MATHEMATI CS
Hi gher Sec ondar y  Fi r st Year
Untouchability is a sin
Untouchability is a crime
Untouchability is inhuman
Ta m i l n a d u
Te xt bo o k Co r p o r a t i o n
College Road, Chennai  600 006.
© Government of Tami l nadu
First Edition  2004
Chai rperson
Thiru. V. THIRUGNANASAMBANDAM,
Retired Lecturer in Mathematics
Govt. Arts Col l ege ( Men)
Nandanam, Chennai  600 035.
Thiru. S. GUNASEKARAN,
Headmaster,
Govt. Girls Hr. Sec. School,
Tiruchengode, Namakkal Dist.
Revi ewers
Dr. M.R. SRINIVASAN,
Reader in Statistics
Department of Stati sti cs
University of Madras,
Chennai  600 005.
Thiru. N. RAMESH,
Selection Grade Lecturer
Department of Mathemati cs
Govt. Arts Col l ege ( Men)
Nandanam, Chennai  600 035.
Authors
Thiru. S. RAMACHANDRAN,
Post Graduate Teacher
The Chi ntadri pet Hr. Sec. School,
Chi ntadri pet, Chennai  600 002.
Thiru. S. RAMAN,
Post Graduate Teacher
Jaigopal Garodia National Hr. Sec. School
East Tambaram, Chennai  600 059.
Thiru. S.T. PADMANABHAN,
Post Graduate Teacher
The Hi ndu Hr. Sec. School,
Tri pli cane, Chennai  600 005.
Tmt. K. MEENAKSHI,
Post Graduate Teacher
Ramakrishna Mission Hr. Sec. School (Main)
T. Nagar, Chennai  600 017.
Thiru. V. PRAKASH,
Lecturer ( S.S.) , Department of Statistics,
Presidency College,
Chennai  600 005.
Price : Rs.
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education
on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu
This book has been printed on 60 GSM paper
Laser typeset by : JOY GRAPHICS, Chennai  600 002.
Printed by :
Preface
Thi s book on Busi ness Mat hemat i cs has been wr i t t en i n
conformity with the revised syllabus for the first year of the Higher
Secondary classes.
The aim of this text book is to provide the students with the
basi c knowl edge i n t he subj ect . We have gi ven i n t he book t he
Definitions, Theorems and Observations, followed by typical problems
and t he st ep by st ep sol ut i on. The soci et y’s i ncreasi ng busi ness
orientation and the students’ preparedness to meet the future needs
have been taken care of in this book on Business Mathematics.
This book aims at an exhaustive coverage of the curriculum and
there is definitely an attempt to kindle the students creative ability.
While preparing for the examination students should not restrict
themselves only to the questions / problems given in the self evaluation.
They must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the
entire text.
We wel come s ugges t i ons f r om s t udent s , t eacher s and
academicians so that this book may further be improved upon.
We thank everyone who has lent a helping hand in the preparation
of this book.
Chairperson
The Text Book Committee
iii
SYLLABUS
1) Matrices and Determinants (15 periods)
Order  Types of matrices  Addition and subtraction of matrices and
Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar  Product of matrices.
Evaluation of determinants of order two and three  Properties of
determinants (Statements only)  Singular and non singular matrices 
Product of two determinants.
2) Algebra (20 periods)
Partial fractions  Linear non repeated and repeated factors  Quadratic
non repeated types. Permutations  Applications  Permutation of
repeated objects  Circular permutaion. Combinations  Applications 
Mathematical induction  Summation of series using Σn, Σn
2
and Σn
3
.
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index  Binomial coefficients.
3) Sequences and series (20 periods)
Harnomic progression  Means of two positive real numbers  Relation
between A.M., G.M., and H.M.  Sequences in general  Specifying a
sequence by a rule and by a recursive relation  Compound interest 
Nominal rate and effective rate  Annuities  immediate and due.
4) Analytical Geometry (30 periods)
Locus  Straight lines  Normal form, symmetric form  Length of
perpendicular from a point to a line  Equation of the bisectors of the
angle between two lines  Perpendicular and parallel lines  Concurrent
lines  Circle  Centre radius form  Diameter form  General form 
Length of tangent from a point to a circle  Equation of tangent  Chord
of contact of tangents.
5) Trigonometry (25 periods)
Standard trigonometric identities  Signs of trigonometric ratios 
compound angles  Addition formulae  Multiple and submultiple
angles  Product formulae  Principal solutions  Trigonometric
equations of the form sin θ = sinα, cosθ = cosα and tanθ = tan α 
Inverse trigonometric functions.
6) Functions and their Graphs (15 Periods)
Functions of a real value  Constants and variables  Neighbourhood
 Representation of functions  Tabular and graphical form  Vertical
iv
line test for functions  Linear functions  Determination of slopes 
Power function  2
x
and e
x
 Circular functions  Graphs of sinx, ,cosx
and tanx  Arithmetics of functions (sum, difference, product and
quotient) Absolute value function, signum function  Step function 
Inverse of a function  Even and odd functions  Composition of
functions
7) Differential calculus (30 periods)
Limit of a function  Standard forms
a x
Lt
→ a  x
a x
n n
−
,
0 x
Lt
→
(1+
x
1
)
x
,
0 x
Lt
→ x
1 e
x
−
,
0 x
Lt
→ x
x) log(1+
,
0 x
Lt
→ θ
θ sin
(statement only)
Continuity of functions  Graphical interpretation  Differentiation 
Geometrical interpretation  Differtentiation using first principles  Rules
of differentiation  Chain rule  Logarithmic Differentitation 
Differentiation of implicit functions  parametric functions  Second
order derivatives.
8) Integral calculus (25 periods)
Integration  Methods of integration  Substitution  Standard forms 
integration by parts  Definite integral  Integral as the limit of an
infinite sum (statement only).
9) Stocks, Shares and Debentures (15 periods)
Basic concepts  Distinction between shares and debentures 
Mathematical aspects of purchase and sale of shares  Debentures
with nominal rate.
10) Statistics (15 Periods)
Measures of central tendency for a continuous frequency distribution
Mean, Median, Mode Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean  Measures
of dispersion for a continuous frequency distribution  Range 
Standard deviation  Coefficient of variation  Probability  Basic
concepts  Axiomatic approach  Classical definition  Basic theorems
 Addition theorem (statement only)  Conditional probability 
Multiplication theorem (statement only)  Baye’s theorem (statement
only)  Simple problems.
v
Contents
Page
1 . MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1
2 . ALGEBRA 2 5
3 . S EQUENCES AND S ERI ES 5 4
4 . ANALYTI CAL GEOMETRY 8 9
5 . TRI GONOMETRY 1 1 1
6 . FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS 1 5 4
7 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1 8 7
8 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS 2 2 9
9 . S TOCKS , S HARES AND DEBENTURES 2 5 7
10. S TATIS TICS 2 8 0
vi
1
1.1 MATRIX ALGEBRA
Sir ARTHUR CAYLEY (18211895) of England was the first
Mathematician to introduce the term MATRIX in the year 1858. But in the
present day applied Mathematics in overwhelmingly large majority of cases
it is used, as a notation to represent a large number of simultaneous
equations in a compact and convenient manner.
Matrix Theory has its applications in Operations Research, Economics
and Psychology. Apart from the above, matrices are now indispensible in
all branches of Engineering, Physical and Social Sciences, Business
Management, Statistics and Modern Control systems.
1.1.1 Definition of a Matrix
A rectangular array of numbers or functions represented by the
symbol
mn m2 m1
2n 22 21
1n 12 11
....a a a
. . .
. . .
. . .
....a a a
....a a a
is called a MATRIX
The numbers or functions a
ij
of this array are called elements, may be
real or complex numbers, where as m and n are positive integers, which
denotes the number of Rows and number of Columns.
For example
A =
4 2
2 1
and B =
x
1
2
x
sinx x
are the matrices
MATRICES
AND DETERMINANTS
1
2
1.1.2 Order of a Matrix
A matrix A with m rows and n columns is said to be of the order m by
n (m x n).
Symbolically
A = (a
ij
)
mxn
is a matrix of order m x n. The first subscript i in (a
ij
)
ranging from 1 to m identifies the rows and the second subscript j in (a
ij
)
ranging from 1 to n identifies the columns.
For example
A =
6 5 4
3 2 1
is a Matrix of order 2 x 3 and
B =
4 2
2 1
is a Matrix of order 2 x 2
C =
θ θ
θ θ
sin cos
cos sin
is a Matrix of order 2 x 2
D =
−
− −
93 8 78
67 5 4
30 22 0
is a Matrix of order 3 x 3
1.1.3 Types of Matrices
(i) SQUARE MATRIX
When the number of rows is equal to the number of columns, the
matrix is called a Square Matrix.
For example
A =
3 6
7 5
is a Square Matrix of order 2
B =
9 4 2
6 1 4
5 1 3
is a Square Matrix of order 3
C =
δ β α
δ β α
δ β α
cosec cosec cosec
cos cos cos
sin sin sin
is a Square Matrix of order 3
3
(ii) ROW MATRIX
A matrix having only one row is called Row Matrix
For example
A = (2 0 1) is a row matrix of order 1 x 3
B = (1 0)
is a row matrix or order 1 x 2
(iii) COLUMN MATRIX
A matrix having only one column is called Column Matrix.
For example
A =
1
0
2
is a column matrix of order 3 x 1 and
B =
0
1
is a column matrix of order 2 x 1
(iv) ZERO OR NULL MATRIX
A matrix in which all elements are equal to zero is called Zero or Null
Matrix and is denoted by O.
For example
O =
0 0
0 0
is a Null Matrix of order 2 x 2 and
O =
0 0 0
0 0 0
is a Null Matrix of order 2 x 3
(v) DIAGONAL MATRIX
A square Matrix in which all the elements other than main diagonal
elements are zero is called a diagonal matrix
For example
A =
9 0
0 5
is a Diagonal Matrix of order 2 and
B =
3 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 1
is a Diagonal Matrix of order 3
4
Consider the square matrix
A =
− −
5 6 3
4 2 5
7 3 1
Here 1, 2, 5 are called main diagonal elements and 3, 2, 7 are called
secondary diagonal elements.
(vi) SCALAR MATRIX
A Diagonal Matrix with all diagonal elements equal to K (a scalar) is
called a Scalar Matrix.
For example
A =
2 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
is a Scalar Matrix of order 3 and the value of scalar K = 2
(vii) UNIT MATRIX OR IDENTITY MATRIX
A scalar Matrix having each diagonal element equal to 1 (unity) is
called a Unit Matrix and is denoted by I.
For example
I
2
=
1 0
0 1
is a Unit Matrix of order 2
I
3
=
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
is a Unit Matrix of order 3
1.1.4 Multiplication of a marix by a scalar
If A = (a
ij
) is a matrix of any order and if K is a scalar, then the Scalar
Multiplication of A by the scalar k is defined as
KA= (Ka
ij
) for all i, j.
In other words, to multiply a matrix A by a scalar K, multiply every
element of A by K.
1.1.5 Negative of a matrix
The negative of a matrix A = (a
ij
)
mxn
is defined by  A = (a
ij
)
mxn
for all
i, j and is obtained by changing the sign of every element.
5
For example
If A =
−
6 5 0
7 5 2
then
 A =
− −
− −
6 5 0
7 5 2
1.1.6 Equality of matrices
Two matrices are said to equal when
i) they have the same order and
ii) the corresponding elements are equal.
1.1.7 Addition of matrices
Addition of matrices is possible only when they are of same order
(i.e., conformal for addition). When two matrices A and B are of same order,
then their sum (A+B) is obtained by adding the corresponding elements in
both the matrices.
1.1.8 Properties of matrix addition
Let A, B, C be matrices of the same order. The addition of matrices
obeys the following
(i) Commutative law : A + B = B + A
(ii) Associative law : A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
(iii) Distributive law : K(A+B) = KA+KB, where k is scalar.
1.1.9 Subtraction of matrices
Subtraction of matrices is also possible only when they are of same
order. Let A and B be the two matrices of the same order. The matrix A  B
is obtained by subtracting the elements of B from the corresponding elements
of A.
1.1.10 Multiplication of matrices
Multiplication of two matrices is possible only when the number of
columns of the first matrix is equal to the number of rows of the second
matrix (i.e. conformable for multiplication)
Let A = (a
ij
) be an m x p matrix,
and let B = (b
ij
) be an p x n matrix.
6
Then the product AB is a matrix C = (c
ij
) of order mxn,
where c
ij
= element in the i
th
row and j
th
column of C is found by
multiplying corresponding elements of the i
th
row of A and j
th
column of B
and then adding the results.
For example
if A =
2 x 3
7 6
1 2
5 3
−
B =
2 x 2
4 2
7 5
−
−
then AB =
−
7 6
1 2
5 3
−
−
4 2
7 5
=
+ +
+ +
+ +
(4) 7x (7) 6x (2) 7x 5 x 6
(4) x (1) (7) x 2 (2) x (1) 5 x 2
5x(5) 3x(7) 5x(2) 5 x 3
=
−
−
−
14 16
18 12
1 5
1.1.11 Properties of matrix multiplication
(i) Matrix Multiplication is not commutative i.e. for the two
matrices A and B, generally AB ≠ BA.
(ii) The Multiplication of Matrices is associative
i.e., (AB) C = A(BC)
(iii) Matrix Multiplication is distributive with respect to addition.
i.e. if, A, B, C are matrices of order mxn, n x k, and n x k
respectively, then A(B+C) = AB + AC
(iv) Let A be a square matrix of order n and I is the unit matrix of
same order.
Then AI = A = I A
(v) The product
AB = O (Null matrix), does not imply that either A = 0 or B = 0
or both are zero.
7
For example
Let A =
2 x 2
2 2
1 1
B =
2 x 2
1 1
1 1
−
−
Then AB =
2 2
1 1
−
−
1 1
1 1
=
0 0
0 0
⇒ AB = (null matrix)
Here neither the matrix A, nor the matrix B is Zero, but the product
AB is zero.
1.1.12 Transpose of a matrix
Let A = (a
ij
) be a matrix of order mxn. The transpose of A, denoted by
A
T
of order nxm is obtained by interchanging rows into columns of A.
For example
If A =
3 x 2
6 4 3
5 2 1
, then
A
T
=
T
6 4 3
5 2 1
=
6 5
4 2
3 1
1.1.13 Properties Of Matrix Transposition
Let A
T
and B
T
are the transposed Matrices of A and B and α i s a
scalar. Then
(i) (A
T
)
T
= A
(ii) (A + B)
T
= A
T
+ B
T
(iii) (α A)
T
= αA
T
(iv) (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
(A and B are conformable for multiplication)
Example 1
If A =
10 2 6
6 9 5
and B =
− − 3 8 4
7 0 6
find A + B and AB
8
Solution :
A+B =
− + − + +
+ + +
) 3 ( 10 ) 8 ( 2 4 6
7 6 0 9 6 5
=
− 7 6 10
13 9 11
AB =
− − − − −
− − −
) 3 ( 10 ) 8 ( 2 4 6
7 6 0 9 6 5
=
− −
13 10 2
1 9 1
Example 2
If A =
2 9
6 3
find (i) 3A (ii) 
3
1
A
Solution :
(i) 3A = 3
2 9
6 3
=
6 27
18 9
(ii) 
3
1
A = 
3
1
2 9
6 3
=
−
− −
3
2
 3
2 1
Example 3
If A =
4 6 1
9 7 4
5 3 2
and B =
− 7 2 6
5 2 4
2 1 3
show that 5(A+B) = 5A + 5B
Solution :
A+B =
11 4 7
14 9 8
7 4 5
∴ 5(A+B) =
55 20 35
70 45 40
35 20 25
5A =
20 30 5
45 35 20
25 15 10
and 5B =
− 35 10 30
25 10 20
10 5 15
∴ 5A+5B =
55 20 35
70 45 40
35 20 25
∴ 5(A+B) = 5A + 5B
9
Example 4
If A =
9 6 3
6 4 2
3 2 1
and B =
− − −
− − −
4 2 1
4 2 1
4 2 1
find AB and BA. Also show that AB ≠ ≠ BA
Solution:
AB =
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
9x4 6(4) 3(4) 9(2) 6(2) 3(2) 9(1) 6(1) 3(1)
6x4 4(4) 2(4) 6(2) 4(2) 2(2) 6(1) 4(1) 2(1)
3x4 2(4) 1(4) 3x2 2(2) 1(2) 3(1) 2(1) 1(1)
=
3 x 3
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Similarly BA =
− − −
− − −
51 34 17
51 34 17
51 34 17
∴ AB ≠ BA
Example 5
If A =
−
−
4 3
2 1
, then compute A
2
5A + 3I
Solution:
A
2
= A.A =
−
−
4 3
2 1
−
−
4 3
2 1
=
−
−
10 9
6 5
5A = 5
−
−
4 3
2 1
=
−
−
20 15
10 5
3I = 3
1 0
0 1
=
3 0
0 3
∴ A
2
 5A+3I =
−
−
10 9
6 5

−
−
20 15
10 5
+
3 0
0 3
=
−
−
30 24
16 10
+
3 0
0 3
=
−
−
33 24
16 7
10
Example 6
Verify that (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
when
A =
3 x 2
1 0 4
2 4 1
−
and B =
2 x 3
2 4
1 0
3 2
− −
−
Solution :
AB =
−
1 0 4
2 4 1
− −
−
2 4
1 0
3 2
=
+ + + +
+ + + +
1x(2) 0x1 4x(3) 1x(4) 0x0 4x2
2x(2) (4)x1 1x(3) 2(4) (4)x0 1x2
=
+ +
+
2  0 12  4  0 8
4  4  3  8  0 2
=
14  4
11  6 
∴ L.H.S. = (AB)
T
=
T
14 4
11 6
−
− −
=
− −
−
14 11
4 6
R.H.S. = B
T
A
T
=
− −
−
2 1 3
4 0 2
−
1 2
0 4
4 1
=
− −
−
14 11
4 6
⇒ L.H.S. = R.H.S
Example 7
A radio manufacturing company produces three models of radios
say A, B and C. There is an export order of 500 for model A, 1000 for model
B, and 200 for model C. The material and labour (in appropriate units)
needed to produce each model is given by the following table:
Labour Material
9 12
5 8
20 10
C Model
B Model
A Model
Use marix multiplication to compute the total amount of material and labour
needed to fill the entire export order.
11
Solution:
Let P denote the matrix expressing material and labour corresponding
to the models A, B, C. Then
P =
C Model
B Model
A Model
9 12
05 8
20 10
Labour Material
Let E denote matrix expressing the number of units ordered for export
in respect of models A, B, C. Then
A B C
E = (500 1000 200)
∴ Total amount of material and labour = E x P
= (500 1000 200)
9 12
5 8
20 10
= (5000 + 8000 + 2400 10000 + 5000 + 1800)
Material Labour
= (15,400 16,800)
Example 8
Two shops A and B have in stock the following brand of tubelights
Brand
Shops
Bajaj Philips Surya
Shop A 43 62 36
Shop B 24 18 60
Shop A places order for 30 Bajaj, 30 Philips, and 20 Surya brand
of tubelights, whereas shop B orders 10, 6, 40 numbers of the three
varieties. Due to the various factors, they receive only half of the
order as supplied by the manufacturers. The cost of each tubelights of
the three types are Rs. 42, Rs. 38 and Rs. 36 respectively. Represent
the following as matrices (i) Initial stock (ii) the order (iii) the supply
(iv) final sotck (v) cost of individual items (column matrix) (vi) total
cost of stock in the shops.
12
Solution:
(i) The initial stock matrix P =
60 18 24
36 62 43
(ii) The order matrix Q =
40 6 10
20 30 30
(iii) The supply matrix R =
2
1
Q =
20 3 5
10 15 15
(iv) The final stock matrix S = P + R =
80 21 29
46 77 58
(v) The cost vector C =
36
38
42
(vi) The total cost stock in the shops
T = SC =
80 21 29
46 77 58
36
38
42
=
+ +
+ +
2880 798 1218
1656 2926 2436
=
4896
7018
EXERCISE 1.1
1) If A =
2 7
3 5
and B =
6 4
2 3
then, show that
(i) A + B = B + A (ii) (A
T
)
T
= A
2. If A =
6 5 2
8 9 4
2 1 3
and B =
−
−
2 6 4
1 3 0
5 2 9
find (i) A + B (iii) 5A and 2B
(ii) B + A (iv) 5A + 2B
13
3) If A =
−
5 3
2 1
and B =
− 0 3
4 2
, find AB and BA.
4) Find AB and BA when
A =
− −
−
− −
3 4 2
2 5 1
5 1 3
and B =
−
−
3 6 1
1 2 0
5 4 2
5) If A =
−2 3 1
0 1 2
and B =
−2 5
3 7
5 1
, find AB and BA.
6) If A =
− 1 2
1 1
4 3
and B =
−
−
2 3
1 2
verify that (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
7) Let A =
−
2 0 3
4 1 2
and B =
−
−
5 1 3
2 0 1
then
show that 3 (A+B) = 3A + 3B.
8) If A =
−7 9
11 12
, α = 3, β = 7,
show t hat (α + β)A = αA + βA.
9) Verify that α (A + B) = αA + αB where
α = 3, A =
−
5 3 4
2 0 1
0 2 1
and B =
−
2 1 3
4 2 7
1 3 5
10) If A =
α α
α α
cos sin
sin  cos
and B =
β β
β β
cos sin
sin  cos
prove that (i) AB = BA (ii) (A+B)
2
= A
2
+ B
2
+2AB.
11) If A = (3 5 6)
1 x 3
, and B =
1 x 3
2
1
4
t hen fi nd AB and BA.
14
12) If A =
2 2
2 2
and B =
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
find AB, BA
13) There are two families A and B. There are 4 men, 2 women and 1 child
i n fami l y A and 2 men, 3 women and 2 chi l dren i n fami l y B. They
recommended daily allowance for calories i.e. Men : 2000, Women :
1500, Children : 1200 and for proteins is Men : 50 gms. , Women : 45
gms., Children : 30 gms.
Re pr e s e nt t he a bove i nf or ma t i on by ma t r i c e s us i ng ma t r i x
multiplication, calculate the total requirements of calories and proteins
for each of the families.
14) Find the sum of the following matrices
12 10 7
5 4 3
3 2 1
,
4 2 2
1 0 3
3 2 1
8 10 9
6 8 7
7 9 8
and
19 13 7
4 3 2
3 2 1
15) If x +
0 7
6 5
= 2I
2
+ 0
2
then find x
16) If A =
2 1 1
1 2 1
1 1 2
show that (A  I) (A  4I) = 0
17) If A =
−
1 0
1 1
and B =
1 2
0 1
t hen show t hat
(i) (A+B) (AB) ≠ A
2
 B
2
(ii) (A+B)
2
≠ A
2
+ 2AB +B
2
18) If 3A +
−
−
1 2
1 4
=
−
4 1
2 2
, find the value of A
19) Show that A =
−
0 1
1 0
satisfies A
2
= I
15
20) If A =
θ θ
θ θ
cos sin
sin  cos
prove t hat A
2
=
θ θ
θ θ
2 cos 2 sin
2 sin  2 cos
21) If A =
3  2 
4 3
show that A
2
, A
4
are identity matrices
22) If A =
4 0
1 7
, B =
3 1
1 2
, C =
1 4
2 1
, D =
3 1 
2 5
Evluate (i) (A+B) (C+D) (ii) (C+D) (A+B) (iii) A
2
 B
2
(iv) C
2
+ D
2
23) The number of students studying Business Mathematics, Economics,
Computer Science and Statistics in a school are given below
Busi ness Economi cs Computer Statistics
St d.
Mat hemat i cs Science
XI Std. 45 60 55 30
XII Std. 58 72 40 80
(i) Express the above data in the form of a matrix
(ii) Write the order of the matrix
(iii) Express standardwise the number of students as a column matrix and
subjectwise as a row matrix.
(iv) What is the relationship between (i) and (iii)?
1.2 DETERMINANTS
An important attribute in the study of Matrix Algebra is the concept
of Determinant, ascribed to a square matrix. A knowledge of Determinant
theory is indispensable in the study of Matrix Algebra.
1.2.1 Determinant
The determinant associated with each square matrix A = (a
ij
) i s a
scalar and denoted by the symbol det.A or A. The scalar may be real or
complex number, positive, Negative or Zero. A matrix is an array and has no
numerical value, but a determinant has numerical value.
16
For example
when A =
d c
b a
then determinant of A is
 A  =
d c
b a
and the determinant value is = ad  bc
Example 9
Evaluate
2  3
1  1
Solution:
2  3
1  1
= 1 x (2)  3 x (1) = 2 + 3 = 1
Example 10
Evaluate
8 7 9
1 1 5
4 0 2
−
Solution:
8 7 9
1 1 5
4 0 2
−
= 2
8 7
1 1 −
0
8 9
1 5
+ 4
7 9
1 5 −
= 2 (1 x 8  1 x 7)  0 (5 x 8 9 x 1) + 4 (5x7  (1) x 9)
= 2 (8 7)  0 (40  9) + 4 (35 + 9)
= 30  0 + 176 = 146
1.2.2 Properties Of Determinants
(i) The value of determinant is unaltered, when its rows and
columns are interchanged.
(ii) If any two rows (columns) of a determinant are interchanged,
then the value of the determinant changes only in sign.
(iii) If the determinant has two identical rows (columns), then the
value of the determinant is zero.
17
(iv) If all the elements in a row or in a (column) of a determinant are
multiplied by a constant k(k, ≠ 0) then the value of the
determinant is multiplied by k.
(v) The value of the determinant is unaltered when a constant multiple
of the elements of any row (column), is added to the corresponding
elements of a different row (column) in a determinant.
(vi) If each element of a row (column) of a determinant is expressed
as the sum of two or more terms, then the determinant is
expressed as the sum of two or more determinants of the same
order.
(vii) If any two rows or columns of a determinant are proportional,
then the value of the determinant is zero.
1.2.3 Product of Determinants
Product of two determinants is possible only when they are of the
same order. Also AB = A . B
Example 11
Evaluate A B , if A =
6 5
1 3
and B =
3 1
2 5
Solution:
Multiplying row by column
A B=
6 5
1 3
3 1
2 5
=
3 x 6 2 x 5 1 x 6 5 x 5
3 x 1 2 x 3 1 x 1 5 x 3
+ +
+ +
=
18 10 6 25
3 6 1 15
+ +
+ +
=
28 31
9 16
= 448  279
= 169
Example 12
Find
4 0 1
5 0 3
3 1 2
−
0 2 0
3 0 0
0 0 2
18
Solution :
Multiplying row by column
4 0 1
5 0 3
3 1 2
−
0 2 0
3 0 0
0 0 2
=
0 x 4 3 x 0 0 x 1 2 x 4 0 x 0 0 x 1 0 x 4 0 x 0 2 x 1
0 x 5 3 x 0 0 x 3 2 x 5 0 x 0 0 x 3 0 x 5 0 x 0 2 x 3
0 x 3 3 x 1 0 x 2 2 x 3 0 x 1 0 x 2 0 x 3 0 x 1 2 x 2
− + − + − +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
=
0 8 2
0 10 6
3 6 4
−
= 4 (0 + 0) 6 (0  0) + 3 (48  20)
= 3 (68) =  204
1.2.4 Singular Matrix
A square matrix A is said to be singular if det. A = 0, otherwise it is a
nonsingular matrix.
Example 13
Show that
4 2
2 1
is a singular matrix
Solution:
4 2
2 1
= 4  4 = 0
∴ The matrix is singular
Example 14
Show that
10 9
5 2
is a nonsingular matrix
Solution :
10 9
5 2
= 29  45 = 25 ≠ 0
∴ The given matrix is non singular
19
Example : 15
Find x if
8 4  2 
0 3 5
4 x 1 −
= 0
Solution :
Expanding by 1
st
Row,
8 4  2 
0 3 5
4 x 1 −
= 1
8 4
0 3
−
x
8 2
0 5
−
+(4)
4 2
3 5
− −
= 1(24)  x (40) 4 (20 +6)
= 24 40x + 56 = 40x + 80
⇒ 40 x + 80 = 0
∴ x = 2
Example : 16
Show
2 2
2 2
2 2
b a b a 1
a c a c 1
c b c b 1
+ +
+ +
+ +
= (ab) (bc) (ca)
Solution :
2 2
2 2
2 2
b a b a 1
a c a c 1
c b c b 1
+ +
+ +
+ +
R
2
→ R
2
 R
1
, R
3
→ R
3
 R
1
=
2 2
2 2
2 2
c  a c  a 0
b a b  a 0
c b c b 1
+
+ +
=
c)  c)(a (a c  a 0
b)  b)(a (a b  a 0
c b c b 1
2 2
+
+
+ +
taking out (ab) from R
2
and (ac) from R
3
20
= (ab) (ac)
c a 1 0
b a 1 0
c b c b 1
2 2
+
+
+ +
= (ab) (ac) [a+cab] (Expanding along c
1
)
= (ab) (ac) (cb) = (ab) (bc) (ca)
EXERCISE 1.2
1) Evaluate (i)
3 2
6 4
−
(ii)
5 4
2 3
(iii)
6 1
4 2
− −
− −
2) Evaluate
4 2 1
4 1 3
0 2 1
−
3) Evaluate
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
4) Examine whether A =
2 3 5
1 2 3
3 4 7
is nonsingular
5) Examine whether the given matrix A =
−
− −
−
5 2 4
0 1 2
3 2 1
is singular
6) Evaluate
1 2 3
4 1 0
1 2 3
7) Evaluate
6 1 3
4 2 2
2 4 1
−
−
8) If the value of
7 2 6
0 1 4
5 3 2
= 60, then evaluate
7 4 6
0 2 4
5 6 2
9) If the value of
1 0 2
3 1 1
3 2 1
= 5, then what is the value of
1 12 2
3 7 1
3 8 1
21
10) Show that
5 1
3 6 4 2 + +
=
5 1
6 2
+
5 1
3 4
11) Prove that
c  b b  a a  c
b  a a  c c  b
a  c c  b b  a
= 0
12) Prove that
1 c b a
1 b a c
1 a c b
+
+
+
= 0
13) Show that
y 1 1 1
1 x 1 1
1 1 1
+
+
= xy
EXERCISE 1.3
Choose the correct answer
1) [ 0 0 0 ] is a
(a) Unit matrix (b) Scalar matrix
(c) Null matrix (d) Diagonal matrix
2) [ 6 2  3 ] is a matrix of order
(a) 3 x 3 (b) 3 x 1
(c) 1 x 3 (d) Scalar matrix
3)
1 0
0 1
is a
(a) Unit matrix (b) Zero matrix of order 2 x 2
(c) Unit matrix of 2 x 2 (c) None of these
4) A =
−
4 2
3 3
and B =
− 0 1
2 1
, then A + B is
(a)
4 3
5 4
(b)
−
−
4 1
1 4
(c)
−
4 1
1 4
(d)
1 0
0 1
22
5) If A =
− − 1 3
9 8
and B =
−
−
2 0
3 1
, then A  B is
(a)
− − 3 3
6 7
(b)
− 1 3
6 9
(c)
1 0
6 7
(d)
0 0
0 0
6) If A =
− − 3 3
4 2
, then 3A is
(a)
−
− −
15 9
12 6
(b)
− −
15 9
12 6
(c)
−
9 9
12 6
(d) None of these
7) If A =
−
−
1 3 5
0 1 1
4 3 2
and I =
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
, t hen A + 2I is
(a)
− 3 3 5
0 1 1
4 3 4
(b)
− 2 3 5
0 0 1
4 3 3
(c)
−
−
2 3 5
0 1 1
4 3 4
(d) None of these
8)
− 6 1 2
6 5 3
x
−
1 2 3
0 1 5
a)
− 1 4
12 15
(b)
−
−
3 8
15 3
(c) Cannot be multiplied (d) None of these
9) The value of
−
0 0
1 1
is
(a) 4 (b) 14 (c) 14 (d) None of these
10) The value of
0 0
1 1 −
is
(a) 0 (b)  1 (c) 1 (d) None of these
23
11) If the value of
4 3
2 1
= 2, then the value of
4 2
3 1
is
(a) 0 (b)  2 (c) 2 (d) None of these
12) Det (AB) =  AB  = ?
(a) A + B (b) B + A
(c) A x B (d) None of these
13) The element at 2
nd
Row and 2
nd
Coloumn is denoted by
(a) a
12
(b) a
32
(c) a
22
(d) a
11
14) Order of the matrix A = [a
ij
]
3 x 3
is
(a) 2 x 3 (b) 3 x 3 (c) 1 x 3 (d) 3 x 1
15) When the number of rows and the number of coloumns of a matrix are equal,
the matrix is
(a) square matrix (b) row matrix (c) column matrix (d) None of these
16) If all the elements of a matrix are zeros, then the matrix is a
(a) unit matrix (b) square matrix
(c) zero matrix (d) None of these
17) A diagonal matrix in which all the diagonal elements are equal is a
(a) scalar matrix (b) column matrix
(c) unit matrix (d) None of these
18) If any two rows and coloumns of a determinant are identical, the value of
the determinant is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) unaltered
19) If there is only one column in a matrix, it is called
(a) Row matrix (b) column matrix
(c) square matrix (d) rectangular
20) Addition of matrices is
(a) not commutative (b) commutative
(c) not associative (d) distributive
21) A square matrix A is said to be nonsingular if
(a)  A  ≠ 0 (b)  A  = 0 (c) A = 0 (d) None of these
22) The value of x if
3 5
x 1
= 0 is
(a)
3
5
(b)
5
3
(c) 0 (d) None of these
24
23) If
4 9
8 4
−
= 88, then the value of
9 4
4 8
−
is
(a) 88 (b) 88 (c) 80 (d) None of these
24) The value of
2 3
2 3
is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) None of these
25) If
4 2
3 1
= 2, then the value of
4 2
6 2
is
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 4 (d) None of these
26) If (A+B) (AB) = A
2
 B
2
and A and B are square matrices then
(a) (AB)
T
= AB (b) AB = BA
(c) (A+B)T = B
T
+A
T
(d) None of these
27)
10 10
10 10
is a
(a) Rectangular matrix (b) Scalar matrix
(c) Identity matrix (d) None of these
28)
7
6
2
1
is a
(a) Square matrix (b) Row matrix
(c) Scalar matrix (d) Column matrix
29) If A = I, then A
2
(a) I
2
(b) I (c) 0 (d) None of these
30) If A = (1 2 3) and B =
3
2
1
then the order of AB is
(a) 1 x 1 (b) 1 x 3 (c) 3 x 1 (d) 3 x 3
25
ALGEBRA
2
2.1 PARTIAL FRACTION
We know that two or more rational expressions of the form p/q can
be added and subtracted. In this chapter we are going to learn the process
of writing a single rational expression as a sum or difference of two or more
rational expressions. This process is called splitting up into partial fractions.
(i) Every rational expression of the form p/q where q is the nonrepeated
product of linear factors like (ax+b) (cx+d), can be represented as a
partial fraction of the form:
b ax
M
+
+
d cx
N
+
, where M and N are the
constants to be determined.
For example:
3) 1)(2x  (x
x 2
+
=
1  x
A
+
3 2x
B
+
, where A and B are to be
determined.
(ii) Every rational expression of the form p/q, where q is linear expression
of the type (ax+b) occurring in multiples say n times i.e., (ax+b)
n
can
be represented as a partial fraction of the form:
( ) b ax
A
1
+
+
( )
2
2
b ax
A
+
+ .......+
( )
n
n
b ax
A
+
For example :
( )( )
2
2 x 1  x
1
−
=
1)  (x
A
+
( ) 2  x
B
+
( )
2
2  x
C
(iii) Every rational expression of the form p/q where q is an irreducible
quadratic expression of the type ax
2
+bx+c, can be equated to a partial
fraction of the type
c bx ax
B Ax
2
+ +
+
For example :
3) (4x 1) 5x (3x
7 2x
2
+ + +
+
=
1 5x 3x
B Ax
2
+ +
+
+
3 4x
C
+
26
Example 1
Resolve into partial fractions
1) (x 2)  (x
1 4x
+
+
Solution:
Step 1: Let
( )( ) 1 x 2  x
1 4x
+
+
=
2  x
A
+
1 x
B
+
(1)
Step 2: Taking L.C.M. on R.H.S.
( )( ) 1 x 2  x
1 4x
+
+
=
( ) ( )
( )( ) 1 x 2  x
2  x B 1 x A
+
+ +
Step 3: Equating the numerator on both sides
4x+1 = A(x+1) + B(x2)
= Ax+A + Bx2B
= (A+B)x + (A2B)
Step 4: Equating the coefficient of like terms,
A+B = 4 (2)
A2B = 1 (3)
Step 5: Solving the equations (2) and (3) we get
A = 3 and B = 1
Step 6: Substituting the values of A and B in step 1 we get
1) (x 2)  x (
1 4x
+
+
=
2 x
3
−
+
1 x
1
+
Example 2
Resolve into partial fractions
2
2) (x 1)  (x
1
+
Solution:
Step 1: Let
( )( )
2
2 x 1  x
1
+
=
1 x
A
−
+
2 x
B
+
+
( )
2
2 x
C
+
Step 2: Taking L.C.M. on R.H.S we get
( )( )
2
2 x 1  x
1
+
=
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2 x 1  x
1 x C 2 x 1 x B 2 x A
+
− + + − + +
Step 3: Equating Numerator on either sides we get
1 = A(x+2)
2
+B(x1)(x+2)+C(x1)
Step 4: Puting x = 2 we get C = 
3
1
27
Step 5: Puting x = 1 we get A =
9
1
Step 6: Putting x = 0 and substituting the values of A and C in
step 3 we get
B = 
9
1
Step 7: ∴
( )( )
2
2 x 1  x
1
+
=
( ) 1 x 9
1
−

( ) 2 x 9
1
+

( )
2
2 x 3
1
+
Example 3
Resolve into partial fractions
( )
2
2
1 x x
1 x
+
+
Solution:
Step 1: Let
( )
2
2
1 x x
1 x
+
+
=
x
A
+
1 x
B
+
+
( )
2
1 x
C
+
Step 2: Taking L.C.M. on R.H.S. we get
( )
2
2
1 x x
1 x
+
+
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
1 x x
Cx 1 x Bx 1 x A
+
+ + + +
Step 3: Equating the Numerator on either sides we get
x
2
+1 = A(x+1)
2
+ Bx (x+1) + Cx
Step 4: Putting x = 0 we get A = 1
Step 5: Putting x = 1 we get C = 2
Step 6: Putting x = 2 and substituting the values of A and C
in step 3 we get B = 0
Step 7: ∴
( )
2
2
1 x x
1 x
+
+
=
x
1
+
1 x
0
+

( )
2
1 x
2
+
=
x
1

( )
2
1 x
2
+
Example 4
Resolve into partial fractions
1) (x 6) x (x
9 2x x
2
2
+ + +
− −
Solution:
Step 1: Let
1) (x 6) x x (
9 2x x
2
2
+ + +
− −
=
6 x x
B Ax
2
+ +
+
+
1 x
C
+
(Q x
2
+x+6 cannot be factorised)
28
Step 2: Taking L.C.M. on R.H.S. we get
1) (x 6) x x (
9 2x x
2
2
+ + +
− −
=
1) (x 6) x (x
6) x C(x 1) (x B) (Ax
2
2
+ + +
+ + + + +
Step 3: Equating the Numerator on either side we get
x
2
2x9 = (Ax+B)(x+1)+C(x
2
+x+6)
Step 4: Putting x = 1 we get C = −1
Step 5: Putting x = 0 and substituting the value of C we get B = 3
Step 6: Putting x = 1 and substituting the values of B and C in
step 3 get A = 2
Step 7: ∴
1) (x 6) x x (
9 2x x
2
2
+ + +
− −
=
6 x x
3 2x
2
+ +
−

1 x
1
+
Example 5
Resolve into partial fraction
1) (x 4) (x
1
2
+ +
Solution:
Step 1: Let
1) (x 4) (x
1
2
+ +
=
1 x
A
+
+
4 x
C Bx
2
+
+
Step 2: Taking L.C.M. on R.H.S. we get
1) (x 4) (x
1
2
+ +
=
4) (x 1) (x
1) (x c) (Bx 4) A(x
2
2
+ +
+ + + +
Step 3: Equating the Numerator on either side we get
1 = A(x
2
+ 4) + (Bx + C) (x + 1)
Step 4: Putting x = 1 we get A =
5
1
Step 5: Putting x = 0 and substituting the value of A we get
C =
5
1
Step 6: Putting x = 1 and substituting the value of A and C
in Step 3 we get Β = −
5
1
Step 7: ∴
( )( ) 1 x 4 x
1
2
+ +
=
( ) 1 x 5
1
+
+
4 x
x
2
5
1
5
1
+
+
29
EXERCISE 2.1
Resolve into partial fractions
1)
6  x  x
1 x
2
+
2)
6 x 5 x
15  2x
2
+ +
3)
1  x
1
2
4)
( ) ( ) 1 x 4 x
4 x
2
+ −
+
5)
( ) ( ) 3 x 2 x
1 x
2
+ −
+
6)
( )( )
2
2 x 1 x
1
+ −
7)
( )( )
2
1 x 1 x
x
+ −
8)
( ) ( )
2
2
3 x 1 x
23 7x 2x
+ −
+ +
9)
( ) ( ) 2  3x 1  x 2 x
6 25x  7x
2
2
−
+
10)
( ) ( ) 1 x 1 x
2 x
2
+ −
+
2.2 PERMUTATIONS
This topic deals with the new Mathematical idea of counting without
doing actual counting. That is without listing out particular cases it is
possible to assess the number of cases under certain given conditions.
Permutations refer to different arrangement of things from a given lot
taken one or more at a time. For example, Permutations made out of a set of
three elements {a,b,c}
(i) One at a time: {a}, {b}, {c} ...... 3 ways
(ii) Two at a time: {a,b}, {b,a},{b,c}, {c,b}, {a,c}, {c,a} ...... 6 ways
(iii) Three at a time: {a,b,c}, {a,c,b}, {b,c,a}, {b,a,c}, {c,a,b}, {c,b,a} ......6 ways
2.2.1 Fundamental rules of counting
There are two fundamental rules of counting based on the simple
principles of multiplication and addition, the former when events occur
independently one after another and latter when either of the events can
occur simultaneously. Some times we have to combine the two depending
on the nature of the problem.
30
2.2.2 Fundamental principle of counting
Let us consider an example from our daytoday life. Sekar was allotted
a roll number for his examination. But he forgot his number. What all he
remembered was that it was a two digit odd number.
The possible numbers are listed as follows:
11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91
13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93
15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95
17 27 37 47 57 67 77 87 97
19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99
So the total number of possible two digit odd numbers = 9x5 = 45
Let us see whether there is any other method to find the total number
of two digit odd numbers. Now the digit in the unit place can be any one of
the five digits 1,3,5,7,9. This is because our number is an odd number. The
digit in the ten’s place can be any one of the nine digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Thus there are five ways to fill up the unit place and nine ways to fill
up the ten’s place. So the total number of two digit odd numbers = 9x5 = 45.
This example illustrates the following principle.
(i) Multiplication principle
If one operation can be performed in “m” different ways and another
operation can be performed in “n” different ways then the two operations
together can be performed in ‘m x n’ different ways. This principle is
known as multiplication principle of counting.
(ii) Addition Principle
If one operation can be performed in m ways and another operation
can be performed in n ways, then any one of the two operations can be
performed in m+n ways. This principle known as addition principle of
counting.
Further consider the set {a,b,c,d}
31
From the above set we have to select two elements and we have to
arrange them as follows.
I Place II Place
b
a c
d
a
b c
d
a
c b
d
a
d b
c
The possible arrangements are
(a,b), (a,c), (a,d)
(b,a), (b,c), (b,d)
(c,a), (c,b), (c,d)
(d,a), (d,b), (d,c)
The total number of arrangements are 4 x 3 = 12
In the above arrangement, the pair (a,b) is different from the pair (b,a)
and so on. There are 12 possible ways of arranging the letters a,b,c,d taking
two at a time.
i.e Selecting and arranging ‘2’ from ‘4’ can be done in 12 ways. In
otherwords number of permutations of ‘four’ things taken ‘two’ at a time is
4x3 = 12
In general
n
p
r
denotes the number of permutations of ‘n’ things taken
‘r’ at a time.
[‘n’ and ‘r’ are positive integers and r<n]
32
2.2.3 To find the value of
n
p
r
:
n
p
r
means selecting and arranging ‘r’ things from ‘n’ things which is
the same as filling ‘r’ places using ‘n’ things which can be done as follows.
The first place can be filled by using anyone of ‘n’ things in ‘n’ ways
The second place can be filled by using any one of the remaining
(n1) things in (n1) ways.
So the first and the second places together can be filled in n(n1)
ways.
The third place can be filled in (n2) ways by using the remaining
(n2) things.
So the first, second and the third places together can be filled in n(n1)
(n2) ways.
In general ‘r’ places can be filled in n(n1)(n2)....[n(r1)] ways.
So
n
p
r
= n(n1) (n2)...(nr+1). To simplify the above formula, we are
going to introduce factorial notation.
2.2.4 Factorial notation:
The product of first ‘n’ natural numbers is called n factorial denoted by
n ! or n.
For example:
5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1
∴ 5! = 5 x 4!
5! = 5 x 4 x 3!
In general, n! = n(n1)(n2)...3.2.1
∴ n! = n{(n1)!}
= n(n1)(n2)! and so on
We have
n
p
r
= n(n1)(n2)............(nr+1)
=
( )( ) ( )( )
( )! r  n
! r n 1 r  n ...... 2 n 1  n n − + −
=
( )! r  n
n!
{multiplying and dividing by (nr)!}
∴
n
p
r
=
( )! r  n
n!
33
Observation :
(i) o! = 1
(ii)
n
p
o
=
( )! 0  n
n!
=
n!
n!
= 1
(iii)
n
p
1
=
( )! 1  n
n!
=
( )
( )! 1  n
! 1  n n
= n
(iv)
n
p
n
=
( )! n  n
n!
=
0!
n!
=n!
(ie. Selecting and arranging ‘n’ things from ‘n’ things can be
done in n! ways).
(i.e ‘n’ things can be arranged among themselves in n! ways).
2.2.5 Permutations of repeated things:
If there are ‘n’ things of which ‘m’ are of one kind and the remaining
(nm) are of another kind, then the total number of distinct permutations of
‘n’ things
=
( )! m  n ! m
n!
If there are m
1
things of first kind, m
2
things of second kind and
m
r
things of r
th
kind such that m
1
+m
2
+.....+m
r
= n then the total number of
permutations of ‘n’ things
=
! m ...... ! m ! m
n!
r 2 1
2.2.6 Circular Permutations:
We have seen permutations of ‘n’ things in a row. Now we consider
the permutations of ‘n’ things in a circle. Consider four letters A,B,C,D.
The four letters can be arranged in a row in 4! ways. Of the 4! arrangements,
the arrangement ABCD, BCDA, CDAB, DABC are the same when
represented along a circle.
D B
C
A
A C
D
B
C A
B
D
B D
A
C
34
So the number of permutations of ‘4’ things along a circle is
4
4!
= 3!
In general, n things can be arranged among themselves in a circle in
(n1)! ways
Example 6
Find the value of (i)
10
p
1
, (ii)
7
p
4
, (iii)
11
p
0
Solution:
i)
10
p
1
= 10
ii)
7
p
4
=
4  7 
7 
=
3 
7 
=
3!
3! x x4 5 x 6 x 7
=7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 840
iii)
11
p
0
= 1
Example 7
There are 4 trains from Chennai to Madurai and back to Chennai.
In how many ways can a person go from Chennai to Madurai and return in
a different train?
Solution:
Number of ways of selecting a train from
Chennai to Madurai from the four trains =
4
p
1
= 4ways
Number of ways of selecting a train from
Madurai to Chennai from the remaining 3 trains =
3
p
1
= 3 ways
∴ Total number of ways of making the journey = 4 x 3 = 12ways
Example 8
There is a letter lock with 3 rings each marked with 4 letters and do
not know the key word. How many maximum useless attempts may be made
to open the lock?
Solution:
To open the lock :
The number of ways in which the first ring’s
position can be fixed using the four letters =
4
p
1
= 4 ways
The number of ways in which the second
ring’s position can be fixed using the 4 letters =
4
p
1
= 4 ways
35
The number of ways in which the third ring’s
position can be fixed using the 4 letters =
4
p
1
= 4 ways
∴ Total number of attempts = 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 ways
Of these attempts, only one attempt will open the lock.
∴ Maximum number of useless attempts = 64  1 = 63
Example 9
How many number of 4 digits can be formed out of the digits
0,1,2,..........,9 if repetition of digits is not allowed.
Solution:
The number of ways in which the 1000’s place can be filled
(0 cannot be in the 1000’s place) = 9ways
The number of ways in which the 100’s place 10’s
place and the unit place filled using the remaining
9 digits (including zero) =
9
p
3
= 504 ways
∴ Total number of 4 digit numbers formed = 9 x 504 = 4536
Example 10
Find the number of arrangements of 6 boys and 4 girls in a line so
that no two girls sit together
Solution:
Six boys can be arranged among themselves in a line in 6! ways.
After this arrangement we have to arrange the four girls in such a way that
in between two girls there is atleast one boy. So the possible places to fill
with the girls are as follows
¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨
The four girls can be arranged in the boxes (7 places) which can
be done in
7
p
4
ways. So the total number of arrangements = 6! x
7
p
4
= 720 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 604800
Example 11
A family of 4 brothers and 3 sisters are to be arranged in a row. In
how many ways can they be seated if all the sisters sit together?
36
Solution:
Consider the 3 sisters as one unit. There are 4 brothers which is
treated as 4 units. Now there are totally 5 units which can be arranged
among themselves in 5! ways. After these arrangements the 3 sisters can
be arranged among themselves in 3! ways.
∴ Total number of arrangement = 5! x 3! = 720
Example 12
Find the sum of all the numbers that can be formed with the
digits 2, 3, 4, 5 taken all at a time.
Solution:
Number of 4 digit numbers that can be formed using the digits
2, 3, 4, 5 is
4
p
4
=4! = 24. Out of the 24 numbers the digit 2 appears in the unit
place 6 times, the digit 3 appears in the unit place 6 times and so on. If we
write all the 24 numbers and add, the sum of all the numbers in the unit place
= 6[2+3+4+5] = 6 x 14 = 84
Similarly the sum of all the numbers in the 10’s place = 84
The sum of all the numbers in the 100’s place = 84
and the sum of all the numbers in the 1000’s place = 84
∴ sum of all the 4 digit numbers = 84x1000 + 84x100+84x10+84x1
= 84 (1000+100+10+1) = 84 x 1111
= 93324
Example 13
In how many ways can the letters of the word CONTAMINATION
be arranged?
Solution:
The number of letters of word CONTAMINATION = 13
which can be arranged in 13! ways
Of these arrangements the letter O occurs 2 times
N occurs 3 times
T occurs 2 times
A occurs 2 times
and I occurs 2 times
∴ The total number of permutations =
2! 2! 2! 3! 2!
13!
37
EXERCISE 2.2
1) If
n
p
5
= (42)
n
p
3
, find n
2) If 6[
n
p
3
] = 7
(n1)
p
3
find n
3) How many distinct words can be formed using all the letters of the word
i) ENTERTAINMENT ii) MATHEMATICS iii) MISSISSIPPI
4) How many even numbers of 4 digits can be formed out of the digits 1,2,3,....9
if repetition of digits is not allowed?
5) Find the sum of all numbers that can be formed with the digits 3,4,5,6,7
taken all at a time.
6) In how many ways can 7 boys and 4 girls can be arranged in a row so that
i) all the girls sit together ii) no two girls sit together?
7) In how many ways can the letters of the word STRANGE be arranged so
that vowels may appear in the odd places.
8) In how many ways 5 gentlemen and 3 ladies can be arranged along a round
table so that no two ladies are together?
9) Find the number of words that can be formed by considering all possible
permutations of the letters of the word FATHER. How many of these
words begin with F and end with R?
2.3 COMBINATIONS
Combination are selections ie. it inolves only the selection of the
required number of things out of the total number of things. Thus in
combination order does not matter.
For example, consider a set of three elements {a,b,c} and combination
made out of the set with
i) One at a time: {a}, {b}, {c}
ii) Two at a time: {a,b}, {b,c}, {c,a}
iii) Three at a time: {a,b,c}
The number of comibnations of n things taken r, (r < n) is denoted
by
n
c
r
or
( )
n
r
38
2.3.1 To derive the formula for
n
c
r
:
Number of combinations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time =
n
c
r
Number of permutations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time =
n
p
r
Number of ways ‘r’ things can be arranged among themselves = r!
Each combination having r things gives rise to r! permutations
∴
n
p
r
= (
n
c
r
) r!
=>
( )! r  n
n!
= (
n
c
r
) r!
∴
n
c
r
=
( )! r  n r!
n!
Observation:
(i)
n
c
o
=
( )! 0  n 0!
n!
=
! n
n!
= 1
(ii)
n
c
n
=
! n)  (n n!
n!
=
! r!0
n!
= 1
(iii)
n
c
r
=
n
c
nr
(iv) If
n
c
x
=
n
c
y
then x = y or x+y = n
(v)
n
c
r
=
! r
p
r
n
Example14
Evaluate
8
p
3
and
8
c
3
Solution:
8
p
3
=
)! 3 8 (
8!
−
=
! 5
8!
=
! 5
8x7x6x5!
= 8 x 7 x 6 = 336
8
c
3
=
( )! 3  8 ! 3
8!
=
! 5 3!
8!
=
! 5 3!
8x7x6x5!
=
3x2x1
8x7x6
= 56
Example 15
Evaluate
10
c
8
Solution:
10
c
8
=
10
c
2
=
2x1
10x9
= 45
39
Example 16
If
n
c
8
=
n
c
6
, find
n
c
2
.
Solution:
n
c
8
=
n
c
6
(given)
=> n = 8+6 = 14
∴
n
c
2
=
14
c
2
=
1 x 2
13 x 14
= 91
Example 17
If
( )
100
r
=
( )
100
4r
, find ‘r’
Solution:
100
c
r
=
100
c
4r
(given)
=> r + 4r = 100
∴ r = 20
Example 18
Out of 7 consonants and 4 vowels, how many words can be made each
containing 3 consonants and 2 vowels.
Solution:
Selecting 3 from 7 consonants can be done in
7
c
3
ways
Selecting 2 from 4 vowels can be done in
4
c
2
ways.
∴ Total number of words formed =
7
c
3
x
4
c
2
=
1 x 2 x 3
5 x 6 x 7
x
1 x 2
3 x 4
∴ = 35 x 6 = 210
Example 19
There are 13 persons in a party. If each of them shakes hands with
each other, how many handshakes happen in the party?
Solution:
Selecting two persons from 13 persons can be done in
13
c
2
ways.
∴ Total number of hand shakes =
13
c
2
=
1 x 2
12 x 13
= 78
40
Example 20
There are 10 points in a plane in which none of the 3 points are
collinear. Find the number of lines that can be drawn using the 10 points.
Solution:
To draw a line we need atleast two points. Now selecting 2 from 10
can be done in
10
c
2
ways
∴ number of lines drawn =
10
c
2
=
1 x 2
9 x 10
= 45
Example 21
A question paper has two parts, part A and part B each with 10
questions. If the student has to choose 8 from part A and 5 from part B, in
how many ways can he choose the questions?
Solution:
Number of questions in part A = 10.
Selecting 8 from part A can be done in
10
c
8
ways =
10
c
2
Number of questions in part B = 10
Selecting 5 from part B can be done in
10
c
5
ways
∴ Total number of ways in which the questions can be selected
=
10
c
8
x
10
c
5
= 45 x 252 = 11340 ways
Example 22
A committee of seven students is formed selecting from 6 boys and
5 girls such that majority are from boys. How many different committees
can be formed?
Solution:
Number of students in the committee = 7
Number of boys = 6
Number of girls = 5
The selection can be done as follows
Boy (6) Girl (5)
6 1
5 2
4 3
ie. (6B and 1G) or (5B and 2G) or (4B and 3G)
41
The possible ways are
( )
6
6
( )
5
1
or
( )
6
5
( )
5
2
or
( )
6
4
( )
5
3
∴The total number of different committees formed
=
6
c
6
x
5
c
1
+
6
c
5
x
5
c
2
+
6
c
4
x
5
c
3
= 1 x 5 + 6 x 10 + 15 x 10 = 215
2.3.2 Pascal’s Triangle
For n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... the details can be arranged in the form of a
triangle known as Pascal’s triangle.
n = 0
( )
0
0
n = 1
( )
1
0
( )
1
1
n = 2
( )
2
0
( )
2
1
( )
2
2
n = 3
( )
3
0
( )
3
1
( )
3
2
( )
3
3
n = 4
( )
4
0
( )
4
1
( )
4
2
( )
4
3
( )
4
4
n = 5
( )
5
0
( )
5
1
( )
5
2
( )
5
3
( )
5
4
( )
5
5
Substituting the values we get
n = 0 1
n = 1 1 1
n = 2 1 2 1
n = 3 1 3 3 1
n = 4 1 4 6 4 1
n = 5 1 5 10 10 5 1
The conclusion arrived at from this triangle named after the French
Mathematician Pascal is as follows. The value of any entry in any row is
equal to sum of the values of the two entries in the preceding row on either
side of it. Hence we get the result.
( )
1 n
r
+
=
( )
n
1  r
+
( )
n
r
42
2.3.3 Using the formula for
n
c
r
derive that
( )
n
r
+
( )
n
1  r
=
( )
1 n
r
+
Proof :
L.H.S. =
n
c
r
+
n
c
r1
=
( )! r  n r!
n!
+
( ) ( ) [ ]! 1  r  n 1!  r
n!
=
( )! r  n r!
n!
+
( ) ( )! 1 r  n 1!  r
n!
+
=
[ ] ( )
( )! r  1 n r!
r n! 1 r  n n!
+
+ +
=
[ ]
( )! 1 r  n r!
r 1 r  n n!
+
+ +
=
( )
( )! 1 r  n r!
1 n n!
+
+
=
( )
( )! 1 r  n r!
! 1 n
+
+
=
( )
( )! r  1 n r!
! 1 n
+
+
=
n+1
c
r
= R.H.S.
EXERCISE 2.3
1) Evaluate a)
10
c
6
b)
15
c
13
2) If
36
c
n
=
36
c
n+4
, find ‘n’.
3)
n+2
c
n
= 45, find n.
4) A candidate is required to answer 7 questions out of 12 questions which
are di vi ded i nt o t wo groups each cont ai ni ng 6 quest i ons. He i s not
permitted to attempt more than 5 questions from each group. In how
many ways can he choose the 7 questions.
5) From a set of 9 ladies and 8 gentlemen a group of 5 is to be formed. In
how many ways the group can be formed so that it contains majority of
ladies
6) From a class of 15 students, 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party.
There are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none
of them will join. In how many ways can they be chosen.
7) Find the number of diagonals of a hexagon.
43
8) A cricket team of 11 players is to be chosen from 20 players including
6 bowl ers and 3 wi cket keepers. In how many di fferent ways can a
team be formed so that the team contains exactly 2 wicket keepers and
atleast 4 bowlers.
2.4 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Many mathematical theorems, formulae which cannot be easily
derived by direct proof are sometimes proved by the indirect method known
as mathematical induction. It consists of three steps.
(i) Actual verification of the theorem for n = 1
(ii) Assuming that the theorem is true for some positive integer k(k>1).
We have to prove that the theorem is true for k+1 which is the
integer next to k.
(iii) The conclusion is that the theorem is true for all natural numbers.
2.4.1 Principle of Mathematical Induction:
Let P(n) be the statement for n ε N. If P(1) is true and P(k+1) is also
true whenever P(k) is true for k > 1 then P(n) is true for all natural numbers.
Example 23
Using the principle of Mathematical Induction prove that for all
n∈ ∈N, 1+2+3+...n =
( )
2
1 n n +
Solution:
Let P(n) =
( )
2
1 n n +
For L.H.S. n=1, p(1) = 1
For R.H.S p(1) =
( )
2
1 1 1 +
= 1
L.H.S = R.H.S for n = 1
∴ P(1) is true.
Now assume that P(k) is true
i.e. 1+2+3+......+k =
( )
2
1 k k +
is true.
44
To prove that p(k+1) is true
Now p(k+1) = p(k) + t
k+1
p(k+1) = 1+2+3+......k+k+1
= p(k) + (k+1)
=
( )
2
1 k k +
+ k+1
= (k+1) [
2
k
+1]
=
( )( )
2
2 k 1 k + +
=> p(k+1) is true whenever p(k) is true. But p(1) is true.
∴ p(n) is true for all n∈N.
Example 24
Show by principle of mathematical induction that 3
2n
1 i s
divisible by 8 for all n∈ ∈N.
Solution:
Let P(n) be the given statement
p(1) =3
2
 1 = 91=8 which is divisible by 8.
∴ p(1) is true.
Assume that p(k) is true
ie., 3
2k
1 is divisible by 8.
To prove p(k+1) is true.
Now p(k+1) = 3
2(k+1)
 1 = 3
2k
x 3
2
1
= 9 3
2k
1
= 9(3
2k
)  9 + 8
= 9 [3
2k
1] + 8
Which is divisible by 8 as 3
2k
1 is divisible by 8
So p(k+1) is true whenever p(k) is true. So by induction p(n) is true
for all n∈N.
EXERCISE 2.4
By the principle of mathematical induction prove the following
1) 1+3+5+..... (2k1) = k
2
2) 4+8+12+.......4n = 2n(n+1)
45
3) 1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + ........n(n+1) =
( )( )
3
2 n 1 n n + +
4) 1
3
+ 2
3
+ ..........n
3
=
( )
4
1 n n
2 2
+
5) 1
2
+ 2
2
+ ..........n
2
=
( ) ( )
6
1 2n 1 n n + +
6) 1+4+7+10+..........(3n2) =
2
n
(3n1)
7) 2
3n
 1 is divisible by 7.
2.4.2 Summation of Series
We have 1+2+3+......+n = Σn =
2
1) n(n +
1
2
+2
2
+.......+n
2
= Σn
2
=
6
1) (2n 1) n(n + +
1
3
+2
3
+.......+n
3
= Σn
3
=
{ }
2
2
1) n(n+
Thus Σ Σn =
2
1) n(n +
Σ Σn
2
=
6
1) (2n 1) n(n + +
Σ Σn
3
=
{ }
2
2
1) n(n+
Using the above formula we are going to find the summation when
the nth term of the sequence is given.
Example 25
Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n(n+1)(n+4)
Solution :
t
n
= n(n+1)(n+4)
= n
3
+ 5n
2
+ 4n
∴ S
n
= Σt
n
= Σ(n
3
+ 5n
2
+ 4n)
= Σn
3
+ 5 Σn
2
+ 4Σn
46
=
( )
{ }
2
2
1 n n +
+ 5
( )( )
{ }
6
1 2n 1 n n + +
+ 4
( )
{ }
2
1 n n +
=
( )
12
1 n n +
[ 3n
2
+ 23n + 34]
Example 26
Sum to n terms of the series 1
2
.3 + 2
2
.5 + 3
2
.7 + ......
Solution:
The n
th
term is n
2
(2n+1) = 2n
3
+n
2
∴ S
n
= Σ(2n
3
+n
2
) = 2Σn
3
+ Σn
2
=
( )
4
1 n 2n
2 2
+
+
( )( )
6
1 2n 1 n n + +
=
2
1) (n n +
[n(n+1) +
3
1 2n +
]
=
2
1) (n n +
( )
3
1 2n 3n 3n
2
+ + +
=
6
1) (n n +
[3n
2
+ 5n + 1]
Example 27
Sum the following series 2+5+10+17+......to n terms
Solution:
2+5+10+17+.......
= (1+1) + (1+4) + (1+9) + (1+16)+......
= (1+1+1+.......n terms) + (1
2
+2
2
+.....n
2
)
= n+
( )( )
6
1 2n 1 n n + +
=
6
n
[6+2n
2
+3n+1]
=
6
n
[2n
2
+3n+7]
47
EXERCISE 2.5
Find the sum to n terms of the following series
1) 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + 3.4.5 + ........
2) 1.2
2
+ 2.3
2
+ 3.4
2
+ ...........
3) 2
2
+ 4
2
+ 6
2
+ ..........(2n)
2
4) 2.5 + 5.8 + 8.11 + ..........
5) 1
2
+ 3
2
+ 5
2
+ ..............
6) 1 + (1+2) + (1+2+3) + .........
2.5 BINOMIAL THEOREM
2.5.1 Theorem
If n is a natural number,
(x+a)
n
=
n
C
0
x
n
+
n
C
1
x
n1
a +
n
C
2
x
n2
a
2
+ ...... + n
C
r x
n r
a
r
+ ....
n
C
n
a
n
Proof:
We shall prove the theorem by the principle of Mathematical
Induction
Let P(n) denote the statement :
(x+a)
n
=
n
C
0
x
n
+
n
C
1
x
n1
a +
n
C
2
x
n2
a
2
+ ......
+
n
C
r  1
x
n+1r
a
r  1
+
n
C
r
x
n r
a
r
+....... +
n
C
n
a
n
Let n = 1, Then LHS of P(1) = x + a
RHS of P(1) = 1 . x + 1 . a = x + a = L.H.S. of P (1)
∴ P (1) is true
Let us assume that the statement P (k) be true for k∈N
i.e. P(k) :
(x+a)
k
=
k
C
0
x
k
+
k
C
1
x
k1
a +
k
C
2
x
k2
a
2
+ ......
+
k
C
r  1
x
k+1r
a
r  1
+
k
C
r
x
kr
a
r
+....... +
k
C
k
a
k
........ (1)
is true
To prove P (k+1) is true
i.e., (x+a)
k+1
=
k+1
C
0
x
k+1
+
k+1
C
1
x
k
a
+
k+1
C
2
x
k1
a
2
+ ... +
k+1
C
r
x
k+1r
a
r
+ ... + ... +
k+1
C
k+1
a
k+1
is true.
(x+a)
k+1
= (x+a) (x+a)
k
= (x + a) [
k
C
0
x
k
+
k
C
1
x
k1
a +
k
C
2
x
k2
a
2
+ ... +
k
C
r  1
x
k+1r
a
r1
+
k
C
r
x
kr
a
r
+ .... + k
C
k a
k
] using (1)
48
=
k
C
0
x
k+1
+
k
C
1
x
k
a +
k
C
2
x
k1
a
2
+ ... +
k
C
r
x
k+1r
a
r
+ ... +
k
C
k
x a
k
+
k
C
0
x
k
a +
k
C
1
x
k1
a + ...
k
C
r  1
x
k+1r
a
r
+ ... +
k
C
k
a
k+1
=
k
C
0
x
k+1
+ (
k
C
1
+
k
C
0
) x
k
a + (
k
C
2
+
k
C
1
) x
k1
a
2
+ ........
........ + (
k
C
r
+
k
C
r  1
) x
k+1r
a
r
+ ... +
k
C
k
a
k+1
But
k
C
r
+
k
C
r  1
=
k+1
C
r
Put r = 1, 2, ... etc.
k
C
1
+
k
C
0
=
k+1
C
1
,
k
C
2
+
k
C
1
=
k+1
C
2
......
k
C
0
= 1 =
k+1
C
0
;
k
C
k
= 1 =
k+1
C
k+1
∴ (x+a)
k+1
=
k+1
C
0
x
k+1
+
k+1
C
1
x
k
a+
k+2
C
2
x
k1
a
2
+ ......
+
k+1
C
r
x
k+1r
a
r
+ ...... +
k+1
C
k+1
a
k+1
Thus if P (k) is true, then P (k +1) is also true.
∴ By the principle of mathematical induction P(n) is true for n ∈ N.
Thus the Binomial Theorem is proved for n ∈ N.
Observations:
(i) The expansion of (x+a)
n
has (n+1) terms.
(ii) The general term is given by t
r +1
= nC
r
x
n r
a
r
.
(iii) In (x+a)
n
, the power of ‘x’ decreases while the power of ‘a’ increases
such that the sum of the indices in each term is equal to n.
(iv) The coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end are
equal.
(v) The expansion of (x+a)
n
has (n+1) terms Let n+1 = N.
a) when N is odd the middle term is t
2
1 N+
b) when N is even the middle terms are t
2
N and t
2
N
+ 1
(vi) Binomial cooefficients can also be represented by C
0
, C
1
, C
2
, etc.
2.5.2 Binomial coefficients and their properties
(1+x)
n
= C
0
+ C
1
x + C
2
x
2
+ C
3
x
3
+ ..... + C
n
x
n
.................(1)
Put x = 1 in (1) we get
2
n
= C
0
+ C
1
+ C
2
+ ....... + C
n
Put x = 1 in (1) we get
0 = C
0
 C
1
+ C
2
 C
3
+ ..... + (1)
n
C
n
=> C
0
+ C
2
+ C
4
+ ....... = C
1
+ C
3
+ ....
=> sum of the coefficients of even terms =
2
2
n
=2
n1
sum of the coefficients of odd terms = 2
n1
49
Example 28
Expand (x+
x
1
)
4
Solution :
(x+
x
1
)
4
= 4C
0
x
4
+ 4C
1
x
3
(
x
1
) + 4C
2
x
2
(
x
1
)
2
+ 4C
3
x(
x
1
)
3
+ 4C
4
(
x
1
)
4
= x
4
+ 4x
2
+ 6 +
2
x
4
+
4
x
1
Example 29
Expand (x+3y)
4
Solution :
(x+3y)
4
= 4C
0
x
4
+ 4C
1
x
3
(3y) + 4C
2
x
2
(3y)
2
+ 4C
3
x(3y)
3
+ 4C
4
(3y)
4
= x
4
+ 4x
3
(3y) + 6x
2
(9y
2
) + 4x(27y
3
) + 81y
4
= x
4
+ 12x
3
y + 54x
2
y
2
+ 108xy
3
+ 81y
4
Example 30
Find the 5th term of (2x3y)
7
Solution :
t
r+1
= 7C
r
(2x)
7 r
(3y)
r
∴ t
5
= t
4+1
= 7C
4
(2x)
74
(3y)
4
= 7C
3
(2x)
3
(3y)
4
=
1 x 2 x 3
5 x 6 x 7
(8x
3
) (81y
4
)
= (35) (8x
3
) (81y
4
) = 22680x
3
y
4
Example 31
Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of (x
x
2
)
11
Solution :
n = 11
∴ n+1 = 12 = N = even number
So middle terms = t
2
N and t
(
2
N
+1)
ie., t
6
and t
7
50
(i) Now t
6
= t
5+1
= 11C
5
x
115
(
x
2
)
5
= 11C
5
x
6
( )
5
5
x
2
= 11C
5 5
5 6
x
2 x
= 11C
5
2
5
x = (11C
5
)(32x)
(ii) t
7
= t
6+1
= 11C
6
(x)
116
(
x
2
)
6
= 11C
6
x
5
( )
6
6
x
2
= 11C
6
6
6 5
x
2 x
= 11C
6
( )
x
64
Example 32
Find the coefficient of x
10
in the expansion of (2x
2

x
3
)
11
Solution :
General term = t
r +1
= 11C
r
(2x
2
)
11r
(
x
3
)
r
= 11C
r
2
11r
(x
2
)
11r
( )
r
r
x
3
= 11C
r
2
11r
x
222r
(3)
r
x
r
= 11C
r
2
11r
(3)
r
x
223r
To find the coefficient of x
10
, the index of x must be equated to 10.
=> 223r = 10
2210 = 3r
∴ r = 4
So coefficient of x
10
is 11C
4
2
114
(3)
4
= 11C
4
(2
7
) (3
4
)
Example 33
Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (
3
4x
2

2x
3
)
9
51
Solution :
General term = t
r +1
= 9C
r
(
3
4x
2
)
9 r
(
2x
3
)
r
= 9C
r
r  9
r  9
3
4
x
( )
r
r
2
3 
x (x
2
)
9 r
r
x
1
= 9C
r
r  9
r  9
3
4
x
( )
r
r
2
3 
x
182r
x
r
= 9C
r
r  9
r  9
3
4 ( )
r
r
2
3 
x
183r
The term independent of x = constant term = coefficient of x
0
∴ To find the term independent of x
The power of x must be equated to zero
=> 183r = 0
∴ r = 6
So the term independent of x is 9C
6
6  9
6  9
3
4 ( )
6
6
2
3
= 9C
3
3
3
3
4
( )
( )
6
6
2
3
=
3x2x1
9x8x7
x
3
3
64
x
64
3
6
= (84) (3
3
) = 84x27 = 2268
EXERCISE 2.6
1) Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of (x
x
2
)
11
2) Find the coefficient of x
8
in the expansion of (x
x
2
)
20
3) Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (x
2

