and receive smells over the Internet".. "At telecom 91. but it was timetabled to take place over a weekend. for all intents and purposes. dipping even further into the future. that probability that .. experts expect that. "Sight. What should concern us. he said. This point was later to evolve into a push-and-pull discussion as to the direction of Internet terminals – will they be PCs. sound and feeling will arrive. Dr. Lastly. The Internet companies which are worth billions now simply were not around"... was how online commerce will evolve. one can predict / foretell that.
.. Fill the gaps with the correct form of these verbs (use each word only once): let. Keyword The word.. permit 1. allow... Kill file A list of people that / who / whose / Ø email messages you automatically delete... huh? Chat room A webpage where you can "chat" to other visitors in real time (that / which / Ø means right there and then)..it is a well-founded supposition that..... that / who / Ø can't see to who else you're sending the message / who else you're sending the message to.. indicated by a finger symbol. make. A security password .. me to get a better job.. there are scientific arguments for... 33
. 2. there are grounds for believing that..... me to stay out later than 11. access to confidential files. that / who / Ø is a science-fiction writer. words or phrase that / who / whose / Ø you enter into a search engine to try to find the web site that / which / Ø you want.. I hope that doing the course . that / who / Ø automatically connects you to another webpage when you click on it with your mouse.... Reading Read the article.. it is reasonable to think that. Work out (or check in a dictionary) the meaning of as many of the words / acronyms in bold as you can... Being a single parent . 5. Cyberspace This is the imaginary space that / which / Ø you're moving through when you're travelling on the Internet. Prepare to explain them to your partner. enable. My boss is easygoing and .... 3.. 2.... Your web browser reads the HTML and then presents the page on your screen. Link A "hot-spot" on a webpage... The term was first coined by William Gibson... it hard for me to have a social life..... 4.. 3.. When I was young my parents never . Sneaky.. HTML Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the code from that / which / whose every webpage is made. Read these extracts from a beginner's Internet glossary and underline any of the forms in italics that are correct (Ø = no pronoun) BCC (blind carbon copy) You can use this to send a copy of a message to other Net users as well as to the main recipient...00... me leave early every Friday afternoon....
Why consume precious keystrokes telling six M8s you have to go and smack your little brother when BRB (be right back) will do? Want to enter an ongoing conversation? Just type PMFJI (pardon me for jumping in). yr mst ob svt (your most obedient servant). and construct an exclusive chat network that can be accessed at any time. teenagers are yakking online in chat rooms with friends and Net acquaintances. or combine the two: ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing). FWIW (for what is worth). It's the result of computer services that let users compile buddy lists of friends and family. contract and condense. C-U-L8R
. it's easy to type GTG (got to go) or TTYL (talk to you later). sending more that 700 million realtime messages a day and has given the verb IMing to the phenomenon. The solution is to abbreviate. America Online's Instant Messenger is the biggest. sex and location. Plenty of adults talk the talk. C? Don't think this new jargon is limited to teenagers. It takes wit. the nearly universal request to know your correspondent's age. It's brief: three or four words per exchange. say you're OTF (on the floor) or LOL (laughing out loud). GTG.ONLINE CHATROOM U may have noticed some odd phrases slipping into your kids' emails. And when your POS (parent over shoulder) finally makes you get back to your maths homework. Interested in whom you're talking to? Type A/S/L. a new idiom has been born. concentration and agile fingers. PBAB (please bring a bottle). Many scholars see it as something that can e traced back to RSVP. There's neither time nor space for exposition. Across the world. It has an estimated 75 million users. all day at work. If something cracks you up. And it requires tremendous linguistic economy. FYI (for your information) and even the close used in 19th century letters. Well. It's fast: try talking to sic people at once. every night. or type the type.
"situatie familiala" as "family situation". EH21 3TZ email p. Geography. WRITING A CV When writing a CV in English it is best not to translate your diplomas. For the purpose of this task. you can invent experience and assume you have passed all your examinations! CURRICULUM VITAE Paul W Cair Personal details Date of birth 30 / 5 / 79 Address 7 Linden Crescent.g. James High School 1996-1997 HNC in Computing Maxwell College 1997-1999 HDN in Computing Support Maxwell College Other qualifications Jan 2000 CTEC Work Experience 1999-present IT support consultant Novasystems Novasystems is an IT company that provides a complete range of computing services for its corporate clients My experience includes: 35
.com Education 1991-1995 Standard grades in Maths.date of birth limba materna – mother tongue prenume – forename locuri de munca anterioare – previous employment bacalaureat – "A" level(s) Writing . Spanish.II. English. The best solution is to place the equivalents in brackets after the Romanian qualification. then write your own CV in the same way.w. but it is useful for your potential employer to have some idea of what they correspond to in the English / American system. degrees and other qualifications. which sounds very strange indeed. It is also important to observe the correct headings that are standard to English CV writing practice and not just translate Romanian terms literally. Stonebridge.Now study the CV of Paul W Cair. Here are some useful terms in Romanian and their English equivalents: nume de fata – maiden name situatie familiala – marital status nume – surname data nasterii.cair@btinternet. e. Computer Studies. LANGUAGE FOCUS A. Science.
database design .Sage line 50 & 100 .network administration and implementation .PC assembly I have knowledge of these areas: . L.Windows 95 / 98 .5 . 2000 .advising clients on IT issues and strategies .Windows 200 Server / Professional .configuration and installation of hardware and software to clients' specification . Leith. IT Department.Veritas Backup Exec for NT Hobbies and interests volleyball Referees 1 Academic Dr.1st line customer telephone support . Maxwell College 2 Work Ms Y.Exchange Server 5..TCP / IP Networking .Windows NT4 Server/Workstation . Personnel Officer.Office 97. Thin. Novasystems
Use the person's name if you know it . 37
.name and address of firm. WRITING LETTERS AND FAXES When writing a letter or a fax in English you have to know where to put the date. Keep your letter short and to the point 3. the signatory's full name (typed). The ending most generally used is "Best regards" which is often considered too informal for a business letter.am available to start as from June 15 . Check your spelling and punctuation 9. Write clearly 2. how to begin a letter. Faxes are very similar to letters but tend to be less formal.state the purpose of your letter in the first paragraph . so read the advertisement carefully first 5. Reference number if there is one. Make the information you give relevant to the job. You may find some of the following expressions useful: . Print your name clearly under your signature Dos and don'ts How not to do it . A LETTER OF APPLICATION Write a letter of application for the training period. State when you are available for the interview 10. Black" – then put "Yours sincerely".avoid sounding negative or pessimistic .please find enclosed my curriculum vitae .should be only too pleased to supply further details and references . respecting the letter-writing format of the following letter of application. Draft out what you want to say in rough first 7. State what job you are applying for 4.avoid sounding over confident don't give the impression you are unlikely to stay long How it should be done . Type your letter 6.in the light of the Single European Market 10 GOLDEN RULES FOR YOUR LETTER OF APPLICATION 1."Yours faithfully" is correct unless you address the person by name – "dear Mr. and the function of the signatory in his or her organization (you will get a sample of a letter of application that will show you all these details).am currently studying for . se the same format as for letters but do not forget to specify how many pages there are and number the pages.B.1.state where you saw the job advertised . and where to put the handwritten signature. the name and address of the addressee. how to end it. Give all the information you are asked for 8.gain insight into methods and techniques used outside Romania .should you feel I could be of use to your firm . B. and firm.state you qualifications in brief .
I have applied to do the Moray House in TESOL by Distance Learning. The International House / British Council teacher development courses on which I was a trainer consisted of methodology input sessions and language development. Through my work in Cairo and Sabah (Malaysia) I learnt about the work of the British Council overseas. study tours for project personnel. I hope this letter of application will clarify some of the information on the enclosed CV. I have considerable teaching and teacher training experience through my position as teacher and as Director of Studies in a variety of language schools. team leadership and team membership. as well as students. I have regularly observed teachers and given feedback on their lessons. Yours sincerely. Although at present I do not have a Masters degree. I feel that it would be advantageous to be following this course while working in this particular position as ideas would be fresh and I would be able to apply new knowledge and insights in my daily work and share them with colleagues. In Malaysia I arranged. My contact address until the end of July is as above. I have taught post-graduates at International House and 6 year-olds in a primary school. Over the past year. 1994 Dear Mr Cross I would like to apply for one of the Regional Teacher – Trainer / Adviser positions which you have recently advertised in The Guardian. I believe I have skills and qualifications appropriate to the position. I have always enjoyed developing productive working relationships with management. I Cairo I administered IELTS tests and ran short courses for UK bound students. I have taught students at all levels and of all ages. Based on my educational background and employment record I believe I could make a significant contribution towards achieving the aims of the ENGIMP Project. All the positions of responsibility I have held have involved people management. through the British Council. Alan Bannister
.Here is a sample of an authentic letter of application: 33 Looseleigh Lane Derriford Plymouth Devon PL6 8BH Mr Roy Cross Deputy Director British Council Romania 16 Oxford Street London LA1 6 PD June 21. As the Director of Studies of International House I have represented the school and the culture of English – speaking world on many occasions. from official situations such as conferences and media interviews to day-to-day enquiries from students and members of the public. as well as leading fortnightly education seminars. for example. teachers and administrative staff.
Don't cross your arms and legs – it looks as though you are withholding information. How has your recent project been going? Dos and don'ts at the interview .It's polite to knock before you enter an office if the door is closed. what have you been dissatisfied about in your performance? 7. . set out early. so much the better. In what ways could you be described as creative? 10. Which is more important to you.Don't smoke. 2.Do make a graceful exit. You are likely to be found in the end. don't rush. .Don't let your clothes be too extreme. And if you can give him or her a smile as you leave the room.Be ready with the basic facts and information about yourself – your education. walk to the door. Why should you be employed by this company? 4. . Describe a recent situation at work which you found frustrating 6. Describe your most recent accomplishments. Where do you see yourself in five years' time? 3. You can always explore the neighborhood if you have half an hour to spare.
