of action, the filing of one or a +udgment upon the merits in any one is available as a ground for the dismissal of the others% (-a)
oinder of causes of action.
# A party may in one pleading assert, in the alternative or otherise, as many causes of action as he may have against an opposing party, sub+ect to the folloing conditions"(a) $he party +oining the causes of action shall comply ith the rules on +oinder of parties1(b) $he +oinder shall not include special civil actions or actions governed by special rules1(c) 2here the causes of action are beteen the same parties but pertain to different venues or +urisdictions, the +oinder may be alloed in the &egional $rial Court provided one of the causes of action falls ithin the +urisdiction of said court and the venue lies therein1 and(d) 2here the claims in all the causes of action are principally for recovery of money, the aggregate amount claimed shall be the test of +urisdiction% (5a)
!is"oinder of causes of action.
# 3is+oinder of causes of action is not a ground for dismissal of an action% A mis+oined cause of action may, on motion of a party or on the initiative of the court, be severed and proceeded ith separately% (n)
RULE 3PARTIES TO CIVIL ACTIONSSECTION 1.
#ho may be parties; plaintiff and defendant.
# 4nly natural or +uridical persons, or entities authoried by la may be parties in a civil action% $he term plaintiff6 may refer to the claiming party, the counter7claimant, the cross7claimant, or the third (fourth, etc%)#party plaintiff% $he term 8defendant8 may refer to original defending party, the defendant in a counterclaim, the cross7defendant, or the third (fourth etc%)#party defendant% (a)%
$arties in interest.
# A real party in interest is the party ho stands to be benefited or in+ured by the +udgment in the suit, or the party entitled to the avails of the suit% 9nless otherise authoried by la or these &ules, every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party in interest% (*a)
Representatives as parties.
# 2here the action is alloed to be prosecuted or defended by a representative or someone acting in a fiduciary capacity, the beneficiary shall be included in the title of the case and shall be deemed to be the real party in interest% A representative may be a trustee of an epress trust, a guardian, an eecutor or administrator, or a party authoried by la or these &ules% An agent acting in his on name and for the benefit of an undisclosed principal may sue or be sued ithout +oining the principal ecept hen the contract involves things belonging to the principal% (.a)
Spouses as parties.
# :usband and ife shall sue or be sued +ointly, ecept as provided by la% (-a)
!inor or incompetent persons.
# A minor or a person alleged to be incompetent, may sue or be sued, ith the assistance of his father, mother, guardian, or if he has none, a guardian ad litem% (5a)
$ermissive "oinder of parties.
# All persons in hom or against hom any right to relief in respect to or arising out of the same transaction or series of transactions is alleged to eist, hether +ointly, severally, or in the alternative, may, ecept as otherise provided in these &ules, +oin as plaintiffs or be +oined as defendants in one complaint, here any ;uestion of la or fact common to %all such plaintiffs or to all such defendants may arise in the action1 but the court may ma'e such orders as may be +ust to prevent any plaintiff or defendant from being embarrassed or put to epense in connection ith any proceedings in hich he may have no interest% (/)
Compulsory "oinder of indispensable parties.
# Parties in interest ithout hom no final determination can be had of an action shall be +oined either as plaintiffs or defendants% (<)
# A necessary party is one ho is not indispensable but ho ought to be +oined as a party if complete relief is to be accorded as to those already parties, or for a complete determination or settlement of the claim sub+ect of the action% (=a)
%on&"oinder of necessary parties to be pleaded.
# 2henever in any pleading in hich a claim is asserted a necessary party is not +oined, the pleader shall set forth his name, if 'non, and shall state hy he is omitted% Should the