3
x
4
)
10
4) Find the 8th term in the expansion of (2x +
y
1
)
9
52
5) Find the middle term in the expansion of (3x
6
x
3
)
9
6) Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (2x
2
+
x
1
)
12
7) Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1+x)
2n
is
n!
x . 2 1)  (2n ... 5 . 3 . 1
n n
8) Show that the middle term in the expansion of (x+
2x
1
)
2n
is
n!
1)  (2n ... 5 . 3 . 1
EXERCISE 2.7
Choose the correct answer
1) If n! = 24 then n is
(a) 4 (b) 3 (c) 4! (d) 1
2) The value of 3! + 2! + 1! + 0! is
(a) 10 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 9
3) The value of
4!
1
+
3!
1
is
(a)
20
5
(b)
24
5
(c)
12
7
(d)
7
1
4) The total number of ways of analysing 6 persons around a table is
(a) 6 (b) 5 (c) 6! d) 5!
5) The value of x(x1) (x2)! is
(a) x! (b) (x1)! (c) (x2)! (d) (x+1)!
6) 2 persons can occupy 7 places in ____ ways
(a) 42 (b) 14 (c) 21 (d) 7
7) The value of
8
p
3
is
(a) 8 x 7 x 6 (b)
1 x 2 x 3
6 x 7 x 8
(c) 8 x 7 (d) 3 x 2 1
8) The value of
8
C
0
is
(a) 8 (b) 1 (c) 7 (d) 0
9) The value of
10
C
9
is
(a) 9 (b) 1 (c)
10
C
1
(d) 0
10) Number of lines that can be drawn using 5 points in which none of 3 points
are collinear is
(a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 5 (d) 1
53
11) If
( )
5
x
+ ( )
5
4
= ( )
6
5
then x is
(a) 5 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 0
12) If
10
c
r
=
10
c
4r
then r is
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 10 (d) 1
13) Sum of all the binomial coefficients is
(a) 2
n
(b) b
n
(c) 2n (d) n
14) The last term in (x+1)
n
is
(a) x
n
(b) b
n
(c) n (d) 1
15) The number of terms in (2x+5)
7
is
(a) 2 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 14
16) The middle term in (x+a)
8
is
(a) t
4
(b) t
5
(c) t
6
(d) t
3
17) The general term in (x+a)
n
is denoted by
(a) t
n
(b) t
r
(c) t
r1
(d) t
r+1
54
SEQUENCES AND SERIES
3
A sequence is defined as a function from the set of natural numbers
N or a subset of it to the set of real numbers R. The domain of a sequence
is N or a subset of N and the codomain is R.
We use the notation t
n
to denote the image of the natural number n.
We use {t
n
} or <t
n
> to describe a sequence. Also t
1
, t
2
, t
3
,... are called the
terms of the sequence. The distinctive terms of a sequence constitute its
range. A sequence with finite number of terms is called a finite sequence.
A sequence with infinite number of terms is an infinite sequence.
Examples of finite sequences are
(i) t
n
=
3 n
n
+
, n < 10
The domain of the sequence is {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
and the range is {
4
1
,
5
2
,
6
3
,
7
4
,
8
5
,
9
6
,
10
7
,
11
8
,
12
9
}
(ii) t
n
= 2+(1)
n
The domain is {1, 2, 3,... }
The range is {1, 3}
Examples of infinite sequences are
(i) t
n
= the n
th
prime number
(ii) t
n
= the integral part of + n
It is not necessary that terms of a sequence follow a definite pattern
or rule. The general term need not be capable of being explicitly expressed
by a formula. If the terms follow a definite rule then the sequence is called
a progression. All progressions are sequences but all sequences need not
be progressions. Examples of progressions are
55
(i) 5, 10, 15, 20, 25,...
(ii) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, ...
(iii)
2
1
,
3
2
,
4
3
,
5
4
,
6
5
, ...
(iv) 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ...
(v) 2, 6, 3, 9, 4, 12, ...etc.
The algebraic sum of the terms of a sequence is called a series.
Thus
2
3
+
3
5
+
4
7
+ ... is the series corresponding to the sequence
2
3
,
3
5
,
4
7
, ...
We shall study sequences in their general form in sequel. Now we
recall two progressions.
(i) Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
(ii) Geometric Progression (G.P.)
Arithmetic Progression (A.P.)
A sequence is said to be in A.P. if its terms continuously increase or
decrease by a fixed number. The fixed number is called the common difference
of the A.P.
The standard form of an A.P. may be taken as a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d,...
Here the first term is ‘a’ and the common difference is ‘d’
The n
th
term or the general term of the A.P. is t
n
= a + (n1) d.
The sum to n terms of the A.P. is S =
2
n
[2a + (n1) d]
If three numbers a, b, c are in A.P. then b =
2
c a +
Geometric Progression (G.P.)
A sequence is said to be in G.P. if every term bears to the preceding
term a constant ratio. The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the
G.P.
The standard form of a G.P. may be taken as a, ar, ar
2
, ar
3
,...
56
Here the first term is ‘a’ and the common ratio is ‘r’. The n
th
term or
the general term of the G.P. is t
n
= ar
n1
The sum to n terms of the G.P. is S = a
( )
r  1
r  1
n
If three numbers a, b, c are in G.P. then b
2
= ac.
3.1 HARMONIC PROGRESSION (H.P.)
The receiprocals of the terms of an A.P. form an H.P.
Thus if a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, ..., a
n
,... are in A.P. then
1
a
1
,
2
a
1
,
3
a
1
,...,
n
a
1
,...
form an H.P.
Suppose a, b, c be in H.P. Then
a
1
,
b
1
,
c
1
will be in A.P..
∴
b
1
=
2
c
1
a
1
+
i.e. b =
c a
2ac
+
Example 1
Find the seventh term of the H.P.
5
1
,
9
1
,
13
1
, ...
Solution:
Consider the associated A.P., 5, 9, 13, ...
t
n
= a + (n1) d
t
7
= 5 + (71) 4 = 29
∴ the seventh term of the given H.P. is
29
1
Example 2
If a, b, c be in H.P., prove that
a  b
a b+
+
c  b
c b+
= 2
Solution:
Given that a, b, c are in H.P.
∴ b =
c a
2ac
+
(1)
57
i.e.
a
b
=
c a
2c
+
Applying componendo et dividendo,
a  b
a b +
=
c  a  2c
c a 2c + +
i.e.
a  b
a b +
=
a  c
a 3c +
(2)
Again from (1)
c
b
=
c a
2a
+
Applying componendo et dividendo,
c  b
c b +
=
c  a  2a
c a 2a + +
i.e.
c  b
a b +
=
c  a
c 3a +
(3)
Adding (2) and (3)
a  b
a b +
+
c  b
c b +
=
a  c
a 3c +
+
c  a
c 3a +
=
a  c
a 3c +

a  c
c 3a +
= 2
Example 3
If a
x
= b
y
= c
z
and a, b, c are in G.P. prove that x, y, z are in H.P.
Solution:
Given that a
x
= b
y
= c
z
= k (say)
∴ ∴ a =
x
1
k , b =
y
1
k , c =
z
1
k  (1)
Also given that a, b, c are in G.P.
∴ ∴ b
2
= ac  (2)
Using (1) in (2)
58
(
y
1
k )
2
= (
x
1
k ) (
z
1
k )
i.e.
y
2
k =
z
1
x
1
k
+
i.e.
y
2
=
x
1
+
z
1
i.e.
y
2
=
xz
x z +
i.e.
2
y
=
z x
xz
+
i.e. y =
z x
2xz
+
∴ ∴ x, y, z are in H.P.
EXERCISE 3.1
1) Find the 4th and 7th terms of the H.P.
2
1
,
13
4
,
9
2
, ...
2) The 9
th
term of an H.P. is
465
1
and the 20th term is
388
1
. Fi nd t he 40
th
term of the H.P.
3) Prove that log
3
2
, log
6
2
and log
12
2
are in H.P.
4) If a, b, c are in G.P., prove that log
a
m
, log
b
m
and log
c
m
are in H.P.
5) If
2
1
(x+y), y,
2
1
(y+z) are in H.P., prove that x, y, z are in G.P..
6) The quantities x, y, z are in A.P. as well as in H.P. Prove that they are also
in G.P.
7) If 3 numbers a , b, c are in H.P. show that
c
a
=
c  b
b  a
8) If the p
th
term of an H.P. is q and the q
th
term is p, prove that its (pq)
th
term
is unity.
9) If a, b, c are in A.P., b, c, a are in G.P. then show that c, a, b are in H.P.
59
3.2 MEANS OF TWO POSITIVE REAL NUMBERS
Arithmetic Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as
A.M. =
2
b a +
Geometric Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as
G.M. = + ab
Harmonic Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as
H.M. =
b a
2ab
+
Example 4
Find a) the A.M. of 15 and 25 b) the G.M. of 9 and 4
c) the H.M. of 5 and 45
Solution:
a) A.M. =
2
b a +
=
2
5 2 5 1 +
=
2
40
= 20
b) G.M. = + ab = + 9x4 = 6
c) H.M. =
b a
2ab
+
=
45 5
2x5x45
+
=
50
450
= 9
Example 5
Insert four Arithmetic Means between 5 and 6
Solution:
Let 5, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
, 6 be in A.P.
∴ ∴ t
6
= 6
i.e. 5 + 5d = 6
∴ d=
5
1
Hence x
1
= 5 +
5
1
=
5
26
x
2
=
5
26
+
5
1
=
5
27
60
x
3
=
5
27
+
5
1
=
5
28
and x
4
=
5
28
+
5
1
=
5
29
The required Arithmetic Means are
5
26
,
5
27
,
5
28
,
5
29
Example 6
Insert three Geometric Means between
3
4
and
4
3
Solution:
Let
3
4
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
,
4
3
be in G.P..
∴ t
5
=
4
3
i.e.
3
4
r
4
=
4
3
∴ r =
2
3
Hence x
1
=
3
4
x
2
3
=
3
2
x
2
=
3
2
x
2
3
= 1
and x
3
= 1 x
2
3
=
2
3
The required Geometric Means are
3
2
, 1,
2
3
Example 7
Insert four Harmonic Means between
9
1
and
10
1
Sol ut i on:
Let
9
1
x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
,
10
1
be in H.P..
∴ 9,
1
1
x
,
2
1
x
,
3
1
x
,
4
1
x
, 10 are in A.P..
61
t
6
= 10
i.e. 9 + 5d = 10 ∴ d =
5
1
Hence
1
1
x
= 9 +
5
1
=
5
46
2
1
x
=
5
46
+
5
1
=
5
47
3
1
x
=
5
47
+
5
1
=
5
48
and
4
1
x
=
5
48
+
5
1
=
5
49
The required Harmonic Means are
46
5
,
47
5
,
48
5
,
49
5
,
EXERCISE 3.2
1) Insert 3 Arithmetic Means between 5 and 29.
2) Insert 5 Geometric Means between 5 and 3645.
3) Insert 4 Harmonic Means between
5
1
and
20
1
4) The Arithmetic Mean of two numbers is 34 and their Geometric Mean is
16. Find the two numbers.
5) Show that the Arithmetic Mean of the roots of x
2
 2ax + b
2
= 0 is the
Geometric Mean of the roots of x
2
 2bx + a
2
= 0 and vice versa.
3.3 RELATION BETWEEN A.M. G.M. AND H.M.
For any two positive unequal real numbers,
i) A.M > G.M > H.M ii) G.M. =
(H.M.) x (A.M.)
Proof :
Denoting the A.M., G.M., and H.M. between two positive unequal
real numbers ‘a’ and ‘b’ by A, G, H respectively,
62
A =
2
b a+
, G = ab , H =
b a
2ab
+
Now,
A  G =
2
b a+
 ab =
2
ab 2  b a +
=
2
b a 2  b a+
=
( )
2
b a
2
−
> 0
∴ ∴ A > G  (1)
Also
G  H = ab 
b a
2ab
+
=
( )
b a
2ab  b a ab
+
+
=
( )
b a
ab ab 2  b a ab
+
+
=
( )
b a
ab 2  b a ab
+
+
=
( )
b a
b a ab
2
+
−
> 0
∴ G > H  (2)
Combining (1) and (2)
A > G > H
Further
A.H. = ( )
2
b a +
( )
b a
2ab
+
= ab
=
( )
2
ab
= G
2
∴ G = (H) (A)
Hence the proof
Observation:
(i) A.M., G.M., H.M. form a decreasing G.P.
(ii) If we consider the A.M., G.M. and H.M. of two equal positive real
numbers each equal to ‘a’ then A.M. = G.M. = H.M. = a.
O A M C B X
T
(63)
Example 8
Verify that the A.M., G.M. and H.M. between 25 and 4 form a
decreasing G.P.
Solution :
A =
2
b a+
=
2
4 25+
=
2
29
G = ab = 25x4 = 10
H =
b a
2ab
+
=
4 25
2x25x4
+
=
29
200
Now
A  G =
2
29
 10 =
2
10  29
=
2
9
> 0
∴ ∴ A > G  (1)
Also
G  H= 10 
29
200
=
29
200  290
=
29
90
> 0
∴ ∴ G > H  (2)
Combining (1) and (2)
A > G > H
Further
AH = ( )
2
29
( )
29
200
= 100 = (10)
2
= G
2
.
Hence it is verified that A, G, H form a decreasing GP.
Example 9
Represent the A.M, G.M. and H.M. geometrically and hence show
that they form a decreasing G.P.
64
Solution:
From a line OX, cut off OA = a units, OB = b units.
Draw a semicircle on AB as diameter.
Draw OT the tangent to the circle, TM ⊥ AB.
Let C be the centre of the semi circle.
Now,
2
b a+
=
2
OB OA+
=
2
CB OC AC  OC + +
=
2
2OC
= OC (
Q
AC, CB radii)
∴ ∴ OC is the A.M. between a and b.
Now
OT
2
= OA.OB = ab (
Q
OT is tangent and OAB is secant)
i.e. OT =
ab
∴ ∴ OT is the G.M. between a and b.
Now
OT
2
= OM.OC (
Q
∆OTC  ∆OMT)
i.e. OM =
OC
OT
2
=
2
b a
ab
+
=
b a
2ab
+
∴ ∴ OM is the H.M. between a and b.
From the right angled ∆ OTC,
OC > OT
i.e. A > G  (1)
From the right angled ∆ OTM,
OT > OM
i.e. G > H  (2)
combining (1) and (2) we get
A > G > H (3)
Further
OT
2
= OM.OC ∴ OC, OT and OM form a G.P.
i.e. A, G, H form a G.P. (4)
combining (3) and (4) we get that
A.M., G.M., H.M. form a decreasing G.P.
65
Example 10
If x, y, z be unequal positive real numbers prove that
(x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > 8xyz
Solution:
Consider x, y
We have A.M. > G.M.
∴ ∴
2
y x+
> xy i.e. (x+y) > 2 xy (1)
Similarly (y+z) > 2 yz (2)
and (z+x) > 2
zx
(3)
Multiplying (1), (2) & (3) vertically,
(x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > [ ] xy 2 [ ] yz 2 [ ] zx 2
i.e. (x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > 8xyz
EXERCISE 3.3
1) Verify the inequality of the means for the numbers 25 and 36.
2) If a, b, c are three positive unequal numbers in H. P. then show that
a
2
+ c
2
> 2b
2
.
3) If x is positive and different from 1 then show that x +
x
1
> 2
3.4 GENERAL CONCEPT OF SEQUENCES
A sequence can be defined (or specified) by
(i) a rule (ii) a recursive relation.
3.4.1 Defining a sequence by a rule
A sequence can be defined by a rule given by a formula for t
n
which indicates how to find t
n
for a given n.
66
Example 11
Write out the first four terms of each of the following sequences.
a) t
n
= 3n  2 b) t
n
=
n
1 n
2
+
c) t
n
=
1  2n
1 2n+
d) t
n
=
2
n
n
2
e)
( )
> <
− +
2
1 1
n
f) > <
+
1  n
1 n
, n > 1
Solution :
a) 1, 4, 7, 10 b) 2,
2
5
,
3
10
,
4
17
c) 3,
3
5
,
5
7
,
7
9
d) 2, 1,
9
8
, 1 e) 0, 1, 0, 1 f) 3, 2,
3
5
,
2
3
Example 12
Determine the range of each of the following sequences
a) < 2n > b) < 2n  1 > c) < 1 + (1)
n
>
d) < (1)
n
> e) < (1)
n1
>
Solution:
a) The set of all positive even integers {2, 4, 6, ... }
b) The set of all positive odd integers {1, 3, 5, ... }
c) {0, 2}
d) {1, 1}
e) {1, 1}
Example 13
What can you say about the range of the squence
t
n
= n
2
 n + 41, n < 40?
Solution:
The range is
{41, 43, 47, 53, 61 ... 1601}
This is the set of all prime numbers from 41 to 1601
Example 14
Find an expression for the n
th
term of each of the following
sequences
a) 1,
4
1
,
9
1
,
16
1
, ... b)
2
3
,
4
5
,
6
7
,
8
9
, ...
67
c) 3, 15, 35, 63, ... d) 5, 17, 37, 65, ................
e)
2
1
, 
3
2
,
4
3
, 
5
4
, ... f) 
2
1
,
6
1
, 
12
1
,
20
1
, ...
Solution:
a) t
n
= 2
n
1
b) t
n
=
2n
1 2n +
c) t
n
= 4n
2
1 d) t
n
= 4n
2
+ 1
e) t
n
= (1)
n+1
1 n
n
+
f) t
n
=
( )
n n
1
2
n
+
3.4.2 Defining a sequence by a recursive relation.
A recursive relation is a rule given by a formula which enables us to
calculate any term of the sequence using the previous terms and the given
initial terms of the sequence.
Example 15
Find the first seven terms of the sequence given by the recursive
relation,
a
1
= 1, a
2
= 0, a
n
= 2a
n1
 a
n2
, n>2
Solution:
a
3
= 2a
2
a
1
= 01 = 1
a
4
= 2a
3
a
2
= 20 = 2
a
5
= 2a
4
a
3
= 4+1 = 3
a
6
= 2a
5
a
4
= 6+2 = 4
a
7
= 2a
6
a
5
= 8+3 = 5
The first seven terms are 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Example 16
Find the first 10 terms of the sequence
a
1
= 1, a
2
= 1, a
n+1
= a
n
+ a
n1
, n > 2
Solution:
a
3
= a
2
+a
1
= 1+1 = 2
a
4
= a
3
+a
2
= 2+1 = 3
68
a
5
= a
4
+a
3
= 3+2 = 5
a
6
= a
5
+a
4
= 5+3 = 8
a
7
= a
6
+a
5
= 8+5 = 13
a
8
= a
7
+a
6
= 13+8 = 21
a
9
= a
8
+a
7
= 21+13 = 34
a
10
= a
9
+a
8
= 34+21 = 55
The first ten terms are 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55
Observation :
This type of sequence is called Fibonacci sequence.
Example 17
Show that : (i) t
n
= 2
n+1
 3 and (ii) a
1
= 1, a
n
= 2a
n1
+ 3, n > 2
represent the same sequence.
Solution:
(i) t
n
= 2
n+1
 3
t
1
= 2
2
3 = 1
t
2
= 2
3
3 = 5
t
3
= 2
4
3 = 13
t
4
= 2
5
3 = 29
t
5
= 2
6
3 = 61 and so on.
The sequence is 1, 5, 13, 29, 61...
(ii) a
1
= 1
a
n
= 2a
n1
+3, n>2
a
2
= 2a
1
+3 = 2+3 = 5
a
3
= 2a
2
+3 = 10+3 = 13
a
4
= 2a
3
+3 = 26+3 = 29
a
5
= 2a
4
+3 = 58+3 = 61 and so on.
The sequence is 1, 5, 13, 29, 61, ...
i.e. The two sequences are the same.
Observation
There may be sequences which defy an algebraic representation. For
example, the sequence of prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ... Mathematicians
are still striving hard to represent all prime numbers by a single algebraic
formula. Their attempts have not been successful so far.
69
EXERCISE 3.4
1) Write out the first 5 terms of each of the following sequences
(a) > <
+
n!
1 n
(b)
( )
> <
+
−
1 n
1
1  n
(c)
> <
n
n
1
(d)
( )
> <
+
− −
1 n
1 1
n
(e) < n 2
2n1
> (f) <(1)
n
> (g) <6n1>
2) Write out the first 7 terms of the sequence
t
n
=
( )
+
+
even is n if , 1 3
odd is n if ,
2
n
2
3 n
3) Find the range of each of the following sequences
(a) < 1+(1)
n+1
> (b) < (1)
n+1
>
4) Find the general term of each of the following sequences
(a) 1, 4, 9, 16, 25 ...
(b) 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, ...
(c) 2.1, 2.01, 2.001, 2.0001, ...
(d) 0, 3, 8, 15, ...
(e)
3
10
,
9
20
,
27
30
,
81
40
, ...
5) Find the first 6 terms of the sequence specified by the recursive relation
(a) a
1
= 1, a
n
=
2
a
1  n
, n > 1 (b)a
1
= 5, a
n
= 2a
n1
, n > 1
(c) a
1
= 1, a
n
= 3a
n1
+ 1, n > 1 (d) a
1
= 2, a
n
= 2a
n1
+ n, n > 1
(e) a
1
= 1, a
n
= a
n1
+n
2
, n > 1 (f) a
1
= 2, a
2
=1, a
n
= a
n1
1, n > 2
(g) a
1
= 1, a
2
= 1 a
n
= (a
n1
)
2
+2, n > 2 (h) a
1
= 1, a
2
= 1, a
n
= a
n2
+ 2, n > 2
3.5 COMPOUND INTEREST
In compound interest, the interest for each period is added to the
principal before the interest is calculated for the next period. Thus the
interest earned gets reinvested and in turn earns interest.
70
The formula to find the amount under compound interest is given by
A = P(1+i)
n
, where i =
100
r
Here P = Principal
A = Amount
r = Rate of Interest
i = Interest on unit sum for one year
Also the present value P is given by P =
( )
n
i 1
A
+
Observation :
(i) The amounts under compound interest form a G.P.
(ii) If the interest is paid more than once in a year the rate of interest is
what is called nominal rate.
(iii) If the interest is paid k times a year then i must be replaced by
k
i
and
n by nk.
(iv) If a certain sum becomes N times in T years then it will become N
n
times in T x n years.
Example 18
Find the compound interest on Rs. 1,000 for 10 years at 5% per
annum.
Solution:
A = P (1+i)
n
= 1000 (1+0.05)
10
= 1000 (1.05)
10
= Rs. 1629
Compound Interest = A  P
= 1629  1000
= Rs. 629.
log 1.05 = 0.0212
10
0.2120
log 1000 = 3.0000
3.2120
Antilog 3.2120
= 1629
x
+
Logarithmic calculation
71
log 1.01 = 0.0043
40
0.1720
log 1000 = 3.0000
3.1720
Antilog 3.1720
= 1486
x
+
Logarithmic calculation
Example 19
Find the compound interest on Rs. 1,000 for 10 years at 4% p.a.,
the interest being paid quarterly.
Solution:
A = P(1+i)
n
= 1000 (1+0.01)
40
= 1000 (1.01)
40
= Rs. 1486
Compound interest = A  P
= 1486  1000
= Rs. 486.
Example 20
A person deposits a sum of Rs. 10,000 in the name of his newborn
child. The rate of interest is 12% p.a. What is the amount that will accrue
on the 20th birthday of the beneficiary if the interest is compounded
monthly.
Solution:
A = P(1+i)
n
= 10000 (1+0.01)
240
= 10000 (1.01)
240
= Rs. 1,07,600
Example 21
The population of a city in 1987 was 50,000. The population
increases at the rate of 5% each year. Find the population of the city in
1997.
Solution:
A = P(1+i)
n
= 50000 (1+0.05)
10
= 50000 (1.05)
10
= 81,470
log 1.01 = 0.0043
240
1.0320
log 10000 = 4.0000
5.0320
Antilog 5.0320
= 1,07,600
x
+
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.05 = 0.0212
10
0.2120
log 50000 = 4.6990
4.9110
Antilog 4.9110
= 81,470
x
+
Logarithmic calculation
72
Example 22
A machine depreciates in value each year at the rate of 10% of its
value at the begining of a year. The machine was purchased for Rs. 10,000.
Obtain its value at the end of the 10th year.
Solution:
A = P(1i)
n
= 10000 (10.1)
10
= 10000 (0.9)
10
= Rs. 3,483
Example 23
Find the present value of an amount of Rs. 12,000 at the end of
5 years at 5% C.I.
Sol ut i on:
P =
( )
n
i 1
A
+
=
( )
5
0.05 1
12000
+
=
( )
5
1.05
12000
= Rs. 9,401
Example 24
What sum will amount to Rs. 5,525 at 10% p.a. compounded
yearly for 13 years.
Solution:
P =
( )
n
i 1
A
+
log 1.05 = 0.0212
5
0.1060
log 12000 = 4.0792
0.1060
3.9732
Antilog 3.9732
= 9,401
x

Logarithmic calculation
log 0.9 = 1 .9542
10
1 .5420
log 10000 = 4.0000
3.5420
Antilog 3.5420
= 3,483
x
+
Logarithmic calculation
73
=
( )
13
0.1 1
5525
+
=
( )
13
1.1
5525
= Rs. 1,600
Example 25
At what rate percent p.a. C.I. will Rs. 2,000 amount to Rs. 3,000
in 3 years if the interest is reckoned half yearly.
Solution:
A = P (1+i)
n
3000 = 2000 (1+
2
i
)
3x2
= 2000 (1+
2
i
)
6
=> (1+
2
i
)
6
=
2000
3000
=> (1+
2
i
) = (1.5)
6
1
= 1.07
=>
2
i
= 0.07
i.e.
100
r
= 0.14
∴ r = 14%
Example 26
How long will it take for a given sum of money to triple itself at 13%
C.I.?
Solution:
A = P(1+i)
n
3P = P (1+0.13)
n
i.e. 3 = (1.13)
n
log 1.1 = 0.0414
13
0.5382
log 5525 = 3.7423
0.5382
3.2041
Antilog 3.2041
= 1,600
x

Logarithmic calculation
log 1.5 = 0.1761
÷ 6
0.02935
Antilog 0.02935
= 1.07
Logarithmic calculation
←
74
Taking logarithm,
log 3 = n log 1.13
i.e. n =
13 . 1 log
log3
=
0531 . 0
0.4771
= 8.984 = 9 years (nearly)
3.5.1 Effective rate of interest:
When interest is compounded more than once in a year the rate of
interest is called nominal rate.
The interest rate, which compounded once in a year gives the same
interest as the nominal rate is called effective rate.
Obvisously Effective rate > nominal rate.
Let i be the nominal interest per unit sum per year compounded k
times a year and j the corresponding effective interest on unit sum per year.
Then for the principal P,
P (1+j) = P (1+
k
i
)
k
i.e. j = (1+
k
i
)
k
1
Example 27
Find the effective rate of interest when the rate of interest is 15%
and the interest is paid half yearly.
Solution:
j = (1+
k
i
)
k
1
= (1+
2
0.15
)
2
1
= (1 + 0.075)
2
1
= (1.075)
2
1 = 1.155  1
= 0.155 = 15.5%
log 0.4771 = 1 .6786
log 0.0531 = 2.7251
0.9535
Antilog 0.9535
= 8.984

Logarithmic calculation
log 1.075 = 0.0314
2
0.0628
Antilog 0.0628
= 1.155
Logarithmic calculation
75
Example 28
Find the effective rate of interest for the interest rate 16% if interest
is compounded once in two months.
Solution:
j = (1 +
k
i
)
k
1
= (1+
6
0.16
)
6
1
= (1+0.027)
6
1
= (1.027)
6
1
= 1.174  1
= 0.174
= 17.4%
Example 29
A finance company offers 16% interest compounded annually. A
debenture offers 15% interest compounded monthly. Advise which is
better.
Solution:
Convert the nominal rate 15% to effective rate.
j = (1+
k
i
)
k
1
= (1+
12
0.15
)
12
1
= (1+0.0125)
12
1
= (1.0125)
12
1
= 1.164  1
= 0.164
= 16.4 %
Comparing, we conclude that 15% compounded monthly is better.
log 1.0125 = 0.0055
12
0.0660
Antilog 0.0660
= 1.164
x
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.027 = 0.0116
6
0.0696
Antilog 0.0696
= 1.174
Logarithmic calculation
76
EXERCISE 3.5
1) How much will Rs. 5,000 amount to at 12% p.a. C.I. over 15 years?
2) Find the C.I. for Rs. 4,800 for 3 years at 4% p.a. when the interest is paid
i) annually ii) half yearly
3) A person invests Rs. 2,000 at 15%. If the interest is compounded monthly,
what is the amount payable at the end of 25 years?
4) A machine depreciates in value each year at the rate of 10% of its value at
the begining of a year. The machine was purchased for Rs. 20,000. Obtain
the value of the machine at the end of the fourth year.
5) Find the present value of Rs. 2,000 due in 4 years at 4% C.I.
6) Mrs. Kalpana receives Rs. 4888 as compound interest by depositing a
certain sum in a 10% fixed deposit for 5 years. Determine the sum deposited
by her.
7) At what rate percent per annum C.I. will Rs. 5000 amount to Rs. 9035
in 5 years, if C.I. is reckoned quarterly?
8) In how many years will a sum of money treble itself at 5% C.I. payable
annually?
9) Find the effective rate of interest when the interest is 15% paid quarterly
10) Find the effective rate corresponding to the nominal rate of 12% compounded
half yearly.
3.6 ANNUITIES
A sequence of equal payments at equal intervals of time is called an
annuity. If the payments are made at the end of each period the annuity is
called immediate annuity or ordinary annuity. If the payments are made at
the begining of each period the annuity is called annuity due. Annuity
generally means ordinary annuity.
77
3.6.1 Immediate Annuity
If equal payments ‘a’ are made at the end of each year for n years,
then the Amount
A =
i
a
[ (1+i)
n
1]
Also if P is the present value then
P =
i
a
[ 1 (1+i)
n
]
3.6.2 Annuity Due
If equal payments ‘a’ are made at the beginning of each year for n
years, then the Amount
A =
i
a
(1+i ) [ (1+i)
n
1]
Also if P is the present value, then
P =
i
a
(1+i ) [ 1 (1+i)
n
]
Example 30
Find the amount of annuity of Rs. 2,000 payable at the end of each
year for 4 years if money is worth 10% compounded annually.
Solution:
A =
i
a
[ (1+i)
n
1]
=
0.1
2000
[ (1.1)
4
1]
a a a a
1 2 3 4
... a
... n
Amount A
. . . . .
P
a a a a
1 2 3 4
... a
... n Amount A
. . . . . .
P
78
=
10
1
2000
[1.4641]
= 20000 [0.464]
= Rs. 9,280
Example 31
Find the amount of an ordinary annuity of 12 monthly payments of
Rs. 1,000 that earn interest at 12% per year compounded monthly.
Solution:
A =
i
a
[(1+i)
n
1]
=
0.01
1000
[(1.01)
12
1]
=
100
1
2000
[1.1271]
= 100000 [0.127]
= Rs. 12,700
Example 32
A bank pays 8% interest compounded quarterly. Determine the
equal deposits to be made at the end of each quarter for 3 years so as to
receive Rs. 3,000 at the end of 3 years.
Solution:
A =
i
a
[ (1+i)
n
1]
i.e. 3000 =
0.02
a
[ (1.02)
12
1]
=> 60 = a [1.26901]
=> 60 = a [0.2690]
∴ a =
0.2690
60
= Rs. 223
log 1.1 =0.0414
4
0.1656
Antilog 0.1656
= 1.464
x
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.02 = 0.0086
12
0.1032
Antilog 0.1032
= 1.2690
x
log 60 = 1.7782
log 0.2690 = 1 .4298
2.3484
Antilog 2.3484
= 223.0

Logarithmic calculation
log 1.01 = 0.0043
12
0.0516
Antilog 0.0516
= 1.127
x
Logarithmic calculation
79
Example 33
What is the present value of an annuity of Rs. 750 p.a. received at
the end of each year for 5 years when the discount rate is 15%.
Solution :
P =
i
a
[1(1+i)
n
]
=
0.15
750
[1(1.15)
5
]
=
15
75000
[10.4972]
= 5000 [0.5028]
= Rs. 2514
Example 34
An equipment is purchased on an instalment basis such that
Rs. 5000 is to be paid on the signing of the contract and four yearly
instalments of Rs. 3,000 each payable at the end of first, second, third and
fourth year. If the interest is charged at 5% p.a., find the cash down price.
Solution:
P =
i
a
[1(1+i)
n
]
=
0.05
3000
[1(1.05)
4
]
=
100
5
3000
[10.8226]
=
5
300000
[0.1774]
= 60000 [0.1774]
= Rs. 10644
Cash down payment = Rs. 5,000
∴ Cash down price = Rs. (5000 + 10644) = Rs. 15,644
log 1.15 = 0.0607
 5
 0.3035
= 1 .6965
Antilog 1 .6965
= 0.4972
x
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.05 = 0.0212
4
0.0848
= 1 .9152
Antilog 1 .9152
= 0.8226
x
Logarithmic calculation
80
Example 35
A person borrows Rs. 5000 at 8% p.a. interest compounded half
yearly and agrees to pay both the principal and interest at 10 equal
instalments at the end of each of six months. Find the amount of these
instalments.
Solution:
P =
i
a
[1(1+i)
n
)
5000 =
0.04
a
[1(1.04)
10
]
=
0.04
a
[10.6761]
=
0.04
a
[0.3239]
i.e. 200 = a [0.3230]
a =
0.3239
200
= Rs. 617.50
Example 36
Machine X costs Rs. 15,000 and machine Y costs Rs. 20,000. The
annual income from X and Y are Rs. 4,000 and Rs. 7,000 respectively.
Machine X has a life of 4 years and Y has a life of 7 years. Find which
machine may be purcahsed. (Assume discount rate 8% p.a.)
Solution:
Machine X
Present value of outflow = Rs. 15,000
Present value of inflows
=
i
a
[1(1+i)
n
]
=
0.08
4000
[1(1.08)
4
]
log 1.04 = 0.0170
10
0.1700
= 1 .8300
Antilog 1 .8300
= 0.6761
x
log 200 = 2.3010
log 0.3239 = 1 .5104
2.7906
Antilog 2.7906
= 617.50

Logarithmic calculation
log 1.08 = 0.0334
4
0.1336
= 1 .8664
Antilog 1 .8664
= 0.7352
x
Logarithmic calculation
81
=
8
400000
[10.7352]
= 50000 [0.2648]
Rs. 13,240
Present inflow is less than present outflow.
∴ Net outflow = Rs. (15,00013,240)
= Rs. 1760
Machine Y
Present value of outflow = Rs. 20,000
Present value of inflows
=
i
a
[1(1+i)
n
]
=
0.08
7000
[1(1.08)
7
]
=
100
8
7000
[10.5837]
=
8
700000
[0.4163]
= 87500 [0.4163]
= Rs. 36,420
Present inflow is more than present outflow
∴ Net inflow = Rs. (36,42020000)
= Rs. 16,420
∴ Machine Y may be purchased
Example 37
If I deposit Rs. 500 every year for a period of 10 years in a bank
which gives C.I. of 5% per year, find out the amount I will receive at the
end of 10 years.
log 1.08 = 0.0334
7
0.2338
= 1 .7662
Antilog 1 .7662
= 0.5837
x
log 87500 = 4.9420
log 0.4163 = 1 .6194
4.5614
Antilog = 4.5614
= 36,420
+
Logarithmic calculation
82
Solution:
A =
i
a
(1+i) [(1+i)
n
1]
=
0.05
500
(1.05) [(1.05)
10
1]
=
0.05
525
[1.6291]
=
100
5
525
[0.629]
=
5
52500
[0.629]
= 10500 [0.629]
= Rs. 6604.50
Example 38
A sum of Rs. 1,000 is deposited at the beginning of each quarter in
a S.B. account that pays C.I. 8% compounded quarterly. Find the amount
in the account at the end of 3 years.
Solution :
A =
i
a
(1+i) [ (1+i)
n
1]
=
0.02
1000
(1.02) [(1.02)
12
1]
=
0.02
1020
[1.2691]
=
100
2
1020
[0.269]
=
2
102000
[0.269]
= 51000 [0.269]
= Rs. 13,719
log 1.05 = 0.0212
10
0.2120
Antilog 0.2120
= 1.629
x
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.02 = 0.0086
12
0.1032
Antilog 0.1032
= 1.269
x
Logarithmic calculation
83
Example 39
What equal payments made at the beginning of each month for
3 years will accumulate to Rs. 4,00,000, if money is worth 15% compounded
monthly.
Solution :
A =
i
a
(1+i) [ (1+i)
n
1]
400,000 =
0.0125
a
(1.0125) [(1.0125)
36
1]
ie. 5000 = a(1.0125) [1.5781]
= a (1.0125) (0.578)
∴ a =
( )( ) 578 . 0 1.0125
5000
= Rs. 8,543
Example 40
Find the present value of an annuity due of Rs. 200 p.a. payable
annualy for 2 years at 4% p.a.
Solution:
P =
i
a
(1+i) [1(1+i)
n
]
=
0.04
200
(1.04) [1(1.04)
2
]
=
100
4
208
[10.9247]
=
4
20800
[0.0753]
= 5,200 [0.0753]
= Rs. 391.56
log 1.04 = 0.0170
2
0.0340
= 1 .9660
Antilog 1 .9660
= 0.9247
x
Logarithmic calculation
log 1.0125 = 0.0055
log 0.578 = 1 .7619
1 .7674
Antilog 3.9316
= 8,543
+
log 5000 = 3.6990
1 .7674
3.9316

log 1.01125 = 0.0055
36
0.1980
Antilog 0.1980
= 1.578
x
Logarithmic calculation
84
EXERCISE 3.6
1) Find the future value of an ordinary annuity of Rs. 1000 a year for 5 years
at 7% p.a. compounded annually.
2) A man deposits Rs. 75 at the end of each of six months in a bank which
pays interest at 8% compounded semi annually. How much is to his credit
at the end of ten years?
3) Find the present value of an annuity of Rs. 1200 payable at the end of each
of six months for 3 years when the interest is earned at 8% p.a. compounded
semi annually.
4) What is the present value of an annuity of Rs. 500 p.a. received for 10 years
when the discount rate is 10% p.a.?
5) What is the present value of an annuity that pays Rs. 250 per month at the
end of each month for 5 years, assuming money to be worth 6% compounded
monthly?
6) Machine A costs Rs. 25,000 and machine B costs Rs. 40,000. The annual
income from the machines A and B are Rs.8,000 and Rs. 10,000 respectively.
Machine A has a life of 5 years and machine B has a life of 7 years. Which
machine may be purchased, discount rate being 10% p.a.?
7) A man wishes to pay back his debts of Rs 3,783 due after 3 years by 3 equal
yearly instalments. Find the amount of each instalment, money being worth
5% p.a. compounded annually.
8) A person purchases a house of worth Rs. 98,000 on instalment basis such
that Rs. 50,000 is to be paid in cash on the signing of the contract and the
balance in 20 equal instalments which are to be paid at the end of each year.
Find each instalment to be paid if interest be reckoned 16% p.a. compounded
annually.
9) If I deposit Rs. 1,000 every year for a period of 5 years in a bank which
gives a C.I. of 5% p.a. find out the amount at the end of 5 years.
10) A sum of Rs. 500 is deposited at the beginning of each year. The rate of
interest is 6% p. a. compounded annually. Find the amount at the end
of 10 years.
85
11) A firm purchases a machine under an instalment plan of Rs. 10,000 p.a. for
8 years. Payments are made at the beginning of each year. What is the
present value of the total cash flow of the payments for interest at 20%.?
12) A bank pays i nt er est at t he r at e of 8% p. a. compounded quar t er l y.
Find how much should be deposited in the bank at the beginning of each
of 3 months for 5 years in order to accumulate to Rs. 10,000 at the end
of 5 years.
13) What equal payments made at the beginning of each year for 10 years will
pay for a machine priced at Rs. 60,000, if money is worth 5% p.a.
compounded annually?
EXERCISE 3.7
Choose the correct answer
1) The progression formed by the reciprocals of the terms of an H.P. is
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d)none of these
2)
8
1
, x,
2
3
are in H.P. then x is equal to
(a)
13
3
(b)
13
4
(c)
13
5
(d)
13
6
3) The Arithmetic Mean between a and b is
(a)
2
ab
(b)
2
b a+
(c)
ab
(d)
2
b  a
4) The Geometric Mean between 3 and 27 is
(a) 15 (b) 12 (c) 19 (d)none of these
5) The Harmonic Mean between 10 and 15 is
(a) 12 (b) 25 (c) 150 (d) 12.5
6) The Harmonic Mean between the roots of the equation x
2
 bx + c = 0 is
(a)
c
2b
(b)
b
2c
(c)
c b
2bc
+
(d)none of these
7) If the Arithmetic Mean and Harmonic Mean of the roots of a qudradratic
equation are
2
3
and
3
4
respectively then the equation is
(c) x
2
 3x  4 = 0 (d) x
2
+ 2x + 3 = 0
86
8) The A. M. , G. M. and H. M. between two unequal positive numbers are
themselves in
(a) G.P. (b) A.P. (c) H.P. (d)none of these
9) If A, G, H are respectively the A.M., G.M. and H.M between two different
positive real numbers then
(a) A > G > H (b) A < G > H (c) A < G < H (d) A>G<H
10) If A, G, H are respectively the A.M., G.M and H.M. between two different
positive numbers then
(a) A = G
2
H (b) G
2
= AH (c) A
2
= GH (d) A = GH
11) For two positive real numbers G.M. = 300, H.M. = 180 their A.M. is
(a) 100 (b) 300 (c) 200 (d) 500
12) For two positive real numbers, A.M. = 4, G.M. = 2 then the H.M.
between them is
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
13) The fifth term of the sequence
> <
+
−
n
) 1 (
1 n
is
(a)
5
1
(b) 
5
1
(c)
4
1
(d) 
4
1
14) In the sequence 1000, 995, 990, ... find n for which t
n
is the first negative
term.
(a) 201 (b) 204 (c) 202 (d) 203
15) The range of the sequence <2+(1)
n
> is
(a) N (b) R (c) {3, 4} (d) {1, 3}
16) The successive amounts on a principal carrying S.I. for one year, two years,
three years form.
(a) an A.P. (b) a G.P. (c) an H.P. (d)none of these
17) The successive amounts on a principal carrying C.I. forms
(a) an A.P. (b) a G.P. (c) an H.P. (d)none of these
18) The compounded interest on Rs. P after T years at R% p.a., compounded
annually is
(a) Rs. P [ (1+
100
R
)
T
+1] (b) Rs. P [ (1+
100
R
)
T
1]
(c) Rs. P [ (1+
100
R
)
T
100] (d) Rs. P [ (1+
100
R
)
T
+100]
87
19) The compound interest on Rs. 400 for 2 years at 5% p. a. compounded
annually is
(a) Rs. 45 (b) Rs. 41 (c) Rs. 20 (d) Rs. 10
20) The interest on Rs. 24,000 at the rate of 5% C.I. for 3 years.
(a) Rs. 3,783 (b) Rs. 3,793 (c) Rs. 4,793 d) Rs. 4,783
21) The difference between S.I. and C.I. on a sum of money at 5% p.a. for
2 years i s Rs. 25. Then t he sum i s.
(a) Rs. 10,000 (b) Rs. 8,000 (c) Rs. 9,000 (d) Rs. 2,000
22 If Rs. 7,500 is borrowed at C.I. at the rate of 4% p.a., then the amount
payable after 2 years is
(a) Rs. 8,082 (b) Rs. 7,800 (c) Rs. 8,100 (d) Rs. 8,112
23) Rs. 800 at 5% p.a. C.I. will amount to Rs. 882 in
(a) 1 year (b) 2 years (c) 3 years (d) 4 years
24) A sum amounts to Rs. 1352 in 2 years at 4% C.I. Then the sum is
(a) Rs. 1300 (b) Rs. 1250 (c) Rs. 1260 (d) Rs. 1200
25) The principal which earns Rs. 132 as compound interest for the second
year at 10% p.a. is
(a) Rs. 1000 (b) Rs. 1200 (c) Rs. 1320 (d)none of these
26) A sum of Rs. 12,000 deposited at CI becomes double after 5 years. After
20 years it will become
(a) Rs. 1,20,000 (b) Rs. 1,92,000 (c) Rs. 1,24,000 (d) Rs. 96,000
27) A sum of money amounts to Rs. 10,648 in 3 years and Rs. 9,680 in 2 years.
The rate of C.I. is
(a) 5% (b)10% (c) 15% (d) 20%
28) The value of a machine depreciates every year at the rate of 10% on its
value at the begining of that year. If the present value of the machine is Rs.
729, its worth 3 years ago was
(a) Rs. 947.10 (b) Rs. 800 (c) Rs. 1000 (d) Rs. 750.87
29) At compound interest if a certain sum of money doubles in n years then the
amount will be four fold in
(a) 2n
2
years (b) n
2
years (c) 4n years (d) 2n years
30) A sum of money placed at C.I. doubles in 5 years. It will become 8 times in
(a) 15 years (b) 9 years (c) 16 years (d) 18 years
88
31) A sum of money at C. I. amount s t o t hri ce i t sel f i n 3 years. It wi l l be
9 times in
(a) 9 years (b) 6 years (c) 12 years (d) 15 years
32) If i is the interest per year on a unit sum and the interest is compounded
k times a year then the corresponding effective rate of interest on unit sum
per year is given by
(a) (1+
i
k
)
i
1 (b) (1+
i
k
)
k
i
1 (c) (1+
k
i
)
k
1 (d)none of these
33) If i is the interest per year on a unit sum and the interest is compounded
once in k months in a year then the corresponding effective rate of interest
on unit sum per year is given by
(a) (1+
k
12
i)
12
k
1 b) (1+
12
ki
)
k
12
1 (c) (1+
12
ki
)
k
12
+1 (d) none of these
89
The word “Geometry” is derived from the Greek word “geo” meaning
“earth” and “metron” meaning “measuring”. The need of measuring land is
the origin of geometry.
The branch of mathematics where algebraic methods are employed
for solving problem in geometry is known as Analytical Geometry. It is
sometimes called cartesian Geometry after the french mathematician Des
Cartes.
4.1 LOCUS
Locus is the path traced by a moving point under some specified
geometrical condition The moving point is taken as P(x,y).
Equation of a locus:
Any relation in x and y which is satisfied by every point on the locus
is called the equation of the locus.
For example
(i) The locus of a point equidistant
from two given lines is the line
parallel to each of the two lines and
midway between them.
(ii) The locus of a point whose distance from
a fixed point is constant is a circle with
the fixed point as its centre.
(iii) The locus of a point whose distances
from two points A and B are equal is the
perpendicular bisector of the line AB.
c p
1
a
p
2
a
a
A B
A B
P Q
C D
K
L
M
N
ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY
4
90
Exampe 1
Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the
point (2,5) is always 7 units.
Solution:
Let P(x,y) be the moving point. The given fixed point is A(2,5).
Now, PA = 7
∴ PA
2
= 7
2
= 49
(ie) (x2)
2
+ (y5)
2
= 49
x
2
 4x + 4 + y
2
 10y + 25  49 = 0
∴ the locus is x
2
+ y
2
 4x  10y  20 = 0
Example 2
Find the equation of locus of the point which is equidistant from (2,3)
and (4,7)
Solution:
Let P(x,y) be the moving point. Let the given points be A (2, 3)and
B(4, 7).
Given that PA = PB ∴ PA
2
= PB
2
(x2)
2
+ (y+3)
2
= (x4)
2
+ (y7)
2
i.e., x + 5y  13 = 0
Example 3
A point P moves so that the points P, A(1,6) and B(2,5) are always
collinear. Find the locus of P.
Solution:
Let P(x,y) be the moving point. Given that P,A,B are collinear.
∴ Area of ∆PAB = 0
ie
2
1
[x(65) + 1(5y) + 2(y+6)] = 0
∴ 11x  y  17 = 0 is the required locus.
EXERCISE 4.1
1) Find the locus of a point which moves so that it is always equidistant from
the two points (2,3) and (2,0)
91
2) Find the locus of a point P which moves so that PA = PB where A is (2,3)
and B is (4,5)
3) A point moves so that its distance from the point (1,0) is always three
times its distance from the point (0,2). Find its locus.
4) Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the point
(3,7) is always 2 units.
5) A and B are two points (2,3), (4,5) Find the equation to the locus point P
such that PA
2
PB
2
= 20
6) Find the equation to the locus of a point which moves so that its distance
from the point (0,1) is twice its distance from the x axis.
7) Find the perpendicular bisector of the straight line joining the points (2,3)
and (3,4)
8) The distance of a point from the origin is five times its distance from
the y axis. Find the equation of the locus.
9) Find the locus of the point which moves such that its distances from the
points (1,2), (0,1) are in the ratio 2:1
10) A point P moves so that P and the points (2,3) and (1,5) are always collinear.
Find the locus of P.
4.2 EQUATION OF LINES
RECALL
The l i ne AB cut s t he axes at D and C
respectively. θ is the angle made by the line AB
with the positive direction of x  axis.
tanθ = slope of the line AB is denoted
by m. OD is called the x intercept OC is called
the y  intercept.
Slope Point Form:
Equation of a straight line passing through a given point (x
1
,y
1
) and
having a given slope m is yy
1
= m(xx
1
)
Slope Intercept Form:
The equation of a straight line with slope ‘m’ and y intercept ‘c’ is
y = mx+c.
O D x
y
B
A
θ
C
92
Two Point Form:
The equation of a straight line passing through the points (x
1
,y
1
) and
(x
2
,y
2
) is
1 2
1
y y
y  y
−
=
1 2
1
x x
x  x
−
When the two points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) are given, then the slope of
the line joining them is
1 2
1 2
x x
y  y
−
Intercept Form:
Equation of a line with x intercept a and y intercept b is
a
x
+
b
y
= 1
General Form:
Any equation of the first degree in x, y of the form Ax+By+C = 0
represents equation of a straight line with slope (
B
A
)
4.2.1 Normal Form:
When the length of the  r from
the origin to a straight line is p and
the inclination of the  r with x axis is
α then the equation of the straight
line is
x cos α + y sin α = p
Proof:
Let AB be the line intersects x axis at A and y axis at B.
Let OM ⊥r AB.
Let OM = p and XOM = α.
If the intercepts are a and b then the equation of the straight line is
a
x
+
b
y
= 1 ..................(1)
From right angled ∆OAM,
p
a
= secα => a = p secα
O A x
y
α
M
p
9
0
o 
α
a
b
B
93
from ∆OBM,
p
b
= Sec(90
o
α) => b = p cosec α
∴ (1) =>
α psec
x
+
α pcosec
y
= 1
i.e., x cos α α + y sin α α = p is the equation of a straight line in
normal f orm.
4.2.2 Symmetric form / Parametric form
If the inclination of a straight line passing through a fixed point A
with x axis is θ and any point P on the line is at a distance ‘r’ from A then its
equation is
θ cos
x  x
1
=
θ sin
y  y
1
= r
Proof:
Let A(x
1
,y
1
) be the given point and P(x,y) be any point on the line
AP = r,
PAL= θ
Draw PM⊥ OX and AL   to x axis.
Then cosθ =
AP
AL
=
r
x  x
1
and sinθ =
AP
PL
=
r
y  y
1
=>
θ cos
x  x
1
=
θ sin
y  y
1
= r is the required equation.
Observation:
(i) The length of the perpendicular from P(x
1
,y
1
) to the line ax+by+c = 0 is
PN = +
2 2
1 1
b a
c by ax
+
+ +
O B M x
p(x, y)
y
r
L
A B
P(x
1
, y
1
)
ax+by+c = 0
.
N
94
(ii) The length of the perpendicular from the origin to
ax+by+c = 0 is +
2 2
b a
c
+
(iii) Equations of the bisectors of the angles between the straight lines
ax+by+c = 0 and
a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0 are
2 2
b a
c by ax
+
+ +
= +
2
1
2
1
1 1 1
b a
c y b x a
+
+ +
Example 4
Find the equation of the straight line which has perpendicular
distance 5 units from the origin and the inclination of perpendicular with
the positive direction of x axis is 120
o
Solution:
The equation of the straight line in Normal Form is
x cos α + y sin α = p
Given α = 120
o
and p = 5
∴ Equation of the straight line is
x cos 120
o
+ y sin 120
o
= 5
ie xy 3 +10 = 0
Example 5
Find the length of the perpendicular from (3,2) on the line
3x+2y+1 = 0
Solution:
Length of the perpendicular from (3,2) to the line 3x+2y+1 = 0 is
+
( ) ( )
2 2
2 3
1 2 2 3 3
+
+ +
=
13
14
Example 6
Find the equation of the bisectors of the angle between 3x+4y+3 = 0
and 4x+3y+1 = 0
Solution:
The equations of the bisectors is
16 9
3 y 4 3x
+
+ +
= +
9 16
1 3y 4x
+
+ +
ie., 3x+4y+3 = + (4x+3y+1)
ie., xy2 = 0 and 7x+7y+4 = 0
95
EXERCISE 4.2
1) The portion of a straight line intercepted between the axes is bisected
at the point (3,2). Find its equation.
2) The perpendicular distance of a line from the origin is 5cm and its slope
is 1. Find the equation of the line.
3) Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (2, 2) and
have intercepts whose sum is 9
4) Find the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the line 4x3y+7 = 0
5) For what value of K will the length of the perpendicular from (1,k) to
the line 5x12y+13 = 0 be equal to 2.
6) Find the equation of the line which has perpendicular distance 4 units
from the origin and the inclination of perpendicular with +ve direction
of xaxis is 135
o
7) Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (2, 3) and
makes an angles of 30
o
with the positive direction of xaxis.
8) Find the equation of the bisectors of the angle between 5x+12y7 = 0
and 4x3y+1 = 0
4.3 FAMILY OF LINES
4.3.1. Intersection of two straight lines
The point of intersection of two staright lines is obtained by solving
their equations.
4.3.2 Concurrent lines
Three or more straight lines are said to be concurrent when they all
pass through the same point. That point is known as point of concurrency.
Condition for Concurrency of three lines:
a
1
x+b
1
y+c
1
= 0 ................(i) a
2
x+b
2
y+c
2
= 0 ................(ii)
a
3
x+b
3
y+c
3
= 0 ................(iii) is
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
= 0
96
4.3.3 Angle between two straight lines
Let φ be t he angl e bet ween t he t wo st rai ght l i nes wi t h sl opes
m
1
= tan θ
1
and
m
2
= tan θ
2
. Then tan φ =
2 1
2 1
m m 1
m  m
+
∴ φ = tan
1
2 1
2 1
m m 1
m  m
+
Observation:
(i) If m
1
= m
2
the straight lines are parallel
i.e., if the straight lines are parallel then their slopes are equal.
(ii) If m
1
m
2
= 1 then the straight lines are  r. to each other (applicable
only when the slopes are finite)
i.e., if the straight lines are perpendicular then the product of their
slopes is 1.
Example 7
Show that the lines 3x+4y = 13, 2x7y+1 = 0 and 5xy=14 are
concurrent.
Solution:
3x+4y13 = 0
2x7y +1 = 0 and
5xy 14 = 0
Now,
14 1 5
1 7 2
13 4 3
− −
−
−
x
1
o x
y
y
1
θ
2
φ
y
=
m
2
x
+
c 2
y
=
m
1 x
+
c
1
θ
1
P
97
= 3(98+1)  4 (285)13 (2+35)
= 297 + 132429
= 429429 = 0
=> the given lines are concurrent
Example 8
Find the equation of a straight line through the intersection of
3x+4y = 7 and x+y2 = 0 and having slope = 5.
Solution:
3x+4y = 7 ..........(1)
x+y = 2 ...............(2)
Solving (1) and (2) the point of intersection is (1, 1)
∴ (x
1
, y
1
) = (1, 1) and m = 5
∴ equation of the line is y1=5(x1)
(ie) y1 = 5x5
5xy4 = 0
Example 9
Show that the lines 5x+6y = 20 and 18x15y = 17 are at right angles.
Solution:
The given lines are
5x+6y = 20 ................... (1) and
18x15y = 17 ................ (2)
m
1
= Slope of line (1) =  ( )
6
5
= 
6
5
m
2
= Slope of line (2) =  ( )
15 
18
=
15
18
=
5
6
m
1
m
2
=
6
5
x
5
6
= 1 ∴ the lines are at right angles
Example 10
Find the equation of the line passing through (2,5) and parallel to
the line 4x+3y5 = 0
98
Solution:
m = Slope of 4x+3y5 = 0 is 
3
4
∴ slope of the required line  to the given line = 
3
4
and the line
passes through (x
1
, y
1
) = (2, 5)
∴ Equation of the required line is
y+5 = 
3
4
(x2) => 4x+3y+7 = 0
Example 11
Show that the triangle formed by the lnes 4x3y8 = 0, 3x4y+6 = 0
and x+y9 = 0 is an isosceles triangle
Solution:
The slope of line (1) i.e. 4x3y8 = 0 is ( )
3 
4
= m
1
=
3
4
= m
1
Slpe of line (2) i.e. 3x4y+6 = 0 is ( )
4 
3
=
4
3
= m
2
Slope of line (3) i.e. x+y9 = 0 is ( )
1
1
= 1 = m
3
If α is the angle between lines (1) and (3) then
tanα =
3 1
3 1
m m 1
m  m
+
=
( ) 1  1
1
3
4
3
4
+
+
=
3
1 
3
7
= 7
α = tan
1
(7)
If β is the angle between (2) and (3)
then tan β =
3 2
3 2
m m 1
m  m
+
=
( ) 1  1
1
4
3
4
3
+
+
=
4
1
4
7
= 7
β = tan
1
(7)
α = β the given triangle is an isosceles triangle.
99
Example 12
The fixed cost is Rs. 700 and estimated cost of 100 units is Rs.
1,800. Find the total cost y for producing x units.
Solution:
Let y = Ax + B gives the linear relation between x and y where y
is the total cost, x the number of units, A and B constants.
When x = 0, fixed cost
i.e., y = 700 => O+B = 700
∴ B = 700
When x = 100, y = 1800
=> 1800 = 100A + 700
∴ A = 11
∴ The total cost y for producing x units given by the relation.
y = 11x + 700
Example 13
As the number of units produced increases from 500 to 1000 the
total cost of production increases from Rs. 6,000 to Rs. 9,000. Find the
relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units produced (x) if
the relationship is linear.
Solution:
Let y = Ax + B where B is the fixed cost, x the number of units
produced and y the total cost.
When x = 500, y = 6,000
=> 500A + B = 6,000 (1)
When x = 1000, y = 9,000
=> 1000A + B = 9,000 (2)
Solving (1) and (2) we get A = 6 and B = 3,000
∴ The linear relation between x and y is given by y = 6x + 3,000
100
EXERCISE 4.3
1) Show that the straight lines 4x+3y = 10, 3x4y = 5 and 5x+y = 7 are
concurrent.
2) Fi nd t he val ue of k for whi ch t he l i nes 3x4y = 7, 4x5y = 11 and
2x+3y+k = 0 are concurrent
3) Find the equation of the straight line through the intersection of the lines
x+2y+3 = 0 and 3x+y+7 = 0 and   to 3y4x = 0
4) Find the equation of the line perpendicular to 3x+y1 = 0 and passing
through the point of intersection of the lines x+2y = 6 and y = x.
5) The coordinates of 3 points ∆ABC are A(1, 2), B(1, 3) and C(5, 1). Find
the equation of the altitude through A.
6) The total cost y of producing x units is given by the equation 3x4y+600 = 0
find the fixed overhead cost and also find the extra cost of producing an
additional unit.
7) The fixed cost is Rs. 500 and the estimated cost of 100 units is Rs. 1,200.
Find the total cost y for producing x units assuming it to be a linear function.
8) As the number of units manufactured increases from 5000 to 7000, the total
cost of production increases from Rs. 26,000 to Rs. 34,000. Find the
relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units made (x) if the
relationship is linear.
9) As the number of units manufactured increases from 6000 to 8000, the total
cost of production increases from Rs. 33,000 to Rs. 40,000. Find the
relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units made (x) if the
relationship is linear.
4.4 EQUATION OF CIRCLE
A circle is defined as the locus of a point which
moves so that its distance from a fixed point is always
a constant. The fixed point is called the centre and the
constant distance is called the radius of the circle. In
the fig. O is the centre and OP = r is the radius of the
circle.
P
O
r
101
4.4.1 Equation of a circle whose centre and radius are given.
Solution:
Let C(h, k) be the centre and ‘r’ be
the radius of the circle.
Let P(x, y) be any point on the circle.
CP = r => CP
2
= r
2
ie., (xh)
2
+ (yk)
2
= r
2
is
the equation of the circle.
Observation :
If the centre of the circle is at the origin (0, 0), then the equation of
the circle is
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
4.4.2 The equation of a circle described on the segment joining (x
1
, y
1
)
and (x
2
, y
2
) as diameter.
Let A(x
1
, y
1
), B(x
2
, y
2
) be the
end points of the diameter of a circle
whose centre is at C.
Let P(x, y) be any point on the
circumference of the circle.
 APB = angle in a semicircle = 90
o
.
So AP and BP are perpendicular to each
other.
Slope of AP =
1
1
x  x
y  y
= m
1
(say)
Slope of BP =
2
2
x  x
y  y
= m
2
(say)
Since AP and BP are ⊥r to each other m
1
m
2
= 1
=>
1
1
x  x
y  y
2
2
x  x
y  y
= 1
=> (xx
1
) (xx
2
) + (yy
1
) (yy
2
) = 0 is the required equation of the
circle.
C
R
r
P(x, y)
O L M x
y
(h, k)
A
(x
1
, y
1
)
B
(x
2
, y
2
)
C
P(x, y)
.
102
4.4.3 General form of the equation of a circle
Consider the equation x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0
(where g, f,c are constants) (1)
ie., (x
2
+2g x) + (y
2
+2fy) = c
ie., (x
2
+2g x+g
2
g
2
) + (y
2
+2fy+f
2
f
2
) = c
=> (x
2
+2gx+g
2
) + (y
2
+2fy+f
2
) = g
2
+f
2
c
ie., (x+g)
2
+ (y+f)
2
= g
2
+f
2
c
[x(g)]
2
+ [y(f)]
2
=
{ }
2
2 2
c f g − +
Comparing this with the circle (xh)
2
+ (yk)
2
= r
2
we see that (1)
represents the equation to a circle with centre (g, f) and radius
c  f g
2 2
+
Observation :
(i) It is a second degree equation in x and y.
(ii) Coefficient of x
2
= coefficient of y
2
(iii) There is no xy term
(iv) If g
2
+f
2
c >0, then circle is a real circle.
(v) If g
2
+f
2
c = 0 then circle reduces to a point circle
(vi) If g
2
+f
2
c < 0 then there is no real circle
(vii) Two or more circles having same centre are called concentric circles.
Example 14
Fi nd the equati on of the ci rcl e wi th centre at (3, 5) and
radius 4 units
Solution:
Equat i on of t he ci rcl e whose cent re (h, k) and radi us r i s
(xh)
2
+ (yk)
2
= r
2
Given centre (h, k) = (3, 5) and r = 4
∴ equation of the circle is (x3)
2
+ (y5)
2
= 16
=> x
2
+y
2
6x10y+18 = 0
Example 15
Find the equation of the circle passing through the point (1, 4) and
having its centre at (2, 3)
103
Solution:
The distance between the centre and a point on the circumference is
the radius of the circle
(ie) r = ( ) ( )
2 2
3  4 2  1 + = 1 1+ = 2
Given centre = (2, 3)
∴ equation of the circle is
(x2)
2
+ (y3)
2
= 2
2
=> x
2
+y
2
4x6y+11 = 0
Example 16
Find the centre and radius of the circle x
2
+y
2
6x+8y24 = 0
Solution:
Equation of the circle is x
2
+y
2
6x+8y24 = 0
Identifying this with the general form of circle x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0
we get 2 g = 6 ; 2f = 8 ;
g = 3 ; f = 4 ; c = 24
∴ centre = (g, f) = (3, 4)
and radius =
c f g
2 2
− +
=
( ) 24 16 9 − − +
= 7
Example 17
Find the equation of the circle when the coordinates of the end points
of the diameter are (3, 2) and (7, 8)
Solution:
The equation of a circle with end points of diamter as (x
1
, y
1
) and
(x
2
, y
2
) is
(xx
1
) (xx
2
) + (yy
1
) (yy
2
) = 0
Here (x
1
, y
1
) = (3, 2) and
(x
2
, y
2
) = (7, 8)
∴ equation of the circle is
(x3) (x+7) + (y2) (y8) = 0
x
2
+y
2
+4x10y5 = 0
104
Example 18
Find the equation of the circle whose centreis (3, 2) and
circumference is 8 π π
Solution :
Circumference = 2π r = 8π
=> r = 4 units
Now centre = (3, 2) and
radius = 4
So equation of the circle is
(x+3)
2
+ (y2)
2
= 4
2
(ie) x
2
+y
2
+6x4y3 = 0
Example 19
Find the equation of a circle passing through the points (1, 1),
(2, 1) and (2, 3)
Solution:
Let the equation of the circle be
x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0 (1)
Since (1) passes through the points
(1, 1), (2, 1) and (2, 3) we get
1+1+2g+2f+c = 0
(ie) 2g+2f+c = 2 (2)
4+1+4g2f+c = 0
(ie) 4g2f+c = 5 (3)
4+9+4g+6f+c = 0
4g+6f+c = 13 (4)
Solving (2), (3) and (4) we get
g = 
2
7
, f = 1, c = 7. Using these values in (1) we get
x
2
+y
2
7x2y+7 = 0 as equation of the circle.
105
EXERCISE 4.4
1) Find the equation of the circle with centre at (4, 2) and radius 6 units
2) Find the equation of the circle passing through (2, 0) and having its
centre at (2, 3)
3) Find the circumference and area of the circle x
2
+y
2
2x+5y+7 = 0
4) Fi nd t he equat i on of t he ci rcl e whi ch i s concent ri c wi t h t he ci rcl e
x
2
+y
2
+8x12y+15 = 0 and which passes through the point (5, 4).
5) Find the equation of the circle when the coordinates of the end points
of the diameter are (2, 7) and (6, 5)
6) Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (5, 2), (2, 1)
and (1, 4)
7) A circle passes through the points (4, 1) and (6, 5) and has its centre on
the line 4x+y = 16. Find the equation of the circle
8) x+3y = 17 and 3xy =3 are t wo di amt ers of a ci rcl e of radi us 5 uni t s.
Find the eqution of the circle.
9) Find the equation of the circle which has its centre at (2, 3) and which
passes through the intersection of the lines 3x2y1 = 0 and 4x+y27 = 0.
4.5 TANGENTS
4.5.1 Equation of the Tangent
Let the equation of the circle be x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0
Let P(x
1
, y
1
) be t he gi ven poi nt on t he ci r cl e and PT be
the tangent at P.
The centre of the circle is C (g, f).
The radius through P(x
1
, y
1
) is CP.
PT is the tangent at P(x
1
, y
1
) and
PC is the radius
Slope of CP =
g x
f y
1
1
+
+
∴ Slope of PT is  ( )
f y
g x
1
1
+
+
{Q PT  r to CP}
C(g,f)
P(x
1
, y
1
) T
.
106
∴ Equation of tangent PT at P(x
1
, y
1
) is yy
1
= 
( )
f y
g x
1
1
+
+
(xx
1
)
=> yy
1
+ f(yy
1
)  y
1
2
+xx
1
+g(xx
1
)x
1
2
= 0 (1)
Since (x
1
, y
1
) is a point on the circle
x
1
2
+y
1
2
+2gx
1
+2fy
1
+c = 0 (2)
(1) + (2) => xx
1
+ yy
1
+ g(x+x
1
) + f(y+y
1
) + c = 0 is the required equation
of the tangent.
Observation:
(i) From the equation of the circle, changing x
2
to xx
1
, y
2
t o yy
1
, x to
2
x x
1
+
and y to
2
y y
1
+
and retaining the constant c we get the equation
of the tangent at the point (x
1
, y
1
) as xx
1
+yy
1
+g(x+x
1
)+f(y+y
1
)+c = 0
(ii) The equation of the tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
= a
2
at the point (x
1
, y
1
)
is xx
1
+ yy
1
= a
2
(iii) The length of the tangent from the point (x
1
, y
1
) to the circle
x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0 is
c 2fy 2gx y x
1 1
2
1
2
1
+ + + +
(iv) The poi nt P( x
1
, y
1
) l i es out s i de on or i ns i de t he ci r cl e
x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0 according as x
1
2
+y
1
2
+2gx1+2fy
1
+c
≥
<
0
4.5.2 Condition for the straight line y = mx+c to be tangent to the circle
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
i s c
2
= a
2
(1+m
2
)
For the line y = mx+c
ie., mxy+c = 0 to be tangent to the circle
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
, the length of the perpendicular
from the centre of the circle to the straight
l i ne must be equal t o t he radi us of t he
circle.
i.e., +
2
m 1
c
+
= a
Squaring both sides we get the condition as c
2
= a
2
(1+m
2
)
O(0, 0)
y=mx+c
T
.
a
N
107
4.5.3 Chord of contact of tangents
From any point outside a circle two tangents can be drawn to the
circle. The line joining the points of contacts of tangents is called the
chord of contact of tangents.
The equation of chord of contact of tangents
Let the equation of the circle be x
2
+y
2
+2gx+2fy+c = 0
Let P(x
1
, y
1
) be the given point through which the tangents PQ and
PR are drawn. Then QR is the chord of contact of tangents. The equation
of the tangent at Q (x
2
, y
2
) is
xx
2
+yy
2
+g(x+x
2
)+f(y+y
2
)+c = 0 (1)
The equation of tangent at R(x
3
, y
3
) is
xx
3
+yy
3
+g(x+x
3
)+f(y+y
3
)+c = 0 (2)
Since these tangents pass through the point (x
1
, y
1
), (1) and (2) become
x
1
x
2
+y
1
y
2
+g(x
1
+x
2
)+f(y
1
+y
2
)+c = 0 (3)
x
1
x
3
+y
1
y
3
+g(x
1
+x
3
)+f(y
1
+y
3
)+c = 0 (4)
consider xx
1
+yy
1
+g(x+x
1
)+f(y+y
1
)+c = 0. This represents the
equation to a straight line passing through Q and R by virtue of (3) and (4)
and hence is the equation of chord of contact of the point P(x
1
, y
1
)
Example 20
Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
26x+12y+105 =
0 at the point (7, 2)
Solution:
The equation of tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
26x+12y+105 = 0 at (7, 2) is
x(7)+y(2)13(x+7)+6(y+2)+105 = 0
ie., 3x4y13 = 0
P (x
1
, y
1
)
R (x
3
, y
3
)
Q (x
2
, y
2
)
c
.
108
Example 21
Find the value of p so that 3x+4yp = 0 is a tangent to the circle
x
2
+y
2
64 = 0
Solution:
The condition for the line y = mx+c to be a tangent to the circle
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
is c
2
= a
2
(1+m
2
)  (1)
For the given line 3x+4y = p,
m = 
4
3
and c =
4
p
and for the given circle x
2
+y
2
= 64
a =
64
= 8
(1) => (
4
p
)
2
= 64[(1+(
4
3
)
2
]
p
2
= 16x100 = 1600
∴ p = +
1600
= +40
Example 22
Find the length of the tangent drawn from the point (1, 3) to the
circle x
2
+y
2
+x+2y+6 = 0
Solution:
Length of the tangent from (1, 3) to the circle x
2
+y
2
+x+2y+6 = 0 is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 6 3  2 1  3  1 
2 2
+ + + +
= 3 units
EXERCISE 4.5
1) Find the equation of tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
= 10 at (1, 3)
2) Find the equation of tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
+2x3y8 = 0 at (2, 3)
3) Find the length of the tangent from (2, 3) to the circle x
2
+y
2
8x9y+12 = 0
4) Find the condition the that line lx+my+n = 0 is a tangent to the circle
x
2
+y
2
= a
2
5) Prove that the tangents to the circle x
2
+y
2
= 169 at (5, 12) and (12, 5) are
⊥r to each other.
6) Fi nd t he l engt h of t he t angent f r om t he poi nt (  2, 3) t o t he ci r cl e
2x
2
+2y
2
= 3
109
EXERCISE 4.6
Choose the correct answer
1) If P,Q,R are points on the same line with slope of PQ =
3
2
, then the slope
of QR is
(a)
3
2
(b) 
3
2
(c)
2
3
(d) 
2
3
2) The angle made by the line x+y+7 = 0 with the positive direction of x
axis is
(a) 45
o
(b) 135
o
(c) 210
o
(d) 60
o
3) The slope of the line 3x5y+8 = 0 is
(a)
5
3
(b) 
5
3
(c)
3
5
(d) 
3
5
4) If the slope of a line is negative then the angle made by the line is
(a) acute (b) obtuse (c) 90
o
(d) 0
o
5) The slope of a linear demand curve is
(a) positive (b) negative (c) 0 (d) ∞
6) Two lines ax+by+c = 0 and px+qy+r = 0 are ⊥r if
(a)
p
a
=
q
b
(b)
b
a
=
p
q
(c)
b
a
=
q
p
(d)
b
a
=
p
q
7) Slope of the line ⊥r to ax+by+c = 0 is
(a) 
b
a
(b) 
a
b
(c)
a
b
(d)
b
a
8) When ax+3y+5 = 0 and 2x+6y+7 = 0 are parallel then the value of ‘a’ is
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 6
9) The value of ‘a’ for which 2x+3y7 = 0 and 3x+ay+5 = 0 are ⊥r is
(a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 3
10) The centre of the circle x
2
+y
2
+6y9 = 0 is
(a) (0, 3) (b) (0, 3) (c) (3, 0) (d) (3, 0)
11) The equation of the circle with centre at (0, 0) and radius 3 units is
(a) x
2
+y
2
= 3 (b) x
2
+y
2
= 9 (c) x
2
+y
2
= 3 (d)x
2
+y
2
=3 3
12) The length of the diameter of a circle with centre (1, 2) and passing through
the point (5, 5) is
(a) 5 (b)
45
(c) 10 (d)
50
110
13) If (1, 3) is the centre of the circle x
2
+y
2
+ax+by+9 = 0, its radius is
(a)
10
(b) 1 (c) 5 (d)
19
14) The area of the circle (x2)
2
+ (y4)
2
= 25 is
(a) 25 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) 25
^
15) The equation of tangent at (1, 2) to the circle x
2
+y
2
= 5 is
(a) x+y = 5 (b) x+2y = 5 (c) xy = 5 (d) x2y = 5
16) The length of tangent from (3, 4) to the circle x
2
+y
2
4x+6y1 = 0 is
(a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 8
17) If y = 2x+c is a tangent to the circle x
2
+y
2
= 5 then the value of c is
(a) + 5 (b) + 25 (c) + 5 (d) + 2
111
O
B
A
r
r
r
1
c
TRIGONOMETRY
5
The Greeks and Indians saw trigonometry as a tool for the study of
astronomy. Trigonometry, derived from the Greek words “Trigona” and
“Metron”, means measurement of the three angles of a triangle. This was
the original use to which the subject was applied. The subject has been
considerably developed and it has now wider application and uses.
The first significant trigonometry book was written by Ptolemy
around the second century A.D. George Rheticus (15141577) was the first
to define trigonometric functions completely in terms of right angles. Thus
we see that trigonometry is one of the oldest branches of Mathematics and
a powerful tool in higher mathematics.
Let us recall some important concepts in trigonometry which we have
studied earlier.
Recall
1. Measurement of angles (Sexagesimal system)
a) one right angle = 90
o
b) one degree (1
o
) = 60' (Minutes)
c) one minute (1') = 60'' (Seconds)
2. Circular Measure (or) Radian measure
Radian : A radian is the magnitude of the angle
subtended at the centre by an arc of a circle
equal in length to the radius of the circle. It is
denoted by 1
c
. Generally the symbol “c” is
omitted.
π radian = 180
o
,
1 radian = 57
o
17' 45''
Radians
6
π
4
π
3
π
2
π
π 3
2
π
2π
Degrees 30
o
45
o
60
o
90
o
180
o
270
o
360
o
112
→
x
1
x
y
y
1
O M
θ
r
P(x, y)
Fig 5.1
y
x
↑
←
↓
3. Angles may be of any magnitude not necessarily restricted to 90
o
.
An angle is positive when measured anti clockwise and is negative when
measured clockwise.
5.1 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES
Consider the circle with centre at the
origin O (0, 0) and radius r units. Let P(x, y) be
any point on the circle. Draw PM ⊥ to OX.
Now, ∆OMP is a right angled triangle with one
vertex at the origin of a coordinate system and
one vertex on the positive Xaxis. The other
vertex is at P, a point on the circle.
Let XOP = θ
From ∆OMP, OM = x = side adjacent to θ
MP = y = side opposite θ
OP = r = length of the hypotenuse of ∆OMP
Now, we define
Sine function : si nθ θ =
hypotenuse the of length
opposite side the of length θ θ
=
r
y
Cosine function : cos θ θ =
hypotenuse the of length
è to adjacent side the of length
=
r
x
Tangent function : tan θ θ =
è to adjacent side the of length
è opposite side the of length
=
x
y
the sine, cosine and tangent functions respectively.
i.e. cosecθ θ =
θ sin
1
=
y
r
secθ θ =
θ cos
1
=
x
r
cotθ θ =
θ tan
1
=
y
x
Observation :
(i) tanθ =
θ
θ
cos
sin
; cotθ =
θ
θ
sin
cos
113
(ii) If the circle is a unit circle then r = 1.
∴ Sin θ = y ; cosec θ =
y
1
cos θ = x ; sec θ =
x
1
(iii) Function Cofunction
sine cosine
tangent cotangent
secant cosecant
(iv) (sinθ)
2
, (secθ)
3
, (tanθ)
4
, ... and in general (sinθ)
n
are written as sin
2
θ,
sec
3
θ, tan
4
θ, ... sin
n
θ respectively. But (cos x)
1
is not written as
cos
1
x, since the meaning for cos
1
x is entirely different. (being the
angle whose cosine is x)
5.1.1 Standard Identities
(i) si n
2
θ θ + cos
2
θ θ = 1
Proof: From right angled triangle OMP, (fig 5.1)
we have x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
cos
2
θ + sin
2
θ = 1 (
Q
r = 1)
(ii) 1 + tan
2
θ θ = sec
2
θ θ
Proof : 1 + tan
2
θ = 1 +
2
2
x
y
=
2
2 2
x
x y +
=
2
2
x
r
=
2
x
1
= ( )
2
x
1
= sec
2
θ
(iii) 1 + cot
2
θ θ = cosec
2
θ θ
Proof : 1 + cot
2
θ = 1 +
2
2
y
x
=
2
2 2
y
x y +
=
2
2
y
r
=
2
y
1
= ( )
2
y
1
= cosec
2
θ
Thus, we have
(i) si n
2
θ θ + cos
2
θ θ = 1
(ii) 1 + tan
2
θ θ = sec
2
θ θ
(iii) 1 + cot
2
θ θ = cosec
2
θ θ
114
Example 1
Show that cos
4
A  sin
4
A = 12sin
2
A
Solution:
cos
4
Asin
4
A = (cos
2
A + sin
2
A) (cos
2
Asin
2
A)
= cos
2
Asin
2
A
= 1sin
2
Asin
2
A
= 12sin
2
A
Example 2
Prove that (sinA+cosA) (1sinA cosA) = sin
3
A + cos
3
A
Solution:
R.H.S. = sin
3
A + cos
3
A
= (sinA+cosA) (sin
2
A + cos
2
A  sinA cosA)
= (sinA + cosA) (1sinA cosA) = L.H.S.
Example 3
Show that sec
4
A  1 = 2tan
2
A + tan
4
A
Solution :
L.H.S. = Sec
4
A1
= (sec
2
A+1) (sec
2
A1)
= (1+tan
2
A+1) (1+tan
2
A1)
= (2+tan
2
A) tan
2
A
= 2tan
2
A + tan
4
A = R.H.S.
Example 4
Prove that
A cot 1
A tan 1
2
2
+
+
=
A cos
A sin
2
2
= tan
2
A
Solution:
A cot 1
A tan 1
2
2
+
+
=
A cosec
A sec
2
2
=
,
`
.

,
`
.

A sin
1
A cos
1
2
2
=
A cos
A sin
2
2
= tan
2
A
Example 5
Prove that
θ θ θ θ tan sec
1
−
= secθ θ + tanθ θ
115
Solution:
L.H.S. =
θ θ tan sec
1

Mutiply numerator and denominator each by (secθ + tanθ)
=
) tan (sec ) tan  sec (
tan sec
θ + θ θ θ
θ + θ
=
θ θ
θ + θ
2 2
tan  sec
tan sec
= secθ + tanθ. = R.H.S
Example 6
Prove that
tanA cotB
tanB cotA
+
+
= cotA tanB
Solution :
L.H.S. =
tanA cotB
tanB cotA
+
+
=
cotA
1
tanB
1
tanB cotA
+
+
=
( )
cotA tanB
tanB cotA
tanB cotA
+
+
= cotA tanB = R.H.S.
Example 7
Prove that (sinθ θ + cosecθ θ)
2
+ (cosθ θ + secθ θ)
2
= tan
2
θ θ + cot
2
θ θ + 7
Solution :
L.H.S. = (sinθ + cosecθ)
2
+ (cosθ + secθ)
2
= sin
2
θ + cosec
2
θ + 2sinθcosecθ + cos
2
θ + sec
2
θ + 2cosθsecθ
= (sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ) + (1+cot
2
θ) + 2 + (1+tan
2
θ) + 2
= 1 + 6 + tan
2
θ + cot
2
θ
= tan
2
θ + cot
2
θ + 7 = R.H.S.
Example 8
Prove that (1+cotA+tanA)(sinAcosA) =
A cosec
secA
2

A sec
cosecA
2
Solution:
L.H.S. = (1+cotA+tanA)(sinAcosA)
= sinA  cosA + cotAsinA  cotA cosA + tanAsinA  tanA cosA
116
= sinA  cosA + cosA 
sinA
A cos
2
+
cosA
A sin
2
 sinA
=
cosA
A sin
2

sinA
A cos
2
=
A cosec
secA
2

A sec
cosecA
2
Recall
Example 9
If A = 45
o
, verify that (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA (ii) cos2A = 12sin
2
A
Solution:
(i) L.H.S. = sin2A
= sin90
o
= 1
R.H.S. = 2sinA cosA = 2sin45
o
cos45
o
= 2 ( )
2
1
( )
2
1
= 1
Hence verified.
(ii) L.H.S. = cos2A = cos90
o
= 0
R.H.S. = 1  2sin
2
A = 12sin
2
45
o
= 1  2
( )
2
1 2
= 11 = 0
Hence verified.
Example 10
Prove that 4cot
2
45
o
 sec
2
60
o
+ si n
3
30
o
=
8
1
θ θ 0
o
30
o
45
o
60
o
90
o
sinθ 0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
cosθ 1
2
3
2
1
2
1
0
tanθ 0
3
1
1
3
∞
117
Solution:
L.H.S. = 4cot
2
45
o
 sec
2
60
o
+ sin
3
30
o
= 4(1)
2
 (2)
2
+ (
2
1
)
3
=
8
1
= R.H.S.
EXERCISE 5.1
1) If asin
2
θ + bcos
2
θ = c, show that tan
2
θ =
c  a
b  c
2) Prove that
tanA cotA
1
+
= sinA cosA
3) Prove that
tanA 1
tanA 1
+
−
=
1 cotA
1  cotA
+
4) Prove that
θ −sin 1
1
+
θ +sin 1
1
= 2sec
2
θ
5) Prove that cosec
4
A  cosec
2
A = cot
2
A + cot
4
A
6) Prove that
1  cosecA
cosecA
+
1 cosecA
cosecA
+
= 2sec
2
A
7) Prove that (1+cotA  cosecA)(1+tanA + secA) = 2
8) Prove that
tanA  1
cosA
+
cotA  1
sinA
= sinA + cosA
9) Show that
θ
θ
cot  1
tan
+
θ
θ
tan  1
cot
= 1 + cosecθ secθ
10) Show that 3(sinx  cosx)
4
+ 6(sinx + cosx)
2
+ 4(sin
6
x + cos
6
x) = 13
11) If A = 30
o
, verify that
(i) cos2A = cos
2
A  sin
2
A = 2cos
2
A1 = 12sin
2
A
(ii) sin2A = 2sinA cosA
(iii) cos3A = 4cos
3
A  3cosA
(iv) sin3A = 3sinA  4sin
3
A
(v) tan2A =
A tan  1
A tan 2
2
12) Find the value of
3
4
cot
2
30
o
+ 2sin
2
60
o
 2cosec
2
60
o

4
3
tan
2
30
o
13) Find 4cot
2
45
o
 sec
2
60
o
+ sin
3
30
o
118
14) Find cos
4
π
cos
3
π
 sin
4
π
sin
3
π
15) If secA + tanA =
2
3
, prove that tanA =
12
5
16) If 4tanA = 3, show that
cosA sinA
2cosA  A sin 5
+
= 1
17) If acosθ + bsinθ = c and bcosθ  a sinθ = d show that a
2
+b
2
= c
2
+d
2
18) If tanθ =
7
1
find the value of
è sec è cosec
è sec  è cosec
2 2
2 2
+
19) If sec
2
θ = 2+2tanθ, find tanθ
20) If x = secθ + tanθ, then show that sin θ =
1 x
1 x
2
2
+
−
5.2 SIGNS OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
5.2.1 Changes in signs of the Trigonometric ratios of an angle θ θ as θ θ
varies from 0
o
to 360
o
Consider the circle with centre at the origin O(0,0) and radius r units
Let P(x,y) be any point on the circle.
→
x
1
x
y
y
1
O M
θ
r
P(x, y)
Fig 5.2(a)
↑
←
↓
→
x
1
x
y
y
1
M O
θ
r
P(x, y)
Fig 5.2(b)
↑
←
↓
→
x
1
x
y
y
1
o M
θ
r
P(x, y)
Fig 5.2(d)
↑
←
↓
→
x
1
x
y
y
1
M
O
θ
r
P(x, y)
Fig 5.2(c)
↑
←
↓
119
S A
T C
Let the revolving line OP=r, makes an angle θ with OX
Case (1) Let θ θ be in the first quadrant i.e. 0
o
< θ θ < 90
o
From fig 5.2(a) the coordinates of P, both x and y are positive. Therefore
all the trigonometric ratios are positive.
Case (2) Let θ θ be in the second quadrant i.e. 90
o
< θ θ < 180
o
From fig 5.2(b) the x coordinate of P is negative and y coordinate of
P is positive. Therefore sin θ is positive, cos θ is negative and tanθ is
negative.
Case (3) Let θ θ be in the third quadrant i.e. 180
o
< θ θ <270
o
From fig 5.2(c), both x and y coordinates of P are negative. Therefore
sinθ and cosθ are negative and tanθ is positive.
Case (4) Let θ θ be in the fourth quadrant i.e. 270
o
< θ θ < 360
o
From fig 5.2(d), x coordinate of P is positive and y coordinate of P is
negative. Therefore sinθ and tanθ are negative and cosθ is positive.
Thus we have
A simple way of remembering the signs is by refering this chart:
A → In I quadrant All trigonometric ratios are positive
S → In II quadrant Sinθ and Cosecθ alone are positive and all others are
negative.
T → In III quadrant Tanθ and Cotθ alone are positive and all others are
negative.
C → In IV quadrant Cosθ and Secθ alone are positive and all others are
negative.
Quadrant sinθ θ cos θ θ tanθ θ cosecθ θ secθ θ cotθ θ
I
II
III
IV
+
+


+


+
+

+

+
+


+


+
+

+

120
5.2.2 Determination of the quadrant in which the given angle lies
Let θ be less than 90
o
Then the angles:
(90
o
θ) lies in first quadrant (270
o
θ) lies in third quadrant
(90
o
+θ) lies in second quadrant (270
o
+θ) lies in fourth quadrant
(180
o
θ) lies in second quadrant (360
o
θ) lies in fourth quadrant
(180
o
+θ) lies in third quadrant (360
o
+θ) lies in first quadrant
Observation :
(i) 90
o
is taken to lie either in I or II quadrant.
(ii) 180
o
is taken to lie either in II or III quadrant
(iii) 270
o
is taken to lie either in III or IV quadrant
(iv) 360
o
is taken to lie either in IV or I quadrant
Example 11
Determine the quadrants in which the following angles lie
(i) 210
o
(ii) 315
o
(iii) 745
o
From fig 5.3(a)
210
o
= 180
o
+ 30
o
This is of the form
180
o
+ θ
o
∴ 210
o
lies in
Third quadrant.
5.2.3 Trigonometric ratios of angles of any magnitude
In order to find the values of the trigonometric functions for the
angles more than 90
o
, we can follow the useful methods given below.
(i) Determine the quadrant in which the given angle lies.
(ii) Write the given angle in the form k
2
π π
+ θ θ , k is a positive
integer
x' x
y
y'
210
o
Fig. 5.3(a)
o
→
Fig. 5.3(b)
→
x' x
y
y'
315
o
o
Fig. 5.3(c)
→
x' x
y
y'
745
o
o
↑
↑ ↑
←
↓
←
↓
←
↓
From fig 5.3(b)
315
o
= 270
o
+ 45
o
This is of the form
270
o
+ θ
o
.
∴ 315
o
lies in
Fourth quadrant
From fig 5.3(c)
we see that
745
o
= Two complete rotations
plus 25
o
745
o
= 2x360
o
+ 25
o
∴ 745
o
lies in First quadrant.
121
S A
T C
(iii) Determine the sign of the given trigonometric function
in that particular quadrant using the chart:
(iv) If k is even, trigonometric form of allied angle equals the same
function of θ
(v) If k is odd, trigonometric form of the allied angle equals the
cofunction of θ and vice versa
Observation:
From fig. 5.4 " θ
o
" is same as (360
o
 θ
o
).
∴ sin(θ)= sin(360
o
θ) = sinθ
cos(θ) = cosθ
tan(θ) = tanθ
cosec(θ) = cosecθ
sec (θ) = secθ
cot(θ) = cotθ.
−θ −θ 90
o
−θ −θ 90
o
+θ +θ 180
o
−θ −θ 180
o
+θ +θ 270
o
−θ −θ 270
o
+θ +θ 360
o
−θ −θ 360
o
+θ +θ
sine sinθ cosθ cosθ sinθ sinθ cosθ cosθ sinθ sinθ
cos cosθ sinθ sinθ cosθ  cosθ sinθ sinθ cosθ cosθ
tan tanθ cotθ cotθ tanθ tanθ cotθ cotθ tanθ tanθ
cosec cosecθ secθ secθ cosecθ cosecθ secθ secθ cosecθ cosecθ
sec secθ cosecθ cosecθ secθ secθ cosecθ cosecθ secθ secθ
cot cotθ tanθ tanθ cotθ cotθ tanθ tanθ cotθ cotθ
Example 12
Find the values of the following
(i) sin (120
o
) (ii) tan(210
o
) (iii) sec(405
o
)
(iv) cot(300
o
) (v) cos(330
o
) (vi) cosec(135
o
) vii) tan 1145
o
Solution:
(i) 120
o
= 90
o
+30
o
It is of the form 90
o
+θ
o
∴120
o
is in second quadrant
sin(120
o
) = sin(90
o
+30
o
)
= cos 30
o
=
2
3
Angles
Functions
Fig 5.4
→
x' x
y
y'
360
o
θ
o
θ
↑
←
↓
122
(ii) tan(210
o
) = tan(210
o
)
=  tan(180
o
+30
o
)
=  tan30
o
= 
3
1
(iii) sec (405
o
) = sec[360
o
+45
o
] = sec45
o
= 2
(iv) cot(300
o
) = cot(360
o
60
o
)
= cot60
o
= 
3
1
(v) cos(330
o
) = cos(330
o
)
= cos(270
o
+60
o
)
= sin60
o
=
2
3
(vi) cosec(135
o
) = cosec(90
o
+45
o
)
= sec45
o
=
2
(vii) tan (1145
o
) = tan (12x90
o
+ 65
o
)
= tan65
o
= tan (90
o
25
o
) = cot25
o
Example 13
Find the following : (i) sin843
o
(ii) cosec(757
o
) (iii) cos(928
o
)
Solution:
(i) sin843
o
= sin(9x90
o
+33
o
)
= cos33
o
(ii) cosec(757
o
) = cosec(757
o
)
= cosec (8x90
o
+37
o
) =  cosec 37
o
(iii) cos(928
o
) = cos(928
o
)
= cos(10x90
o
+ 28
o
) = cos28
o
Observation :
180
o
270
o
360
o
sin 0 1 0
cos 1 0 1
tan 0 ∞ 0
cosec ∞ 1 ∞
sec 1 ∞ 1
cot ∞ 0 ∞
Angles
Functions
123
EXERCISE 5.2
1) Prove that : sin420
o
cos390
o
 cos(300
o
) sin(330
o
) =
2
1
2) If A, B, C are the angles of a triangle, show that
(i) sin(A+B) = sinC (ii) cos(A+B) + cosC = 0 (iii) cos( )
2
B A+
= sin
2
C
3) If A lies between 270
o
and 360
o
and cotA = 
7
24
, find cosA and cosecA.
4) If sinθ =
12
11
, find the value of :
sec (360
o
θ) tan(180
o
θ) + cot(90
o
+θ) sin(270
o
+θ)
5) Find the value of sin300
o
tan330
o
sec420
o
6) Simplify
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) A  tan A  sin A sin
A tan A  cos A  sin
2
2
π π +
+ π π
π
π
7) Prove that sin1140
o
cos390
o
 cos780
o
sin750
o
=
2
1
8) Evaluate the following (i) sec 1327
o
(ii) cot (1054
o
)
5.3 COMPOUND ANGLES
In the previous section we have found the trigonometric ratios of
angles such as 90
o
+ θ, 180
o
+ θ, ... which involve only single angles. In this
section we shall express the trigonometric ratios of compound angles.
When an angle is made up of the algebraic sum of two or more angles,
it is called compound angle. For example A+B, A+B+C, A2B+3C, etc are
compound angles.
5.3.1 Addition and Subtraction Formulae
(i) sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB
(ii) sin(AB) = sinAcosB  cosAsinB
(iii) cos(A+B) = cosAcosB  sinAsinB
(iv) cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB
(v) tan(A+B) =
tanB tanA 1
tanB tanA
−
+
(vi) tan(AB) =
tanB tanA 1
tanB tanA
+
−
124
5.3.2 Prove goemetrically :
cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB
Proof: Consider the unit circle whose centre is at the origin O(0,0).
Let P(1,0) be a point on the unit circle
Let A and B be any two angles in standard position
Let Q and R be the points on the terminal side of angles A and B,
respectively.
From fig 5.5(a) the coordinates of Q and R are found to be,
Q (cosA, sinA) and R (cosB, sinB). Also we have ROQ = AB.
Now move the points Q and R along the circle to the points S and
P respectively in such a way that the distance between P and S is equal
to the distance between R and Q. Therefore we have from Fig. 5.5(b);
POS = ROQ = AB; and
S[cos(AB), sin(AB)]
Also, PS
2
= RQ
2
By the distance formula, we have
{cos(AB)1}
2
+ sin
2
(AB) = (cosAcosB)
2
+ (sinAsinB)
2
cos
2
(AB)  2cos(AB) + 1 + sin
2
(AB) = cos
2
A2cosAcosB +
cos
2
B + sin
2
A  2sinAsinB + sin
2
B
2  2cos(AB) = 2  (2cosAcosB + 2sinAsinB)
∴ cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB.
x' x
y
y'
S
(
c
o
s
(
A