. What do you think is the most important skill that a manager should possess? 8. Thank your interviewer. .Do arrive in plenty of time. Describe your greatest strengths and weaknesses. . (b) an appraisal or progress report? Look at the list of the "Twelve Most Common Interview Questions" 1. 5.Do sit still. Have you ever managed a conflict? How? 11. money or job satisfaction? 12. . experience. Fidgeting with jewellery or shuffling your feet can e very distracting for the interviewer. . . . INTERVIEWS What do you think are the most important things to consider when you are preparing for: (a) a job interview. If you think you may have trouble finding the place.Don't put your handbag or briefcase on the interviewer's desk – it creates a barrier between you. Dress in a business-like way. What major problem have you encountered recently and how did you deal with it? 9.C. In the past year.Don't exaggerate your abilities or achievements. interests and hobbies.
and how you yourself will proceed Exercise .writing too much. I would be extremely . any chance you happen to know what software your department is using on the Lingo project.S..sending attachments that the receiver may not be interested in...... Dear James.... Dear Sir...not making it clear what tone you are writing in (for example. To what extent do you think writing emails differs from writing letters or faxes? How much difference is there between a formal letter and a formal email? 5. Thank you very much in advance for any kind of help you might be able to give me in this ... Yours sincerely.... my recent paper. the Italian sun and pasta! I'm writing to you to ask you a small favor..writing everything in UPPER CASE ....Read these emails. If you use email at work. I found your name in the references of Martin and Steinberg's paper and I see that you are . which I hope you will find interesting.. if you could give me some information about what software you have been using.not telling the reader what you expect them to do.. working on Lingo.. Monica Ciampi P.. I . Could you email me details? 40
. or in sentences that are too long .. My name is Monica Ciampi and I am . How are you? I bet you are . WRITING EMAILS Answer these questions: 1. Please find .. What do you use email for? 4... future.assuming that al emails are informal and not responding with the same level of formality as the sender ..not making clear who you are and why you are writing ...not bothering to correct spelling mistakes .. the other informal. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase from 1-15 to fill each gap: A.. B. Do you think email has changed the way people address each other? How? Here is a survey of typical mistakes made in emails: .. if you intend your comments to be humorous) .not making clear which part of the sender's email you are responding to ... ... written by an Italian researcher asking the same favor of two different English researcher.. One letter is formal. if you might be able to help me.D. or may not be able to open ... I was wondering if . working for Aitech in Pisa on the Lingo Project. how has it changed your working life? 3. you in the ..not answering all the points raised by the sender . How often do you use email? 2.
pleases d topic d. together. a.. happy c. Monica P. a. beforehand b. perhaps we could meet up and go for a . next c.. then c. drink b. a. matter c. wishes
. couple b. also b. a.. a. glad 5.S.. thus d. a. love c.. a. affair 6. actually 3.. from c. currently b.. I look forward to news from b. I look forward to hearing from c. soon d. demand b. for b. dinner 14. so b. early c. Send my . before 15. Hope to hear from you . a.. losing b. I am looking forward to hearing from 7. I look forward to hearing news from d. to Peter 1.. supper d. as well c.. meal c. close 8. presently d. by 11. annexed 9. a.. concerns b. attached b. a.. a. bracket 12. respect d.In a . now c.. near b. enclosed c. too d. with d.. a. lacking 10. additionally 4. and 13. ask 2. a. and thank you for your help. missing c. match c. a. wasting d. topic d. wonder d.. business b. grateful b.. in fact I should be very neat to Manchester .. a.. Best wishes. of weeks I'll be in England... request c. pair d. included d....
. accuracy.. must be to build on the excellent results we have achieved in certain European markets.. . What makes a presentation effective? 4. sum up. today is to . outline. before .. My ... .. I'm .. the opportunities we see for further progress in the 21st century. to . specifically.. some of the problems we are having over the market share. move on... audibility. pronunciation. I'd like to .E. subject knowledge. with some recommendations.... Give your audience clear signals as to the direction your presentation is taking... appropriacy. Well. options. interrupt. you all for being here.. motivating Exercise . Avoid jargon unless you are sure your audience will understand it.. Please feel free to .. describe.. recommend... draw your attention.... . I've .... about our corporate strategy for the next decade... illustrate..... What is the worst presentation you have experienced? 5. confidence.... . in conclusion. to start with. what .. I think our first ... briefly our current marketing policy in the UK.Complete the following presentation excerpts with the given words: after that... thank. handling Delivery – pace. humor Organization – coherence.are open to us now? Where do we go from here? As I have already .. fluency..... tell you. achievement of objectives... signalling (Simplicity – Use short words and sentences that you are comfortable with.. on balance. . that although turnover has risen.. Overall – clarity of message.....
. concluding. Even experienced presenters can make mistakes during a presentation. finally. . everybody. Can you give any examples from first-hand knowledge? Here are some aspects to consider before starting to prepare a good presentation: Planning – evidence of careful preparation Objectives – clarity. ... on those successes before we .... intonation.. What is a presentation? 2... I'll .. of course.. I'll quickly .. appropriacy Visual aids – appropriacy. I'd like to . with our plans for Europe. pointed out "Good afternoon... For what purpose are presentations made? 3... rapport / eye contact.... bring you up to date.. me if you have questions at any time.. some of the problems we are facing. PRESENTATIONS Discuss the following questions: 1.... Clarity – Active verbs and concrete words are much clearer and easier to understand than passive verbs and abstract concepts.. relevance. talked. enthusiasm.. enjoyable. informative. more ..... our profits have not increased at the same rate. and. expand. clarity. interesting.. you will notice.. Let me quickly . clarity.. purpose. appropriacy to audience / subject Content – extent. There is no benefit in using difficult language. about our current position in the UK and I've .... indicate. Signalling – Indicate when you've completed one point or section in your presentation and are moving on to the next. variety.... referring. research Approach – message support and reinforcement... Now I'd like to . I'll ..... then.. priority. to Italy and Spain.. body language Language – clarity. to Chart B showing our sales revenue and pre-tax profits over the last ten years.
.... though... we put all our efforts into further expansion in Italy... Are there any final questions?"
. Spain and possibly Greece.. but there are sings the market is changing and we can learn a lot from our mistakes.. Thank you also for your pertinent questions. .We should not forget the French market. Admittedly our results there have been poor so far. may I thank you all for being such an attentive and responsive audience..... . I think we stand to gain most from concentrating on southern Europe and I strongly .
is the topic relevant to your degree course? . Going about writing a long essay or dissertation is similar to writing an essay. two modules in the third year of a full-time degree are given over to an extended piece of work . You should start thinking about your topic before the long vacation of your second year of a fulltime degree (the vacation before you begin the dissertation if you are studying part-time). There are several criteria for your choice: . since you have more space.is the topic broad enough / too broad? . Is the topic broad enough / too broad? As with essays. In part-time degrees. called a dissertation or long essay. what you will need to do is to narrow down what you are going to say to get depth. you will probably tackle it last and over a year also.is the topic academic enough? . You will have to work on this subject for the summer vacation.will the topic keep you interested for a whole year? Keeping interested The last question might sound facetious. which will go to make up the argument of the whole dissertation. What is a dissertation? A dissertation is a long essay written on a single topic.
. and be available to assist you. DISSERTATIONS AND LONG ESSAYS In many institutions.research should take you further afield than your institution's library Choosing a topic Choosing your own topic sounds very exciting. Is the topic academic enough? Almost any topic can be academic. A member of staff will supervise progress. try it out with your supervisor. which you research by yourself. Is the topic relevant to your degree course? The point of a dissertation is to use one or two of the methods of study you have learned on your degree course. However.you can choose your own title . but there are a number of differences: .a dissertation is about five times longer than an ordinary essay . This means you have a whole year to write it.F. However seemingly unacademic your idea may be. you will be able to give a number of sets of evidence. but is probably the most important. dissertations need to say a lot about a little. but it can also be very daunting. Like an essay. It is not the topic itself but the analysis of the topic that makes it academic.
000 words Conclusion – 1. Your institution's library will have electronic access to many of these relevant to your degree course. you will need to consult several up-to-date bibliographical sources. 000 words Evidential chapter 2 – 2. This will set the ground rules for the evidential chapters. 000 words Progression of the argument You should begin researching and writing your dissertation with the theoretical chapter. is to try to think exactly what you want to argue in your dissertation. Begin using the methods described above and throughout this book. since you may need a few by your side. What you are trying to do is lay out your opinion: 45
. the first thing to do. but it will better if you go further afield that your institution's library to find materials You might even consider buying books for this project. 000 words Theoretical chapter – 2. Dissertations are usually 10. you must work out the structure of the dissertation.What do I want to say about my topic? Try to answer in a sentence of less than ten words. Structure of the dissertation When you have worked out the title. ask yourself: . This will be your title. This will make the topic relevant to your degree course. It is longer. As you are reading through the books on your topic. 000 words Evidential chapter 1 – 2. Do not choose a topic you have studied on your degree course Is there enough published material available on your topic? You will need to build up a fair-sized bibliography (about twenty items) for your dissertation.What you must try to do is choose a topic that you can analyze using the methods you found most easy and interesting. It might seem a lot so break this up into manageable sections. You need to search databases which give lists of books and articles Your title When you get started on your dissertation. Introduction – 1. since you have more to say. as you are reading through the material you have gathered. Theoretical chapter This chapter should be like the introduction to an essay. 000 words Evidential chapter 3 – 2. 000 words. Searching further afield To find out whether there is enough published material on your topic.
- this is, explain what you have said in the title Also, you need to say why your opinion is valid in the light of other work that has been done. In this chapter you do not need evidence. - this chapter will have a lot of theoretical references Evidential chapters 1, 2, and 3 These chapters should be like the body of the essay. They give the evidence for the validity of your opinion. They differ from the body of a single essay since they need to show the progression of the argument. Each new chapter needs its own stance that marks a progression from the last, so that the whole dissertation: - takes on a shape; - has a direction; - has a coherent argument throughout; Each chapter, whether it be the theoretical chapter or the evidential chapters, ought to follow the structure of an essay. Introduction and conclusion These should be written last. The introduction should lay out the whole argument, and briefly state where the argument is going in the individual chapters. This will amount to 200 words on the whole project and 200 words on each of the chapters. The conclusion should point out the weak points in the argument, but give an idea, say, why this argument is better than the alternatives. Page layout and presentation Your institution will have stringent requirements about page layout and presentation of dissertations. Follow them to the letter.