B
)
,
s
i
n
(
A

B
)
)
AB
P (1,0)
.
. .
O
Fig. 5.5 (b)
S
x' x
y
y'
Q
(
c
o
s
A
,
s
i
n
A
)
R
(
c
o
s
B
,
s
i
n
B
)
A
B
P (1,0)
.
.
. .
O
Fig. 5.5 (a)
←
↓
←
↓
125
Corollary (i)
cos(A+B) = cos[A(B)]
= cosAcos(B) + sinAsin(B)
= cosAcosB + sinA{sinB}
∴ ∴ cos(A+B) = cosAcosB  sinAsinB
Corollary (ii)
sin(A+B) = cos[
2
π
 (A+B)]
= cos[(
2
π
A) B]
= cos(
2
π
A) cosB + sin(
2
π
A) sinB
∴ ∴ sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB
Corollary (iii)
sin(AB) = sin[A+(B)]
= sinAcos(B) + cosAsin(B)
∴ ∴ sin(AB) = sinAcosB  cosAsinB
Corollary (iv)
tan(A+B) =
( )
( ) B A cos
B A sin
+
+
=
sinB sinA  cosB cosA
sinB cosA cosB sinA +
=
( ) ( )
cosB
sinB
cosA
sinA
cosB
sinB
cosA
sinA
 1
+
∴ ∴ tan(A+B) =
tanB tanA  1
tanB tanA +
Corollary (v)
tan(AB) = tan[A+(B)]
=
B) tanA tan( 1
tan(B) tanA
−
+
∴ tan(AB) =
tanB tanA 1
tanB tanA
+
−
126
Example 14
Find the values of the following : (i) cos15
o
(ii) tan75
o
Solution:
(i) cos15
o
= cos(45
o
30
o
)
= cos45
o
cos30
o
+ sin45
o
sin30
o
=
2
1
2
3
+
2
1
2
1
=
2 2
1 3+
(ii) tan75
o
= tan(45
o
+30
o
)
=
o o
o o
tan30 tan45 1
30 tan tan45
−
+
=
3
1
3
1
1
1
−
+
=
1 3
1 3
−
+
Example 15
If A and B be acute angles with cosA =
13
5
and sinB =
5
3
find cos(AB)
Solution:
Given cosA =
13
5
∴ sinA =
169
25
1 −
=
169
25  169
=
13
12
Given sinB =
5
3
∴ cosB =
25
9
1 −
=
5
4
∴ cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB
=
13
5
5
4
+
13
12
5
3
=
65
56
Example 16
If sinA =
3
1
, cosB = 
4
3
and A and B are in second quadrant, then
find (i) sin(A+B), (ii) cos(A+B), (iii) tan(A+B) and determine the
quadrant in which A+B lies.
127
Solution:
cosA = A sin  1
2
= 
3
2 2
(since A is in second quadrant cosA is negative)
sinB = B cos  1
2
sinB =
16
7
=
4
7
(Since B is in second quadrant sinB is positive)
∴ tanA =
cosA
sinA
=
( )
3
2 2
) (
3
1
−
=
4
2
−
tanB =
cosB
sinB
=
( )
( )
4
3
4
7
−
=
3
7 −
Sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB
=
3
1
( )
4
3
+
( )
3
2 2 
( )
4
7
=
4
1
−
12
14 2
−
= 
( )
12
14 2
4
1
+
cos(A+B) = cosAcosB  sinAsinB
=
( )
3
2 2 
( )
4
3
3
1
−
4
7
=
12
7 2 6 −
is positive
tan(A+B) =
tanA tanB 1
tanB tanA
−
+
=
( ) ( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
7 2  1
7  2
3
1 
4
1 
3
1
4
1
= ( )
14 12
7 4 2 3
−
+
−
128
Since sin(A+B) is negative and cos(A+B) is positive (A+B) must
be in the fourth quadrant.
Example 17
If A+B = 45
o
prove that (1+tanA)(1+tanB) = 2 and deduce the value
of tan22
o
2
1
Solution:
Given A+B = 45
o
∴ tan(A+B) = tan45
o
= 1
tan tanB 1
tanB tanA
−
+
= 1
=> tanA + tanB + tanAtanB = 1
Adding 1 to both sides
1 + tanA+tanB+tanAtanB = 1+1 = 2
i.e. (1+tanA) (1+tanB) = 2 (1)
Putting A = B = 22
o
2
1
in (1), we get (1 + tan22
2
1
o
)
2
= 2
=> 1 + tan22
o
2
1
= +
2
∴ 1+tan22
o
2
1
=
2
(since 22
o
2
1
is an angle in I quadrant,
1+ tan 22
o
2
1
is positive)
∴ tan22
o
2
1
=
2
1
Example 18
Prove that cos(60
o
+A) cos(30
o
A)  sin(60
o
A) sin(30
o
A) = 0
Proof :
Let α = 60
o
+A
β = 30
o
A
Then the given problem is of the form cos(α+β)
i.e. cos[(60
o
+A)+(30
o
A)]
= cos(60
o
+30
o
)
= cos90
o
= 0
129
EXERCISE 5.3
1) Show that
(i) sin(A+B) sin(AB) = sin
2
Asin
2
B
(ii) cos(A+B) cos(AB) = cos
2
Asin
2
B
2) Prove the following : Sin(A45
o
) + Cos(45
o
+A) = 0
3) Prove that tan75
o
+ cot75
o
= 4
4) If tanθ
=
2
1
, tanφ =
3
1
, then show that θ+φ =
4
π
5) Find the values of : (i) tan105
o
(ii) sec105
o
.
6) Prove that
( )
sinB sinA
B A sin −
+
( )
sinC sinB
C  B sin
+
( )
sinA sinC
A C sin −
= 0
7) Prove that
( )
( ) y  x cos
y x cos +
=
tanx tany 1
tanx tany 1
+
−
8) If cosA =
13
12
− , cosB =
25
24
, A is obtuse and B is acute angle find
(i) sin(A+B) (ii) cos(AB)
9) Prove that sinA + sin(120
o
+A) + sin(240
o
+A) = 0
10) Show that cot15
o
+ cot75
o
+ cot135
o
= 3
11) If tanA + tanB = a; cotA + cotB = b, show that cot(A+B) =
b
1
a
1
−
5.3.3 Multiple angles
In this section, we shall obtain formulae for the trigonometric func
tions of 2A and 3A. There are many aspects of integral calculus where
these formulae play a key role.
We know that sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB and When A=B,
sin2A = sinAcosA + cosAsinA
∴ sin2A = 2sinAcosA
Similarly, if we start with
cos(A+B) = cosAcosB  sinAsinB and when A=B we obtain
cos2A = cosAcosA  sinAsinA
cos2A= cos
2
A  sin
2
A
Also, cos2A = cos
2
A  sin
2
A
130
= (1sin
2
A)  sin
2
A
= 12sin
2
A
cos2A = cos
2
A  sin
2
A
= cos
2
A  (1cos
2
A)
= 2cos
2
A  1
We know that, tan(A+B) =
tanA tanB 1
tanB tanA
−
+
. When A=B we obtain
tan2A =
A tan  1
2tanA
2
Also we can prove the following
(i) sin2A =
A tan 1
2tanA
2
+
(ii) cos2A =
A tan 1
A tan  1
2
2
+
Proof: (i) we have
sin2A = 2sinA cosA
= 2tanA cos
2
A
=
A sec
2tanA
2
=
A tan 1
2tanA
2
+
(ii) we have
cos2A = cos
2
A  sin
2
A
=
A sin A cos
A sin  A cos
2 2
2 2
+
(
Q
1=cos
2
A+sin
2
A)
cos2A =
A tan 1
A tan  1
2
2
+
Observation :
(i) sin
2
A =
2
cos2A  1
(ii) cos
2
A =
2
cos2A 1+
(iii) tan
2
A =
cos2A 1
cos2A  1
+
131
5.3.4 To express sin3A, cos3A and tan3A interms of A
(i) sin3A = sin(2A+A)
= sin2A cosA + cos2A sinA
= 2sinA cos
2
A + (12sin
2
A) sinA
= 2sinA(1sin
2
A) + (12sin
2
A) sinA
sin3A = 3sinA  4sin
3
A
(ii) cos3A = cos(2A+A)
= cos2AcosA  sin2A sinA
= (2cos
2
A1) cosA  2sin
2
A cosA
= (2cos
2
A1) cosA  2(1cos
2
A)cosA
cos3A= 4cos
3
A  3cosA
(iii) tan3A = tan(2A+A)
=
tanA tan2A  1
tanA tan2A +
=
( )
A tan  1
2tanA
A tan  1
2tanA
2
2
tanA  1
tanA +
=
( )
A 2tan  A tan  1
A tan  1 tanA 2tanA
2 2
2
+
tan3A =
A 3tan  1
A tan 3tanA
2
3
−
5.3.5 Sub multiple angle
sinA = sin(2
2
A
) = 2sin
2
A
cos
2
A
cosA = cos(2
2
A
) = cos
2
2
A
 sin
2
2
A
= 2cos
2
2
A
 1
= 1  2sin
2
2
A
tanA = tan(2
2
A
) =
2
A
tan  1
2
A
2tan
2
132
Further,
(i) sinA =
2
A
tan 1
2
A
2tan
2
+
(ii) cosA =
2
A
tan 1
2
A
tan  1
2
2
+
(iii) si n
2
2
A
=
2
cosA  1
(iv) cos
2
2
A
=
2
cosA 1+
(v) tan
2
2
A
=
cosA 1
cosA  1
+
Example 19
Prove that
cos2A  1
sin2A
= cotA
Solution:
L.H.S. =
cos2A  1
sin2A
=
A 2sin
cosA 2sinA
2
=
sinA
cosA
= cotA = R.H.S.
Example 20
Find the values of
(i) sin22
o
2
1
(ii) cos22
o
2
1
(iii) tan22
o
2
1
Solution:
(i) sin
2
2
A
=
2
cosA  1
sin
2
2
45
=
2
cos45  1
o
=
2
 1
2
1
=
4
2  2
∴ sin22
o
2
1
=
2
2  2
133
(ii) cos
2
2
A
=
2
cosA 1+
∴ cos22
o
2
1
=
2
2 2+
(iii) tan
2
2
A
=
cosA 1
cosA 1
+
−
tan
2
2
45
=
o
o
cos45 1
cos45  1
+
=
1 2
1 2
+
−
x
1 2
1 2
−
−
= ( )
2
1 2 −
∴ tan22
o
2
1
=
2
 1
Example 21
If tanA =
3
1
, tanB =
7
1
prove that 2A+B =
4
π π
Solution:
tan2A =
A tan  1
2tanA
2
=
( )
( )
2
3
1
3
1
 1
2
=
4
3
tan(2A+B) =
tan2A tanB  1
tanB tan2A +
=
7
1
4
3
 1
7
1
4
3
+
= 1
=> 2A+B =
4
π
(
Q
tan45
ο
= 1)
Example 22
If tanA =
sinB
cosB  1
, provethat tan2A = tanB, where A and B are
acute angles.
Solution:
Given tanA =
sinB
cosB  1
134
=
2
B
2
B
2
B 2
cos 2sin
2sin
= tan
2
B
∴ tanA = tan
2
B
=> A =
2
B
i.e. 2A = B
∴ tan2A = tanB
Example 23
Show that sin20
o
sin40
o
sin60
o
sin80
o
=
16
3
Solution
L.H.S. = sin60
o
.sin20
o
.sin(60
o
20
o
).sin(60
o
+20
o
)
=
2
3
sin20
o
[sin
2
60
o
sin
2
20
o
]
=
2
3
sin20
o
[
4
3
 sin
2
20
o
)
=
2
3
4
1
[3sin20
o
4sin
3
20
o
]
=
2
3
4
1
sin60
o
=
2
3
4
1
2
3
=
16
3
= R.H.S.
Example 24
Find the values of sin18
o
and cos36
o
Solution:
Let θ = 18
o
, then 5θ = 5x18 = 90
o
3θ+2θ = 90
o
∴ 2θ = 90
o
3θ
∴ sin2θ = sin(90
ο
3θ) = cos3θ
2sinθcosθ = 4cos
3
θ3cosθ divide by cosθ on both sides
2sinθ = 4cos
2
θ3 (
Q
cosθ ≠ 0)
135
2sinθ = 4(1sin
2
θ)3
2sinθ = 14sin
2
θ
∴ 4sin
2
θ + 2sinθ  1 = 0, which is a quadratic equation in sinθ.
∴ sinθ =
8
16 4 2 + t −
=
4
5 1t −
since θ = 18
o
, which is an acute angle, sinθ is +ve
∴ sin18
o
=
4
1 5 −
cos36
o
= 12sin
2
18
o
= 12( )
2
4
1 5−
=
4
1 5 +
Example 25
Prove that
cosA
cos3A
+
sinA
sin3A
= 4cos2A.
L.H.S. =
cosA
cos3A
+
sinA
sin3A
=
sinA cosA
sin3A cosA cos3A sinA +
=
( )
cosA sinA
3A A sin +
=
cosA sinA
sin4A
=
cosA sinA
cos2A 2sin2A
=
cosA sinA
cos2A cosA 2sinA . 2
= 4cos2A = R.H.S.
Example 26
Prove that
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
cos sin 1
cos  sin 1
+ +
+
= tan
2
θ θ
Solution:
L.H.S. =
( )
1  2cos cos 2sin 1
2sin  1  cos 2sin 1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
+ +
+
136
=
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
cos sin 2cos
sin cos 2sin
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
+
+
= tan
2
θ
= R.H.S.
EXERCISE 5.4
1) Prove that tanA + cotA = 2cosec2A
2) Prove that cos20
o
cos40
o
cos80
o
=
8
1
3) If t anθ =
7
1
, tanφ =
3
1
, t hen prove t hat cos2θ = sin4φ
4) If 2cosθ = x+
x
1
then prove that
(i) cos 2θ =
2
1
(x
2
+ 2
x
1
)
(ii) cos 3θ =
2
1
(x
3
+ 3
x
1
)
5) Prove that
cos3A  A cos
A sin sin3A
3
3
+
= cotA
6) Show that
sin2A  1
sin2A 1+
= tan
2
(45
o
+A)
7) If tan
2
A
= t, then prove that
(i) sinA + tanA =
4
t  1
4t
(ii) secA + tanA =
( )
2
2
t  1
t 1+
8) Show t hat cos
2
36
o
+ sin
2
18
o
=
4
3
10) Prove that
cosA  1
cos3A  1
= (1+2cosA)
2
11) Prove that
sin2A 1
cos2A
+
= tan(45
o
A)
137
12) Prove that (sin
2
A
 cos
2
A
)
2
= 1sinA
13) Show that
)  (45 tan 1
)  (45 tan  1
o 2
o 2
θ +
θ
= sin2θ
14. If sinA =
5
3
find sin3A, cos3A and tan3A
15. Show that
cosA
cos3A
= 2cos2A1
16. Prove that sec
2
A(1+sec2A) = 2sec2A
5.3.6 Transformation of products into sums or differences
we have
sin(A+B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB ..............(1)
sin(AB) = sinA cosB  cosA sinB ..............(2)
(1)+(2), gives
sin(A+B) + sin(AB) = 2sinA cosB ..............(a)
(1)(2), gives
sin(A+B)  sin(AB) = 2cosA SinB ..............(b)
Also we have
cos(A+B) = cosAcosBsinAsinB ..............(3)
cos(AB) = cosAcosB+sinAsinB ..............(4)
(3)+(4), gives
cos(A+B)+cos(AB) = 2cosAcosB ..............(c)
(4)(3), gives
cos(AB)  cos(A+B) = 2sinA.sinB ..............(d)
Example 27
Express the following as sum or difference:
(i) 2sin3θ θ cos θ θ (ii) 2cos2θ θ cos θ θ (iii) 2sin3x sinx
(iv) cos9θ θ cos7θ θ (v) cos7
2
A
cos9
2
A
(vi) cos5θ θ sin4θ θ
vii) 2cos11A sin13A
Solution:
(i) 2sin3θ cosθ = sin(3θ+θ) + sin(3θθ)
= sin4θ+sin2θ
(ii) 2cos2θ cosθ = cos(2θ+θ) + cos(2θθ)
= cos3θ + cosθ
138
(iii) 2sin3x sinx = cos(3xx)  cos(3x+x)
= cos2xcos4x
(iv) cos9θ cos7θ =
2
1
[cos(9θ+7θ) + cos(9θ7θ)]
=
2
1
[cos16θ+cos2θ]
(v) cos7
2
A
cos9
2
A
=
2
1
[cos (7
2
A
+9
2
A
) + cos(7
2
A
9
2
A
)]
=
2
1
[cos8A + cos(A)]
=
2
1
[cos8A+cosA]
(vi) cos5θ sin4θ =
2
1
[sin9θsinθ]
(vii) 2cos11A sin13A = sin(11A+13A)  sin(11A13A)
= sin24A + sin2A
Example 28
Show that 4cos α α cos(120
o
α α) cos(120
o
+α α) = cos3α α.
Solution:
L.H.S. = 2cosα 2cos(120
o
α) cos(120
o
+α)
= 2cosα.{cos(120
o
α+120
o
+α) + cos(120
o
α120
o
α)}
= 2cosα{cos240
o
+cos(2α)}
= 2cosα{cos240
o
+cos2α}
= 2cosα{
2
1
+ 2cos
2
α1}
= 4cos
3
α3cosα
= cos3α = R.H.S.
5.3.7 Transformation of sums or differences into products
Putting C = A+B and D = AB in (a), (b), (c) and (d) of 5.3.6
We get
(i) sinC + sinD = 2sin
2
D C+
cos
2
D C−
(ii) sinC  sinD = 2cos
2
D C+
sin
2
D C−
139
(iii) cosC + cosD = 2cos
2
D C+
cos
2
D C−
(iv) cosC  cosD = 2sin
2
D C+
sin
2
D C−
Example 29
Express the following as product.
(i) sin7A+sin5A (ii) sin5θ θsin2θ θ (iii) cos6A+cos8A
(iv) cos2α αcos4α α (v) cos10
o
cos20
o
(vi) cos55
o
+cos15
o
(vii) cos65
o
+sin55
o
Solution:
(i) sin7A + sin5A = 2sin
( )
2
5A 7A+
cos
( )
2
5A 7A−
= 2sin6A cosA
(ii) sin5θ  sin2θ = 2cos
( )
2
2 5 θ + θ
sin
( )
2
2 5 θ θ−
= 2cos
2
7 θ
sin
2
3 θ
(iii) cos6A + cos8A = 2cos
( )
2
8A 6A+
cos
( )
2
8A 6A−
= 2cos7A cos(A) = 2cos7A cosA
(iv) cos2α  cos4α = 2sin
( )
2
2 4 α + α
sin
( )
2
2 4 α − α
= 2sin3α.sinα
(v) cos10
o
 cos20
o
= 2sin
( )
2
10 20
o o
+
sin
( )
2
10 20
o o
−
= 2sin15
o
sin5
o
(vi) cos55
o
+cos15
o
= 2cos
( )
2
15 55
o o
+
cos
( )
2
15 55
o o
−
= 2cos35
o
cos20
o
(vii) cos65
o
+ sin55
o
= cos65
o
+ sin(90
o
35
o
)
= cos65
o
+cos35
o
= 2cos
( )
2
35 65
o o
+
cos
( )
2
35 65
o o
−
= 2cos50
o
cos15
o
140
Example 30
Prove that (cos α α + cosβ β)
2
+ (sinα α  sinβ β)
2
= 4cos
2
( )
2
β β α α+
cosα + cosβ = 2cos ( )
2
β + α
cos ( )
2
β − α
...............(1)
sinα  sinβ = 2cos ( )
2
β + α
sin ( )
2
β − α
...............(2)
(1)
2
+ (2)
2
(cosα+cosβ)
2
+(sinαsinβ)
2
= 4cos
2
( )
2
β + α
cos
2
( )
2
β − α
+ 4cos
2
( )
2
β + α
.sin
2
( )
2
β − α
= 4cos
2
( )
2
β + α
( ) ( ) { ¦
2
2
2
2
sin cos
β − α β − α
+
= 4cos
2
( )
2
β + α
Example 31
Show that cos
2
A + cos
2
(60
o
+A) + cos
2
(60
o
A) =
2
3
cos
2
A =
2
cos2A 1+
.........(1)
cos
2
(60
o
+A) =
2
A) (60 cos2 1
o
+ +
..........(2)
cos
2
(60
o
A) =
2
A)  (60 cos2 1
0
+
...........(3)
(1)+(2)+(3)
cos
2
A + cos
2
(60
o
+A) + cos
2
(60
o
A)
=
2
1
[3 + cos2A + {cos(120
o
+2A) + cos(120
o
2A)}]
=
2
1
[3 + cos2A + 2cos120
o
.cos2A]
=
2
1
[3 + cos2A + 2(
2
1
)cos2A
=
2
3
141
EXERCISE 5.5
1) Express in the form of a sum or difference
(i) sin
4
A
sin
4
3A
(ii) sin(B+C).sin(BC)
(iii) sin(60
o
+A).sin(120
o
+A) (iv) cos
3
5A
cos
3
4A
2) Express in the form of a product:
(i) sin52
o
sin32
o
(ii) cos6Acos2A (iii) sin50
o
+cos80
o
3) Prove that cos20
o
.cos40
o
cos60
o
cos80
o
=
16
1
4) Prove that sin(AB) sinC + sin(BC) sinA + sin(CA).sinB = 0
5) Prove that
sinB  sinA
cosA  cosB
= tan
2
B A+
6) Prove that sin50
o
 sin70
o
+ cos80
o
= 0
7) Prove that cos18
o
+ cos162
o
+ cos234
o
+ cos306
o
= 0
8) Prove that (cosαcosβ)
2
+ (sinαsinβ)
2
= 4sin
2
( )
2
β α
9) Prove that (cosα+cosβ)
2
+ (sinα+sinβ)
2
= 4cos
2
( )
2
β α
10) Prove that cos40
o
+ cos80
o
+ cos160
o
= 0
11) Prove that cos20
o
+ cos100
o
+ cos140
o
= 0
12) If sinA + sinB = x, cosA + cosB = y, show that sin(A+B) = 2 2
y x
2xy
+
13) Prove that
sin3A sin2A
cos3A  cos2A
+
= tan
2
A
5.4 TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
Equat i ons i nvol vi ng t ri gonomet ri c funct i ons are known as
trigonometric equations.
For example: 2sinθ=1; sin
2
θ+cosθ3=0; tan
2
θ1=0 etc;
The values of ‘θ’which satisfy a trigonometric equation are known
as solution of the equation.
142
5.4.1 Principal solution
Among all solutions, the solution which is in [
2
π
,
2
π
] for sine
ratio, in (
2
π
,
2
π
) for tan ratio and in [0, π] for cosine ratio is the
principal solution.
Example 32
Find the principal solution of the following equations:
(i) cosθ θ = 
2
3
(ii) tanθ θ =
3
(iii) sinθ θ = − −
2
1
Solution:
(i) cosθ = 
2
3
< 0
∴ θ lies in second or third quadrant.
But θ ∈[0, π].Hence the principal solution is in second quadrant.
∴ cosθ = 
2
3
= cos(180
o
30
o
)
= cos150
o
∴ Principal solution θ is 5
6
π
(ii) tanθ = 3 > 0
∴ θ is in the first or third quadrant
θ ∈(−
2
π
,
2
π
)
∴ The solution is in first quadrant
tanθ =
3
= tan
3
π
3
π
∈(
2
π
,
2
π
)
∴ Principal solution is θ =
3
π
(iii) sinθ = 
2
1
< 0
∴ θ lies in third or fourth quadrant
143
θ ∈[
2
π
,
2
π
]
∴ The principal solution is in fourth quadrant and θ = 
6
π
5.4.2 General solutions of the Trigonometric equations
(i) If si nθ θ = si nα α ; −
2
π
< α <
2
π
then θ θ = nπ π + (1)
n
α α; n∈ ∈Z
(ii) If cos θ θ = cos α α; 0 < α < π
then θ θ = 2nπ π + α α; n∈ ∈Z
(iii) If tanθ θ = tanα α; 
2
π
< α <
2
π
then θ θ = nπ π + α α; n∈ ∈Z
Example 33
Find the general solution of the following equations.
(i) sinθ θ =
2
1
(ii) cosθ θ = 
2
1
(iii) tanθ θ =
3
(iv) tanθ θ = 1 (v) sinθ θ = 
2
3
.
Solution:
(i) sinθ =
2
1
=> sinθ = sin30
o
= sin
6
π
This is of the form sinθ = sinα
where α =
6
π
∴ the general solution is θ = nπ + (1)
n
.α; n∈Z
i.e. θ = nπ + (1)
n
.
6
π
; n∈Z
(ii) cosθ = 
2
1
=> cosθ = cos120
o
= cos
3
2π
∴ θ = 2nπ + 2
3
π
; n∈Z.
(iii) tanθ =
3
=> tanθ = tan60
o
= tan
3
π
∴ θ = nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z
144
(iv) tanθ = 1 => tanθ = tan135
o
= tan
4
3π
=> θ = nπ +
4
3π
; n∈Z
((v) sinθ = 
2
3
=> sinθ = sin(
3
π
)
=> θ = nπ + (1)
n
.(
3
π
); n∈Z
ie θ = nπ  (1)
n
.
3
π
; n∈Z
Example 34
Find the general solution of the following
(i) sin
2
θ θ = 1 (ii) cos
2
θ θ =
4
1
(iii) cosec
2
θ θ =
3
4
(iv) tan
2
θ θ =
3
1
Solution:
(i) sin
2
θ = 1 ∴ sinθ = + 1 => sinθ = sin(+
2
π
)
∴ θ = nπ + (1)
n
(+
2
π
)
i.e. θ = nπ +
2
π
; n∈Z.
(ii) cos
2
θ =
4
1
=> 1sin
2
θ =
4
1
=> sin
2
θ =
4
3
∴ sinθ = +
2
3
∴ sinθ = sin (+
3
π
)
=> θ = nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z.
(iii) cosec
2
θ =
3
4
or cosecθ = +
3
2
=> sinθ = +
2
3
∴ θ = nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z.
145
(iv) tan
2
θ =
3
1
or tanθ = +
3
1
=> tanθ = tan(+30
o
)
=> tanθ = tan(+
6
π
)
∴ General solution is θ = nπ +
6
π
; n∈Z
EXERCISE 5.6
1) Find the principal solution of the following:
(i) cosecθ = 2 (ii) secθ = 
3
2
(iii) cosθ = 
2
1
(iv) tanθ =
3
1
(v) cotθ = 1 (vi) sinθ =
2
1
2) Solve:
(i) cot
2
θ =
3
1
(ii) sec
2
θ = 4 (iii) cosec
2
θ = 1
(iv) tan
2
θ = 3.
5.5 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
The quantities such as sin
1
x, cos
1
x, tan
1
x etc., are known as
inverse trigonometric functions.
If sin θ = x, then θ = sin
1
x. Here the symbol sin
1
x denotes the
angle whose sine is x.
The two quantities sin θ = x and θ = sin
1
x are identical. (Note
that, sin
1
x ≠ (sinx)
1
)
For example, sinθ =
2
1
is same as θ = sin
1
(
2
1
)
Thus we can write tan
1
(1) =
4
π
, sin
1
(
2
1
) =
6
π
etc.
5.5.1 Important properties of inverse trigonometric functions
1. (i) sin
1
(si nθ θ) = θ θ (iv) cosec
1
(cosecθ θ) = θ θ
(ii) cos
1
(cos θ θ) = θ θ (v) sec
1
(secθ θ) = θ θ
(iii) tan
1
(tanθ θ) = θ θ (vi) cot
1
(cotθ θ) = θ θ
146
2. (i) sin
1
( )
x
1
= cosec
1
x (iv) cosec
1
( )
x
1
= si n
1
x
(ii) cos
1
( )
x
1
= sec
1
x (v) sec
1
( )
x
1
= cos
1
x
(iii) tan
1
( )
x
1
= cot
1
x (vi) cot
1
( )
x
1
= tan
1
x
3. (i) sin
1
(x) = sin
1
x (ii) cos
1
(x) = π π  cos
1
x
(iii) tan
1
(x) = tan
1
x (iv) cosec
1
(x) = cosec
1
x.
4. (i) sin
1
x + cos
1
x =
2
ð
(ii) tan
1
x + tan
1
y = tan
1
( )
xy  1
y x+
(iii) tan
1
x  tan
1
y = tan
1
( )
xy 1
y  x
+
Example 35
Evaluate the following
(i) sin (cos
1
5
3
) (ii) cos (tan
1
4
3
)
Solution:
(i) Let cos
1
5
3
= θ ...............(1)
∴ cosθ =
5
3
We know, sinθ =
θ −
2
cos 1
=
5
4
Now, sin(cos
1
5
3
)= sinθ , using (1)
=
5
4
(ii) Let tan
1
( )
4
3
= θ ..............(1)
∴ tanθ =
4
3
147
We can prove tanθ =
4
3
=> cosθ =
5
4
cos (tan
1
4
3
) = cosθ using (1)
=
5
4
Example 36
(i) Prove that: tan
1
( )
7
1
+ tan
1
( )
13
1
= tan
1
( )
9
2
(ii) cos
1
5
4
+ tan
1
5
3
= tan
1
11
27
Proof:
(i) tan
1
( )
7
1
+ tan
1
( )
13
1
= tan
1
]
]
]
]
−
+
13
1
7
1
13
1
7
1
1
= tan
1
[ ]
90
20
= tan
1
( )
9
2
(ii) Let cos
1
( )
5
4
= θ
∴ cosθ =
5
4
=> tanθ =
4
3
∴ cos
1
( )
5
4
= tan
1
( )
4
3
∴ cos
1
( )
5
4
+ tan
1
( )
5
3
= tan
1
4
3
+ tan
1
5
3
= tan
1
]
]
]
]
−
+
5
3
4
3
5
3
4
3
1
= tan
1
( )
11
27
Example 37
Prove that
(i) si n
1
(3x4x
3
) = 3sin
1
x (ii) cos
1
(4x
3
3x) = 3cos
1
x
148
Proof:
i) sin
1
(3x4x
3
)
Let x = sinθ ∴ θ = sin
1
x.
3x4x
3
= 3sinθ  4sin
3
θ = sin3θ ...........(1)
Now, sin
1
(3x4x
3
) = sin
1
(sin3θ), using (1)
= 3θ
= 3sin
1
x
ii) cos
1
(4x
3
3x)
Let x = cosθ ∴ θ = cos
1
x
4x
3
 3x = 4cos
3
θ  3cosθ = cos3θ .........(1)
Now, cos
1
(4x
3
3x) = cos
1
(cos3θ), using (1)
= 3θ
= 3cos
1
x
Example 38
Solve: tan
1
( )
2  x
1  x
+ tan
1
( )
2 x
1 x
+
+
=
4
π
Solution:
L.H.S. = tan
1
( )
2  x
1  x
+ tan
1
( )
2 x
1 x
+
+
= tan
1
]
]
]
]
−
+
−
+
+
4  x
1 x
2 x
1 x
2  x
1  x
2
2
1
= tan
1
( )( ) ( )( )
]
]
]
]
+ − −
+ + +
4  x
1 x 4 x
4  x
2  x 1 x 2 x 1  x
2
2 2
2
= tan
1
]
]
]
−3
4  2x
2
Since, tan
1
( )
2  x
1  x
+ tan
1
( )
2 x
1 x
+
+
=
4
π
, we have
tan
1
( )
3 
4  2x
2
=
4
π
149
tan
1
( )
3 
4  2x
2
= tan
1
(1)
Hence
3 
4  x 2
2
= 1
=> 2x
2
 4 = 3
=> 2x
2
 1 = 0
=> x
2
=
2
1
∴ x = +
2
1
EXERCISE 5.7
1) Show that cot
1
x + cot
1
y = cot
1
[ ]
y x
1  xy
+
2) Show that tan
1
x + tan
1
( )
x 1
x  1
+
=
4
π
3) Prove that tan
1
(5)  tan
1
(3) + tan
1
( )
9
7
= nπ +
4
π
; n∈Z
4) Prove that 2tan
1
x = cos
1
[ ]
2
2
x 1
x  1
+
[Hint: Put x=tanθ]
5) Prove that 2sin
1
x = sin
1
[2x
2
x 1−
] [ Hint Put x=sinθ]
6) Solve : tan
1
2x+tan
1
3x =
4
π
7) Solve : tan
1
(x+1) + tan
1
(x1) = tan
1
(
7
4
)
8) Prove that cos
1
(
5
4
) + tan
1
5
3
= tan
1
11
27
9) Evaluate cos[sin
1
5
3
+ sin
1
13
5
] [Hint: Let A = sin
1
5
3
B = sin
1
13
5
]
10) Prove that tan
1
(
3
4
)  tan
1
(
7
1
) =
4
π
150
EXERCISE 5.8
Choose the correct answer:
1) If p cosecθ = cot45
o
then p is
(a) cos45
o
(b) tan45
o
(c) sin45
o
(d) sinθ
2)
θ −
2
cos 1
x
θ −
2
sin 1

( )
θ
θ
cosec
cos
= .............
(a) 0 (b) 1 c) cos
2
θ  sin
2
θ d) sin
2
θ  cos
2
θ.
3) (sin60
o
+ cos60
o
)
2
+ (sin60
o
 cos60
o
)
2
= .............
(a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 0
4)
o o
60 tan 60 sec
1
−
= .............
(a)
3 2
2 3+
(b)
3 2
2 3−
(c)
2
3 1+
(d)
2
3 1−
5) If x = acos
3
θ; y = bsin
3
θ t hen
( )
3
2
a
x
+
( )
3
2
b
y
is equal to
(a) 2cos
3
θ (b) 3bsin
3
θ (c) 1 (d) absin
2
θc os
2
θ
6) The value of
) sec(60
o
1
is
(a)
2
1
(b) 2 (c) 2 (d) 
2
1
7) Sin(90
o
+θ) sec(360
o
θ) =
(a) cosecθ (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) cosθ
8) s ec(θπ) =
(a) secθ (b) cosecθ (c) cosecθ (d) secθ
9) When sinA =
2
1
, between 0
o
and 360
o
the two values of A are
(a) 60
o
and 135
o
(b) 135
o
and 45
o
(c) 135
o
and 175
o
(d) 45
o
and 225
o
10) If cos(2nπ + θ) = sinα then
(a) θα = 90
o
(b) θ=α (c) θ+α=90
o
(d) αθ=90
o
11)
o o
o o
tan75 tan15 1
tan75  tan15
+
is equal to
(a)
3 1
3 1
−
+
(b)
3 2 1
3 2 1
−
+
(c) 3 − (d) 3
151
12) The value of tan 435
o
is
(a)
3 1
3 1
−
+
(b)
1 3
3 1
−
+
(c)
3 1
1 3
−
−
(d) 1
13) The value of cos9
o
cos6
o
 sin9
o
sin6
o
is
(a) 0 (b)
4
1 3 +
(c) sin75
o
(d) sin15
o
14) t an(
4
π
+x) is
(a)
x
x
tan 1
tan 1
−
+
(b) 1+tanx (c) tanx (d) tan
4
π
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) ∞ (d) 1
16) If sinA = 1, then sin2A is equal to
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 1
17) The value of sin54
o
is
(a)
4
5  1
(b)
4
1 5 −
(c)
4
1 5 +
(d)
4
1 5  −
18)
o
o
cos15 1
cos15  1
+
= ................
a) sec30
o
(b) tan
2
( )
2
15
(c)tan30
o
(d) tan
2
7
o
2
1
19) sin
2
40
o
sin
2
10
o
=
(a) sin80
o
(b)
2
3
(c) sin
2
30
o
(d)
2
sin50
0
20) The value of
4
2
4
3
4
3tan  1
tan 3tan
π
π π
−
is equal to
(a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) ∞
21) The value of 4sin18
o
.cos36
o
is
(a) 0 (b)
2
3
(c) 1 (d)
2
3
−
22) The principal solution of cosx = 1 is
(a) x = 1 (b) x = 0 (c) x = 0
o
(d) x = 360
o
152
23) If sinx = 0, then one of the solutions is
(a) x = 3
2
π
(b) x = 4
3
π
(c) x = 5π (d) x = 5
2
π
24) If cosx = 0, then one of the soutions is
(a) x = 2π (b) x = 14
3
π
(c) x = 21
2
π
(d) x = 180
o
25) If tanx = 0; then one of the solutions is
(a) x = 0
o
(b) x =
2
π
(c) x =
18
π
(d) x = 2
3
π
26) If sinx = k, where; 1 < k <1 then the principal solution of x may lie in
(a) [0,
2
π
] (b) [∞, π] (c) (0,1) (d) (
2
π
,∞)
27) If cosx = k, where 1 < k < 1 then the principal solution of x may lie in
(a) [∞, 
2
π
] (b) [
2
π
, π] (c) (1,1) (d) (π,∞)
28) The number of solutions of the equation tanθ = k, k>0 is
(a) zero (b) only one (c) many solutions (d) two
29) The value of sin
1
(1) + sin
1
(0) is
(a)
2
π
(b) 0 (c) 1 (d) π
30) sin
1
(3
2
x
) + cos
1
(3
2
x
) = _________
(a) 3
2
π
(b) 6x (c) 3x (d)
2
π
(a) 1 (b) π (c)
2
π
(d) π
32) sin
1
x  cos
1
(x) = _____
(a) 
2
π
(b)
2
π
(c) 3
2
π
(d) 3
2
π
33) sec
1
(
3
2
) + cosec
1
(
3
2
) = _____
(a) 
2
π
(b)
2
π
(c) π (d) π
34) t an
1
(
2
1
) + tan
1
(
3
1
) = _____
(a) sin
1
(
2
1
) (b) sin
1
(
2
1
) (c) tan
1
(
2
1
) (d) tan
1
(
3
1
)
153
35) The value of cos
1
(1) + tan
1
(∞) + sin
1
(1) = _____
(a) π (b) 3
2
π
(c) 30
o
(d) 2π
36) The value of tan 135
o
cos30
o
sin180
o
cot 225
o
is
(a) 1+
2
3
(b) 1
2
1
(c) 1 (d) 0
37) When A = 120
o
, tanA + cotA = ...................
(a) 
3
4
(b)
3
1
(c)
3
4
(d) 
3
1
38) The value of
A 5 cos A 3 cos
3A sin A 5 sin
−
−
(a) cot4A (b) tan4A (c) sin4A (d) sec4A
39) The value of secA sin(270
o
+A)
(a) 1 (b) cos
2
A (c) sec
2
A (d) 1
40) If cosθ =
5
4
, then the value of tanθ sinθ secθ cosecθ cosθ is
(a)
3
4
(b)
4
3
(c) 1 (d)
5
12
154
The concept of function is one of the most important concepts in
Calculus. It is also used frequently in every day life. For instance, the
statement “Each student in the B.Tech course of Anna University will be
assigned a grade at the end of the course” describes function. If we analyse
this statement, we shall find the essential ingrediants of a function.
For the statement, there is a set of students, a set of possible grades,
and a rule which assigns to each member of the first set a unique member of
the second set. Similarly we can relate set of items in a store and set of
possible prices uniquely. In Economics, it may be ncessary to link cost and
output, or for that matter, profit and output.
Thus when the quantities are so related that corresponding to any
value of the first quantity there is a definite value of the second, then the
second quantity is called a function of the first.
6.1. FUNCTION OF A REAL VALUE
(i) Constant :
A quantity which retains the same value throughout any mathematical
operation is called a constant. It is conventional to represent constants by
the letters a, b, c etc.
For example : A radian is a constant angle. Any real number is a
constant.
(ii) Variable:
A variable is a quantity which can have different values in a particular
mathematical investigation. It is conventional to represent variables by the
letters x, y, z, etc.
For example, in the equation 4x+3y = 1, “x” and “y” are variables, for
they represent the coordinates of any point on straight line represented by
4x+3y = 1 and thus change their values from point to point.
There are two kinds of variables:
(i) Independent variable (ii) Dependent variable
FUNCTIONS
AND THEIR GRAPHS
6
155
A variable is an independent variable when it can have any arbitrary
value.
A variable is said to be a dependent variable when its values depend
on the values assumed by some other variable.
Thus in the equation y = 5x
2
2x+3, “x” is the independent variable,
“y” is the dependent variable and “3” is the constant. Also we can say “x”
is called Domain and “y” is called the Range.
6.1.1 Intervals : Closed and Open
On t he “Real l i ne” l et A and B
r epr esent s t wo r eal number s a and b
respectively, with a < b. All points that lie
between A and B are those which correspond
to all real numbers x in value between a and
b such that a < x < b. We can discuss the
entire idea in the following manner.
(i) Open Interval
The set {x : a < x < b} is called an open interval denoted by (a, b).
In this interval the end points are not included
For example : In the open interval (4, 6), 4 is not an element of this
interval, but 5.9 is an element of this interval. 4 and 6 are not elements
of (4, 6)
(ii) Closed interval
The set {x : a < x < b} is called a closed interval and is denoted by [a, b].
In the interval [a, b], the end points are included.
For example : In the interval [4, 6], 4 and 6 are elements of this interval.
Also we can make a mention about semi closed or semi open intervals.
i.e. (a, b] = {x : a < x < b} is called left open
and [a, b) = {x : a < x < b} is called right open
Uniformly, in all these cases ba = h is called the length of the interval
A B
a b −∞ ∞
a b
( )
−∞ ∞
a b
[ ]
−∞ ∞
156
6.1.2 Neighbourhood of a point
Let a be any real number, Let ∈>0 be arbitrarily small real number.
Then (a∈, a+∈) is called an “∈” neighbourhood of the point a and denoted
by N
a, ∈
For example N
3
,
4
1
= (3
4
1
, 3+
4
1
)
= {x :
4
11
< x <
4
13
}
N
2
,
5
1
= (2
5
1
, 2+
5
1
)
= {x :
5
9
< x <
5
11
}
6.1.3 Functions
Definition
A function f from a set A to a set B is a rule which assigns to each
element of A a unique element of B. The set A is called the domain of the
function, while the set B is called the codomain of the function.
Thus if f is a function from the set A to the set B we write f : A→B.
Besides f, we also use the notations F, g, φ etc. to denote functions.
If a is an element of A, then the unique element in B which f assigns
to a is called the value of f at a or the image of a under f and is denoted by
f(a). The range is the set of all values of the function.
We can represent functions pictorially as follows :
f : A→B
We often think of x as representing an arbitrary element of A and y as
representing the corresponding value of f at x.
a f(a)
Fig 6.1
Domain Codomain
157
We can write y = f(x) which is read “y is a function of x” or “y is f of
x” The rule of a function gives the value of the function at each element of
the domain. Always the rule is a formula, but it can be other things, such as
a list of ordered pairs, a table, or a set of instructions.
A function is like a machine into which you can put any number from
the domain and out of which comes the corresponding value in the range.
consider, f(x) = x
3
fig (6.2)
Let us consider the following equations
(i) y = x
2
4x+3
(ii) y = sin2x
(iii) y = mx + c
(iv) V =
3
h
2
r π
(v) s = ut +
2
at
2
In (i) we say that y is a function of x
In (ii) and (iii) y is a function of x. (m and c are constants)
In (iv) V is a function of r and h. (two variables)
In (v) s is a function of u, t and a. (three variables)
6.1.4 Tabular representation of a function
An experimental study of phenomena can result in tables that express
a functional relation between the measured quantities.
For example, temperature measurements of the air at a meteorological
station on a particular day yield a table.
Number from
the domain
goes in
Rule of the function
f(x)=x
3
Value of the function
at that number comes out
27
→
↓
3
158
The temperature T (in degrees) is dependent on the time t(in hours)
t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
T 22 21 20 20 17 23 25 26 26.5 27.3
The table defines T as a function of t denoted by T = f(t).
Similarly, tables of trigonometric functions, tables of logarithms etc.,
can be viewed as functions in tabular form.
6.1.5 Graphical representation of a function.
The collection of points in the xy plane whose abscissae are the
val ues of t he i ndependent var i abl e and whose or di nat es ar e t he
corresponding values of the function is called a graph of the given
function.
6.1.6 The Vertical Line Test for functions
Assume that a relation has two ordered pairs with the same first
coordinate, but different second coordinates. The graph of these two
ordered pairs would be points on the same vertical line. This gives us a
method to test whether a graph is the graph of a function.
The test :
If it is possible for a vertical line to intersect a graph at more than
one point, then the graph is not the graph of a function.
The following graphs do not represent graph of a function:
x'
y
y'
Fig 6.3
x x'
y
y'
Fig 6.4
x x'
y
y'
Fig 6.5
x
159
From the graphs in fig (6.3), (6.4) and (6.5) we are able to see that the
vertical line meets the curves at more than one point. Hence these graphs
are not the graphs of function.
We see in fig(6.6) and (6.7) that no vertical line meet the curves at
more than one point and (6.6) and (6.7) “pass” the vertical line test and
hence are graphs of functions.
Example 1
(i) What is the length of the interval 3.5 < x < 7.5?
(ii) If H = {x : 3 < x < 5} can 4.7 ∈ ∈H?
(iii) If H = {x : 4 < x < 7} can 5 ∈ ∈H?
(iv) Is 3 ∈ ∈(3, 0)?
Solution:
(i) Here the interval is [a, b] = [3.5, 7.5]
Length of the interval is ba = 7.5  3.5 = 4
(ii) Yes , because 4.7 is a point in between 3 and 5
(iii) No, because 5 lies outside the given interval.
(iv) In the open interval the end points are not included.
Hence 3∉ (3, 0)
Example 2
Draw the graph of the function f(x) = 3x1
Solution:
Let us assume that y = f(x)
∴ We have to drawthe graph of y = 3x1. We
can choose any number that is possible replacement
for x and then determine y. Thus we get the table.
x 0 1 2 1 2
y 1 2 5 4 7
Now, we plot these poits in the xy plane these
points would form a straight line.
x'
y
y'
Fig 6.6
x x'
y
y'
Fig 6.7
x
x'
y
y'
x
160
Example 3
Draw the graph of f(x) = x
2
5
Solution: Let y = f(x)
We sel ect numbers for x and fi nd t he
corresponding values for y.
The table gives us the ordered pairs
(0, 5), (1, 4) and so on.
x 0 1 2 3 1 2 3
y 5 4 1 4 4 1 4
Example 4
Given the function f(x) = x
2
x+1
find (i) f(o) (ii) f(1) (iii) f(x+1)
Solution:
f(x) = x
2
x+1
(i) f(o) = o
2
o+1
= 1
(ii) f(1) = (1)
2
(1)+1 = 3
(iii) f(x+1) = (x+1)
2
 (x+1) + 1
= x
2
+2x+1x1+1
= x
2
+x+1
Example 5
Let f : R→ →R defined by f(x) =
< +
≥
2 x if 2 x
2 x if 4x  x
2
find i) f(3) ii) f(5) iii) f(0)
Solution
when x = 3; f(x) = x+2 ∴ f(3) = 3+2 = 1
when x = 5 ; f(x) = x
2
4x ∴ f(5) = 25  20 = 5
when x= 0 ; f(x) = x+2 ∴ f(o) = 0+2 = 2
Example 6
If f(x) = sinx ; g(x) = cosx, show that : f(α α+β β) = f(α α) g(β β) + g(α α) f(β β)
when x, α α, β β ∈ ∈R
Proof :
f(x) = sinx
x'
y
y'
x
y=x
2
5
161
∴ f(α+β) = sin (α+β) (1)
f(α) = sinα ; f(β) = sinβ
g(α) = cosα ; g(β) = cosβ [
Q
g(x) = cosx]
Now,
f(α) . g(β) + g(α) . f(β)
= sinα . cosβ + cosα . sinβ
= sin (α+β) (2)
from (1) and (2), we have
f(α+β) = f(α) g(β) + g(α) . f(β)
Example 7
If A = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2} and f : A→ →R be defined by f(x) = x
2
+3 find the
range of f.
Solution :
f (x) = x
2
+3
f (2) = (2)
2
+3 = 4+3 = 7
f (1) = (1)
2
+3 = 1+3 = 4
f (0) = 0 + 3 = 3
f (1) = 1
2
+ 3 = 4
f (2) = 2
2
+ 3 = 7
Hence the range is the set {3, 4, 7}
Example 8
If f(x) =
x 1
x  1
+
show that f(x) =
( ) x f
1
Solution :
f(x) =
x 1
x  1
+
∴ f(x) =
( )
( ) x  1
x  1
+
=
x  1
x 1+
=
( ) x f
1
Example 9
If f(x, y) = ax
2
+ bxy
2
+cx
2
y + dy
3
find (i) f(1, 0) (ii) f(1, 1)
Solution:
f(x, y) = ax
2
+bxy
2
+cx
2
y+dy
3
(1)
To find f(1, 0) ; put x = 1 and y = 0 in (1)
∴ f(1, 0) = a(1)
2
+ 0 + 0 + 0 = a
162
to find f(1, 1) ; put x = 1 and y = 1 in (1)
∴ f(1, 1) = a(1)
2
+ b(1)(1)
2
+ c(1)
2
(1) + d(1)
3
f(1, 1) = a  b + c + d
Example 10
If f(x) = x
2
+3, for3<x<3, x∈ ∈R
(i) For which values of x, f(x) = 4?
(ii) What is the domain of f?
Solution:
(i) Given f(x) = 4
∴ x
2
+3 = 4 => x
2
= 1 => x = + 1
Thus for x = 1 and 1, f(x) = 4
(ii) The domain of f is {x : 3<x<3, x∈R}
Example 11
What is the domain of f for f(x) =
5 x
4  x
+
?
Solution:
Note that at x = 5 ; f(x) =
0
4  5 
=
0
9 
Since we cannot divide by 0 ; x = 5 is not acceptable.
Therefore x = 5 is not in the domain of f.
Thus the domain of f is {x : x ∈R ; x ≠ 5}
Example 12
A group of students wish to charter a bus which holds atmost 45
people to go to an eduactional tour. The bus company requires atleast 30
people to go. It charges Rs. 100 per person if upto 40 people go. If more
than 40 people go, it charges each person Rs. 100 less
5
1
times the number
more than 40 who go. Find the total cost as a function of the number of
students who go. Also give the domain.
Solution:
Let x be the number of students who go then 30<x<45 and x is an
integer
The formula is
Total cost = (cost per student) x (number of students)
If between 30 and 40 students go , the cost per student is Rs. 100/.
163
∴ The total cost is y = 100x
I f bet ween 41 and 45 st udent s go, t he cost per st udent i s
Rs. {100 
5
1
(x40)}
= 108
5
x
Then the total cost is y = (108
5
x
)x
= 108x 
5
x
2
So the rule is y =
≤ ≤
≤ ≤
45 x 41 ;  108x
40 x 30 ; 100x
5
x
2 where x is a positive integer..
The domain is {30, 31, ............, 45}
Example 13
Find the domain and range of the function given by f(x) = log
10
(1+x)
Solution:
We know, log of a negative number is not defined over R and log0 = ∞
∴ log
10
(1+x) is not real valued for 1+x < 0 or for x<1 and
log (1+x) tends to ∞ as x→1
Hence the domain of f is (1, ∞)
i.e. all real values greater than 1. The range of this function is R
+
(set of all positive real numbers)
Example 14
Find the domain of the function f(x) =
12 7x  x
2
+
Solution :
f(x) =
( )( ) 4  x 3  x
f(x) is a real valued function only when (x3) (x4) > 0
ie when x lies outside ‘3’ and ‘4’
∴ The domain of f(x) is x > 4 and x < 3 i.e. [∞, 3) and (4, ∞]
EXERCISE 6.1
1) Draw the graph of the line y = 3
2) If f(x) = tanx and f(y) = tany, prove that f(xy) =
f(y) f(x) 1
f(y)  f(x)
+
164
3) If f(x) =
sinx x
tanx x
+
+
, prove that f(
4
π
) =
2 2
4
+ π
+ π
4) If f(x) =
2
4 2
x
x x 1 + +
prove t hat f(
x
1
) = f(x)
5) If f(x) = x
2
3x+7, find
( ) ( )
h
x f h x f − +
6) If f(x) = sinx + cosx, find f(0) + f(
2
π
) + f(π) + f(3
2
π
)
7) Find the domain of g(x) =
x
1
1 −
8) A travel agency offers a tour. It charges Rs. 100/ per person if fewer than
25 people go. If 25 people or more, upto a maximum of 110, take the tour,
they charge each person Rs. 110 less
5
1
times the number of people who
go. Find the formulae which express the total charge C as a function in
terms of number of people n who go . Include the domain of each formulae.
9) Find the domain of the function f(x) = 6 5x  x
2
+
10) Which of the follwing graphs do not represent graph of a function?
x'
y
y'
Fig (iv)
x x'
y
y'
Fig (v)
x
x'
y
y'
Fig (i)
x x'
y
y'
Fig (ii)
x x'
y
y'
Fig (iii)
x
165
11) If f(x) = sinx ; g(x) = cosx,
show that : f(αβ) = f(α) g(β)  g(α) . f(β) ; α, β, x∈R
12) For f(x) =
5 3x
1 x
+
−
; write the expressions f(
x
1
) and
( ) x f
1
13) For f(x) =
4 x
2
+
, write the expression f(2x) and f(0)
14) Draw the graph of the funtion f(x) = 5x6
15) Draw the graphs of the functions f(x) = x
2
and g(x) = 2x
2
16) If f(x) = x
2
4, Draw the graphs of f(x), 2f(x), and f(x) in the same plane.
6.2 CONSTANT FUNCTION AND LINEAR FUNCTION
6.2.1. Constant function
A function whose range consists of just one element is called a
constant function and is written as f(x) = a constant for every x ∈ domain
set.
For example : f(x) = 2 and f(x) = 3 are constant functions.
f : A→B
The figure 6.8 represents the constant
function
A B
Fig 6.8
We can draw the graph of the constant function f(x) = c, where c
is a constant.
We can easily observe that in fig (6.9); the graph
of the constant function represents a straight
line parellel to xaxis.
Observation :
The relation set H = [(1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 5), (4, 5)}
is a constant function.
1
.
a
2
.
b
3
.
c
4
.
d
x'
y
y'
Fig 6.9
x
y=c
O
y=f(x)
166
6.2.2 Linear function
A Linear function is a function whose rule is of the form f(x) = ax+b,
where a and b are real numbers with a ≠ 0.
We shall see that the graph of a linear function is a straight line.
6.2.3 Slope of the line l
If l is a line which is not vertical and if P(x
1
, y
1
) and Q(x
2
, y
2
) are two
distinct points on the line, then the slope of the line usually denoted by m
is given by
m =
1 2
1 2
x  x
y  y
=
coordinate in x Difference
coordinate y in Difference
∴ the linear function f(x) = ax+b, (a≠0) may be written as f(x) = mx+c,
where m is the slope of the line ; and c is the y intercept.
Observation:
(i) If the slope of the line m is positive, then the line goes upward as it
goes to the right.
(ii) If m is negative then the line goes downward as it goes to the right
(iii) If m = 0 the line is horizontal
(iv) If m is undefined the line is vertical.
6.2.4 A linear function denotes the equation of a straight line which can
be expressed in the following different forms
(i) y = mx+c, (slope  intercept form)
(ii) yy
1
= m(xx
1
) : (slopepoint form)
(iii)
a
x
+
b
y
= 1; (intercept form)
(iv)
2 1
1
x  x
x  x
=
2 1
1
y  y
y  y
; (two point form)
Variables of these functions have no powers more than one. The
equations describing the relationship are called first  degree equations or
linear equation.
6.2.5 Application of linear functions
(i) Salary of an employee can be expressed as a linear function of
time.
167
(ii) The life expectancy of a particular sex may be expressed
through linear function of year (t)
(iii) Linear relationship between price and quantity.
Example 15
The salary of an exmployee in the year 2002 was Rs. 7,500. In
2004, it will be Rs. 7750. Express salary as a linear function of time and
estimate his salary in the year 2005.
Solution:
Let S represent Salary (in Rs.) and t represent the year (t)
year Salary (Rs.)
2002 (t
1
) 7,500 (S
1
)
2004 (t
2
) 7,750 (S
2
)
2005 (t) ? (S)
The equation of the straight line representing salary as a linear
function of time is
S  S
1
=
1 2
1 2
t t
S S
−
−
(tt
1
)
S  7500 =
2002  2004
7500  7750
(t  2002)
S  7500 =
2
250
(t  2002)
S = 7,500 + 125 (t  2002)
when t = 2005
S = 7500 + 125 (2005  2002)
= 7500 + 125 (3)
= 7500 + 375
= 7875
The estimated salary in the year 2005 is Rs. 7,875.
Example 16
Find the slope of straight line containing
the points (1, 2) and (3, 6)
Solution:
Plot the points (1, 2) and (3, 6) in the xy plane
and join them.
Slope m =
1 2
1 2
x x
y y
−
−
=
1  3
2  6
= 2
B(3, 6)
A
(
1
,
2
)
y
2
 y
1
= 4
x
2
 x
1
= 2
y
x
168
6.3. POWER FUNCTION
6.3.1 Power function
A function of the form f(x) = ax
n
, where a and n are nonzero constants
is called a power function.
For example f(x) = x
4
, f(x) =
2
x
1
and f(x) = 3x
2
1
etc. are power function.
6.3.2 Exponential function
If a > 0, the exponential function with base a is the function ‘f’
defined by
f(x) = a
x
where x is any real number.
For different values of the base a, the exponential function f(x) = a
x
(and its graph) have different characteristics as described below:
6.3.3 Graph of f(x) = a
x
, where a>1
Study of Graph 2
X
In f(x) = a
x
, let a = 2 ∴ f(x) = 2
x
For different values of x. The corresponding values of 2
x
are obtained
as follows:
x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
2
x
8
1
4
1
2
1
1 2 4 8
O
y
Fig 6.10
x x'
y = 2
x
(y=a
x
; a > 1)
(0, 1)
169
Observation:
(i) Graph of 2
x
is strictly increasing. To the left of the graph, the x axis is
an horizontal asymptote
(ii) The graph comes down closer and closer to the negative side of the
xaxis.
(iii) Exponential functions describe situations where growth is taking
place.
6.3.4 Graph of f(x) = a
x
, when a < 1
Study of Graph (
2
1
)
x
f(x) = a
x
; Let a =
2
1
∴ f(x) = (
2
1
)
x
x 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
(
2
1
)
x
8 4 2 1
2
1
4
1
8
1
Observation :
(i) The curve is strictly decreasing
(ii) The graph comes down closer and closer to the positive side of the
xaxis
(iii) For different values of a, the graphs of f(x) = a
x
differ in steepness
(iv) If a> 1, then 0 <
a
1
< 1, and the two graphs y = a
x
and y = (
a
1
)
x
are
reflections of each other through the y axis
O
y
Fig 6.11
x x'
y = (
2
1
)
x
(0, 1)
f(x) = a
x
; a<1
170
(v) If a = 1, the graph of f(x) = a
x
is a horizontal straight line
(vi) The domain and the range of f(x) = a
x
is given by R→(0, ∞)
6.3.5 Graph of f(x) = e
x
The most used power function is y = e
x
,
where e is an irrational number whose value
lies between 2 and 3. (e = 2.718 approxi).
So the graph of e
x
is similar to the graph of
y = 2
x
.
6.3.6 Logarithmic Functions
If 0 < a < 1 or a > 1, then log
a
x = y if and only if a
y
= x
The function f(x) = log
a
x is not defined for all values of x. Since a is
positive, a
y
is positive,. Thus with x = a
y
, we see that, if 0<a<1 or a>1 ; log
a
x
is defined only for x > 0.
If 0 < a < 1 or a > 1, then (i) log
a
a = 1
and (ii) log
a
1 = 0
In the fig. 6.13 the graph of f(x) = log
a
x
is shown. This graph is strictly increasing if
a>1 and strictly decreasing if 0<a<1.
Observation :
(i) Since log
a
1 = 0, the graph of y = log
a
x crosses the x axis at x = 1
(ii) The graph comes down closer and closer to the negative side of
yaxis
(iii) For different values of a, the graphs of y = log
a
x differ in steepness
(iv) The domain and the range of y = log
a
x is given by (0, ∞)→R
(v) The graphs of f(x) = a
x
and g(x) = log
a
x are
symmetric about the line y = x
(vi) By the principle of symmetry the graph of
log
e
x can be obtained by reflecting the
graph of e
x
about the line y = x, which is
shown clearly in the following diagram.
x'
y
y'
Fig 6.13
x
(1, 0)
y=log
a
x
Fig 6.14
x'
y
y'
x
O
y = e
x
Fig 6.12
(0, 1)
x'
y
y'
x
(1, 0)
y=log
a
x
O
y = e
x
(0, 1)
171
6.4 CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
6.4.1 Periodic Functions
If a variable angle θ is changed to θ+α, α being the least positive
constant, the value of the function of θ remains unchanged, the function
is said to be periodic and α is called the period of the function.
Since, sin(θ+2π) = sin θ, cos ( θ+2π) = cos θ. We say sin θ and cos θ
are functions each with period 2π. Also we see that tan (θ+π) = tanθ
hence we say that tanθ is period with π.
Now, we need only to find the graphs of sine and cosine functions
on an interval of length 2π, say 0 < θ < 2π or 
2
π
<θ < 3
2
π
and then
use f( θ+2π) = f(θ) to get the graph everywhere. In determining their
graphs the presentation is simplified if we view these functions as
circular functions.
We first consider the sine function, Let us see what happens to
sinx as x increases from 0 to 2π.
6.4.2 Graph of sinx. Consider sine function in 0<x<2 π π
The graph of sinx is drawn as below:
y = sinx
x 0
6
π
4
π
3
π
2
π
3
2π
4
3π
6
5π
π
6
7π
4
5π
3
4π
2
3π
3
5π
4
7π
6
11 π
sinx 0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
0 
2
1

2
1

2
3
1
2
3 

2
1

2
1
y
Fig 6.15
x π 0 π 2π 3π 4π
2
π
3
2
π

2
π
3
2
1
1
2
172
Observation:
(i) The scale on xaxis is different from the scale on the y axis in order to
show more of the graph.
(ii) The graph of sinx has no break anywhere i.e. it is continuous.
(iii) It is clear from the grpah that maximum value of sinx is 1 and the
minimum value is 1. ie the graph lies entirely between the lines
y = 1 and y =1
(iv) Every value is repeated after an interval of 2π. i.e. the function is
periodic with 2π.
6.4.3 Graph of f(x) = cosx
Consider the cosine function. We again use the interval 0< x < 2π
x π 
2
π
0
2
π
π 3
2
π
2π
2
5π
3π
cosx 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
Observation:
(i) The graph of cosx has no break anywhere i.e. it is continuous
(ii) It is clear from the graph that the maximum value of cosx is 1 and
minimum value is 1 ie. the graph lies entirely between the lines y = 1
andy =1
(iii) The graph is symmetrical about the yaxis
(iv) The function is periodic with period 2π.
6.4.4 Graph of tanx
Since division by 0 is undefined tan
2
π
is meaningless. In tanx, the
variable represents any real number. Note that the function value is 0 when
x = 0 and the values increase as x increases toward
2
π
.
y = cosx
y
y'
Fig 6.16
x x'
(2π, 1)
(3
2
π , 0)
(π, 1)
(0, 1)
(
2
π
,0)
(
2
π
, 0)
(π, 1)
(3
2
π
, 0)
O
173
As we approach
2
π
, the tangent values become very large. Indeed,
they increase without bound. The dashed vertical lines are not part of the
graph. They are asymptotes. The graph approaches each asymptote, but
never reaches it because there are no values of the function for
2
π
,
2
3 π
,
etc.
y = tanx
Observation :
(i) The graph of tan x is discontinuous at points when
x = +
2
π
, +
2
3 π
, +
2
5 π
,....
(ii) tanx may have any numerical value positive or negative
(iii) tanx is a periodic function with period π.
Example 17
Is the tangent function periodic? If so, what is its period? What is
its domain and range?
Solution :
From the graph of y = tanx(fig 6.17), we see that the graph from

2
π
to
2
π
repeats in the interval from
2
π
to
2
3 π
consequently, the
tangent function is periodic, with a period π
y
y' Fig 6.17
x
x' 2π 3
2
π
π 
2
π
0
2
π
π 3
2
π
2
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
174
Domain is {x ; x ≠
2
π
+ kπ, k is an integer}
Range is R (set of all real numbers)
Example 18
What is the domain of the secant function?
Solution :
The secant and cosine functions are reciprocals. The secant function
is undefined for those numbers for which cosx = 0. The domain of the
secant function is the set of all real numbers except
2
π
+ kπ , k is an integer..
ie. {x : x ≠
2
π
+ kπ, k is an integer}
Example 19
What is the period of this function?
Solution:
In the graph of the function f, the function values repeat every four
units. Hence f(x) = f(x+4) for any x, and if the graph is translated four units
to the left or right, it will coincide with itself. Therefore the period of this
function is 4.
6.5 ARITHMETIC OF FUNCTION
6.5.1 Algebraic functions
Those functions which consist of a finite number of terms involving
powers, and roots of independent variable and the four fundamental
operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are called
algebraic functions.
For example,
5 3x +
,
7
x
, 4x
2
7x+3,3x2, 2x
3
etc are algebraic
functions
y
y'
Fig 6.18
x
x'6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
1
y = f(x)
175
Also, algebraic functions include the rational integral function or
polynomial
f(x) = a
0
x
n
+a
1
x
n1
+a
2
x
n2
+....... +a
n
where a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, ........, a
n
are constants called coefficients and n is
nonnegative integer called degree of the polynomial. It is obvious that
this function is defined for all values of x.
6.5.2 Arithmetic operations in the set of functions
Consider the set of all real valued functions having the same domain
D. Let us denote this set of functions by E.
Let f, g ∈ E. ie., functions from D into R.
The arithmetic of functions ; f + g, fg and f ÷ g are defined as follows:
(f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x), ∀ x∈D
(f  g) (x) = f(x)  g(x),
(fg) (x) = f(x) g(x),
(
g
f
) (x) =
g(x)
f(x)
; g(x) ≠ 0
Observation :
(i) The domain of each of the functions f + g, f  g, fg is the same as the
common domain D of f and g.
(ii) The domain of the quotient
g
f
is the common domain D of the two
functions f and g excluding the numbers x for which g(x) = 0
(iii) The product of a function with itself is denoted by f
2
and in general
product of f taken 'n' times is denoted by f
n
where n is a natural
number.
6.5.3 Computing the sum of functions
(i) For example consider f(x) = 3x+4 ; g(x) =5x2 be the two linear
functions then their sum (f+g) (x) is
f(x) = 3x+4
g(x) = 5x2
(+)   (+)
f(x)+g(x) = (3x+5x) + (42)
∴ f(x)+g(x) = 8x+2 = (f+g) (x)
(ii) Consider f(x) = 3x
2
4x+7 and g(x) = x
2
x+1 be two quadratic
functions then the sum of
176
f(x) and g(x) is f(x)+g(x) = (3x
2
4x+7) + (x
2
x+1)
= (3x
2
+x
2
) + (4xx) + (7+1)
f(x) + g(x) = 4x
2
5x+8 = (f+g) (x)
(iii) Consider f(x) = log
e
x ; g(x) = log
e
(5x) be two logarithmic
functions then the sum (f+g) (x) is f(x)+g(x) = log
e
x + log
e
5x
= log
e
5x
2.
Observe that here f(x) + f(y) ≠ f(x+y)
(iv) Consider, f(x) = e
x
and f(y) = e
y
be two exponential functions,
then the sum f(x)+f(y) is e
x
+e
y
(v) Consider, f(x) = sinx, g(x) = tanx then the sum f(x)+g(x) is
sinx + tanx
6.5.4 Computing Difference of functions
(i) Consider f(x) = 4x
2
3x+1 and g(x) = 2x
2
+x+5 then (fg) (x)
= f(x)g(x) is (4x
2
2x
2
) + (3xx) + (15) = 2x
2
4x4
(ii) Consider f(x) = e
3x
and g(x) = e
2x
then
(fg) (x) = f(x)  g(x)
= e
3x
 e
2x
(iii) Consider f(x)  log
e
5x
and g(x) = log
e
3x
then
(fg) (x) is f(x)  g(x) = log
e
5x
 log
e
3x
= log
e
) (
3x
5x
= log
e
3
5
6.5.5 Computing the Product of functions
(i) Consider f(x) = x+1 and g(x) = x1 then the product f(x) g(x) is
(x+1) (x1) which is equal to x
2
1
(ii) Consider, f(x) = (x
2
x+1) and g(x) = x+1
then the product f(x) g(x) is
(x
2
x+1) (x+1) = x
3
x
2
+x+x
2
x+1
= x
3
+1
(iii) Consider, f(x) = log
a
x and g(x) = log
a
3x
then (fg)x = f(x)g(x) = log
a
x log
a
3x
(iv) Consider, f(x) = e
3x
; g(x) = e
5x
then the product f(x) g(x) is
e
3x
. e
5x
= e
3x+5x
= e
8x
6.5.6 Computing the Quotient of functions
(i) Consider f(x) = e
4x
and g(x) = e
3x
then
( )
( ) x g
x f
is
3x
4x
e
e
= e
4x3x
= e
x
177
(ii) Consider, f(x) = x
2
5x+6 ; g(x) = x2 then the quotient
( )
( ) x g
x f
is
) 2 x (
6 x 5 x
2
−
+ −
which is equal to
( )( )
2 x
2  x 3  x
−
= x3
Example 20
Given that f(x) = x
3
and g(x) = 2x+1
Compute (i) (f+g) (1) (ii) (fg) (3) (iii) (fg) (0) (iv) (f÷ ÷g) (2)
Solution:
(i) We know (f+g) (x)= f(x) + g(x)
∴ (f+g) (1)= f(1) + g(1)
= (1)
3
+ 2(1)+1 = 4
(ii) We know (fg) (x) = f(x)  g(x)
∴ (fg) (3) = f(3)  g(3)
= (3)
3
 2(3)  1 = 20
(iii) We know (fg)(x) = f(x) g(x)
∴ fg(0) = f(0) g(0)
= (0
3
) (2 x 0 + 1) = 0
(iv) We know (f÷g) (x) = f(x) ÷ g(x)
∴ (f÷g) (2)= f(2) ÷ g(2)
= 2
3
÷ [2(2) + 1]
= 2
3
÷ 5 =
5
8
6.6 SOME SPECIAL FUNCTIONS
6.6.1 Absolute value function f(x) = x
Finding the absolute value of a number can also be thought of in
terms of a function, the absolute value function f(x) = x. The domain of the
absolute value function is the set of real numbers ; the range is the set of
positive real numbers
The graph has two parts,
For x > 0, f(x) = x
For x < 0, f(x) = x
Observation :
(i) The graph is symmetrical about the yaxis
(ii) At x = 0, x has a minimum value, 0
x'
y
y'
Fig (6.19)
x O
y
=

x
y
=
x
f(x) = x
178
6.6.2 Signum function
The signum function is defined as
y = f(x) =
=
≠
0 for x 0
0 for x
x
 x 
or f(x) =
< = −
=
> =
0 for x 1
0 for x 0
0 for x 1
x
x
x
x
For x > 0, the graph of y = 1 is a straight line parallel to xaxis at a unit
distance above it. In this graph, the point corresponding to x = 0 is excluded
for x = 0, y = 0, we get the point (0, 0) and for x < 0, the graph y =1 is a
straight line parallel to xaxis at a unit distance below it. In this graph, the
point corresponding to x= 0 is excluded.
6.6.3 Step function
The greatest integer function,
f(x) = [x], is the greatest integer
that is less than or equal to x.
In general,
For 0 < x<1, we have f(x) = [x] = 0
1< x < 2, we have f(x) = [x] = 1
2< x < 3, we have f(x) = [x] = 2
2< x < 1, we have f(x) = [x] = 2
5< x < 4, we have f(x) = [x] = 5 and so on.
In particular, [4.5] = 4, [1] = 1, [3.9] = 4
We can use the pattern above to graph f(x) for x between any two
integers, and thus graph the function for all real numbers.
6.7 INVERSE OF A FUNCTION
6.7.1 Oneone function
If a function relates any two distinct elements of its domain to two
distinct elements of its codomain, it is called a oneone function. f: A→B
x'
y
y'
Fig (6.20)
x O
y=1, x>0
y=1, x<0
x'
y
y'
Fig (6.21)
x
3
2
1
1
2
3
1 2 3 2 1 3
O
179
shown in fig.6.22 is oneone function.
6.7.2 Onto function
For an ‘onto’ function f: A→B, range is equal to B.
6.7.3 Inverse function
Let f: A→B be a oneone onto mapping, then the maping f
1
: B→A
which associates to each element b∈B the element a∈A, such that f(a) = b
is called the inverse mapping of the mapping f: A→B.
Observation :
(i) If f : A→B is oneone onto, then f
1
: B→A is also oneone and
ont o
(ii) If f: A→B be oneone and onto, then the inverse mapping of f is
unique.
(iii) The domain of a function f is the range of f
1
and the range of f
is the domain of f
1
.
(iv) If f is continuous then f
1
is also continuous.
1
.
a
2
.
b
3
.
c
3
.
d
fig 6.22
f : A→B
1
.
a
2
.
b
3
.
c
4
.
d
f : A→B
fig 6.23
fig 6.24
from fig (6.24) f(x
1
) = y
1
e t c .
fig 6.25
from fi g (6. 25) f
1
(y
1
) = x
1
e t c .
f
1
: B→A
x
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
x
3
y
3
A B
f : A→B
x
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
x
3
y
3
A B
180
(v) Interchanging first and second numbers in each ordered pair of a
relation has the effect of interchanging the xaxis and the yaxis.
Interchanging the xaxis and the yaxis has the effect of reflecting
the graph of these points across the diagonal line whose equation
is y = x.
Example 21
Given f(x) = 2x+1, find an equation for f
1
(x).
Let y = 2x+1, interchange x and y
∴ x = 2y+1 => y =
2
1  x
Thus f
1
(x) =
2
1  x
6.7.4 Inverse Trignometric functions
sin
1
x, cos
1
x, tan
1
x are the inverses of sinx, cosx and tanx respectively.
sin
1
x :Suppose 1<x<1. Then y = sin
1
x if and only if x = siny and

2
π
<y<
2
π
cos
1
x : Suppose 1<x<1. Then y = cos
1
x if and only if x = cosy and
0<y<π
tan
1
x : Suppose x is any real number. Then y=tan
1
x if and only if
x = tany and 
2
π
<y<
2
π
and 
2
π
<y<
2
π
, y ≠ 0
sec
1
x : Suppose  x  > 1, then y = sec
1
x if and only if and only
if x = secy and 0<y<π y ≠
2
π
if x = coty and 0<y<π
Two points symmetric with respect to
a line are called reflections of each other
across the line. The line is known as a line
of symmetry.
(i) From the fig 6.26 we see that the graph of
y = sin
1
x is the reflection of the
graph of y = sinx across the line y = x
x'
y
y'
x
2π π 1 1 π
2π
1
π
2π
2π
π
1
y = sin
1
x
y = sin x
Fig 6.26
y = x
181
(ii) The graphs of y = cos x and y = cos
1
x are given in
fig. 6.27 and 6.28 respectively
6.8 MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS
6.8.1 Odd Function
A function f(x)is said to be odd function if f(x) = f(x), for all x
eg : 1. f(x) = sinx is an odd function
consider ; f(x) = sin(x) = sinx = f(x)
2. f(x) = x
3
is an odd function ;
consider, f(x) = (x)
3
= x
3
=  f(x)
6.8.2 Even function
A function f(x) is said to be even function if f(x) = f(x), for all x
eg. 1 f(x) = cosx is an even function
consider, f(x) = cos(x) = cosx = f(x)
2. f(x) = x
2
is an even function
consider, f(x) = (x)
2
= x
2
= f(x)
Observation :
(i) If f(x) is an even function then the graph of f(x) is symmetrical about
y axis
(ii) There is always a possibility of a function being neither even nor
odd.
(iii) If f(x) is an odd function then the graph of f(x) is symmetrical about
origin.
x'
y
y'
x −2π −π 0 π 2π
2π
1
1
y = x
y =cos x
Fig 6.27
x x'
y
y'
Fig 6.28
2π
π
0
− π
2π
y = cos
1
x
182
6.8.3 Composite Function (Function of a function)
Let f : A→B and g : B→C be two functions then the function
gof : A→C defined by
(gof) (x) = g[f(x)], for all x∈A is called composition of the two functions
f and g
i.e., we have z = g(y) = g[f(x)]
Observation :
(i) In the operation (gof) we operate first by f and then by g.
(ii) fog ≠ gof in general
(iii) fo(goh) = (fog)oh is always true
(iv) (fof
 1
)(x) = x, where f
1
is inverse of ‘f’
(v) gof is onto if f and g are separately onto.
Example 22
Prove that f(x) =  x  is even
Proof:
f(x) =  x 
∴ f(x) =  x  =  x  = f(x)
=> f(x) = f(x)
Hence f(x) =  x  is even
Example 23
Prove that f(x) =  x4  is neither even nor odd.
Proof :
f(x) =  x4  ∴ f(x) =  x4 
∴ =   (x+4) 
=  x+4 
∴ f(x) ≠ f(x) and f(x) ≠ f(x)
∴ f(x) =  x4  is neither even nor odd
x
A
B
f g
C
z
y=f(x)
Fig 6.29
183
Example 24
Prove that f(x) = e
x
e
x
is an odd function
Proof:
f(x) = e
x
e
x
f(x) = e
x
e
(x)
= e
x
e
x
= [e
x
e
x
]
=  f(x)
Hence f(x) = e
x
e
x
is an odd function
Example 25
Let f(x) = 1x ; g(x) = x
2
+2x both f and g are from R→ →R
verify that fog ≠ ≠ gof
Solution:
L.H.S. (fog)x = f(x
2
+2x)
= 1(x
2
+2x)
= 12xx
2
R.H.S. (gof)x = g(1x)
= (1x)
2
+ 2(1x)
= 34x+x
2
L.H.S. ≠ R.H.S.
Hence fog ≠ gof
Example 26
Let f(x) = 1x, g(x) = x
2
+2x and h(x) = x+5. Find (fog) oh
Solution:
g(x) = x
2
+2x ∴(fog) x= f[g(x)]
= f(x
2
+2x)
= 12xx
2
{(fog) oh} (x) = (fog) (x+5)
= 12 (x+5)(x+5)
2
= 3412xx
2
Example 27
Suppose f(x) =  x , g(x) = 2x Find (i) f{g(5)} (ii) g{f(6)}
Solution:
(i) f{g(5)}
g(x) = 2x ∴g(5) = 2x(5) = 10
f((g(5)) = f(10) = 10 = 10
184
(ii) g{f(6)}
f(x) =  x 
∴ f(6) = 6 = 6
g{f(6)} = g(6) = 2 x 6 = 12
Example 28
f(x) = 2x+7 and g(x) = 3x+b find “b” such that f{g(x)} = g{f(x)}
L.H.S. f{g(x)}
f{g(x)} = f{3x+b}
= 2(3x+b) + 7
= 6x+2b+7
since f{g(x)} = g{f(x)}
we have 6x+(2b+7) = 6x+(b+21)
∴ 2b+7 = b+21
b = 217
b = 14
EXERCISE 6.2
1) Prove that (i) f(x) = x
2
+ 12x + 36 is neither even nor odd function
(ii) f(x) = 2x
3
+ 3x is an odd function
2) If f(x) = tanx, verify that
f(2x) =
( )
( ) { }
2
x f  1
x 2f
3) If φ(x) =log
x 1
x  1
+
verify that φ(a) + φ(b) = φ( )
ab 1
b a
+
+
4) If f(x) = logx ; g(x) = x
3
, write the expressions for
a) f{g(2)} b) g{f(2)}
5) If f(x) = x
3
and g(x) = 2x+1 find the following
(i) (f+g) (0) (ii) (f+g) (2) (iii) (fg) (2)
(iv) (fg) (
2
) (v) f(g) (1
2
) (vi) (fg) (0.5)
(vii) (f ÷ g) (0) (viii) (f ÷ g) (2) also find the domain of f ÷ g
6) Given f(x) = sinx, g(x) = cosx compute
(i) (f+g) (0) and (f+g) (
2
π
)
R.H.S. g{f(x)}
g{f(x)}= g{2x+7}
= 3(2x+7) + b
= 6x+21+b
185
(ii) (fg) (
2
π
) and (fg) ( π)
(iii) (fg) (
4
π
) and (fg) (
4
π
)
(iv) (f÷g) (0) and (f÷g) (π) ; Also find the domain of (
g
f
)
7) Obtain the domains of the following functions
(i)
cosx 1
1
+
(ii)
cosx 1
x
−
(iii)
x cos  x sin
1
2 2
(iv)
1  x 
 x 
+
(v)
cosx 1
cosx 1
−
+
(vi) tanx
8) The salary of an employee in the year 1975 was Rs. 1,200. In 1977 it was
Rs. 1,350. Express salary as a linear function of time and calculate his
salary in 1978.
9) The life expectancy of females in 2003 in a country is 70 years. In 1978 it
was 60 years. Assuming the life expectancy to be a linear function of time,
make a prediction of the life expectancy of females in that country in the
year 2013.
10) For a linear function f, f(1) = 3 and f(2) = 4
(i) Find an equation of f
(ii) Find f(3) (iii) Find a such that f(a) = 100
EXERCISE 6.3
Choose the correct answer
1) The point in the interval (3, 5] is
(a) 3 (b) 5.3 (c) 0 (d) 4.35
2) Zero is not a point in the interval
(a) (∞, ∞) (b) 3<x<5 (c) 1<x<1 (d) [∞, 1]
3) Which one of the following functions has the property f(x) = f(
x
1
)
(a) f(x) =
x
1 x
2
+
(b) f(x) =
x
1 x
2
−
(c) f(x) =
x
x  1
2
(d) f(x) = x
4) For what value of x the function f(x) =
2
x
is not real valued?
(a) x < 0 (b) x < 0 (c) x < 2 (d) x < 2
5) The domain of the function f(x) =
3 x
4  x
+
is
(a) {x / x ≠ 3} (b) { x / x > 3} (c) { } (d) R
186
6) The period of the function f(x) = sinx is 2π, therefore what is the period of
the function g(x) = 3sinx?
(a) 3π (b) 6π (c)2π (d)
3
π
7) The period of the cotangent function is
(a) 2π (b) π (c) 4π (d)
2
π
8) The reciprocals of sine and cosine functions are periodic of period
(a) π (b)
π 2
1
(c) 2π (d)
π
2
9) If f(x) = 2x+4 then f
1
(x) is
(a) 2x4 (b) 
2
x
+ 2 (c) 
2
1
x+4 (d) 42x
10) If f(x) = log
5
x and g(x) = log
x
5 then (fg) (x) is
(a) log
25
x
2
(b) log
x
2
25 (c) 1 (d) 0
11) If f(x) = 2
x
and g(x) =(
2
1
)
x
then the product f(x) . g(x) is
(a) 4
x
(b) 0 (c) 1
x
(d) 1
12) In a function if the independent variable is acting as an index then the
function is known as
(a) exponential function (b) logarithmic function
(c) trigonometric function (d) Inverse function
13) The minimum value of the function f(x) =  x  is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d)
2
1
14) The slope of the graph of f(x) =
x
 x 
; x>0 is
(a) m=1 (b) m=0 (c) m=1 (d) m is undefined
15) The greatest integer function f(x) = [x], in the range 3<x<4 has the value
f(x) = .........
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 2
187
Calculus is the branch of Mathematics that concerns itself with the
rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity. The
foundations of Calculus were laid by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm
Von Leibnitz.
Calculus is divided into two parts: namely, Differential Calculus and
Integral Calculus. In this chapter, we learn what a derivative is, how to
calculate it .
7.1 LIMIT OF A FUNCTION
7.1.1 Limiting Process:
The concept of limit is very important for the formal development of
calculus. Limiting process can be explained by the following illustration:
Let us inscribe a regular polygon of ‘n’ sides in a unit circle.
Obviously the area of the polygon is less than the area of the unit circle
(π sq.units). Now if we increase the number of sides ‘n’ of the polygon,
area of the polygon increases but still it is less than the area of the unit
circle. Thus as the number of sides of the polygon increases, the area of
the polygon approaches the area of the unit circle.
7.1.2 Limit of a function
Let f : R→ R be a function. We are interested in finding a real number
l to which the value f(x) of the function f approaches when x approaches a
given number ‘a’.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
7
188
Illustration 1
Let a function f : R→R be defined as f(x) = 2x + 1 as x→3.
x → → 3
+
3.1 3.01 3.001 3.0001 3.00001 . . .
f(x) = 2x + 1 7.2 7.02 7.002 7.0002 7.00002 . . .
 f(x) – 7  0.2 0.02 0.002 0.0002 0.00002 . . .
From the above table, we observe that as x→3
+
(i.e. x→3 from right
of 3) f(x)→7. Here 7 is called the right hand limit of f(x) as x→3
+
.
Further,
x→ →3

2.9 2.99 2.999 2.9999 2.99999 …
f(x) = 2x +1 6.8 6.98 6.998 6.9998 6.99998 …
 f(x) – 7  0.2 0.02 0.002 0.0002 0.00002 …
From this table, we observe that as x→3

(i.e. x→3 from left of 3)
f(x)→7. Here 7 is called the left hand limit of f(x) as x→3

.
Thus we find as x→3 from either side, f(x)→7. This means that we
can bring f(x) as close to 7 as we please by taking x sufficiently closer to 3
i.e., the difference
f(x) – 7  can be made as small as we please by taking x sufficiently nearer to 3.
This is denoted by ) (
3
x f Lt
x →
= 7
Illustration 2
Let a function f : R  {2¦→R be defined as
2
4
2
−
−
x
x
as x→2.
x 1.9 1.99 1.999 1.9999 2 2.0001 2.001 2.01 2.1
f(x) 3.9 3.99 3.999 3.9999  4.0001 4.001 4.01 4.1
f(x)4 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001  0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1
From the above table we observe that as x→2 from the left as well as
from the right, f(x)→ 4, i.e., difference f(x)4 can be made as small as we
please by taking x sufficiently nearer to 2. Hence 4 is the limit of f(x) as x
approaches 2.
189
i.e ) (
2
x f Lt
x→
= 4
From the above two illustrations we get that if there exists a real
number l such that the difference f(x)l can be made as small as we
please by taking x sufficiently close to ‘a’ (but not equal to a), then l is said
to be the limit of f(x) as x approaches ‘a’.
It is denoted by
) (x f Lt
a x→
= l.
Observation :
(i) If we put x = a in f(x), we get the functional value f(a). In general,
f(a) ≠ l. Even if f(a) is undefined, the limiting value l of f(x) when x→a
may be defined as a finite number.
(ii) The limit f(x) as x tends to ‘a’ exists if and only if ) (x f Lt
a x
+
→
and
) (x f Lt
a x
−
→
exist and are equal.
7.1.3 Fundamental Theorems on Limits
(i)
a x
Lt
→
[f(x)+g(x)] =
a x
Lt
→
f(x) +
a x
Lt
→
g(x)
(ii)
a x
Lt
→
[f(x) g(x)] =
a x
Lt
→
f(x) 
a x
Lt
→
g(x)
(iii)
a x
Lt
→
[f(x) . g(x)] =
a x
Lt
→
f(x) .
a x
Lt
→
g(x)
(iv)
a x
Lt
→
[f(x) / g(x)] =
a x
Lt
→
f(x) /
a x
Lt
→
g(x) , provided
( ) x g Lt
a x→
≠ 0
(v)
a x
Lt
→
[c f(x)] = c
a x
Lt
→
f(x)
7.1.4 Standard results on Limits
(i)
a x
Lt
→
a x
a x
n n
−
−
= n a
n1
, n is a rational number..
(ii)
θ
θ
θ
sin
0 →
Lt = 1, θ being in radian measure.
190
(iii)
x
a
Lt
x
x
1
0
−
→
= log
e
a
(iv)
0 → x
Lt
x
e
x
1 −
= 1
(v)
∞ → n
Lt (1 + 1/n)
n
= e
(vi)
0 → x
Lt (1+x)
1/x
= e
(vii)
0 → x
Lt
( )
x
x + 1 log
= 1
Example 1
Evaluate
1
6 4
2
2
+
+ −
→
x
x x
Lt
x
Solution:
1
6 4
2
2
+
+ −
→
x
x x
Lt
x
=
( )
( ) 1
6 4
2
2
2
+
+ −
→
→
x Lt
x x Lt
x
x
=
( ) ( )
1 2
6 2 4 2
2
+
+ −
= 2/3
Example 2
Evaluate
x x
x x
Lt
x
2 cos 3 2 sin 2
2 cos 2 2 sin 3
4
−
+
→π
Solution:
x x Lt
x x Lt
x
x
2 cos 3 2 sin 2
2 cos 2 2 sin 3
4
4
−
+
→
→
π
π
=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2 cos 3 2 sin 2
2 cos 2 2 sin 3
π π
π π
−
+
=
2
3
Example 3
Evaluate
5
25
2
5
−
−
→
x
x
Lt
x
191
Solution:
5
25
2
5
−
−
→
x
x
Lt
x
=
( ) ( )
( ) 5
5 5
5
−
− +
→
x
x x
Lt
x
= ) 5 (
5
+
→
x Lt
x
= 10
Example 4
Evaluate
0 → x
Lt
x
x x
4
5 2 3 2 − − +
Solution:
0 → x
Lt
x
x x
4
5 2 3 2 − − +
=
0 → x
Lt
( )( )
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− + +
− + + − − +
x x x
x x x x
5 2 3 2 4
5 2 3 2 5 2 3 2
=
0 → x
Lt
( ) ( )
( ) x x x
x x
5 2 3 2 4
5 2 3 2
− + +
− − +
=
0 → x
Lt
( ) x x x
x
5 2 3 2 4
8
− + +
=
0 → x
Lt
x x 5 2 3 2
2
− + +
=
2 2
2
+
=
2
1
Example 5
Evaluate
a x
Lt
→
3 1 3 1
5 3 5 3
a x
a x
−
−
Solution:
a x
Lt
→
3 1 3 1
5 3 5 3
a x
a x
−
−
=
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
−
−
÷
−
−
→
a x
a x
a x
a x
Lt
a x
3 / 1 3 / 1 5 / 3 5 / 3
=
5
3
a
2/5
÷
3
1
a
2/3
=
5
9
a
2/5 + 2/3
=
5
9
a
4/15
192
Example 6
Evaluate
0 → x
Lt
x
x
3 sin
5 sin
Solution :
0 → x
Lt
x
x
3 sin
5 sin
=
0 → x
Lt
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
×
×
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
3 sin
3
5
5 sin
5
=
3
5
0 → x
Lt
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
x
x
x
x
3
3 sin
5
5 sin
=
3
5
Example 7
If
1
1
4
1
−
−
→
x
x
Lt
x
=
a x
Lt
→
2 2
3 3
a x
a x
−
−
, find the value of a.
Solution:
LHS =
1
1
4
1
−
−
→
x
x
Lt
x
= 4
RHS =
a x
Lt
→
2 2
3 3
a x
a x
−
−
=
a x
a x
Lt
a x
a x
Lt
a x
a x
−
−
−
−
→
→
2 2
3 3
=
a
a
2
3
2
=
2
3 a
∴ 4 =
2
3 a
∴ a =
3
8
Example 8
Evaluate
2
2
15 4
5 6
x x
x
Lt
x
+
−
∞ →
193
Solution:
2
2
15 4
5 6
x x
x
Lt
x
+
−
∞ →
=
15
4
5
6
2
+
−
∞ →
x
x
Lt
x
Let y =
x
1
so that y→0, as x →∞
=
0 → y
Lt
15 4
5 6
2
+
−
y
y
= 5/15 =  1/3.
Example 9
Show that
3
2 2 2 2
. . . 3 2 1
n
n
Lt
n
+ + + +
∞ →
=
3
1
Solution:
3
2 2 2 2
. . . 3 2 1
n
n
Lt
n
+ + + +
∞ →
=
( ) ( )
3
6
1 2 1
n
n n n
Lt
n
+ +
∞ →
=
∞ → n
Lt
]
]
]
,
`
.
 +
,
`
.
 +
,
`
.

n
n
n
n
n
n 1 2 1
6
1
=
∞ → n
Lt
]
]
]
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
n n
1
2
1
1 1
6
1
Let y = 1/n so that y→0, as n →∞
= ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] 2 1 1
6
1
0 → y
Lt =
3
1
EXERCISE 7.1
1) Evaluate the following limits
(i)
1
2
3
2
+
+
→
x
x
Lt
x
(ii)
x x
x x
Lt
x
cos 4 sin 3
cos 3 sin 2
4
−
+
→
π
(iii)
10 7
6 5
2
2
2
+ −
+ −
→
x x
x x
Lt
x
(iv)
x
x x
Lt
x
+ − −
→
2 2
0
194
(v)
,
`
.

−
−
−
→
x x x
x
Lt
x
3
9
3
2
3
(vi)
θ
θ
θ
tan
0 →
Lt
(vii)
3 1 3 1
8 5 8 5
a x
a x
Lt
a x
−
−
→
(viii)
x
x
Lt
x
3
5 sin
0 →
(ix)
1
1
+
−
∞ →
x
x
Lt
x
(x)
x
x
Lt
x
2 sin
8 tan
0 →
(xi)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 1 8
2 4 1 3
− +
− −
∞ →
x x
x x
Lt
x
(xii)
1 5 2
6 3 5
2
2
+ −
− +
∞ →
x x
x x
Lt
x
2) If 80
2
2
2
·
−
−
→
x
x
Lt
n n
x
find n. (where n is a positive integer)
3) Prove that
( )
.
1 1
0
n
x
x
Lt
n
x
·
− +
→
4) If f(x) =
32
128
5
7
−
−
x
x
, find
2 → x
Lt f (x) and f (2), if they exist.
5) If f(x) =
1 +
+
x
q px
,
0 → x
Lt f(x) = 2 and
∞ → x
Lt f(x) = 1, prove that f (2) = 0
7.2 CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION
7.2.1 Continuity
In general, a function f(x) is continuous at x = a if its graph has
no break at x = a. If there is any break at the point x = a , then we say the
function is not continuous at the point x = a. If a function is continuous at
all points in an interval it is said to be continuous in the interval.
Illustration 1
x' x
y
y = x
2
y'
195
From the graph we see that the graph of y = x
2
has no break.
Therefore, it is said to be continuous for all values of x.
Illustration 2
From the graph of y =
( )
2
2
1
− x
we see that the graph has a
break at x = 2. Therefore it is said to be discontinuous at x = 2.
Definition
A function f(x) is continuous at x = a if
(i) f(a) exists.
(ii)
a x
Lt
→
f(x) exists
(iii)
a x
Lt
→
f(x) = f(a).
Observation:
If one or more of the above conditions is not satisfied at a point
x = a by the function f(x), then the function is said to be discontinuous
at x = a.
7.2.2 Properties of continuous function:
If f(x) and g(x) are two functions which are continuous at x = a then
(i) f(x) + g(x) is continuous at x = a.
x' x
y
y'
(x2)
1
y =
2
196
(ii) f(x) – g(x) is continuous at x = a.
(iii) f(x) . g(x) is continuous at x = a.
(iv)
( )
( ) x g
x f
is continuous at x = a, provided g(a) ≠ 0.
(v) If f(x) is continuous at x = a and f(a) ≠ 0 then
) (
1
x f
i s cont i nuous
at x = a.
(vi) If f(x) is continuous at x = a, then f(x) is also continuous at x = a.
Observation:
(i) Every polynomial function is continuous.
(ii) Every rational function is continuous.
(iii) Constant function is continuous.
(iv) Identity function is continuous.
Example 10
Let f(x) =
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
≠
0 ; 1
0 ;
3 sin
x
x
x
x
Is the function continuous at x = 0 ?
Solution:
Now we shall investigate the three conditions to be satisfied by
f(x) for its continuity at x = 0.
(i) f(a) = f(0) = 1 is defined at x = 0.
(ii)
0 → x
Lt f(x) =
0 → x
Lt
x
x 3 sin
= 3.
(iii)
0 → x
Lt
f(x) = 3 ≠ f(0) = 1
condition (iii) is not satisfied.
Hence the function is discontinuous at x = 0.
Example 11
Find the points of discontinuity of the function
6 5x  x
8 6x x
2
2
+
+ +
197
Solution:
The points of discontinuity of the function is obtained when the
denominator vanishes.
i.e., x
2
– 5x + 6 = 0
⇒ (x – 3) ( x – 2) = 0
⇒ x = 3; x = 2.
Hence the points of discontinuity of the function are x = 3 and x = 2.
Example 12
Rs. 10,000 is deposited into a savings account for 3 months at an
interest rate 12% compounded monthly. Draw the graph of the account’s
balance versus time (in months). Where is the graph discontinuous?
Solution :
At the end of the first month the account’s balance is
10,000 + 10,000 (.01) = Rs. 10,100.
At the end of the second month, the account’s balance is
10,100 + 10,100(.01) = Rs. 10,201.
At the end of the third month, the account’s balance is
10,201 + 10,201 (.01) = Rs. 10,303.01.
i.e.
X (time) 1 2 3
Y (Balance) 10,100 10,201 10,303.01
The graph of the account’s balance versus time, t.
Since the graph has break at t = 1, t = 2, t = 3, it is
discontinuous at t = 1, t =2 and t = 3.
t X
Y
1
10,000
10,100
10,201
Account's
Balance
time (in months)
10,303.01
2 3
0
198
Observation:
These discontinuities occur at the end of each month when interest
is computed and added to the account’s balance.
EXERCISE 7.2
1) Prove that cos x is continuous
2) Find the points of discontinuity of the function
20 12
5 6 2
2
2
− +
− +
x x
x x
3) Show that a constant function is always continuous.
4) Show that f(x) =  x  is continuous at the origin.
5) Prove that f(x) =
1
2
−
+
x
x
is discontinuous at x = 1.
6) Locate the points of discontinuity of the function
( ) ( ) 4 3
2
− −
+
x x
x
7.3 CONCEPT OF DIFFERENTIATION
7.3.1 Differential coefficient
Let y denote the function f(x). Corresponding to any change in
the value of x there will be a corresponding change in the value of y. Let ∆x
denote the increment in x. The corresponding increment in y is denoted by
∆y. Since
y = f(x)
y+∆y = f (x + ∆x )
∆y = f (x + ∆x )  f(x)
x
x f x x f
x
y
∆
− ∆ +
·
∆
∆ ) ( ) (
x
y
∆
∆
is called the incremental ratio.
Now
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
is called the differential coefficient (or derivative) of y with
respect to x and is denoted by
dx
dy
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
199
The process of obtaining the differential coefficient ( or derivative )
is called differentiation. The notations y
1
, f
/
(x) , D( f (x) ) are used to
denote the differential coefficient of f(x) with respect to x.
7.3.2 Geometrical interpretation of a derivative.
Let P (a , f (a) ) and Q ( a + h , f (a + h) ) be the two points on the
curve y = f (x)
Draw the ordinate PL, QM and draw PR ⊥ MQ.
we have
PR = LM = h
and QR= MQ  LP
= f (a+h) – f (a)
PR
QR
=
h
a f h a f ) ( ) ( − +
As Q→P along the curve, the limiting position of PQ is the tangent PT to
the curve at the point P . Also as Q→P along the curve, h→0
Slope of the tangent PT =
P Q
Lt
→
(slope of PQ)
=
( ) ( )
h
a f h a f
Lt
h
− +
→0
∴ The derivative of f at a is the slope of the tangent to the curve
y = f (x) at the point (a, f(a))
S L M
P R
Q
x x' T
y
y = x
2
y'
200
7.3.3 Differentiation from first principles.
The method of finding the differential coefficient of a function
y = f(x) directly from the definition is known as differentiation from first
principles or ab initio. This process consists of following five steps.
Step (i) Equating the given function to y i.e., y = f(x)
Step (ii) In the given function replace x by x + ∆x and calculate the new
value of the function y + ∆y.
Step (iii) Obtain ∆y = f(x +∆x) – f(x) and simplify ∆y.
Step (iv) Evaluate
x
y
∆
∆
Step (v) Find
x
y
Lt
x
∆
∆
→ ∆ 0
7.3.4 Derivatives of standard functions using first principle
(i) Derivative of x
n
, where n is any rational number.
Proof :
Let y = x
n
Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding
increment in y.
∴ y + ∆y= (x + ∆x)
n
∆y = (x + ∆x)
n
– y
= (x + ∆x)
n
 x
n
x
y
∆
∆
=
( )
x
x x x
n n
∆
− ∆ +
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
( )
x
x x x
n n
∆
− ∆ +
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
( )
x x x
x x x
n n
− ∆ +
− ∆ +
) (
201
∴
dx
dy
=
x x x
Lt
→ ∆ + ) (
( )
x x x
x x x
n n
− ∆ +
− ∆ +
) (
as ∆x → 0, x + ∆x→ x
= n x
n1
(
Q
a x
a x
Lt
n n
a x
−
−
→
= na
n1
)
( )
1 −
·
n n
nx x
dx
d
(ii) Derivative of sinx
Let y = sinx
Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be t he cor r espondi ng
increment in y.
Then y + ∆y = sin(x + ∆x)
∆y = sin(x + ∆x) – y
= sin( x +∆x) – sinx
x
y
∆
∆
=
x
x x x
∆
− ∆ + sin ) sin(
=
x
x x
x
∆
∆
,
`
.
 ∆
+
2
sin
2
cos 2
=
2
2
sin
.
2
cos
x
x
x
x
∆
∆
,
`
.
 ∆
+
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
0 → ∆x
Lt cos(x + ∆x/2).
2
2
sin
0 x
x
Lt
x ∆
∆
→ ∆
202
= cosx
2
2
sin
0
2
x
x
Lt
x
∆
∆
→
∆
= (cosx).1 (
Q
1
sin
0
·
→
θ
θ
θ
Lt
)
= cosx
( ) x x
dx
d
cos sin ·
(iii) Derivative of e
x
Let y = e
x
Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding
increment in y.
Then y + ∆y = e
x+∆x
∆y = e
x+∆x
 y
∆y = e
x+∆x
 e
x
= e
x
(e
∆x
– 1 )
x
y
∆
∆
=
x
1)  (e e
x x
∆
∆
∴ ∴
dx
dy
=
x
y
Lt
x
∆
∆
→ ∆ 0
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
1)  (e e
x x
∆
∆
= e
x
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
1)  (e
x
∆
∆
= e
x
1 (since
0 → h
Lt
h
1)  (e
h
= 1 )
= e
x
∴
dx
d
(e
x
) = e
x
203
(iv) Derivative of log x
Let y = log x
Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding
increment in y.
Then y + ∆y = log (x + ∆x)
∆y = log (x + ∆x)  y
= log (x + ∆x)  log
x
∆y =
,
`
.
 ∆ +
x
x x
e
log
=
,
`
.
 ∆
+
x
x
e
1 log
x
y
∆
∆
=
x
x
x
e
∆
,
`
.
 ∆
+ 1 log
∴
dx
dy
=
x
y
Lt
x
∆
∆
→ ∆ 0
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
x
x
e
∆
,
`
.
 ∆
+ 1 log
put
x
x ∆
= h
∴ ∆x = hx and as ∆x→0, h→0.
∴
dx
dy
=
0 h
Lt
→
hx
h) (1 log +
=
x
1
0 h
Lt
→
h
h) (1 log
e
+
=
x
1
0 h
Lt
→
log (1 + h)
h
1
=
x
1
1
=
x
1
(
Q
0 h
Lt
→
log (1 + h)
h
1
= 1)
∴ ( ) x
dx
d
log =
x
1
204
Observation :
dx
d
(log x) =
x
1
0 h
Lt
→
log (1 + h)
h
1
=
x
1
log
e
e
(v) Derivative of a constant
Let y = k, where k is constant.
Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding
increment in y.
Then y + ∆y = k
∆y = k – y
= k – k
∆y = 0
∴
x
y
∆
∆
= 0
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
= 0
∴
dx
d
(any constant) = 0
7.3.5 General Rules for differentiation
Rule 1 Addition Rule
( ) v u
dx
d
+ =
dx
dv
dx
du
+ , where u and v are functions of x
Proof:
Let y = u + v. Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x. Then
∆u, ∆v, ∆y are the corresponding increments in u, v and y respectively.
Then y + ∆y = (u + ∆u) + (v + ∆v)
∆y = (u + ∆u) +(v + ∆v) – y
= u + ∆u + v + ∆v – u – v.
∆y = ∆u + ∆v
205
∴
x
y
∆
∆
=
x
u
∆
∆
+
x
v
∆
∆
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
,
`
.

∆
∆
+
∆
∆
→ ∆
x
v
x
u
Lt
x 0
=
x
v
Lt
x
u
Lt
x x
∆
∆
+
∆
∆
→ ∆ → ∆ 0 0
=
dx
du
+
dx
dv
∴
dx
dy
·
dx
du
+
dx
dv
Observation :
Obviously this rule can be extended to the algebraic sum of a finite
number of functions of x
Rule 2 Difference rule
If u and v are differentiable functions of x and y and y = uv then
dx
dy
·
dx
du

dx
dv
Rule 3 Product rule
( ) v
dx
dv
u uv
dx
d
+ ·
dx
du
, where u and v are functions of x
Proof:
Let y = uv where u and v are separate functions of x.
Let ∆x be a small increment in x and let ∆u, ∆v, ∆y are t he
corresponding increments in u, v, and y respectively.
Then y + ∆y = (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v)
∆y = (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v)  y
= (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v) – uv
= u. ∆v + v ∆u + ∆u ∆v
206
∴
x
y
∆
∆
= u
x
v
∆
∆
+v
x
u
∆
∆
+
x
u
∆
∆
∆v
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
u
x
v
∆
∆
+
0 → ∆x
Lt
v
x
u
∆
∆
+
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
u
∆
∆
∆v
= u
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
v
∆
∆
+ v
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
u
∆
∆
+
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
u
∆
∆
0 → ∆x
Lt
∆v
= u
dx
dv
+ v
dx
du
+
dx
du
(0)
(
Q ∆x→0, ∆v = 0)
dx
dy
= u
dx
dv
+ v
dx
du
Observation Extension of product rule
If y = uvw then
dx
dy
= uv
dx
d
(w) + wu
dx
d
(v) + wv
dx
d
(u)
Rule 4 Quotient rule
,
`
.

v
u
dx
d
=
2
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v −
, where u and v are functions of x
Proof:
Let y =
v
u
where u and v are separate functions of x. Let ∆x be a small
increment in x and ∆u, ∆v, ∆y are the corresponding increments in u,v and
y respectively.
Then y + ∆y =
v v
u u
∆ +
∆ +
∆y =
v v
u u
∆ +
∆ +
y
=
v v
u u
∆ +
∆ +

v
u
=
v) v(v
v) u(v  u) (u v
∆ +
∆ + ∆ +
207
=
v) v(v
v u  u v
∆ +
∆ ∆
x
y
∆
∆
=
v v v
x
v
u
x
u
v
∆ +
∆
∆
−
∆
∆
2
. .
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
v v v
x
v
u
x
u
v
∆ +
∆
∆
−
∆
∆
2
. .
=
0 v
u  v
2
dx
dv
dx
du
+
(Since ∆x →0, ∆v = 0)
dx
dy
=
2
. .
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v −
Rule 5 Derivative of a scalar Product of a function:
[ ] ) ( x f c
dx
d
= [ ] ) (x f
dx
d
c , where c is constant.
Proof:
Let y = c f(x)
Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding
increment in y.
Then y + ∆y = c f(x + ∆x)
∆y = cf(x + ∆x) – y
∆y = cf(x + ∆x)  c f(x)
= c(f(x + ∆x) – f(x))
x
y
∆
∆
=
( )
x
x f x x f c
∆
− ∆ + ) ( ) (
208
∴
dx
dy
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
y
∆
∆
=
0 → ∆x
Lt
x
f(x))  x) (x c(f
∆
∆ +
= c f

(x)
∴
dx
d
(cf(x)) = c f

(x)
Standard results
(i)
dx
d
( x
n
) = nx
n1
(ii)
dx
d
,
`
.

x
1
=
2
1
x
−
(iii)
dx
d
( x ) = 1
(iv)
dx
d
( x ) =
x 2
1
(v)
dx
d
( k x ) = k
(vi)
dx
d
(sinx) = cosx
(vii)
dx
d
(cosx) =  sinx
(viii)
dx
d
(tanx) = sec
2
x
(ix)
dx
d
(cosecx) =  cotx .cosecx
(x)
dx
d
(secx) = secx .tanx
(xi)
dx
d
(cotx) =  cosec
2
x
(xii)
dx
d
(e
x
) = e
x
(xiii)
dx
d
( )
b x a
e
+
= a
b x a
e
+
209
(xiv)
dx
d
(log x) =
x
1
(xv)
dx
d
[ log ( x + a )] =
a x +
1
(xvi)
dx
d
( Constant ) = 0.
Example 13
Differentiate 6x
4
– 7x
3
+ 3x
2
– x + 8 with respect to x.
Solution:
Let y = 6x
4
– 7x
3
+ 3x
2
– x + 8
dx
dy
=
dx
d
(6x
4
) –
dx
d
(7x
3
) +
dx
d
(3x
2
) –
dx
d
(x) +
dx
d
(8)
= 6
dx
d
(x
4
) –7
dx
d
(x
3
) + 3
dx
d
(x
2
) –
dx
d
(x) +
dx
d
(8)
= 6(4x
3
) – 7(3x
2
) + 3(2x) – (1) + 0
dx
dy
= 24x
3
– 21x
2
+ 6x  1
Example 14
Find the derivative of 3x
2/3
– 2 log
e
x + e
x
Solution:
Let y = 3x
2/3
– 2 log
e
x + e
x
dx
dy
= 3
dx
d
(x
2/3
) – 2
dx
d
(log
e
x) +
dx
d
(e
x
)
= 3 ( 2 / 3) x
–1 / 3
– 2 ( 1 / x ) + e
x
= 2 x
1/ 3
– 2 / x + e
x
Example 15
If y = cos x + tan x , find
dx
dy
at x =
6
ð
Solution:
y = cos x + tan x
dx
dy
=
dx
d
( cos x ) +
dx
d
( tan x )
210
=  sin x + sec
2
x
dx
dy
(at x =
6
π
) =  sin
6
π
+ (sec π/6)
2
= 
2
1
+
3
4
=
6
5
Example 16
Differentiate : cosx . logx with respect to x
Solution:
Let y = cosx . logx
dx
dy
= cosx
dx
d
(logx) + logx
dx
d
(cosx)
= cosx
x
1
+ (logx) (sinx)
=
x
x cos
 sinx logx
Example 17
Differentiate x
2
e
x
logx with respect to x
Solution:
Let y = x
2
e
x
logx
dx
dy
= x
2
e
x
dx
d
( logx ) + x
2
logx
dx
d
(e
x
) + e
x
logx
dx
d
(x
2
)
= (x
2
e
x
) (1/x) + x
2
logx (e
x
) + e
x
logx (2x)
= x e
x
+ x
2
e
x
logx + 2x e
x
logx
= x e
x
( 1 + x logx + 2 logx )
Example 18
Differentiate
1 x  x
1 x x
2
2
+
+ +
with respect to x
Solution:
Let y =
1 x  x
1 x x
2
2
+
+ +
211
dx
dy
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
) 1 (
1 1 1 1
+ −
+ − + + − + + + −
x x
x x
dx
d
x x x x
dx
d
x x
=
2 2
2 2
1) x  (x
1)  (2x 1) x (x  1) (2x 1) x (x
+
+ + + + −
=
2 2
2
1) x  (x
) x  (1 2
+
EXERCISE 7.3
1) Find from the first principles the derivative of the following functions.
(i) cosx (ii) tanx (iii) cosecx (iv) √x
2) Differentiate the following with respect to x.
(i) 3x
4
– 2x
3
+ x +8 (ii)
4
x
5

3
x
2
+
x
5
(iii)
x
e
x
x + +
3
1
(iv)
x
x x
2
2 3 − +
(v) tanx + logx (vi) x
3
e
x
(vii)
x
2 4x  3x
2 3
+
(viii) ax
n
+
n
x
b
(ix) (x
2
+ 1) (3x
2
 2) (x) (x
2
+ 2) sin x
(xi) secx tanx (xii) x
2
sinx + 2x sinx + e
x
(xiii) (x
z
 x + 1)(x
2
+ x +1) (xiv) x
n
logx
(xv) x
2
tanx + 2x cotx + 2 (xvi) √x . secx
(xvii)
x
x
e 1
e
+
(xviii)
x cos 1
x cos  1
+
(xix)
x
x
5 3
5 3
+
−
(xx)
,
`
.

,
`
.

+
−
4 3
2
2
log
x
x
e
x
(xxi)
2
1
,
`
.

+
x
x (xxii) x
2
log x
(xxiii) x tanx + cos x (xxiv)
( ) x
e
x
+ 1
212
7.3.6 Derivative of function of a function  Chain Rule.
If y is a function of u and u is a function of x , then
dx
dy
=
du
dy
dx
du
If y is a function of u , u is a function of v and v is a function
of x , then
dx
dy
=
du
dy
dv
du
dx
dv
and so on
Example 19
Differentiate with respect to x
(i)
(sinx)
(ii) e
x
Solution:
(i) y =
(sinx)
put sinx = u
y = u
du
dy
=
2
1
u
1/2
and
dx
du
= cosx
∴
dx
dy
=
du
dy
dx
du
=
2
1
u
–1 / 2
cos x
=
(sinx) 2
x cos
(ii) y = e
dx
dy
=
dx
d
(e
)
= e
dx
d
( x )
=
x 2
e
x
Example 20
Differentiate log
x  x
x x
e  e
e e +
with respect to x
x
x
x
213
Solution:
Let y = log
x  x
x x
e  e
e e +
y = log(e
x
+ e
x
) – log(e
x
 e
x
)
dx
dy
=
dx
d
{ log (e
x
+ e
x
) } 
dx
d
{ log (e
x
 e
x
) }
=
x  x
x x
e e
e e
+
−

x  x
x x
e  e
e e +
=
) e  (e ) e (e
) e (e  ) e  (e
x  x x  x
2 x x 2 x x
+
+
=
2x  2x
2x 2x 2x 2x
e  e
e  2  e  e 2  e +
=
x x
e e
2 2
4
−
−
−
Example 21
Differentiate log (logx) with respect to x
Solution:
Let y = log (logx)
dx
dy
=
dx
d
{ log (logx)}
=
x log
1
dx
d
(log x)
=
x log
1
x
1
∴
dx
dy
=
x x log
1
Example 22
Differentiate e
4x
sin 4x with respect to x
Solution:
Let y = e
4x
sin 4x
214
dx
dy
= e
4x
dx
d
( sin 4x) + sin 4x
dx
d
(e
4x
)
= e
4x
( 4 cos4x) + sin 4x (4 e
4x
)
= 4 e
4x
( cos 4x + sin 4x )
EXERCISE 7.4
Differentiate the following functions with respect to x
1) 2 2 3
2
+ − x x 2) ( 8 – 5x )
2/3
3) sin ( e
x
) 4) e
sec x
5) log sec x 6)
2
x
e
7) log ( x + 1) (x
2
+ ) 8) cos ( 3x  2)
9) log cos x
2
10) log {e
2x
2) (x / 2)  (x + }
11) e
sin x + cos x
12) e
cot x
13) log { (e
x
/ ( 1 + e
x
) } 14) log ( sin
2
x )
15)
tan x
e
16) sin x
2
17) {log ( log ( log x )}
n
18) cos
2
x
19) e
–x
log ( e
x
+ 1) 20) log { (1 + x
2
) / (1 – x
2
) }
21)
3 3
1 + + x x 22) sin ( log x )
23)
( ) x
x
log log
24) (3 x
2
+4 )
3
7.3.7 Derivative of Inverse Functions
If y = f (x) is a differentiable function of x such that the inverse
function x = f
1
(y) is defined then
dx
dy dy
dx 1
· , provided
dx
dy
≠ 0
Standard Results
(i)
dx
d
(sin
1
x) =
2
x  1
1
(ii)
dx
d
(cos
1
x) =
2
x  1
1
215
(iii)
dx
d
(tan
1
x) =
) x (1
1
2
+
(iv)
dx
d
(sec
1
x) =
1  x
1
2
x
(v)
dx
d
(cosec
1
x) =
1  x
1 
2
x
(vi)
dx
d
(cot
1
x) =
) x 1 (
1 
2
+
Example 23
Differentiate : cos
–1
( 4 x
3
 3x ) with respect to x
Solution :
Let y = cos
–1
( 4 x
3
– 3 x )
Put x = cos θ
then y = cos
–1
( 4 cos
3
θ – 3 cos θ )
= cos
–1
( cos 3θ )
y = 3θ
∴ y = 3 cos
1
x
dx
dy
=
2
1
3
x −
−
Example 24
Differentiate tan
–1
,
`
.

+
−
x
x
1
1
with respect to x
Let y = tan
–1
,
`
.

+
−
x
x
1
1
Put x = tan θ
∴ y = tan
–1
,
`
.

+
−
θ
θ
tan 1
tan 1
= tan
–1
,
`
.

+
−
θ π
ϑ π
tan 4 / tan 1
tan 4 / tan
= tan
–1
,
`
.

,
`
.

− θ
π
4
tan
216
y = θ
π
−
4
y = x
1
tan
4
−
−
π
∴
dx
dy
= 
2
1
1
x +
7.3.8 Logarithmic Differentiation
Let y = f (x ) be a function. The process of taking logarithms on both
sides and differentiating the function is called logarithmic differentiation.
Example 25
Differentiate
( )
( ) ( )
5 2
3
5 3 2
1 2
− +
+
x x
x
with respect to x
Solution:
Let y =
( )
( ) ( )
5 2
3
5 3 2
1 2
− +
+
x x
x
log y = log
( )
( ) ( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− +
+
5 2
3
5 3 2
1 2
x x
x
= 3 log (2x + 1 ) – 2 log ( x + 2 ) – 5 log ( 3x – 5 )
Differentiating with respect to x,
y
1
.
dx
dy
=
1 2
3
+ x
(2)  2
2
1
+ x
(1)  5
5 3
1
− x
. 3
y
1
.
dx
dy
=
1 2
6
+ x

2
2
+ x

5 3
15
− x
dx
dy
= y
]
]
]
−
−
+
−
+ 5 3
15
2
2
1 2
6
x x x
=
( )
( ) ( )
]
]
]
−
−
+
−
+ − +
+
5 3
15
2
2
1 2
6
5 3 2
1 2
5 2
3
x x x x x
x
Example 26
Differentiate (sin x)
cos x
with respect to x
217
Solution :
Let y = (sin x)
cos x
Taking logarithms on both sides
log y = cos x log sin x
Differentiating with respect to x
y
1
.
dx
dy
= cos x ( ) ( ) x
dx
d
x x
dx
d
cos . sin log sin log +
= cos x ( ) x x x
x
sin sin log cos .
sin
1
− +
= x x
x
x
sin log sin
sin
cos
2
−
dx
dy
= y [ ] x x x x sin log sin cos cot −
= ( ) [ ] x x x x x
x
sin log sin cos cot sin
cos
−
EXERCISE 7.5
Differentiate the following with respect to x
1) sin
–1
(3x  4x
3
) 2) tan
1
,
`
.

−
−
2
3
3 1
3
x
x x
3) cos
–1
,
`
.

+
−
2
2
1
1
x
x
4) Sin
–1
2
1
2
x
x
+
5) t an
–1
2
1
2
x
x
−
6) t an
–1
,
`
.

− +
x
x 1 1
2
7) cot
1
x x − +
2
1 8) t an
–1
2 2
x a
x
−
9) x
x
10) (sin x)
log x
11) x
x
1
sin
−
12) (3x – 4)
x2
13) e
x
x
14) x
l og x
15)
3
5 4
5 4
x
x
−
+
16) (x
2
+ 2)
5
(3x
4
– 5)
4
218
17) x
x
1
18) (tan x)
cos x
19)
x
x
,
`
.

+
1
1 20)
2
2
1
1
x
x
−
+
21)
( )
2
2 3
3 2
5
+
+
x
x x
22) a
x
23)
x
x 24) (sin x)
x
7.3.9 Derivative of Implicit Functions
The functions of the type y = f (x) are called explicit functions. The
functions of the form f ( x,y) = c where c is constant are called implicit
functions.
Example 27
If x
m
y
n
= (x + y)
m+n
, prove that
dx
dy
=
x
y
Solution:
x
m
y
n
= (x + y)
m+n
Taking logarithms,
m log x + n log y = (m + n) log (x + y)
Differentiating with respect to x,
· +
dx
dy
y
n
x
m
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
+
dx
dy
y x
n m
1
⇒ · +
dx
dy
y
n
x
m
dx
dy
y x
n m
y x
n m
.
+
+
+
+
+
⇒
dx
dy
y x
n m
dx
dy
y
n
+
+
− . =
x
m
y x
n m
−
+
+
⇒
]
]
]
+
+
−
y x
n m
y
n
dx
dy
=
x
m
y x
n m
−
+
+
⇒
( )
]
]
]
+
− − +
y x y
ny my ny nx
dx
dy
=
( ) y x x
my mx nx mx
+
− − +
⇒
]
]
]
−
y
my nx
dx
dy
=
x
my nx −
219
∴
dx
dy
=
,
`
.

−
,
`
.
 −
my nx
y
x
my nx
.
=
x
y
EXERCISE 7.6
Find
dx
dy
of the following
1) y
2
= 4ax 2) x
2
+ y
2
= 9
3) xy = c
2
4)
2
2
a
x
+
2
2
b
y
= 1
5)
2
2
a
x

2
2
b
y
= 1 6) ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0
7) x
2
– 2xy + y
2
= 16 8) x
4
+ x
2
y
2
+ y
4
= 0
9)
x
+
y
=
a
10) x
y
= y
x
11) x
2
+ y
2
+ x + y +λ = 0 12) y = cos ( x + y )
13) x
y
= e
xy
14) (cos x)
y
= ( si n y)
x
15) x
2
– xy + y
2
= 1
7.3.10 Differentiation of parametric functions
Sometimes variables x and y are given as function of another
variable called parameter. We find
dx
dy
for the parametric functions as
given below
Let x = f(t) ; y = g(t) then
dx
dy
=
dt
dx
dt
dy
÷
Example 28
If x = a ( θ θ  si nθ θ ) ; y = a ( 1  cosθ θ ) find
dx
dy
220
Solution:
θ d
dx
= a ( 1  cosθ) ;
θ d
dy
= a ( sinθ )
dx
dy
=
θ d
dy
÷
θ d
dx
=
( ) θ
θ
cos 1
sin
− a
a
=
è/2 2sin
è/2 cos è/2 2sin
2
= cot θ/2
EXERCISE 7.7
Find
dx
dy
for the following functions.
1) x = a cosθ, y = b si n θ 2) x = ct , y =
t
c
3) x = a secθ, y = b tan θ 4) 3 x = t
3
, 2y = t
2
5) x = a cos
3
θ
, y =a sin
3
θ
6) x = log t, y = sin t
7) x = e
θ
(sinθ + cos θ) ; y = e
θ
(sinθ  cos θ)
8) x = t , y = t +
t
1
9) x = cos (log t) ; y = log (cost)
10) x = 2cos
2
θ ; y = 2 si n
2
θ 11) x = at
2
, y = 2at
7.3.11 Successive Differentiation
Let y be a function of x, and its derivative
dx
dy
is in general another
function of x. Therefore
dx
dy
can also be differentiated. The derivative of
dx
dy
namely
dx
d
,
`
.

dx
dy
is called the derivative of the second order. It is
written as
2
2
dx
y d
(or) y
2
. Similarly the derivative of
2
2
dx
y d
namely
dx
d
,
`
.

2
2
dx
y d
is called the third order derivative and it is written as
3
3
dx
y d
and so on.
221
Derivatives of second and higher orders are called higher derivatives and
the process of finding them is called Successive differentiation.
Example 29
If y = e
x
log x find y
2
Solution:
y = e
x
log x
y
1
= e
x
dx
d
(log x) + log x
dx
d
(e
x
)
=
x
e
x
+ log x (e
x
)
y
1
= e
x
,
`
.

+ x
x
log
1
y
2
= e
x
dx
d
,
`
.

+ x
x
log
1
+
,
`
.

+ x
x
log
1
dx
d
(e
x
)
y
2
= e
x
x
e x
x x x
,
`
.

+ +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − log
1 1 1
2
= e
x
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ + + − x
x x x
log
1 1 1
2
= e
x
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
,
`
.
 −
x
x
x
log
1 2
2
Example 30
If x = a (t + sin t) and y = a(1 – cos t), find
2
2
dx
y d
at t =
2
π
Solution:
x = a ( t + sint ) ; y = a ( 1 – cost)
dt
dx
= a( 1 + cost) ;
dt
dy
= a sint
= 2a cos
2
t/2 ; = 2a sint/2 cost/2
dx
dy
=
dt
dy
÷
dt
dx
=
t/2 cos 2a
t/2 cos sin t/2 2a
2
= tan t/2
222
2
2
dx
y d
=
dx
d
,
`
.

dx
dy
=
2
sec
2
1
t/2
dx
dt
=
2
cos 2
1
.
2
sec
2
1
2
2
t
a
t
=
a 4
1
sec
4
t/2
,
`
.

2
2
dx
y d
at t = π/2
=
a 4
1
(secπ/4)
4
=
a 4
1
4 =
a
1
Example 31
If y = ( )
m
x x
2
1+ + , prove that ( 1 + x
2
) y
2
+ x y
1
– m
2
y = 0.
Solution:
y = ( )
m
x x
2
1+ + ,
y
1
= m ( )
1
2
1
−
+ +
m
x x
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+
+
2
1 2
2
1
x
x
= m ( )
1
2
1
−
+ +
m
x x
,
`
.

+
+ +
2
2
1
1
x
x x
=
( )
2
2
1
1
x
x x m
m
+
+ +
y
1
=
2
1 x
my
+
⇒ ( 1 + x
2
) (y
1
)
2
= m
2
y
2
Differentiating with respect to x, we get
( 1 + x
2
). 2 (y
1
) (y
2
) + (y
1
)
2
( 2x) = 2m
2
y y
1
223
Dividing both sides by 2 y
1,
we get
( 1 + x
2
) y
2
+ x y
1
= m
2
y
⇒ ( 1 + x
2
) y
2
+ x y
1
 m
2
y = 0
Example 32
Given x = t +
t
1
and y = t 
t
1
; find the value of
,
`
.

2
2
dx
y d
at the point t = 2
Solution:
x = t +
t
1
; y = t 
t
1
dt
dx
= 1 
2
1
t
;
dt
dy
= 1 +
2
1
t
=
2
2
1
t
t −
=
2
2
1
t
t +
dx
dy
=
dt
dy
÷
dt
dx
=
2
2
1
t
t +
.
1
2
2
− t
t
=
1
1
2
2
−
+
t
t
,
`
.

2
2
dx
y d
=
,
`
.

dx
dy
dx
d
=
,
`
.

−
+
1
1
2
2
t
t
dx
d
=
( ) ( )( )
( ) ¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
−
+ − −
2
2
2 2
1
2 1 2 1
t
t t t t
dx
dt
=
( )
( ) 1
1
4
2
2
2
2
−
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
−
−
t
t
t
t
=
( )
3
2
3
1
4
−
−
t
t
224
,
`
.

2
2
dx
y d
at t = 2 =
( )
( )
3
3
1 4
2 4
−
−
=
27
32 
EXERCISE 7.8
1) Find
2
2
dx
y d
, when y = ( 4x1)
2
2) If y = e
ax
, find
2
2
dx
y d
3) If y = log (x + 1), find
2
2
dx
y d
4) If x = at
2
, y = 2at fi nd y
2
.
5) Find y
2
, when x = a cosθ, y = b sin θ.
6) For the parametric equations x = a cos
3
θ , y = a sin
3
θ, find
2
2
dx
y d
7) I f y = Ae
ax
 B e
ax
prove t hat
2
2
dx
y d
= a
2
y
8) If y = x
2
logx Show that
2
2
dx
y d
= 3 + 2 log x.
9) Prove that ( 1 – x
2
) y
2
– x y
1
– y = 0, if y =
x
e
1
sin
−
10) Show that x
2
y
2
+ x y
1
+ y = 0, if y = a cos ( logx) + b sin ( logx)
11) When y = log x find
2
2
dx
y d
EXERCISE 7.9
Choose the correct answer
1)
2 → x
Lt
2
1 2
2
+
+ +
x
x x
is equal to
(a)
2
1
(b) 2 (c)
4
11
(d) 0
225
2)
2 x →
Lt
1  x x
1  x  2x
2
2
+
is equal to
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 5 (d) 2
3)
1 x →
Lt
1  x
1  x
n
m
is
(a) mn (b) m + n (c) m  n (d)
n
m
4)
∞ → x
Lt
9)  x ( x
4) (x 2)  (x +
is equal to
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 9 (d) 4
5)
∞ → x
Lt
[(1/x) + 2] is equal to
(a) ∞ (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) 2
6)
∞ → x
Lt
6 2n
n ... 3 2 1
2
+
+ + + +
is
(a) 2 (b) 6 (c)
4
1
(d)
2
1
7)
2 / x π →
Lt
x
sin x
=
(a) π (b)
2
π
(c)
π
2
(d) None of these
8) If f(x) =
6
36
2
−
−
x
x
, then f(x) is defined for all real values of x except
when x is equal to
(a) 36 (b) 6 (c) 0 (d) None of these
9) The point of discontinuity for the function
2
8 2
2
−
−
x
x
is
(a) 0 (b) 8 (c) 2 (d) 4
10) A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = a if
a x →
Lt
f(x) =
(a) f (a) (b) f (a) (c) 2 f (a) (d) f(1/a)
11) The derivative of 2 x with respect to x is
(a) x (b) 1/2 x (c) 1/ x (d) 1/4 x
226
12)
,
`
.

x dx
d 1
is
(a) log x (b) 1/x
2
(c) (1/x
2
) (d) (1/x)
13) If y = 2
x
, t hen
dx
dy
is equal to
(a) 2
x
log 2 (b) 2
x
(c) log 2
x
(d) x log 2
14) If f(x) = x
2
+ x + 1 , then f
/
(0) is
(a) 0 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 1
15)
,
`
.

3
1
x dx
d
is
(a)
4
3
x
− (b) (1/x
3
) (c) (1/x
4
) (d) (2/x
2
)
16) f(x) = cos x + 5 , then f
/
(π/2) is
(a) 5 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 0
17) If y = 5e
x
 3 log x then
dx
dy
is
(a) 5e
x
– 3x (b) 5e
x
– 3/x (c) e
x
 3/x (d) 5e
x
– 1/x
18) ( )
x
e
dx
d
log
is
(a) log x (b) e
log x
(c) 1/x (d) 1
19) If y = x sin , then
dx
dy
=
(a)
x
x
sin 2
cos
(b)
x
x
cos 2
sin
(c)
x
x
sin
cos
(d)
x
x
sin
cos
20)
dx
d
(e
4x
) =
(a) e
4x
(b) 4e
4x
(c) e
x
(d) 4e
4x1
21)
dx
d
( sin
2
x) =
(a) 2 sin x (b) sin 2x (c) 2 cos x (d) cos 2x
22.
dx
d
( log sec x) =
(a) sec x (b) 1/secx (c) tan x (d) sec x tan x
227
23) If y = 2
x
, then
dx
dy
is equal to
(a) 2
x1
(b) 2
x
log 2 (c) 2
x
log(1/2) (d) 2
x
log 4
24)
dx
d
( t an
1
2x) is
(a)
2
1
1
x +
(b)
2
4 1
2
x +
(c)
2
2
4 1
2
x
x
+
(d)
2
4 1
1
x +
25) If y =
2
ax
e , then
dx
dy
is
(a) 2axy (b) 2ax (c) 2ax
2
(d) 2ay
26)
dx
d
(1 + x
2
)
2
is
(a) 2x (1 + x
2
) (b) 4x ( 1 + x
2
) (c) x ( 1+x
2
)
3
(d) 4x
2
27) If f (x) =
x
x log
t hen f
/
( e) is
(a) 1/e (b) 1 (c) 0 (d)
2
1
e
28)
dx
d
( x logx) is
(a) log x (b) 1 (c) 1+ logx (d)
x
x log
29) If x = log sin θ ; y = log cos θ t hen
dx
dy
is
(a)  t an
2
θ (b) t an
2
θ (c) tan θ (d)  cot
2
θ
30) If y = x and z = 1/ x then
dz
dy
is
(a) x
2
(b)  x
2
(c) 1 (d)  1/x
2
31) If x = t
2
, and y = 2t then
dx
dy
is
(a) 2t (b) 1/t (c) 1 + 2t (d) 1/2t
32) If y = e
2x
t hen
2
2
dx
y d
is
(a) 2y (b) 4y (c) y (d) 0
228
33) If y = sin mx then
2
2
dx
y d
is
(a)  m
2
y (b) m
2
y (c) my (d)  my
34) If y = 3x
3
+ x
2
+ 1 t hen
2
2
dx
y d
is
(a) 18 x (b) 18 x + 1 (c) 18x + 2 (d) 3x
2
+ 1
35) If y = log sec x then
2
2
dx
y d
is
(a) sec
2
x (b) tanx (c) secx tanx (d) cos x
36) If y = e
3x
t hen
2
2
dx
y d
at x = 0 is
(a) 3 (b) 9 (c) 0 (d) 1
37) If y = x log x then y
2
is
(a) 1 (b) log x (c) 1/x (d) x
38) If y = log ( sin x ) then
2
2
dx
y d
is
(a) tanx (b) cot x (c) sec
2
x (d) cosec
2
x
39) If y = x
4
t hen y
3
is
(a) 4x
3
(b) 12x
2
(c) 0 (d) 24x
40) If y = log x then y
2
is
(a) 1/x (b)  1/x
2
(c) e
x
(d) 1
41) If y
2
= x then
dx
dy
is
(a) 1 (b) 1/2x (c) 1 / 2y (d) 2y
42) ( )
a
x
dx
d
is ( a ≠ 0)
(a) a x
a1
(b) ax (c) 0 (d) x
a1
43)
dx
d
(a
a
) where a ≠ 0 is
(a) 0 (b) a a
a1
(c) 1 (d) a log a
44)
dx
d
( log √x) is
(a) 1/ √x (b) 1 / 2x (c) 1/x (d) 1/ 2√x
229
In this second part of the calculus section we shall study about
another process of calculus called Integration. Integration has several
applications in Science and Technology as well as in other fields like
Economics and Commerce.
8.1 CONCEPT OF INTEGRATION
In chapter 7 we have dealt with the process of derivatives of functions
f(x). Generally f
/
(x) will be another function of x. In this chapter, we will
perform an operation that is the reverse process of differentiation. It is
called ‘anti differentiation’ or Integration.
If ( ) [ ] x F
dx
d
= f(x)
F(x) is called ‘the integral of f(x) and that is represented symbolically
as
F(x) = ( )
∫
x f dx
The symbol “∫ ” is the sign of integration and the above statement is
read as ‘integral of f(x) with respect to x’ or ‘integral f(x) dx’. f(x) is called
‘integrand’.
Generally ( )
∫
x f dx = F(x) + C, where C is an arbitrary constant.
( )
∫
x f dx is called indefinite integral.
8.2 INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES
Standard results
(i) ∫ ∫ x
n
dx =
C
n
x
n
+
+
+
1
1
, provided n ≠ 1
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
8
230
(ii) dx
x
n ∫
1
=
1
1
+ −
+ −
n
x
n
+ C , provided n ≠ 1
(iii)
∫
dx
x
1
= log x + C
(iv)
∫
+ a x
dx
= log (x+a) + C
(v) ∫ ∫ k.f(x) dx = k ∫ ∫ f(x)dx + C
(vi) ∫ ∫ k. dx = kx + C
(vii) ∫ ∫ e
x
dx = e
x
+ C
(viii) ∫ ∫ a
x
dx =
a
a
e
x
log
+ C
(ix) ∫ ∫ sinx dx =  cosx + C
(x) ∫ ∫ cosx dx = sinx + C
(xi) ∫ ∫ sec
2
x dx = tanx + C
(xii) ∫ ∫ secx tanx dx = secx + C
(xiii) ∫ ∫ cosec
2
x dx =  cotx + C
(xiv) ∫ ∫ cotx cosec x dx =  cosecx + C
(xv) ∫ ∫ [ f
1
(x) + f
2
(x)] dx = ∫ f
1
(x) dx + ∫ f
2
(x) dx
(xvi)
∫
−
2
1 x
dx
= sin
1
x + C
(xvii)
∫
+
2
1 x
dx
= tan
1
x + C
(xviii)
∫
−1
2
x x
dx
= sec
–1
x + C
(xix)
( )
( )
∫
x f
x f
/
dx = log f(x) + C
(xx) ∫[f(x)]
n
f '(x)dx =
( ) [ ]
1
1
+
+
n
x f
n
+ C
231
Example 1
Evaluate
dx
x
1
x
2
∫
,
`
.

−
Solution:
dx
x
x
2
1
∫
,
`
.

− =
dx
x
x
∫
,
`
.

+ −
2
2
1
2
= ∫ ∫ (x
2
 2 + x
2
) dx
= C
x
x
x
+ − −
1
2
3
3
Example 2
Evaluate
∫
+ −
x 2
x 2 x
e x
xe 2x e
dx
Solution:
∫
+ −
x
x x
e x
xe x e
2
2
2
dx = dx
e x
xe
e x
x
e x
e
x
x
x x
x
∫
,
`
.

+ −
2 2
2
2
2
= dx
x
dx
e
dx
x
x ∫ ∫ ∫
+ −
1 2 1
2
= ∫x
−2
dx 2 ∫e
x
dx + ∫
x
1
dx
=
1 2 
x
1 2
+
+
+2e
x
+ log x + c
= 
x
1
+2e
x
+ log x + c
Example 3
Evaluate dx
2 x
1 x
∫
+
+
Solution :
dx
x
x
∫
+
+
2
1
=
∫ ∫
+
−
+
+
2 2
2
x
dx
dx
x
x
(adding and substracting 1 in the numerator)
232
= ∫ ∫
+
− +
2
2
x
dx
dx x
= ∫(x+2)
2
1
dx  ∫ (x+2)
2
1
−
dx
= ( ) ( ) C x x + + − + 2
1
2
3
2 2 2
3
2
= ( )
( )
C
x
x +
]
]
]
−
+
+ 1
3
2
2 2 2
1
= ( ) ( ) C x x + − + 1 2
3
2
2
1
Example 4
Evaluate
∫
+ dx sin2x 1
Solution:
∫
+ dx x 2 sin 1 = dx x x x x
∫
+ + cos sin 2 cos sin
2 2
= ( ) dx x x
∫
+
2
cos sin
= ( )
∫
+ dx x x cos sin
= (sinx  cosx) + C
EXERCISE 8.1
Evaluate the following :
1) ( )
∫
− dx x 1 4
3
2) dx
x
x x
∫
,
`
.

− +
7
5
4
3)
∫
,
`
.

+ + + dx e
x
x x
x
5
8 2
3
4)
∫
,
`
.

+ dx
x
x
2
1
5) dx
x
x
3
1
∫
,
`
.

+ 6) ( )
∫
+ dx x ec x x
2
cos 2 tan . sec 5
7)
∫
,
`
.
 + +
dx
x
x x 1
2 5 2 7
8) dx
x
x x
∫
,
`
.
 + + 4 3
2 3
233
9) dx
x x
e
x
∫
,
`
.

−
+
1
2
3
2
10) dx
x
x
∫
,
`
.
 +
4
3
1
11) ( )( ) dx x x
∫
+ − 3 2 2 3 12) ( ) dx x x
∫
+
2
1
13) dx x x
x
∫
,
`
.

− + sin 7 cos 3
1
3
14) dx
x
x
∫
− 1
15) dx
x
x
∫
+
+
3
2
16) dx
x
x
∫
+
+
1
3
17) dx
x
x
∫
+
−
1
1
2
2
18)
∫
+
dx
x
x
2
2
1
19)
∫
− dx x 2 sin 1 20)
∫ + x
dx
cos 1
21) ( ) dx e x
x
∫
− −
−
4
22) dx
xe
x e
x
x
∫
−
23) ( )
∫
+ −
− −
dx e x x
x 2 1
24) ( ) dx x
∫
+
2
2 3
25) ( ) dx e x
x
∫
+ +
− −
7
2 2
26) dx
x
∫
− sin 1
1
8.2.1 Integration by substitution
Example 5
Evaluate
∫
+ x x
dx
Solution:
x x + = ( ) x x + 1
Put ( ) x + 1 = t
dx
x 2
1
= dt
∴
∫
+ x x
dx
=
( )
∫
+ x x
dx
1
234
= dt
t
∫
2
= 2 log t + C = 2 log ( ) C x + + 1
Example 6
Evaluate dx e
x
1
x
1
2
−
∫
Solution :
Put
x
1 −
= t
dx
x
2
1
= dt
∴ dx e
x
x
1
2
1
−
∫
= dt e
t
∫
= e
t
+ C
= C e
x
+
−1
Example 7
Evaluate
∫
dx x sec
Solution :
∫
dx x sec =
( )
dx
x x
x x x
∫
+
+
) tan (sec
tan sec sec
=
( )
dx
x x
x x x
∫
+
+
tan sec
tan sec sec
2
Put sec x + tan x = t
(sec x tan x + sec
2
x) dx = dt
∴
∫
dx x sec =
∫
t
dt
= log t + C
Hence
∫
dx x sec = log (sec x + tan x) + C
235
EXERCISE 8.2
Evaluate the following
1) ( ) dx x
∫
−
−
5
3 2 2)
( )
∫
−
2
2 3 x
dx
3) dx x
∫
+
5
3 4 4) dx e
x
∫
+3 4
5)
( )
dx
x
x
∫
−
2
3
2
1
6) ( ) ( ) dx x x x 4 1 3
3 2
− + +
∫
7) ( ) dx x x
∫
2
sin 8) dx
x
x
∫
sin
9) dx
x
x
∫
2
) (log
10) ( ) dx x x x + +
∫
2
1 2
11) dx
x
x
∫
+ 1
2
12) ( )( ) dx x x x
3
2
2 1
∫
+ +
13) dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+
5 3
3 2
2
14) dx
x
x
∫
+
6
2
4
15) dx
e e
e e
x x
x x
∫ −
−
+
−
16)
∫
x x
dx
log
17) dx
x
x
∫
) (log sec
2
18) dx
x
∫
+
3
) 1 2 (
1
19)
∫
) (log log log x x x
dx
20)
∫
−
4
2
tan x) 2 1 (
sec x
dx
21)
∫
dx x cot 22)
∫
cosec x d x
23)
( )
∫
+ x x
dx
log 1
24)
∫
+
4
2 1
1
tan
x
x x
dx
25) dx
x
x
∫
+ log 3
26)
( )
∫
+1
4
x x
dx
27) dx
x
x x
∫
tan sec
2
28) dx x
∫
+ 4 2
236
29) ( ) dx x x 2 . 1
4
2
∫
− 30) ( ) dx x x x 4 1 2
2
+ + +
∫
31) dx
x b a
x
∫
+ tan
sec
2
32)
∫
dx x tan
8.2.2 Six Important Integrals
(i)
∫
+
2 2
a x
dx
= C
a
x
a
+
,
`
.
 −1
tan
1
(ii)
∫
−
2 2
a x
dx
= C
a x
a x
a
+
,
`
.

+
−
log
2
1
(iii)
∫
−
2 2
x a
dx
= C
x a
x a
a
+
,
`
.

−
+
log
2
1
(iv)
∫
−
2 2
x a
dx
= C
a
x
+
,
`
.
 −1
sin
(v)
∫
+
2 2
a x
dx
= ( ) C a x x + + +
2 2
log
(vi)
∫
−
2 2
a x
dx
= ( ) C a x x + − +
2 2
log
In the subsequent exercises let us study the application of the above
formulae in evaluation of integrals.
Example 8
Evaluate
∫ 2
x  4
dx
Solution:
∫ 2
x  4
dx
=
∫ 2 2
x  (2)
dx
= sin
1
(
2
x
) + c
Example 9
Evaluate
∫
+
2
x 5
dx
237
Solution:
∫
+
2
5 x
dx
=
( )
∫
+
2
2
5 x
dx
= C
x
+
,
`
.

−
5
tan
5
1
1
Example 10
Evaluate
∫
−7 x
dx
2
Solution:
∫
− 7
2
x
dx
=
( )
∫
−
2
2
7 x
dx
= C
x
x
+
,
`
.

+
−
7
7
log
7 2
1
Example 11
Evaluate
∫
− 9 4x
dx
2
Solution:
∫
− 9 4
2
x
dx
=
( )
∫
−
4
9
4
2
x
dx
=
( )
∫
−
2 2
2 3
2
1
x
dx
= ( ) C x x +
,
`
.

− +
2 2
2 3 log
2
1
8.2.3 Integrals of the type
∫
+ + c bx ax
dx
2
If the denominator of the integrand is factorisable, then it can be split
into partial fractions. Otherwise the denominator of the integrand can be
written as the sum or difference of squares and then it can be integrated.
238
Example 12
Evaluate
∫
− +
2
x 6x 7
dx
Solution:
7 + 6x – x
2
= 7  (x
2
 6x)
= 7 – (x
2
– 6x + 9 – 9)
= 7 + 9 – (x – 3 )
2
= 16 – (x3)
2
∴
∫
− +
2
6 7 x x
dx
=
( ) ( )
∫
− −
2 2
3 4 x
dx
=
( )
( )
C
x
x
+
,
`
.

− −
− +
× 3 4
3 4
log
4 2
1
= C
x
x
+
,
`
.

−
+
7
1
log
8
1
Example 13
Evaluate
∫
+ + 2 3x x
dx
2
Solution:
x
2
+ 3x + 2 = (x + 1) ( x + 2 )
Let
2 3
1
2
+ + x x
=
2 1 +
+
+ x
B
x
A
⇒ 1 = A ( x +2) + B ( x + 1)
When x = 1 ; A = 1
When x = 2 ; B = 1
∴
∫
+ + 2 3
2
x x
dx
=
∫
+1 x
dx

∫
+ 2 x
dx
= log ( x+1)  log ( x+2) + C
= C
x
x
+
+
+
2
1
log
8.2.4 Integrals of the type dx
c bx ax
q px
2 ∫
+ +
+
where ax
2
+ bx + c is
not factorisable
239
To integrate a function of the form
c bx ax
q px
+ +
+
2
, we write
px + q = A
( ) c bx ax
dx
d
+ +
2
+ B
After finding the values of A and B we integrate the function, in usual
manner.
Example 14
Evaluate dx
3 x 2x
7 2x
2 ∫
+ +
+
Solution:
Let 2x + 7 = A
dx
d
( 2x
2
+ x + 3 ) + B
2x + 7 = A ( 4x + 1 ) + B
Comparing the coefficient of like powers of x , we get
4A = 2 ; A + B = 7
⇒ A = 1/2 ; B = 13 / 2
∴ dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+
3 2
7 2
2
= dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+ +
3 2
2 13 ) 1 4 ( 2 1
2
= dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+
3 2
1 4
2
1
2
+
∫
+ + 3 2 2
13
2
x x
dx
Let I
1
=
dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+
3 2
1 4
2
1
2 and I
2
=
∫
+ + 3 2 2
13
2
x x
dx
I
1
= ( ) 3 2 log
2
1
2
+ + x x + C
1
I
2
=
∫
+ + 3 2 2
13
2
x x
dx
=
( ) ( )
∫
− + + 16 1 2 3 4 1 4
13
2
x
dx
=
( )
∫
+ +
2 2
) 4 23 ( 4 1 4
13
x
dx
=
,
`
.

+
×
−
4 23
4 1
tan
23
4
4
13
1
x
+ C
2
∴ dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
+
3 2
7 2
2
= ( ) 3 2 log
2
1
2
+ + x x +
,
`
.

+
−
4 23
4 1
tan
23
13
1
x
+ C
240
8.2.5 Integrals of the type
∫
+ + c bx ax
dx
2
This type of integrals can be evaluated by expressing ax
2
+bx +c as the sum
or difference of squares.
Example 15
Evaluate
∫
− +
2
x 4x 5
dx
Solution:
5 + 4x – x
2
=  ( x
2
– 4x –5 )
=  ( x
2
– 4x + 4 – 4 – 5 )
=  [(x – 2 )
2
– 9]
= 9 – (x – 2)
2
∫
− +
2
4 5 x x
dx
=
( )
∫
− −
2
2 9 x
dx
=
( )
∫
− −
2 2
2 3 x
dx
= C
x
+
,
`
.
 −
−
3
2
sin
1
Example 16
Evaluate ∫
− + 20 16x 4x
dx
2
Solution :
4x
2
+ 16 – 20 = 4 (x
2
+ 4x – 5 )
= 4 [ x
2
+ 4x + 4 – 4 –5]
= 4 [ (x + 2)
2
– 9]
∫
− + 20 16 4
2
x x
dx
=
∫
− + ] 9 ) 2 [( 4
2
x
dx
=
( )
∫
− +
2 2
3 2
2
1
x
dx
= ( ) { ¦ C x x x + − + + + 5 4 2 log
2
1
2
241
8.2.6 Integrals of the type
∫
+ +
+
c bx ax
q px
2
dx
To integrate such a function choose A and B such that
px + q = A
dx
d
(ax
2
+ bx + c) + B
After finding the values of A and B we integrate the function in
usual manner.
Example 17
Evaluate dx
1 2x x
1 2x
2
∫
− +
+
Solution:
Let 2x+1 = A ( ) 1 2
2
− + x x
dx
d
+ B
2x + 1 = A ( 2x +2) + B
Comparing Coefficients of like terms, we get
2A = 2 ; 2A + B = 1
⇒ A = 1 ; B = 1
∴
∫
− +
+
1 2
1 2
2
x x
x
dx =
( )
dx
x x
x
∫
− +
− +
1 2
1 2 2 . 1
2
=
( )
dx
x x
x
∫
− +
+
1 2
2 2
2

∫
− + 1 2
2
x x
dx
Let I
1
=
( )
dx
x x
x
∫
− +
+
1 2
2 2
2
Put x
2
+ 2x – 1 = t
2
(2x + 2 ) dx = 2t dt
∴ I
1
=
∫
2
2
t
t
dt = 2
∫
dt
= 2t
= 2 1 2
2
− + x x + C
1
Let I
2
= 
∫
− + 1 2
2
x x
dx
242
= 
( ) ( )
∫
− +
2
2
2 1 x
dx
=  ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 log
2
− + + + x x x +C
2
∴
∫
− +
+
1 2x x
1 2x
2
dx = 2 1 2
2
− + x x  ( ) ( ) 1 2 1 log
2
− + + + x x x + C
EXERCISE 8.3
Evaluate the following integrals
1) dx
x
∫
+
2
3
1
2)
∫
+1 2
2
x
dx
3)
∫
− 4
2
x
dx
4)
∫
−
2
5 x
dx
5)
∫
−1 9
2
x
dx
6)
∫
+
2
36 25 x
dx
7)
∫
−
2
4 9 x
dx
8)
∫
+ + 3 2
2
x x
dx
9)
∫
+ + 5 6 9
2
x x
dx
10)
∫
+ + 2 4
2
x x
dx
11)
∫
+ −
2
3 x x
dx
12) dx
x x
x
∫
− +
+
5 4
1
2
13) dx
x x
x
∫
+ −
−
2 3
6 7
2
14) dx
x x
x
∫
+ −
+
3 4
2
2
15)
∫
− +
+
dx
x x
x
3 2
1 4
2
16) dx
x x
x
∫
− +
+
1 2
4 2
2
8.2.7 Integration by parts
If u and v are functions of x such that u is differentiable and v
is integrable, then
∫
dv u = uv 
∫
du v
Observation:
(i) When the integrand is a product, we try to simplify and use addition
and subtraction rule. When this is not possible we use integration
by parts.
243
(ii) While doing integration by parts we use 'ILATE' for the relative
preference of u . Here,
I → Inverse trigonometic function
L → Logarithmic function
A → Algebraic function
T → Trigonometric function
E → Exponential function
Example 18
Evaluate dx e x.
x
∫
Solution :
Let u = x , dv = e
x
dx
du = dx , v = e
x
dx e x
x
∫
. = x e
x
∫
− dx e
x
= x e
x
 e
x
+ C
= e
x
( x – 1 ) + C
Example 19
Evaluate
( )
dx
x 1
x log
2 ∫
+
Solution:
Let u = log x ; dv =
( )
2
1 x
dx
+
du =
x
1
; v =
( ) x +
−
1
1
∫
+
2
x) 1 (
x log
dx =  ( log x ) dx
x x x
1
.
1
1
1
1
∫
+
− −
,
`
.

+
= ( )
( )
dx
x x
x
x
∫
+
+
,
`
.

+
−
1
1
log
1
1
= ( ) dx
x x
x
x
∫
,
`
.

+
− +
,
`
.

+
−
1
1 1
log
1
1
(Resolving into Partial Fractions)
244
=
( )
( ) ( ) x x x
x
+ − +
+
− 1 log log log
1
1
+ C
=
( )
( )
x
x
x
x +
+
+
−
1
log log
1
1
+ C
Example 20
Evaluate
∫
dx x.sin2x
Solution:
Let u = x , sin2x dx = dv
du = dx ,
2
2 cos x −
= v
∫
dx x x 2 sin . =
2
2 cos x x −
+ dx
x
∫
2
2 cos
=
2
2 cos x x −
+
2
2 sin
.
2
1 x
=
2
2 cos x x −
+
4
2 sin x
+ C
Example 21
Evaluate dx logx x
n
∫
, n ≠ ≠ 1
Solution:
Let u = log x , dv = x
n
dx
du =
x
1
dx , v =
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
dx x x
n
log
∫
=
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
log x −
∫
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
x
1
dx
=
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
log x −
1
1
+ n
dx x
n
∫
=
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
log x −
1
1
+ n
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
+ C
=
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
,
`
.

+
−
1
1
log
n
x + C
245
EXERCISE 8.4
Evaluate the following
1) dx e x
x
∫
−
2)
∫
dx x xlog
3)
∫
dx x log 4) dx a x
x
∫
5) ( ) dx x
2
log
∫
6) dx
x
x
∫ 2
log
7)
∫
dx x x 2 cos 8)
∫
dx x x 3 sin
9) dx x
∫
−1
cos 10)
∫
−
dx x
1
tan
11)
∫
dx x x x tan sec 12) dx e x
x
∫
2
8.2.8 Standard Integrals
(i) dx a x
∫
−
2 2
= ( ) C a x x
a
a x
x
+ − + − −
2 2
2
2 2
log
2 2
(ii) dx a x
∫
+
2 2
= ( ) C a x x
a
a x
x
+ + + + +
2 2
2
2 2
log
2 2
(iii) dx x a
∫
−
2 2
= C
a
x a
x a
x
+
,
`
.

+ −
−1
2
2 2
sin
2 2
Example 22
Evaluate dx x 49
2
∫
−
Solution :
dx x
∫
−
2
49 = ( ) dx x
∫
−
2 2
7
= C
x
x
x
+
,
`
.

+ −
−
7
sin
2
49
49
2
1 2
Example 23
Evaluate dx 9 16x
2
∫
+
Solution :
dx x
∫
+ 9 16
2
= dx x
∫
,
`
.

+
16
9
16
2
246
= 4
∫
,
`
.

+ dx x
2
2
4
3
= 4
( )
C x x x
x
+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
,
`
.

,
`
.

+ + +
,
`
.

+
2
2
2
2
2
4
3
log
2
4
3
4
3
2
= ( ) C x x x
x
+ + + + + 9 16 4 log
8
9
9 16
2
2 2
Example 24
Evaluate dx 16 x
2
∫
−
Solution :
dx x
∫
−16
2
= ( ) dx x
∫
−
2 2
4
= ( ) C x x x
x
+ − + − − 16 log
2
16
16
2
2 2
= ( ) C x x x
x
+ − + − − 16 log 8 16
2
2 2
EXERCISE 8.5
Evaluate the following:
1) dx x
∫
−36
2
2)
∫
− dx x
2
16
(3)
∫
+ dx x
2
25 4) dx x
∫
− 25
2
5)
∫
− dx x 5 4
2
6) dx x
∫
−16 9
2
8.3 DEFINITE INTEGRAL
The definite integral of the continuous function f(x) between the
limits x = a and x = b is defined as dx x f
b
a
∫
) ( = ( ) [ ]
b
a
x F = F (b)  F (a)
where ‘a‘ is the lower limit and ‘b’ is the upper limit and F(x) is the
integral of f(x) .
247
To evaluate the definite integral, integrate the given function as
usual . Then obtain the difference between the values by substituting
the upper limit first and then the lower limit for x.
Example 25
Evaluate ( )
∫
+ +
2
1
3
dx 1 2x 4x
Solution:
( )
∫
+ +
2
1
3
1 2 4 dx x x =
2
1
2 4
2
2
4
4
]
]
]
+ + x
x x
= ( 2
4
+ 2
2
+2) – ( 1 + 1 + 1)
= ( 16 + 4 + 2 ) – 3
= 19
Example 26
Evaluate dx
x 1
2x
3
2
2 ∫
+
Solution:
dx
x
x
∫
+
3
2
2
1
2
=
∫
10
5
t
dt
Put 1 + x
2
= t
2x dx = dt
When x = 2 ; t = 5
x= 3 ; t = 10
=
] t [log
10
5
= log 10  log 5
=
5
10
log
e
= log
e
2
Example 27
Evaluate
∫
e
1
dx xlogx
248
Solution:
In ∫ x logx dx
let u = log x dv = x dx
du =
x
1
dx v =
2
2
x
∫
dx x xlog =
2
2
x
logx −
∫
2
2
x
.
x
1
dx
=
2
2
x
logx −
∫
dx x
2
1
=
2
x
2
log x −
2
x
2
1
2
∫
e
dx x x
1
log =
e
x
x
x
1
2 2
4
log
2
]
]
]
−
=
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− −
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
−
4
1
0
4
log
2
e
e
e
=
2
e
x
2
1
−
4
e
+
4
1
=
4
1
Example 28
Evaluate dx x sin
2
ð
0
2
∫
dx x
∫
2
sin = dx
x
∫
,
`
.
 −
2
2 cos 1
=
2
x
−
4
x sin2
249
dx x
∫
2
0
2
sin
π
=
2
0
4
2 sin
2
π
]
]
]
−
x x
=
4
π
Example 29
Evaluate dx xe
0
x
2
∫
∞
−
Solution:
In dx xe
x
∫
−
2
put x
2
= t
2x dx = dt
when x = 0 ; t = 0
x = ∞ ; t = ∞
∴ dx xe
x
∫
∞
−
0
2
= dt e
t
∫
∞
−
0
2
1
=
2
1
] [
0
t
e
−
−
∞
= [ ] 1 0
2
1
+
=
2
1
EXERCISE 8.6
Evaluate the following
1) ( ) dx x x
∫
+ +
2
1
2
1 2)
∫
+
2
0
2
5
x
dx
250
3)
∫
+
1
0
2
1 x
dx
4) dx
x
∫
1
0
2
5) dx e
x
∫
3
0
3
6) dx xe
x
∫
1
0
2
7) dx
e
e
x
x
∫
+
1
0
2
1
8) dx x
∫
4
0
2
tan
π
9) dx
x
x
∫
+
1
0
4
1
10) dx
x
x
∫
+
−
1
0
2
2
1
1
11) dx x
∫
2
1
log 12) dx x
∫
+
4
0
4 2
13) dx x
∫
2
0
2
cos
π
14)
( )( )
dx
x x
x
∫
+ +
2
0
sin 2 sin 1
cos
π
15) dx x
∫
+
2
0
2 cos 1
π
16)
( )
∫
+
2
1
2
log 1
e
x x
dx
17)
∫
−
3
0
2
9 x
dx
18) dx e x
x
4
.
1
0
3
∫
8.3.1 Definite Integral as the Limit of the sum
Theorem:
Let the interval [ a, b ] be divided into n equal parts and let the
width of each part be h, so that nh = b – a ; then
[ ] ) ( . . . ) 2 ( ) ( ) (
0
nh a f h a f h a f h Lt dx x f
h
n
b
a
+ + + + + + ·
→
∞ →
∫
251
where a + h , a + 2h , a + 3h, . . . a + nh are the points of division obtained
when the interval [ a , b] is divided into n equal parts ; h being the width of
each part.
[ Proof is not required ].
Example 30
Evaluate dx x
2
1
2
∫
from the definition of an integral as the limit
of a sum.
Solution :
∫
b
a
dx x f ) ( =
[ ] ) ( ... ) 2 ( ) (
0
nh a f h a f h a f h Lt
h
n
+ + + + + +
→
∞ →
dx x
b
a
∫
2
=
{ ¦
2 2 2
0
) ( ... ) 2 ( ) ( nh a h a h a h Lt
h
n
+ + + + + +
→
∞ →
= ( ) ( ) ( ) { ¦
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0
2 ... 4 4 2 h n anh a h ah a h ah a h Lt
h
n
+ + + + + + + +
→
∞ →
= ( ) ( ) { ¦
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
... 3 2 1 ... 3 2 1 2 n h n ah na h Lt
h
n
+ + + + + + + + + +
→
∞ →
=
( )
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ + +
+
+
→
∞ →
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
6 2
1
2
2
2
0
n n n
h n n
ah na h Lt
h
n
dx x
∫
2
1
2
= ( )
,
`
.
 + +
+ + +
∞ →
2
6
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
1 .
1 1
n
n n n
n n
n
n
n
Lt
n
=
,
`
.
 + +
+
+
+
→∞
3
6
) 1 2 ( ) 1 ( 1
1
n
n n n
n
n
Lt
n
=
,
`
.

,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
+ + +
→
3
3
0
1
6
1
2
1
1
1
1 1
n
n n
n
n
Lt
n
252
=
,
`
.

,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
+ +
→
6
1
2
1
1
1
2
0
1
n n
n
Lt
n
=
6
2
2 + =
3
7
EXERCISE 8.7
Evaluate the following definite integrals as limit of sums
1)
∫
2
1
dx x 2) dx e
x
∫
1
0
3)
∫
2
1
3
dx x 4) dx x
∫
1
0
2
EXERCISE 8.8
Choose the correct answer
1) The anti derivative of = 5x
4
is
(a) x
4
(b) x
5
(c) 4x
5
+ c (d) 5x
4
2)
∫
dx 3 is
(a) 3 (b) x + C (c) 3x (d) 3x + c
3) dx
x
∫
10
is
(a)
x
1
(b)
2
1
x
− (c) 10 log x + C(d) log x + C
4)
∫
−
dx e
x
is
(a)  e
x
+ C (b) e
x
+ C (c) e
x
+ C (d) e
x
+ C
5) dx x
∫
21 is
(a) 21 x x (b) 14x x + C (c) x x + C (d) x + C
253
6) dx e
x
∫
5
is
(a) 5x + C (b) e
5x
+ C (c)
5
1
e
5x
+ C (d)
x
e
5
5
1
7)
∫
dx ax sin is
(a) C ax
a
+
−
cos
1
(b) C ax
a
+ cos
1
(c) sin ax + C (d) cos ax + C
8) dx x
∫
−2
is
(a) C
x
+
1
(b)  C
x
+
1
(c) C
x
+
2
1
(d)  C
x
+
2
1
9) dx
x
∫
2
1
is
(a) log x + C (b) x log
2
1
(c) log x + C (d) x log
2
1
+ C
10) dx e
x
∫
+4
is
(a) e
x
+ C (b) e
x+4
+ C (c)
4
4 + x
e
+ C (d) e
4x
+ C
11) dx x
∫
2
sec 2 is
(a) 2 tan x + C (b) sec
2
x tan x + C (c) tan
2
x + C (d) tan x + C
12) dx
x x −
∫
3 . 2 is equal to
(a) C x + log
3
2
(b)
( )
3
2
log
3
2
e
x
+ C
(c)
( )
3
2
log
3
2
x
x
(d) log
x
,
`
.