III. TESTS Test A A. Grammar 1. Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous? Underline the correct word or phrase in italics. 1. I am not sleeping well lately / at the moment. 2. I've been talking to her a lot recently / last month. 3. I've lived here all my life / last year. 4. I am here for a week / since last month. 5. You're all wet! What are you doing / have you been doing? 6. She is always playing / always plays tennis on Saturday mornings. 7. I have never seen / have never been seeing this film before. 8. I am having / have been having problems with my car recently. 9. Is this the first time you eat / have eaten Korean food? 10. She doesn't stop / hasn't stopped talking since she arrived. 2. Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, or Past Perfect Continuous? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. This time last year I .................... (live) in Malaysia. 2. While I .................... (travel) to work this morning I .................... (witness) a terrible car crash. 3. The pilot .................... (have) problems with the engines and so they couldn't take off again until checks had been made. 4. It was only after she .................... (read) the letter twice that she .................... (start) crying. 5. Her eyes were tired because she .................... (sit) at her computer all day. 6. When I .................... (arrive) at work yesterday I realized that I .................... (leave) my presentation on the train. 7. I .................... (wake up) this morning with a terrible headache. 3. Used to and would Rewrite sentences to show how different things were in the past. Use used to, didn't use to, or would. 1. Nowadays professional sportspeople get paid a lot of money. In the past ................................................................................ 2. I sold my Porsche two years ago. I ................................................................................ 3. I usually write emails instead of letters or faxes these days. I ................................................................................ 4. Nowadays I usually get up for breakfast on Sundays. When I was younger I .................... never .............................................. ...................................................... 5. There are more and more Internet companies today. In the past ................................................................................ 4. Gerund or infinitive? Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verb in brackets. 47
1. Do you regret .................... (say) that you thought his work was awful? 2. I always try .................... (entertain) my colleagues during the lunch break. 3. I really like .................... (go) to office parties. 4. I usually remember .................... (turn off) my computer before I leave the office at night. 5. I stopped .................... (go) to the pub after work when my first baby was born. B. Functions 1. Welcoming a visitor Put the following conversation in order. The first and last sentences are marked. a. May I introduce you to my colleague, Andrew Sloane? He'll be working closely with us on this project. b. Please take a seat. Mr. Rose won't be long. c. Right, would you like some coffee before we show you round? (7) d. How do you do, Mr. Rose? It's very nice to meet you. e. Good morning, I'm David De Knoop. I've an appointment with Mr. Rose at 9.30. (1) f. Pleased to meet you, Mr. Sloane. g. Hello. You must be Mr. De Knoop. I'm George Rose. 2. Giving information Put the telephone conversation between Jeremy Sharland and Mr. De Groot's secretary in the correct order. The first one is done for you. a. JS And ask him to phone me on 01193 246657 as soon as he gets this message. b. DG I'm afraid not. Would you like to leave a message? c. JS Yes, that's right. Thank you for your help. d. DG Yes, of course. e. DG I'm afraid he's not in the office this morning, but he should be in some time this afternoon. f. JS Well, I really need to speak to him in person, but could you tell him that Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo Clothing called? g. DG You're welcome. Goodbye. h. JS Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. De Groot, please? i. JS Oh, dear. It's rather urgent. Do you know where I can contact him? j. DG OK. So you're Jeremy Sharland from Blue Buffalo, and you want him to call you asap on 01193 246657. k. DG Good morning, Langton De Groot. How can I help you? (1) C. Vocabulary 1. Write the adjective which describes someone who is: 1. very good at what they do 2. extremely sociable and confident 3. very organized and precise 4. inflexible, doesn't change opinion easily 5. very aware of other people's feelings c.................... o.................... m.................... s.................... s....................
2. Underline the correct word, or words, in italics. If more than one is possible, underline both. 48
4. He seems / seems like / looks like very good on paper. Do you look / seem as / look like your mother or your father? 2. It's really cold. 5.1. but you can never tell.
. That sounds like / seems like / sounds your mobile phone ringing. How much TV do you look / see / watch a week? 3. and it looks like / seems like / sounds it's going to snow.
.......... There are some countries that I'm probably never visiting / I'll probably never visit................................ I'll play / I'm playing / I play tennis with Harry this Saturday.. 2............................................. professional musician and plays with ......................... ....... They wondered how we had managed to do it......... Indirect speech Write the actual words used in these situations............ I went for .. 6.......... 1.. and she said that she hadn't had a chance................... 7................... 9.... 4... He's ..................... If you're too hot in here.. ........... bank to withdraw some cash. When the police arrived they asked an old man if he had seen anything............ 3. ............. old school friend who I hadn't seen for . 3.............. River Thames............... I'll just check / I'm just checking that information with my colleague when she gets back and I'll call / I'm going to call / I'm calling you back to confirm the booking details......... 7. ..... Look at those clouds.................. ........... First I went to ................ .................................................... 5.. ............................ 4......... In each case choose the most likely alternative. Articles Complete this text with a / an....................................... the. 8.............................Test B A............................................................................................. The pilot said that in 25 years of flying he had never experienced such terrible weather conditions....... I asked whether she had spoken to Tim about his resignation. 50
.. 1.... Are you going / Do you do / Will you do anything on Saturday? Would you like to go for a drink? 2............. Future forms Complete the sentences with the most suitable phrase in italics...... She predicted that more and more women would move into top management positions.. I've done that for you.......... 2...... After ..................... local pool and saw Bob McGraw.. lunch with Bob........ lovely morning.. Grammar 1............. I think it will rain / is going to rain / is raining soon... I'll turn on / I'm turning on / I'm going to turn on the air-conditioning........... I'm going to / I'll go to Bali for my summer holiday this year............. or no article. He inquired when the winner of the contract would be known............ 3............................ 6..... He wanted to know why we hadn't attended the meeting........... I'm spending / I'm going to spend / I'll spend this afternoon planning my trip to Honduras.... 5.. so I won't be able to go shopping with you I'm afraid.......................... Right......... ........................ I had ..... long walk by ............ years.. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra................................. I think Brazil will win / are winning the next football World Cup............... Then I went swimming at ................................. I booked it last week..
............... It sounds useful..................................... d.. EJ ...... The online dictionary enables you to translate words quickly and easily................ So... is that Emma Jones? EJ Speaking? AK My name is Alan Kowalski.........00 a...... OK.......... ...................................... at the latest... EJ Oh...... He wondered whether they would be able to finish the proposal in time.................. you're talking about....................... P OK.... Would Thursday morning at 10. .......................... fine. As we were leaving..................8... EJ ........ yes.. Functions 1... C Paula.................. something for people who need English translations of words.... Interrupting and clarifying Complete the following conversation with phrases from a to e.. . AK .. .00 ........................................................... can I just interrupt you a second? b............................ I'm not really with you.................. C Hello....... 9. Good idea............... Wednesday at 9.... ............ EJ .... EJ I don't actually have a computer at the moment. is that right? AK Yes....................... P Yes..... let me give you an example...... OK...................................... EJ .. Sorry. and we told him that we could do it next week.......................00..................... ? C ..........
............................. AK Hello... e...................... I've got you... He asked if we would give him a hand with the new software......... AK Yes........ So I'll see you on Wednesday at 9........................ then................... 10........ he asked if we had enjoyed our trip to Scotland............................ AK He said you might be interested in our online English language dictionary to help you with translation of key documents....00 ? P ........... is that Paula.....m................. .......... this is Charles Kennedy from IBC Engineering......................... Goodbye.. 2... which is why I thought . and they said they would get it to him by 10........ Your name was given to me by Simon Herbert..... B.. without having to look them up in a conventional dictionary.... AK Exactly....... c.. a....... hello......... it would be possible to meet sometime next week to discuss the conference in Budapest...... Arranging meetings Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase..... I'm busy on Thursday..... right...............
.. 2.... You just sat at home for two weeks while you were on holiday? What a ..... 7..... 10... sensitivity... 3... Oh........ Vocabulary 1...... 2...... He apologized ...... Don't worry..... 1. 4. it... Do you take credit cards? 4.... 5... He is lacking ... me.... We need to concentrate ... opportunity! 5. no! I seem to have ...... 6.. 2......... 8. I've never .... 3... You can depend ... miss.... because of inefficiency. me...... .
.. A lot of company's resources are .. an important meeting in my life. The meeting coincided ... or waste. I had three jobs to choose . lose. my family when I was abroad on business for four months........ I am not accustomed .. Thank you for taking part ...... the beer festival......... 9..... and waste Complete the sentences with an appropriate form of miss. Please listen ... the UK market for the time being..... I'm allergic .. my money................ Prepositions Complete the sentences with the correct preposition.... 1.......C.. I really ............... the discussion today........ lose.. my new job.. the inconvenience caused............ I can't eat seafood...
... Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1.. 1... If you manage to finish your report until / by Monday.... but I don't spend a lot on equipments. The consultant gave us a lot of good advices.... Write C (correct) or I (incorrect).. c. 3. e... Countable or uncountable? Seven of the sentences have a mistake... which. Nothing happened yesterday. is comfortable and spacious. Use which / that / who / whom / Ø (no pronoun)... we hold meetings in. a. I'm doing many work at the moment. so please hurry up. 2.. The reception area.... 2. the majority of . 1. This is the room . You can download software from many websites. 6... I'm living in at the moment. One million dollars is plenty of for one person. For three years she worked with her boyfriend .. 3... work opposite us are not very friendly. 9. Time clauses Choose the correct form to complete the sentences. He gave us a lot of information about his company.. then correct the mistakes. or whom. Match the two parts of the sentences in A and B. 10. The people What's the name of the bank We started the company in 1999 I really like the apartment I've met a lot of people through work. anticipating an increase in value. who........ There are quite a few billionaires in Europe.. I like playing sport. I give / will give you a bonus. has just joined the company? b. 53
. some of B. 3... In some cases more than one answer may be possible. A. You need to invest in some more machinery.. .. 2... using where.. she later married. you used to work? was also the year I got married... that.. We can't start the meeting until / when / while you are / will be here. How many items of furniture do you want to buy? 8..Test C A. 4. Grammar 1. is on the fifth floor.. d... My company does much business in Asia... have become good friends...... he bought shares in the company... What's the name of the woman . Complete the sentences. 2. 7. Then complete them... There's not much news to tell you. is free. 5.. As soon as / Until the merger was announced...