3
2
13) dx
x
∫
+1
2
is equal to
(a) 2 log (x + 1 ) + C (b) 2 log (x + 1)+c
(c) 4 log (x + 1) + C (d) log (x + 1) + C
254
14) ( ) dx x
8
1
∫
+ is equal to
(a)
( )
C
x
+
+
9
1
9
( b)
( )
C
x
+
+
7
1
7
(c) (x+1)
8
+C (d) (x+1)
4
+ C
15) dx
x
x
∫
+1
4
4
3
is equal to
(c) log ( x
4
+ 1 ) + C (d) None of these
16)
∫
dx x ec cos is equal to
(a) log (tan x/2) + C (b) log cosec x + C
(c) log tan x + C (d) log ( cosec x + tanx )
17) dx
x
x
∫
+
5
4
1
is equal to
(a) log ( 1 + x
5
) (b) log ( 1 + x
4
) + C
(c) log ( 1 + x
5
) + C (d)
5
1
log ( 1 + x
5
) + C
18)
∫
+
2 2
a x
dx
is equal to
(a)
a
x
1
tan
−
+ C (b)
a
1
a
x
1
tan
−
+ C
(c)
x
a
1
tan
−
+ C (d)
a
x
a
1
sin
1
−
+ C
19) [ ] dx x f x f e
x
) ( ) (
/
+
∫
is equal to
(c) e
x
+ C (d) e
x
+ C
20) ( ) dx x x e
x
cos sin +
∫
is equal to
(a) e
x
cosx + c (b) e
x
sinx cosx + C
(c) e
x
+ C cosx (d) e
x
sinx + C
21)
∫
+
2
4 1 x
dx
is equal to
(a) x 2 tan
2
1
1 −
+ C (b) x
1
tan
2
1
−
+ C
(c) ( ) c x +
−1
tan
2
1
(d) tan
1
(2x) + C
255
22) ( ) dx x
3
3 2
∫
+ is equal to
(a)
( )
4
3 2
4
+ x
+ C (b)
( )
8
3 2
3
+ x
+ C
(c)
( )
8
3 2
4
+ x
+ C (d)
( )
16
3 2
2
+ x
+ C
23) The value of dx
x
∫
2
1
1
is
(a) log 2 (b) 0 (c) log 3 (d) 2 log 2
24) The value of
∫
−
1
1
2
dx x is
(a)
3
1
(b)
3
1
− (c)
3
2
− (d)
3
2
25) The val ue of
∫
−
0
1
4
x dx is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c)
5
1
(d)
5
1
−
26) The value of ( )
∫
+
1
0
2
1 x dx is
(a)
3
4
(b)
3
2
(c)
3
1
(d)
3
4
−
27) The value of dx
x
x
∫
+
1
0
2
1
is
(a) log 2 (b) 2 log 2 (c) log
2
1
(d) log 2
28) The value of dx x x
∫
4
1
is
(a)
5
62
(b)
5
32
(c)
4
15
(d)
5
31
256
29) The value of
∫
3
0
tan
π
dx x is
(a) log
2
1
(b) log 2 (c) 2 log 2 (d) log 2
30) The value of
∫
π
0
sin dx x is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) 2
31) The value of
∫
2
0
cos
π
dx x is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 2
32) The val ue of
∫
∞ −
+
0
1
x
x
e
e
dx is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 log
2
1
(d) log 2
33) The value of
∫
∞
−
0
dx e
x
is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) ∞ (d) 1
34) The value of
∫
−
4
0
2
16 x
dx
is
(a)
4
π
(b)
3
π
(c)
6
π
(d)
2
π
35) The value of
∫
−
+
1
1
2
1 x
dx
is
(a)
2
π
(b)
4
π
(c)
4
π
− (d)π
257
STOCKS, SHARES AND
DEBENTURES 9
When the capital for a business is very large, a Joint Stock Company
is floated to mobilize the capital. Those who take the initiative to start a
joint stock company are called the promoters of the company. The company
may raise funds for its requirements through the issue of stocks, shares and
debentures. The value notified on their certificates is called Face Value or
Nominal Value or Par Value.
9.1 BASIC CONCEPTS
9.1.1 Shares
The total capital of a company may be divided into small units called
shares. For example, if the required capital of a company is Rs. 5,00,000 and
is divided into 50,000 units of Rs. 10 each, each unit is called a share of face
value Rs. 10. A share may be of any face value depending upon the capital
required and the number of shares into which it is divided. The holders of
the shares are called share holders. The shares can be purchased or sold
only in integral multiples.
9.1.2 Stocks
The shares may be fully paid or partly paid. A company may
consolidate and convert a number of its fully paid up shares to form a single
stock. Stock being one lump amount can be purchased or sold even in
fractional parts.
9.1.3. Debentures
The term Debenture is derived from the Latin word ‘debere’ which
means ‘to owe a debt’. A debenture is a loan borrowed by a company from
the public with a guarantee to pay a certain percentage of interest at stated
intervals and to repay the loan at the end of a fixed period.
9.1.4 Dividend
The profit of the company distributed among the share holders is
called Dividend. Each share holder gets dividend proportionate to the face
value of the shares held. Dividend is usually expressed as a percentage.
258
9.1.5 Stock Exchange
Stocks, shares and debentures are traded in the Stock Exchanges (or
Stock Markets). The price at which they are available there is called Market
Value or Market Price. They are said to be quoted at premium or at discount
or at par according as their market value is above or below or equal to their
face value.
9.1.6 Yield or Return
Suppose a person invests Rs. 100 in the stock market for the purchase
of a stock. The consequent annual income he gets from the company is
called yield or return. It is usually expressed as a percentage.
9.1.7 Brokerage
The purchase or sale of stocks, shares and debentures is done
through agents called Stock Brokers. The charge for their service is called
brokerage. It is based on the face value and is usually expressed as a
percentage. Both the buyer and seller pay the brokerage.
When stock is purchased, brokerage is added to cost price. When
stock is sold, brokerage is subtracted from the selling price.
9.1.8 Types of Shares
There are essentially two types of shares
(i) Preference shares
(ii) Equity shares (ordinary shares)
Preference share holders have the following preferential rights
(i) The right to get a fixed rate of dividend before the payment of
dividend to the equity holders.
(ii) The right to get back their capital before the equity holders in
case of winding up of the company.
9.1.9 Technical Brevity of Quotation
By a ‘15% stock at 120’ we mean a stock of face value Rs. 100,
market value Rs. 120 and dividend 15%
259
SHARES
1. Share money forms a part of the
capital of the comapny. The
share hol ders are part
proprietors of the comapny.
2. Share holders get dividend only
out of profits and in case of
insufficient or no profits they
get nothing.
3. Share holders are paid after the
debenture holders are paid their
due first.
4. The di vi dend on shar es
depends upon the profit of the
company.
5. Shares are not to be paid back
by the company
6. In case the company is wound
up, the share holders may lose
a part or full of their capital
7. Invest ment i n shares i s
speculative and has an element
of risk associated with it.
8. Share holders have a right to
attend and vote at the meetings
of the share holders.
DEBENTURES
1. Debent ures are mere debt s.
Debent ur e hol der s ar e j ust
creditors.
2. Debent ur e hol der s bei ng
cr edi t or s get guar ant eed
interest, as agreed, whether the
company makes profit or not.
3. Debenture holders have to be
paid first their interest due.
4. The interest on debentures is
very well fixed at the time of
issue itself.
5. Debent ures have t o be pai d
back at the end of a fixed period.
6. The debent ur e hol der s
i nvari abl y get back t hei r
investment.
7. The risk is very minimal.
8. Debent ure hol ders have no
such rights.
9.1.10 Distinction Between Shares and Debentures
The fol l owi ng are t he mai n di fferences bet ween shares and
debentures.
260
We shall now take up the study of the mathematical aspects concerning
the purchase and sale of stocks, shares and debentures by the following
examples.
Example 1
Find the yearly income on 120 shares of 7% stock of face value
Rs. 100
Solution:
Face Value (Rs.) Yearly income (Rs.)
100 7
120 x 100 ?
Yearly income =
100
100 x 120
x 7
= Rs. 840
Example 2
Find the amount of 8% stock that will give an annual income of
Rs. 80.
Solution:
Income (Rs.) Stock (Rs.)
8 100
80 ?
Stock =
8
80
x 100
= Rs. 1,000
Example 3
Find the number of shares which will give an annual income of
Rs. 360 from 6% stock of face value Rs. 100.
Solution:
Income (Rs.) Stock (Rs.)
6 100
360 ?
261
Stock =
6
360
x 100 = Rs. 6,000
∴ Number of shares =
100
6000
= 60.
Example 4
Find the rate of dividend which gives an annual income of Rs. 1,200
for 150 shares of face value Rs. 100.
Solution:
Stock (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
150 x 100 1200
100 ?
Income =
100 x 150
100
x 1200
= Rs. 8
Rate of dividend = 8%
Example 5
Find how much 7% stock at 70 can be bought for Rs. 8,400.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Stock (Rs.)
70 100
8400 ?
Stock =
70
8,400
x 100
= Rs. 12,000
Example 6
A person buys a stock for Rs. 9,000 at 10% discount. If the rate of
dividend is 20% find his income.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
90 20
9000 ?
262
Income =
90
9,000
x 20
= Rs. 2,000
Example 7
Find the purchase price of Rs. 9,300, 8
4
3
% stock at 4% discount.
Solution:
Stock (Rs.) Purcahse Price (Rs.)
100 (1004) = 96
9300 ?
Purchase Price =
100
9,300
x 96
= Rs. 8,928
Example 8
What should be the price of a 9% stock if money is worth 8%
Solution:
Income (Rs.) Purchase Price (Rs.)
8 100
9 ?
Purchase Price =
8
9
x 100
= Rs. 112.50
Example 9
Sharala bought shares of face value Rs.100 of a 6% stock for Rs.
7,200. If she got an income of Rs. 540, find the purchase value of each
share of the stock.
Solution:
Income (Rs.) Purchase Price (Rs.)
540 7200
6 ?
Purchase Price =
540
6
x 7200
= Rs. 80
263
Example 10
Find the yield on 20% stock at 80.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
80 20
100 ?
Yield =
80
100
x 20
= 25%
Example 11
Find the yield on 20% stock at 25% discount.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
(10025) = 75 20
100 ?
Yield =
75
100
x 20
= 26
3
2
%
Example 12
Find the yield on 20% stock at 20% premium.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
120 20
100 ?
Yield =
120
100
x 20
= 16
3
2
%
Example 13
Find the yield on 10% stock of face value Rs. 15 quoted at Rs. 10
264
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Face value (Rs.)
10 15
100 ?
Face Value =
10
100
x 15
= Rs. 150
Now,
Face value (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
100 10
150 ?
Yield =
100
150
x 10
= 15%
Example 14
Which is better investment : 7% stock at 80 or 9% stock at 96?
Solution:
Consider an imaginary investment of Rs. (80 x 96) in each stock.
7% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
80 7
80 x 96 ?
Income =
80
96 x 80
x 7
= Rs. 672
9% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
96 9
80 x 96 ?
Income =
96
96 x 80
x 9
= Rs. 720
265
For the same investment, 9% stock fetches more annual income than
7% stock.
∴ 9% stock at 96 is better.
Example 15
Which is better investment : 20% stock at 140 or 10% stock at 70?
Solution:
Consider an imaginary investment of Rs. (140 x 70) in each stock.
20% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
140 20
140 x 70 ?
Income =
140
70 x 140
x 20
= Rs. 1,400
10% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
70 10
140 x 70 ?
Income =
70
70 x 140
x 10
= Rs. 1,400
For the same investment, both stocks fetch the same income
∴ They are equivalent stocks.
Example 16
A man bought 6% stock of Rs. 12,000 at 92 and sold it when the
price rose to 96. Find his gain.
Solution:
Stock (Rs.) Gain (Rs.)
100 (9692) = 4
12000 ?
Gain =
100
12000
x 4
= Rs. 480
266
Example 17
How much would a person lose by selling Rs. 4,250 stock at 87 if he
had bought it at 105?
Solution:
Stock (Rs.) Loss (Rs.)
100 (10587) = 18
4250 ?
Loss =
100
4250
x 18
= Rs. 765
Example 18
Find the brokerage paid by Ram on his sale of Rs. 400 shares of face
value Rs. 25 at
2
1
% brokerage.
Solution:
Face Value (Rs.) Brokerage (Rs.)
100
2
1
400 x 25 ?
Brokerage=
100
25 x 400
x
2
1
= Rs. 50
Example 19
Shiva paid Rs. 105 to a broker for buying 70 shares of face value
Rs. 100. Find the rate of brokerage.
Solution:
Face Value (Rs.) Brokerage (Rs.)
70 x 100 105
100 ?
Rate of Brokerage =
100 x 70
100
x 105
= 1
2
1
%
267
Example 20
A person buys a stock of face value Rs. 5,000 at a discount of 9
2
1
%,
paying brokerage at
2
1
%. Find the purchase price of the stock.
Solution:
Face Value (Rs.) Purchase Price (Rs.)
100 (1009
2
1
+
2
1
) = 91
5000 ?
Purchase Price =
100
5000
x 91
= Rs. 4,550
Example 21
A person sells a stock at a premium of 44%. The brokerage paid is
2%. If the face value of the stock is Rs. 20,000, what is the sale proceeds?
Solution:
Face Value (Rs.) Sale Proceeds (Rs.)
100 (100+442) = 142
20,000 ?
Sale Proceeds =
100
20000
x 142
= Rs. 28,400
Example 22
A person buys a 15% stock for Rs. 7,500 at a premium of 18%.
Find the face value of the stock purchased and the dividend, brokerage
being 2%.
Solution:
Purchase Price (Rs.) Face Value (Rs.)
(100+18+2) = 120 100
7,500 ?
Face Value =
120
7500
x 100
= Rs. 6,250
268
Also
Face value (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
100 15
6,250 ?
Dividend =
100
6250
x 15
= Rs. 937.50
Example 23
Ram bought a 9% stock for Rs. 5,400 at a discount of 11%. If he
paid 1% brokerage, find the percentage of his income.
Solution:
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
(10011+1) = 90 9
100 ?
Income =
90
100
x 9
= 10%
Example 24
Find the investment requierd to get an income of Rs. 1938 from
9
2
1
% stock at 90. (Brokerage 1%)
Solution:
9
2
1
(90+1) = 91
1938 ?
Investment =
2
1
9
1938
x 91
=
2
19
1938
x 91
= 1938 x
19
2
x 91
= Rs. 18,564
269
Example 25
Kamal sold Rs. 9,000 worth 7% stock at 80 and invested the proceeds
in 15% stock at 120. Find the change in his income.
Solution:
7% Stock
Stock (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
100 7
9000 ?
Income =
100
9000
x 7
= Rs. 630  (1)
Also
Stock (Rs.) Sale Proceeds (Rs.)
100 80
9000 ?
Sale Proceeds =
100
9000
x 80
= Rs. 7,200
15% Srock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
120 15
7,200 ?
Income =
120
7200
x 15
= Rs. 900  (2)
comparing (1) and (2), we conclude that the change in income
(increase).
= Rs. 270
Example 26
A person sells a 20% stock of face value Rs. 5,000 at a premium of
62%. With the money obtained he buys a 15% stock at a discount of 22%
What is the change in his income. (Brokerage 2%)
270
Solution:
20% Stock
Face Value (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
100 20
5,000 ?
Income =
100
5000
x 20
= Rs. 1,000  (1)
Also,
Face Value (Rs.) Sale Proceeds (Rs.)
100 (1622) = 160
5,000 ?
Sale Proceeds =
100
5000
x 160
Rs. 8,000
15% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
(10022+2)= 80 15
8,000 ?
Income =
80
8000
x 15
Rs. 1,500  (2)
comapring (1) and (2) we conclude that the change in income
(increase) = Rs. 500.
Example 27
Equal amounts are invested in 12% stock at 89 and 8% stock at 95
(1% brokerage paid in both transactions). If 12% stock brought Rs. 120
more by way of dividend income than the other, find the amount invested in
each stock.
271
Solution:
Let the amount invested in each stock be Rs. x
12% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
(89+1) = 90 12
x ?
Income =
90
x
x 12
= Rs.
15
2x
8% Stock
Investment (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
(95+1) = 96 8
x ?
Income =
96
x
x 8
= Rs.
12
x
As per the problem,
15
2x

12
x
= 120
Multiply by the LCM of 15 and 12 ie. 60
ie. 8x  5x = 7200
ie. 3x = 7200
ie. x = Rs. 2,400
Example 28
Mrs. Prema sold Rs. 8,000 worth, 7% stock at 96 and invested the
amount realised in the shares of face value Rs. 100 of a 10% stock by
which her income increased by Rs. 80. Find the purchase price of 10%
stock.
Solution:
7% Stock
Stock (Rs.) Income (Rs.)
100 7
8,000 ?
272
Income =
100
8000
x 7
= Rs. 560
Also
Stock (Rs.) Sale Proceeds (Rs.)
100 96
8,000 ?
Sale proceeds =
100
8000
x 96
= Rs. 7,680
10% Stock
Income = Rs. (560 + 80) = Rs. 640.
Income (Rs.) Purchase Price (Rs.)
640 7680
10 ?
Purchase Price =
640
10
x 7680
= Rs. 120
Example 29
A company has a total capital of Rs. 5,00,000 divided into 1000
preference shares of 6% dividend with par value of Rs. 100 each and 4,000
ordinary shares of par value of Rs. 100 each. The company declares an
annual dividend of Rs. 40,000. Find the dividend received by Mr. Gopal
having 100 preference shares and 200 ordinary shares.
Solution :
Preference Shares = Rs. (1,000 x 100)
= Rs. 1,00,000
Ordinary Shares = Rs. (4,000 x 100)
= Rs. 4,00,000
Total dividend = Rs. 40,000
273
Dividend to preference shares
Shares (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
100 6
1,00,000 ?
Dividend = Rs. 6,000
Dividend to ordinary shares
= Rs. (40,000  6,000)
= Rs. 34,000
Gopal’s Income from preference shares
Share (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
1,00,000 6,000
100 x 100 ?
Dividend =
100000
100 x 100
x 6,000
= Rs. 600
Gopal’s income from ordinary shares
Share (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
4,00,000 34,000
200 x 100 ?
Dividend =
400000
100 x 200
x 34,000
= Rs. 1,700
Total Income received by Gopal
= Rs. (600 + 1700)
= Rs. 2,300
Example 30
The capital of a company is made up of 50,000 preference shares
with a dividend of 16% and 25,000 ordinary shares. The par value of each
of preference and ordinary shares is Rs. 10. The company had a total
profit of Rs. 1,60,000. If Rs. 20,000 were kept in reserve and Rs. 10,000
in depreciation fund, what percent of dividend is paid to the ordinary share
holders.
274
Solution:
Preference Shares = Rs. (50000 x 10)
= Rs. 5,00,000
Ordinary Shares = Rs. (25,000 x 10)
= Rs. 2,50,000
Total dividend = Rs. (1,60,000  20,000  10,000)
= Rs. 1,30,000
Dividend to Preference Shares
Shares (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
100 16
5,00,000 ?
Dividend =
100
500000
x 16
= Rs. 80,000
Dividend to ordinary shares
= Rs. (1,30,000  80,000)
= Rs. 50,000
Now for ordinary shares,
Share (Rs.) Dividend (Rs.)
2,50,000 50,000
100 ?
Dividend =
250000
100
x 50,000
= 20%
9.2 EFFECTIVE RATE OF RETURN ON DEBENTURES
WITH NOMINAL RATE
When the interest for a debenture is paid more than once in a year
the debenture is said to have a nominal rate. We can find the corresponding
effective rate using the formula.
E =
M
F
( ) [ ] 1 1
k
k
− +
i
275
where
E = Effective rate of return
F = Face value of the debenture
M = Corresponding market value of the debenture
i = nominal rate on unit sum per year
k = the number of times the nominal rate is paid in a year.
Example 31
Find the effective rate of return on 15% debentures of face value
Rs. 100 issued at a premium of 2% interest being paid quarterly.
Solution :
E =
M
F
( ) [ ] 1 1
k
k
− +
i
=
102
100
( ) [ ] 1 1
4
4
15 . 0
− +
=
102
100
( ) [ ] 1 0375 . 0 1
4
− +
=
102
100
( ) [ ] 1 0375 . 1
4
−
=
102
100
[1.1601]
=
102
100
[0.160]
= 0. 1569 = 15.69%
Example 32
Find the effective rate of return on 16% Water Board bonds of face
value Rs. 1,000 offered at Rs. 990, interest being paid half yearly.
Solution :
E =
M
F
( ) [ ] 1 1
k
k
− +
i
=
990
1000
( ) [ ] 1 1
2
2
16 . 0
− +
Logarithmic Calculation
log 1.0375 = 0.0161
4 x

0.0644
antilog 0.0644
= 1.160
log 100 = 2.0000
log 0.160 = 1 .2041 +

1.2041
log 102 = 2.0086 

1 .1955
antilog 1 .1955
= 0.1569
276
=
99
100
( ) [ ] 1 08 . 0 1
2
− +
=
99
100
( ) [ ] 1 08 . 1
2
−
=
99
100
[1.166]
=
99
100
[0.166]
= 0.1677
= 16.77 %
EXERCISE 9.1
1) Find the yearly income on 300 shares of 10% stock of face value Rs. 25.
2) Find the amount of 9% stock which will give an annual income of Rs. 90.
3) Find the number of shares which will give an annual income of Rs. 900 from
9% stock of face value of Rs. 100.
4) Find how much of a 9% stock can be bought for Rs. 6,480 at 90.
5) Determine the annual income realised by investing Rs. 22,400 a t 7
2
1
%
stock at 112.
6) Find the purchase price of a Rs. 9,000, 8% stock at 4% premium.
7) Find the percentage income on an investment in 8% stock at 120.
8) Krishna invested in 12% stock at 80. Find the rate of return.
9) Find the yield on 15% stock at 120.
10) Find the yield on 18% stock at 10% discount.
11) Find the yield on 8% stock at 4% premium.
12) Which is better investment, 6% stock at 120 or 5% stock at 95?
Logarithmic Calculation
log 1.08 = 0.0334
2 x

0.0668
antilog 0.0668
= 1.166
log 100 = 2.0000
log 0.166 = 1 .2201 +

1.2201
log 99 = 1.9956 

1 .2245
antilog 1 .2245
= 0.1677
277
13) Which is better investment, 18% debentures at 10% premium or 12%
debentures at 4% discount?
14) Find the yield on 12% debenture of face value Rs. 70 quoted at a discount
of 10%
15) How much money should a person invest in 18%, Rs. 100 debentures
available at 90 to earn an income of Rs. 8,100 annually.
16) A person bought shares of face value Rs. 100 of 10% stock by investing Rs.
8,000 in the market. He gets an income of Rs. 500. Find the purchase price
of each share bought.
17) Mr. Sharma bought a 5% st ock for Rs. 3, 900. If he get s an annual
income of Rs 150, find the purchase price of the stock.
18) How much would a person lose by selling Rs. 4,500 stock at 90 if he had
bought it for 105.
19) Find the brokerage paid by Mr. Ganesh on his sale of 350 shares of face
val ue Rs. 100 at 1
2
1
% brokerage.
20) Mr. Ramesh bought 500 shares of par value Rs. 10. If he paid Rs. 100 as
brokerage, find the rate of brokerage.
21) How much of 8% stock at a premium of 9% can be purchased with Rs. 6050
if brokerage is 1%
22) A person buys a 10% stock for Rs.1035 at a premium of 14%. Find the face
value and the dividend, brokerage being 1%.
23) Mr. James sells 20% stock of face value Rs. 10,000 at 102. With the
proceeds he buys a 15% stock at 12% discount. Find the change in his
income. (Brokerage being 2%)
24) Mrs. Kamini sold Rs. 9,000 worth 7% stock at 80 and invested the sale
proceeds in 15% stock by which her income increased by Rs. 270. Find the
purchase price of 15% stock.
25) Mr. Bhaskar invests Rs. 34,000 partly in 8% stock at 80 and the remaining
in 7
2
1
% stock at 90. If his annual income be Rs. 3,000, how much stock
of each kind does he hold?
278
26) A company’s total capital of Rs. 3,00,000 consists of 1000 preferential
shares of 10% stock and remaining equity stock. In a year the company
decided to distribute Rs. 20,000 as dividend. Find the rate of dividend for
equity stock if all the shares have a face value of Rs. 100.
27) A 16% debenture is issued at a discount of 5%. If the interest is paid half
yearly, find the effective rate of return.
EXERCISE 9.2
Choose the correct answer
1) A stock of face value 100 is traded at a premium. Then its market price
may be
(a) 90 (b) 120 (c) 100 (d)none of these
2) A share of face value 100 is traded at 110. If 1% brokerage is to be paid then
the purchase price of the share is
(a) 109 (b) 111 (c) 100 (d)none of these
3) A share of face value 100 is traded at 110. If 1% brokerage is to be paid then
the sale proceeds of the share is
(a) 109 (b) 111 (c) 100 (d)none of these
4) The calculation of dividend is based on
(a) Face value (b) Market Value (c) Capital (d)none of these
5) Rs. 8, 100 is invested to purchase a stock at 108. The amount of stock
purchased is.
(a) Rs. 7,500 (b) Rs. 7,000 (c) Rs. 7,300 (d) Rs. 7,800
6) The investment required to buy a stock of Rs. 5,000 at 102 is
(a) Rs. 6,000 (b) Rs. 5,300 (c) Rs. 5,200 (d) Rs. 5,100
7) The sale proceeds on the sale of a stock of Rs. 10,000 at a permium of
10% is
(a) Rs. 12,000 (b) Rs. 11,000
(c) Rs. 6,000 (d) Rs. 12,500
8) The yield on 9% stock at 90 is
(a) 10% (b) 9% (c) 6% (d) 8%
9) The yield on 14% debenture of face value Rs. 200 quoted at par is
(a) 14% (b) 15% (c) 7% (d) 28%
279
10) By investing Rs. 8,000 in the Stock Market for the purchase of the shares
of face value Rs. 100 of a company, Mr. Ram gets an income of Rs. 200, the
dividend being 10%. Then the market value of each share is
(a) Rs. 280 (b) Rs. 250 (c) Rs. 260 (d) Rs. 400
11) The yield from 9% stock at 90 is
(a) 6% (b) 10% (c) 6.75% (d) 6.5%
12) If 3% stock yields 4%, then the market price of the stock is
(a) Rs. 75 (b) Rs. 133 (c) Rs. 80 (d) Rs. 120
280
STATISTICS
10
10.1 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY
“An average is a value which is typical or representative of a set of
data”  Murray R.Speiegel
Measures of central tendency which are also known as averages,
gives a single value which represents the entire set of data. The set of data
may have equal or unequal values.
Measures of central tendency are also known as “Measures of
Location”.
It is generally observed that the observations (data) on a variable
tend to cluster around some central value. For example, in the data on heights
(in cms) of students, majority of the values may be around 160 cm. This
tendency of clustering around some central value is called as central
tendency. A measure of central tendency tries to estimate this central value.
Various measures of Averages are
(i) Arithmetic Mean
(ii) Median
(iii) Mode
(iv) Geometric Mean
(v) Harmonic Mean
Averages are important in statistics Dr.A.L.Bowley highlighted the
importance of averages in statistics as saying “Statistics may rightly be
called the Science of Averages”.
Recall : Raw Data
For individual observations x
1
, x
2
,... x
n
(i) Mean = x =
n
x Σ
281
(ii) Median = Middle value if ‘n’ is odd
= Average of the two middle values if ‘n’ even
(iii) Mode = Most frequent value
Example 1
Find Mean, Median and Mode for the following data
3, 6, 7, 6, 2, 3, 5, 7, 6, 1, 6, 4, 10, 6
Solution:
Mean = x=
n
x Σ
=
14
6 10 4 .... 7 6 3 + + + + + +
= 5.14
Median :
Arrange the above values in ascending (descending) order
1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 10
Here n = 14, which is even
∴ Median= Average two Middle values
= 6
Mode = 6 (
Q
the values 6 occur five times in the above set of
observation)
Grouped data (discrete)
For the set of values (observation) x
1
, x
2
, ... x
n
with corresponding
frequences f
1
, f
2
,.....f
n
(i) Mean = x=
N
fx Σ
, where N = Σf
(ii) Median = the value of x, corresponding to the cumulative frequency
just greater than
2
N
(iii) Mode = the value of x, corresponding to a maximum frequency.
Example 2
Obtain Mean, Median, Mode for the following data
Value (x) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Frequency (f) 8 10 11 15 21 25
282
Solution:
x 0 1 2 3 4 5
f 8 10 11 15 21 25 N = Σf = 90
fx 0 10 22 48 80 125 Σfx = 285
cf 8 18 29 44 65 90
∴ Mean =
N
fx Σ
= 3.17
Median :
N = Σf = 90
2
N
=
2
90
= 45
the cumulative frequency just greater than
2
N
= 45 is 65.
∴ The value of x corresponding to c.f. 65 is 4.
∴ Median = 4
Mode :
Here the maximum frequency is 25. The value of x, which
corresponding to the maximum frequency (25) is 5.
∴ Mode = 5
10.1.1 Arithmetic Mean for a continuous distribution
The formula to calculate arithmetic mean under this type is
x = A+( ) c x
N
fd Σ
where A = arbitrary value (may or may not chosen from the mid
points of classintervals.
d =
c
A  x
is deviations of each mid values.
c = magnitude or length of the class interval.
N = Σf = total frequency
Example 3
Calculate Arithmetic mean for the following
Marks 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 7080
No.of Students 5 8 12 15 6 4
283
Solution:
Marks No. of Mid value d =
c
A  x
fd
Students x A=55, c=10
2030 5 25 3 15
3040 8 35 2 16
4050 12 45 1 12
5060 15 55 0 0
6070 6 65 1 6
7080 4 75 2 8
N = Σ Σf = 50 Σ Σfd = 29
∴ Arithmetic mean,
x = A+( ) c x
N
fd Σ
= 55 + ( ) 10 x
50
29
= 49.2
Example 4
Calculate the Arithmetic mean for the following
Wages in Rs. : 100119 120139 140159 160179 180199
No.of Workers : 18 21 13 5 3
Solution:
Wages No. of workers Mid value d =
c
A  x
fd
f x A=149.5, c=20
100119 18 109.5 2 36
120139 21 129.5 1 21
140159 13 149.5 0 0
160179 5 169.5 1 5
180199 3 189.5 2 6
N = Σ Σf = 60 Σ Σfd = 46
284
x = A+( ) c x
N
fd Σ
= 149.5 + ( ) 20 x
60
46
= 134.17
10.1.2 Median for continuous frequency distribution
In case of continuous frequency distribution, Median is obtained by
the following formula.
Median = l +
−
c x
f
m
2
N
where l = lower limit of the Median class.
m = c.f. of the preceding (previous)
Median class
f = frequency of the Median class
c = magni t ude or l engt h of t he cl ass i nt erval
corresponding to Median class.
N = Σf = total frequency.
Example 5
Find the Median wage of the following distribution
Wages (in Rs.) : 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070
No.of labourers: 3 5 20 10 5
Solution :
Wages No. of labourers Cumulative frequency
f c.f.
2030 3 3
3040 5 8
4050 20 28
5060 10 38
6070 5 43
N = Σ Σf = 43
285
Here
2
N
=
2
43
= 21.5
cumul at i ve frequency j ust great er t han 21. 5 i s 28 and t he
corresponding median class is 4050
⇒ l = 40, m = 8, f = 20, c = 10
∴ Median= l + ( ) c x
f
m 
2
N
= 40 + ( ) 10 x
20
21.58
= Rs. 46.75
Example 6
Calculate the Median weight of persons in an office from the
following data.
Weight (in kgs.) : 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274
No.of Persons : 20 113 138 130 19
Solution:
Weight No. of persons c.f.
6062 20 20
6365 113 133
6668 138 271
6971 130 401
7274 19 420
N=Σ Σf = 420
Here
2
N
=
2
420
=210
The cumulative frequency (c.f.) just greater than
2
N
= 210 is 271 and
the corresponding Median class 66  68. However this should be changed
to 65.5  68.5
⇒ l = 65.5 , m = 133 , f = 138 , c = 3
286
∴ Median= l +
−
c x
f
m
2
N
= 65.5 + ( ) 3 x
138
133  210
= 67.2 kgs.
10.1.3 Mode for continous frequency distribution
In case of continuous frequency distribution, mode is obtained by
the following formula.
Mode = l +
( ) c x
) f (f  2f
f  f
2 0 1
0 1
+
where l = lower limit of the modal class.
f
1
= frequency of the modal class.
f
0
= frequency of the class just preceding the modal class.
f
2
= frequency of the class just succeeding the modal class.
c = class magnitude or the length of the class interval
corresponding to the modal class.
Observation :
Some times mode is estimated from the mean and the median. For a
symmetrical distribution, mean, median and mode coincide. If the distribution
is moderately asymmetrical the mean, median and mode obey the following
empirical relationship due to Karl Pearson.
Mean  mode = 3(mean  median)
=> mode = 3 median  2mean.
Example 7
Calculate the mode for the following data
Daily wages (in Rs.) : 5060 6070 7080 8090 90100
No. of Workers : 35 60 78 110 80
287
Solution :
The greatest frequency = 110, which occurs in the class interval
8090, so modal class interval is 8090.
∴ l = 80, f
1
= 110, f
0
= 78; f
2
= 80; c = 10.
Mode = l +
( ) c x
) f (f  2f
f  f
2 0 1
0 1
+
= 80+
( ) 10 x
80) (78  2(110)
78  110
+
= Rs. 85.16
10.1.4 Geometric Mean
(i) Geometric mean of n values is the n
th
root of the product of
t he n val ues . That i s f or t he s et of n i ndi vi dual
observations x
1
, x
2
.....x
n
their Geometric mean, denoted by
G is
n
n 3 2 1
x ... x . x . x or (x
1.
x
2
.....x
n
)
1/n
Observation:
log G = log (x
1
, x
2
..........x
n
)
1/n
=
n
1
log (x
1
, x
2
..........x
n
)
log G =
n
1
n
1 i =
Σ log x
i
⇒ log G =
n
logx Σ
∴ Geometric Mean = G = Antilog ( )
n
logx Σ
Example : 8
Find the Geometric Mean of 3, 6, 24, 48.
288
Solution :
Let x denotes the given observation.
x log x
3 0.4771
6 0.7782
24 1.3802
48 1.6812
Σ log x= 4.3167
G.M. = 11.99
(ii) In case of discrete frequency distrisbution i.e. if x
1
, x
2
....x
n
occur
f
1
, f
2
, f
n
times respectively, the Geometric Mean, G is given by
G =
( )
N
1
n 2 1
f
n
f
2
f
1
x ... x x
where N = Σf = f
1
+ f
2
+ ... +f
n
Observation:
log G =
N
1
log ( )
n 2 1
f
n
f
2
f
1
x ... x x
=
N
1
[f
1
log x
1
+ f
2
log x
2
+ ..... + f
n
log x
n
]
=
N
1
Σ f
i
log x
i
⇒ log G =
N
logx f Ó
i i
∴ G = Antilog ( )
N
logx Óf
i i
Example 9
Calculate Geometric mean for the data given below
x : 10 15 25 40 50
f : 4 6 10 7 3
289
Solution :
x f log x f logx
10 4 1.0000 4.0000
15 6 1.1761 7.0566
25 10 1.3979 13.9790
40 7 1.6021 11.2147
50 3 1.6990 5.0970
N = Σ Σf = 30 Σ Σf logx = 41.3473
∴ G = Antilog ( )
N
logx Óf
= Antilog ( )
30
41.3473
= Antilog (1.3782)
= 23.89
(iii) In the case of continuous frequency distribution,
∴ G = Antilog ( )
N
logx Óf
where N = Σf and x being the midvalues of the class intervals
Example 10
Compute the Geometric mean of the following data
Marks : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050
No. of students : 5 7 15 25 8
Solution :
Marks No. of Students Mid value log x f log x
f x
0 – 10 5 5 0.6990 3.4950
10 – 20 7 15 1.1761 8.2327
20 – 30 15 25 1.3979 20.9685
30 – 40 25 35 1.5441 38.6025
40 – 50 8 45 1. 6532 13.2256
N = Σf = 60 Σf log x = 84.5243
290
∴ G = Antilog ( )
N
logx Óf
= Antilog ( )
60
84.5243
= Antilog (1.4087) = 25.63
Observation:
Geometric Mean is always smaller than arithmetic mean i.e. G.M. ≤
A.M. for a given data
10.1.5 Harmonic Mean
(i) Harmonic mean of a number of observations is the reciprocal of the
arithmetic mean of their reciprocals. It is denoted by H.
Thus, if x
1
, x
2
... x
n
are the observations, their reciprocals are
1
x
1
,
2
x
1
, ...,
n
x
1
. The total of the reciprocals is = Σ
( )
x
1
and the
mean of the reciprocals is =
n
x
1
Σ
∴ the reciprocal of the mean of the reciprocals is =
Σ
x
1
n
H =
Σ
x
1
n
Find the Harmonic Mean of 6, 14, 21, 30
Solution :
x
x
1
6 0.1667
14 0.0714
21 0.0476
30 0.0333
Σ Σ
x
1
= 0.3190
291
H =
x
1
n
Σ
=
0.3190
4
= 12.54
∴ Harmonic mean is H = 12.54
(ii) In case of discrete frequency distribution, i.e. if x
1
, x
2
.....x
n
occur f
1
,
f
2
, .....f
n
times respectively, the Harmonic mean, H is given by
H =
N
...
n
n
2
2
1
1
x
f
x
f
x
f
1
+ + +
=
( )
x
f
N
1
1
Σ
=
( )
x
f
N
Σ
where N = Σf
Example 12
Calculate the Harmonic mean from the following data
x : 10 12 14 16 18 20
f : 5 18 20 10 6 1
Solution :
x f
x
f
10 5 0.5000
12 18 1.5000
14 20 1.4286
16 10 0.6250
18 6 0.3333
20 1 0.0500
N = Σ Σf= 60 Σ Σ
x
f
= 4.4369
H =
Σ
x
f
N
=
4369 . 4
60
= 13.52
(iii) The Harmonic Mean for continuous frequency distribution is given
by H =
( )
x
f
Ó
N
, where N = Σ Σf and x = mid values of the class intervals
292
Example 13
Calculate the Harmonic mean for the following data.
Size of items 5060 6070 7080 8090 90100
No. of items 12 15 22 18 10
Solution :
size f x
x
f
5060 12 35 0.2182
6070 15 65 0.2308
7080 22 75 0.2933
8090 18 85 0.2118
90100 10 95 0.1053
N = Σ Σ f = 77 Σ Σ
x
f
= 1.0594
H =
x
f
N
Σ
=
0594 . 1
77
= 72.683
Observation:
(i) For a given data H.M. ≤ G.M.
(ii) H.M. ≤ G.M. ≤ A.M.
(iii) (A.M.) x (H.M.) = (G.M.)
2
EXERCISE 10.1
1) Find the arithmetic mean of the following set of observation
25, 32, 28, 34, 24, 31, 36, 27, 29, 30.
2) Calculate the arithmetic mean for the following data.
Age in Years : 8 10 12 15 18
No.of Workers : 5 7 12 6 10
3) Calculate the arithmetic mean of number of persons per house. Given
No. of persons per house: 2 3 4 5 6
No. of houses : 10 25 30 25 10
293
4) Calculate the arithmetic mean by using deviation method.
Marks : 40 50 54 60 68 80
No. of Students : 10 18 20 39 15 8
5) From the following data, compute arithmetic mean, median and evaluate the
mode using emprical relation
Marks : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060
No. of Students : 5 10 25 30 20 10
6) Find the arithmetic mean, median and mode for the following frequency
distribution.
Class limits: 1019 2029 3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089
Frequency : 5 9 14 20 25 15 8 4
7) Find the median of the following set of observations.
37, 32, 45, 36, 39, 31, 46, 57, 27, 34, 28, 30, 21
8) Find the median of 57, 58, 61, 42, 38, 65, 72, 66.
9) Find the median of the following frequency distribution.
Daily wages (Rs.) : 5 10 15 20 25 30
No. of Persons (f) : 7 12 37 25 22 11
10) The marks obtained by 60 students are given below. Find the median.
Marks (out of 10): 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
No. of Students: 1 5 6 7 10 15 11 5
11) Calculate the median from the following data.
Marks : 1025 2540 4055 5570 7085 85100
Frequency : 6 20 44 26 3 1
12) Find the median for the following data.
Class limits : 110 1120 2130 3140 4150 5160 6170 7180 8190 91100
Frequency : 3 7 13 17 12 10 8 8 6 6
13) Find the mode for the following set of observations.
41, 50, 75, 91, 95, 69, 61, 53, 69, 70, 82, 46, 69.
14) Find the mode of the following:
Size of Dress : 22 28 30 32 34
No. of sets produced: 10 22 48 102 55
15) Calculate the mode from the following
Size : 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Frequency : 10 12 15 19 20 8 4 3 2
294
16) Find the mode of the following distribution.
Class limits: 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 4550
Frequency : 4 12 16 22 10 8 6 4
17) Calculate the Geometric Mean for the following data.
35, 386, 153, 125, 118, 1246
18) Calculate the Geometric Mean for the following data.
Value : 10 12 15 20 50
Frequency : 2 3 10 8 2
19) The following distribution relates to marks in Accountancy of 60 students.
Marks : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060
Students : 3 8 15 20 10 4
Find the Geometric Mean
20) Calculate the Harmonic mean for the following data.
2, 4, 6, 8 10
21) Calculate the Harmonic mean.
Size : 6 7 8 9 10 11
Frequency : 4 6 9 5 2 8
22) From the following data, compute the value of Harmonic mean.
Class interval: 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060
Frequency : 4 6 10 7 3
10.2 MEASURES OF DISPERSION
“Dispersion is the measure of variation of the items”  A.L.Bowley
In a group of individual items, all the items are not equal. There is
difference or variation among the items. For example, if we observe the
marks obtained by a group of studens, it could be easily found the difference
or variation among the marks.
The common averages or measures of central tendency which we
discussed earlier indicate the general magnitude of the data but they do not
reveal the degree of variability in individual items in a group or a distribution.
So to evaluate the degree of variation among the data, certain other measures
called, measures of dispersion is used.
Measures of Dispersion in particular helps in finding out the
variability or Dispersion/Scatteredness of individual items in a given
295
distribution. The variability (Dispersion or Scatteredness) of the data may
be known with reference to the central value (Common Average) or any
arbitrary value or with reference to other vaues in the distribution. The
mean or even Median and Mode may be same in two or more distribution,
but the composition of individual items in the series may vary widely. For
example, consider the following marks of two students.
Student I Student II
68 82
72 90
63 82
67 21
70 65
340 340
Average 68 Average 68
It would be wrong to conclude that performance of two students is
the same, because of the fact that the second student has failed in one
paper. Also it may be noted that the variation among the marks of first
student is less than the variation among the marks of the second student.
Since less variation is a desirable characteristic, the first student is almost
equally good in all the subjects.
It is thus clear that measures of central tendency are insufficient to
reveal the true nature and important characteristics of the data. Therefore
we need some other measures, called measures of Dispersion. Few of them
are Range, Standard Deviation and coefficient of variation.
10.2.1 Range
Range is the difference between the largest and the smallest of the
values.
Symbollically,
Range = L  S
where L = Largest value
S = Smallest value
Coefficient of Range is given by =
S L
S L
+
296
Example 14
Find the value of range and its coefficient for the following data
6 8 5 10 11 12
Solution:
L = 12 (Largest)
S = 5 (Smallest)
∴ Range = L  S = 7
Coefficient of Range =
S L
S L
+
= 0.4118
Example : 15
Calculate range and its coefficient from the following distribution.
Size 20  22 23  25 26  28 29  31 32  34
Number 7 9 19 42 27
Solution:
Given is a continuous distribution. Hence the following method is
adopted.
Here, L = Midvalue of the highest class
∴ L =
2
34 32 +
= 33
S = Mid value of the lowest class
∴ S =
2
22 20 +
= 21
∴ Range = L  S = 12
Coefficient of Range =
S L
S L
+
= 0.22
10.2.2 Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation is the root mean square deviation of the values
from their arithmetic mean.
S.D. is the abbreviation of standard Deviation and it is represented
by the symbol σ (read as sigma). The square of standard deviation is
called variance denoted by σ
2
297
(i) Standard Deviation for the raw data.
σ =
n
d
2
Σ
Where d = x  x
n = number of observations.
Example 16
Find the standard deviation for the following data
75, 73, 70, 77, 72, 75, 76, 72, 74, 76
Solution :
x d = x x d
2
75 1 1
73 1 1
70 4 16
77 3 9
72 2 4
75 1 1
76 2 4
72 2 4
74 0 0
76 2 4
Σ Σx = 740 Σ Σd = 0 Σ Σd
2
= 44
x =
n
x Σ
=
10
740
= 74
∴ Standard Deviation,
σ =
n
d
2
Σ
=
10
44
= 2.09
(ii) Standard deviation for the raw data without using Arithmetic mean.
The formula to calculate S.D in this case
σ =
( ) ( )
2
n
x
n
x
2
Σ Σ
−
298
Example : 17
Find the standard deviation of the following set of observations.
1, 3, 5, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 2.
Solution :
Let x denotes the given observations
x : 1 3 5 4 6 7 9 8 10 2
x
2
: 1 9 25 16 36 49 81 64 100 4
Here Σx = 55
Σx
2
= 385
∴ σ =
( ) ( )
2
n
x
n
x
2
Σ Σ
−
=
( ) ( )
2
10
55
10
385
−
= 2.87
(iii) S.D. for the raw data by Deviation Method
By assuming arbitrary constant, A, the standard deviation is given
by
σ =
( ) ( )
2
n
d
n
d
2
Σ Σ
−
where d = x  A
A = arbitrary constant
Σd
2
= Sum of the squares of deviations
Σd = sum of the deviations
n = number of observations
Example 18
For the data given below, calculate standard deviation
25, 32, 53, 62, 41, 59, 48, 31, 33, 24.
Solution:
Taking A = 41
x: 25 32 53 62 41 59 48 31 33 24
d
= x A 16 9 12 21 0 18 7 10 8 17
d
2
256 81 144 441 0 324 49 100 64 289
299
Here Σd =  2
Σd
2
= 1748
σ =
( ) ( )
2
n
d
n
d
2
Σ Σ
−
=
( ) ( )
2
10
2 
10
1748
−
= 13.21
(iv) Standard deviation for the discrete grouped data
In this case
σ =
N
fd
2
Σ
where d = x  x
Example 19
Calculate the standard deviation for the following data
x 6 9 12 15 18
f: 7 12 13 10 8
Solution:
x f fx d = x x d
2
fd
2
6 7 42 6 36 252
9 12 108 3 9 108
12 13 156 0 0 0
15 10 150 3 9 90
18 8 144 6 36 288
N=Σ Σf =50 Σ Σfx = 600 Σ Σfd
2
= 738
x =
N
fx Σ
=
50
600
= 12
σ =
N
fd
2
Σ
=
50
738
= 3.84
(v) Standard deviation for the continuous grouped data without using
Assumed Mean.
In this case
σ = c x
( )
2
N
fd
N
fd
2
Σ Σ
−
where d =
c
A  x
300
Example 20
Compute the standard deviation for the following data
Class interval : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070
Frequency : 8 12 17 14 9 7 4
Solution :
Taking A = 35
Class Frequency Mid d =
c
A  x
fd fd
2
Intervals f value x
010 8 5 3 24 72
1020 12 15 2 24 48
2030 17 25 1 17 17
3040 14 A35 0 0 0
4050 9 45 1 9 9
5060 7 55 2 14 28
6070 4 65 3 12 36
N= Σ Σf = 71 Σ Σfd=30 Σ Σfd
2
=210
σ= c x
( )
2
N
fd
N
fd
2
Σ Σ
−
= 10 x
( )
2
71
30 
71
210
−
= 16.67
10.2.3. Coefficient of variation
Coefficient of variation denoted by C.V. and is given by
C.V. = (
x
σ
x 100)%
Observation:
(i) Coefficient of variation is a percentage expression, it is used to
compare two or more groups.
(ii) The group which has less coefficient of variation is said to be more
consistent or more stable, and the group which has more coefficient
of variation is said to be more variable or less consistent.
301
Example 21
Prices of a particular commodity in two cities are given below.
City A : 40 80 70 48 52 72 68 56 64 60
City B : 52 75 55 60 63 69 72 51 57 66
Which city has more stable price
Solution :
City A City B d
x
=xx d
y
=y y d
2
x
=(xx)
2
d
2
y
=(y y )
2
40 52 21 10 441 100
80 75 19 13 361 169
70 55 9 7 81 49
48 60 13 2 169 4
52 63 9 1 81 1
72 69 11 7 121 49
68 72 7 10 49 100
56 51 5 11 25 121
64 57 3 5 9 25
60 66 1 4 1 16
Σ Σx=610 Σ Σy=620 Σ Σd
2
x
= 1338 Σ Σd
2
y
= 634
x=
n
x Σ
=
10
610
=61
y
=
n
y Σ
=
10
620
= 62
σ
x
=
10
1338
= 11.57
σ
y
=
10
634
= 7.96
C.V. (x) =
x
x
σ
x 100
=
61
11.57
= 18.97%
C.V. (y) =
y
y
σ
x 100
=
62
7.96
12.84%
302
Conclusion
Comparatively, C.V. (y) < C.V (x)
⇒ City B has more stable price.
EXERCISES 10.2
1) Find the range and coefficient of range for the following data.
a) 12, 8, 9, 10, 4, 14, 15
b) 35, 40, 52, 29, 51, 46, 27, 30, 30, 23.
2) Calculate range and its Coefficient from the following distribution.
Size : 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274
Number : 5 18 42 27 8
3) Find the range and its coefficient from the following data.
Wages (in Rs) : 3545 4555 5565 6575 7585
No.of Workers : 18 22 30 6 4
4) Find the standard deviation of the set of numbers
3, 8, 6, 10, 12, 9, 11, 10, 12, 7.
5) Find the S.D. of the following set of observations by using Deviation Method.
45, 36, 40, 36, 39, 42, 45, 35, 40, 39.
6) Find the S.D. from the following set of observation by using i) Mean ii)
Deviation method iii) Direct Method.
25, 32, 43, 53, 62, 59, 48, 31, 24, 33
7) Find the standard Deviation for the following data
x : 1 2 3 4 5
f : 3 7 10 3 2
8) Calculate the standard deviation for the following
No.of Goals
Scored in a Match : 0 1 2 3 4 5
No.of Matches : 1 2 4 3 0 2
9) Calculate the S.D. for the following continous frequency distribution.
Class interval: 46 68 810 1012 1214
Frequency : 10 17 32 21 20
10) Calculate the S.D. of the following frequency distribution.
Annual profit (Rs.Crores): 2040 4060 6080 80100
No.of Banks : 10 14 25 48
Annual profit (Rs.Crores): 100120 120140 140160
No.of Banks 33 24 16
303
11) Calculate the coefficient of variation of the following
40 41 45 49 50 51 55 59 60 60
12) From the following price of gold in a week, find the city in which the price
was more stable.
City A : 498 500 505 504 502 509
City B : 500 505 502 498 496 505
13) From the following data, find out which share is more stable in its value.
x : 55 54 52 53 56 58 52 50 51 49
y: 108 107 105 105 106 107 104 103 104 101
10.3. CONCEPT OF PROBABILITY
Consider the following experiment
(i) A ball is dropped from a certain height.
(ii) A spoon full of sugar is added to a cup of milk.
(iii) Petrol is poured over fire.
In each of the above experiments, the result or outcome is certain,
and is known in advance. That is, in experiment (i), the ball is certain to
touch the earth and in (ii) the sugar will certainly dissolve in milk and in (iii)
the petrol is sure to burn.
But in some of the experiments such as
(i) spinning a roulette wheel
(ii) drawing a card from a pack of cards.
(iii) tossing a coin
(iv) throwing a die etc.,
in which the result is uncertain.
For example, when a coin is tossed everyone knows that there are
two possible out comes, namely head or tail. But no one could say with
certainty which of the two possible outcomes will be obtained. Similarly, in
throwing a die we know that there are six possible outcomes 1 or 2 or 3 or ...
6. But we are not sure of what out come will really be.
In all, such experiments, that there is an element of chance, called
probability which express the element of chance numerically.
304
The theory of probability was introduced to give a quantification t o
the possibility of certain outcome of the experiment in the face of uncertainty.
Probability, one of the fundamental tools of statistics, had its formal
beginning with games of chance in the seventeenth century. But soon its
application in all fields of study became obvious and it has been extensively
used in all fields of human activity.
10.3.1 Basic Concepts
(i) Random Experiment
Any operation with outcomes is called an experiment.
A Random experiment is an experiment.
(i) in which all outcomes of the experiment are known in advance.
(ii) what specific (particular) outcome will result is not known in
advance, and
(iii) the experiment can be repeated under identical (same)
conditions.
(ii) Event
All possible outcomes of an experiment are known as events.
(iii) Sample Space
The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is known as sample
space of that experiment and is denoted by S.
(iv) Mutually Exclusive events
Events are said to be mutually exclusive if the occurrence of one
prevents the occurrence of all other events. That is two or more mutually
exclusive events cannot occur simultaneously, in the same experiment.
For example
Consider the following events A and B in the experiment of drawing
a card from the pack of 52 cards.
A : The card is spade
B : The card is hearts.
These two events A and B are mutually exclusive. Since a card drawn
cannot be both a spade and a hearts.
(v) Independent events
Events (two or more) are said to be independent if the occurrence or
nonoccurrence of one does not affect the occurrence of the others.
305
For example
Consider the experiment of tossing a fair coin. The occurrence of the
event Head in the first toss is independent of the occurrence of the event
Head in the second toss, third toss and subsequent tosses.
(vi) Complementary Event
The event ‘A occurs’ and the event ‘A does not occur’ are called
complementary events. The event ‘A does not occur’ is denoted by A
C
or
A or A’ and read as complement of A.
(vii) Equally likely
Events (two or more) of an experiment are said to be equally likely, if
any one them cannot be expected to occur in preference to the others.
(viii) Favourable events or cases
The number of outcomes or cases which entail the occurrence of the
event in an experiment is called favourable events or favourable cases.
For example
consider the experiment in which Two fair dice are rolled.
In this experiment, the number of cases favorable to the event of
getting a sum 7 is : (1,6) (6,1) (5,2) (2,5), (3,4), (4,3).
That is there are 6 cases favorable to an event of sum = 7.
(ix) Exhaustive Events
The totality of all possible outcomes of any experiment is called an
exhaustive events or exhaustive cases.
10.3.2 Classical Definition of Probability
If an experiment results in n exhaustive, mutually exclusive and
equally likely cases and m of them are favourable to the occurence of an
event A, then the ratio m/n is called the probability of occurence of the
event A, denoted by P(A).
∴ P (A) =
n
m
Observation :
(i) O < P(A) < 1
(ii) If P(A) = 0, then A is an impossible event.
306
The number of favourable cases (m) to the event A, cannot be greater
than the total number of exhaustive cases (n).
That is 0 < m < n
⇒ 0 <
n
m
<1
(iii) For the sample space S, P(S) = 1. S is called sure event.
Example 22
A bag contains 3 red, 6 white and 7 blue balls. What is the probability
that two balls drawn are white and blue?
Solution:
Total number of balls = 3 + 6 + 7 = 16
Then out of 16 balls, 2 balls can be drawn in
16
C
2
ways.
∴ n =
16
C
2
= 120
Let A be the event that the two balls drawn are white and blue.
Since there are 6 white balls and 7 blue balls, the total number of
cases favourable to the event A is
6
C
1
x
7
C
1
= 6 x 7 = 42
i.e. m= 42
∴ P(A) =
n
m
=
120
42
=
20
7
Example 23
A coin is tossed twice. Find the probability of getting atleast one
head.
Solution:
Here the sample space is S = {(H,H), (H,T), (T,H), (T,T)}
∴ The total no. of possible outcomes n = 4
The favourable outcomes for the event ‘at least one head’ are
(H,H), (H,T), (T.H).
∴ No. of favourable outcomes m = 3
∴ P (getting atleast one head) =
4
3
307
Example 24
An integer is chosen at random out of the integers 1 to 100.
What is the probability that it is i) a multiple of 5 ii) divisible by 7 iii)
greater than 70.
Solution:
Total number of possible outcomes =
100
C
1
= 100
(i) The favourable outcomes for the event
“Multiple of 5” are (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55…..100)
∴ No. of favourable outcomes =
20
C
1
= 20
∴ P (that chosen number is a multiple of 5) =
100
20
=
5
1
(ii) The favourable outcomes for the event ‘divisible by 7’ are
(7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 98)
∴ No. of favourable outcomes =
14
C
1
= 14
∴ P (that chosen number is divisible by 7) =
100
14
=
50
7
(iii) No. of favourable outcomes to the event ‘greater than 70’ = 30
∴ P (that chosen number is greater than 70) =
100
30
=
10
3
10.3.3 Modern Definition of Probability
The modern approach to probability is purely axiomatic and it is
based on the set theory.
In order to study the theory of probability with an axiomatic approach,
it is necessary to define certain basic concepts. They are
(i) Sample space: Each possible outcome of an experiment that can be
repeated under similar or identical conditions is called a sample point and
the totality of sample points is called the sample space, denoted by S.
(ii) Event:
Any subset of a sample space is called an event.
308
(iii) Mutually Exclusive Events:
Two events A and B are said to be mutually exclusive events if
A∩B = ϕ, i.e. if, A and B are disjoint sets.
For example,
consider S = {1,2,3,4,5}
Let A = the set of odd numbers = {1,3,5} and
B = the set of even numbers = {2,4}
Then A∩B = ϕ
∴ events A and B are mutually exclusive.
Observation:
Statement Meaning interms of set theory
(i) A ∪ B => Atleast one of the events A or B occurs
(ii) A ∩ B => Both the events A and B occur
(iii) A ∩ B => Neither A nor B occurs
(iv) A ∩ B => Event A occurs and B does not occur
10.3.4 Definition of Probability (Axiomatic)
Let E be an experiment. Let S be a sample space associated with E.
With every event in S we associate a real number denoted by P(A), called
the probability of the event A satisfying the following axioms.
Axiom1. P(A) ≥ 0
Axiom2. P(S) = 1
Axiom3. If A
1
, A
2
... is a sequence of mutually exclusive events in S
then
P (A
1
∪ A
2
∪ ...) = P(A
1
) + P (A
2
) +...
Example 25
Let a sample space be S = {w
1
, w
2
, w
3
}. Which of the following defines
probability space on S?
(i) P(w
1
) = 1, P(w
2
) =
3
2
P(w
3
) =
3
1
(ii) P(w
1
) =
3
2
, P(w
2
) =
3
1
, P(w
3
) = 
3
2
(iii) P(w
1
) = 0, P(w
2
) =
3
2
P(w
3
) =
3
1
309
Solution:
(i) Here each P(w
1
), P (w
2
) and P (w
3
) are nonnegative.
ie: P(w
1
) ≥ 0, P(w
2
) ≥ 0, P (w
3
) ≥ 0.
But P(w
1
) + P(w
2
) + P (w
3
) ≠ 1
So by axiom 2, this set of probability functions does not define a
probability space on S.
(ii) Since P(w
3
) is negative by axiom 1 the set of probability
function does not define a probability space on S.
(iii) Here all probabilities, P(w
1
), P(w
2
) and P(w
3
) are nonnegative.
Also P(w
1
) + P(w
2
) + P(w
3
) = 0 +
3
2
+
3
1
= 1
∴ by axiom 1,2, the set of probability function defines a probability
space on S.
Example 26
Let P be a probability function on S = {w
1
, w
2
, w
3
}.
Find P(w
2
) if P(w
1
) =
3
1
and P(w
3
) =
2
1
Solution:
Here P(w
1
) =
3
1
and P(w
3
) =
2
1
are both nonnegative.
By axiom 2,
P (w
1
) + P(w
2
) + P (w
3
) = 1
∴ P (w
2
) = 1  P(w
1
)  P (w
3
)
= 1 
3
1

2
1
=
6
1
which is nonnegative.
⇒ P(w
2
) =
6
1
310
10.3.5 Basic Theorems on Probability of Events
Theorem : 1
Let S be the sample space. Then P( ϕ) = o. ie. probability of an
impossible event is zero.
Proof:
We know that S∪ϕ = S
∴ P (S∪ϕ) = P(S)
ie. P(S) + P(ϕ) = P(S) by axiom 3. ∴ P(φ) = 0
Theorem : 2
Let S be the sample space and A be an event in S
Then P( A) = 1P(A)
Proof :
We know that A∪A = S
∴ P(A∪A) = P(S)
P(A) + P(A) = 1 by axiom (2) and (3)
⇒ P( A) = 1  P(A)
10.3.6 Addition Theorem
Statement: If A and B are any two events, then
P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B)  P(A∩B)
Observation:
(i) If the two events A and B are mutually exclusive, then A∩B= ϕ
∴ P(A∩B) = 0
⇒ P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B)
(ii) The addition Theorem may be extended to any three events A,B,C
and we have
P(A∪B∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C)  P(A∩B)  P(A∩C) P(B∩C) +
P(A∩B∩C).
Example: 27
A card is drawn from a well shuffled pack of playing cards. What is
the probability that it is either a spade or an ace?
311
Solution:
Total number of cards in a pack = 52.
∴ The sample space contains 52 sample points, and each and
every sample points has the same probability (equal probability).
Let A be the event that the card drawn is a spade.
∴ P(A) = P(that the drawn card is spade)
=
1
52
1
13
C
C
since A consists of 13 sample ie: 13 spade cards.
P(A) =
52
13
Let B be the event that the card drawn is an ace.
∴P(B) = P (that the drawn card is an ace)
=
1
52
1
4
C
C
since B consists of 4 sample points ie: 4 ace cards.
=
52
4
The compound event (A∩B) consists of only one sample point, the
ace of spade.
∴ P(A∩B)= P (that the card drawn is ace of spade)
=
52
1
Hence, P (A∪B) = P (that the card drawn is either a spade or an ace)
= P (A) + P(B)  P(A∩B) (by addition theorem)
=
52
13
+
52
4

52
1
=
52
16
=
13
4
⇒ P(A∪B) =
13
4
Example 28
One number, out of 1 to 20 number, is selected at random. What is
the probability that it is either a multiple of 3 or 4
Solution:
One number is selected at random and that can be done in
20
C
1
ways.
ie: Sample space S consists of 20 sample points.
⇒ S = {1,2,3,... 20}
312
Let A be the event that the number chosen is multiple of 3.
Then A = {3,6,9,12,15,18}
∴ P (A) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 3} =
20
6
Let B be the event that the number choose is Multiple of 4.
Then B = {4,8,12,16,20}
P(B) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 4) =
20
5
The event A∩B consists of only one sample point 12, which is a
multiple of 3 and multiple of 4.
⇒ A∩B = {12}
P(A∩B) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 3 and multiple of 4}
=
20
1
Hence
P(A∪B) = P (that the selected number is either multiple of 3 or
multiple of 4)
= P(A) + P(B)  P (A∩B)
=
20
6
+
20
5

20
1
=
20
10
P(A∪B) =
2
1
Example 29
A bag contains 6 black and 5 red balls. Two balls are drawn at
random. What is the probability that they are of the same colour.
Solution:
Total numberof balls = 11
number of balls drawn = 2
∴ Exhaustive number of cases =
11
C
2
= 55
Let A be the event of getting both the balls are black and B be the
event of getting both the balls are red.
Hence by addition theorem of probability, required probability.
P (two balls are of same colour) = P(AUB)
= P(A) + P(B)
313
=
2
11
2
6
c
c
+
2
11
2
5
c
c
=
55
15
+
55
10
=
55
25
=
11
5
Example 30
A box contains 6 Red, 4 white and 5 black balls. A person draws 4
balls from the box at random. Find the probability that among the balls
drawn there is atleast one ball of each colour.
Solution :
Total no. of balls = 15
Number of balls drawn = 4
∴ Exhaustive number of cases =
15
c
4
= 1365
The required event E that there is atleast one ball of each colour
among the 4 drawn from the box at random can occur in the following mutually
disjoint ways. (R, W, B denotes Red, White and Black balls)
E = (R = 1, W = 1, B = 2) U (R = 2, W = 1, B = 1) U (R = 1, W = 2, B = 1)
Hence by addition theorem of probability,
P(E) = P(R=1, W=1, B=2) + P(R=2, W=1, B=1) + P(R=1, W=2, B=1)
=
4
15
2
5
1
4
1
6
c
c x c x c
+
4
15
1
5
1
4
2
6
c
c x c x c
+
4
15
1
5
2
4
1
6
c
c x c x c
=
4
15
c
1
[(6 x 4 x 10) + (15 x 4 x 5) + (6 x 6 x 5)]
=
4
15
c
1
[240 + 300 + 180] =
1365
720
=
91
48
10.3.7 Conditional Probability
Definition:
Let A and B be two events in a sample space S. The conditional
probability of the event B given that A has occurred is defined by
P(B/A) =
P(A)
B) P(AI
, provided P(A) ≠ 0.
314
Observation:
(i) Similarly P(A/B) =
P(B)
B) P(AI
, if P(B) ≠ 0.
(ii) Whenever we compute P(A/B), P(B/A) we are essentially computing
it with respect to the restricted sample space.
Example: 31
Three fair coins are tossed. If the first coin shows a tail, find the
probability of getting all tails
Solution:
The experiment of tossing three fair coins results the sample space.
S = {(HHH), (HHT), (HTH), (THH), (THT), (HTT), (TTH), (TTT)}
⇒ n(S) = 8.
Event A = the first coin shows a tail
= {(THH), (THT), (TTH), (TTT)}
n(A) = 4.
P(A) =
n(S)
n(A)
=
8
4
=
2
1
Let B be the event denotes getting all tails: ie:(TTT).
Let B∩A denotes the compound event of getting all tails and that
the first coin shows tail.
⇒∴ B∩A = {(TTT)}
n(B∩A) = 1
∴ P(A∩B) =
n(S)
B) n(AI
=
8
1
since B∩A = A∩B.
Hence by formula.
P(B/A) =
P(A)
B) P(AI
∴P(B/A) =
2
1
8
1
=
8
2
=
4
1
Example: 32
A box contains 4 red and 6 green balls. Two balls are picked out one
by one at random without replacement. What is the probability that the
second ball is green given that the first one is green
315
Solution:
Define the following events.
A = {the first ball drawn is green}
B = {the second ball drawn is green}
Total number of balls = 4+6 = 10
Two balls are picked out at random one by one.
Here we have to compute P(B/A).
When the first ball is drawn,
P(A) = P(that the first ball drawn is green)
=
1
10
1
6
C
C
=
10
6
Since the first ball(green) pickedout is not replaced, total number of
balls in a box gets reduced to 9 and the total number of green balls reduced
to 5.
∴ P(A∩B) =
1
10
1
6
C
C
x
1
9
1
5
C
C
=
10
6
x
9
5
=
3
1
Hence P(B/A) = P (that the second ball drawn is green given
that the first ball drawn is green)
=
P(A)
B) P(A I
P(B/A) =
10
6
3
1
=
3
1
x
6
10
=
9
5
10.3.8 Multiplication Theorem for independent events
If A and B are two independent events then P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B)
Observation:
For n independent events
P(A
1
∩ A
2
∩ A
3
... ∩A
n
) = P(A
1
) P(A
2
) P(A
3
) ... P(A
n
)
Example 33
In a shotting test the probabilities of hitting the target are
2
1
for A,
3
2
for B and
4
3
for C. If all of them fire at the same target,
calculate the probabilities that
316
(i) all the three hit the target
(ii) only one of them hits the target
(iii) atleast one of them hits the target
Solution:
Here P(A) =
2
1
, P(B) =
3
2
, P(C) =
4
3
P(
A
) = 1
2
1
=
2
1
, P(
B
) = 1
3
2
=
3
1
, P(
C
) = 1
4
3
=
4
1
(i) P (all the three hit the target)= P(A∩B∩C)
= P(A) P(B) P(C)
(
Q
A, B, C hits independently)
=
2
1
3
2
4
3
=
4
1
Let us define the events
E
1
= {only one of them hits the target}
=
C)} B A ( ) C B A ( ) C B {(A I I U I I U I I
E
2
= {atleast one of them hits the target}
= C)} B {(A U U
Hence
(ii) P(E
1
) = P(A ∩
B
∩
C
) + P(
A
∩ B ∩
C
) + P(
A
∩
B
∩C)
=
2
1
3
1
4
1
+
2
1
3
2
4
1
+
2
1
3
1
4
3
=
4
1
(iii) P(E
2
) = P (A∪B∪C)
= P(A) + P(B) + P(C)  P(A∩C)  P(B∩C)  P(C∩A) + P(A∩B∩C)
=
2
1
+
3
2
+
4
3

2
1
3
2

3
2
4
3

2
1
4
3
+
2
1
3
2
4
3
=
2
1
+
3
2
+
4
3

3
1

2
1

8
3
+
4
1
=
24
23
317
Example 34
A problem is given to three students A, B, C whose chances of solving
it are respectively
2
1
,
3
1
and
4
1
. What is the probability that the problem
is solved.
Solution:
P(A) = P(that A can solve the problem) =
2
1
P(B) = P(that B can solve the problem) =
3
1
P(C) = P(that C can solve the problem) =
4
1
Since A, B, C are independent
P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) =
2
1
3
1
P(B∩C) = P(B) P(C) =
3
1
4
1
P(C∩A) = P(C) P(A) =
4
1
2
1
P(A∩B∩C)= P(A) P(B) P(C) =
2
1
3
1
4
1
∴ P(that the problem is solved) = P(that atleast one of them solves
the problem)
= P (AUBUC)
= P(A) + P(B) + P(C)  P(A∩B)  P(B∩C)  P(C∩A) + P(A∩B∩C)
=
2
1
+
3
1
+
4
1

2
1
3
1

3
1
4
1

2
1
4
1
+
2
1
3
1
4
1
=
24
1 3  2  4  6 8 12 + + +
=
24
18
=
4
3
10.3.9 Baye’s Theorem
Let S be a sample space
Let A
1
, A
2
, ... An be disjoint events in S and B be any arbitrary
event in S with
P(B) ≠ 0. Then Baye’s theorem says
318
P
( ) /B A
r
=
( )
( )
r r
n
1 r
r r
B/A P ) P(A
B/A P ) P(A
=
Σ
Example 35
There are two identical boxes containing respectively 4 white and 3
red balls, 3 white and 7 red balls. A box is chosen at random and a ball is
drawn from it. Find the probability that the ball is white. If the ball is white,
what is the probability that it is from first box?
Solution:
Let A
1
, A
2
be the boxes containing 4 white and 3 red balls, 3 white
and 7 red balls.
i.e A
1
A
2
4 White 3 White
3 Red 7 Red
Total 7 Balls Total 10 balls
One box is chosen at random out of two boxes.
∴ P(A
1
) = P(A
2
) =
2
1
One ball is drawn from the chosen box. Let B be the event that the
drawn ball is white.
∴ P(B/A
1
) = P(that the drawn ball is white from the Ist Box)
P(B /A
1
) =
7
4
∴ P (B/A
2
) = P (that the white ball drawn from the IInd Box)
⇒ P(B/A
2
) =
10
3
P (B) = P (that the drawn ball is white)
= P(A
1
) P(B/A
1
) + P (A
2
) P(B/A
2
)
=
2
1
7
4
+
2
1
10
3
=
140
61
319
Now by Baye' s Theorem, probability that the white ball comes
from the Ist Box is,
P(B
1
/ A)=
) (B/A P ) P(A ) P(B/A ) P(A
) P(B/A ) P(A
2 2 1 1
1 1
+
=
10
3
2
1
7
4
2
1
7
4
2
1
+
=
10
3
7
4
7
4
+
=
61
40
Example 36
A factory has 3 machines A
1
, A
2
, A
3
producing 1000, 2000, 3000
bolts per day respectively. A
1
produces 1% defectives, A
2
produces
1.5% and A
3
produces 2% defectives. A bolt is chosen at random at
the end of a day and found defective. What is the probability that it
comes from machine A
1
?
Solution:
P(A
1
) = P(that the machine A
1
produces bolts)
=
6000
1000
=
6
1
P(A
2
) = P(that the machine A
2
produces bolts)
=
6000
2000
=
3
1
P(A
3
) = P(that the machine A
3
produces bolts)
=
6000
3000
=
2
1
Let B be the event that the chosen bolt is defective
∴ P(B/A
1
)= P(that defective bolt from the machine A
1
)
= .01
Similarly P(B/A
2
) = P(that the defective bolt from the machine A
2
)
= .015 and
P(B/A
3
) = P(that the defective bolt from the machine A
3
)
= .02
We haev to find P(A
1
/B)
Hence by Baye’s theorem, we get
P(A
1
/B) =
) )P(B/A P(A ) P(B/A ) P(A ) P(B/A ) P(A
) P(B/A ) P(A
3 3 2 2 1 1
1 1
+ +
320
=
x(.02) (.015) x (.01) x
(.01) x
2
1
3
1
6
1
6
1
+ +
=
.06 .03 .01
.01
+ +
=
.1
.01
=
10
1
Example 37
In a bolt factory machines A
1
, A
2
, A
3
manufacture respectively 25%,
35% and 40% of the total output. Of these 5, 4, 2 percent are defective
bolts. A bolt is drawn at random from the product and is found to be defective.
What is the probability that it was manufactured by machine A
2
?
Solution:
P(A
1
) = P(that the machine A
1
manufacture the bolts)
=
100
25
= .25
Similarly P(A
2
) =
100
35
= .35 and
P(A
3
) = =
100
40
= .4
Let B be the event that the drawn bolt is defective.
∴ P(B/A
1
)= P(that the defective bolt from the machine A
1
)
=
100
5
=.05
Similarly P(B/A
2
) =
100
4
= .04 and P(B/A
3
) =
100
2
= .02
we have to find P(A
2
/B)
Hence by Baye’s theorem, we get
P(A
2
/B) =
) )P(B/A P(A ) P(B/A P(A) ) P(B/A ) P(A
) P(B/A ) P(A
3 3 2 1 1
2 2
+ +
=
(.02) (.4) (.04) (.35) (.05) (.25)
(.04) (.35)
+ +
=
69
28
321
EXERCISES 10.3
1) Three coins are tossed. Find the probability of getting (i) no heads (ii) at
least one head.
2) A perfect die is tossed twice. Find the probability of getting a total of 9.
3) A bag contains 4 white and 6 black balls. Two balls are drawn at random.
What is the probability that (i) both are white (ii) both are black.
4) A number is chosen out of the numbers {1, 2, 3, . . . . 100} What is the
probability that it is
(i) a perfect square (ii) a multiple of 3 or 7.
5) A bag contains 4 white, 5 black, and 6 red balls. A ball is drawn at random.
What is the probability that is red or white.
6) If two dice are thrown simultaneously, what is the probability that the sum
of the points on two dice is greater than 10?
7) A person is known to hit the target 3 out of 4 shots where as another person
is known to hit 2 out of 3 shots. Find the probability of the target being hit
when they both shoot.
8) There are 3 boxes containing respectively 1 white, 2 red, 3 black balls;
2white, 3 red, 1 black ball : 2 white, 1 red, 2 black balls. A box is
chosen at random and from it two balls are drawn at random. The two
bal l s are 1 red and 1 whi t e. What i s t he probabi l i t y t hat t hey come
from the second box?
9) In a company there are three machines A
1
, A
2
and A
3
. They produce 20%,
35% and 45% of the total output respectively. Previous experience shows
that 2% of the products produced by machines A
1
are defective. Similarly
defective percentage for machine A
2
and A
3
are 3% and 5% respectively. A
product is chosen at random and is found to be defective. Find the probability
that it would have been produced by machine A
3
?
10) Let U
1
, U
2
, U
3
be 3 urns with 2 red and 1 black, 3 red and 2 black, 1 red and
1 black ball respectively. One of the urns is chosen at random and a ball is
drawn from it. The colour of the ball is found to be black. What is the
probability that it has been chosen from U
3
?
322
EXERCISE 10.4
Choose the correct answer
1) Which one is the measure of central tendency
(a) Range (b) Coefficient of Variation
(c) Median (d) None of these
2) Arithmetic Mean of 2, 2 is
(a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d)None of these
3) Median for 2, 20, 10, 8, 1 is
(a) 20 (b) 10 (c) 8 (d) None of these
4) Mode is
(a) Most frequent value (b) Middlemost value
(c) First value of the series (d) None of these
5) The Geometric mean of 0,2, 8, 10 is
(a) 2 (b) 10 (c) 0 (d) None of these
6) For ‘n’ individual observation, the Harmonic mean is
a)
x
n
Σ
(b)
x
1
1
n
Σ
(c)
x
1
n
Σ
(d) None of these
7) Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion.
(a) H.M (b) S.D. (c) C.V. (d) None of these
8) If the mean and variance of a series are 10 and 25, then coefficient of
variation is
(a) 25 (b) 50 (c) 100 (d) None of these
9) If the S.D. and the C.V. of a series are 5 and 25, then the arithmetic mean is
(a) 20 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) None of these
10) Probability that atleast one of the events A, B occur is
(a) P(A∪B) (b) P(A∩B) (c) P(A/B) (d) None of these
11) P(A) + P (
A
) is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) None of these
12) If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then P(A∪B) is
(a) P(A) + P(B) (b) P(A) + P(B)  P(A∩B)
(c) 0 (d) None of these
13) The probability of drawing any one spade card from a pack of cards is.
(a)
52
1
(b)
13
1
(c)
4
1
d) None of these
323
14) The probability of drawing one white ball from a bag containing 6 red, 8
black and 10 yellow balls is
(a)
52
1
(b) 0 (c)
24
1
(d) None of these
(a)
P(A)
B) P(AI
(b)
P(B)
B) P(AI
, P(B) = 0
(c)
P(B)
B) P(AI
, P(B) ≠ 0 (d) None of these
16) Which is based on all the observations?
(a) Range (b) Median (c) Mean (d) Mode
17) Which is not unduly affected by extreme item?
(a) Median (b) Mean (c) Mode (d) None of these
18) The emprical relation between mean, median and mode is
(a) Mean  mode = 3 median (b) Mean mode=3 (mean median)
(c) Mean  mode = 2 mean (d) mean = 3 median  mode
19) Square of S.D. is called
(a) mean deviation (b) quartile deviation
(c) variance (d) range
20) If A and B are independent event, then P(A
I
B) is
(a) P(A) P(B) (b) P(A) + P(B) (c) P(A/B) (d) P(B)  P(A)
21) Which of the following is correct?
(a) H.M. < G.M. < A. M. (b) H.M. > G.M. < A. M.
(c) A.M. < G.M. < H.M. (d) None of these
22) Which of the following is correct?
(a) (A.M. x H.M.)
2
(b) A.M. x H.M. = (G.M.)
2
(c) (H.M. x G.M.) = (A.M.)
2
(d)
2
G.M. A.M.+
= H.M.
23) Probability of sure event is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) S
24) Probability of an impossible event is
(a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) φ
25) A single letter is selected at random from the word PROBABILITY The
probability that it is a vowel is
(a)
11
3
(b)
11
2
(c)
11
4
(d) 0
324
ANSWERS
MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
Exercise 1.1
2) i) A + B =
,
`
.

− 8 1 6
7 12 4
7 3 12
ii)
,
`
.

− 8 1 6
7 12 4
7 3 12
iii) 5A =
,
`
.

23 25 10
40 45 20
10 5 15
iv)
,
`
.

− −
−
4 12 8
2 6 0
10 4 18
3) AB =
,
`
.

− 12 9
4 8
, BA =
,
`
.

− 6 3
16 14
4) AB =
,
`
.

− −
−
−
15 18 7
14 18 0
39 40 11
, BA =
,
`
.

−
−
−
8 41 9
1 14 4
3 38 8
5) AB =
,
`
.

18 12
13 9
, BA =
,
`
.

−
−
−
4 1 8
6 16 17
10 16 7
11) AB = 29, BA =
,
`
.

12 10 6
6 5 3
24 20 12
12) AB =
,
`
.

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
, BA =
,
`
.

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
13) Total requirement of calories and proteins for family A is 12000 and
320 respectively and for family B is 10900 and 295.
14)
,
`
.

43 35 25
16 15 15
16 15 11
15)
,
`
.

2 7 
6  3 
18)
,
`
.

1 1
1 2 
325
22) (i)
,
`
.

32 27
44 60
(ii)
,
`
.

34 31
40 58
(iii)
,
`
.

− 10 5
6 44
(iv)
,
`
.

18 0
19 32
23) (i)
,
`
.

80 40 72 58
30 55 60 45
(ii) 2 x 4 (iii)
,
`
.

80 30
40 55
72 60
58 45
(iv) (i) is the transpose of (iii)
Exercise 1.2
1) (i) 24 (ii) 9 (iii) 8 2) 10 3) 1
4) A = 0, A is singular 5) A is nonsingular
6) 0 7) 0 8) 120 9) 5
Exercise 1.3
1) (c) 2) (c) 3) (a) 4) (c) 5) (b)
6) (b) 7) (a) 8) (c) 9) (d) 10) (a)
11) (b) 12) (c) 13) (c) 14) (b) 15) (a)
16) (c) 17) (a) 18) (b) 19) (b) 20) (b)
21) (a) 22) (b) 23) (a) 24) (a) 25) (c)
26) (b) 27) (d) 28) (d) 29) (b) 30) (a)
ALGEBRA
Exercise 2.1
1)
( ) 3  x 5
4
+
2) 5(x
1
+
2)
2 x
19 
+
+
3 x
21
+
3)
3 x
21
+
+
3 x
21
+
4)
2) 2(x
1
+
+
2) 2(x
1
−

1 x
1
+
5)
3) 25(x
2 
+
+
) 2 25(x
2
−
+
2
) 2 5(x
3
−
6)
1)  9(x
1

) 2 9(x
1
+

2
2) 3(x
1
+
7)
1)  4(x
1

) 1 4(x
1
+
+
2
) 1 2(x
1
+
8)
1 x
2
−

2
3) (x
5
+
9)
2 3x
4
−
+
1  x 2  x
5  x
2
10)
1)  2(x
3

1) 2(x
1 3x
2
+
+
Exercise 2.2
1) n = 10 2) 21 3) (i)
3! 3! 3!
! 13
(ii)
2! 2! 2!
! 11
(iii)
2! 4! 4!
! 11
4) 1344
5) 6666600 6) (i) 8! 4! (ii) (7!) (
8
p
4
) 7) 1440 8) 14409) (i) 720 (ii) 24
326
Exercise 2.3
1) (i) 210 (ii) 105 2) 16 3) 8 4) 780
5) 3360 6) 858 7) 9 8) 20790
Exercise 2.5
1)
4
3) (n 2) (n 1) n(n + + +
2)
12
5) (3n 2) (n 1) n(n + + +
3)
3
1) (2n 1) 2n(n + +
4) n(3n
2
+6n+1)
5)
3
n
(2n
2
+15n+74) 6)
6
2) (n 1) n(n + +
Exercise 2.6
1)
11
c
5
(2)
5
x,
11
c
6
x
2
6
2)
12
c
6 3
3
x
y
3)
10
c
4
(256) 4) 7
2
y
144x
5)
9
c
4
16
3x
17
, 
9
c
5
96
x
19
6)
12
c
4
(2
4
)
Exercise 2.7
1) (a) 2) (a) 3) (b) 4) (b)
5) (a) 6) (a) 7) (a) 8) (b)
9) (c) 10) (a) 11) (a) 12) (a)
13) (a) 14) (b) 15) (c) 16) (b) 17) (d)
SEQUENCES AND SERIES
Exercise 3.1
1)
23
4
,
19
2
2)
248
1
Exercise 3.2
1) 11, 17, 23 2) 15, 45, 135, 405, 1215
3)
8
1
,
11
1
,
14
1
,
17
1
4) 4, 64
327
Exercise 3.4
1) (a) 2,
2
3
,
3
2
,
24
5
,
20
1
(b)
2
1
,
3
1
− ,
4
1
,
5
1
− ,
6
1
c) 1,
4
1
,
27
1
,
256
1
,
3125
1
(d) 1, 0,
2
1
, 0,
3
1
(e) 2, 16, 96, 512, 2560 (f) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1
(g) 5, 11, 17, 23, 29
2) 2, 6, 3, 9, 4, 12, 5 3) (a) {0, 2} b) {1, 1}
4) (a) n
2
(b) 4n1 (c) 2+ n
10
1
(d) n
2
1 (e)
n
3
n 10
5) (a) 1,
2
1
,
4
1
,
8
1
,
16
1
,
32
1
(b) 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160
(c) 1, 4, 13, 40, 121, 364 (d) 2, 6, 15, 34, 73, 152
(e) 1, 5, 14, 30, 55, 91 (f) 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3
(g) 1, 1, 3, 11, 123, 15131 (h) 1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 3
Exercise 3.5
1) Rs. 27,350 2) i) Rs. 5,398 ii) Rs. 5,405 3) Rs. 95, 720
4) Rs. 13,110 5) Rs. 1,710 6) Rs. 8,000 7) 12%
8) 22
2
1
years (nearly) 9) 16.1% 10) 12.4%
Exercise 3.6
1) Rs. 5,757.14 2) Rs. 2,228 3) Rs. 6,279 4) Rs. 3,073
5) Rs. 12,590 6) Machine B may be purchased 7) Rs. 1,198
8) Rs. 8,097 9) Rs. 5,796 10) Rs. 6,987 11) Rs. 46,050
12) Rs. 403.40 13) Rs. 7,398
Exercise 3.7
1) (a) 2) (a) 3) (b) 4) (d) 5) (a) 6) (b)
7) (b) 8) (a) 9) (a) 10) (b) 11) (d) 12) (a)
13) (a) 14) (c) 15) (d) 16) (a) 17) (b) 18) (b)
19) (b) 20) (a) 21) (a) 22) (d) 23) (b) 24) (b)
25) (b) 26) (b) 27) (b) 28) (c) 29) (d) 30) (a)
31) (b) 32) (c) 33) (b)
328
ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY
Exercise 4.1
1) 8x+6y9 = 0 2) x4y7 = 0
3) 8x
2
+8y
2
2x36y+35 = 0 4) x
2
+y
2
6x14y+54 = 0
5) 3x4y = 12 6) x
2
3y
2
2y+1 = 0
7) xy6 = 0 8) 24x
2
y
2
= 0
9) 3x
2
+3y
2
+2x+12y1 = 0 10) 2x+y7 = 0
Exercise 4.2
1) 2x3y+12 = 0 2) xy+5 2 = 0
3) x + 2y  6 = 0 ; 2x + y = 0
4)
5
7
5)

2
3
or
6
17
6) 2x3y+12 = 0 7) x
3
y + 2 +3
3
= 0
8) 9x  33y + 16 = 0 ; 77x + 21y  22 = 0
Exercise 4.3
2) k = 33 3) 4x3y+1 = 0 4) x2y+2 = 0
5) 3x+y5 = 0 6) Rs. 0.75 7) y = 7x+500
8) y = 4x+6000 9) 2y = 7x+24000
Exercise 4.4
1) x
2
+y
2
+8x+4y16 = 0 2) x
2
+y
2
4x6y12 = 0
3) π,
4
π
4) x
2
+y
2
+8x12y33 = 0
5) x
2
+y
2
8x+2y23 = 0 6) x
2
+y
2
6x6y+13 = 0
7) x
2
+y
2
6x8y+15 = 0 8) 5x
2
+5y
2
26x48y+24 = 0
9) x
2
+y
2
4x6y12 = 0
Exercise 4.5
1) x+3y10 = 0 2) 2x+y7 = 0
3) 6 units 4) a
2
(l
2
+m
2
) = n
2
6)
2
1
46
Exercise 4.6
1) (a) 2) (b) 3) (a) 4) (b) 5) (b) 6) (b)
7) (c) 8) (c) 9) (b) 10) (b) 11) (a) 12) (c)
13) (b) 14) (a) 15) (b) 16) (b) 17) (a)
329
TRIGONOMETRY
Exercise 5.1
12)
12
31
13)
8
1
14)
2 2
3 1−
18)
4
3
19) 1+
2
Exercise 5.2
3) cosA =
25
24
, cosecA =
7
25 −
4)
276
1331 −
5) 1 6) cotA
8) (i) cosec 23
o
(ii) cot 26
o
Exercise 5.3
5. (i) (2+ 3 ) (ii)
3 1
2 2
−
8) (i)
325
36
(ii) 
325
253
Exercise 5.4
14) sin3A =
125
117
cos3A =
125
44 −
; tan3A =
44
117 −
Exercise 5.5
1. (i)
2
1
( cos
2
A
 cosA) (ii)
2
1
(cos2C  cos2B)
(iii)
2
1
(
2
1
+ cos2A) (iv)
2
1
(cos3A + cos
3
A
)
2. (i) 2cos42
o
sin10
o
(ii)  2sin4Asin2A (iii) cos20
o
Exercise 5.6
1) (i)
6
π
(ii) 5
6
π
(iii) 3
4
π
(iv)
6
π
(v) 
4
π
(vi)
4
π
2) (i) θ = nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z (ii) θ = 2nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z, θ = 2nπ +
3
2π
; n∈Z
(iii) θ = nπ +
2
π
; n∈Z iv) θ = nπ +
3
π
; n∈Z
Exercise 5.7
6) x = 1 or
6
1
7) x =
2
1
or 4 9)
65
33
330
Exercise 5.8
1) (d) 2) (a) 3) (c) 4) (a) 5) (c) 6) (a)
7) (b) 8) (d) 9) (b) 10) (c) 11) (c) 12) (b)
13) (c) 14) (a) 15) (d) 16) (c) 17) (c) 18) (b)
19) (d) 20) (a) 21) (c) 22) (c) 23) (c) 24) (c)
25) (a) 26) (a) 27) (b) 28) (c) 29) (a) 30) (d)
31) (c) 32) (a) 33) (b) 34) (a) 35) (d) 36) (d)
37) (a) 38) (a) 39) (a) 40) (b)
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS
Exercise 6.1
5) 2x3+h 6) 0 7) Domain { x / < 0 or x > 1}
8) C =
¹
'
¹
≤
< ≤
n 25 ;  115n
25 n 0 ; 100n
25
n
2
9) (∞, 2] and [3, ∞]
12) f(
x
1
) =
5x 3
x 1
+
−
,
f(x)
1
=
1  x
5 3x +
13) 2
1 x
2
+
; + 2
Exercise 6.2
4) log 8 ; (log2)
3
5) (i) 1 (ii) 11 (iii) 5 (iv) 1(v) 4129
2
(vi) 0.25 (vii) 0 (viii)
3
8
; domain is R{
2
1

}
6) (i) 1, 1 (ii) 1, 1 (iii)
2
1
,
2
1
−
(iv) (0, 0) ; The domain is R{(4n+1)
2
π
; n is an integer}
7) (i) R  {(2n+1)π ; n∈Z} (ii) R{2nπ ; n∈Z}
(iii) R{nπ+
4
π
; n∈Z} (iv) R
(v) R{2nπ ; n∈Z} (vi) R{(2n+1)
2
π
; n∈Z}
8) Rs. 1,425 9) 74 years
10) i) f(x) =
3
1
x +
3
10
ii) f(3) =
3
13
(iii) a = 290
331
Exercise 6.3
1) (d) 2) (d) 3) (a) 4) (a) 5) (a) 6) (c)
7) (b) 8) (c) 9) (b) 10) (c) 11) (d) 12) (a)
13) (a) 14) (b) 15) (b)
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
Exercise 7.1
1) (i) 10/3 (ii)  5 (iii) 1/3 (iv)  1/ √2 (v) 2
(vi) 1 (vii)
24 7
8
15
a (viii) 5/3 (ix) 1 (x) 4
(xi) 12 (xii) 5 / 2
2) 5 4) 28 / 5 , f ( 2 ) does not exist.
Exercise 7.2
2) 5/4,  4/3. (6) x = 3 and x = 4
Exercise 7.3
1) (i)  sin x (ii) sec
2
x (iii)  cotx cosec x (iv)
x 2
1
2) (i) 12x
3
– 6x
2
+ 1 (ii)
2 4 5
1 6 20
x x x
− +
−
(iii)
x
e
x x
+ −
3 2
3
1
2
1
(iv) ( )
2
2
3
1
x
x
+
−
(v) sec
2
x + 1/x (vi) x
2
e
x
( x + 3 )
(vii)
2 3 2 1 2 3
6
2
15
−
− − x x x
(viii)
( ) b ax
x
n
n
n
−
+
2
1
(ix) 2x(6x
2
+ 1) (x) x
2
cosx + 2 ( cosx + x sinx)
(xi) sec x( 1 + 2 tan
2
x)(xii) 2sinx ( x  1) + x cos (x  2) + e
x
(xiii) 2x (2x
2
+ 1) (xiv) x
n1
( 1 + n log x)
(xv) 2 ( x tanx + cot x) + x( x sec
2
x – 2 cosec
2
x)
(xvi)
( ) 1 tan 2
2
sec
+ x x
x
x
(xvii)
( )
2
1
x
x
e
e
+
332
(xviii)
,
`
.

+
2
tan 1
2
tan
2
x x
(xix)
( )
2
5 3
30
x +
−
(xx)
4
1
2
2
−
−
x
x
(xxi)
2
1
1
x
−
(xxii) x ( 1 + 2 log x ) (xxiii) x sec
2
x + tan x – sin x
(xxiv)
( )
2
1 x
xe
x
+
Exercise 7.4
1)
2 2 3
1 3
2
+ −
−
x x
x
2)
( )
3 1
5 8 3
10
x −
−
3) e
x
cos ( e
x
)
4) e
secx
(secx tanx) 5) tan x 6) 2xe
x
2
7)
1
1
2
+ x
8)  3 sin(3x2) 9) 2x tan(x
2
)
10)
( )
4
3 2
2
2
−
−
x
x
11) e
sinx + cosx
(cosx – sinx)
12)  cosec
2
x. e
cotx
13)
x
e + 1
1
14) 2 cotx
15)
tanx 2
1
(e
tan x
sec
2
x) 16) 2x cos x
2
17)
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) x x x
x n
n
log log . log .
log log log
1 −
18)  2 sin 2x 19)
( )
x
x
x
e
e
e
+
−
+
1 log
1
1
20)
4
1
4
x
x
−
21) ( )
3 2
3
1
3
1
−
+ +x x ( ) 1 3
2
+ x 22)
( )
x
x log cos
23) x
log (logx)
[1+log (logx) 24) 18 x ( 3x
2
+ 4)
2
Exercise 7.5
1)
2
1
3
x −
2)
2
1
3
x +
3)
2
1
2
x +
4)
2
1
2
x +
5)
2
1
2
x +
6)
( )
2
1 2
1
x +
7)
( )
2
1 2
1
x +
8)
2 2
1
x a −
9) x
x
( 1 + logx)
333
10) (sinx)
log x
]
]
]
+
x
x
x x
sin log
log . cot 11) xsin
1
x [ ]
2
1
x  1
x log
x
x sin
+
12) (3x – 4)
x2
( ) ( )
]
]
]
−
−
+
−
−
2
4 3 log
4 3
2 3
x
x
x
x
13) ( ) x x e
x x
x
log 1 . +
14) x
logx
( )
x
x log 2
15)
]
]
]
− −
+
2
3
25 16
8
5 4
5 4
.
3
5
x x
x
16) ( ) ( )
]
]
]
−
+
+
− +
5 3
48
2
10
5 3 2
4
3
2
4
4
5
2
x
x
x
x
x x 17) ( )
]
]
]
− x
x
x
x
log 1
1
2
1
18) (tan x)
cos x
( cosec x – sin x log tanx)
19)
]
]
]
+
−
,
`
.

+
,
`
.

+
x x x
x
1
1 1
1 log
1
1 20)
( )
2 3
2 2
1 1
2
x x
x
− +
21)
( )
]
]
]
+
−
+
+
+
+
3 2
4
5
3
3 2
5
2 2
2 3
x x
x
x x
x x
(22) a a
x
log
23)
,
`
.
 +
x
x
x
x
2
log 2
(24) (sin x)
x
[x cot x + log sin x]
Exercise 7.6
1)
y
a 2
2)
y
x −
3)
x
y −
4)
y a
x b
2
2
−
5)
y a
x b
2
2
6)
( )
( ) by hx
hy ax
+
+ −
7) 1 8)
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
y x y
y x x
+
+ −
9)
x
y −
10)
]
]
]
−
−
x x y
y y x
x
y
log
log
11)
1 2
1 2
+
+
−
y
x
12)
( )
( ) y x
y x
+ +
+
−
sin 1
sin
13)
( )
2
log 1
log
x
x
+
14)
y x x
x y y
cot cos log
tan sin log
−
+
15)
x y
x y
−
−
2
2
θ ec
a
b
cos
334
Exercise 7.7
1)  θ cot
a
b
2) 
2
1
t
3) ecè
b
a
cos 4)
t
1
5)  tan θ 6) t cos t 7) tan θ 8)
( )
2 / 3
2
1 2
t
t −
9)
( ) t
t t
log sin
tan
10) 1 11)
t
1
Exercise 7.8
1) 32 2) a
2
y 3) 
( )
2
1
1
x +
4) 
3
2
1
at
5)  θ
3
2
cosec
a
b
6) θ θ ec
a
cos sec
3
1
4
11)
2
1
x
−
Exercise 7.9
1) (c) 2) (b) 3) (d) 4) (a) 5) (d) 6) (c)
7) (c) 8) (b) 9) (c) 10) (a) 11) (c) 12) (c)
13) (a) 14) (d) 15) (a) 16 (b) 17) (b) 18) (d)
19) (a) 20) (b) 21) (b) 22) (c) 23) (c) 24) (b)
25) (a) 26) (b) 27) (c) 28) (c) 29) (a) 30) (b)
31) (b) 32) (b) 33) (a) 34) (c) 35) (a) 36) (b)
37) (c) 38) (d) 39) (d) 40) (b) 41) (c) 42) (a)
43) (a) 44) (b)
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
Exercise 8.1
(1) x (x
3
– 1 ) + C (2) x x x x 14
3
2
5
− + + C
(3)
x
e x x
x
+ + + log 5 4
2
2
4
+ C (4) C x x
x
+ + + 2 log
2
2
(5) C x x
x
x
+ + + − log 3
2
3
2
1
4
2
2
4
(6) 5 sec x  2 cot x + C
(7) C x x x + + + log
5
2
7
2
2 5 2 7
(8) C x x x + + +
2 1 2 5 2 7
8
5
6
7
2
335
(9) 3e
x
+ 2 sec
1
(x) + C (10) C
x
x + −
3
3
1
log
(11) 9x  C
x
+
3
4
3
(12) C x x x + + +
2 2 5 2 3
5
2
3
2
(13) C x x x + + + cos 7 sin 3
2
3
3 2
(14) C x x + + −
2 3 2 1
3
2
2
(15) C x x + + 3
3
2
(16) ( ) C x x + + + 1 7
3
2
(17) x – 2tan
1
x + C (18) x – tan
1
x + C
(19) (sin x + cos x) + C (20) C
x
+
2
tan
(21) C e
x
x
+ + −
−
3
3
1
(22) log x + e
x
+ C
(23) C e
x
x
x
+ + +
1
log (24) 3x
3
+ 4x
2
+ 4x + C
(25) C x e
x
x
+ + − −
−
7 2
1
2
(26) tan x + sec x + C
Exercise 8.2
(1)
( )
C
x
+
−
4
3 2 12
1
(2) C
x
+
− ) 2 3 ( 2
1
(3) ( ) C x + +
5 6
3 4
24
5
(4) C
e
x
+
+
4
3 4
(5) ( ) C x x
x
+ + +
−
8 4
1 3
2
2
(6) ( ) C x x + − +
2
3
4
2
1
(7) C x + − ) cos(
2
1
2
(8) 2 C x + cos
(9) C x +
3
) (log
3
1
(10) C x x + +
2 3 2
) (
3
2
(11) C x + +1
2
(12) ( ) C x x + +
4
2
2
8
1
(13) log ( x
3
+ 3x + 5 ) + C (14) C
x
+
,
`
.

−
2
tan
6
1
3
1
336
(15) log ( e
x
+ e
–x
) + C (16) log ( log x ) + C
(17) tan ( log x) + C (18)
( )
C
x
+
+
−
2
1 2 4
1
(19) ( ) { ¦ x log log log + C (20)
( )
C
x
+
−
3
tan 2 1 6
1
(21) log ( sinx) + C (22)  log ( cosec x + cot x ) + C
(23) log ( 1 + log x ) + C (24) ( ) { ¦ C x +
−
2
2 1
tan
4
1
(25) ( ) C x + +
2 3
log 3
3
2
(26) C
x
x
+
+ 1
log
4
1
4
4
(27) ( ) C x +
2
tan (28)
( )
C
x
+
+
3
4 2
2 3
(29)
( )
C
x
+
−
5
1
5
2
(30) ( )
2 3
2
4
3
2
+ + x x +C
(31) ( ) x b a
b
tan log
1
+ + C (32) log sec x + C
Exercise 8.3
1)
,
`
.

−
3
tan
3
1
1
x
+ C 2) ( ) x 2 tan
2
1
1 ` −
+ C
3)
,
`
.

+
−
2
2
log
4
1
x
x
+ C 4)
,
`
.

−
+
x
x
5
5
log
5 2
1
+ C
5) ( ) 1 9 3 log
3
1
2
− + x x + C 6) ( ) 25 36 6 log
6
1
2
+ + x x + C
7)
,
`
.

−
3
2
sin
2
1
1
x
+ C 8)
,
`
.
 +
−
2
1
tan
2
1
1
x
+ C
9)
,
`
.
 +
−
2
1 3
tan
6
1
1
x
+ C 10) ( ) { ¦ 2 4 2 log
2
+ + + + x x x + C
11)
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − +
,
`
.

−
2
3
2
1
log x x x +C 12) ( )
,
`
.

+
−
− − +
5
1
log
6
1
5 4 log
2
1
2
x
x
x x + C
337
13) ( )
,
`
.

−
−
+ + −
1
2
log
2
9
2 3 log
2
7
2
x
x
x x + C
14) ( )
,
`
.

−
−
+ + −
1
3
log 2 3 4 log
2
1
2
x
x
x x + C 15) 3 2 2
2
− + x x + C
16) ( ) { ¦ 1 2 1 log 2 1 2 2
2 2
− + + + + − + x x x x x + C
Exercise 8.4
1)  e
x
( x+ 1 ) + C 2)
,
`
.

−
2
1
log
2
2
x
x
+ C 3) x ( log x – 1 ) + C
4)
,
`
.

−
a
x
a
a
e e
x
log
1
log
+ C 5) x ( log x )
2
– 2x ( log x – 1 ) + C
6) ( ) 1 log
1
+ − x
x
+ C 7)
4
2 cos
2
2 sin x x x
+ + C
8)
3
3 cos
9
3 sin x x x
− + C 9)
2 1
1 cos x x x − −
−
+ C
10) ( )
2 1
1 log
2
1
tan x x x + −
−
+ C 11) x sec x  log (secx + tanx) + C
12) e
x
( x
2
– 2x + 2 ) + C
Exercise 8.5
1) ( ) 36 log 18 36
2
2 2
− + − − x x x
x
+ C
2)
,
`
.

+ −
−
4
sin 8 16
2
1 2
x
x
x
+ C
3) ( )
2 2
25 log
2
25
25
2
x x x
x
+ + + + + C
4) ( ) 25 log
2
25
25
2
2 2
− + − − x x x
x
+ C
5) ( ) 5 4 2 log
4
5
5 4
2
2 2
− + − − x x x
x
+ C
6) ( ) 16 9 3 log
3
8
16 9
2
2 2
− + − − x x x
x
+ C
338
Exercise: 8.6
1)
6
29
2) 5 log 2 3)
4
π
4)
2 log
1
e
5) 3 (e – 1) 6) ( ) 1
2
1
− e 7) tan
–1
(e)
4
π
− 8) 1 
4
π
9)
8
π
10) 1
2
−
π
11) (log 4)1 12) ( ) 1 3 3
3
8
−
13)
4
π
14) log
,
`
.