.. trends... on abusing the little power he has..... To give you an example c............. ...... due to b....... because c... .... thus C................. working at the weekend.................. 1.. He's not a very good team player.... (compensate for) 6.............. Avoiding ambiguity Complete the text using the phrases a-e. By secure. Let me explain what I mean..... ....... (disappoint) 2...... for example 2....... (be excited by) 4..... as a result of 8. g........ 1......... a friend of mine bought tickets for the theatre online.....B... He really gets .... and found that his credit card details had been used to purchase other things....... ...... whereas 6... Functions 1.... such as 5................ like e............................... ... I think that banks and Internet companies have to think of new ways to make the system safer. however f. a.. ...... can we trust these servers to be secure? . due to the fact that 7............. e............. ..... while d..g..... as 3............. because of a. .. fraud still occurs........ e.......... It's such a bad line............. on the other hand 4..... I mean b... The point is d.... So essentially I think online fraud is a big problem............ Vocabulary 1... I can only just make ... (understand)
. so h. is the answer to that... and statistics Match the words and phrases 1-8 with a word or phrase a-h that has a similar meaning. what you're saying........ The problems with her job are really starting to get her ... Although credit card transactions over the Internet are usually done through a secure server............... (make depressed) 5..... can we have 100% faith in them? 'No'............ I had a day off work last week to make .. 2. Phrasal verbs Complete these sentences with the phrasal verb that means the same as the word or phrase in brackets... He's always letting his colleagues .. Explaining consequences...................... Even though he knew about the redundancies last week he didn't let .................. (indicate awareness of something) 3.........
...7. I can't believe that you won $3 million on the lottery! Are you making it ......... ? (invent) 10......................... (avoid) 2....... last year when we broke into the German market. Describing increase and decrease Complete the text by choosing the correct word in italics................... She called in sick so that she could get ... The company really took ... She's very good at getting her ideas .... but house prices in the capital have raised / risen so sharp / sharply in recent years that I will need a substantial / substantially pay rise / risen / raise to afford even the most basic of properties. A new opportunity has raised / arisen / risen in London.... (communicate) 9...
.. I think I'll raise / arise / rise this question when I go for my second interview...... the meeting..... It's good news............ (became very successful) 8.....
.............................................................................. I thought I saw Henry in his office this morning............... . I think we .............. Our mechanics always check cars thoroughly before they leave the garage......................... What three things ............. 1................. ....................... .............................. be a big shock............................. 7.... We're locked out! 4............ 6......................... Use have / get something done where appropriate............... no! I ... I asked Miranda to write the report for me........... but I .............................. Companies usually provide managers with language training........ (be) on fire? b.......... 5.................... well top $150 million this year. .... When I go to Barcelona I ..... 7....................... be staying at the conference venue................................. He . 10........................................................................ 9.............. Grammar 1............................................ Oh.................. Passives Turn the following sentences from active to passive.....Test D A..... 8......................................................... Modal auxiliary verbs Complete the sentences with an appropriate modal verb......... pull out of this deal before we start losing serious money! 6............. (you open) the door immediately? 56
.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.................................... The storm blew a lot of trees down last night.................... The optician tested my eyes yesterday............... have kept some of it for herself....... (you save) if your house .......................................................... The head of department recommends candidates for promotion........... We invite successful applicants to a second interview.................................... He was only 42 years old........... a.......... be wrong.... Somebody stole my laptop computer........... company profits .... have left my keys in the restaurant. Conditionals 1........................ but I'm not sure yet. 3........................... ..... 5...... 8................... 3.............. 3....................................................................... 1...... A: Did you know that she gave all her money away? B: Did she? How stupid! I think she ...... 2.... According to Peter...................... The store manager had only just moved to the branch......... 4......................................................... ........ His colleague's death .............................. ......... If someone ......... ... (knock) on your door at home ............................................. The Admissions Service passes on applications to universities......................... 2................................................................................... ............ have known that staff had been stealing money from the tills for a number of months...... 2............................. People in the US recognize that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors.... ......
Functions 1........... Can I finish what I was saying? d... c............. Then b..... Can we just stick to this for a minute? e.... Where ... To summarize a... Could you be more specific? b.... Would you like to come in here................. c. 1. To ensure other people get to speak 4..... a........ I .... (see) a UFO.. B: Thanks for warning me.. basically what you're saying is. ....... a..... So.... after lengthy discussion. If you . (you park) your car there they ........ whose life ................ However.. when all the applications have been received our human resources team select candidates for interview........ (go) to the police.. firstly e..... what ..... (go) to the police. the post is advertised internally on company noticeboards...... (can) exchange your life for anyone else's.............. d.......... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense............. I . . The interviews take place and ....... B: That's exactly what I did but they didn't believe a word I said.. 2.. (not study) your subject at school / university... (be) good this weekend what .......... but I don't think they'd believe me......... A: If I ....... If you ... (you do)? B: I don't believe in UFOs....... (you arrive) late for work at your company? 2... actually When we want to fill a job vacancy through internal promotion..... To ask for clarification 5........ To manage interruptions 2. If the weather ... If you ... A: If you ... using the words a-e... A: Careful! If ..... Explaining stages in a process Complete the description.. (be) you. eventually d.... B.. (be) you.. (not get) a job with your current company? h...... To keep to the point 3.......... (you study) ? f.. A: If I . ultimately c................. (be) there the mayor of your town what three things ............. ........ b.. I know.. one candidate is chosen...... (you change) ? g. (you do) ? e.. what ..... ..... Ella?
... (happen) if ........ What ....... (you choose) ? d... (give) you a ticket.c....................... we are usually happy with the candidate who is appointed.. there is often some debate when two or more candidates are equally strong... B: Yes.. (you work) if you .. Meetings Match each phrase to the appropriate function...........
.... ..C..................... 2.... .. Prefixes Add the correct prefix to create opposites...... understand ........... credible 4...... Suffixes Add the correct suffix to create adjectives from these nouns and verbs.. humor ... legible
... .. connect 5. ............. 2. create ........ ... 3..... 1...... 1....... replaceable 3........ 5.. Vocabulary 1. criticize .... 4........ interested 2..... rely ...
.......... A: Great.... Grammar 1.. Must I really go to the meeting? f........... Functions 1. I .... (earn) enough money to live comfortably for the rest of my life...... thank you......... Future Continuous....... (take) our seats in a box at the Royal Opera House... necessity. (finish) their meeting by 7....... Thank you... you can't / mustn't enter the country without a valid visa. Future Perfect...... Is it necessary to spend so much on R&D? 2..... but .... (live) in space.. tomorrow? We . Good luck with your exam tomorrow. Will they . Match each question with an appropriate category.. I'll ask my secretary to write the date of the meeting in my diary... it's no problem.... ... I pick you up at your hotel? B: Yes........ 59
.. a.. d. c...... Am I allowed to smoke in here? b....... (work) from home... b......... so don't forget to take waterproofs. A: I don't know if you have any plans for tomorrow. 8... Do you need to wear a suit and tie to the office? c......? 3........ .. (speak) to Serena tomorrow if you like.... Call me sometime over the weekend.............. Invitations....................... (do) at 8..... In three months' time I .. I ......00 p. Permission....00 p... I'd like that......... 5...... 1.... If you have time during your stay in Sydney. Is it possible to leave the room for a few minutes? d. I've got two tickets! B.... 4........ Complete the sentences by choosing the correct word in italics......... 7..... Do you know what . 6..Test E A.... (think) of you.. It can / may / must rain a lot in Scotland in May.. (work) for PJ Plastics for twenty years....... Do you think there . Can I open a window? It's very hot in here. i possibility ii permitted iii necessary iv obligatory a.... requests.. B: .. (be) more or less environmental pollution in the future? 9..... By the time I retire I hope I . otherwise I may / must / can forget it..... 2... I ..... possibility... and will Complete the sentences using the verb in brackets in the correct form...... if you'd like me to show you around Prague. Look. you really must / have to / need to visit the Opera House – it's wonderful. I'm sure..m...... and obligation 1.m. By 2050 people .... 2. e...... I'm sorry. and suggestions Complete the conversation with a suitable word or phrase...
hope to see you again sometime 1. I'm glad you enjoyed it c..... lead to.... carry...... ............ C. cause 4.. best of luck b............ Can I help you ......... I hear this is your last day at work here........... and take Complete the sentences with bring....... or take.... bring.. bring about b............ the minutes of the last meeting with you? 4...... make and do Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of make or do................. in your English test? B: Oh....... Concluding.. a. Mark. Remember to ........ Sally's late as usual! Do you want me to go and ............... employ (someone)
... succeed 3....... B: . I can't............. B: Yes.... 5..... any plans for tonight yet? Are you going to celebrate? B: No........ with everything... eight o'clock? B: Eight o'clock...... A: So.. some research for my thesis..... take up d....... that ....... carry. keep in touch d............... take on a..... Thanks for coming..... A: I've had a lovely evening................ I'm starting a new job next week...........A: .... begin (a hobby) 2......... Yes... did you . 2....... A: Have you .. Late payment often ............ too many mistakes............ A: Oh... Phrasal verbs Match the phrasal verbs 1-4 with the verbs a-d closest in meaning...... and leave-taking Complete the conversations with a suitable word or phrase a-e..... thanking.. cash-flow problems for small businesses... Well.... Vocabulary 1.. your bags? They look very heavy! 2....... get........ I have to . warm clothes.. get... B: . great....... 1........ you're welcome e............. A: Well. A: .... 1.. lead to.. her? 3..... I don't think I . It'll be cold in Poland at this time of year..... not too bad. thank you for that lovely dinner once again. 2..... A: How did you . ......... 3.. 2.. B: Thanks........ . B: You too........... carry off c............
I'll probably never visit 61 A2 1. have you been doing 6. a
. 1. for a week 5. woke up 1. watch 3. professional sportspeople didn't use to earn so much money. 5. stubborn 5. there didn't use to be many Internet companies. . sounds like 4. g – 3 1. going 4. sensitive B2 a–8 b–5 c – 10 d–7 e–3 f–6 1. to entertain 3. c – 7 4. d – 4 5. had read / started 5. would never get up for breakfast on Sundays. 4. meticulous 4. going 1. used to have a Porsche. at the moment 2.Answer key Test A A1 1.. outgoing 3. always plays 7. .Tests . was living 2. 2... b – 2 3. used to write a lot more letters and faxes than I do today. looks like g – 11 h–2 i–4 j–9 k–1
Test B A1 1.. hasn't stopped 1. saying 2. have never seen 8.. look like 2. to turn off 5.. have eaten 10.. . 3.. f – 6 7. all my life 4. e – 1 6. seems 5. have been having 9. . had been sitting 6. was traveling / witnessed 3. a – 5 2. .. competent 2.. had been having 4. recently 3. arrived / had left 7.
be convenient (for you) / suit you 3. 'Why didn't you attend the meeting?' 4.2. 'Have you enjoyed your trip to Scotland?' 10. which 2. 'More and more women will move into top management posts. from 7. the 8. the
1. OK.m. 2. a 10. 'In 25 years of flying I have never experienced such terrible weather 8. So. wasted 2. which e. 'Have you spoken to Tim about his resignation?' 'No. for 2. will win 9. who / that b. I'm going to 3. 'How did you manage to do it?' 3. I'm not really with you. Ø 6. is going to rain 7. the 4. Are you doing A3
2. The people that / who work opposite us are not very friendly. an 5. 3. the 3. in 5. in 3. that / which / Ø d. 'Did you see anything?' 2. let me give you an example. I haven't had a chance. to 10. 'Will you give me a hand with the new software?' 'Yes. I was wondering whether 2.'
conditions. 'When will the winner of the contract be known?' 5.. that's / That suits me 1.' 9. on
Test C A1 1. 4.
1. on 8. I'm playing 4. Sorry. I'll turn on 6. we can do it next week. a. lost 4. 62
. missed 3. 5. I've got you. missed C2 1. you're talking about . wasted 5. to 6.' 7..' 6. OK. who / whom c. How about / What about 5. at the latest. a. I'm afraid 4. to 9. That would be / Yes. with 4. I'll just check / I'll call 5. 'Will you be able to finish the proposal in time?' 'We will get it to you by 10. can I just interrupt you a second? 1. a 7. Ø 9. I'm going to spend 8.00 a.
which was also the year I got married. I – information 2. I – a lot of good advice 1. down 5. by / will give 3. I mean 5. across 9. The point is 4. We started the company in 1999. as soon as 2.b. I really like the apartment that / Ø I'm living in at the moment. It is recognized in the US that a degree from Harvard or Yale opens doors. e. Let me explain what I mean 2. What's the name of the bank where you used to work? c. I – a lot of 7. rise 6. A2 1. risen 3. sharply 4. So essentially 1–g 2–f 3–b 4–e 5–d 6–c 7–a 8–h 1. arisen 2. down 2. some of whom have become good friends. substantial 5. C 8. until / are 1. C 4. I – plenty of 6. 63
. To give you an example 3. d. off 8. raise 6. out of
Test D A1 1. up for 1. C 9. out 7. up 10. off 4. I – a lot of 3. I – equipment 10. By secure. I've met a lot of people through work. I – quite a few 5. on 3.
irreplaceable 3. could / may / might 8. Miranda was asked to write the report. humorous 3. would you save / was b. 7. could / would you choose d. 5. a. was you / would go c. Successful candidates are invited to a second interview. a. Language training is provided for managers. had been / would have gone b. Can we just stick to this for a minute (and try to come to a decision)? 3. would you work / hadn't got h. should / must 6. were / would you change g. A lot of our trees were blown down in the storm. 8. should 2. uninterested 2. must 7. creative 4. 9. Candidates are recommended for promotion. reliable 2. park / give 1–d 2–a 3–c 4–e 5–b 1. incredible 4. Applications are passed on to universities. 2. 3. is / will you do e.2. knocked / would you c. Excuse me.. My eyes were tested yesterday.. understandable 64 C2 1. Can you be more specific? 5. I was in the middle of saying something. could / might / may 1. / I've had my laptop stolen. Would you like to say something about this. / We had a lot of trees blown down in the storm. Cars are always checked thoroughly before leaving the garage. 10. can't / couldn't 5. would happen / arrive. My laptop has been stolen. A2 1. I had my eyes tested yesterday. must 4. happens. basically what you're saying is . 1. hadn't studied / would you have studied f. 6. arrived 2. / Managers are provided with language training. So. saw / would you do d. disconnect
. John? 4. might / may / could 3. 4.
can 4. will have been working 4. Hope to see you again some time 3. can't
5. critical Test E A1 1. carry 2. 1–b 2–c 3–a 4–a 5–d 6–c 2. will be thinking 2. will speak 7. Shall we say 5. would be fine / suits me fine 1. must 2. bring 4. lead to 1. do 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a
. will have earned 8. made 4. I was wondering 2. Keep in touch 4. get 3. You're welcome 5. made 3. will be living 6.5. That's very kind of you 3. will be 9. have finished 3. take 5. we will be doing / will be taking 1. do 2. can't 3. will be working 5. best of luck 2. I'm glad you enjoyed it 1. illegible
1. 1. Shall 4.
We use the present continuous to: describe a current action (something which is happening at this moment): We're reading the poster about the play. Are you writing a letter? Use
She's liking sport. Verbs not used in continuous tenses These are some verbs which we don't normally use in the continuous form. She works here until Christmas. 66
. 2.IV. I'm going to the cinema every day. I'm going to the cinema tomorrow evening. He knows a lot about music. He's knowing a lot about music. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. GRAMMAR REFERENCE 1. make a criticism: He's always being rude about my cooking. He doesn't want to be in the school play. Do you work in a bank? Use We use the present simple to describe: a routine (something which happens regularly or always): Lisa always takes part in the school play. Lisa isn't coming with us tonight. describe an incomplete action (something which is happening around this time but not necessarily at this moment): I'm trying to concentrate on the exams this term. She's working here until Christmas. Present simple and present continuous Look at these sentences. Present simple Form I go to the Soundhouse most evenings. 1. Their meanings are often connected with thoughts and feelings: believe realize forget remember hate know like love suppose understand NOT NOT need want
She likes sport. 2. a state (something which is unlikely to change soon): Julie works for a bank. Present continuous Form I'm practicing my lines for the play.
Questions Short answers Have you been to Paris before? Yes. 2. (She isn't here now. (I've got a new car now. I want to go out for dinner. 67
. (He still works there now. Vegetarians aren't eating meat. He's seeming very tired. (Until now I've been there three times.) I've been to Brazil three times. (I still live here now. We use the present perfect tense: when we are interested in the present result of a past action: She's gone home. go gone write written see seen Use The present perfect links the past with the present.) when we are referring to a time frame that comes up to the present: Have you ever been to Brazil? (In your life until now. A lot of common verbs have an irregular past participle. 5.
3. we add –ed to the infinitive.
He seems very tired. Positive and negative She has cooked dinner. Some are right and some are wrong.) Present perfect.) Have you seen John today? (We are still in the time frame of 'today'.) when the activity or situation started in the past and still continues in the present: He's worked in the same office for twenty years. I'm wanting to go out for dinner. 1. play played open opened This is the same as the regular past tense. and present continuous Look at these sentences. You haven't lived abroad. 6. A Where's Graham? B He cleans the car. present simple. How long have you lived in this house? How long do you live in this house? How long are you living in this house? I've worked here since October. I have. To make regular past participles. Vegetarians don't eat meat. A Where's Graham? B He's cleaning the car.) I've bought a new car. The present prefect tense Form We make the present perfect tense with have/has and the past participle. 4.3.) I've lived here for three years.
* I * have lunch in a restaurant *. 68
... 5. We often go to the park. The train is always on time. Sometimes. and usually can also go at the beginning or end of the sentence. can be used to make comparisons.. The film was much better than I expected. How many times have you been to New York? How many times do you go to New York?
4. in front of the main verb. Adverbs of frequency never hardly ever sometimes often frequently normally usually always
We put the adverb of frequency: after the verb to be. Her house is as big as mine.
I'm working here since October. I work here since October. as .00. but they usually go before the main verb. Russia is bigger than Canada. He's never here at 9. normally.3. as . Comparatives and superlatives Form one syllable tall – taller – the tallest cold – colder – the coldest one syllable: short vowel + one consonant hot – hotter – the hottest thin – thinner – the thinnest big – bigger – the biggest two syllables: consonant + y heavy – heavier – the heaviest pretty – prettier – the prettiest two or more syllables modern – more modern – the most modern interesting – more interesting – the most interesting irregular good – better – the best bad – worse – the worst far – further – the furthest A comparative adjective is often followed by than.. I don't usually get up late.
He's so tall as his brother. Use The comparative is used to compare two separate items or groups. We use the past simple: 69 The elephant is the heaviest land animal in the world. 4.83m 1. a completed situation in the past I worked in Edinburgh from 1989 to 1995. is also possible. Silver isn't so expensive as gold.75m Alex is taller than his brothers.
Short answers Yes. My exam results were more bad than Andy's.Silver isn't as expensive as gold. 6.. My exam results were worse than Andy's. He's as tall as his brother. We weren't here yesterday. Questions Was he at home last week? Use We use the past simple tense to describe: a completed action in the past We went to the cinema yesterday. The past simple tense Form The verb to be Positive and negative I was at home last week. a repeated action in the past They went to Greece every year until 1995. The film was better that the book. Past simple and present perfect Compare the uses of the past simple and the present perfect. he was..92m Alex's brothers 1.. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. The elephant is the most heavy land animal in the world. The film was better than the book. as .