3
4
15) 2 16)
3
2
17)
2
π
18) ( ) 1
4
1
− e
Exercise 8.7
1)
2
3
2) e  1 3)
4
15
4)
3
1
Exercise 8.8
1) (b) 2) (d) 3) (c) 4) (a) 5) (b) 6) (c)
7) (a) 8) (b) 9) (a) 10) (b) 11) (a) 12) (b)
13) (a) 14) (a) 15) (c) 16) (a) 17) (d) 18) (b)
19) (a) 20) (d) 21) (a) 22) (c) 23) (a) 24) (d)
25) (c) 26) (a) 27) (d) 28) (a) 29) (b) 30) (c)
31) (b) 32) (d) 33) (a) 34) (d) 35) (a)
STOCKS, SHARES AND DEBENTURES
Exercise 9.1
1) Rs. 750 2) Rs. 1,000 3) 100 4) Rs. 7,200 5) Rs. 1,500
6) Rs. 9,360 7) 6
3
2
% 8) 15% 9) 12.5% 10) 20%
11) 7
13
9
% 12) 5% stock at 95 13) 18% debenture at 110
14) 13
3
1
% 15) Rs. 40,500 16) Rs. 160 17) Rs. 130
18) Rs. 675 19) Rs. 525 20) 2% 21) Rs. 5,500 22) Rs. 900, Rs. 90
339
23) Decrease in income Rs. 333.33 24) Rs. 120
25) Rs. 10,000, Rs. 24,000 26) 5% 27) 17.47%
Exercise 9.2
1) (b) 2) (b) 3) (a) 4) (a) 5) (a) 6) (d)
7) (b) 8) (a) 9) (a) 10) (d) 11) (b) 12) (a)
STATISTICS
Exercise 10.1
1) 29.6 2) 13.1 3) 4 4) 58 5) 33
6) 49.3 7) 34 8) 59.5 9) 20 10) 8
11) 48.18 12) 44.67 13) 69 14) 32 15) 13
16) 26.67 17) 183.35 18) 17.07 19) 28.02 20) 4.38
21) 8.229 22) 30.93
Exercise 10.2
1) (a) 11, .58 (b) 29, .39 2) 12, .0896
3) 40, .33 4) S.D = 2.52 5) S.D = 3.25
6) (i) S.D = 13.24 (ii) S.D = 13.24 (iii) 13.24
7) S.D = 1.07 8) S.D = 1.44 9) S.D = 2.47
10) S.D = Rs. 31.87 (Crores) 11) C.V = 13.92
12) C.V(A) = .71, C.V(B) = .67 Since C.V(B) < C.V(A),
CityB’s price was more stable.
13) C.V =(x) = 5.24, C.V(y) = 1.90, since C.V(y) < C.V(x)
City y’s share was more stable.
Exercise 10.3
1)
8
1
,
8
7
2)
9
1
3)
15
2
,
3
1
4)
10
1
,
100
43
5)
3
2
6)
12
1
7)
12
11
8)
11
6
9)
74
45
10)
37
15
Exercise 10.4
1) (c) 2) (b) 3) (c) 4) (a) 5) (c) 6) (c)
7) (a) 8) (b) 9) (a) 10) (a) 11) (c) 12) (a)
13) (c) 14) (b) 15) (c) 16) (c) 17) (a) 18) (b)
19) (c) 20) (a) 21) (a) 22) (b) 23) (a) 24) (b)
25) (c)
340
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 0000 0043 0086 0128 0170 0212 0253 0294 0334 0374 4 8 12 17 21 25 29 33 37
11 0414 0453 0492 0531 0569 0607 0645 0682 0719 0755 4 8 11 15 19 23 26 30 34
12 0792 0828 0864 0899 0934 0969 1004 1038 1072 1106 3 7 10 14 17 21 24 28 31
13 1139 1173 1206 1239 1271 1303 1335 1367 1399 1430 3 6 10 13 16 19 23 26 29
14 1461 1492 1523 1553 1594 1614 1644 1673 1703 1732 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27
15 1761 1790 1818 1847 1875 1903 1931 1959 1987 2014 3 6 8 11 14 17 20 22 25
16 2041 2068 2095 2122 2148 2175 2201 2227 2253 2279 3 5 8 11 13 16 18 21 24
17 2304 2330 2355 2380 2405 2430 2455 2480 2504 2529 2 5 7 10 12 15 17 20 22
18 2553 2577 2601 2625 2648 2672 2695 2718 2742 2765 2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21
19 2788 2810 2833 2856 2878 2900 2923 2945 2967 2989 2 4 7 9 11 13 16 18 20
20 3010 3032 3054 3075 3096 3118 3139 3160 3181 3201 2 4 6 8 11 13 15 17 19
21 3222 3243 3263 3284 3304 3324 3345 3365 3385 3404 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
22 3424 3444 3464 3483 3502 3522 3541 3560 3579 3598 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15 17
23 3617 3636 3655 3674 3692 3711 3729 3747 3766 3784 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17
24 3802 3820 3838 3856 3874 3892 3909 3927 3945 3962 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16
25 3979 3997 4014 4031 4048 4065 4082 4099 4116 4133 2 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 15
26 4150 4166 4183 5200 4216 4232 4249 4265 4281 4298 2 3 5 7 8 10 11 13 15
27 4314 4330 4346 4362 4378 4393 4409 4425 4440 4456 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 13 14
28 4472 4487 4502 4518 4533 4548 4564 4579 4594 4609 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14
29 4624 4639 4654 4669 4683 4698 4713 4728 4742 4757 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13
30 4771 4786 4800 4814 4829 4843 4857 4871 4886 4900 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 11 13
31 4914 4928 4942 4955 4969 4983 4997 5011 5024 5038 1 3 4 5 7 8 10 11 12
32 5051 5065 5079 5092 5105 5119 5132 5145 5159 5172 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12
33 5185 5198 5211 5224 5237 5250 5263 5276 5289 5302 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12
34 5315 5328 5340 5353 5366 5378 5391 5403 5416 5428 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11
35 5441 5453 5465 5478 5490 5502 5514 5527 5539 5551 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 11
36 5563 5575 5587 5599 5611 5623 5635 5647 5658 5670 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 11
37 5682 5694 5705 5717 5729 5740 5752 5763 5775 5786 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
38 57985809 5821 5832 5843 5855 5866 5877 5888 5899 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
39 5911 5922 5933 5944 5955 5966 5977 5988 5999 6010 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
40 6021 6031 6042 6053 6064 6075 6085 6096 6107 6117 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10
41 6128 6138 6149 6160 6170 6180 6191 6201 6212 6222 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
42 6232 6243 6253 6263 6274 6284 6294 6304 6314 6325 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
43 6335 6345 6355 6365 6375 6385 6395 6405 6415 6425 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
44 6435 6444 6454 6464 6474 6484 6493 6503 6513 6522 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
45 6532 6542 6551 6561 6571 6580 6590 6599 6609 6618 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
46 6628 6637 6646 6656 6665 6675 6684 6693 9702 9712 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8
47 6721 6730 6739 6749 6758 6767 6776 6785 6794 6803 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8
48 6812 6821 6830 6839 6848 6857 6866 6875 6884 6893 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8
49 6902 6911 6920 6928 6937 6946 6955 6964 6972 6981 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8
50 6990 6998 7007 7016 7024 7033 7042 7050 7059 7067 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
51 7076 7084 7093 7101 7110 7118 7126 7135 7143 7152 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
52 7160 7168 7177 7185 7193 7202 7210 7218 7226 7235 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7
53 7243 7251 7259 7267 7275 7284 7292 7300 7308 7316 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7
54 7324 7332 7340 7348 7356 7364 7372 7380 7388 7396 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7
LOGARI THMS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Mean Differences
341
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
LOGARI THMS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
55 7404 7412 7419 7427 7435 7443 7451 7459 7466 7474 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
56 7482 7490 7497 7505 7513 7520 7528 7536 7543 7551 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
57 7559 7566 7574 7582 7589 7597 7604 7612 7619 7627 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
58 7634 7642 7649 7657 7664 7672 7679 7686 7694 7701 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7
59 7709 7716 7723 7731 7738 7745 7752 7760 7767 7774 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7
60 7782 7789 7796 7803 7810 7818 7825 7832 7839 7846 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6
61 7853 7860 7868 7875 7882 7889 7896 7903 7910 7917 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6
62 7924 7931 7938 7945 7952 7959 7966 7973 7980 7987 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6
63 7993 8000 8007 8014 8021 8028 8035 8041 8048 8055 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6
64 8062 8069 8075 8082 8089 8096 8102 8109 8116 8122 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
65 8129 8136 8142 8149 8156 8162 8169 8176 8182 8189 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
66 8195 8202 8209 8215 8222 8228 8235 8241 8248 8254 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
67 8261 8267 8274 8280 8287 8293 8299 8306 8312 8319 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
68 8325 8331 8338 8344 8351 8357 8363 8370 8376 8382 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
69 8388 8395 8401 8407 8414 8420 8426 8432 8439 8445 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
70 8451 8457 8463 8470 8476 8482 8488 8494 8500 8506 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6
71 8513 8519 8525 8531 8537 8543 8549 8555 8561 8567 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
72 8573 8579 8585 8591 8597 8603 8609 8615 8621 8627 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
73 8633 8639 8645 8651 8657 8663 8669 8675 8681 8686 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
74 8692 8698 8704 8710 8716 8722 8727 8733 8739 8745 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
75 8751 8756 8762 8768 8774 8779 8785 8791 8797 8802 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
76 8808 8814 8820 8825 8831 8837 8842 8848 8854 8859 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
77 8865 8871 8876 8882 8887 8893 8899 8904 8910 8915 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
78 8912 8927 8932 8938 8943 8949 8954 8960 8965 8971 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
79 8976 8982 8987 8993 8998 9004 9009 9015 9020 9025 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
80 9031 9036 9042 9047 9053 9058 9063 9069 9074 9079 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
81 9085 9090 9096 9101 9106 9112 9117 9122 9128 9133 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
82 9138 9143 9149 9154 9159 9165 9170 9175 9180 9186 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
83 9191 9196 9201 9206 9212 9217 9222 9227 9232 9238 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
84 9243 9248 9253 9258 9263 9269 9274 9279 9284 9289 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
85 9294 9299 9304 9309 9315 9320 9325 9330 9335 9340 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
86 9345 9350 9355 9360 9365 9370 9375 9380 9385 9390 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
87 9395 9400 9405 9410 9415 9420 9425 9430 9435 9440 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
88 9445 9450 9455 9460 9465 9469 9474 9479 9484 9489 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
89 9494 9499 9504 9509 9513 9518 9523 9528 9533 9538 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
90 9542 9547 9552 9557 9562 9566 9571 9576 9581 9586 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
91 9590 9595 9600 9605 9609 9614 9619 9624 9628 9633 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
92 9638 9643 9647 9652 9657 9661 9666 9671 9675 9680 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
93 9685 9689 9694 9699 9703 9708 9713 9717 9722 9727 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
94 9731 9736 9741 9745 9750 9754 9759 9764 9768 9773 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
95 9777 9782 9786 9791 9795 9800 9805 9809 9814 9818 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
96 9823 9827 9832 9836 9841 9845 9850 9854 9859 9863 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
97 9868 9872 9877 9881 9886 9890 9894 9899 9903 9908 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
98 9912 9917 9921 9926 9930 9934 9939 9943 9948 9952 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
99 9956 9961 9965 9969 9974 9978 9983 9987 9991 9996 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
Mean Differences
342
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.00 1000 1002 1005 1007 1009 1012 1014 1016 1019 1021 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
.01 1023 1026 1028 1030 1033 1035 1038 1040 1042 1045 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
.02 1047 1050 1052 1054 1057 1059 1062 1064 1067 1069 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
.03 1072 1074 1076 1079 1081 1084 1086 1089 1091 1094 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2
.04 1096 1099 1102 1104 1107 1109 1112 1114 1117 1119 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
.05 1122 1125 1127 1130 1132 1135 1138 1140 1143 1146 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
.06 1148 1151 1153 1156 1159 1161 1164 1167 1169 1172 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
.07 1175 1178 1180 1183 1186 1189 1191 1194 1197 1199 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
.08 1202 1205 1208 1211 1213 1216 1219 1222 1225 1227 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3
.09 1230 1233 1236 1239 1242 1245 1247 1250 1253 1256 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3
.10 1259 1262 1265 1268 1271 1274 1276 1279 1282 1285 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3
.11 1288 1291 1294 1297 1300 1303 1306 1309 1312 1315 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3
.12 1318 1321 1324 1327 1330 1334 1337 1340 1343 1346 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3
.13 1349 1352 1355 1358 1361 1365 1368 1371 1374 1377 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3
.14 1380 1384 1387 1390 1393 1396 1400 1403 1406 1409 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
.15 1413 1416 1419 1422 1426 1429 1432 1435 1439 1442 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
.16 1445 1449 1452 1455 1459 1462 1466 1469 1472 1476 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
.17 1479 1483 1486 1489 1493 1496 1500 1503 1507 1510 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
.18 1514 1517 1521 1524 1528 1531 1535 1538 1542 1545 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
.19 1549 1552 1556 1560 1563 1567 1570 1574 1578 1581 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3
.20 1585 1589 1592 1596 1600 1603 1607 1611 1614 1618 0 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3
.21 1622 1626 1629 1633 1637 1641 1644 1648 1652 1656 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
.22 1660 1663 1667 1671 1675 1679 1683 1687 1690 1694 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3
.23 1698 1702 1706 1710 1714 1718 1722 1726 1730 1734 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4
.24 1738 1742 1746 1750 1754 1758 1762 1766 1770 1774 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4
.25 1778 1782 1786 1791 1795 1799 1803 1807 1811 1816 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4
.26 1820 1824 1828 1832 1837 1841 1845 1849 1854 1858 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4
.27 1862 1866 1871 1875 1879 1884 1888 1892 1897 1901 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4
.28 1905 1910 1914 1919 1923 1928 1932 1936 1941 1945 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.29 1950 1954 1959 1963 1968 1972 1977 1982 1986 1991 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.30 1995 2000 2004 2009 2014 2018 2023 2028 2032 2037 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.31 2042 2046 2051 2056 2061 2065 2070 2075 2080 2084 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.32 2089 2094 2099 2104 2109 2113 2118 2123 2128 2133 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.33 2138 2143 2148 2153 2158 2163 2168 2173 2178 2183 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
.34 2188 2193 2198 2203 2208 2213 2218 2223 2228 2234 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
.35 2239 2244 2249 2254 2259 2265 2270 2275 2280 2286 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
.36 2291 2296 2301 2307 2312 2317 2323 2328 2333 2339 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
.37 2344 2350 2355 2360 2366 2371 2377 2382 2388 2393 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
.38 2399 2404 2410 2415 2421 2427 2432 2438 2443 2449 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
.39 2455 2460 2466 2472 2477 2483 2489 2495 2500 2506 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
.40 2512 2518 2523 2529 2535 2541 2547 2553 2559 2564 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 5
.41 2570 2576 2582 2588 2594 2600 2606 2612 2618 2624 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
.42 2630 2636 2642 2648 2655 2661 2667 2673 2679 2685 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6
.43 2692 2698 2704 2710 2716 2723 2729 2735 2742 2748 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6
.44 2754 2761 2767 2773 2780 2786 2793 2799 2805 2812 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6
.45 2818 2825 2831 2838 2844 2851 2858 2864 2871 2877 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
.46 2884 2891 2897 2904 2911 2917 2924 2931 2938 2944 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 5 6
.47 2951 2958 2965 2972 2979 2985 2992 2999 3006 3013 1 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6
.48 3020 3027 3034 3041 3048 3055 3062 3069 3076 3083 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6
.49 3090 3097 3105 3112 3119 3126 3133 3141 3148 3155 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7
ANTILOGARI THMS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Mean Differences
343
.50 3162 3170 3177 3184 3192 3199 3206 3214 3221 3228 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 7
.51 3236 3243 3251 3258 3266 3273 3281 3289 3296 3304 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
.52 3311 3319 3327 3334 3342 3350 3357 3365 3373 3381 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 7
.53 3388 3396 3404 3412 3420 3428 3436 3443 3451 3459 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7
.54 3467 3475 3483 3491 3499 3508 3516 3524 3532 3540 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 7
.55 3548 3556 3565 3573 3581 3589 3597 3606 3614 3622 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7
.56 3631 3639 3648 3656 3664 3673 3681 3690 3698 3707 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
.57 3715 3724 3733 3741 3750 3758 3767 3776 3784 3793 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8
.58 3802 3811 3819 3828 3837 3846 3855 3864 3873 3882 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8
.59 3890 3899 3908 3917 3926 3936 3945 3954 3963 3972 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8
.60 3981 3990 3999 4009 4018 4027 4036 4046 4055 4064 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8
.61 4074 4083 4093 4102 4111 4121 4030 4140 4150 4159 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.62 4169 4178 4188 4198 4207 4217 4227 4236 4246 4256 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.63 4266 4276 4285 4295 4305 4315 4325 4335 4345 4355 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.64 4365 4375 4385 4395 4406 4416 4426 4436 4446 4457 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.65 4467 4477 4487 4498 4508 4519 4529 4539 4550 4560 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
.66 4571 4581 4592 4603 4613 4624 4634 4645 4656 4667 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10
.67 4677 4688 4699 4710 4721 4732 4742 4753 4764 4775 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10
.68 4786 4797 4808 4819 4831 4842 4853 4864 4875 4887 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10
.69 4898 4909 4920 4932 4943 4955 4966 4977 4989 5000 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10
.70 5012 5023 5035 5047 5058 5070 5082 5093 5105 5117 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11
.71 5129 5140 5152 5164 5176 5188 5200 5212 5224 5236 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 11
.72 5248 5260 5272 5284 5297 5309 5321 5333 5346 5358 1 2 4 5 6 7 9 10 11
.73 5370 5383 5395 5408 5420 5433 5445 5458 5470 5483 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11
.74 5495 5508 5521 5534 5546 5559 5572 5585 5598 5610 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 12
.75 5623 5636 5649 5662 5675 5689 5702 5715 5728 5741 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 12
.76 5754 5768 5781 5794 5808 5821 5834 5848 5861 5875 1 3 4 5 7 8 9 11 12
.77 5888 5902 5916 5929 5943 5957 5970 5984 5998 6012 1 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 12
.78 6026 6039 6053 6067 6081 6095 6109 6124 6138 6152 1 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 13
.79 6166 6180 6194 6209 6223 6237 6252 6266 6281 6295 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13
.80 6310 6324 6339 6353 6368 6383 6397 6412 6427 6442 1 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13
.81 6457 6471 6486 6501 6516 6531 6546 6561 6577 6592 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14
.82 6607 6622 6637 6653 6668 6683 6699 6714 6730 6745 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 12 14
.83 6761 6776 6792 6808 6823 6839 6855 6871 6887 6902 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 13 14
.84 6918 6934 6950 6566 6982 6998 7015 7031 7047 7063 2 3 5 6 8 10 11 13 14
.85 7079 7096 7112 7129 7145 7161 7178 7194 7211 7228 2 3 5 7 8 10 12 13 15
.86 7244 7261 7278 7295 7311 7328 7345 7362 7379 7396 2 3 5 7 8 10 12 14 15
.87 7413 7430 7447 7464 7482 7499 7516 7534 7551 7568 2 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16
.88 7586 7603 7621 7638 7656 7674 7691 7709 7727 7745 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 14 16
.89 7762 7780 7798 7816 7834 7852 7870 7889 7907 7925 2 4 5 7 9 11 13 14 16
.90 7943 7962 7980 7998 8017 8035 8054 8072 8091 8110 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17
.91 8128 8147 8166 8185 8204 8222 8241 8260 8279 8299 2 4 6 8 10 11 13 15 17
.92 8318 8337 8356 8375 8395 8414 8433 8453 8472 8492 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15 17
.93 8511 8531 8551 8570 8590 8610 8630 8650 8670 8690 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
.94 8710 8730 8750 8770 8790 8810 8831 8851 8872 8892 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
.95 8913 8933 8954 8974 8995 9016 9036 9057 9078 9099 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 17 19
.96 9120 9141 9162 9183 9204 9226 9247 9268 9290 9311 2 4 7 9 11 13 15 17 19
.97 9333 9354 9376 9397 9419 9441 9462 9484 9506 9528 2 4 7 9 11 13 15 17 20
.98 9550 9572 9594 9616 9638 9661 9683 9705 9727 9750 2 4 7 9 11 13 16 18 20
.99 9772 9795 9817 9840 9863 9886 9908 9931 9954 9977 2 5 7 9 11 14 16 18 21
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
ANTILOGARI THMS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Mean Differences
© Government of Tamilnadu First Edition  2004
Chairperson
Thiru. V. THIRUGNANASAMBANDAM,
Retired Lecturer in Mathematics Govt. Arts College (Men) Nandanam, Chennai  600 035.
Reviewers
Selection Grade Lecturer Department of Mathematics Govt. Arts College (Men) Nandanam, Chennai  600 035.
Thiru. N. RAMESH,
Dr. M.R. SRINIVASAN,
Reader in Statistics Department of Statistics University of Madras, Chennai  600 005.
Thiru. S. GUNASEKARAN,
Headmaster, Govt. Girls Hr. Sec. School, Tiruchengode, Namakkal Dist.
Authors Thiru. S. RAMACHANDRAN,
Post Graduate Teacher The Chintadripet Hr. Sec. School, Chintadripet, Chennai  600 002. Post Graduate Teacher The Hindu Hr. Sec. School, Triplicane, Chennai  600 005. Post Graduate Teacher Jaigopal Garodia National Hr. Sec. School East Tambaram, Chennai  600 059. Post Graduate Teacher Ramakrishna Mission Hr. Sec. School (Main) T. Nagar, Chennai  600 017.
Thiru. S. RAMAN,
Thiru. S.T. PADMANABHAN,
Tmt. K. MEENAKSHI,
Lecturer (S.S.), Department of Statistics, Presidency College, Chennai  600 005.
Thiru. V. PRAKASH,
Price : Rs.
This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu This book has been printed on 60 GSM paper
Laser typeset by : JOY GRAPHICS, Chennai  600 002. Printed by :
Preface
This book on Business Mathematics has been written in conformity with the revised syllabus for the first year of the Higher Secondary classes. The aim of this text book is to provide the students with the basic knowledge in the subject. We have given in the book the Definitions, Theorems and Observations, followed by typical problems and the step by step solution. The society’s increasing business orientation and the students’ preparedness to meet the future needs have been taken care of in this book on Business Mathematics. This book aims at an exhaustive coverage of the curriculum and there is definitely an attempt to kindle the students creative ability. While preparing for the examination students should not restrict themselves only to the questions / problems given in the self evaluation. They must be prepared to answer the questions and problems from the entire text. We welcome suggestions from students, teachers and academicians so that this book may further be improved upon. We thank everyone who has lent a helping hand in the preparation of this book. Chairperson The Text Book Committee
iii
SYLLABUS
1) Matrices and Determinants (15 periods) Order  Types of matrices  Addition and subtraction of matrices and Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar  Product of matrices. Evaluation of determinants of order two and three  Properties of determinants (Statements only)  Singular and non singular matrices Product of two determinants. Algebra (20 periods) Partial fractions  Linear non repeated and repeated factors  Quadratic non repeated types. Permutations  Applications  Permutation of repeated objects  Circular permutaion. Combinations  Applications Mathematical induction  Summation of series using Σn, Σn 2 and Σn 3. Binomial theorem for a positive integral index  Binomial coefficients. Sequences and series (20 periods) Harnomic progression  Means of two positive real numbers  Relation between A.M., G.M., and H.M.  Sequences in general  Specifying a sequence by a rule and by a recursive relation  Compound interest Nominal rate and effective rate  Annuities  immediate and due. Analytical Geometry (30 periods) Locus  Straight lines  Normal form, symmetric form  Length of perpendicular from a point to a line  Equation of the bisectors of the angle between two lines  Perpendicular and parallel lines  Concurrent lines  Circle  Centre radius form  Diameter form  General form Length of tangent from a point to a circle  Equation of tangent  Chord of contact of tangents. Trigonometry (25 periods) Standard trigonometric identities  Signs of trigonometric ratios compound angles  Addition formulae  Multiple and submultiple angles  Product formulae  Principal solutions  Trigonometric equations of the form sin θ = sinα, cosθ = cosα and tanθ = tan α Inverse trigonometric functions. Functions and their Graphs (15 Periods) Functions of a real value  Constants and variables  Neighbourhood  Representation of functions  Tabular and graphical form  Vertical iv
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
line test for functions  Linear functions  Determination of slopes Power function  2x and ex  Circular functions  Graphs of sinx, ,cosx and tanx  Arithmetics of functions (sum, difference, product and quotient) Absolute value function, signum function  Step function Inverse of a function  Even and odd functions  Composition of functions 7) Differential calculus Limit of a function  Standard forms
xn − a n , x →a xa
(30 periods)
e x −1 x →0 x
Lt Lt
Lt (1+ x →0
1 )x , x
Lt
,
x →0
Lt
log(1 x) + , x
x →0
sin θ (statement only) θ
Continuity of functions  Graphical interpretation  Differentiation Geometrical interpretation  Differtentiation using first principles  Rules of differentiation  Chain rule  Logarithmic Differentitation Differentiation of implicit functions  parametric functions  Second order derivatives. 8) Integral calculus (25 periods) Integration  Methods of integration  Substitution  Standard forms integration by parts  Definite integral  Integral as the limit of an infinite sum (statement only). Stocks, Shares and Debentures (15 periods) Basic concepts  Distinction between shares and debentures Mathematical aspects of purchase and sale of shares  Debentures with nominal rate.
9)
10) Statistics (15 Periods) Measures of central tendency for a continuous frequency distribution Mean, Median, Mode Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean  Measures of dispersion for a continuous frequency distribution  Range Standard deviation  Coefficient of variation  Probability  Basic concepts  Axiomatic approach  Classical definition  Basic theorems  Addition theorem (statement only)  Conditional probability Multiplication theorem (statement only)  Baye’s theorem (statement only)  Simple problems.
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Contents
Page 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS ALGEBRA SEQUENCES AND SERIES ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY TRIGONOMETRY FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS INTEGRAL CALCULUS STOCKS, SHARES AND DEBENTURES STATISTICS 1 25 54 89 111 154 187 229 257 280
vi
Statistics and Modern Control systems. may be real or complex numbers.. Business Management.. . Matrix Theory has its applications in Operations Research.. .. matrices are now indispensible in all branches of Engineering. a m1 a 12 a 22 . Economics and Psychology.a 1n . .. where as m and n are positive integers. For example A= 2 1 x2 2 and B = x 4 sinx 1 are the matrices x 1 ..a 2n . .. But in the present day applied Mathematics in overwhelmingly large majority of cases it is used. is called a MATRIX .. 1. a m2 .1 MATRIX ALGEBRA 1 Sir ARTHUR CAYLEY (18211895) of England was the first Mathematician to introduce the term MATRIX in the year 1858.1. which denotes the number of Rows and number of Columns. Physical and Social Sciences.MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 1. .a mn The numbers or functions a ij of this array are called elements. . Apart from the above. as a notation to represent a large number of simultaneous equations in a compact and convenient manner..1 Definition of a Matrix A rectangular array of numbers or functions represented by the symbol a 11 a 21 .
1. For example A= B= 1 4 2 5 3 is a Matrix of order 2 x 3 and 6 1 2 2 is a Matrix of order 2 x 2 4 sinθ cosθ C= cosθ sinθ is a Matrix of order 2 x 2 0 D = − 4 78 22 5 −8 30 − 67 is a Matrix of order 3 x 3 93 1. For example 5 A= 6 3 B = 4 2 1 1 4 7 is a Square Matrix of order 2 3 5 6 is a Square Matrix of order 3 9 sinβ sinδ sinα cosα cosβ cosδ is a Square Matrix of order 3 C= cosecα cosecβ cosecδ 2 .1. The first subscript i in (aij ) ranging from 1 to m identifies the rows and the second subscript j in (a ij ) ranging from 1 to n identifies the columns.1.3 Types of Matrices (i) SQUARE MATRIX When the number of rows is equal to the number of columns. Symbolically A = (aij )m x n is a matrix of order m x n. the matrix is called a Square Matrix.2 Order of a Matrix A matrix A with m rows and n columns is said to be of the order m by n (m x n).
For example A = 0 is a column matrix of order 3 x 1 and 1 2 1 B = is a column matrix of order 2 x 1 0 (iv) ZERO OR NULL MATRIX A matrix in which all elements are equal to zero is called Zero or Null Matrix and is denoted by O. For example 0 O= 0 0 is a Null Matrix of order 2 x 2 and 0 0 0 0 O= 0 0 0 is a Null Matrix of order 2 x 3 (v) DIAGONAL MATRIX A square Matrix in which all the elements other than main diagonal elements are zero is called a diagonal matrix For example 5 A= 0 1 B = 0 0 0 2 0 0 is a Diagonal Matrix of order 2 and 9 0 0 is a Diagonal Matrix of order 3 3 3 .(ii) ROW MATRIX A matrix having only one row is called Row Matrix For example A = (2 0 1) is a row matrix of order 1 x 3 B = (1 0) is a row matrix or order 1 x 2 (iii) COLUMN MATRIX A matrix having only one column is called Column Matrix.
5 Negative of a matrix The negative of a matrix A = (aij )m x n is defined by . (vi) SCALAR MATRIX A Diagonal Matrix with all diagonal elements equal to K (a scalar) is called a Scalar Matrix. to multiply a matrix A by a scalar K. 4 .1. 7 are called secondary diagonal elements.A = (a ij )m x n for all i. 1.Consider the square matrix 1 3 7 A = 5 − 2 − 4 3 6 5 Here 1. 2. then the Scalar Multiplication of A by the scalar k is defined as KA= (Kaij ) for all i. 5 are called main diagonal elements and 3. j. j and is obtained by changing the sign of every element.4 Multiplication of a marix by a scalar If A = (aij ) is a matrix of any order and if K is a scalar. For example 2 A = 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 is a Scalar Matrix of order 3 and the value of scalar K = 2 2 (vii) UNIT MATRIX OR IDENTITY MATRIX A scalar Matrix having each diagonal element equal to 1 (unity) is called a Unit Matrix and is denoted by I. In other words. 2.1. multiply every element of A by K. For example 1 I2 = 0 I3 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 is a Unit Matrix of order 2 1 0 0 is a Unit Matrix of order 3 1 1.
let B = (bij ) be an p x n matrix.For example 2 − 5 7 If A = 0 5 6 then −2 5 −7 A= 0 −5 −6 1. 1.1.e. Let A and B be the two matrices of the same order.8 Properties of matrix addition Let A. B.6 Equality of matrices Two matrices are said to equal when i) they have the same order and ii) the corresponding elements are equal. 5 . conformable for multiplication) and Let A = (aij ) be an m x p matrix. When two matrices A and B are of same order.e. 1. 1.1.7 Addition of matrices Addition of matrices is possible only when they are of same order (i.9 Subtraction of matrices Subtraction of matrices is also possible only when they are of same order. The matrix A .1.. where k is scalar. The addition of matrices obeys the following (i) (ii) (iii) Commutative law : A + B = B+A Associative law : A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C Distributive law : K(A+B) = KA+KB. then their sum (A+B) is obtained by adding the corresponding elements in both the matrices.10 Multiplication of matrices Multiplication of two matrices is possible only when the number of columns of the first matrix is equal to the number of rows of the second matrix (i.1. conformal for addition). C be matrices of the same order. 1.B is obtained by subtracting the elements of B from the corresponding elements of A.1.
C are matrices of order mxn.e. A. (AB) C = A(BC) Matrix Multiplication is distributive with respect to addition.e. Then AI = A = I A The product AB = O (Null matrix). B. then A(B+C) = AB + AC Let A be a square matrix of order n and I is the unit matrix of same order. does not imply that either A = 0 or B = 0 or both are zero. For example 3 5 if A = 2 − 1 B= 6 7 3 x 2 3 then AB = 2 6 5 − 1 7 5 − 7 − 2 4 2 x 2 5 −7 − 2 4 3x(7) + 5x(5) 5 3 x 5 + 5x(2) −1 2 x 5 + (1) x (2) 2 x (7) + (1) x (4) = 12 − 18 = 6 x 5 + 7x (2) 6x (7) + 7x (4) 16 − 14 1. for the two matrices A and B. where cij = element in the ith row and jth column of C is found by multiplying corresponding elements of the ith row of A and jth column of B and then adding the results. 6 (iv) (v) . The Multiplication of Matrices is associative i. i. if. n x k. generally AB ≠ BA.1.Then the product AB is a matrix C = (cij ) of order mxn.e.11 Properties of matrix multiplication (i) (ii) (iii) Matrix Multiplication is not commutative i. and n x k respectively..
For example 1 1 −1 1 Let A = B= 2 2 1 −1 2 x 2 2 x 2 1 1 −1 Then AB = 2 2 1 ⇒ AB = (null matrix) 1 0 = − 1 0 0 0 Here neither the matrix A. but the product AB is zero. Then (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Example 1 5 9 6 6 0 7 and B = If A = 6 2 10 4 − 8 − 3 find A + B and AB 7 (A T)T = A (A + B)T = AT + BT (α A )T = αA T (AB)T = BT A T (A and B are conformable for multiplication) .1. For example If A = . The transpose of A. then 3 4 6 2 x 3 1 AT = 3 2 4 1 2 5 5 = 2 6 5 T 1 3 4 6 1. nor the matrix B is Zero.13 Properties Of Matrix Transposition Let AT and BT are the transposed Matrices of A and B and α is a scalar.12 Transpose of a matrix Let A = (a ij ) be a matrix of order mxn. denoted by A T of order nxm is obtained by interchanging rows into columns of A.1. 1.
Solution : 6 + 7 11 9 13 5 +6 9 +0 A+B = 6 + 4 2 + (−8) 10+ (−3) = 10 − 6 7 AB = Example 2 3 If A = 9 Solution : 3 (i) 3A = 3 9 (ii) .1 3 2 6 9 18 = 27 6 2 3 A A =.1 3 9− 0 6− 7 −1 9 −1 = 2 10 13 6 − 4 2 − (−8 ) 10 − ( −3) 5 −6 6 find (i) 3A (ii) .1 3 9 6 2 −1 − 2 = − 3 .2 3 Example 3 If A = 4 1 2 3 7 6 5 3 1 2 9 and B = 4 2 5 6 − 2 7 4 show that 5(A+B) = 5A + 5B Solution : A+B 5 = 8 7 7 25 20 35 9 14 ∴ 5(A+B) = 40 45 70 35 20 55 4 11 4 15 5 10 5A = 20 35 45 and 5B = 20 10 25 5 30 20 20 20 30 −10 35 25 35 35 55 10 15 25 ∴ 5A+5B = 40 45 70 ∴ 5(A+B) = 5A + 5B 8 .
Example 4 1 If A = 2 3 2 4 6 3 − 1 − 2 − 4 6 and B = − 1 − 2 − 4 1 9 2 4 find AB and BA.A = 3 1 5A = 5 3 1 3I = 3 0 ∴ A 2 . Also show that AB ≠ B A Solution: AB 1(1) + 2(1) + 3(1) = 2(1) + 4(1) + 6(1) 3(1) + 6(1) + 9(1) 1(2) + 2(2) + 3x2 2(2) + 4(2) + 6(2) 3(2) + 6(2) + 9(2) 1(4) + 2(4) + 3x4 2(4) + 4(4) + 6x4 3(4) + 6(4) + 9x4 0 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3x 3 − 17 − 34 − 51 Similarly BA = − 17 − 34 − 51 17 34 51 ∴ AB ≠ BA Example 5 1 If A = 3 Solution: − 2 .5A+3I − 2 5 − 10 = − 4 15 − 20 0 1 3 = 0 0 3 5 −10 15 − 20 + 3 0 3 0 0 3 − 5 6 = − 9 10 −10 16 = − 24 30 + 9 0 − 7 16 = 3 − 24 33 . then compute A25A + 3I −4 −2 −4 1 3 − 2 − 5 6 = − 4 − 9 10 1 A 2 = A.
H.H. and 200 for model C. There is an export order of 500 for model A. 10 .6 .11 4 .14 T −6 4 − 11 = −11 −14 − 14 1 − 4 2 4 0 1 2 0 − 4 = −3 1 − 2 −6 4 = −11 −14 ⇒ L.H. = (AB)T = 4 R.S Example 7 A radio manufacturing company produces three models of radios say A.2 = ∴ L.4 12 + 0 . = R.S. The material and labour (in appropriate units) needed to produce each model is given by the following table: Material Model A Model B Model C 10 8 12 Labour 20 5 9 Use marix multiplication to compute the total amount of material and labour needed to fill the entire export order.Example 6 Verify that (AB)T = BT A T when 1 − 4 2 1 A= and B = 0 4 0 1 − 4 − 2 2 x 3 3 x 2 2 − 3 Solution : AB 1 − 4 2 0 1 = 4 0 1 − 4 −2 2 −3 1x2 + (4)x0 + 2(4) 1x(3) + (4)x1 + 2x(2) = 4x2 + 0x0 + 1x(4) 4x(3) + 0x1 + 1x(2) 2+ 0.4 .S.4 = 8 + 0 .8 . B and C.H.3. 1000 for model B.S. = BT A T −6 .
40 numbers of the three varieties.Solution: Let P denote the matrix expressing material and labour corresponding to the models A. Then A B C E = (500 1000 200) ∴ Total amount of material and labour = E x P 10 = (500 1000 200) 8 12 20 5 9 = (5000 + 8000 + 2400 Material Labour = (15. The cost of each tubelights of the three types are Rs.800) 10000 + 5000 + 1800) Example 8 Two shops A and B have in stock the following brand of tubelights Shops Shop A Shop B Bajaj 43 24 Brand Philips 62 18 Surya 36 60 Shop A places order for 30 Bajaj. 6. C. Rs. 42. and 20 Surya brand of tubelights. whereas shop B orders 10. 11 . B. B. 36 respectively. 30 Philips. C.400 16. 38 and Rs. they receive only half of the order as supplied by the manufacturers. Represent the following as matrices (i) Initial stock (ii) the order (iii) the supply (iv) final sotck (v) cost of individual items (column matrix) (vi) total cost of stock in the shops. Then 10 P= 8 12 Material Labour 20 Model A 05 Model B 9 Model C Let E denote matrix expressing the number of units ordered for export in respect of models A. Due to the various factors.
1 7018 = 4896 1) If A = 5 7 3 3 and B = 4 2 (ii) (A T)T = A 2 then. show that 6 2 3 −6 5 −1 2 (i) A + B = B + A 2.Solution: (i) The initial stock matrix 43 62 36 P= 24 18 60 30 30 20 Q= 10 6 40 1 15 15 10 R= 2Q= 5 3 20 (ii) The order matrix (iii) The supply matrix (iv) 58 77 46 The final stock matrix S = P + R = 29 21 80 42 C = 38 36 (v) (vi) The cost vector The total cost stock in the shops 42 58 77 46 T = SC = 29 21 80 38 36 2436 + 2926 + 1656 = 1218 + 798 + 2880 EXERCISE 1. 3 If A = 4 2 find 1 9 5 2 9 8 and B = 0 4 6 (i) A + B (ii) B + A (iii) 5A and 2B (iv) 5A + 2B 12 .
and B = 1 2 3x 13 then find AB and BA. find AB and BA. If A = 1 3 − 2 and B = 5 − 2 If A = 1 2 3 4 1 and B = − 1 5) 6) − 2 1 3 − 2 verify that (AB) T = BT A T 7) Let A = 3 2 −1 4 1 0 − 2 and B = 3 1 − 5 then 0 2 show that 3 (A+B) = 3A + 3B. A = − 1 0 2 and B = 7 2 4 4 3 5 3 1 2 10) If A = sinα cosα . 1 . 8) 12 11 IA= f 9 − 7 . β = 7.sinβ and B = sinβ cosβ cosα (ii) (A+B)2 = A 2 + B2 +2AB. prove that (i) AB = BA 11) 4 If A = (3 5 6)1 x 3 . 5 Find AB and BA when − 3 1 − 5 − 2 4 5 A = − 1 5 2 and B = 0 2 1 − 2 4 − 3 − 1 6 3 1 5 2 1 0 7 3 . find AB and BA. Verify that α (A + B) = αA + αB where 9) 1 2 0 5 3 −1 α = 3. α = 3.3) 4) If A = 3 1 − 2 2 4 and B = − 3 0 .sinα cosβ . show that (α + β)A = αA + βA.
calculate the total requirements of calories and proteins for each of the families.. Men : 2000. Children : 1200 and for proteins is Men : 50 gms.4I) = 0 2 1 0 2 1 then show that 16) 2 If A = 1 1 If A = 0 17) 1 − 1 and B = 1 4 (i) (A+B) (AB) ≠ A 2 .12) 13) If A = 2 2 2 and B = 2 1 8 1 8 1 8 1 find AB. They recommended daily allowance for calories i.. find the value of A 1 1 4 0 − 1 satisfies A 2 = I 0 14 19) Show that A = 1 .I) (A . Women : 1500. Women : 45 gms. BA 8 There are two families A and B. 2 women and 1 child in family A and 2 men. 12 1 3 2 2 0 2 2 3 13 3 1 4 3 4 19 7 1 6 and 2 7 8 If x + 5 6 = 2I2 + 02 then find x 7 0 1 2 1 1 1 show that (A . Children : 30 gms. Represent the above information by matrices using matrix multiplication. Find the sum of the following matrices 14) 1 3 7 8 7 9 15) 2 4 10 9 8 10 3 5 . There are 4 men. 3 women and 2 children in family B.B2 (ii) (A+B)2 ≠ A 2 + 2AB +B2 18) If 3A + − 2 − 1 − 2 2 = .e.
1. (i) Business Mathematics 45 58 Economics 60 72 Computer Statistics Science 55 40 30 80 Express the above data in the form of a matrix (ii) Write the order of the matrix (iii) Express standardwise the number of students as a column matrix and subjectwise as a row matrix.1 Determinant The determinant associated with each square matrix A = (a ij ) is a scalar and denoted by the symbol det.sin 2 θ prove that A 2 = sin 2θ cos 2 θ sin θ cos θ 4 21) 2 4 If A = . A matrix is an array and hasno numerical value.2. Computer Science and Statistics in a school are given below Std. A knowledge of Determinant theory is indispensable in the study of Matrix Algebra. C = 4 1 . but a determinant has numerical value. (iv) What is the relationship between (i) and (iii)? 1. positive. XI Std.3 show that A . 15 . Negative or Zero.B2 (iv) C2 + D2 Evluate (i) (A+B) (C+D) (ii) (C+D) (A+B) 23) The number of students studying Business Mathematics.sin θ cos 2θ . The scalar may be real or complex number.1 3 4 (iii) A 2 . B = 1 3 .2 DETERMINANTS An important attribute in the study of Matrix Algebra is the concept of Determinant.20) If A = cosθ .2 . Economics. A are identity matrices 3 22) If A = 0 7 1 2 1 1 2 5 2 . XII Std. ascribed to a square matrix.A or A. D = .
0 (5 x 8 9 x 1) + 4 (5x7 .3 x (1) = 2 + 3 = 1 Example 10 2 0 − 1 7 4 1 8 Evaluate 5 9 Solution: 2 5 9 0 −1 7 4 1 8 =2 −1 7 1 8 0 5 9 1 8 +4 5 9 −1 7 = 2 (1 x 8 .9) + 4 (35 + 9) = 30 . (iii) If the determinant has two identical rows (columns).0 + 176 = 146 1. (ii) If any two rows (columns) of a determinant are interchanged.For example a when A = c A = a c b d b d then determinant of A is and the determinant value is = ad . when its rows and columns are interchanged.bc Example 9 Evaluate Solution: 1 3 1 .1 x 7) .(1) x 9) = 2 (8 7) .2 = 1 x (2) .2 1 3 1 .2.0 (40 . 16 .2 Properties Of Determinants (i) The value of determinant is unaltered. then the value of the determinant changes only in sign. then the value of the determinant is zero.
Also AB = A . then the determinant is expressed as the sum of two or more determinants of the same order.3 Product of Determinants Product of two determinants is possible only when they are of the same order.(iv) If all the elements in a row or in a (column) of a determinant are multiplied by a constant k(k. If any two rows or columns of a determinant are proportional. is added to the corresponding elements of a different row (column) in a determinant. The value of the determinant is unaltered when a constant multiple of the elements of any row (column). ≠ 0) then the value of the determinant is multiplied by k. If each element of a row (column) of a determinant is expressed as the sum of two or more terms. then the value of the determinant is zero. if Solution: Multiplying row by column A B= 3 5 1 6 5 1 2 3 A= 3 5 1 6 and B = 5 1 2 3 = 3 x 5 + 1x 1 3 x 2 + 1 x 3 5 x 5 + 6x 1 5 x 2 + 6 x 3 15 + 1 6 + 3 16 = 25 + 6 10 + 18 31 9 = 448 . (v) (vi) (vii) 1.279 28 = = 169 Example 12 2 1 0 0 3 5 − 4 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 Find 3 1 17 .2. B Example 11 Evaluate A B .
4 Singular Matrix A square matrix A is said to be singular if det.20) = 3 (68) = .204 1.2.Solution : Multiplying row by column 2 3 1 1 0 0 3 5 − 4 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 2x 0 +1x 0+ 3 x 2 3x 0 +0 x 0+5 x 2 1x 0+ 0x 0 −4 x 2 2x 0 +1x 3+ 3x 0 3x 0+ 0x 3+ 5x 0 1x 0+ 0x 3− 4x 0 2 x 2 + 1x 0 + 3 x 0 = 3 x 2+ 0x 0 +5x 0 1x 2 +0 x 0− 4x 0 4 6 10 − 8 3 0 0 = 6 2 = 4 (0 + 0) 6 (0 . otherwise it is a nonsingular matrix. Example 13 1 2 Show that 2 4 is a singular matrix Solution: 1 2 =44=0 2 4 ∴ The matrix is singular Example 14 2 5 Show that 9 10 is a nonsingular matrix Solution : 2 9 5 10 = 29 .0) + 3 (48 . A = 0.45 = 25 ≠ 0 ∴ The given matrix is non singular 18 .
R1 1 b + c b 2 + c2 ab a c b+c a b a c a 2 + b2 a2 . R3 → R3 . 1 x −4 3 5 3 0 = 1 3 0 x 5 0 +(4) 5 −4 8 −2 8 −2 −4 2 4 8 = 1(24) .b) taking out (ab) from R and (ac) from R 2 3 (a + c)(a .x (40) 4 (20 +6) = 24 40x + 56 = 40x + 80 ⇒ 40 x + 80 = 0 ∴ x=2 Example : 16 1 b+c c+a a+b b2 + c2 c 2 + a 2 = (ab) (bc) (ca) a 2 + b2 Show 1 1 Solution : 1 b+c 1 c+a b 2 + c2 c2 + a2 1 a + b a 2 + b2 R2 → R2 .c2 b 2 + c2 (a + b)(a .c) = 0 0 1 = 0 0 19 .R1 .2 4 8 Solution : Expanding by 1st Row.Example : 15 1 x −4 Find x if 5 3 0 = 0 .
then evaluate 4 7 6 9) 1 2 3 1 8 3 If the value of 1 1 3 = 5.2 4 6 −2 3 2 −1 2 0 4 4 4 2 3 3) 1) Evaluate (i) (ii) 3 4 2 5 (iii) −2 −1 1 −4 −6 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2) Evaluate 3 1 Evaluate 0 0 4) 7 Examine whether A = 3 5 3 1 is nonsingular 2 5) 1 − 2 3 Examine whether the given matrix A = − 2 − 1 0 is singular 4 − 2 5 3 Evaluate 0 3 2 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 Evaluate 2 3 6 2 4 4 −2 −1 5 0 7 2 4 6 6) 7) 8) 2 If the value of 4 6 5 2 0 = 60. then what is the value of 1 7 3 2 0 1 2 12 1 20 .1 b + c b2 + c 2 1 1 a+b a+c = (ab) (ac) 0 0 = (ab) (ac) [a+cab] (Expanding along c1) = (ab) (ac) (cb) = (ab) (bc) (ca) EXERCISE 1.
b b c 2 = 6 5 + 4 1 3 5 5 1 c a a b = 0 b.3 Choose the correct answer 1) [ 0 0 0 ] is a (a) Unit matrix (c) Null matrix 2) (b) Scalar matrix (d) Diagonal matrix [ 6 2 .c ca ab a b c c a b+ c 12) Prove that c + a a + b 1 13) 1 1 Show that 1 1 + x 1 1+ y EXERCISE 1. then A + B is 2 4 −1 0 (b) 4 5 3 4 4 − 1 1 4 4 − 1 −1 4 1 0 0 1 21 (d) .10) Show that 2 + 4 6 +3 1 a .3 ] is a matrix of order (a) 3 x 3 (b) 3 x 1 (c) 1 x 3 (d) Scalar matrix 3) 1 0 0 1 is a (a) Unit matrix (c) Unit matrix of 2 x 2 (b) Zero matrix of order 2 x 2 (c) None of these 4) A= (a) (c) 3 − 3 1 2 and B = .c 1 1 =0 1 1 1 = xy 11) Prove that b .
5) If A = − 3 − 1 (a) 8 9 and B = 0 (b) −1 3 . then A .1 (c) 1 (d) None of these 22 . t h e n A + 2I is If A = 0 0 1 5 − 3 1 4 3 4 (a) 1 1 0 5 − 3 3 4 3 4 (c) 1 − 1 0 5 − 3 2 3 3 4 (b) 1 0 0 5 −3 2 (d) None of these 8) 3 5 6 5 −1 0 − 2 1 6 x 3 2 1 a) 15 12 − 4 1 1 − 1 is 0 0 (b) 14 (b) − 3 15 8 − 3 (c) Cannot be multiplied 9) The value of (a) 4 10) The value of (a) 0 (d) None of these (c) 14 (d) None of these 1 −1 is 0 0 (b) . then 3A is (a) − 6 − 12 − 9 15 (b) − 6 − 12 15 9 (c) − 6 9 12 9 (d) None of these 7) 2 3 4 1 0 0 1 − 1 0 and I = 0 1 0 .B is − 2 (c) 6 7 − 3 − 3 2 4 9 6 − 3 1 7 6 0 1 (d) 0 0 0 0 6) If A = − 3 − 3 .
the matrix is (a) square matrix (b) row matrix (c) column matrix (d) None of these If all the elements of a matrix are zeros. it is called (a) Row matrix (b) column matrix (c) square matrix (d) rectangular Addition of matrices is (a) not commutative (c) not associative (b) commutative (d) distributive (d) None of these 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) A square matrix A is said to be nonsingular if (a)  A  ≠ 0 (b)  A  = 0 (c) A = 0 The value of x if (a) 5 22) 1 5 5 x = 0 is 3 (c) 0 (d) None of these 3 (b) 3 23 .2 (c) 2 3 is 4 (d) None of these 12) Det (AB) =  AB  = ? (a) A + B (c) A x B (b) B + A (d) None of these 13) 14) 15) The element at 2 Row and 2 Coloumn is denoted by (a) a 12 (b) a 32 (c) a 22 (d) a 11 Order of the matrix A = [a ij]3 x 3 is (a) 2 x 3 (b) 3 x 3 (c) 1 x 3 (d) 3 x 1 nd nd 16) When the number of rows and the number of coloumns of a matrix are equal. the value of the determinant is (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) unaltered If there is only one column in a matrix. then the matrix is a (a) unit matrix (b) square matrix (c) zero matrix (d) None of these A diagonal matrix in which all the diagonal elements are equal is a (a) scalar matrix (b) column matrix (c) unit matrix (d) None of these If any two rows and coloumns of a determinant are identical. then the value of 4 2 (b) .11) If the value of (a) 0 1 3 2 1 = 2.
then the value of 4 2 (b) 2 2 2 6 is 4 (c) 4 (d) None of these (a) 2 26) If (A+B) (AB) = A . then the value of is −9 4 4 −9 (b) 88 (c) 80 (d) None of these (a) 88 24) The value of (a) 0 25) If 3 3 2 is 2 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) None of these 1 2 3 2 = 2. then A 2 (a) I 2 (b) I (b) Row matrix (d) Column matrix (c) 0 (d) None of these 30) 1 If A = (1 2 3) and B = 2 then the order of AB is 3 (a) 1 x 1 (b) 1 x 3 (c) 3 x 1 (d) 3 x 3 24 .23) If 4 8 8 4 = 88.B and A and B are square matrices then (a) (AB)T = AB (b) AB = BA (c) (A+B)T = B T+A T (d) None of these 27) 10 10 10 10 is a (a) Rectangular matrix (c) Identity matrix 1 2 6 7 (b) Scalar matrix (d) None of these 28) is a (a) Square matrix (c) Scalar matrix 29) If A = I.
.. can be equated to a partial fraction of the type Ax + B ax 2 + bx + c For example : 2x+7 = Ax + B + C 4x + 3 (3x2 +5x+1) (4x+3) 3x 2 + 5x +1 25 . where q is linear expression of the type (ax+b) occurring in multiples say n times i. This process is called splitting up into partial fractions... For example: (x 1)(2x + 3) = determined.e. where M and N are the + 2xB 3 .2 ) + ( x 1 )(x −2 ) (x 2 )2 Every rational expression of the form p/q where q is an irreducible quadratic expression of the type ax2+bx+c. can be represented as a partial fraction of the form: constants to be determined. (ax+b)n can be represented as a partial fraction of the form: (ax+ b) + (ax+b)2 For example : (iii) A1 A2 + . In this chapter we are going to learn the process of writing a single rational expression as a sum or difference of two or more rational expressions. (ii) 2x A x 1 M ax + b + N cx + d .ALGEBRA 2.+ ( ax+b )n An A 1 B C 2 = (x .1) + (x .. where A and B are to be + Every rational expression of the form p/q.. (i) Every rational expression of the form p/q where q is the nonrepeated product of linear factors like (ax+b) (cx+d)..1 PARTIAL FRACTION 2 We know that two or more rational expressions of the form p/q can be added and subtracted.
on R.Example 1 Resolve into partial fractions (x2) (x+1) Solution: Step 1: Step 2: 4x +1 A B Let ( x 2 )( x +1) = + x 2 x +1 Taking L.2 ) ( x .C.M. A+B =4 (2) A2B = 1 (3) Solving the equations (2) and (3) we get A = 3 and B = 1 Substituting the values of A and B in step 1 we get 4x+1 3 1 ( x .2) (x+1) = x − 2 + x + 1 Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Example 2 Resolve into partial fractions Solution: Step 1: Step 2: Let 1 (x .M. on R.S.3 26 1 .2 )( x + 1 ) Equating the numerator on both sides 4x+1 = A(x+1) + B(x2) = Ax+A + Bx2B = (A+B)x + (A2B) Equating the coefficient of like terms.H.S we get 1 A ( x + 2 ) + B ( x − 1 )( x + 2 )+ C ( x − 1 ) = (x 1)(x + 2 )2 ( x 1) ( x + 2 )2 2 Step 3: Step 4: Equating Numerator on either sides we get 1 = A(x+2)2+B(x1)(x+2)+C(x1) Puting x = 2 we get C = .1) (x + 2) 2 (x 1 )(x + 2 )2 1 = x −1 + x + 2 + (x + 2 )2 A B C Taking L.C.2 )( x +1) = Step 3: 4x + 1 A (x + 1 ) + B ( x .H. 4x+1 (1) ( x .
C.Step 5: Step 6: Puting x = 1 we get A = 9 Putting x = 0 and substituting the values of A and C in step 3 we get B=9 1 1 1 Step 7: ∴ ( x 1)( x + 2 )2 = 1 1 .S. on R.H.1 9 ( x −1) 9(x + 2 ) 3( x +2 )2 Example 3 Resolve into partial fractions Solution: Step 1: Step 2: Let x 2 +1 A B C = x + x +1 + (x +1 )2 x ( x +1)2 x 2 +1 x (x +1)2 Taking L. we get A ( x + 1 )2 + Bx ( x + 1 ) + Cx x 2 +1 = x ( x +1)2 x ( x + 1 )2 Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Equating the Numerator on either sides we get x2+1 = A(x+1)2 + Bx (x+1) + Cx Putting x = 0 we get A = 1 Putting x = 1 we get C = 2 Putting x = 2 and substituting the values of A and C in step 3 we get B = 0 ∴ x 2 +1 x ( x +1)2 1 2 1 2 = x + 0 = x x + 1 ( x + 1 )2 ( x+1)2 Step 7: Example 4 Resolve into partial fractions Solution: Step 1: Let x2 −2x− 9 (x + x+6) (x+1) 2 C x2 −2x−9 = Ax + B + x + 1 2 ( x + x+6)(x+1) x +x + 6 2 (Q x2+x+6 cannot be factorised) 27 .M.
C. we get (Ax+ B) (x +1) + C(x 2 + x + 6) x 2 −2x−9 = (x 2 + x + 6) (x +1) ( x 2 + x +6) (x+1) Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Equating the Numerator on either side we get x22x9 = (Ax+B)(x+1)+C(x2+x+6) Putting x = 1 we get C = −1 Putting x = 0 and substituting the value of C we get B = 3 Putting x = 1 and substituting the values of B and C in step 3 get A = 2 ∴ x2 −2x−9 = 22x − 3 .S. on R.H.Step 2: Taking L.1 (x2 + x+6) (x+1) x +1 x +x +6 Step 7: Example 5 Resolve into partial fraction Solution: Step 1: Step 2: Let 1 (x2 +4) (x +1) A 1 = x + 1 + Bx + C (x2 +4) (x +1) x2 + 4 Taking L.M.C.M.S. we get 2 1 = A(x + 4) + (Bx + c) (x +1) (x2 +4) (x +1) (x +1) (x 2 + 4) Step 3: Equating the Numerator on either side we get 1 = A(x2 + 4) + (Bx + C) (x + 1) Putting x = 1 we get A = 5 Putting x = 0 and substituting the value of A we get C=5 1 1 Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Putting x = 1 and substituting the value of A and C in Step 3 we get Β = − 5 1 1 x 5 x2 Step 7: ∴ ( 1 = 5 ( x1+1 ) + x 2 + 4 ( x +1 ) ) + 1 5 +4 28 .H. on R.
{a. {b. 6 ways (ii) Two at a time: {a. {c..c}..1 Fundamental rules of counting There are two fundamental rules of counting based on the simple principles of multiplication and addition.a}.c} (i) One at a time: {a}.c}.25x + 6 2 − 2 x 1 ) (3x 2 ) 10) (x −1) (x 2 +1) x+ 2 2.{b.2.a} . {c} .a} (iii) Three at a time: {a. {b}.c.b}.c}.x.a}.1 Resolve into partial fractions 1) x +1 x 2 ..6 2) 2x 15 x 2 +5 x +6 3) 1 x 1 2 4) x +1 (x −4 ) (x +1) 2 x+ 4 5) (x − 2 )2 (x + 3 ) x (x −1)(x +1)2 6) (x −1)( x +2 )2 2x 2 + 7x + 23 (x −1)(x +3 )2 1 7) 8) 9) (x 7x 2 .. Permutations made out of a set of three elements {a.c.a. For example. the former when events occur independently one after another and latter when either of the events can occur simultaneously. 3 ways .. {c.. 29 .b.b}.b}.b}. That is without listing out particular cases it is possible to assess the number of cases under certain given conditions.....c}.. {a.. {b.. {c..EXERCISE 2..2 PERMUTATIONS This topic deals with the new Mathematical idea of counting without doing actual counting.a.6 ways 2. Some times we have to combine the two depending on the nature of the problem. Permutations refer to different arrangement of things from a given lot taken one or more at a time. {c.b.b. {b.
This is because our number is an odd number.8.7. The possible numbers are listed as follows: 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 So the total number of possible two digit odd numbers = 9x5 = 45 Let us see whether there is any other method to find the total number of two digit odd numbers. This principle is known as multiplication principle of counting.d} 30 . (ii) Addition Principle If one operation can be performed in m ways and another operation can be performed in n ways.2.2.b.9 Thus there are five ways to fill up the unit place and nine ways to fill up the ten’s place.2 Fundamental principle of counting Let us consider an example from our daytoday life.9. But he forgot his number.c. So the total number of two digit odd numbers = 9x5 = 45. The digit in the ten’s place can be any one of the nine digits 1. Sekar was allotted a roll number for his examination.7.6.5. Now the digit in the unit place can be any one of the five digits 1. Further consider the set {a. (i) Multiplication principle If one operation can be performed in “m” different ways and another operation can be performed in “n” different ways then the two operations together can be performed in ‘m x n’ different ways.5. This principle known as addition principle of counting.4. then any one of the two operations can be performed in m+n ways.3.3. What all he remembered was that it was a two digit odd number.2. This example illustrates the following principle.
In otherwords number of permutations of ‘four’ things taken ‘two’ at a time is 4x3 = 12 In general np r denotes the number of permutations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time.a) and so on.c. I Place a II Place b c d a c d a b d a b c b c d The possible arrangements are (a. (a.From the above set we have to select two elements and we have to arrange them as follows. There are 12 possible ways of arranging the letters a.d) (b.e Selecting and arranging ‘2’ from ‘4’ can be done in 12 ways. (b. i.c). [‘n’ and ‘r’ are positive integers and r<n] 31 .a).b).d taking two at a time.a). (a.b.c).a). the pair (a. (b. (d.b) is different from the pair (b. (d.b). (c.c) The total number of arrangements are 4 x 3 = 12 In the above arrangement.d) (c. (c.b).d) (d.
2.2.3 To find the value of npr : np means selecting and arranging ‘r’ things from ‘n’ things which is r the same as filling ‘r’ places using ‘n’ things which can be done as follows. The first place can be filled by using anyone of ‘n’ things in ‘n’ ways The second place can be filled by using any one of the remaining (n1) things in (n1) ways. So the first and the second places together can be filled in n(n1) ways. The third place can be filled in (n2) ways by using the remaining (n2) things. So the first, second and the third places together can be filled in n(n1) (n2) ways. In general ‘r’ places can be filled in n(n1)(n2)....[n(r1)] ways. So np r = n(n1) (n2)...(nr+1). To simplify the above formula, we are going to introduce factorial notation. 2.2.4 Factorial notation: The product of first ‘n’ natural numbers is called n factorial denoted by n ! or n. For example: 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 4! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 ∴ 5! = 5 x 4! 5! = 5 x 4 x 3! In general, n! = n(n1)(n2)...3.2.1 ∴ n! = n{(n1)!} = n(n1)(n2)! and so on We have np r = n(n1)(n2)............(nr+1) =
n ( n  1 )( n − 2 )...... ( n  r + 1 )( n − r )! = ( n  r )!
(n  r )!
n!
{multiplying and dividing by (nr)!} ∴ npr = (nr ) !
n!
32
Observation : (i) o! = 1 (ii) (iii) (iv)
n
po = p1 = pn =
n! n! ( n  0 ) ! = n! = 1
n
n ( n 1 )! n! (n  1 )! = (n 1 )! = n
n! n! (n  n ) ! = 0! =n!
n
(ie. Selecting and arranging ‘n’ things from ‘n’ things can be done in n! ways). (i.e ‘n’ things can be arranged among themselves in n! ways). 2.2.5 Permutations of repeated things: If there are ‘n’ things of which ‘m’ are of one kind and the remaining (nm) are of another kind, then the total number of distinct permutations of ‘n’ things =
n! m !( n  m ) !
If there are m 1 things of first kind, m 2 things of second kind and mr things of r th kind such that m 1+m2+.....+mr = n then the total number of permutations of ‘n’ things =
n! m1 !m2 !......mr !
2.2.6 Circular Permutations: We have seen permutations of ‘n’ things in a row. Now we consider the permutations of ‘n’ things in a circle. Consider four letters A,B,C,D. The four letters can be arranged in a row in 4! ways. Of the 4! arrangements, the arrangement ABCD, BCDA, CDAB, DABC are the same when represented along a circle. A B C D D B A C B D C A
A
B 33
C
D
So the number of permutations of ‘4’ things along a circle is 4 = 3! In general, n things can be arranged among themselves in a circle in (n1)! ways Example 6 Find the value of (i) 10 p1, (ii) 7p4, (iii) Solution: i) ii) iii)
10
4!
11
p0
p 1 = 10 7 7 7 x 6 x 5 x4 x 3! = = =7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 840 3! 7  4 3
7
p4 =
11
p0 = 1
Example 7 There are 4 trains from Chennai to Madurai and back to Chennai. In how many ways can a person go from Chennai to Madurai and return in a different train? Solution: Number of ways of selecting a train from Chennai to Madurai from the four trains
=
4
p 1 = 4ways p 1 = 3 ways
Number of ways of selecting a train from Madurai to Chennai from the remaining 3 trains =
3
∴ Total number of ways of making the journey = 4 x 3 = 12ways Example 8 There is a letter lock with 3 rings each marked with 4 letters and do not know the key word. How many maximum useless attempts may be made to open the lock? Solution: To open the lock : The number of ways in which the first ring’s position can be fixed using the four letters The number of ways in which the second ring’s position can be fixed using the 4 letters 34
= 4p 1 = 4 ways = 4p 1 = 4 ways
The number of ways in which the third ring’s position can be fixed using the 4 letters ∴ Total number of attempts
= 4p 1 = 4 ways = 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 ways
Of these attempts, only one attempt will open the lock. ∴ Maximum number of useless attempts = 64  1 = 63 Example 9 How many number of 4 digits can be formed out of the digits 0,1,2,..........,9 if repetition of digits is not allowed. Solution: The number of ways in which the 1000’s place can be filled (0 cannot be in the 1000’s place) = 9ways The number of ways in which the 100’s place 10’s place and the unit place filled using the remaining 9 digits (including zero) = 9p 3 = 504 ways ∴ Total number of 4 digit numbers formed = 9 x 504 = 4536
Example 10 Find the number of arrangements of 6 boys and 4 girls in a line so that no two girls sit together Solution: Six boys can be arranged among themselves in a line in 6! ways. After this arrangement we have to arrange the four girls in such a way that in between two girls there is atleast one boy. So the possible places to fill with the girls are as follows ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨ B ¨
The four girls can be arranged in the boxes (7 places) which can be done in 7p 4 ways. So the total number of arrangements = 6! x 7p 4 = 720 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 = 604800 Example 11 A family of 4 brothers and 3 sisters are to be arranged in a row. In how many ways can they be seated if all the sisters sit together? 35
Solution: Consider the 3 sisters as one unit. There are 4 brothers which is treated as 4 units. Now there are totally 5 units which can be arranged among themselves in 5! ways. After these arrangements the 3 sisters can be arranged among themselves in 3! ways. ∴ Total number of arrangement = 5! x 3! = 720 Example 12 Find the sum of all the numbers that can be formed with the digits 2, 3, 4, 5 taken all at a time. Solution: Number of 4 digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 2, 3, 4, 5 is 4p 4=4! = 24. Out of the 24 numbers the digit 2 appears in the unit place 6 times, the digit 3 appears in the unit place 6 times and so on. If we write all the 24 numbers and add, the sum of all the numbers in the unit place = 6[2+3+4+5] = 6 x 14 = 84 Similarly the sum of all the numbers in the 10’s place = 84 The sum of all the numbers in the 100’s place = 84 and the sum of all the numbers in the 1000’s place = 84 ∴ sum of all the 4 digit numbers = 84x1000 + 84x100+84x10+84x1 = 84 (1000+100+10+1) = 84 x 1111 = 93324 Example 13 In how many ways can the letters of the word CONTAMINATION be arranged? Solution: The number of letters of word CONTAMINATION = 13 which can be arranged in 13! ways Of these arrangements the letter O occurs 2 times N occurs 3 times T occurs 2 times A occurs 2 times and I occurs 2 times ∴ The total number of permutations = 2! 3! 2! 2! 2! 36
13!
EXERCISE 2.2
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) If n p 5 = (42) n p 3 , find n If 6[n p 3 ] = 7 (n1)p 3 find n How many distinct words can be formed using all the letters of the word i) ENTERTAINMENT ii) MATHEMATICS iii) MISSISSIPPI How many even numbers of 4 digits can be formed out of the digits 1,2,3,....9 if repetition of digits is not allowed? Find the sum of all numbers that can be formed with the digits 3,4,5,6,7 taken all at a time. In how many ways can 7 boys and 4 girls can be arranged in a row so that i) all the girls sit together ii) no two girls sit together? In how many ways can the letters of the word STRANGE be arranged so that vowels may appear in the odd places. In how many ways 5 gentlemen and 3 ladies can be arranged along a round table so that no two ladies are together? Find the number of words that can be formed by considering all possible permutations of the letters of the word FATHER. How many of these words begin with F and end with R?
2.3 COMBINATIONS Combination are selections ie. it inolves only the selection of the required number of things out of the total number of things. Thus in combination order does not matter. For example, consider a set of three elements {a,b,c} and combination made out of the set with i) One at a time: {a}, {b}, {c} ii) Two at a time: {a,b}, {b,c}, {c,a} iii) Three at a time: {a,b,c} The number of comibnations of n things taken r, (r < n) is denoted by nc r or
()
n r
37
3.n)! = r!0! = 1 = ncnr n n! n! n n If ncx = ncy then x = y or x+y = n n cr = pr r! Example14 Evaluate 8p3 and 8c3 Solution: 8 8! 8! 8x7x6x5! p 3 = ( 8 − 3 )! = 5 ! = = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336 5! 8 8! 8! c3 = 3 ! (8 .1 To derive the formula for ncr : Number of combinations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time = ncr Number of permutations of ‘n’ things taken ‘r’ at a time = np r Number of ways ‘r’ things can be arranged among themselves = r! Each combination having r things gives rise to r! permutations ∴ np r = (ncr) r! => (n .2.3 )! = 3! 5! = 8x7x6x5! = 8x7x6 = 56 3! 5! 3x2x1 Example 15 Evaluate 10c8 Solution: 10 c8 = 10c2 = 2x1 = 45 38 10x9 .r )! n! n! ∴ ncr Observation: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) n co cn cr = 0! (n .0 )! = n! = 1 n! n! = n! (n .r )! = ( ncr) r! = r! (n .
Solution: Selecting 3 from 7 consonants can be done in 7c3 ways Selecting 2 from 4 vowels can be done in 4c2 ways. how many words can be made each containing 3 consonants and 2 vowels.Example 16 I nc8 = nc6. ∴ Total number of hand shakes = 13c2 = 39 13 x 12 2 x 1 = 78 . ∴ Total number of words formed = 7c3 x 4c2 = 3x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1 = 35 x 6 = 210 7x 6x 5 4x 3 ∴ Example 19 There are 13 persons in a party. find nc2. If each of them shakes hands with each other. f Solution: n c8 = nc6 (given) => n = 8+6 = 14 ∴ Example 17 If n c2 = 14c2 = 2 x 1 = 91 14 x 13 ( ) ( ) 100 r = 100 100 . how many handshakes happen in the party? Solution: Selecting two persons from 13 persons can be done in 13c2 ways. find ‘r’ 4r = 100c4r (given) = 100 = 20 Solution: => ∴ cr r + 4r r Example 18 Out of 7 consonants and 4 vowels.
Example 20 There are 10 points in a plane in which none of the 3 points are collinear. part A and part B each with 10 questions. in how many ways can he choose the questions? Solution: Number of questions in part A = 10. If the student has to choose 8 from part A and 5 from part B. Solution: To draw a line we need atleast two points. Find the number of lines that can be drawn using the 10 points. (6B and 1G) or (5B and 2G) or (4B and 3G) 40 10 x 9 . Now selecting 2 from 10 can be done in 10c2 ways ∴ number of lines drawn = 10c2 = 2 x 1 = 45 Example 21 A question paper has two parts. Selecting 8 from part A can be done in 10c8 ways = 10c2 Number of questions in part B = 10 Selecting 5 from part B can be done in 10c5 ways ∴ Total number of ways in which the questions can be selected = 10c8 x 10c5 = 45 x 252 = 11340 ways Example 22 A committee of seven students is formed selecting from 6 boys and 5 girls such that majority are from boys. How many different committees can be formed? Solution: Number of students in the committee = 7 Number of boys =6 Number of girls =5 The selection can be done as follows Boy (6) Girl (5) 6 1 5 2 4 3 ie.
(nr+1) (rn1) (n ) r = + 41 .. 1.2 Pascal’s Triangle For n = 0. 2. The value of any entry in any row is equal to sum of the values of the two entries in the preceding row on either side of it.The possible ways are 6 (6 ) (15 ) or (6 ) (5 ) or (6 ) (5 ) 5 2 4 3 ∴The total number of different committees formed = 6c6 x 5c1+6c5 x 5c2 + 6c4 x 5c3 = 1 x 5 + 6 x 10 + 15 x 10 = 215 2. 4.. the details can be arranged in the form of a triangle known as Pascal’s triangle. n=0 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 (5 ) 0 (4 ) 0 (3 ) 0 (15 ) (2 ) 0 (14 ) (10 ) (13 ) (5 ) 2 1 (0 ) 0 (12 ) (4 ) 2 1 (1 ) 1 (3 ) 2 (5 ) 3 1 (2 ) 2 (4 ) 3 (3 ) 3 (5 ) 4 (4 ) 4 (5 ) 5 Substituting the values we get n=0 n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 1 1 5 1 4 10 1 3 6 10 2 3 1 1 4 5 1 1 The conclusion arrived at from this triangle named after the French Mathematician Pascal is as follows.3. Hence we get the result. 5 . 3.
c n = 45. In how many ways the group can be formed so that it contains majority of ladies From a class of 15 students.r + 1] + n! ( r ) r! ( n +1 .r +1)! (r ) + (rn1) = (nr+1 ) n! [n .r + 1)! ( n + 1 )! = ( n + 1 )! r! (n . find ‘n’. In how many ways can they be chosen. 5) 6) 7) 42 .H.3.S.r + 1 )! r! (n + 1 . From a set of 9 ladies and 8 gentlemen a group of 5 is to be formed. He is not permitted to attempt more than 5 questions from each group. In how many ways can he choose the 7 questions.2. find n. = ncr + ncr1 = = = = = n! n! + r! ( n .3 Using the formula for ncr derive that n Proof : L.S. Find the number of diagonals of a hexagon.r )! n! [n . There are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them will join.r + 1 + r ] n!( n + 1) = r! (n . A candidate is required to answer 7 questions out of 12 questions which are divided into two groups each containing 6 questions.3 1) 2) 3) 4) Evaluate a) 10 c 6 If n+2 36 b) 15 c 13 cn = 36 c n+4.r + 1 )! r! (n . 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party.r )! = n + 1cr = R.H.r )! (r 1!)[n ( r1)]! n! n! + r! ( n . EXERCISE 2.r )! (r 1!)(n .
8)
A cricket team of 11 players is to be chosen from 20 players including 6 bowlers and 3 wicket keepers. In how many different ways can a team be formed so that the team contains exactly 2 wicket keepers and atleast 4 bowlers.
2.4 MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
Many mathematical theorems, formulae which cannot be easily derived by direct proof are sometimes proved by the indirect method known as mathematical induction. It consists of three steps. (i) Actual verification of the theorem for n = 1 (ii) Assuming that the theorem is true for some positive integer k(k>1). We have to prove that the theorem is true for k+1 which is the integer next to k. (iii) The conclusion is that the theorem is true for all natural numbers. 2.4.1 Principle of Mathematical Induction: Let P(n) be the statement for n ε N. If P(1) is true and P(k+1) is also true whenever P(k) is true for k > 1 then P(n) is true for all natural numbers. Example 23 Using the principle of Mathematical Induction prove that for all n∈N, 1+2+3+...n = ∈ Solution: Let For For P(n) =
n (n +1 ) 2 1 (1 + 1 ) =1 2 n (n +1 ) 2
L.H.S. n=1, p(1) = 1 R.H.S p(1) = ∴
L.H.S = R.H.S for n = 1 P(1) is true.
k (k +1) is true. 2
Now assume that P(k) is true i.e. 1+2+3+......+k =
43
To prove that p(k+1) is true Now p(k+1) p(k+1) = p(k) + tk+1 = 1+2+3+......k+k+1 = p(k) + (k+1)
k (k +1) + k+1 2 = (k+1) [ k +1] 2
=
=
(k + 1 )(k + 2 )
2
=> p(k+1) is true whenever p(k) is true. But p(1) is true. ∴ p(n) is true for all n∈N. Example 24 Show by principle of mathematical induction that 3 2n 1 is divisible by 8 for all n∈N. ∈ Solution: Let P(n) be the given statement p(1) =32  1 = 91=8 which is divisible by 8. ∴ p(1) is true. Assume that p(k) is true ie., 32k1 is divisible by 8. To prove p(k+1) is true. Now p(k+1) = 32(k+1)  1 = 32k x 321 = 9 32k 1 = 9(32k)  9 + 8 = 9 [32k1] + 8 Which is divisible by 8 as 32k1 is divisible by 8 So p(k+1) is true whenever p(k) is true. So by induction p(n) is true for all n∈N. EXERCISE 2.4
By the principle of mathematical induction prove the following 1) 1+3+5+..... (2k1) = k2 2) 4+8+12+.......4n = 2n(n+1)
44
3) 4) 5) 6) 7)
1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + ........n(n+1) = n (n +1)(n + 2 )
3
2 2 13 + 23 + ..........n 3 = n (n +1 )
4
12 + 22 + ..........n 2 = n (n +1)(2n+1)
6
1+4+7+10+..........(3n2) = n (3n1) 2 23n  1 is divisible by 7.
2.4.2 Summation of Series We have 1+2+3+......+n = Σn = n(n +1)
2
12+2 2+.......+n2 = Σn 2 = n(n +1) (2n +1)
6
2 13+2 3+.......+n3 = Σn 3 = n(n+1) 2
{ }
Thus Σ n = n(n +1)
2
Σ n2 = n(n+1) (2n+1)
2 Σ n3 = n(n+1) 2
{ }
6
Using the above formula we are going to find the summation when the nth term of the sequence is given. Example 25 Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is n(n+1)(n+4) Solution : tn = n(n+1)(n+4) = n3 + 5n 2 + 4n ∴ S n = Σtn = Σ(n 3 + 5n 2 + 4n) = Σn 3 + 5 Σn 2 + 4Σn 45
2 n ( n +1 )( 2n + 1) = n ( n + 1) +5 2 6
{
} {
} { ( )}
+4 n n +1 2
= n (n +1 ) [ 3n 2 + 23n + 34]
12
Example 26 Sum to n terms of the series 1 2.3 + 22.5 + 32.7 + ...... Solution: The n th term is n2(2n+1) = 2n3+n 2 ∴ S n = Σ(2n 3+n 2) = 2Σn 3 + Σn 2
2 2 n ( n +1)(2n +1) = 2n (n+1) + 6 4
= n (n +1) [n(n+1) + 2n + 1 ]
2
= n (n +1)
2 6
(
3
3n2 + 3n + 2n + 1 3
)
= n (n +1) [3n2 + 5n + 1] Example 27 Sum the following series 2+5+10+17+......to n terms Solution: 2+5+10+17+....... = (1+1) + (1+4) + (1+9) + (1+16)+...... = (1+1+1+.......n terms) + (12+2 2+.....n2) = n+ n (n +1 )( 2n +1 )
6
= 6 [6+2n2+3n+1] = 6 [2n2+3n+7] 46
n
n
EXERCISE 2.5
Find the sum to n terms of the following series 1) 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + 3.4.5 + ........ 2) 1.22 + 2.32 + 3.42 + ........... 3) 22 + 42 + 62 + ..........(2n)2 4) 2.5 + 5.8 + 8.11 + .......... 5) 12 + 32 + 52 + .............. 6) 1 + (1+2) + (1+2+3) + .........
2.5 BINOMIAL THEOREM
2.5.1 Theorem If n is a natural number, (x+a)n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn1 a + nC2 xn2 a 2 + ...... + nCr xn  r a r + .... nCn a n Proof: We shall prove the theorem by the principle of Mathematical Induction Let P(n) denote the statement : (x+a)n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn1 a + nC2 xn2 a 2 + ...... + nCr  1 xn+1r a r  1 + nCr xn  r a r+....... + nCn a n Let n = 1, Then LHS of P(1) = x + a RHS of P(1) = 1 . x + 1 . a = x + a = L.H.S. of P (1) ∴ P (1) is true Let us assume that the statement P (k) be true for k∈N i.e. P(k) : (x+a)k = kC0 xk + kC1 xk1 a + kC2 xk2 a 2 + ...... + kCr  1 xk+1r a r  1 + kCr xkr a r+....... + kCk a k ........ (1) is true To prove P (k+1) is true i.e., (x+a)k+1 = k+1C0 xk+1 + k+1C1 xk a + k+1C2 xk1 a 2 + ... + k+1Cr xk+1r ar + ... + ... + k+1Ck+1 a k+1 is true. (x+a)k+1 = (x+a) (x+a)k = (x + a) [kC0 xk + kC1 xk1 a + kC2 xk2 a 2 + ... + kCr  1 xk+1r a r1 + kCr xkr a r + .... + kCk ak] using (1) 47
= kC0 xk+1 + kC1 xk a + kC2 xk1 a 2 + ... + kCr xk+1r a r + ... +kCk x ak + kC0 xk a + kC1 xk1 a + ... kCr  1 xk+1r a r + ... + kCk a k+1 = kC0 xk+1 + (kC1 + kC0) xk a + (kC2 + kC1) xk1 a 2 + ........ ........ + (kCr + kCr  1) xk+1r a r + ... +kCk a k+1 But kCr + kCr  1 = k+1Cr Put r = 1, 2, ... etc. kC + kC = k+1C , kC + kC = k+1C ...... 1 0 1 2 1 2 kC = 1 = k+1C ; kC = 1 = k+1C 0 0 k k+1 ∴ (x+a)k+1 = k+1C0 xk+1 + k+1C1 xk a+ k+2C2 xk1 a 2 + ...... + k+1Cr xk+1r a r + ...... + k+1Ck+1 a k+1 Thus if P (k) is true, then P (k +1) is also true. ∴ By the principle of mathematical induction P(n) is true for n ∈ N. Thus the Binomial Theorem is proved for n ∈ N. Observations: (i) The expansion of (x+a)n has (n+1) terms. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The general term is given by t r + 1 = nCr xn  r a r. In (x+a)n, the power of ‘x’ decreases while the power of ‘a’ increases such that the sum of the indices in each term is equal to n. The coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal. The expansion of (x+a)n has (n+1) terms Let n+1 = N. a) when N is odd the middle term is t N+1
2
b) when N is even the middle terms are t (vi)
N 2
and t
N +1 2
Binomial cooefficients can also be represented by C0, C1, C2, etc.
2.5.2 Binomial coefficients and their properties (1+x)n = C0 + C1x + C2 x2 + C3 x3 + ..... + Cnxn .................(1) Put x = 1 in (1) we get 2n = C0 + C1 + C2 + ....... + Cn Put x = 1 in (1) we get 0 = C0  C1 + C2  C3 + ..... + (1)n Cn => C0 + C2 + C4 + ....... = C1 + C3 + ....
n => sum of the coefficients of even terms = 2 =2 n1
2
sum of the coefficients of odd terms = 2n1 48
Example 28 Expand (x+ 1 )4
x
Solution : (x+ 1 )4
x
= 4C0 x4 + 4C1 x3( 1 ) + 4C2 x2( 1 )2 + 4C3 x( 1 )3 + 4C4( 1 )4
x x x x
= x4 + 4x2 + 6 + 42 + 14
x x
Example 29 Expand (x+3y)4 Solution : (x+3y)4 = 4C0 x4 + 4C1 x3(3y) + 4C2 x2 (3y)2 + 4C3 x(3y)3 + 4C4(3y)4 = x4 + 4x3(3y) + 6x2(9y2) + 4x(27y3) + 81y4 = x4 + 12x3y + 54x2y 2 + 108xy 3 + 81y4
Example 30 Find the 5th term of (2x3y)7 Solution : ∴ tr+1 = 7Cr(2x)7  r (3y)r t5 = t4 + 1 = 7C4 (2x)74 (3y)4 = 7C3 (2x)3 (3y)4 = 7 x 6 x 5 (8x3) (81y4)
3x 2 x 1
= (35) (8x3) (81y4) = 22680x3y 4 Example 31 Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of (x 2 )11
x
Solution : n = 11 ∴ n+1 = 12 = N = even number So middle terms = t N and t ( N +1)
2 2
ie.,
t6 and t 7 49
(i) Now t6 = t5+1
= 11C5 x115 ( 2 )5
x
= 11C5 x6
(2)
x5
5
6 5 2 = 11C5 x 5 x
= 11C5 2 5 x = (11C5)(32x) (ii) t7 = t6 + 1= 11C6 (x)116 (= 11C6 x5
2 )6 x
(2 )6
x6
5 6 2 = 11C6 x 6 x
= 11C6 64 Example 32
(x)
Find the coefficient of x10 in the expansion of (2x2  3 )11
x
Solution : General term = tr + 1 = 11Cr(2x2)11r ( 3 )r
x
= 11Cr 2 11r (x2)11r
(3 )r
xr
= 11Cr 2 11r x222r (3)r xr = 11Cr 2 11r (3)r x223r To find the coefficient of x10, the index of x must be equated to 10. => 223r = 10 2210 = 3r ∴r = 4 So coefficient of x10 is 11C4 2 114 (3)4 = 11C4 (27) (34) Example 33
2 Find the term independent of x in the expansion of ( 4x  3 )9
3
2x
50
Solution : General term
2 = tr + 1 = 9Cr( 4x )9  r ( 3 )r
3
2x
= 9Cr
4 ( 3 )r x (x2)9  r 1 9 r x xr 2r 3
9 r
9 r ( 3 )r x182r xr = 9Cr 4 9  r x 3 2r 9 r = 9Cr 4 9  r 3
( 3 )r x183r r
2
The term independent of x = constant term = coefficient of x0 ∴ To find the term independent of x The power of x must be equated to zero => 183r ∴r =0 =6
9  6 (3 )6 So the term independent of x is 9C6 4 9  6 3 26 3 = 9C3 4 3 3
(3 )6 (2 )6
3 64
6 64 = 9x8x7 x 3 x 3
3x2x1
= (84) (33) = 84x27 = 2268
EXERCISE 2.6
1) 2) 3) 4) Find the middle term(s) in the expansion of (x 2 )11 x Find the coefficient of x 8 in the expansion of (x 2 )20 x Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (x2 Find the 8th term in the expansion of (2x + 1 )9 y 4 10 ) x3
51
5) 6) 7)
3 Find the middle term in the expansion of (3x x )9 6
Find the term independent of x in the expansion of (2x2 + 1 )12 x Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1+x) 2n is
1 . 3 . 5 ... (2n  1) 2 n . x n n!
8)
1 . 3 . 5 ... (2n 1) Show that the middle term in the expansion of (x+ 1 )2n is 2x n!
EXERCISE 2.7
Choose the correct answer 1) 2) 3) If n! = 24 then n is (a) 4 (b) 3 The value of 3! + 2! + 1! + 0! is (a) 10 (b) 6
1 1 The value of 4! + 3! is 5 (a) 20 5 (b) 24 7 (c) 12
(c) 4! (c) 7
(d) 1 (d) 9
(d) 1 7
4) 5) 6) 7)
The total number of ways of analysing 6 persons around a table is (a) 6 (b) 5 (c) 6! d) 5! The value of x(x1) (x2)! is (a) x! (b) (x1)! (c) (x2)! (d) (x+1)! (d) 7
2 persons can occupy 7 places in ____ ways (a) 42 (b) 14 (c) 21 The value of p 3 is (a) 8 x 7 x 6
6 (b) 8 x 7 x 1 3x2 x
8
(c) 8 x 7 (c) 7 (c) 10 C1
(d) 3 x 2 1 (d) 0 (d) 0
8) 9) 10)
The value of 8C0 is (a) 8 (b) 1 The value of (a) 9
10
C9 is (b) 1
Number of lines that can be drawn using 5 points in which none of 3 points are collinear is (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 5 (d) 1
52
11)
If 5 x (a) 5
10
( ) + ( ) = ( ) then x is
5 4 6 5
(b) 4
10
(c) 6 (c) 10 (c) 2n (c) n (c) 8 (c) t 6
(d) 0 (d) 1 (d) n (d) 1 (d) 14 (d) t 3 (d) t r+1
12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)
If c r = c 4r then r is (a) 2 (b) 4 Sum of all the binomial coefficients is (a) 2 n (b) b n The last term in (x+1)n is (a) xn (b) b n The number of terms in (2x+5) 7 is (a) 2 (b) 7 The middle term in (x+a)8 is (a) t 4 (b) t 5
The general term in (x+a)n is denoted by (a) t n (b) t r (c) t r1
53
A sequence with finite number of terms is called a finite sequence. All progressions are sequences but all sequences need not be progressions.. 9} 8 9 10 11 12 {1 . 8. are called the terms of the sequence. The general term need not be capable of being explicitly expressed by a formula. A sequence with infinite number of terms is an infinite sequence. 5. Also t 1. t3. 9 } It is not necessary that terms of a sequence follow a definite pattern or rule.. We use the notation t n to denote the image of the natural number n. 3 . We use {t n} or <tn> to describe a sequence.. 2 . 8 .. 3} Examples of infinite sequences are (i) (ii) tn = the n th prime number tn = the integral part of + n 4 5 6 7 {1. If the terms follow a definite rule then the sequence is called a progression. 5 . 7 . 3.SEQUENCES AND SERIES 3 A sequence is defined as a function from the set of natural numbers N or a subset of it to the set of real numbers R. n < 10 n +3 The domain of the sequence is and the range is (ii) tn = 2+(1)n The domain is {1. Examples of finite sequences are (i) tn = n . 3.. 6. 6 . 2. 7.. The distinctive terms of a sequence constitute its range. 2. 4. t2. The domain of a sequence is N or a subset of N and the codomain is R. } The range is {1. 4 . Examples of progressions are 54 .
may be taken as a.... The fixed number is called the common difference of the A. 9. 4 + . 25. if its terms continuously increase or decrease by a fixed number.P. 3. a+d.P. 1..P.. Now we recall two progressions. is tn = a + (n1) d.P. 1.) A sequence is said to be in A.) Geometric Progression (G.P. a+2d. The sum to n terms of the A. .P. 12. b. 13. ar2.P.. 8. . ar. 1. 7 4 We shall study sequences in their general form in sequel.. 1.. 2. 5 6 . 4 5 .P... 5. .. a+3d. (i) (ii) Arithmetic Progression (A. 5 . 1.. is the series corresponding to the sequence . may be taken as a.) Arithmetic Progression (A.) A sequence is said to be in G. 20.. c are in A. (v) 2. The algebraic sum of the terms of a sequence is called a series. 3 4 . 10.P. 4. 55 . 1 2 .. .etc.. The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G. ar3.P. then b = a + c Geometric Progression (G.P. Thus 3 2 3 2 3 + 5 3 + 7 .... 6. ..P. if every term bears to the preceding term a constant ratio.(i) (ii) (iii) 5. 3. 15. The standard form of a G. is S = n 2 [2a + (n1) d] 2 If three numbers a.. Here the first term is ‘a’ and the common difference is ‘d’ The n th term or the general term of the A.. 1.P. The standard form of an A. 2 3 . (iv) 1.
. is tn = arn1 n The sum to n terms of the G. 1 5 .. is S = a 1. 5. ∴ b = 2ac a+ c (1) 56 ..P... c be in H.P. 1 9 . then b2 = ac. 9.P.P..Here the first term is ‘a’ and the common ratio is ‘r’..P.P... b. prove that b + a + b + c = 2 b a b c 29 Solution: Given that a.P. an. then a . is 1 Example 2 If a. b. c be in H. 1 2 3 n form an H..P.P. b... c are in G. c are in H. The nth term or the general term of the G.1 HARMONIC PROGRESSION (H. 3.... tn = a + (n1) d t7 = 5 + (71) 4 = 29 ∴ the seventh term of the given H. Thus if a1.P. a . a . .P.P.. Then 1 a 1 1 1 1 . b = 2ac a+ c Example 1 Find the seventh term of the H. a3.P. ∴ 1 b = 1 a +1 c 2 i.) The receiprocals of the terms of an A. b. Suppose a. 13 Solution: Consider the associated A... a .P..P. are in A. 1 . . 1 b .e. a2.r ( ) 1r If three numbers a. .. 1 c will be in A. 13. form an H.
c= kz Also given that a.c ac i.e.i.3a + c c a =2 Example 3 If ax = by = cz and a. b+a b a = 2c + a + c 2c .e. b+a b c = 3a + c (3) Adding (2) and (3) b+a b a + b+c bc = 3c + a c a c a + 3a + c ac = 3c + a . z are in H. b. c are in G.P. c are in G. b+c bc = 2a + a + c 2a a . ∴ b 2 = ac Using (1) in (2) 57 1 1 y 1 . b a = 2c a+ c Applying componendo et dividendo.c c a i.P. prove that x. y.P.a . Solution: Given that ax = by = cz = k (say) ∴a= k x .(2) .(1) . b+a b a = 3c + a (2) Again from (1) b c = 2a a +c Applying componendo et dividendo.e. b. b= k .
y. c. y i. c are in A. z are in H.P. b. 2 i. The quantities x. b.P. prove that x. z are in A. Prove that they are also in G. y i. Find the 40th term of the H. Prove that log 32 .. prove that log am.P. log 6 2 and log 12 2 are in H.P. as well as in H.P.P.P. EXERCISE 3. y.e.P. 1 2 (y+z) are in H.(k i. z are in G. prove that its (pq)th term is unity. 58 . c are in G.P. a are in G. 9) If a.e. 7) 8) If 3 numbers a . b.. then show that c. log b m and log cm are in H. If a..1 1) 2) Find the 4th and 7th terms of the H.P. b are in H.P..P. y. a. b. 1 .P. 2 13 9 2 .P.e. . c are in H. 4 . 1 y )2 2 y =( = kx 1 +1 z 1 )( kz 1 1 ) k 2 kx 1 i. is q and the q th term is p.e.. show that a c = a b b c If the p th term of an H..P. 1 1 The 9th term of an H.e. y y 2 = x = + z z+ x xz xz = x+z = x+z 2xz ∴ x.P. y.P. is 465 and the 20th term is 388 . If 1 2 3) 4) 5) 6) (x+y).
M.M.M. x4.e. x1. of 9 and 4 40 2 = 20 =6 G.M.P. = 2ab a+ b Example 4 Find a) the A. = + ab Harmonic Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as H. = a+ b 15+ 25 = = 2 2 b) the G.3. x2. = + ab = + 9x4 H. of 5 and 45 Solution: a) b) c) A.M.M. = a + b 2 Geometric Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as G. of 15 and 25 c) the H.M.2 MEANS OF TWO POSITIVE REAL NUMBERS Arithmetic Mean of two positive real numbers a and b is defined as A.M. 6 be in A. = a + b = 2ab 2x5x45 450 5+ 45 = 50 = 9 Example 5 Insert four Arithmetic Means between 5 and 6 Solution: Let 5. 5 + 5d =6 ∴ d= 5 1 1 1 26 27 5 Hence x1 = 5 + 5 x2 = 5 + 5 26 = 5 = 59 . ∴ t6 = 6 i. x3.M.
1. x 4 . x3. 3 4 4 4 and 4 3 .. x 1 . 60 . 10 are in A.x3 = 5 + 5 and x4 = 28 1 5 + 5 27 1 = 28 5 29 26 27 28 29 = 5 The required Arithmetic Means are 5 . 5 . 5 Example 6 Insert three Geometric Means between 3 Solution: Let 3 ∴ t5 i.P.. 4 = 4 r4 = 4 3 3 3 be in G. 9. 10 1 1 1 1 be in H.. x1. 3 3 2 Insert four Harmonic Means between Solution: Let ∴ 1 1 9 1 9 and 1 10 x1. x 3 . 5 . x4. x2. ∴ r = 23 Hence x1 x2 and x3 = 3 = 4 x 23 = 3 =1 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 x = 1 x 23 = The required Geometric Means are Example 7 2 . x2. x3.P.e. x 2 .P.
M > H.M.M.M. 47 . 5 5 5 5 EXERCISE 3.) .M.e. Insert 5 Geometric Means between 5 and 3645.M Proof : Denoting the A. 5) 3. and H.M.M.M > G.. Insert 4 Harmonic Means between 1 5 1 and 20 The Arithmetic Mean of two numbers is 34 and their Geometric Mean is 16. 61 ii) G. Find the two numbers.) x (H. Hence x 1 1 x2 1 x3 1 9 + 5d = 10 ∴ d = =9+ = = = 46 5 47 5 48 5 1 5 1 5 = 1 5 1 5 1 5 46 5 + + + = = = 47 5 48 5 49 5 and 1 x4 The required Harmonic Means are 46 .t6 = 10 i. 48 . 49 .2ax + b 2 = 0 is the Geometric Mean of the roots of x 2 . For any two positive unequal real numbers. G. Show that the Arithmetic Mean of the roots of x2 .. i) A.3 RELATION BETWEEN A. G. AND H. H respectively. G.M.M.M. = (A.2 1) 2) 3) 4) Insert 3 Arithmetic Means between 5 and 29.2bx + a 2 = 0 and vice versa. between two positive unequal real numbers ‘a’ and ‘b’ by A.
H.(1) ab ( a + b) 2ab a +b ab .2ab a+b = ab (a + b ). A .G = a+ b . G = 2 ab . 62 .2 ab ab a +b ab a + b .. G.(2) Combining (1) and (2) A>G>H Further A.H. = H.2 a b = 2 ( a− b 2 )2 >0 ∴ A>G Also GH = = = . G.M. form a decreasing G.M.M.P. H = 2ab a+b Now.M.ab = a + b .M.M.A = a+ b . = ( a + b ) ( a2ab ) 2 +b ab = ab = ( ) 2 = G2 ∴G= (A) (H) Hence the proof Observation: (i) A.2 ab a+b ( ) = ab a − b a +b ( ) 2 >0 ∴ G>H .M. = G.2 ab 2 2 = a + b. and H. (ii) If we consider the A.M.. of two equal positive real numbers each equal to ‘a’ then A.. = a.M.
G. geometrically and hence show that they form a decreasing G.(1) G .Example 8 Verify that the A. and H.P. H form a decreasing GP.G = 29 .10 = 2910 = 9 2 2 2 >0 ∴A>G Also . between 25 and 4 form a decreasing G.M. Solution : A = a+ b = 25+ 4 = 29 2 2 2 G= ab = a+b 25x4 = 10 25+ 4 29 H = 2ab = 2x25x4 = 200 Now A .P.M. T O A M C B X (63) . Hence it is verified that A..M.M.(2) ( 29 ) (200 ) 2 29 = 100 = (10)2 = G2. Example 9 Represent the A. and H.M.M.200 = 290 .H = 10 . G.200 = 90 > 0 29 29 29 ∴G>H Combining (1) and (2) A>G>H Further AH = . G.
M. G > H A>G>H Further OT 2 = OM. a+ b = OA+ OB = OC. Now OT 2 = OM. OT > OM i.e. A>G . (4) combining (3) and (4) we get that A. G. A. Let C be the centre of the semi circle.M. Now. H. Draw a semicircle on AB as diameter.e.M. between a and b. OT and OM form a G.e. form a decreasing G. H form a G.M.P.P. From the right angled ∆ OTC. CB radii) 2 2 2 2 ∴ OC is the A.OC (Q ∆OTC  ∆OMT) i.OC ∴ OC.OB = ab (Q OT is tangent and OAB is secant) i. between a and b.(1) From the right angled ∆ OTM. TM ⊥ AB. OC > OT i. 2 OM = OT = OC a+ b 2 ab = 2ab a+ b ∴ OM is the H.M.e. Now OT 2 = OA. cut off OA = a units.M. OB = b units..P. OT = ab ∴ OT is the G. between a and b. i.. G.e.Solution: From a line OX. Draw OT the tangent to the circle. 64 .(2) (3) combining (1) and (2) we get .AC+ OC+ CB = 2OC = OC ( Q AC.
If a. (x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > 8xyz [ ] [2 yz ] [2 zx ] EXERCISE 3.M. then show that a 2 + c 2 > 2b 2. ∴ x+ y > 2 and xy i. (x+y) > 2 (y+z) > 2 xy yz (1) (2) (3) Similarly (z+x) > 2 zx Multiplying (1). (2) & (3) vertically.Example 1 0 If x.4.M. c are three positive unequal numbers in H. b. y We have A. 3.4 GENERAL CONCEPT OF SEQUENCES A sequence can be defined (or specified) by (i) a rule (ii) a recursive relation. y. z be unequal positive real numbers prove that (x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > 8xyz Solution: Consider x.e. > G.P. 65 .e.1 Defining a sequence by a rule A sequence can be defined by a rule given by a formula for t n which indicates how to find t n for a given n. 3) If x is positive and different from 1 then show that x + 1 x >2 3.3 1) 2) Verify the inequality of the means for the numbers 25 and 36. (x+y) (y+z) (z+x) > 2 xy i.
Example 11 Write out the first four terms of each of the following sequences. n > 1 n b) 2. 2} {1... 3 2 9 7 e) 0. 1. 1 f) 3. 17 4 c) 3. 4. 4. . 1 .1 > c) < 1 + (1)n > n> n1 > d) < (1) e) < (1) Solution: a) b) c) d) e) The set of all positive even integers The set of all positive odd integers {0. 9 8 . 5 4 .. } {1. 1601} This is the set of all prime numbers from 41 to 1601 Example 1 4 Find an expression for the nth term of each of the following sequences a) 1. 1} {2.. 8 9 b) tn = e) n2 +1 n n c) tn = 2n+ 1 2n 1 2 n2 n < 1+( −1) > 2 5 2 f) 1 < n+1 > . 1} {1. 1 9 . 10 3 . 61 . 66 . 7 5 . . 6. 1. 7 6 . 7. 1 16 ..2 d) tn = Solution : a) 1. .. .. Example 1 2 Determine the range of each of the following sequences a) < 2n > b) < 2n . n < 40? Solution: The range is {41. . 1 4 . 53.n + 41. 43. . a) tn = 3n .. 5. b) 3 2 .. 2. 0. 5 3 5 3 . } Example 1 3 What can you say about the range of the squence tn = n2 . 3.. 47. 10 d) 2.
an = 2an1 .4. n>2 Solution: a3 = 2a 2a 1 = 01 = 1 a4 = 2a 3a 2 = 20 = 2 a5 = 2a 4a 3 = 4+1 = 3 a6 = 2a 5a 4 = 6+2 = 4 a7 = 2a 6a 5 = 8+3 = 5 The first seven terms are 1... a2 = 0.. 1 12 . n > 2 Solution: a3 = a2+a 1 = 1+1 = 2 a4 = a3+a 2 = 2+1 = 3 67 .. Example 1 5 Find the first seven terms of the sequence given by the recursive relation. f)  1 2 . 0. a2 = 1...... an+1 = an + an1. 3. 65... . 37. 1.c) e) Solution: a) c) e) 3. 1 2 d) 5. 1 6 ..an2. 63.... A recursive relation is a rule given by a formula which enables us to calculate any term of the sequence using the previous terms and the given initial terms of the sequence. 35. 1 20 .. 5 Example 1 6 Find the first 10 terms of the sequence a1 = 1.. . 15. tn = 1 n2 b) tn = 2n + 1 2n tn = 4n 21 tn = (1)n + 1 n n 1 + d) tn = 4n 2 + 1 f) tn = (1 )n n 2 +n 3.. 17.. 4.2 Defining a sequence by a recursive relation. 3 4 . 2 3 .. .. .4 5 . a1 = 1. 2. .
13. 7. Observation There may be sequences which defy an algebraic representation. i. For example. 5. an = 2an1 + 3. 61.e. 11. 3. 29.a5 = a4+a 3 = 3+2 = 5 a6 = a5+a 4 = 5+3 = 8 a7 = a6+a 5 = 8+5 = 13 a8 = a7+a 6 = 13+8 = 21 a9 = a8+a 7 = 21+13 = 34 a10 = a9+a 8 = 34+21 = 55 The first ten terms are 1. 55 Observation : This type of sequence is called Fibonacci sequence. The two sequences are the same. a1 = 1 an = 2a n1+3. the sequence of prime numbers 2. 61. The sequence is 1.. 13... n > 2 tn = 2n + 1 . Example 1 7 Show that : (i) tn = 2n+1 . 2. 21. 5. 68 . (ii) The sequence is 1. 13. 5.. 3. n>2 a2 = 2a 1+3 = 2+3 = 5 a3 = 2a 2+3 = 10+3 = 13 a4 = 2a 3+3 = 26+3 = 29 a5 = 2a 4+3 = 58+3 = 61 and so on. 29.3 t1 = 223 = 1 t2 = 233 = 5 t3 = 243 = 13 t4 = 253 = 29 t5 = 263 = 61 and so on.. 8.. 1. Mathematicians are still striving hard to represent all prime numbers by a single algebraic formula. 5. . Their attempts have not been successful so far. 34. 13. Solution: (i) (ii) a1 = 1. .3 and represent the same sequence.
a n = a n 1 . 4. n > 1 (d) a 1 = 2. . 3. 2.5 COMPOUND INTEREST In compound interest. n > 1 a 1 = 1. a n = 3a n1 + 1. 69 . 30 . n > 1 a 1 = 1. 9.. a n = 2a n1 . 15..001.. if n is odd 3( + 1). 3. . 7.EXERCISE 3. .4 1) Write out the first 5 terms of each of the following sequences (a) + < nn!1 > (b) < ( −n1+)1 > n1 (c) < 1 nn > (d) ( < 1−n−1) > +1 n (e) < n 22n1 > 2) (f) <(1)n > (g) <6n1> Write out the first 7 terms of the sequence tn = ..1. 15.. . a 2 = 1 a n = (a n1 )2 +2. n>1 2 (b)a 1 = 5. a n = 2a n1 + n. 23. 20 . the interest for each period is added to the principal before the interest is calculated for the next period. n > 1 (f) a 1 = 2. 19. a n = a n1 +n 2 . a 2 = 1. if n is even n +3 2 n 2 3) Find the range of each of the following sequences (a) < 1+(1)n + 1 > (b) < (1)n + 1 > Find the general term of each of the following sequences (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1.. 8. 2. 10 3 4) . 2. a n = a n1 1.. n > 2 (h) a 1 = 1.. 40 . 9 27 81 5) Find the first 6 terms of the sequence specified by the recursive relation (a) (c) (e) (g) a 1 = 1. a n = a n2 + 2. a 2 =1. n > 2 3. 16.. Thus the interest earned gets reinvested and in turn earns interest. 11..0001. n > 2 a 1 = 1. 2. 0.01. 25 .
0000 3.000 for 10 years at 5% per annum. If a certain sum becomes N times in T years then it will become Nn times in T x n years.1000 = Rs. If the interest is paid more than once in a year the rate of interest is what is called nominal rate.P = 1629 .05)10 = Rs.05 = 0. i r A P = (1+i)n (iv) Example 1 8 Find the compound interest on Rs.P. 629. Solution: A = P (1+i)n = 1000 (1+0. 70 Logarithmic calculation log 1.2120 Antilog 3.05)10 = 1000 (1. If the interest is paid k times a year then i must be replaced by k and n by nk.2120 = 1629 x + .2120 log 1000 = 3.The formula to find the amount under compound interest is given by A = P(1+i)n .0212 10 0. 1. 1629 Compound Interest = A . where i = 100 Here P = Principal A = Amount r = Rate of Interest i = Interest on unit sum for one year Also the present value P is given by Observation : (i) (ii) (iii) The amounts under compound interest form a G.
0320 Antilog 5.1720 Antilog 3.05)10 = 81.P = 1486 . 10.05 = 0.0320 = 1.000 for 10 years at 4% p.0320 log 10000 = 4.0043 40 0.1720 log 1000 = 3.600 Example 2 1 The population of a city in 1987 was 50.0000 3.1000 = Rs.600 = 10000 (1+0. What is the amount that will accrue on the 20th birthday of the beneficiary if the interest is compounded monthly.01 = 0. The rate of interest is 12% p.6990 + 4. The population increases at the rate of 5% each year.470 71 .2120 log 50000 = 4. 1.a.1720 = 1486 x + Example 2 0 A person deposits a sum of Rs. 1486 Compound interest = A .9110 Antilog 4. 1.01)240 = 10000 (1.07.01 = 0.01)40 = 1000 (1.a. Logarithmic calculation log 1. Find the population of the city in 1997.0212 10 x 0.05)10 = 50000 (1. Solution: A = P(1+i)n = 1000 (1+0. Logarithmic calculation Solution: A = P(1+i)n = 50000 (1+0..0043 240 x 1. Logarithmic calculation Solution: A = P(1+i) n log 1.9110 = 81.01)40 = Rs.000 in the name of his newborn child.Example 1 9 Find the compound interest on Rs.0000 + 5.000.470 log 1. the interest being paid quarterly.07. 486.01)240 = Rs.
Solution: A = P(1i)n = 10000 (10.5420 + log 10000 = 4.05)5 = (1.401 Example 24 12000 What sum will amount to Rs.525 at 10% p.401 x  12000 = (1+ 0.1060 3. The machine was purchased for Rs.0792 0.9732 Antilog 3.a.483 10 Logarithmic calculation log 0.05 )5 = Rs. Obtain its value at the end of the 10th year. compounded yearly for 13 years.1) = 10000 (0.5420 = 3.I.5420 Antilog 3. 10. 12.9)10 = Rs. 9.05 = 0.0000 3. 3.000. 5. Solution: P = (1+i )n 72 A .9542 10 x 1 .483 Example 2 3 Find the present value of an amount of Rs.000 at the end of 5 years at 5% C. Solution: P A = (1+i )n Logarithmic calculation log 1.9732 = 9.Example 2 2 A machine depreciates in value each year at the rate of 10% of its value at the begining of a year.9 = 1 .1060 log 12000 = 4.0212 5 0.
02935 = 1. ∴ i (1+ 2 ) = 3000 2000 6 i (1+ 2 ) = (1.5382 3.02935 Antilog 0.= (1+ 0.600 x  ← Example 2 5 At what rate percent p. C.5 = 0.7423 0.5) i 2 1 6 = 1.2041 Antilog 3.a.1 )13 = Rs. 1.07 r = 0.07 = 0.000 in 3 years if the interest is reckoned half yearly. 3. 3 = P(1+i)n = P (1+0.1761 ÷6 0.13)n 73 .1 )13 = (1.07 log 1.? Solution: A 3P i.e.1 = 0.600 5525 5525 Logarithmic calculation log 1. will Rs.14 100 r = 14% Example 2 6 How long will it take for a given sum of money to triple itself at 13% C.2041 = 1.000 amount to Rs. Solution: A = P (1+i)n i 3000 = 2000 (1+ 2 )3x2 i = 2000 (1+ 2 )6 Logarithmic calculation => => => i.I. 2.0414 13 0.e.I.5382 log 5525 = 3.13)n = (1.
155 = 15. Let i be the nominal interest per unit sum per year compounded k times a year and j the corresponding effective interest on unit sum per year. Then for the principal P.0531 Logarithmic calculation log 0.984 3.15 )2 1 2 = (1 + 0.5.4771 0 .e.Taking logarithm.155 .7251  = 8.0628 Antilog 0.4771 = log 0. Solution: j i = (1+ k ) 1 k Logarithmic calculation = (1+ 0.155 .1 = 0. Obvisously Effective rate > nominal rate. n = n log 1.13 = 0.9535 = 8.1 Effective rate of interest: When interest is compounded more than once in a year the rate of interest is called nominal rate. i = P (1+ k ) k k i j = (1+ k ) 1 Example 2 7 Find the effective rate of interest when the rate of interest is 15% and the interest is paid half yearly.9535 Antilog 0.13 log3 = log1. P (1+j) i.5% 74 2 log 1.984 = 9 years (nearly) 0.e.6786 2 .075 = 0.075)21 = (1. The interest rate. log 3 i.0531 = 1 .0314 2 0.075) 1 = 1. which compounded once in a year gives the same interest as the nominal rate is called effective rate.0628 = 1.