. Alex 1. 3. The superlative is used to compare one member of a group with the rest of the group. In the negative so . all the mountains in the world Mount Everest Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. 2. 1. Comparatives and superlatives Look at these sentences..85m 1.
(She isn't here now. not the effect. Questions Short answers Was he having a bath? Yes. I've been there four years ago. He used to smoke. I did. We didn't use to live in London. For individual past actions. Questions Short answers Did you use to smoke? Yes. two days ago.) when we are referring to a time frame that ended in the past. We went to the cinema twice last week. 7. last week). but he gave up five years ago.) when we are talking about a finished time in the past. I've seen Hamlet last Tuesday. She's gone home. I've lived here for five years. Use The past continuous tense describes a continuous or unfinished activity in the past. or past actions which were not habits. I saw Hamlet last Tuesday. The past continuous tense Form Positive and negative You were standing at the bus stop. To describe present states and habits we use the present simple tense. you must use the past simple tense.) Before that I lived in Madrid. (We're interested in when the action took place. Last year he went on five foreign holidays. describe a habit in the past which is not true now. We use the past continuous tense to: 70
. I went out this morning. Note: The past simple tense can also be used to describe states and habits in the past. used to Form Positive and negative He used to smoke.' Note: When there is a past time reference (e. 'Have you been out today?' 'Yes. (But I don't live there now.g. I went there four years ago. It has no present form. (I still live here. not the present perfect. Use We use used to to: describe a state in the past which is not true now.when we are interested in the action or the time of the action. She used to be a teacher. She wasn't going to work. Used to can only be used to talk about the past. he was.) She went at four o'clock. in 1993. only the past simple can be used.
describe an action that started before a particular moment, and probably continued after it. At 8.00 I was having breakfast. This time last week I was lying on a beach in Greece. describe a temporary situation in the past. I as living in Bristol last year. Past continuous and past simple We often use the past continuous tense with the past simple tense. The past continuous describes the situation – it is background information. The past simple describes the main event. The clauses are usually joined by while, as or when. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. As I was going to bed, the doorbell rang. Compare these two sentences. While I was waiting for a bus, it started to rain. When it started to rain, I decided to take a taxi. The first sentence uses the past continuous tense to describe the background situation and the past simple tense to say what happened. The second sentence has two past simple tenses. One action happened after the other. 8. The past perfect tense Form We make the past perfect tense with had/hadn't and the past participle. Positive and negative I had been there for 2 hours. They hadn't finished the project. Questions Short answers Had you seen him before? Yes, I had. Use We use the past perfect tense to look back on an event that occurred before another event in the past. We had dinner. We weren't hungry. We weren't hungry because we'd had dinner. The past perfect is often use with when, after, before, as soon as. I was sure I'd seen him before. After we'd finished dinner, we went for a walk. The past perfect is necessary when we need to make it clear that one thing happened before another. Compare these sentences. Sheila got up, got dressed, had some breakfast, and went out. When Sheila got to the party, Amanda had gone home. In the first sentence we do not use the past perfect, because the order of events is clear. In the second sentence we need to use the past perfect to make it clear that Amanda went home before Sheila got to the party. Past perfect and past simple Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. 71
1. 2. 3.
I was sure I had never heard the song before. I was sure I never heard the song before. I met him yesterday and I told him the news. I had met him yesterday and I told him the news. How long had you worked for the company when it closed? How long did you work for the company when it closed?
9. Talking about the future There are several ways of talking about the future in English. It can be difficult for learners of English to choose between them, and in some cases more than one form is possible. The form used does not depend on how certain a future event is, but on how the speaker sees the future. a) The future with will Form Positive and negative I will see you tomorrow. You will not get the job. Questions Will you be at the meeting? Use We use the future with will to: make predictions or general statements about the future. We'll need some more money soon. In the year 2050 the world's population will reach 10 billion. describe a decision made at the moment of speaking, often to make an offer. 'Have you got that report?' 'Yes, I'll fax you a copy.' I can't hear the TV very well.' 'I'll turn it up.' b) going to Form Positive and negative I'm going to do the shopping. She's not going to have a shower. Questions Short answers Are you going to play football? Yes, I am. Use We use going to to: describe plans, intentions, and things we have decided to do. I'm going to look for a new job. I'm going to sell my car. describe things we can see or feel will definitely happen in the future. She's going to have a baby. 3-0 up with five minutes to play, Manchester United are going to win.
Short answers Yes, I will.
The present continuous with future meaning Form See the form of the present continuous tense. Use We can use the present continuous to describe personal arrangements in the future. There is normally a future time expression. She's going to the doctor's next week. We're meeting at four o'clock this afternoon. It is often possible to use either the present continuous or going to to talk about the future. Sometimes there is a difference between an arrangement and something we have decided to do. I'm seeing my grandmother on Saturday. (I've arranged it. She knows I'm coming.) I'm going to see my grandmother on Saturday. (I've decided to go, but possibly it isn't arranged yet.) Will, going to, and the present continuous Look at these sentences. Some are right and some are wrong. 1. A I've got a terrible headache. B I'll get you some aspirin. B I'm going to get you some aspirin. B I'm getting you some aspirin. A What are you doing this evening? B I'm going to go to a party. B I'm going to a party. B I'll go to a party. The weather forecast says it'll rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's going to rain tomorrow. The weather forecast says it's raining tomorrow. You'll feel better after a good night's sleep. You're feeling better after a good night's sleep. He's lost control! He's going to crash! He's lost control! He'll crash!
3. 4. 5.
10. Expressing probability Here are some ways of making statements about possible or probable future events. The modal verbs may, might, and could Might can be less definite than may. The train may be late. (It is probable.) We might not survive the 21st century. (It is possible.) Could can only be used to describe future possibility in the positive form. The train could be late. NOT We could not survive the 21st century. Note: Can is not used to describe possible or future events. It may/might/could rain tomorrow. NOT It can rain tomorrow. The adverbs possibly and probably + future verb form We will possibly see some rain in the morning. It probably won't be very warm tomorrow. 73
I saw the man who lives next door. Note: Possibly and probably are placed after will but before won't. It probably won't rain today. which with things. He's the man who lives next door. would Form Positive and negative He would like to live alone. impossible. 74 least likely most likely
. It's unlikely to rain this afternoon. If I had the money.I'm probably going to play tennis this afternoon. (But I haven't got the money.) make polite offers. We use who with people. It might (not) rain today. It's unlikely to rain today. Expressing probability Look at these sentences. Relative clauses A relative clause gives more information about a noun in a sentence. Where's the disk which was on my desk? that with people and things. Use Would has many uses. It'll probably rain today. It is likely that the Prime Minister will resign. It may (not) rain today. I saw the man. Questions Short answers Would you buy a car? Yes. Adjectival clauses I'm likely to come to the party. (But she works in a bank. A relative clause starts with a relative pronoun. I would. It's likely to rain today. It could rain today. Two of the most common uses are to describe improbable. Would you like a cup of coffee? Would you like to go to the cinema? 11.) She'd be a good politician. She's probably coming this weekend. I'd buy a house. They wouldn't steal from a friend. or imaginary situations.
we make the tag from the auxiliary that we would normally use for making questions in that tense. Where's the disk that was on my desk? Reduced relative clauses In a relative clause we can sometimes leave out the relative pronoun who. is it? When there is a modal verb or an auxiliary verb we make the tag from the modal or auxiliary and the subject. haven't you? It was raining. wasn't it? When the verb in the sentence hasn't got an auxiliary. She married him. It isn't very warm. She arrived yesterday. In this sentence the man is the object of the relative clause. we replace it with a pronoun in the tag. Look at these sentences. You're Italian. so we can't leave out the relative pronoun. You knew about this yesterday. They aren't coming to the party. You can swim. will she? It doesn't matter. aren't you? When the statement is negative the tag is positive. 12. are they? With the verb to be we make the tag with the verb and the subject. In this sentence the man is the subject of the relative clause. Question tags Form When the statement is positive the tag is negative. which. or that. didn't you? NOT . This chair's French... can't she? NOT . did not you? She can speak Russian. He's the man. He's the man who/that lives next door.He's the man that lives next door. so we can leave out the relative pronoun. don't you? Note: Negative tag questions are contracted.. He's the man (who/that) she married.. didn't she? You like fish. isn't it? Bob and Betty live near here. don't they?
. We can only do this if the relative pronoun is the object of the clause. can not she? When the subject of the statement is a noun. He's the man. can't you? She won't be here tomorrow. does it? You've finished. He lives next door.
This wine is produced in Portugal.
To make the negative of the passive. we use the negative of the verb to be.
. We use rising intonation when we are less certain and we want to check something. We can use falling intonation or rising intonation on a question tag. we don't know the agent. The car has been found. These houses were built in the 1930s. The crime will be solved. The man wasn't sent to prison. It is less direct than an ordinary question. Was the man sent to prison? Has the weapon been found? We can use the passive with a modal verb. These computers are made in Japan. To make different tenses we change the verb to be. Cars shouldn't be parked there. Past Present perfect Present will would The car was stolen. aren't I? When we write a question tag it is separated from the statement by a comma (. 13. The passive Form We make the passive with the verb to be and a past participle. Someone has been arrested. We can use the passive in any tense.) and is followed by a question mark (?). We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we expect the other person to agree. To make questions we use the normal question form of the verb to be in each tense. shall we? The question tag for a sentence with I am is aren't I? I'm going to Helsinki next week. We use a modal verb + be + past participle. Use We use the passive when the action is more important than the agent (who or what did the action). The weapon hasn't been found.The question tag for a sentence with Let's is shall we? Let's get a pizza. She must be told. It can't be done. Fewer crimes would be committed. Thousands of cars are stolen. Use A question tag turns a statement into a question.
First conditional Form We use the present simple tense in the if clause and the future with will in the main clause. (I don't think I'll get the job. If I had enough money. Note: We do not use will in the if clause. (I think there is a real chance that I'll get the job. we'd travel business class. The suspect was identified by a witness. but not when tha main clause is first. They won't arrive on time if they miss the bus. We usually use a comma (.)
. we'll go to the cinema. Use Second conditionals describe unreal. Use First conditionals predict the results of a real or probable action or event. I'd buy that house.. He'd feel better if he didn't smoke so much.) We won't go if it rains. If she eats all the ice cream. The difference between them is how probable the action or situation is.. unlikely. Second conditional Form We use the past simple form in the if clause and would + infinitive without to in the main clause. 14. If I had enough money .) when the if clause is first. or imaginary situations.) If I got the job I'd earn more money.If we want to show the agent. but not when the main clause is first. (There is a real chance that it will rain. If I get the job I'll earn more money. NOT If it will rain. Note: We do not use would in the if clause.) 15. The car has been found by some children. If it rains. NOT If I would have enough money ..) when the if clause is first.. (There is a real chance that you'll get up late. If you get up late. What would you do if you saw a ghost? First and second conditionals First and second conditionals both refer to the present or the future. We usually use a comma (. you'll miss the appointment. she'll feel terrible. If we had more money. we use by. we'll go to the cinema.
up. (transitive) The plane took off. Some phrasal verbs have idiomatic meanings – the meaning is not obviously connected to the meanings of the two parts. We'd have dinner before we went to the cinema.. Transitive/intransitive phrasal verbs Like other verbs. She takes after her mother. When the object is a pronoun we must separate the two parts.. NOT . She switched on the TV. Other transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable – the verb and the particle cannot be separated. we do not use will or would in time clauses with the conjunctions when. before we would go to the cinema. Oil will run out in the next century. away. He heard a helicopter and looked up. until Phil will get back. I'll phone you when she arrives. and after.. If the object is shown between the verb and the particle. NOT She switched on it. Literal/idiomatic phrasal verbs Some phrasal verbs have literal meanings – you can work out what they mean from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. e. I won't know the situation until Phil gets back.16. before. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs consist of a verb + a particle. He took off his jacket. when she will arrive. as soon as.. on. Could you look after the children this evening? NOT Could you look the children after this evening? You can tell if a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable by looking in a dictionary. NOT . Many phrasal verbs have a literal and an idiomatic meaning. in. NOT . until. or She switched the TV on. phrasal verbs can be transitive (they have an object) or intransitive (they do not have an object).. look something up 78
.. Time clauses As in clauses with if. He saw the mouse and ran out. the verb is separable.g. She switched it on. (intransitive) Separable/inseparable phrasal verbs Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable – the object can go between the verb and the particle. 17.
I've been waiting for an hour.I looked up the word in the dictionary. Questions Short answers Has he been reading? Yes. (permanent) I've been living with my sister for the last few months.) focus on the process of an activity. How many letters have you written this week? How much rice have you cooked? With the verbs live and work we can normally use either the present perfect simple or the present perfect continuous. Use We use the present perfect continuous tense to describe an activity that is still incomplete. 79
.' emphasize the duration of an activity. The important difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the action itself. he has. 18.) How long have you been reading this book? (You haven't finished it yet. (I haven't finished it yet. The present perfect continuous Form Positive and negative I have been playing football. but the present perfect simple focuses on the completion or result of the action. I've lived here for ten years. NOT I came some old photographs across the other day. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuous The present perfect continuous and the present prefect simple can both be used to describe situations which started in the past and are still going on. (focus on completion) We always use the present perfect simple when we say how much or how many. 'What have you been doing?' 'I've been running. (focus on activity) I've played two matches. is not normally used with stative verbs. the verb is inseparable. come across something I came across some old photographs the other day. You're late. He hasn't been waiting for an hour. I've been writing a letter. (temporary) The present perfect continuous. Have you lived here long? Have you been living here long? Sometimes the present perfect simple can describe a more permanent state and the present perfect continuous can describe a temporary activity. or I looked the word up in a dictionary. or about past actions which have present results. I've been playing a lot of football this week. If the object is shown after the verb and the particle. like other continuous forms.
Have they arrived? In the present simple and the past simple tenses there is no auxiliary verb. Did you see her? In Wh.19. Who did you talk to? What were you looking at? Who are you going with? 20.)
subject object subject
Who told you? (My wife told me. Can she swim? They've arrived. using do/does in the present or did in the past. we invert this verb and the subject to make a question. Indirect questions An indirect question is a question that is in a statement or another question. a modal verb. We do not use a question mark (?) in statements. Compare these questions. decide.questions. know. ask.)
subject object subject
Who invited them? (Barbara invited them. We're going to be late? Are we going to be late? She can swim. so we must provide one. remember. Question forms If the sentence contains the verb to be. wonder.)
object subject object
Who did they invite? (They invited all their friends. if the question word is the subject of the sentence we use the positive form of the verb to make a question.
object subject object
Who did you tell? (I told my parents. have no idea. see. question word(s) subject verb 80
. imagine. Where does he live? I can't remember where he lives. Do they live here? You saw her. NOT I can't remember where does he live? What's the time? Do you know what the time is? NOT Do you know what's the time? Indirect questions use the statement form of the verb.) Prepositions go at the end of questions. We use indirect questions after verbs like know. They live here. or an auxiliary verb.
1. left. What kind of software? Software for computers.? Could you tell me where the post office is. a computer software shop This is a shop. A shop that sells books is a bookshop.. 've got. I've decided how much money I need.. What kind of boots? Boots for playing football. Note: However. arrives. I wonder why did he do that?
21. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. I don't know is he coming? Could you tell me where the post office is? Could you tell me where is the post office? I wonder why he did that.I don't know I can't remember I'll ask I have no idea I wonder
where what what time why how much money
he his name the bus she they
lives. football boots These are boots. Has the parcel arrived? I'll see if/whether the parcel has arrived. I don't know if he's coming. Indirect questions are often used to make polite requests with expressions like Could you (possibly) tell me . We make a compound noun by putting two or more separate nouns together to make a new noun. A shop that sells records is a record shop. 2.
With Wh. we say clothes shop and sports shop.. Should I buy the computer? I can't decide whether/if I should buy computer. is. What kind of shop? A shop that sells software.questions we use the question word in the indirect question.? or Do you think you could tell me . please? Do you think you could tell me how much this costs? Indirect questions Look at these sentences. football boots a telephone box a car seat a computer software shop In a compound noun there is a headword and one or more words that define the headword. 3. The headword always goes at the end. I've decided how much money do I need. In Yes/No questions we use whether or if. 4. Compound nouns Form Compound nouns are very common in English.. A defining noun in a compound noun is normally singular. 81
I had the idea while driving home. a tennis racket a living-room. Others are written as two words. We saw them leaving the house. (New packets. before. Compare these sentences. -ing forms Use -ing forms are used in continuous tenses.) He bought three packets of cigarettes. when the subject of both clauses is the same. (Empty bottles. After having a shower. I had the idea while I was driving home. watch. I got dressed. as adjectives. There's someone coming. I could smell burning. Unfortunately there are no rules.). with there is/are to describe what is or was happening. or are hyphenated. -ing form or infinitive A. etc. I read a fascinating book the other week. as gerunds (a verb used as a noun). and while to replace a clause. 23. Some verbs can take an –ing form or an infinitive and the meaning is more or less the same. hear. feel. stomach ache 22. I can hear someone coming. He was driving at 120mph.) Some compound nouns are written as one word. Gerunds can be subjects or objects. notice. How many bottles of wine do we need for the party? (How much wine?) They threw the wine bottles away.00. a teacup. This is a really boring film. There were two people waiting for you. to describe what someone can sense (with see. a bathroom a coffee cup.A compound noun sometimes has a different meaning from a noun phrase with of. with after. After I'd had a shower. I've been working since 7. smell. She's playing tennis.
Swimming is my favorite sport. I got dressed. 82
.) The floor was covered with cigarette packets. (Empty packets.
I don't enjoy cooking.
like + -ing is usually used to talk about enjoyment. prefer I prefer watching horror films to action films. (British) I like to lie in bed late. but I couldn't. I prefer to watch horror films to action films. start. I began to realize how he felt. feel like. 83
. NOT She's considering to emigrate to Australia. I'd like to live abroad. B. (He used to smoke but he doesn't now. consider. She's considering emigrating to Australia. I like lying in bed late. forget I remember meeting her.) I remembered to meet her.) stop He has stopped smoking. and can't stand. (I wanted to speak to her. love.) I'll never forget dancing with him that night.) C. 1. Smoking is bad for your health. I'm beginning to learn the piano. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. hate. (I danced with him and I won't forget it. begin. NOT I enjoy to do the gardening.) I forgot to dance with him at the party. In British English.) try I tried to speak to her about it.) He stopped to have a cigarette. It's just started to rain. enjoy. Some verbs can take an –ing from or an infinitive but the meaning is different. but she still wouldn't listen. then he stopped in order to smoke. (American) Note: would + like/love/hate/prefer always takes the infinitive. suggest. but she wasn't there. but I didn't. remember. (he was doing something. give up. -ing forms Look at these sentences. (I had met her before and I remembered it. (I had to meet her and I did. whereas in American English like + infinitive is usually used. (I spoke to her. continue It's just started raining. Some verbs can only be followed by an –ing form.) I tried speaking to her about it. I enjoy doing the gardening.like. (I was supposed to dance with him. Some of the most common are finish. but it didn't work. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. Note: We normally use infinitives after continuous tenses and with verbs which are not used in the continuous form. imagine.
There's someone that comes up the stairs. I began to understand the problem. A I can't stand people talking in the cinema. must. may. 7. need. I begun understanding the problem.) I + positive auxiliary verb. should. neither.2. Agreeing and disagreeing To agree with a positive statement we use So + auxiliary verb + subject.) I + negative auxiliary verb.
To smoke is bad for your health. could. 6. A I couldn't read until I was seven. Before leaving the office. 25. 4. will. Note: In informal speech we can use Me. A I really love pizza. A I'd love to go to New Zealand. A I wouldn't like to live abroad. too. Form Modal verbs have these features They are the same for all persons. To disagree with a positive statement we use (Oh. B So do I. B Nor/Neither have I. 5. might. 84
. I could. Stop making so much noise. and Me. Before to leave the office. I must remember to post this letter. ought to. shall. B Me. B Oh. I made a phone call. Stop to make so much noise. 3. I made a phone call. I would. too to agree with a positive statement. To agree with a negative statement we use Nor/Neither + auxiliary verb + subject. B Oh. There's someone coming up the stairs. neither to agree with a negative statement. A I've never been to Ireland. Modal verbs These are the modal verbs in English: can. B Me. I'd love to go to New Zealand. I must remember posting this letter. To disagree with a negative statement we use (Oh. would. I'd love going to New Zealand.
I must to remember to post this letter.) I must remember to post this letter. I couldn't believe what he told me.
. She should see a doctor. Modal verbs have no tense forms. possibility. 3. Present: He can speak four languages. Past: He could speak French when he was four. They might not come to the party. (or I could find a new job. 2. and permission. 1. Use Each modal verb can have different meanings. You don't should leave your car there. to must to should to can To make questions the modal verb and subject are inverted. Need I go? or Do I need to go? You needn't come. I couldn't read until I was eight years old. (possibility) Could I borrow your pen? (permission) Ability Can and could are used to describe ability. would: I'd be able to find a new job. They have no infinitive or participle form. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. They ought to be more careful. (or I was able to play the piano when I was six.) Present perfect: I haven't been able to find a new job. Can and could become be able to in other tenses. (ability) If the traffic's bad I could be late. Modal verbs – form Look at these sentences. For example.They are followed by an infinitive without to (except ought to). or You don't need to come. 4. will: I'll be able to find a new job. Can you swim? Do you can swim? You shouldn't leave your car there. we can use could to talk about ability. I can swim. Note: Need can behave as a modal verb or as a normal verb. Past: I could play the piano when I was six. He might come later. You might go to London. He mights come later. You shouldn't do that. What should we do? Can you speak Japanese? Shall we go out for dinner? We make negatives with not.
which comes from 'outside' the speaker. You mustn't park on double yellow lines. If you feel ill you should go to the doctor. would: I'd have to find a new job. Obligation Must and need are used to describe obligation and necessity. I must start taking more exercise. Present prefect: I've had to find a new job. (I want to.Could. (The obligation comes 'from the speaker'. 86
.) You must drive more slowly if you want to pass your test. You needn't wear a suit. I have to work on Saturday this week. You ought not to carry so much cash. I was able to drive when I was sixteen. You mustn't do that – it's very dangerous. To describe the ability to do something successfully on one occasion in the past. You drive much too fast – you ought to be more careful. from my doctor.) My doctor says I have to start taking more exercise. You need to be at the station by 8. but it is also used to describe strong obligation. If there is no obligation or necessity to do something. You don't have to come if you don't want to.) In Britain you have to drive on the left. The firemen managed to save everyone. though could is more common. Have to is also used. The party's informal. The firemen were able to save everyone. a driving instructor. Passengers must show their boarding cards. or to say what we think is the best thing to do. Must is used to describe obligation that comes 'from the speaker'. we use was/were able to or managed to. we use don't/doesn't have to or needn't/don't need to. and managed to Could and was/were able to can both be used to describe general ability in the past. The firemen could save everyone. Have to is used to describe general obligation. Note: Must has no tense forms. it is 'my' obligation. (It is a general obligation. we use have to to describe obligation in other tenses. Past: I had to find a new job. Advice Should and ought to are used to give advice. (It is and 'outside' obligation. I could drive when I was sixteen.) We use mustn't to describe strong obligation not to do something. You shouldn't work so hard. Must and have to Have to is not a modal verb. will: I'll have to find a new job.30./You don't need to wear a suit. was/were able to.
I'll be able to go swimming every day next week. This means that I painted the room myself. She could not be here tomorrow. with we and I.
. She might not be here tomorrow. 4. Some are right and some are wrong. Yesterday I had to get the bus to work. I had the car fixed. I had my hair cut. The bus driver was able to avoid hitting the dog. Yesterday I must get the bus to work. Don't worry about the report – you needn't do it today. Permission Can. 2. We often use have + object + past participle to describe services that we pay someone else to do. Could is more polite than can. and may are used to ask for permission. 5. and may is the most polite and formal. might.
26.Probability May. I arranged for a decorator to do it for me. This means that the room was painted but I didn't do it myself. 3. I painted my room. I had my room painted. The bus driver managed to avoid hitting the dog. The bus driver could avoid hitting the dog. causative have (have something done) We use have + object + past participle to describe a job that is done for us by someone else. I will can go swimming every day next week. Compare these sentences. Don't worry about the report – you mustn't do it today. Where shall we go for our holidays this year? Shall we go to the cinema? Shall I open the window? Modal verbs – use Look at these sentences. He had his jacket dry-cleaned. and could are used to describe probability and possibility. could. 1. Don't worry about the report – you don't have to do it today. Can I open the window? Could I borrow the car this evening? May I use your phone? Shall/will/would In modern English shall is usually only used in suggestions and offers.
The car's really dirty. said or told). Get is followed by the infinitive with to. It needs to be cleaned. My parents made me practice the piano for two hours every day. 29.27.
. make / let someone do something get someone to do something Make someone do something means that one person forces or compels another person to do something that they probably don't want to do. I'll get my secretary to type the letter. 28. It needs cleaning.g. would. Let someone do something means that one person allows another person to do something. The pronouns and possessive adjectives change. some of the tenses of the verbs also change. because a different person is now speaking. My boss let me leave work an hour early yesterday. need + -ing We can also use need + -ing. We can also use need with to be + past participle. The car's really dirty. The judge made the man apologize. Reported speech When we report what somebody says we make the following changes. Reported speech: Sally says that she like cooking. Direct speech: I like cooking. I got the garage to service my car. David's father lets him use the car. When we report something with a past tense verb (e. Direct speech Reported speech present perfect past perfect past simple past perfect / past simple present simple past simple present continuous past continuous will would Note: The past perfect tense. Get someone to do something means that one person asks or persuade another person to do something. Make and let are followed by the infinitive without to. Need + -ing is more informal. and modal verbs do not change.
Helen said (that) she'd like a coffee. Monica said (that) she might phone us later. Andrea told me (that) she was going out. Tell is almost always followed by a personal object. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Andrea: I'm going out.
. Luke: I'll be away till March.
Reported speech Walter said (that) he'd read that book. NOT Andrea said me . 31. Zoran said (that) he had never been there before. Reposted speech: Questions Reported questions are a form of indirect question. She told (them) jokes all night. We tell somebody something. They told (us) a story.Direct speech Walter: I've read that book. Zoe said that they saw a great film. we make the following changes. the reported question starts with whether or if. 30. 'How many times have you seen this film?' She asked me how many times I'd seen the film. The word order changes to a statement word order. The tenses and pronouns change as for statements. Zoe said (that) they had seen a great film the week before. Tom said that he doesn't want to go. but there are some expressions where it is not necessary to use one. When we report questions. With Yes/No questions. NOT Andrea told (that) . say and tell We say something. particularly when the direct speech is still true at the time of reporting. Tom: I don't want to stay here. Zoran: I had never been there before.. 'Have you seen them today?' He asked me whether/if I had seen them today. Monica: I might phone you later.. There is no question mark at the end of a reported question. You have to tell (me) the truth! He's always telling (her) lies. Luke said (that) he'd be away till March. 'Where does John work?' A man asked me where John worked. Andrea said (that) she was going out. Tom said (that) he didn't want to stay there. Zoe: We saw a great film last week. Helen: I'd like a coffee. and verbs have a statement form..
Note: In everyday speech the rules are not always followed..
Reported speech: Commands and requests We normally use tell for commands and ask for requests. 2. She asked me where did I live? The instructor told me not to do that.' He told me not to worry. 2. They told me that the exam was very hard. but other verbs can also be used. Use We use third conditionals to describe something that didn't happen. 1. (You were driving too fast. 3.32. Reported speech Look at these sentences. In each pair one is right and one is wrong. but not when the main clause is first. I'd lend you some money if I had any. To report a command or a request we use the following structure: told/asked + person + (not) to + verb. warn. If it won't rain this evening we'll play tennis.) You wouldn't have crashed if you hadn't been driving so fast. If I'd worked harder I would have passed the exam. and I didn't pass the exam. 3. Mary said that she didn't enjoy the film. an imaginary situation in the past.' The doctor asked me to sit down. We usually use a comma (. If you hadn't studied so hard. she wouldn't have left. I would have passed if I'd worked harder. order. you would have failed. 'Don't worry. 4. (I didn't work hard. If I had told the truth. The instructor told me not to do that. If it doesn't rain this evening we'll play tennis. The instructor told me that I don't do that. I'd lend you some money if I would have any. such as advise. persuade.
33. Third conditional Form We use the past perfect (continuous) form in the if clause and would have + past participle in the main clause. 1. 'Please sit down. She asked me where I lived. beg. 90
. They wouldn't have come if they hadn't wanted to see you. They said me that the exam was very hard. Some are right and some are wrong.) Conditionals Look at these sentences.) when if clause is first. If I knew the answer I'd tell you. Mary said that she doesn't enjoy the film. and you crashed. and command.
4. (They didn't buy the house – I think it was a bad decision.) They should have bought the house. We can also use this structure in the continuous form. Use We use should / shouldn't + have + past participle to express regret and criticism. should / shouldn't have Form Positive and negative He should have gone.)
. I'd have got lost if I wouldn't have had a map.
34. We shouldn't have stayed in bed. should / shouldn't + have been + present participle You shouldn't have been driving so fast. (I regret leaving at ten o'clock. I shouldn't have left at ten o'clock. She should have been wearing a seatbelt. I'd have got lost if I hadn't had a map.
If I knew the answer I'll tell you.
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