0696 = 1.027)61 = (1.0125)121 = 1. Advise which is better.1 = 0.0055 12 x 0.0125 = 0.0696 Antilog 0.174 A finance company offers 16% interest compounded annually.0125)121 = (1. j i = (1+ k )k 1 Logarithmic calculation = (1+ 0.4% Example 2 9 log 1.16 )6 1 6 = (1+0.0660 Antilog 0.174 . Solution: Convert the nominal rate 15% to effective rate.164 = 16.15 )121 12 = (1+0. Solution: j i = (1 + k )k1 Logarithmic calculation = (1+ 0. we conclude that 15% compounded monthly is better.027)61 = 1.0116 6 0.027 = 0.Example 2 8 Find the effective rate of interest for the interest rate 16% if interest is compounded once in two months.0660 = 1. 75 . A debenture offers 15% interest compounded monthly.4 % log 1.174 = 17.164 .1 = 0.164 Comparing.
a. 5. Obtain the value of the machine at the end of the fourth year.000.I. for Rs. If the interest is compounded monthly.I. 9035 in 5 years. 5) 6) Find the present value of Rs. 4888 as compound interest by depositing a certain sum in a 10% fixed deposit for 5 years. is reckoned quarterly? 8) In how many years will a sum of money treble itself at 5% C. 4. If the payments are made at the begining of each period the annuity is called annuity due.I. 5000 amount to Rs. what is the amount payable at the end of 25 years? 4) A machine depreciates in value each year at the rate of 10% of its value at the begining of a year. If the payments are made at the end of each period the annuity is called immediate annuity or ordinary annuity.I.I. 76 .a.000 amount to at 12% p.000 due in 4 years at 4% C. payable annually? 9) 10) Find the effective rate of interest when the interest is 15% paid quarterly Find the effective rate corresponding to the nominal rate of 12% compounded half yearly. 3. Kalpana receives Rs. 2.6 ANNUITIES A sequence of equal payments at equal intervals of time is called an annuity. 20. Annuity generally means ordinary annuity.000 at 15%.EXERCISE 3. Mrs. Determine the sum deposited by her.800 for 3 years at 4% p. when the interest is paid i) annually 3) ii) half yearly A person invests Rs.I. The machine was purchased for Rs. 7) At what rate percent per annum C. will Rs.5 1) 2) How much will Rs. C. 2. over 15 years? Find the C. if C.
a .1 [ (1. then P = a (1+i ) [ 1. then the Amount A = a (1+i ) [ (1+i) n1] i Also if P is the present value. 2.. 4 .000 payable at the end of each year for 4 years if money is worth 10% compounded annually.1) 1] 77 .. a 2 . a . a .2 Annuity Due 1 P . a 3 .3. a 1 . a ..(1+i)n] i 3... n Amount A . 4 . a ...(1+i)n] i Example 3 0 Find the amount of annuity of Rs.6.6. then the Amount A= a i [ (1+i) n1] Also if P is the present value then P = a [ 1.. a 2 .1 Immediate Annuity P . If equal payments ‘a’ are made at the beginning of each year for n years. Solution: A = a [ (1+i)n1] i = 2000 4 0. a 3 . n Amount A If equal payments ‘a’ are made at the end of each year for n years.
= 2000 1 10 [1. => => ∴ = a [ (1+i)n1] i Logarithmic calculation log 1.280 log 1. 223 60  . 1.464] = Rs.000 that earn interest at 12% per year compounded monthly.2690 log 60 = 1. Determine the equal deposits to be made at the end of each quarter for 3 years so as to receive Rs.01 [(1.000 at the end of 3 years. Solution: A i.01)121] = 2000 1 100 Logarithmic calculation 1000 log 1.2690 = Rs.1656 = 1.127 [1.e.4298 2.1032 Antilog 0.1656 Antilog 0.0516 Antilog 0. Solution: A = a [(1+i)n1] i = 0.3484 Antilog 2.2690] = 0. 9.1271] = 100000 [0.02 [ (1.700 Example 3 2 A bank pays 8% interest compounded quarterly.02)121] 60 60 a = a [1.0043 12 x 0. 3.0086 12 x 0.0 78 a 3000 = 0.01 = 0.464 Example 3 1 Find the amount of an ordinary annuity of 12 monthly payments of Rs.1 =0. 12.1032 = 1.26901] = a [0.4641] Logarithmic calculation = 20000 [0.02 = 0.0414 4 x 0.3484 = 223.7782 log 0.2690 = 1 .0516 = 1.127] = Rs.
Example 3 3 What is the present value of an annuity of Rs.000 each payable at the end of first. If the interest is charged at 5% p.15)5] = 75000 [10. 2514 Example 3 4 An equipment is purchased on an instalment basis such that Rs.05 = 0.15 = 0. 3. second. Solution: P = a [1(1+i)n] i = 3000 [1(1.1774] = Rs.8226] 1 .0607 5 x . 10644 Cash down payment ∴ Cash down price = Rs.9152 = 0.8226 = Rs. (5000 + 10644) = Rs.5028] = Rs.1774] 5 = 60000 [0.a.15 [1(1. third and fourth year..4972] 15 = 5000 [0.4972 Logarithmic calculation log 1.6965 = 0. Solution : P = a [1(1+i)n] i = 0.000 Antilog 1 . 15.05)4] 0.05 = = 3000 5 100 Logarithmic calculation log 1.6965 Antilog 1 . received at the end of each year for 5 years when the discount rate is 15%. find the cash down price.0212 4 0. 750 p.0.9152 300000 [0. 5. 5000 is to be paid on the signing of the contract and four yearly instalments of Rs.644 79 .0848 = x [10.3035 = 750 1 .a.
000 respectively. 15.1336 = n 1 .50 Example 3 6 Machine X costs Rs.04 [1(1. interest compounded half yearly and agrees to pay both the principal and interest at 10 equal instalments at the end of each of six months.3230] = 0.8300 = 0.1700 = 5000 = 0.6761 log 200 = 2.e.08)4] Antilog 1 . 5000 at 8% p.6761] = 0.50 200 a a 1 .5104  2.08 = 0.000 and machine Y costs Rs.04 [10.000 and Rs. Logarithmic calculation Solution: P = a i a [1(1+i) ) n log 1.04)10] = 0.3239 = 1 .04 [0.7352 80 . Find which machine may be purcahsed. 617.0170 10 x 0. 15.Example 3 5 A person borrows Rs.3239] i.7906 = 617.) Solution: Machine X Present value of outflow = Rs.0334 4 x 0.04 = 0. 7. (Assume discount rate 8% p.3010 log 0.8300 Antilog 1 .000 Present value of inflows = a i Logarithmic calculation log 1.000. 200 a = a [0. Machine X has a life of 4 years and Y has a life of 7 years.8664 = 0.8664 [1(1+i) ] 4000 = 0. 4. The annual income from X and Y are Rs. 20.a.7906 Antilog 2.08 [1(1. Find the amount of these instalments.a.3239 = Rs.
42020000) = Rs.5614 Antilog = 4. 20.2648] Rs. (15.7352] 8 = 50000 [0. 500 every year for a period of 10 years in a bank which gives C.I.5837 log 87500 = 4. 13.420 If I deposit Rs. 16. of 5% per year.240) = Rs.4163 = [10.2338 = [1(1+i)n] 1 .9420 log 0.5837] 700000 [0. 36. 1760 Machine Y Present value of outflow Present value of inflows = a i Logarithmic calculation = Rs.420 ∴ Machine Y may be purchased Example 3 7 4. (36.4163] = Rs. 81 .7662 = 0.0334 7 x 0.000 log 1.6194 + = 87500 [0. find out the amount I will receive at the end of 10 years.420 Present inflow is more than present outflow ∴ Net inflow = Rs.= 400000 [10.00013.08)7] = = 7000 8 100 7000 Antilog 1 .7662 = 0. ∴ Net outflow = Rs.08 [1(1.5614 = 36.240 Present inflow is less than present outflow.4163] 8 1 .08 = 0.
6291] = = 525 5 100 500 525 log 1.02) [(1.1032 = 1. 8% compounded quarterly.000 is deposited at the beginning of each quarter in a S. Find the amount in the account at the end of 3 years.269] 2 100 1000 1020 log 1.Solution: A = a i Logarithmic calculation (1+i) [(1+i)n1] = 0.02)121] = 0.629] = Rs.B.629] 52500 [0.02 (1.I.02 [1. Solution : A = a i Logarithmic calculation (1+i) [ (1+i)n1] = 0.2120 Antilog 0.05 (1.02 = 0.05) [(1.719 82 .269 = 102000 [0.269] 2 = 51000 [0.629 [0.0212 10 x 0.50 Example 3 8 A sum of Rs. 6604.2691] = 1020 [0.0086 12 x 0. 13.05 [1.05 = 0. account that pays C.1032 Antilog 0.05)101] = 0.269] = Rs.2120 = 1. 1.629] 5 = 10500 [0.
0340 = 1 .1980 Antilog 0. Solution: P = a i 200 208 4 100 Logarithmic calculation (1+i) [1(1+i)n] = 0.7674 3.0125 (1. payable annualy for 2 years at 4% p. 5000 = a(1. 200 p.000 = 0.9247] log 1.0125) [(1. 578 ) = Rs.1980 = 1.578 = 1 .7619 + 1 .0125 )(0. if money is worth 15% compounded monthly.56 83 .04 (1.6990 x 1 .a.0125) [1.04) [1(1.0125)361] ie.0125) (0.578) ∴ a 5000 = (1.0125 = 0. 8.000.5781] = a (1.0753] = Rs.Example 3 9 What equal payments made at the beginning of each month for 3 years will accumulate to Rs.578 log 1. 4.04 = 0.0753] 4 Antilog 1 .04)2] = = [10.a.9660 = 0.0055 log 0.00.0055 36 0.0170 2 x 0.7674 log 5000 = 3.543  Example 4 0 Find the present value of an annuity due of Rs.9316 = 8. 391.9247 = 5.543 log 1.9316 Antilog 3.200 [0.01125 = 0.9660 20800 [0. Solution : A = a i Logarithmic calculation (1+i) [ (1+i)n1] a 400.
The annual income from the machines A and B are Rs. of 5% p. 10.a.a. A person purchases a house of worth Rs. compounded annually. 98. 500 is deposited at the beginning of each year.6 1) Find the future value of an ordinary annuity of Rs. 250 per month at the end of each month for 5 years.783 due after 3 years by 3 equal yearly instalments. A sum of Rs.000 and Rs. received for 10 years when the discount rate is 10% p. 25. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 84 . Machine A has a life of 5 years and machine B has a life of 7 years. compounded semi annually. A man deposits Rs. find out the amount at the end of 5 years. Find the amount at the end of 10 years. Which machine may be purchased. 50.? What is the present value of an annuity that pays Rs.a. 1200 payable at the end of each of six months for 3 years when the interest is earned at 8% p.000 and machine B costs Rs. compounded annually.8. What is the present value of an annuity of Rs. If I deposit Rs.? A man wishes to pay back his debts of Rs 3. 1.a.EXERCISE 3. discount rate being 10% p.a. Find each instalment to be paid if interest be reckoned 16% p.000 respectively. How much is to his credit at the end of ten years? Find the present value of an annuity of Rs. 500 p. The rate of interest is 6% p.000 is to be paid in cash on the signing of the contract and the balance in 20 equal instalments which are to be paid at the end of each year. 40. 1000 a year for 5 years at 7% p.000 every year for a period of 5 years in a bank which gives a C. compounded annually.000 on instalment basis such that Rs.a.a.000. Find the amount of each instalment.I. money being worth 5% p. 75 at the end of each of six months in a bank which pays interest at 8% compounded semi annually. assuming money to be worth 6% compounded monthly? Machine A costs Rs.a.a. compounded annually.
a. What equal payments made at the beginning of each year for 10 years will pay for a machine priced at Rs.a.P. 10.? A bank pays interest at the rate of 8% p. for 8 years. x.P.P. 60.000 p. Find how much should be deposited in the bank at the beginning of each of 3 months for 5 years in order to accumulate to Rs. if money is worth 5% p. What is the present value of the total cash flow of the payments for interest at 20%. is (a) A.b 2 (d)none of these (d) 12.bx + c = 0 is (a) 2b c (b) 2c b and 4 3 (c) 2bc b+ c (d)none of these 7) If the Arithmetic Mean and Harmonic Mean of the roots of a qudradratic equation are 3 2 (c) x2 .7 Choose the correct answer 1) The progression formed by the reciprocals of the terms of an H.4 = 0 respectively then the equation is (d) x2 + 2x + 3 = 0 85 .P.P.000. 10. (c) H. then x is equal to (b) 4 13 (a) 3 3) (c) 5 13 (d) 6 13 The Arithmetic Mean between a and b is (a) ab 2 (b) a+ b 2 (c) ab (d) a .5 4) 5) 6) The Geometric Mean between 3 and 27 is (a) 15 (b) 12 (c) 19 The Harmonic Mean between 10 and 15 is (a) 12 (b) 25 (c) 150 The Harmonic Mean between the roots of the equation x 2 .3x . (b) G.11) A firm purchases a machine under an instalment plan of Rs.000 at the end of 5 years. compounded annually? 12) 13) EXERCISE 3. 3 2 13 are in H.a. compounded quarterly. Payments are made at the beginning of each year. (d)none of these 2) 1 8 .
P [ (1+ 100 ) T 1] R (d) Rs. G. G. (a) 201 (b) 204 (c) 202 (d) 203 The range of the sequence <2+(1) n > is (a) N (b) R (c) {3. P [ (1+ 100 ) T +100] 17) 18) 86 .. and H.P.M. two years.P.1 4 14) In the sequence 1000. is (a) 100 (b) 300 (c) 200 (d) 500 For two positive real numbers. forms (a) an A... 995. H are respectively the A. between two different positive numbers then (a) A = G2 H (b) G2 = AH (c) A 2 = GH (d) A = GH For two positive real numbers G. 4} (d) {1. G. (a) an A. 990.M..M.M. (d)none of these The successive amounts on a principal carrying C.M. and H. for one year. = 300. (c) an H.M.between two unequal positive numbers are themselves in (a) G.P. (c) an H.M. G. (b) a G. G.P.P.M.M. (b) a G. = 2 then the H. H.M between two different positive real numbers then (a) A > G > H (b) A < G > H (c) A < G < H (d) A>G<H If A. = 4. three years form.P. (d)none of these The compounded interest on Rs. . (b) A. A.M.1 5 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) (−1)n+1 > is n (c) 1 4 (d) .. P [ (1+ 100 ) T +1] R (c) Rs.P. 3} 15) 16) The successive amounts on a principal carrying S. between them is (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 The fifth term of the sequence < (a) 1 5 (b) .. P after T years at R% p.M.8) The A. (c) H.I.P. = 180 their A.P.M and H.a.M. P [ (1+ 100 ) T 100] R (b) Rs. compounded annually is R (a) Rs. find n for which t n is the first negative term.I. (d)none of these If A. H are respectively the A. G.M.
I. is (a) Rs. 8. 7. 1200 The principal which earns Rs. Then the sum is (a) Rs. After 20 years it will become (a) Rs. 25.87 At compound interest if a certain sum of money doubles in n years then the amount will be four fold in (a) 2n 2 years (b) n 2 years (c) 4n years (d) 2n years A sum of money placed at C.000 (d) Rs. 800 (c) Rs.I. its worth 3 years ago was (a) Rs. 8.648 in 3 years and Rs. 96. 1260 (d) Rs.793 (c) Rs. 750. 8.000 at the rate of 5% C. will amount to Rs. 1352 in 2 years at 4% C. 1000 (b) Rs.112 Rs.000 If Rs.a.I. 4.I.680 in 2 years.20. 1000 (d) Rs. is (a) 5% (b)10% (c) 15% (d) 20% The value of a machine depreciates every year at the rate of 10% on its value at the begining of that year. 1. (a) Rs. C.I. 9. 1.24.I.783 (b) Rs.10 (b) Rs.000 (b) Rs. 3. 20 (d) Rs. compounded annually is (a) Rs. 1250 (c) Rs.000 (c) Rs. 800 at 5% p.783 The difference between S. and C. then the amount payable after 2 years is (a) Rs.I. on a sum of money at 5% p. doubles in 5 years. 1200 (c) Rs. 4. 9. 7.92. for 2 years is Rs. 882 in (a) 1 year (b) 2 years (c) 3 years (d) 4 years 20) 21) 22 23) 24) A sum amounts to Rs. for 3 years.a. 24.000 A sum of money amounts to Rs.500 is borrowed at C. 3. 400 for 2 years at 5% p.19) The compound interest on Rs.a.793 d) Rs.. 132 as compound interest for the second year at 10% p. (a) Rs. It will become 8 times in (a) 15 years (b) 9 years (c) 16 years (d) 18 years 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 87 . Then the sum is.000 (d) Rs. If the present value of the machine is Rs.I.000 (c) Rs.800 (c) Rs. 10. 1320 (d)none of these A sum of Rs. 45 (b) Rs. 947.a. 729. 2. The rate of C.000 (b) Rs.100 (d) Rs.000 deposited at CI becomes double after 5 years.a. 10 The interest on Rs. 1300 (b) Rs. 12. at the rate of 4% p. 10. 41 (c) Rs. 1.082 (b) Rs. 8.
I.31) A sum of money at C. It will be 9 times in (a) 9 years (b) 6 years (c) 12 years (d) 15 years 32) If i is the interest per year on a unit sum and the interest is compounded k times a year then the corresponding effective rate of interest on unit sum per year is given by (a) (1+ k )i1 i (b) (1+ k ) k 1 (c) (1+ k )k 1 (d)none of these i If i is the interest per year on a unit sum and the interest is compounded once in k months in a year then the corresponding effective rate of interest on unit sum per year is given by (a) (1+ 12 i) 12 1 k k 12 ki 12 ki b) (1+ 12 ) k 1 (c) (1+ 12 ) k +1 (d) none of these i i 33) 88 . amounts to thrice itself in 3 years.
(ii) A P C K M L N a c a a p2 p1 B Q D The locus of a point whose distance from a fixed point is constant is a circle with the fixed point as its centre. Equation of a locus: Any relation in x and y which is satisfied by every point on the locus is called the equation of the locus. 4. The branch of mathematics where algebraic methods are employed for solving problem in geometry is known as Analytical Geometry.y).1 LOCUS Locus is the path traced by a moving point under some specified geometrical condition The moving point is taken as P(x. The locus of a point whose distances from two points A and B are equal is the perpendicular bisector of the line AB. For example (i) The locus of a point equidistant from two given lines is the line parallel to each of the two lines and midway between them. A 89 (iii) B . It is sometimes called cartesian Geometry after the french mathematician DesCartes.ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY 4 The word “Geometry” is derived from the Greek word “geo” meaning “earth” and “metron” meaning “measuring”. The need of measuring land is the origin of geometry.
4x . A(1.10y . 7). x + 5y .6) and B(2.49 = 0 ∴ the locus is x2 + y2 .e.y .Exampe 1 Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the point (2. Let the given points be A (2.5)..3) and (4.B are collinear. 3)and B(4. The given fixed point is A(2. PA = 7 ∴ PA 2 = 72 = 49 (ie) (x2)2 + (y5)2 = 49 x2 .20 = 0 Example 2 Find the equation of locus of the point which is equidistant from (2.3) and (2. Solution: Let P(x.y) be the moving point.5) are always collinear. Now.10y + 25 .4x + 4 + y2 . Solution: Let P(x.17 = 0 is the required locus. Find the locus of P.y) be the moving point.y) be the moving point. ∴ Area of ∆PAB = 0 ie ∴ 1 2 [x(65) + 1(5y) + 2(y+6)] = 0 11x . Given that P. Given that PA = PB ∴ PA 2 = PB2 (x2)2 + (y+3)2 = (x4)2 + (y7)2 i.0) 90 .7) Solution: Let P(x.A.1 1) Find the locus of a point which moves so that it is always equidistant from the two points (2. EXERCISE 4.5) is always 7 units.13 = 0 Example 3 A point P moves so that the points P.
5) are always collinear.2 EQUATION OF LINES RECALL y The line AB cuts the axes at D and C A C respectively.0) is always three times its distance from the point (0. (0. 91 . θ O D x B Slope Point Form: Equation of a straight line passing through a given point (x1.2). OD is called the x intercept OC is called the y . Find the locus of P. Find the equation of the locus.4) The distance of a point from the origin is five times its distance from the y axis.7) is always 2 units.3) and (1.3) and B is (4. Find the perpendicular bisector of the straight line joining the points (2. (4. Find its locus.5) Find the equation to the locus point P such that PA 2PB2 = 20 Find the equation to the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the point (0.3) and (3.axis. θ is the angle made by the line AB with the positive direction of x . Find the locus of the point which moves such that its distances from the points (1.y 1) and having a given slope m is yy 1 = m(xx1) Slope Intercept Form: The equation of a straight line with slope ‘m’ and y intercept ‘c’ is y = mx+c. A and B are two points (2.1) are in the ratio 2:1 A point P moves so that P and the points (2.2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Find the locus of a point P which moves so that PA = PB where A is (2.5) A point moves so that its distance from the point (1.3). 4. tan θ = slope of the line AB is denoted by m.1) is twice its distance from the x axis.intercept.2). Find the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from the point (3.
Two Point Form: The equation of a straight line passing through the points (x1...1 Normal Form: When the length of the  r from the origin to a straight line is p and the inclination of the  r with x axis is α then the equation of the straight line is x cos α + y sin α = p Proof: y B b M o α p 90 α O a A x Let AB be the line intersects x axis at A and y axis at B..x1 = y 2 − y1 x 2 − x1 When the two points (x1....... y of the form Ax+By+C = 0 represents equation of a straight line with slope ( A ) B 4. y2) are given. Let OM ⊥ r AB. y1) and (x2. Let OM = p and XOM = α. a p 92 . then the slope of the line joining them is y2 .y 2) is y..(1) = secα => a = p secα From right angled ∆OAM.2..y 1) and (x2.. If the intercepts are a and b then the equation of the straight line is x + y =1 a b .y1 x 2 − x1 Intercept Form: Equation of a line with x intercept a and y intercept b is x + y =1 a b General Form: Any equation of the first degree in x.y1 x ......
y 1) be the given point and P(x. b p = Sec(90oα) => b = p cosec α y x ∴ (1) => psec α + =1 pcosecα i. y) x x1 y .y1 = = r is the required equation.2 Symmetric form / Parametric form If the inclination of a straight line passing through a fixed point A with x axis isθ and any point P on the line is at a distance ‘r’ from A then its equation is y p(x.y1 = =r r cos θ sin θ L Proof: Let O B M x A(x1.e..2.y1 Then cosθ = A L = and sinθ = PL = AP r AP r => x . PAL = θ Draw PM⊥ OX and AL   to x axis.y 1) to the line ax+by+c = 0 is PN = + ax1 + by 1 + c a 2 +b 2 .y) be any point on the line AP = r.x1 y .from ∆OBM. x cos α + y sin α = p is the equation of a straight line in normal f orm. y ) 1 1 A N ax+by+c = 0 93 B . 4. cosθ sin θ Observation: (i) The length of the perpendicular from P(x1.P(x . xx1 y .
.2) to the line 3x+2y+1 = 0 is + 3(3 ) + 2 (2 )+1 32 + 2 2 = 14 13 Example 6 Find the equation of the bisectors of the angle between 3x+4y+3 = 0 and 4x+3y+1 = 0 Solution: The equations of the bisectors is 3x + 4 y + 3 = + 4x + 3y +1 9 +16 16+ 9 ie.2) on the line 3x+2y+1 = 0 Solution: Length of the perpendicular from (3. 3x+4y+3 = + (4x+3y+1) xy2 = 0 and 7x+7y+4 = 0 94 . ie..(ii) The length of the perpendicular from the origin to ax+by+c = 0 is + c a + b2 2 (iii) Equations of the bisectors of the angles between the straight lines ax+by+c = 0 and a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 are ax + by + c a 2 + b2 =+ a1x + b1y + c1 2 2 a1 +b1 Example 4 Find the equation of the straight line which has perpendicular distance 5 units from the origin and the inclination of perpendicular with the positive direction of x axis is 120o Solution: The equation of the straight line in Normal Form is x cos α + y sin α = p Given α = 120o and p = 5 ∴ Equation of the straight line is x cos 120o + y sin 120o = 5 ie xy 3 +10 = 0 Example 5 Find the length of the perpendicular from (3.
... 3) and makes an angles of 30o with the positive direction of xaxis...3.... Intersection of two straight lines The point of intersection of two staright lines is obtained by solving their equations.. Find the equation of the line which has perpendicular distance 4 units from the origin and the inclination of perpendicular with +ve direction of xaxis is 135 o Find the equation of a line which passes through the point (2...1....2 Concurrent lines Three or more straight lines are said to be concurrent when they all pass through the same point.2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The portion of a straight line intercepted between the axes is bisected at the point (3.... Find the equation of the line.2) and have intercepts whose sum is 9 Find the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the line 4x3y+7 = 0 For what value of K will the length of the perpendicular from (1.3..EXERCISE 4.. 4.. That point is known as point of concurrency.2). Find its equation..k) to the line 5x12y+13 = 0 be equal to 2..3 FAMILY OF LINES 4.(i) a2x+b2y+c 2 = 0 ...(iii) is a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 =0 c3 95 .......... Condition for Concurrency of three lines: a1x+b1y+c 1 = 0 ... Find the equation of the straight line which passes through (2. Find the equation of the bisectors of the angle between 5x+12y7 = 0 and 4x3y+1 = 0 7) 8) 4.......(ii) a3x+b3y+c 3 = 0 ..... The perpendicular distance of a line from the origin is 5cm and its slope is 1.
3 5 4 − 13 1 2 −7 − 1 − 14 96 .3. if the straight lines are parallel then their slopes are equal. (ii) If m1m2 = 1 then the straight lines are  r.3 Angle between two straight lines y c2 x+ m2 = P φ θ2 x1 o y1 Let y θ1 y= m 1 x+ c x 1 φ be the angle between the two straight lines with slopes m1 = tan θ1 and m2 = tan θ2 . 2x7y+1 = 0 and 5xy=14 are concurrent. Then tan φ = m 1 m 2 1+ m 1 m 2 m 1 m 2 ∴ φ = tan1 1 + m m 1 2 Observation: (i) If m1 = m2 the straight lines are parallel i. if the straight lines are perpendicular then the product of their slopes is 1. Example 7 Show that the lines 3x+4y = 13.e.4.. to each other (applicable only when the slopes are finite) i. Solution: 3x+4y13 = 0 2x7y +1 = 0 and 5xy 14 = 0 Now.e..
...5 6 m = Slope of line (2) = ... 1) ∴ (x1.........(2) Solving (1) and (2) the point of intersection is (1..( 18 ) = 18 15 15 m1 = Slope of line (1) = .. Solution: 3x+4y = 7 ...= 3(98+1) ... 1) and m = 5 ∴ equation of the line is (ie) y1 = 5x5 5xy4 = 0 Example 9 Show that the lines 5x+6y = 20 and 18x15y = 17 are at right angles..5 2 = 6 5 m1m2 = 5 x 6 6 5 = 1 ∴ the lines are at right angles Example 10 Find the equation of the line passing through (2... y1) = (1.....4 (285)13 (2+35) = 297 + 132429 = 429429 = 0 => the given lines are concurrent Example 8 Find the equation of a straight line through the intersection of 3x+4y = 7 and x+y2 = 0 and having slope = 5.... (1) and 18x15y = 17 ............5) and parallel to the line 4x+3y5 = 0 97 ...... Solution: The given lines are 5x+6y = 20 ....(1) x+y = 2 .... (2) y1=5(x1) (6 ) = ......
3x4y+6 = 0 is .4 3 3 ∴ slope of the required line  to the given line = . x+y9 = 0 is .4 and the line passes through (x1.4 = m1 = 4 = m1 3 ( 3 ) 4 Slpe of line (2) i. 4x3y8 = 0 is .4 3 (x2) => 4x+3y+7 = 0 Example 11 Show that the triangle formed by the lnes 4x3y8 = 0.3 = 3 ( 4 ) = m2 Slope of line (3) i. 98 .1 = 1 = m3 1 If α is the angle between lines (1) and (3) then () +1 m1 m 3 3 tanα = = 4 ( 1 ) = 1+ m1m3 1+ 3 4 7 3 1 3 =7 α = tan1(7) If β is the angle between (2) and (3) +1 m2 m3 4 then tan β = = 3 ( 1 ) = 1+ m2m3 1+ 4 3 7 4 1 4 =7 β = tan1(7) α = β the given triangle is an isosceles triangle. 5) ∴ Equation of the required line is y+5 = .Solution: m = Slope of 4x+3y5 = 0 is . y1) = (2. 3x4y+6 = 0 and x+y9 = 0 is an isosceles triangle Solution: The slope of line (1) i.e.e.e.
y = 6. Solution: Let y = Ax + B where B is the fixed cost.000 ∴ The linear relation between x and y is given by y = 6x + 3.000 (2) Solving (1) and (2) we get A = 6 and B = 3. Find the total cost y for producing x units. y = 11x + 700 Example 13 As the number of units produced increases from 500 to 1000 the total cost of production increases from Rs.000 => 500A + B = 6. y = 700 => O+B = 700 ∴ B = 700 When x = 100. 700 and estimated cost of 100 units is Rs. Solution: Let y = Ax + B gives the linear relation between x and y where y is the total cost. x the number of units. Find the relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units produced (x) if the relationship is linear. y = 1800 => ∴ 1800 = 100A + 700 A = 11 ∴ The total cost y for producing x units given by the relation. 1. y = 9. 6. When x = 500.e. x the number of units produced and y the total cost. fixed cost i.000 99 . 9.000.Example 12 The fixed cost is Rs. A and B constants.000 => 1000A + B = 9. When x = 0.000 (1) When x = 1000..800.000 to Rs.
O is the centre and OP = r is the radius of the circle. The coordinates of 3 points ∆ABC are A(1. 100 P r O . 40.000 to Rs. Find the relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units made (x) if the relationship is linear. Find the value of k for which the lines 3x4y = 7.4 EQUATION OF CIRCLE A circle is defined as the locus of a point which moves so that its distance from a fixed point is always a constant. 1. Find the equation of the altitude through A. The fixed point is called the centre and the constant distance is called the radius of the circle. 26.3 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Show that the straight lines 4x+3y = 10. 3) and C(5.000 to Rs. 3x4y = 5 and 5x+y = 7 are concurrent.000. the total cost of production increases from Rs.000. 2).200. 7) 8) 9) 4. In the fig. Find the relationship between the cost (y) and the number of units made (x) if the relationship is linear. As the number of units manufactured increases from 6000 to 8000. The fixed cost is Rs. 4x5y = 11 and 2x+3y+k = 0 are concurrent Find the equation of the straight line through the intersection of the lines x+2y+3 = 0 and 3x+y+7 = 0 and   to 3y4x = 0 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to 3x+y1 = 0 and passing through the point of intersection of the lines x+2y = 6 and y = x. The total cost y of producing x units is given by the equation 3x4y+600 = 0 find the fixed overhead cost and also find the extra cost of producing an additional unit.EXERCISE 4. B(1. 1). As the number of units manufactured increases from 5000 to 7000. 34. 33. Find the total cost y for producing x units assuming it to be a linear function. the total cost of production increases from Rs. 500 and the estimated cost of 100 units is Rs.
Solution: Let C(h. Let A(x1.4. then the equation of the circle is x2 + y2 = r2 4. k) be the centre and ‘r’ be the radius of the circle. 0). Slope of AP = x . C B (x2. y1). y2) as diameter.x 2 = m2 (say) 2 Since AP and BP are ⊥ r to each other m1m2 = 1 => => circle. (xh)2 + (yk)2 = r2 is O the equation of the circle. y1) P(x. Let P(x. A (x1. B(x2. Let P(x.4.y1 y . y) be any point on the circle.y = 1 (xx1) (xx2) + (yy 1) (yy 2) = 0 is the required equation of the .x 1 = m1 (say) 1 Slope of BP = x . 101 y . y) R L M x Observation : If the centre of the circle is at the origin (0.y 2 xx1 x x 2 yy y. y2) APB = angle in a semicircle = 90 o. k) r C P(x.4. y) be any point on the circumference of the circle.2 The equation of a circle described on the segment joining (x1. y) . y1) and (x2. CP = r => CP 2 = r2 ie.1 Equation of a circle whose centre and radius are given. y (h. y2) be the end points of the diameter of a circle whose centre is at C. So AP and BP are perpendicular to each other..
3) 102 .3 General form of the equation of a circle Consider the equation x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 (where g. 5) and r = 4 ∴ equation of the circle is (x3)2 + (y5)2 = 16 => x2+y 26x10y+18 = 0 Example 15 Find the equation of the circle passing through the point (1. f..c are constants) (1) ie. (v) If g2+f 2c = 0 then circle reduces to a point circle (vi) If g2+f 2c < 0 then there is no real circle (vii) Two or more circles having same centre are called concentric circles. Example 14 Find the equation of the circle with centre at (3.4. k) and radius r is (xh)2 + (yk) 2 = r2 Given centre (h. then circle is a real circle. k) = (3. (x2+2g x) + (y2+2fy) = c ie.c Observation : (i) It is a second degree equation in x and y. 4) and having its centre at (2. 5) and radius 4 units Solution: Equation of the circle whose centre (h. (x+g)2 + (y+f)2 = g2+f 2c [x(g)]2 + [y(f)]2 = {g 2 +f 2− c } 2 Comparing this with the circle (xh)2 + (yk) 2 = r2 we see that (1) represents the equation to a circle with centre (g. (ii) Coefficient of x2 = coefficient of y2 (iii) There is no xy term (iv) If g2+f 2c >0.4... (x2+2g x+g2g 2) + (y2+2fy+f2f 2) = c => (x2+2gx+g2) + (y2+2fy+f2) = g2+f 2 c ie. f) and radius g 2 + f 2 .
2) and (x2. y 2) is (xx1) (xx2) + (yy1) (yy2) = 0 Here (x1. y 1) and (x2.Solution: The distance between the centre and a point on the circumference is the radius of the circle (ie) r= (1 . g = 3 . 3) ∴ equation of the circle is => Example 16 Find the centre and radius of the circle x2+y 26x+8y24 = 0 Solution: Equation of the circle is x2+y 26x+8y24 = 0 Identifying this with the general form of circle x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 we get 2 g = 6 . y1) = (3.3) 2 = 1 + 1 = 2 Given centre = (2. f) = (3.2)2 + (4 . c = 24 ∴ centre = (g. y2) = (7. 8) ∴ equation of the circle is (x3) (x+7) + (y2) (y8) = 0 x2+y 2+4x10y5 = 0 103 . f = 4 . 2f = 8 . 8) Solution: The equation of a circle with end points of diamter as (x 1. 2) and (7. 4) and radius = g2 + f 2 − c = 9 + 16 − (− 24 ) = 7 (x2)2 + (y3)2 = 2 x2+y 24x6y+11 = 0 2 Example 17 Find the equation of the circle when the coordinates of the end points of the diameter are (3.
3) Solution: Let the equation of the circle be x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 (1) Since (1) passes through the points (1. 1).Example 18 Find the equation of the circle whose centreis (3. 2) and =4 So equation of the circle is (x+3)2 + (y2)2 = 42 (ie) Example 19 Find the equation of a circle passing through the points (1. (3) and (4) we get g=. (2. 3) we get 1+1+2g+2f+c = 0 (ie) 2g+2f+c = 2 4+1+4g2f+c = 0 (ie) 4g2f+c = 5 4+9+4g+6f+c = 0 4g+6f+c = 13 (4) (3) (2) x2+y 2+6x4y3 = 0 Solving (2). 2) and circumference is 8 π Solution : Circumference => r Now centre radius = 2π r = 8π = 4 units = (3. Using these values in (1) we get x +y 7x2y+7 = 0 as equation of the circle. (2. c = 7. 1) and (2. 1). f = 1. 104 . 1) and (2.7 2 2 2 .
5. y1) is CP. C(g. Find the eqution of the circle. The centre of the circle is C (g. The radius through P(x1. 2). Find the equation of the circle which has its centre at (2.1 Equation of the Tangent Let the equation of the circle be x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 Let P(x1. (2. Find the equation of the circle x+3y = 17 and 3xy =3 are two diamters of a circle of radius 5 units. Find the equation of the circle when the coordinates of the end points of the diameter are (2. f). 1) and (6. 3) Find the circumference and area of the circle x2 +y 2 2x+5y+7 = 0 Find the equation of the circle which is concentric with the circle x2 +y 2+8x12y+15 = 0 and which passes through the point (5. 5) Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (5.5 TANGENTS 4.EXERCISE 4. 0) and having its centre at (2. y1) b e t h e g i v e n p o i n t o n t h e c i r c l e a n d P T b e the tangent at P. 5) and has its centre on the line 4x+y = 16. 2) and radius 6 units Find the equation of the circle passing through (2. 3) and which passes through the intersection of the lines 3x2y1 = 0 and 4x+y27 = 0. 4) A circle passes through the points (4.f) PT is the tangent at P(x1. 7) and (6. y1) and PC is the radius . 1) and (1. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 4.y + f 1 y1+ f ( x1 + g ) {Q PT  r to CP} 105 P(x1.4 1) 2) Find the equation of the circle with centre at (4. 4). Slope of CP = x + g 1 ∴ Slope of PT is . y1) T .
x to x + x1 y + y1 and y to and retaining the constant c we get the equation 2 2 of the tangent at the point (x1.∴ Equation of tangent PT at P(x1.. y2 to yy1. y1) is a point on the circle (2) (1) + (2) => xx1 + yy1 + g(x+x1) + f(y+y 1) + c = 0 is the required equation of the tangent. + =a 1+m2 Squaring both sides we get the condition as c2 = a2 (1+m2) 106 . y1) is yy1 = . 0) .y1 +xx1+g(xx1)x1 = 0 x12+y 12+2gx1+2fy1+c = 0 2 2 (1) Since (x1. y1 ) l i e s o u t s i d e o n o r i n s i d e t h e c i r c l e x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 according as x12+y 12+2gx1+2fy1+c ≥ 0 < 4.x 1 + g (xx1) y1+ f ( ) => yy 1 + f(yy 1) . y1) as xx1+yy1+g(x+x1)+f(y+y1)+c = 0 (ii) The equation of the tangent to the circle x2+y 2 = a2 at the point (x1. y 1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2 The length of the tangent from the point (x1. y1) to the circle 2 2 x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 is x1 + y1 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c (iii) (iv) T h e p o i n t P ( x1. changing x2 to xx1. mxy+c = 0 to be tangent to the circle x2+y 2 = a 2. a T N y=mx+c c i. Observation: (i) From the equation of the circle.2 Condition for the straight line y = mx+c to be tangent to the circle x2+y 2 = a2 is c2 = a2 (1+m2) For the line y = mx+c ie. O(0.. the length of the perpendicular from the centre of the circle to the straight line must be equal to the radius of the circle.5.e.
R (x3. The equation of the tangent at Q (x2. Q (x2.4.. 2) Solution: The equation of tangent to the circle x2+y 226x+12y+105 = 0 at (7. y3) P (x1.5. y 1). y1) be the given point through which the tangents PQ and PR are drawn. y1) The equation of chord of contact of tangents Let the equation of the circle be x2+y 2+2gx+2fy+c = 0 Let P(x1. y1) Example 20 Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x2+y 226x+12y+105 = 0 at the point (7.3 Chord of contact of tangents From any point outside a circle two tangents can be drawn to the circle. This represents the equation to a straight line passing through Q and R by virtue of (3) and (4) and hence is the equation of chord of contact of the point P(x1. 3x4y13 = 0 107 . y2) c . The line joining the points of contacts of tangents is called the chord of contact of tangents. 2) is x(7)+y(2)13(x+7)+6(y+2)+105 = 0 ie. y3) is xx3+yy3+g(x+x3)+f(y+y3)+c = 0 (2) Since these tangents pass through the point (x1. Then QR is the chord of contact of tangents. (1) and (2) become x1x2+y 1y 2+g(x1+x2)+f(y1+y 2)+c = 0 (3) x1x3+y 1y 3+g(x1+x3)+f(y1+y 3)+c = 0 (4) consider xx 1+yy 1 +g(x+x1 )+f(y+y 1)+c = 0. y2) is xx2+yy2+g(x+x2)+f(y+y2)+c = 0 (1) The equation of tangent at R(x3.
3) to the circle x2+y 2+x+2y+6 = 0 Solution: Length of the tangent from (1.3 )2 + (. 5) are ⊥r to each other. 3) to the circle x2+y 2+x+2y+6 = 0 is (. 3) Find the length of the tangent from (2.Example 21 Find the value of p so that 3x+4yp = 0 is a tangent to the circle x 2+y 264 = 0 Solution: The condition for the line y = mx+c to be a tangent to the circle x2+y 2 = a2 is c2 = a2(1+m2) . 3) to the circle 2x2 +2y 2 = 3 108 . 12) and (12. Find the length of the tangent from the point (2.1)2 + (. 3) Find the equation of tangent to the circle x 2 +y 2 +2x3y8 = 0 at (2. m=.1) + 2 (.(1) For the given line 3x+4y = p. 3) to the circle x2+y 2 8x9y+12 = 0 Find the condition the that line lx+my+n = 0 is a tangent to the circle x2 +y 2 = a 2 Prove that the tangents to the circle x 2 +y 2 = 169 at (5.3 ) + 6 = 3 units EXERCISE 4.3 4 and c = p 4 and for the given circle x2+y 2 = 64 a= (1) => ( 2 64 = 8 )2 = 64[(1+( 3 )2] 4 p 4 p = 16x100 = 1600 ∴ p = + 1600 = +40 Example 22 Find the length of the tangent drawn from the point (1.5 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Find the equation of tangent to the circle x 2 +y 2 = 10 at (1.
3 2 2) The angle made by the line x+y+7 = 0 with the positive direction of x axis is (a) 45o (b) 135o (c) 210o (d) 60o The slope of the line 3x5y+8 = 0 is (a) 3 5 (b) . 0) (d) (3. 3) (c) (3.6 Choose the correct answer 1) If P. 0) and radius 3 units is (a) x2 +y 2 = 3 (b) x2 +y 2 = 9 (c) x2 +y 2 = 3 (d)x2 +y 2 =3 3 12) The length of the diameter of a circle with centre (1.Q.EXERCISE 4.q b b Slope of the line ⊥r to ax+by+c = 0 is (a) . then the slope 3 of QR is (a) 2 3 (b) .5 3 3) 4) If the slope of a line is negative then the angle made by the line is (a) acute (b) obtuse (c) 90o (d) 0 o The slope of a linear demand curve is (a) positive (b) negative (d) ∞ q (d) a =. 0) 9) 10) 11) The equation of the circle with centre at (0.b (c) b b a a 7) (d) a b 8) When ax+3y+5 = 0 and 2x+6y+7 = 0 are parallel then the value of ‘a’ is (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 6 The value of ‘a’ for which 2x+3y7 = 0 and 3x+ay+5 = 0 are ⊥r is (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 3 The centre of the circle x 2 +y 2+6y9 = 0 is (a) (0. 2) and passing through the point (5.R are points on the same line with slope of PQ = 2 . 5) is (a) 5 (b) 45 (c) 10 (d) 50 109 . 3) (b) (0.3 5 (c) 5 3 (d) .2 3 (c) 3 2 (d) .p b 5) 6) (c) 0 Two lines ax+by+c = 0 and px+qy+r = 0 are ⊥r if q p a b (a) p = q (b) a = p (c) a =.a (b) .
4) to the circle x 2 +y 2 4x+6y1 = 0 is (a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 8 If y = 2x+c is a tangent to the circle x 2 +y 2 = 5 then the value of c is (a) + 17) 5 (b) + 25 (c) + 5 (d) + 2 110 .13) If (1. its radius is (a) 10 (b) 1 (c) 5 (d) 19 The area of the circle (x2) 2 + (y4)2 = 25 is (a) 25 (b) 5 (c) 10 2 2 14) 15) 16) (d) 25 ^ The equation of tangent at (1. 2) to the circle x +y = 5 is (a) x+y = 5 (b) x+2y = 5 (c) xy = 5 (d) x2y = 5 The length of tangent from (3. 3) is the centre of the circle x 2 +y 2 +ax+by+9 = 0.
Measurement of angles (Sexagesimal system) a) one right angle = 90o b) one degree (1o) = 60' (Minutes) c) one minute (1') = 60'' (Seconds) 2. Trigonometry. Circular Measure (or) Radian measure Radian : A radian is the magnitude of the angle subtended at the centre by an arc of a circle equal in length to the radius of the circle. Thus we see that trigonometry is one of the oldest branches of Mathematics and a powerful tool in higher mathematics.D. George Rheticus (15141577) was the first to define trigonometric functions completely in terms of right angles. The subject has been considerably developed and it has now wider application and uses. This was the original use to which the subject was applied. Radians Degrees π 6 A r O 1 c r r B π 3 π 2 270o 2π 360o 1 radian = 57o 17' 45'' π 4 π 3 π 2 30o 45o 60o 90o 180o 111 . Let us recall some important concepts in trigonometry which we have studied earlier. means measurement of the three angles of a triangle. The first significant trigonometry book was written by Ptolemy around the second century A. Generally the symbol “c” is omitted.TRIGONOMETRY 5 The Greeks and Indians saw trigonometry as a tool for the study of astronomy. derived from the Greek words “Trigona” and “Metron”. Recall 1. π radian = 180o. It is denoted by 1c .
cosine and tangent functions respectively.1 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES ↑ y P(x. ↓ y1 Let XOP = θ Fig 5. cotθ = cosθ cos θ sin θ 112 = = = 1 = r y sin θ 1 = r cos θ x 1 = tan θ x y . i. 0) and radius r units. θ Now. An angle is positive when measured anti clockwise and is negative when measured clockwise.1 From ∆OMP. The other vertex is at P. Let P(x. we define length of the side opposite θ y Sine function : s i nθ θ = = length of the hypotenuse r Cosine function : cos θ Tangent function : tan θ = = length of the side adjacent to è length of the hypotenuse length of the side opposite è length of the side adjacent to è = x r = y x the sine.e. y) be r y any point on the circle. Angles may be of any magnitude not necessarily restricted to 90o. ∆OMP is a right angled triangle with one → ← O x M x1 x vertex at the origin of a coordinate system and one vertex on the positive Xaxis. cosecθ θ secθ θ cotθ θ Observation : (i) tanθ = sin θ . a point on the circle.3. 5. Draw PM ⊥ to OX. OM = x = side adjacent to θ MP = y = side opposite θ OP = r = length of the hypotenuse of ∆OMP Now. y) Consider the circle with centre at the origin O (0.
. tan 4θ. since the meaning for cos1x is entirely different. (secθ)3. .1 Standard Identities (i) s i n2θ + cos 2θ = 1 Proof: From right angled triangle OMP.. (being the angle whose cosine is x) 5.(ii) If the circle is a unit circle then r = 1. cosec θ = 1 y cos θ = x . (fig 5.. we have (i) (ii) (iii) y 2+ x 2 y2 = r2 y2 = 1 y2 = ( ) = cosec θ 1 2 y 2 s i n2θ + cos2θ = 1 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ 113 . sin nθ respectively. and in general (sinθ)n are written as sin 2θ. sec 3θ. .. But (cos x) 1 is not written as cos 1x. ∴ Sin θ = y . (tanθ)4.1.1) we have x2 + y2 = r2 cos2θ + sin2θ = 1 ( 1 + tan2θ = sec2θ 2 Proof : 1 + tan2θ = 1 + y 2 Q r = 1) (ii) x 2 = x +y = 2 2 x r2 x2 = 1 x 2 2 = 1 = sec2θ x () (iii) 1 + cot2θ = cosec2θ 2 Proof : 1 + cot2θ = 1 + x 2 y = Thus. (iii) Function sine tangent secant (iv) sec θ = 1 x Cofunction cosine cotangent cosecant (sinθ)2.
sinA cosA) = (sinA + cosA) (1sinA cosA) = L.H.sin4A = 12sin2A Solution: cos4Asin 4A = = = = (cos2A + sin 2A) (cos2Asin 2A) cos2Asin 2A 1sin2Asin 2A 12sin2A Example 2 Prove that (sinA+cosA) (1sinA cosA) = sin3A + cos3A Solution: R.Example 1 Show that cos4A .H.S.S.S.H. = sin 3A + cos3A = (sinA+cosA) (sin 2A + cos2A . Example 3 Show that sec4A . = = = = = Example 4 2 2 Prove that 1 +tan2 A = sin2A = tan2A 1+ cot A cos A Solution: Sec4A1 (sec2A+1) (sec2A1) (1+tan2A+1) (1+tan2A1) (2+tan2A) tan2A 2tan2A + tan4A = R.S.1 = 2tan2A + tan4A Solution : L.H. 1 2 1+tan A = sec A = cos A = sin 2 A = tan2A 2 1 cos 2 A 1+cot2 A cosec A sin 2 A 2 2 Example 5 Prove that 1 θ θ secθ − tanθ = secθ + tanθ 114 .
= (1+cotA+tanA)(sinAcosA) = sinA . Example 7 Prove that Solution : L.tanθ Mutiply numerator and denominator each by (secθ + tanθ) = = secθ + tanθ (secθ . = sec θ . = cotA + tanB = cotA + tanB 1 1 cotB+ tanA tanB + cotA = cotA + tanB = cotA tanB cotB + tanA ( cotA + tanB cotA + tanB cotA tanB ) = cotA tanB = R.H.tanA cosA 115 secA .cosA + cotAsinA .S sec2 θ .cotA cosA + tanAsinA .S.H.H.S.cosecA cosec 2 A sec 2 A (sinθ + cosecθ)2 + (cosθ + secθ)2 = tan2θ + cot2θ + 7 θ θ θ .S.S.H.tan 2 θ Example 6 Prove that Solution : L.H.tanθ ) (secθ + tanθ ) secθ + tanθ = secθ + tanθ.Solution: 1 L. Example 8 Prove that (1+cotA+tanA)(sinAcosA) = Solution: L. = R.H.S.H.S. = ( i + cosecθ)2 + (cosθ + secθ)2 s nθ = sin2θ + cosec2θ + 2sinθcosecθ + cos2θ + sec2θ + 2cosθsecθ = (sin2θ + cos2θ) + (1+cot2θ) + 2 + (1+tan2θ) + 2 = 1 + 6 + tan2θ + cot2θ = tan2θ + cot2θ + 7 = R.
H.H.cosA + cosA . verify that (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA (ii) cos2A = 12sin2A Solution: (i) L.S.2 2 = sinA . R. = cos2A = cos90o = 0 = 1 .S.cos A cosA sinA = Recall secA cosecA cosec 2 A sec 2 A θ sinθ cosθ tanθ 0o 0 1 0 3 0o 1 2 3 2 1 3 4 5o 1 2 1 2 6 0o 3 2 9 0o 1 0 1 2 1 3 ∞ Example 9 If A = 45o. = 2sinA cosA = 2sin45o cos45o =2 ( )( ) 1 2 1 2 1 2 =1 Hence verified.S. (ii) L.sec260 o + sin330 o = 116 1 8 .S.H. Example 10 Prove that 4cot245 o .H.2sin2A = 12sin245 o =12 ( ) 2 = 11 = 0 Hence verified. = sin2A = sin90o = 1 R.cos A + sin A .sinA sinA cosA 2 2 = sin A .
S.sec260 o + sin 330 o = 4(1)2 .b a c 1 Prove that cotA+ tanA = sinA cosA Prove that 1 − tanA 1 + tanA Prove that = cotA 1 cotA +1 1 1 + = 2sec 2θ 1− sin θ 1+ sin θ Prove that cosec 4 A .S. EXERCISE 5.sin 2 A = 2cos 2 A1 = 12sin 2A (ii) sin2A = 2sinA cosA (iii) cos3A = 4cos 3A .3cosA (iv) sin3A = 3sinA .(2)2 + ( 1 )3 2 1 = 8 = R. show that tan 2 θ = c .tan θ Show that 3(sinx .H.cotθ 1. = 4cot245 o .1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) If asin 2 θ + bcos 2 θ = c. verify that (i) cos2A = cos 2A .cosecA)(1+tanA + secA) = 2 Prove that cosA + sinA = sinA + cosA 1tanA 1cotA Show that tan θ + cot θ = 1 + cosecθ secθ 1.Solution: L.sec 2 60o + sin 3 30o 117 .2cosec 2 60o .cosec 2A = cot 2 A + cot 4A Prove that cosecA + cosecA = 2sec 2A cosecA1 cosecA+ 1 Prove that (1+cotA .H.4sin 3A (v) tan2A = 2 tanA 1tan2 A tan 2 30o 12) 13) 4 Find the value of 3 cot 2 30 o + 2sin 2 60o .3 4 Find 4cot 2 45o .cosx) 4 + 6(sinx + cosx) 2 + 4(sin 6 x + cos 6 x) = 13 If A = 30o .
y) x x 1 → P(x.2(a) M θ ↑y ↓ y1 Fig 5. ↑ y P(x. y) x ↓y 1 ↓ y1 Fig 5. y) r ↑y θ O ← 1 O θ M → x x ← 1 M → x ↓ y1 Fig 5.sin 4 sin 3 5 If secA + tanA = 3 . find tanθ 2 If x = secθ + tanθ. prove that tanA = 12 2 5 sin A2cosA If 4tanA = 3.1 Changes in signs of the Trigonometric ratios of an angle θ as θ varies from 0o to 360o Consider the circle with centre at the origin O(0.2 SIGNS OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS 5.y) be any point on the circle. y) r x P(x. show that sinA+ cosA = 1 If acosθ + bsin θ = c and bcosθ .a sin θ = d show that a 2 +b 2 = c 2 +d 2 If tanθ = 1 7 find the value of cosec 2 è .2.2(c) .sec 2è cosec 2 è + sec 2 è If sec 2 θ = 2+2tanθ. then show that sin θ = x 2 − 1 x +1 5.14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) π π π π Find cos 4 cos 3 .0) and radius r units Let P(x.2(b) ↑y ← θ x ← 1 O → o M r r P(x.2(d) 118 Fig 5.
Therefore sinθ and cosθ are negative and tanθ is positive. Therefore sin θ is positive . 90o < θ < 180o From fig 5. 0o < θ < 90o From fig 5. Case (4) Let θ be in the fourth quadrant i.2(b) the x coordinate of P is negative and y coordinate of P is positive .Let the revolving line OP=r. In III quadrant Tanθ and Cotθ alone are positive and all others are negative. both x and y are positive. cos θ is negative and tan θ is negative.2(d).e. makes an angle θ with OX Case (1) Let θ be in the first quadrant i. Therefore sinθ and tanθ are negative and cosθ is positive.e. Case (3) Let θ be in the third quadrant i. Case (2) Let θ be in the second quadrant i. x coordinate of P is positive and y coordinate of P is negative. both x and y coordinates of P are negative. 119 .e.2(c). In IV quadrant Cosθ and Secθ alone are positive and all others are negative. 180o < θ <270o From fig 5. Thus we have Quadrant I II III IV sinθ θ + + cos θ + + tanθ θ + + cosecθ θ + + sec θ + + cotθ θ + + S A T C A simple way of remembering the signs is by refering this chart: A → In I quadrant All trigonometric ratios are positive S→ T→ C→ In II quadrant Sinθ and Cosecθ alone are positive and all others are negative. Therefore all the trigonometric ratios are positive. 270o < θ < 360o From fig 5.2(a) the coordinates of P.e.
3 Trigonometric ratios of angles of any magnitude In order to find the values of the trigonometric functions for the angles more than 90o.2.3(a) From fig 5. k is a positive . 5. ↓ y' Fig. we can follow the useful methods given below. 5. Write the given angle in the form k integer 120 π π 2 + θ .3(a) 210o = 180o + 30o This is of the form 180o + θo ∴ 210o lies in Third quadrant. (ii) 180o is taken to lie either in II or III quadrant (iii) 270o is taken to lie either in III or IV quadrant (iv) 360o is taken to lie either in IV or I quadrant Example 11 Determine the quadrants in which the following angles lie (i) 210o (ii) 315o (iii) 745o y y y ↑ ↑ ↑ x' ← 210o o → x ← x' 315o o → x ← x' o 745o → x ↓ y' Fig.2.3(c) we see that 745o = Two complete rotations plus 25o 745o = 2x360o + 25o ∴ 745o lies in First quadrant.5. (i) (ii) Determine the quadrant in which the given angle lies.3(b) 315o = 270o + 45o This is of the form 270o + θo.2 Determination of the quadrant in which the given angle lies Let θ be less than 90o Then the angles: (90oθ) lies in first quadrant (270oθ) lies in third quadrant o+θ) lies in second quadrant (90 (270o+θ) lies in fourth quadrant oθ) lies in second quadrant (180 (360oθ) lies in fourth quadrant o+θ) lies in third quadrant (180 (360o+θ) lies in first quadrant Observation : (i) 90 o is taken to lie either in I or II quadrant. 5. ∴ 315o lies in Fourth quadrant ↓ y' Fig. 5.3(b) From fig 5.3(c) From fig 5.
4 Angles −θ Functions 90o −θ 90o +θ cosθ sinθ cotθ secθ tanθ cosθ sin θ cotθ secθ tanθ 180o −θ 180o +θ 270o −θ 270o +θ 360o −θ 360o +θ sinθ cosθ tanθ cosecθ cotθ sin θ . ↑ ← 360o θ y o θ x' →x ↓ y' Fig 5. 5.cos θ tanθ cosecθ cotθ cosθ sin θ cotθ secθ tanθ cosθ sinθ cotθ secθ tanθ sin θ cosθ tanθ cosecθ cotθ sinθ cosθ tanθ cosecθ secθ cotθ sine cos tan cosec sec cot sin θ cosθ tanθ cosecθ secθ cotθ cosecθ cosecθ secθ secθ cosecθ cosecθ secθ Example 12 Find the values of the following (i) sin (120o) (ii) tan(210o) o) (iv) cot(300 (v) cos(330o) Solution: (i) (iii) sec(405o) (vi) cosec(135o) vii) tan 1145o 120o = 90o+30o It is of the form 90o+θo ∴120o is in second quadrant sin(120o) = sin(90o+30o) = cos 30o = 3 2 121 . trigonometric form of the allied angle equals the cofunction of θ and vice versa Observation: From fig.(iii) (iv) (v) Determine the sign of the given trigonometric function S A in that particular quadrant using the chart: T C If k is even.θo). ∴ sin(θ)= sin(360oθ) = sinθ cos(θ) = cosθ tan(θ) = tanθ cosec(θ) = cosecθ sec (θ) = secθ cot(θ) = cotθ.4 ". trigonometric form of allied angle equals the same function of θ If k is odd.θo" is same as (360o .
1 3 o o (v) cos(330 ) = cos(330 ) = cos(270o+60o) = sin60o = 3 2 o o (vi) (vii) cosec(135o) tan (1145o) = cosec(90o+45o) = sec45o = 2 = tan (12x90o + 65o) = tan65o = tan (90o25o) = cot25o Example 13 Find the following : (i) sin843o (ii) cosec(757o) Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) sin843o = sin(9x90o+33o) = cos33o cosec(757o) = cosec(757o) = cosec (8x90o+37o) = .tan(180o+30o) = .(ii) tan(210o) = tan(210o) = .tan30o = 1 3 (iii) (iv) sec (405o) = sec[360o+45o] = sec45o = cot(300 ) o 2 = cot(360 60 ) = cot60o = .cosec 37o o) = cos(928o) cos(928 = cos(10x90o + 28o) = cos28o Angles Functions (iii) cos(928o) Observation : 180o 0 1 0 ∞ 1 ∞ 270o 1 0 ∞ 1 ∞ 0 122 360o 0 1 0 ∞ 1 ∞ sin cos tan cosec sec cot .
.A ) tan (π + A ) 2 sin ( π + A ) sin (π .cos780o sin750o = 1 Evaluate the following (i) sec 1327 (ii) cot (1054o) 5.A ) 2 2 o Prove that sin1140o cos390o .A ) cos (π .sinAsinB (iv) cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB (v) (vi) tan(A+B) tan(AB) = tanA + tanB 1 − tanA tanB = tanA − tanB 1 + tanA tanB 123 . show that (i) sin(A+B) = sinC (ii) cos(A+B) + cosC = 0 (iii) cos A+ B = sin C 2 (2) 3) 4) If A lies between 270o and 360o and cotA = . C are the angles of a triangle. 5. A+B+C. B.A ) tan (π . it is called compound angle..cos(300o) sin(330o) = 1 2 If A.2 1) 2) Prove that : sin420o cos390o . etc are compound angles. 180o + θ. find cosA and cosecA. In this section we shall express the trigonometric ratios of compound angles. find the value of : 12 sec (360oθ) tan(180oθ) + cot(90o+θ) sin(270o+θ) 5) 6) 7) 8) Find the value of sin300o tan330o sec420o sin Simplify ( π .3 COMPOUND ANGLES In the previous section we have found the trigonometric ratios of angles such as 90o + θ. which involve only single angles. For example A+B. A2B+3C. 7 If sinθ = 11 . .24 .EXERCISE 5.3. When an angle is made up of the algebraic sum of two or more angles.cosAsinB (iii) cos(A+B) = cosAcosB .1 Addition and Subtraction Formulae (i) sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB (ii) sin(AB) = sinAcosB .
POS = ROQ = AB. Q (cosA.5 (b) y' ↓y' Fig.0) O x ↓ Fig.(2cosAcosB + 2sinAsinB) ∴ cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB. sin(AB)] Also. 5. and S[cos(AB).5(a) the coordinates of Q and R are found to be.P (1. respectively.s ). 5.0) be a point on the unit circle Let A and B be any two angles in standard position Let Q and R be the points on the terminal side of angles A and B.5 (a) Let P(1. Now move the points Q and R along the circle to the points S and P respectively in such a way that the distance between P and S is equal to the distance between R and Q. From fig 5. sinB). B) A B S sin os (A B.2sinAsinB + sin 2B 2 .2cos(AB) + 1 + sin2(AB) = cos2A2cosAcosB + cos2B + sin2A .P (1. AB . ← x' .0). Therefore we have from Fig.5(b). .2cos(AB) = 2 . (c os os Q c c R( S( .5. we have {cos(AB)1}2 + sin 2(AB) = (cosAcosB)2 + (sinAsinB)2 cos2(AB) . Also we have ROQ = AB. O A B . ) B) ) A. PS2 = RQ2 By the distance formula. sinA) and R (cosB.3. 124 .2 Prove goemetrically : cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB Proof: Consider the unit circle whose centre is at the origin O(0.y A ( in y sin .0)x x' ← . . 5.
cosA sinB cosB ( )( ) ∴ tan(A+B) = tanA + tanB Corollary (v) tan(AB) = tan[A+(B)] = 1 .tanA tanB tanA + tan(B) 1 − tanA tan(B) ∴ tan(AB) = tanA − tanB 1 + tanA tanB 125 .cosAsinB Corollary (iv) tan(A+B) = = sin (A + B ) cos(A + B ) sinA cosB +cosAsinB cosA cosB .(A+B)] 2 = cos[( π A) B] 2 = cos( π A) cosB + sin( π A) sinB 2 2 ∴ sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB Corollary (iii) sin(AB) = sin[A+(B)] = sinAcos(B) + cosAsin(B) ∴ sin(AB) = sinAcosB .sinA sinB sinA sinB + cosA cosB = sinA 1 .sinAsinB Corollary (ii) sin(A+B) = cos[ π .Corollary (i) cos(A+B) = cos[A(B)] = cosAcos(B) + sinAsin(B) = cosAcosB + sinA{sinB} ∴ cos(A+B) = cosAcosB .
cosB = . (ii) cos(A+B). (iii) tan(A+B) and determine the quadrant in which A+B lies. 126 . then 3 4 13 4 5 + 12 13 3 5 = 56 65 find (i) sin(A+B).3 and A and B are in second quadrant.25 = 12 169 13 Given sinB = 3 5 ∴ cosB = 9 1 − 25 = 4 5 ∴ cos(AB) = cosAcosB + sinAsinB = 5 Example 16 If sinA = 1 .Example 14 Find the values of the following : Solution: (i) cos15o (ii) tan75o (i) cos15o = cos(45o30o) = cos45o cos30o + sin45o sin30o = 1 2 3 + 1 2 2 1 2 = 2 3 +1 2 (ii) tan75o = tan(45o+30o) = tan45 o + tan 30 o 1 − tan45 o tan30 o 1+ = Example 15 1− 1 3 1 3 = 3 +1 3 −1 If A and B be acute angles with cosA = 5 and sinB = 3 13 5 find cos(AB) Solution: Given cosA = 5 13 ∴ sinA = = 1 − 25 169 169 .
1 7 4 3 1 7 1 .Solution: 1 .sinAsinB = 2 2 3 ( )( )− 12 1 3 7 4 = 6 2 − 7 is positive tan(A+B) = tanA + tanB 1− tanA tanB = 1 2 .1 + 2 14 4 12 ( 7 4 ) cos(A+B) = cosAcosB .2 3 2 (since A is in second quadrant cosA is negative) cosA = sinB sinB = = 1 .sin 2 A = .cos 2 B 7 16 = 7 4 (Since B is in second quadrant sinB is positive) ∴ tanA = sinA = cosA ( (1) 3 −2 3 2 ) = − 2 4 tanB = sinB = cosB ( ) ( ) 7 4 −3 4 3 = − 7 3 Sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB = 1 = ( 3 ) + ( ) ( ) 4 2 2 3 14 − 212 − 3 4 1 4 = . 1 2 4 3 ( )( ) = − ( 3 2 +4 7 12 − 14 ) 127 .
cos[(60o+A)+(30oA)] = cos(60o+30o) = cos90o =0 128 .e. Example 17 If A+B = 45o prove that (1+tanA)(1+tanB) = 2 and deduce the value of tan22 2 Solution: 1o Given A+B ∴ tan(A+B) = 45o = tan45o = 1 => tanA + tanB = 1 1− tan tanB tanA + tanB + tanAtanB = 1 Adding 1 to both sides 1 + tanA+tanB+tanAtanB = 1+1 = 2 i.sin(60oA) sin(30oA) = 0 Proof : Let α = 60o+A β = 30oA Then the given problem is of the form cos(α+β) i. = 2 (since 22 2 1+ tan 22 2 ∴ is positive) 1o tan22 2 = 2 1 Example 18 Prove that cos(60o+A) cos(30oA) . (1+tanA) (1+tanB) = 2 (1) Putting A = B = 22 2 1o in (1).e.Since sin(A+B) is negative and cos(A+B) is positive (A+B) must be in the fourth quadrant. we get (1 + tan22 2 ) = 2 1o 1o 2 => 1 + tan22 2 ∴ 1+tan22 2 1o 1o =+ 1o 2 is an angle in I quadrant.
we shall obtain formulae for the trigonometric functions of 2A and 3A.C ) sin( C− A ) + + =0 sinA sinB sinB sinC sinC sinA cos (x + y ) 1− tanx tany Find the values of : (i) tan105o (ii) sec105o.sin 2A 129 . cos2A = cos2A .sinAsinA cos2A = cos2A . tanφ = 1 . There are many aspects of integral calculus where these formulae play a key role. cotA + cotB = b.3 Multiple angles In this section.3 Show that (i) sin(A+B) s n A B) = sin 2Asin 2B i( (ii) cos(A+B) cos(AB) = cos2Asin 2B Prove the following : Sin(A45o) + Cos(45o+A) = 0 Prove that tan75o + cot75o = 4 If tanθ = 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 1 . Prove that Prove that cos(x . We know that sin(A+B) = sinAcosB + cosAsinB and When A=B.sinAsinB and when A=B we obtain cos2A = cosAcosA .sin2A Also. then show that θ+φ = π 2 3 4 sin( A− B ) sin ( B.3.1) EXERCISE 5. show that cot(A+B) = 1−1 a b 5.y ) = 1+ tanx tany If cosA = − 12 13 . if we start with cos(A+B) = cosAcosB . sin2A = sinAcosA + cosAsinA ∴ sin2A = 2sinAcosA Similarly. cosB = 24 . A is obtuse and B is acute angle find 25 (i) sin(A+B) (ii) cos(AB) 9) 10) 11) Prove that sinA + sin(120o+A) + sin(240o+A) = 0 Show that cot15o + cot75o + cot135o = 3 If tanA + tanB = a.
When A=B we obtain 1−tanA tanB 2tanA 2 1tan A Also we can prove the following (i) (ii) Proof: (i) sin2A = cos2A = we have sin2A 2tanA 1+ tan2 A 1. tan(A+B) = tan2A = tanA + tanB .1 We know that.cos2A 2 1+ cos2A 2 1.tan2 A 1 + tan2 A = 2sinA cosA = 2tanA cos2A = 2tanA 2tanA = sec 2 A 1+ tan2 A (ii) we have cos2A = cos2A .sin 2A = cos2A .sin 2A = cos2A .sin 2A 2 2 cos2A +sin2A ( Q 1=cos A+sin A) 1 tan 2 A 1+ tan 2 A cos2A Observation : (i) (ii) (iii) sin 2A cos2A tan2A = = = 1.= (1sin2A) .sin 2A = 12sin2A cos2A = cos2A .(1cos2A) = 2cos 2A .cos2A = 1+ cos2A 130 .
tanA tan2A 2tanA 1.3tan A 5.sin2 A 2 2 2 = 2cos2 A .tanA = ( + tanA 2tanA 1. cos3A and tan3A interms of A (i) sin3A = sin(2A+A) = sin2A cosA + cos2A sinA = 2sinA cos2A + (12sin2A) sinA = 2sinA(1sin2A) + (12sin2A) sinA sin3A = 3sinA .3.2sin2 A 2 tanA = tan(2 2tan A A 2 )= 2 1 .4 To express sin3A.5 Sub multiple angle sinA = sin(2 A ) = 2sin A cos A 2 2 2 cosA = cos(2 A ) = cos2 A .1 2 = 1 .tan2 A .2sin2A cosA = (2cos2A1) cosA .3cosA (iii) tan3A = tan(2A+A) = tan2A + tanA 1.5.4sin3A (ii) cos3A = cos(2A+A) = cos2AcosA .2(1cos2A)cosA cos3A = 4cos3A .3.tan 2 A = 1.2tan 2 A ( 3 tan3A = 3tanA − tan A 2 1.sin2A sinA = (2cos2A1) cosA .tan2 A 1.tan 2 A ) ) 2tanA + tanA 1.tan 2 A 2 131 .
cosA 2 = 1+ cosA 2 = 1 . (i) sinA = 2tan A 2 1 + tan 2 A 2 1 .Further.S.S.tan 2 A 2 1 + tan 2 A 2 (ii) cosA A 2 A 2 A 2 = (iii) (iv) (v) s i n2 cos 2 tan2 = 1 .H.2 2 132 . = sin2A = 2sinAcosA 1.H. Example 20 Find the values of (i) sin22 2 Solution: (i) 1o (ii) cos22 2 1cosA 2 1o (iii) tan22 2 1o sin 2 2 = sin 2 2 45 A o = 1 cos45 = 2 12 1 2 = 2 4 2 ∴ sin22 2 1o = 2.cosA 1 + cosA Example 19 Prove that sin2A = cotA 1cos2A Solution: L.cos2A 2sin 2 A = cosA sinA = cotA = R.
cosB sinB 133 .cosB . where A and B are sinB = 1.tan2A tanB 14 7 π 4 =1 => 2A+B Example 22 If tanA = acute angles.(1 ) 3 3 = 4 1 3 + 7 4 tan2A + tanB tan(2A+B) = = 3 1 1. Solution: Given tanA = ( Q tan45 ο = 1) 1. provethat tan2A = tanB.(ii) ∴ (iii) cos2 2 A o = = 1+ cosA 2 2+ 2 2 cos22 1 2 tan2 2 A = 1+ cosA = = = 1.tan A 1.cos45o 1+ cos45 o 2 −1 2 +1 1− cosA tan2 2 45 x 2 2 −1 2 −1 ( 2 −1 ) ∴ Example 21 tan22 2 1o = 2 1 If tanA = 3 . tanB = 7 Solution: tan2A = 1 1 prove that 2A+B = 4 1 π 2 (3 ) 2tanA = 2 2 1.
S.sin20o.2sin = ∴ 2sin B 2 2 B 2 cos B 2 = tan 2 B tanA => A i. = sin60o. Example 24 Find the values of sin18o and cos36o Solution: Let θ ∴ = 18o.e. 2A ∴ tan2A = tan 2 = 2 =B = tanB B B Example 23 Show that sin20o sin40o sin60o sin80o = 16 Solution L.H.sin 220 o) 4 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 o 3 o 4 [3sin20 4sin 20 ] 1 o 4 sin60 1 4 3 = 3 16 2 = R. then 5θ = 5x18 = 90o 3θ+2θ = 90o ∴ 2θ = 90o3θ sin2θ = sin(90ο3θ) = cos3θ 2sinθcosθ = 4cos3θ3cosθ divide by cosθ on both sides 2sinθ = 4cos2θ3 134 ( Q cosθ ≠ 0) .H.S.sin(60o20o).sin(60o+20o) = = = = = 3 2 3 sin20o [sin 260 osin220 o] 3 sin20o [ 3 .
cos θ = tan 1 + sin θ + cos θ 2 θ 2 θ 2 1+ 2sin L.1 = 0. = cos θ . ∴ 4sin ∴ sinθ = − 2 ± 8 4 + 16 = − 1± 5 4 since θ = 18o.H. = cosA + sinA = cos3A sin3A sin( A+ 3A ) sinA cos3A + cosA sin3A = cosA sinA sinA cosA sin4A cos3A sin3A = 5 −1 4 = 12sin218 o = 12 ( )= 5 −1 4 2 5 +1 4 = sinA cosA = = 2sin2A cos2A sinA cosA 2 . which is an acute angle. Example 26 Prove that Solution: θ 1 + sin θ .S. 2sinA cosA cos2A sinA cosA = 4cos2A = R. sinθ is +ve ∴ sin18o cos36o Example 25 Prove that cosA + sinA = 4cos2A.S. L.1.2sinθ = 4(1sin2θ)3 2sinθ = 14sin2θ 2θ + 2sinθ .1 2 2 135 .2sin 2 θ 2 2 ( ) 1+ 2sin cos θ + 2cos 2 θ .H.S. which is a quadratic equation in sinθ.H.
tanφ = 1 .H. 2 1) 2) 3) 4) Prove that tanA + cotA = 2cosec2A Prove that cos20 o cos40 o cos80 o = 1 8 If tanθ = 1 .4 = tan θ = R.cos3A 5) 6) 7) Prove that 1+ sin2A Show that 1sin2A = tan 2 (45o +A) A If tan 2 = t. then prove that cos2θ = sin4φ 7 3 If 2cosθ = x+ 1 x (i) (ii) then prove that 1 c o s 2θ = 1 (x2 + x 2 ) 2 1 c o s 3θ = 1 (x3 + x 3 ) 2 sin3A +sin 3A = cotA cos 3A . then prove that 4t (i) sinA + tanA = 1.t 2 8) Show that cos 2 36o + sin 2 18o = 3 4 10) 11) Prove that 11cos3A = (1+2cosA)2 cosA cos2A = tan(45 o A) Prove that 1+ sin2A 136 .t 4 (ii) secA + tanA = (1+ t )2 1.S.2sin = 2cos θ 2 θ 2 (cos θ + sin θ ) 2 2 θ + cos θ ) (sin 2 2 EXERCISE 5.
...(2) (1)+(2).......(a) (1)(2). gives cos(AB) .θ) 1+ tan 2 (45 o ......θ ) 13) 14......(b) Also we have cos(A+B) = cosAcosBsinAsinB .... cos3A and tan3A cos3A = 2cos2A1 cosA Prove that sec 2 A(1+sec2A) = 2sec2A 5.(3) cos(AB) = cosAcosB+sinAsinB ........ = sin2θ 3 If sinA = 5 Show that find sin3A..cos 2 )2 = 1sinA Show that 1 ......12) A A Prove that (sin 2 ... gives cos(A+B)+cos(AB) = 2cosAcosB ....sin(AB) = 2cosA SinB ............ 15.......sinB ..... 16....tan 2 (45o .cosA sinB ...................(1) sin(AB) = sinA cosB ..cos(A+B) = 2sinA..3..(4) (3)+(4)..............(d) Example 27 Express the following as sum or difference: (i) 2sin3 θ cos θ (ii) 2cos2θ cos θ θ (iii) 2sin3x sinx (iv) cos9θ cos7θ (v) cos7 2 cos9 2 θ θ vii) 2cos11A sin13A Solution: (i) 2sin3θ cosθ (ii) 2cos2θ cosθ = sin(3θ+θ) + sin(3θθ) = sin4θ+sin2θ = cos(2θ+θ) + cos(2θθ) = cos3θ + cosθ 137 A A (vi) cos5θ sin4 θ θ ..... gives sin(A+B) ..(c) (4)(3).6 Transformation of products into sums or differences we have sin(A+B) = sinA cosB + cosA sinB .. gives sin(A+B) + sin(AB) = 2sinA cosB .
3. (b).S.H.6 We get (i) (ii) sinC + sinD sinC . α α α = 2cos 2cos(120oα) cos(120o+α) α = 2cosα.(iii) 2sin3x sinx = cos(3xx) .2 + 2cos2α1} = 4cos3α3cosα = cos3α = R. 1 5.sin(11A13A) = sin24A + sin2A Example 28 Show that Solution: L.cos(3x+x) = cos2xcos4x = 2 [cos(9θ+7θ) + cos(9θ7θ)] = 2 [cos16θ+cos2θ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 (iv) cos9θ cos7θ (v) cos7 2 cos9 2 A A = 2 [cos (7 2 +9 2 ) + cos(7 2 9 2 )] = 2 [cos8A + cos(A)] = 2 [cos8A+cosA] A A A A (vi) (vii) cos5θ sin4θ 2cos11A sin13A = 2 [sin9θsinθ] = sin(11A+13A) .3. (c) and (d) of 5.{cos(120oα+120o+α) + cos(120oα120oα)} = 2cosα{cos240o+cos(2α)} = 2cosα{cos240o+cos2α} = 2cosα{.H.7 Transformation of sums or differences into products Putting C = A+B and D = AB in (a).S.sinD = 2sin 2 = 2cos C+ D cos C− D 2 C+ D C− D sin 2 2 138 . 4cos α cos(120oα) cos(120o+α) = cos3α.
cosD = 2cos C+ D 2 C+ D cos sin C− D 2 C− D 2 = 2sin 2 Example 29 Express the following as product. (i) sin7A+sin5A (ii) sin5 θ sin2 θ (iv) cos2αcos4α α α (v) cos10ocos20o (vii) cos65o+sin55o Solution: (i) sin7A + sin5A (iii) cos6A+cos8A (vi) cos55o+cos15o = 2sin 7A+5A cos 7A−5A 2 2 ( ) ( ) = 2sin6A cosA (ii) sin5θ .(iii) (iv) cosC + cosD cosC .cos4α = 2sin 4α + 2α sin 4α − 2 α 2 ( ) = 2sin3α.cos20o o o o o = 2sin 20 +10 sin 20 −10 ( 2 ) ( 2 ) ) ) = 2sin15o sin5o (vi) cos55o +cos15o o o o o = 2cos 55 +15 cos 55 −15 ( ( 2 ) ( ) ( 2 = 2cos35o cos20o (vii) cos65 + sin55 o o = cos65o + sin(90o35o) = cos65o+cos35o o o o o = 2cos 65 + 35 cos 65 −35 2 2 = 2cos50o cos15o 139 .sinα (v) cos10o .sin2θ θ− θ = 2cos 5θ + 2θ sin 5 2 2 2 ( ( ) ( 2 ) = 2cos 7 θ 2 sin 3 θ (iii) cos6A + cos8A = 2cos 6A+8A 2 ) cos ( 6A−28A ) ) ( 2 = 2cos7A cos(A) = 2cos7A cosA (iv) cos2α .
.......................(2) (1)2 + (2)2 (cosα+cosβ)2+(sinαsinβ)2 = 4cos2 2 ( ) cos ( ) + 4cos ( ) ...sinβ)2 = 4cos 2 α β ( ) α +β 2 cosα + cosβ sinα ....Example 30 Prove that (cos α + cosβ )2 + (sinα ..sin ( ) = 4cos ( ) {cos 2 (α2−β )+ sin 2 (α−β )} 2 = 4cos ( ) α −β 2 2 α+β 2 2 α−β 2 2 Example 31 Show that cos2A + cos2(60o+A) + cos2(60oA) = 2 1+ cos2A 2 3 cos2A cos2(60o+A) cos2(60oA) = = = .(2) 2 1+ cos2 (600 ..(1) .........sinβ ( ) cos ( ) = 2cos ( ) sin ( ) = 2cos α +β 2 α +β 2 α −β 2 α −β 2 α +β 2 α +β 2 α +β 2 2 ..(3) 2 (1)+(2)+(3) cos2A + cos2(60o+A) + cos2(60oA) = 2 [3 + cos2A + {cos(120o+2A) + cos(120o2A)}] = 2 [3 + cos2A + 2cos120o........cos2A] = 2 [3 + cos2A + 2(..A) ...(1) 1+cos2 (60o + A) ...2 )cos2A = 2 140 3 1 1 1 1 .....
5 1) Express in the form of a sum or difference (i) sin 4 sin 4 A 3A (ii) sin(B+C).cos40 o cos60 o cos80 o = 16 Prove that sin(AB) sinC + sin(BC) sinA + sin(CA).sin(BC) 5A 4A (iii) sin(60o +A). tan2θ1=0 etc.EXERCISE 5.4 TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS Equations involving trigonometric functions are known as trigonometric equations. show that sin(A+B) = x 2 + y 2 Prove that sin2A + sin3A = tan 2 cos2A . For example: 2sinθ=1.sinB = tan cosB . cosA + cosB = y. sin 2θ+cosθ3=0. 141 . The values of ‘θ’which satisfy a trigonometric equation are known as solution of the equation.sin70 o + cos80o = 0 Prove that cos18 o + cos162 o + cos234 o + cos306 o = 0 Prove that (cosαcosβ)2 + (sin αsin β)2 = 4sin 2 Prove that 2 2 ( ) (cosα+cosβ) + (sin α+sin β) = 4cos ( ) αβ 2 2 αβ 2 Prove that cos40 o + cos80 o + cos160 o = 0 Prove that cos20 o + cos100 o + cos140 o = 0 If sinA + sinB = x.cosA A+ B 2 Prove that sin50 o .sin(120 o +A) (iv) cos 3 cos 3 2) Express in the form of a product: (i) sin52 o sin32o (ii) cos6Acos2A (iii) sin50o +cos80o 1 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Prove that cos20 o .cos3A A 2xy 5.sinB = 0 Prove that sinA .
2 .2 . But θ ∈[0. 2 ) ∴ Principal solution is θ = (iii) 1 π 3 sinθ = . the solution which is in [.2 .1 Principal solution Among all solutions. Example 32 Find the principal solution of the following equations: (i) cos θ = Solution: (i) cosθ = 3 <0 2 π π π π 3 2 (ii) tanθ = θ 3 (iii) sinθ = − 2 θ 1 ∴ θ lies in second or third quadrant. in (.2 < 0 ∴ θ lies in third or fourth quadrant 142 . π] for cosine ratio is the principal solution. 2 ) for tan ratio and in [0. 2 ] for sine ratio . π].Hence the principal solution is in second quadrant.4. ∴ cosθ = = cos150o ∴ Principal solution θ is 5 6 (ii) π 3 = cos(180o30o) 2 tanθ = 3 > 0 ∴ θ is in the first or third quadrant θ ∈(− 2 .5. 2 ) ∴ The solution is in first quadrant tanθ = 3 = tan 3 π π π π π π 3 ∈(.
n∈Z π ∈ π π π π π Example 33 Find the general solution of the following equations. .4.α.2 < α < 2 θ α then θ = nπ + α . 0 < α < π then θ = 2nπ + α . n∈Z. n∈Z 3 143 .2 General solutions of the Trigonometric equations (i) (ii) (iii) If s i nθ = sinα . n∈Z i.2 . θ 1 (iii) tanθ = θ 3 => cosθ = cos120o = cos 3 π 2π ∴ θ = 2nπ + 2 3 .23 .θ ∈[. n∈Z π ∈ If tanθ = tanα. θ = nπ + (1)n.6 5. n∈Z π ∈ If cos θ = cos α . 2 ] π π ∴ The principal solution is in fourth quadrant and θ = . (iii) tanθ = π 3 => tanθ = tan60o = tan 3 ∴ θ = nπ + π . − 2 < α < 2 θ α then θ = nπ + (1)n α . (i) sinθ = 2 θ (iv) tanθ = 1 θ Solution: (i) sinθ = 2 => sinθ = sin30o = sin 6 This is of the form sinθ = sinα where α = 6 ∴ the general solution is θ = nπ + (1)n.2 1 π π 1 π 1 (ii) cos θ = . n∈Z (ii) cosθ = .2 (v) sinθ = .e. 6 .
(ii) 1 1 3 cos2θ = 4 => 1sin2θ = 4 => sin 2θ = 4 ∴ sinθ = + 23 π π π 1 (ii) cos 2θ = 4 1 (iii) cosec2θ = 3 4 ∴ sinθ = sin (+ 3 ) => θ = nπ + 3 . n∈Z. n∈Z 3 Example 34 Find the general solution of the following (i) sin2θ = 1 (iv) tan2θ = 3 Solution: (i) sin 2θ = 1 ∴ sinθ = + 1 => sinθ = sin(+ 2 ) ∴ θ = nπ + (1)n (+ 2 ) i. θ = nπ + 2 .(ie θ = nπ .(iv) tanθ = 1 => tanθ = tan135o = tan => θ = nπ + 3π 4 3π .π ) 3 2 => θ = nπ + (1)n. n∈Z 4 ((v) sinθ =  3 => sinθ = sin(. n∈Z 3 π .(1)n.e. (iii) cosec2θ = ∴ θ = nπ + 2 4 or cosecθ = + => sinθ = + 3 3 3 2 π π π . n∈Z. 3 144 . π ). n∈Z.
(i) sin1 (sinθ) = θ θ (iv) cosec1 (cosecθ) = θ θ 1 (cos θ ) = θ (ii) cos (v) sec1 (secθ) = θ θ (iii) tan1 (tanθ) = θ θ (vi) cot1 (cotθ) = θ θ 145 . then θ = sin 1 x.1 Important properties of inverse trigonometric functions 1. sin 1( 2 ) = 6 1 π etc. sinθ = 2 1 is same as θ = sin 1( 2 ) π 1 Thus we can write tan1(1) = 4 . If sin θ = x. sin 1 x ≠ (sinx) 1 ) For example. n∈Z EXERCISE 5.5 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The quantities such as sin 1 x. cos 1 x. are known as inverse trigonometric functions.6 π π 1 1 1) Find the principal solution of the following: (i) cosecθ = 2 (iv) tanθ = 1 3 (ii) secθ = . 5. (ii) sec2 θ = 4 (iii) cosec 2 θ = 1 5.. (Note that. The two quantities sin θ = x and θ = sin 1 x are identical.2 (v) cotθ = 1 3 (iii) cosθ = (vi) sinθ = 1 2 1 2 2) Solve: (i) cot2 θ = 1 3 (iv) tan2 θ = 3. Here the symbol sin 1 x denotes the angle whose sine is x.(iv) tan2θ = 3 or tanθ = + 3 => tanθ = tan(+30 o) => tanθ = tan(+ 6 ) ∴ General solution is θ = nπ + 6 .5. tan 1 x etc.
(1) 4 146 ∴ tanθ = 4 ...2....... (i) sin1(x) = sin1 x (iii) tan1(x) = tan1x ð (ii) cos 1(x) = π . 4.. sinθ 3 3 3 3 ( ) ( ) x+ y x.... sin(cos1 5 )= sinθ ....(1) = 1− cos2 θ = 5 4 Now.tan1y = tan1 1+ xy Example 35 Evaluate the following (i) sin (cos 1 5 ) Solution: (i) Let cos1 5 = θ ∴ cosθ = 5 We know..cos 1x (iv) cosec1(x) = cosec1x. (i) sin1x + cos1x = 2 (ii) tan1x + tan1y = tan1 1 xy (iii) tan1x ..... = 5 (ii) Let tan1 3 4 using (1) (3 ) = θ ........ (1 ) = cosec x x 1 (ii) cos ( x ) = sec x 1 (iii) tan ( x ) = cot x (i) sin1 1 1 1 1 1 (iv) cosec1 (v) sec1 (vi) cot1 (1 ) = sin x x (1 ) = cos x x (1 ) = tan x x 1 1 1 3.y (ii) cos (tan1 4 ) 3 .
We can prove tanθ = 4 => cosθ = 5 cos (tan1 4 ) = cosθ = 5 Example 36 (i) Prove that: tan1 (ii) cos 1 5 Proof: 4 4 3 3 4 using (1) 1 (1 ) + tan (13 ) = tan (92 ) 7 1 1 + tan1 5 3 = tan1 11 1 1 + 13 7 = tan 1 1 − 1 13 7 1 1 27 (i) tan 1 1 (1 ) + tan (13 ) 7 1 (ii) Let cos1 (4 ) = θ 5 4 = tan1 90 [20 ] = tan (2 ) 9 3 ∴ cosθ = 5 ∴ cos1 ∴ cos1 (4 ) = tan (3 ) 5 4 (4 ) + tan (3 ) = tan 5 5 1 1 => tanθ = 4 1 3 4 + tan1 5 3 3+ 3 4 5 = tan 3 3 1 − 4 5 1 = tan1 11 Example 37 Prove that (i) s i n1 (3x4x3) = 3sin1x 147 (27 ) (ii) cos 1 (4x33x) = 3cos1x .
= tan1 x ...4 = tan1 −3 Since..4 1 = tan1 2x 2 .(1) = sin1(sin3θ).4 ( ) 3 = 4 148 π .. we have 2 tan1 2x ..4sin 3θ = sin3θ 3x4x Now. using (1) = 3θ = 3cos1x ii) Example 38 + ( x 1 ) + tan ( x+1 ) = x 2 1 Solve: tan1 x.S.2 ( x 1 ) + tan ( xx++12 ) 1 = tan1 x 1 + x +1 x . cos1 (4x33x) = cos1(cos3θ). using (1) = 3θ = 3sin1x cos1 (4x33x) Let x = cosθ ∴ θ = cos1x 3 ...... tan1 x . sin1 (3x4x3) .2 2x + 2 1 − x 2 −1 x 4 ( x1)( x+2) 2+ ( x+1)( x2) x 4 x 2 −4−x2 +1 x2 .2 ( x 1 ) + tan ( xx++12 ) = π4 ..Proof: i) sin 1(3x4x3) Let x = sinθ ∴ θ = sin 1x. 3 = 3sinθ ..2 Solution: π 4 L.H.3cosθ = cos3θ ..3x = 4cos3θ ....(1) 4x Now...
4 3 =1 => 2x2 .4 = 3 => 2x2 .4 = tan1(1) ( ) 3 1 1 2 2 Hence 2x .1 = 0 => x2 = 2 ∴x =+ EXERCISE 5.tan 1 (3) + tan 1 9 2 Prove that 2tan 1 x = cos 1 1.x [ ] ( ) = nπ + π4 .2 tan1 2x .tan 1 ( 7 π )= 4 149 . n ∈Z [Hint: Put x=tanθ] Prove that 2sin 1 x = sin 1 [2x π Solve : tan 1 2x+tan 1 3x = 4 1− x 2 ] [ Hint Put x=sinθ] 4 Solve : tan1 (x+1) + tan1 (x1) = tan 1 ( 7 4 Prove that cos 1 ( 5 3 Evaluate cos[sin 1 5 5 B = sin 1 13 ] 3 ) + tan 1 5 ) 27 = tan 1 11 5 3 + sin 1 13 ] [Hint: Let A = sin 1 5 10) 4 Prove that tan 1 ( 3 1 ) .7 xy 1 Show that cot 1 x + cot1 y = cot1 x + y 1x Show that tan 1 x + tan1 1+ x 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) ( )= 1+ x 2 [ ] π 4 7 Prove that tan 1 (5) .
..... y = bsin 3 θ then (a) 2cos 3θ 1 (x ) ( ) a + y b 2 3 is equal to (d) absin 2 θc o s 2 θ (b) 3bsin 3θ (c) 1 6) The value of (a) 1 2 sec(60 o ) is (c) 2 (d) . (a) 3 (b) 1 (c) 2 1 = ......EXERCISE 5.cos 2 θ...sin 2θ d) sin 2 θ. sec60o − tan60o (a) 3 +2 2 3 4) (b) 3 −2 2 3 2 3 (c) 1+ 3 2 (d) 1− 3 2 5) If x = acos 3 θ... between 0 o and 360 o the two values of A are 2 (b) 135o and 45 o (c) 135o and 175 o (d) 45o and 225 o (c) θ+α=90o (d) αθ=90o 10) If cos(2n π + θ) = sin α then (a) θα = 90o (b) θ=α tan15 o .cosec θ (a) 0 (b) 1 ( ) = .........8 Choose the correct answer: 1) If p cosecθ = cot45 o then p is (a) cos45 o (b) tan45 o (c) sin45 o (d) sin θ 2) cosθ 1− cos2θ x 1− sin2 θ ...1 2 (d) cosθ (d) secθ (b) 2 7) 8) 9) Sin(90o +θ) sec(360 o θ) = (a) cosecθ (b) 1 s e c (θπ) = (a) secθ When sinA = (a) 60o and 135 o (b) cosecθ (c) 1 (c) cosecθ 1 ..........tan75 o is equal to 1 + tan15 o tan75 o 11) (a) 1+ 1− 3 3 (b) 1+ 2 3 1− 2 3 (c) − 3 (d) 3 150 ... (d) 0 3) (sin60o + cos60o )2 + (sin60 o . c) cos 2 θ ..cos60o )2 = .
sin9o sin6o is (a) 0 (b) 3 +1 4 (c) sin75 o (d) sin15 o 14) t a n ( π +x) is 4 (a) 1 + tan x 1 − tan x (b) 1+tanx (c) tanx (d) tan π 4 (a) 0 16) 17) (b) 1 (c) ∞ (c) 0 (d) 1 If sinA = 1...4 5 (b) 5 −1 4 (d) 1 (c) 5 +1 4 (d) ..5 −1 4 18) 1 ...cos15 o = .. 1 + cos15 o a) sec30 o 19) sin 2 40o sin 2 10 o = (a) sin80 o 15 (b) tan 2 2 ( ) (c)tan30 o (d) tan 2 7 1 2 sin500 2 o (b) 3 2 (c) sin 2 30o (d) 20) The value of (a) 1 3tan π − tan 3 π 4 4 13tan 2 π 4 (b) 1 is equal to (c) 0 (d) ∞ 21) The value of 4sin18 o ....cos36o is (a) 0 (b) 3 2 (c) 1 (c) x = 0o (d) − 3 2 22) The principal solution of cosx = 1 is (a) x = 1 (b) x = 0 (d) x = 360o 151 . then sin2A is equal to (a) 2 (b) 1 The value of sin54 o is (a) 1 ...12) The value of tan 435 o is (a) 1+ 1− 3 3 (b) 1+ 3 3 −1 (c) 3 −1 1− 3 (d) 1 13) The value of cos9ocos6o .....
k>0 is (a) zero (b) only one (c) many solutions (d) two The value of sin 1 (1) + sin 1 (0) is π (a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) π 27) 28) 29) 30) sin 1 (3 x ) + cos 1 (3 x ) = _________ 2 2 π (a) 3 2 (b) 6x (c) 3x π (c) 2 π (c) 3 2 π (d) 2 (d) π π (d) 3 2 (a) 1 32) 1 1 (b) π π (b) 2 sin x . 2 ] (b) [∞.23) If sinx = 0.2 33) sec 1 ( 2 ) + cosec 1 ( 2 ) = _____ 3 3 (a) . where.1) (d) ( 2 . π] (c) (1.∞) If cosx = k.π 2 (b) π 2 (c) π (d) π 34) t a n 1 ( 1 ) + tan 1 ( 1 ) = _____ 2 3 (a) sin 1 ( 1 ) 2 (b) sin 1 ( 1 ) 2 (c) tan 1 ( 1 ) 2 (d) tan 1 ( 1 ) 3 152 . 1 < k <1 then the principal solution of x may lie in π π (a) [0.∞) The number of solutions of the equation tanθ = k.1) (d) (π.cos (x) = _____ π (a) . where 1 < k < 1 then the principal solution of x may lie in π π (a) [∞. then one of the solutions is π π (a) x = 3 2 (b) x = 4 3 (c) x = 5π If cosx = 0. then one of the soutions is π π (a) x = 2π (b) x = 14 3 (c) x = 21 2 If tanx = 0. then one of the solutions is π π (a) x = 0o (b) x = 2 (c) x = 18 π (d) x = 5 2 (d) x = 180o π (d) x = 2 3 24) 25) 26) If sinx = k. .2 ] (b) [ 2 . π] (c) (0.
35) The value of cos 1 (1) + tan 1 (∞) + sin 1 (1) = _____ π (b) 3 2 (c) 30o The value of tan 135 o cos30 o sin180 o cot 225 o is (a) π (a) 1+ 23 (b) 1. (a) ..2 (c) 1 When A = 120o ....4 3 1 (d) 2π 36) (d) 0 37) (b) 1 3 (c) 4 3 (d)  1 3 38) The value of (a) cot4A sin 5 A − sin 3A cos 3 A −cos 5 A (b) tan4A (c) sin4A (c) sec 2A (d) sec4A (d) 1 39) The value of secA sin(270 o +A) (a) 1 (b) cos 2A 4 If cosθ = 5 4 (a) 3 40) .. tanA + cotA = ........... then the value of tanθ sin θ secθ cosecθ cosθ is 3 (b) 4 (c) 1 12 (d) 5 153 ....
There are two kinds of variables: (i) Independent variable (ii) Dependent variable 154 . there is a set of students. profit and output. b. the statement “Each student in the B. It is conventional to represent constants by the letters a. Similarly we can relate set of items in a store and set of possible prices uniquely. or for that matter. In Economics. in the equation 4x+3y = 1. It is also used frequently in every day life. it may be ncessary to link cost and output.FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS 6 The concept of function is one of the most important concepts in Calculus. we shall find the essential ingrediants of a function. a set of possible grades. For example. z. Thus when the quantities are so related that corresponding to any value of the first quantity there is a definite value of the second. For the statement. etc. Any real number is a constant. c etc.Tech course of Anna University will be assigned a grade at the end of the course” describes function. For instance. It is conventional to represent variables by the letters x. For example : A radian is a constant angle. If we analyse this statement. for they represent the coordinates of any point on straight line represented by 4x+3y = 1 and thus change their values from point to point. 6. then the second quantity is called a function of the first. y. and a rule which assigns to each member of the first set a unique member of the second set. “x” and “y” are variables. FUNCTION OF A REAL VALUE (i) Constant : A quantity which retains the same value throughout any mathematical operation is called a constant. (ii) Variable: A variable is a quantity which can have different values in a particular mathematical investigation.1.
6) (ii) Closed interval The set {x : a < x < b} is called a closed interval and is denoted by [a. and (a. 4 and 6 are elements of this interval. but 5. 6). Thus in the equation y = 5x22x+3. “x” is the independent variable. 6. A variable is said to be a dependent variable when its values depend on the values assumed by some other variable. −∞ a ( )b ∞ In this interval the end points are not included For example : In the open interval (4. Also we can say “x” is called Domain and “y” is called the Range. All points that lie between A and B are those which correspond to all real numbers x in value between a and b such that a < x < b. i.9 is an element of this interval. (i) −∞ A a B b ∞ Open Interval The set {x : a < x < b} is called an open interval denoted by (a. “y” is the dependent variable and “3” is the constant. Also we can make a mention about semi closed or semi open intervals. 4 is not an element of this interval. b].e. 6]. the end points are included.A variable is an independent variable when it can have any arbitrary value. b). For example : In the interval [4. b) = {x : a < x < b} is called right open Uniformly.1. b] = {x : a < x < b} is called left open [a. We can discuss the entire idea in the following manner.1 Intervals : Closed and Open On the “Real line” let A and B represents two real numbers a and b respectively. 4 and 6 are not elements of (4. in all these cases ba = h is called the length of the interval 155 . b]. −∞ a [ ]b ∞ In the interval [a. with a < b.
we also use the notations F.1. then the unique element in B which f assigns to a is called the value of f at a or the image of a under f and is denoted by f(a). to denote functions.1 .1 . φ etc.1 Domain f(a) Codomain We often think of x as representing an arbitrary element of A and y as representing the corresponding value of f at x. while the set B is called the codomain of the function. g. Then (a∈. Thus if f is a function from the set A to the set B we write f : A→B. Let ∈>0 be arbitrarily small real number.2 Neighbourhood of a point Let a be any real number. a+∈) is called an “∈” neighbourhood of the point a and denoted by Na. ∈ For example N3. The set A is called the domain of the function.1.6. If a is an element of A. 3+ 1 ) 4 4 = {x : 11 < x < 13 } 4 4 N2. 156 . 1 4 = (3.3 Functions Definition A function f from a set A to a set B is a rule which assigns to each element of A a unique element of B. Besides f. We can represent functions pictorially as follows : f : A→B a Fig 6. 2+ 1 ) 5 5 = {x : 9 5 < x < 11 } 5 6. The range is the set of all values of the function. 1 5 = (2.
temperature measurements of the air at a meteorological station on a particular day yield a table. but it can be other things.2) Let us consider the following equations (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) y = x24x+3 y = sin2x y = mx + c V= πr2h 3 2 s = ut + at 2 In (i) we say that y is a function of x In (ii) and (iii) y is a function of x. (two variables) In (v) s is a function of u. (three variables) 6. 157 . A function is like a machine into which you can put any number from the domain and out of which comes the corresponding value in the range. a table. (m and c are constants) In (iv) V is a function of r and h. or a set of instructions.4 Tabular representation of a function An experimental study of phenomena can result in tables that express a functional relation between the measured quantities. For example. t and a. f(x) = x3 3 Number from ↓ the domain goes in Rule of the function f(x)=x3 Value of the function at that number comes out 27 → fig (6. consider.1. such as a list of ordered pairs. Always the rule is a formula.We can write y = f(x) which is read “y is a function of x” or “y is f of x” The rule of a function gives the value of the function at each element of the domain.
3 The table defines T as a function of t denoted by T = f(t). tables of trigonometric functions. 6.. then the graph is not the graph of a function. but different second coordinates.5 Graphical representation of a function. can be viewed as functions in tabular form. The graph of these two ordered pairs would be points on the same vertical line. The following graphs do not represent graph of a function: y y y x' x x' x x' x y' y' y' Fig 6. This gives us a method to test whether a graph is the graph of a function. The test : If it is possible for a vertical line to intersect a graph at more than one point.The temperature T (in degrees) is dependent on the time t(in hours) t T 1 22 2 21 3 20 4 20 5 17 6 23 7 25 8 26 9 26.1. The collection of points in the xy plane whose abscissae are the values of the independent variable and whose ordinates are the corresponding values of the function is called a graph of the given function.6 The Vertical Line Test for functions Assume that a relation has two ordered pairs with the same first coordinate.5 10 27.3 Fig 6. Similarly.4 Fig 6.5 158 . tables of logarithms etc. 6.1.
4) and (6.3.7) “pass” the vertical line test and hence are graphs of functions.7 is a point in between 3 and 5 No. 159 y' . (6.5) we are able to see that the vertical line meets the curves at more than one point.From the graphs in fig (6. We can choose any number that is possible replacement for x and then determine y.6) and (6. Example 1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) What is the length of the interval 3. because 5 lies outside the given interval. Hence 3∉ (3.5? If H = {x : 3 < x < 5} can 4.6) and (6.5 = 4 Yes .5 .7) that no vertical line meet the curves at more than one point and (6.5. y y x' x x' x y' y' Fig 6. Hence these graphs are not the graphs of function.7 ∈ H? If H = {x : 4 < x < 7} can 5 ∈ H? Is 3 ∈ (3.5] Length of the interval is ba = 7.7 We see in fig(6. 0) Example 2 Draw the graph of the function f(x) = 3x1 Solution: Let us assume that y = f(x) ∴ We have to drawthe graph of y = 3x1. x y 0 1 1 2 2 5 1 4 2 7 x' y x Now. 7.5 < x < 7. we plot these poits in the xy plane these points would form a straight line.3).6 Fig 6. In the open interval the end points are not included. because 4. Thus we get the table. b] = [3. 0)? Here the interval is [a.
Example 3 Draw the graph of f(x) = x25 Solution: Let y = f(x) We select numbers for x and find the corresponding values for y. when x = 5 . when x= 0 . (1.20 = 5 f(o) = 0+2 = 2 ii) f(5) iii) f(0) x 2 . α . β ∈ R Proof : f(x) = sinx 160 . f(x) = x+2 ∴ f(x) = x24x ∴ f(x) = x+2 ∴ f(3) = 3+2 = 1 f(5) = 25 .4x if x ≥ 2 x + 2 if x < 2 Example 6 If f(x) = sinx . show that : f(α+β) = f(α) g(β) + g(α) f(β) α β α β α β when x. x y 0 5 1 4 2 1 3 4 1 4 2 1 3 4 y y=x25 x y' Example 4 Given the function f(x) = x2x+1 find (i) f(o) (ii) f(1) (iii) f(x+1) Solution: (i) (ii) (iii) f(x) f(o) f(1) f(x+1) = x2x+1 = o2o+1 =1 = (1)2 (1)+1 = 3 = (x+1)2 .(x+1) + 1 = x2+2x+1x1+1 = x2+x+1 Example 5 Let f : R→R defined by f(x) = → find i) f(3) Solution when x = 3. 4) and so on. x' The table gives us the ordered pairs (0. g(x) = cosx. 5).
f(β) Example 7 If A = {2.x ) Example 9 If f(x. 1. 2} and f : A→R be defined by f(x) = x2+3 find the → range of f. 1. 4.x (ii) f(1.∴ f(α+β) = sin (α+β) f(α) = sinα . 0) Solution: f(x. 1) (1) f(x) = 1( x ) = 1+ (. g(β) + g(α) . cosβ + cosα . (1) [ Qg(x) = cosx] f(α) . y) = ax2 + bxy2+cx2y + dy3 find (i) f(1.x show that f(x) = f (x ) 1+x Solution : f(x) = 1 . f(β) = sinα . Solution : f (x) = x2+3 f (2) = (2)2+3 = 4+3 = 7 f (1) = (1)2+3 = 1+3 = 4 f (0) = 0 + 3 = 3 f (1) = 12 + 3 = 4 f (2) = 22 + 3 = 7 Hence the range is the set {3. g (β) = cosβ Now. sinβ = sin (α+β) (2) from (1) and (2). 7} Example 8 1 If f(x) = 1 .x ∴ 1+ x 1+ x = 1 f (x ) 1. y) = ax2+bxy 2+cx2y+dy3 To find f(1. 0) . 0. put x = 1 and y = 0 in (1) ∴ f(1. we have f(α+β) = f(α) g(β) + g(α) . f(β) = sinβ g(α) = cosα . 0) = a(1)2 + 0 + 0 + 0 = a 161 .
100/. put x = 1 and y = 1 in (1) ∴ f(1. x ≠ 5} Example 12 A group of students wish to charter a bus which holds atmost 45 people to go to an eduactional tour. Solution: Let x be the number of students who go then 30 <x<45 and x is an integer The formula is Total cost = (cost per student) x (number of students) If between 30 and 40 students go . If more than 40 people go. Also give the domain. Thus the domain of f is {x : x ∈R . 1) = a(1)2 + b(1)(1)2 + c(1)2(1) + d(1)3 f(1. Therefore x = 5 is not in the domain of f. for3<x<3. It charges Rs. x∈R} Example 11 What is the domain of f for f(x) = x + 5 ? Solution: Note that at x = 5 . x = 5 is not acceptable. 1) = a . f(x) = 5 4 9 = 0 0 x 4 Since we cannot divide by 0 . 1) . the cost per student is Rs. The bus company requires atleast 30 people to go. 100 less 5 times the number more than 40 who go. x∈R ∈ (i) For which values of x. 100 per person if upto 40 people go. f(x) = 4 (ii) The domain of f is {x : 3<x<3. it charges each person Rs.b + c + d Example 10 If f(x) = x2+3.to find f(1. f(x) = 4? (ii) What is the domain of f? Solution: (i) Given f(x) = 4 ∴ x2+3 = 4 => x2 = 1 => x = + 1 Thus for x = 1 and 1. 162 1 . Find the total cost as a function of the number of students who go.
. 3) and (4....4) f(x) is a real valued function only when (x3) (x4) > 0 ie when x lies outside ‘3’ and ‘4’ The domain of f(x) is x > 4 and x < 3 i. x2 108x .1 1) 2) Draw the graph of the line y = 3 If f(x) = tanx and f(y) = tany. . [∞. 41 ≤ x ≤ 45 The domain is {30.x 5 Then the total cost is y = (108..f(y) 1 + f(x) f(y) 163 .7x + 12 Solution : ∴ (x ...3)(x .. The range of this function is R+ (set of all positive real numbers) Example 14 Find the domain of the function f(x) = x 2 . 30 ≤ x ≤ 40 So the rule is y = where x is a positive integer.. log of a negative number is not defined over R and log0 = ∞ ∴ log10(1+x) is not real valued for 1+x < 0 or for x<1 and log (1+x) tends to ∞ as x→1 Hence the domain of f is (1.. ∞) i.1 5 (x40)} = 108. ∞] f(x) = EXERCISE 6.e. {100 .. 45} Example 13 Find the domain and range of the function given by f(x) = log10 (1+x) Solution: We know.∴ The total cost is y = 100x If between 41 and 45 students go. the cost per student is Rs.x )x 5 = 108x . 31.e... all real values greater than 1.x 2 5 100x .5 . prove that f(xy) = f(x) .
If 25 people or more.5x + 6 Which of the follwing graphs do not represent graph of a function? y y y x' x x' x x' x y' y' y' Fig (i) Fig (ii) Fig (iii) y y x' x x' x y' y' Fig (iv) Fig (v) 164 . Find the formulae which express the total charge C as a function in terms of number of people n who go . 110 less 1 times the number of people who 5 go. 100/. It charges Rs. take the tour. find f ( x+h)−f (x) h ) + f(π) + f(3 π 2 ) If f(x) = sinx + cosx. Include the domain of each formulae. upto a maximum of 110.per person if fewer than 25 people go.3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) If f(x) = x + tanx . they charge each person Rs. prove that f( π x + sinx 4 2 4 + If f(x) = 1+x 2 x prove that f( 1 x x )= π+ 4 π +2 2 ) = f(x) If f(x) = x2 3x+7. find f(0) + f( π 2 Find the domain of g(x) = 1− 1 x A travel agency offers a tour. 9) 10) Find the domain of the function f(x) = x 2 .
Observation : The relation set H = [(1. β.2.9). Constant function A function whose range consists of just one element is called a constant function and is written as f(x) = a constant for every x ∈ domain set. g(x) = cosx.c .8 represents the constant function 2 3 4 . write the expression f(2x) and f(0) Draw the graph of the funtion f(x) = 5x6 Draw the graphs of the functions f(x) = x 2 and g(x) = 2x2 If f(x) = x2 4. (4. (3. 165 y' Fig 6. (2.a . 5). For example : f(x) = 2 and f(x) = 3 are constant functions. α. 5).11) If f(x) = sinx .2 CONSTANT FUNCTION AND LINEAR FUNCTION 6. 2f(x). write the expressions f( 1 x 3x + 5 ) and f (1x ) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) x 2 + 4 . y y=f(x) y=c x' O x We can easily observe that in fig (6.8 We can draw the graph of the constant function f(x) = c.b . 5). Draw the graphs of f(x). where c is a constant.1. the graph of the constant function represents a straight line parellel to xaxis. and f(x) in the same plane. 1 f : A→B The figure 6. show that : f(αβ) = f(α) g (β) . 6. f(β) . 5)} is a constant function.9 .g(α) .d B A Fig 6. x∈R For f(x) = For f(x) = x − 1 .
6. y2) are two distinct points on the line.2. 6. then the slope of the line usually denoted by m is given by m = x 2 x 1 = Difference in x coordinate 2 1 ∴ the linear function f(x) = ax+b.4 A linear function denotes the equation of a straight line which can be expressed in the following different forms (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) y = mx+c.2. y1) and Q(x2. (intercept form) x x 1 y.intercept form) yy 1 = m(xx1) : (slopepoint form) x a + y b = 1.2. The equations describing the relationship are called first . Observation: (i) If the slope of the line m is positive.y = y . y y Difference in y coordinate 6. (two point form) x1. 166 .5 Application of linear functions (i) Salary of an employee can be expressed as a linear function of time. and c is the y intercept. (ii) (iii) (iv) If m is negative then the line goes downward as it goes to the right If m = 0 the line is horizontal If m is undefined the line is vertical.degree equations or linear equation. (a≠0) may be written as f(x) = mx+c.3 Slope of the line l If l is a line which is not vertical and if P(x1.2 Linear function A Linear function is a function whose rule is of the form f(x) = ax+b.2.x 2 1 2 Variables of these functions have no powers more than one. where m is the slope of the line . then the line goes upward as it goes to the right. We shall see that the graph of a linear function is a straight line.y1 . (slope . where a and b are real numbers with a≠ 0.6.
500 + 125 (t . Example 16 Find the slope of straight line containing the points (1.2002) 2004 .875.500.7500 when t = t 2 −t 1 (tt1) 2 1 = 7750 . 7750.) 2002 (t1) 7.) and t represent the year (t) year Salary (Rs. Slope m = x 2 − x 1 = 6 . Solution: Let S represent Salary (in Rs. In 2004. Express salary as a linear function of time and estimate his salary in the year 2005.2002 2 S −S = 250 (t .(ii) (iii) The life expectancy of a particular sex may be expressed through linear function of year (t) Linear relationship between price and quantity. 7.2002) = 2005 S = 7500 + 125 (2005 .2 = 2 3 1 2 1 167 y −y y A(1 . 7. it will be Rs. 6) Solution: Plot the points (1.x1 = 2 .S1 S . 2) B(3. Example 15 The salary of an exmployee in the year 2002 was Rs.y1 = 4 x x2 . 6) y 2 .7500 (t .7500 S .750 (S2) 2005 (t) ? (S) The equation of the straight line representing salary as a linear function of time is S .2002) S = 7.500 (S1) 2004 (t2) 7.2002) = 7500 + 125 (3) = 7500 + 375 = 7875 The estimated salary in the year 2005 is Rs. 2) and (3. 6) in the xy plane and join them. 2) and (3.
the exponential function with base a is the function ‘f’ defined by f(x) = ax where x is any real number. let a = 2 ∴ f(x) = 2x For different values of x. POWER FUNCTION 6. the exponential function f(x) = ax (and its graph) have different characteristics as described below: 6.3. For different values of the base a.3. are power function.10 168 .3. 6.1 Power function n A function of the form f(x) = ax . The corresponding values of 2 x are obtained as follows: x 2x 3 1 8 2 1 4 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 2 4 3 8 y y = 2x (y=a x . f(x) = 1 x2 and f(x) = 3x 1 2 etc.3. where a>1 Study of Graph 2X In f(x) = ax. For example f(x) = x4. where a and n are nonzero constants is called a power function.2 Exponential function If a > 0.3 Graph of f(x) = ax. 1) x' O x Fig 6. a > 1) (0.6.
and the two graphs y = a x and y = ( 1 a )x are reflections of each other through the y axis 169 . then 0 < 1 a < 1. To the left of the graph. 6.11 Observation : (i) The curve is strictly decreasing (ii) (iii) (iv) The graph comes down closer and closer to the positive side of the xaxis For different values of a.3. when a < 1 Study of Graph ( 1 )x 2 f(x) = ax .4 Graph of f(x) = ax. (iii) Exponential functions describe situations where growth is taking place. 1) x' O x Fig 6. Let a = x ( 1 2 1 2 ∴ f(x) = ( 1 2 y 1 2 )x 1 1 2 3 )x 8 2 4 0 1 2 1 4 3 1 8 f(x) = ax . a<1 y=( 1 2 )x (0. the graphs of f(x) = ax differ in steepness If a> 1. the x axis is an horizontal asymptote (ii) The graph comes down closer and closer to the negative side of the xaxis.Observation: (i) Graph of 2x is strictly increasing.
0) y' x In the fig. (e = 2. 6.5 Graph of f(x) = ex The most used power function is y = ex. Thus with x = a y . Fig 6. we see that.718 approxi). 1) O x' y' x Fig 6.(v) (vi) If a = 1. So the graph of e x is similar to the graph of y = 2 x. 170 x y y = e (0. ∞) y 6. the graphs of y = loga x differ in steepness The domain and the range of y = loga x is given by (0.14 x . loga x is defined only for x > 0. ay is positive. which is shown clearly in the following diagram. Since a is positive.3. y If 0 < a < 1 or a > 1. 0) Fig 6.6 Logarithmic Functions If 0 < a < 1 or a > 1.13 the graph of f(x) = loga x is shown.13 Observation : (i) Since loga 1 = 0. if 0<a<1 or a>1 .3. This graph is strictly increasing if a>1 and strictly decreasing if 0<a<1. then loga x = y if and only if ay = x The function f(x) = loga x is not defined for all values of x.. ∞)→R The graphs of f(x) = a x and g(x) = loga x are symmetric about the line y = x By the principle of symmetry the graph of x' log e x can be obtained by reflecting the graph of ex about the line y = x. 1) O y' y=loga x (1. the graph of f(x) = ax is a horizontal straight line The domain and the range of f(x) = ax is given by R→(0.12 6. then (i) loga a = 1 and (ii) loga 1 = 0 x' y=loga x (1. y = ex (0. the graph of y = loga x crosses the x axis at x = 1 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The graph comes down closer and closer to the negative side of yaxis For different values of a. where e is an irrational number whose value lies between 2 and 3.
Also we see that tan (θ+π) = tan θ hence we say that tan θ is period with π.4.π 2 <θ < 3 π 2 and then use f( θ+2π) = f(θ) to get the graph everywhere. we need only to find the graphs of sine and cosine functions on an interval of length 2 π. In determining their graphs the presentation is simplified if we view these functions as circular functions.4. Now. We say sin θ and cos θ are functions each with period 2 π.1 Periodic Functions If a variable angle θ is changed to θ+α.6. say 0 < θ < 2π or . the value of the function of θ remains unchanged. cos ( θ+2π) = cos θ. sin(θ+2π) = sin θ.3 2  1 2 1 2 The graph of sinx is drawn as below: y = sinx y 3 2 1π π π 2 0 2 3 π π 2 1 2 2π 3π 4π x Fig 6.15 171 . α being the least positive constant. Let us see what happens to sinx as x increases from 0 to 2 π.4 CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS 6. the function is said to be periodic and α is called the period of the function. 6.2 Graph of sinx. We first consider the sine function. Consider sine function in 0 <x<2 π x sinx 0 0 π 6 1 2 π 4 1 2 π 3 3 2 π 2 2π 3 3 2 3π 4 1 2 5π 6 1 2 π 0 7π 6 5π 4 1 2 4π 3 3π 5π 7π 2 3 4 11 π 6 1 1 2  3 2 1 . Since.
It is clear from the grpah that maximum value of sinx is 1 and the minimum value is 1. 1) ( . We again use the interval 0< x < 2π x cosx π 1 . 1) (3 π . 1) ( π 2 π 2 . the 2 variable represents any real number. (ii) (iii) The graph of sinx has no break anywhere i. Note that the function value is 0 when x = 0 and the values increase as x increases toward 172 π 2 . (iv) 6.e. 0) (3 (π.16 Observation: (i) The graph of cosx has no break anywhere i. 0) y' Fig 6. 6.e.e.4 Graph of tanx Since division by 0 is undefined tan π is meaningless. . it is continuous.0) O x .Observation: (i) The scale on xaxis is different from the scale on the y axis in order to show more of the graph. In tanx. it is continuous (ii) It is clear from the graph that the maximum value of cosx is 1 and minimum value is 1 ie. 1) π 2 x' (π.4.4. the graph lies entirely between the lines y = 1 andy =1 (iii) The graph is symmetrical about the yaxis (iv) The function is periodic with period 2π. ie the graph lies entirely between the lines y = 1 and y =1 Every value is repeated after an interval of 2π. 0) 2 (0. the function is periodic with 2π.3 Graph of f(x) = cosx Consider the cosine function. i.π 0 2 0 1 y = cosx π 2 0 y π 1 3 π 0 2 2π 1 5π 2 0 3π 1 (2π.
17).17 Observation : (i) The graph of tan x is discontinuous at points when x =+ (ii) (iii) π 2 3π 2 . y = tanx π 2 . they increase without bound.+ . The dashed vertical lines are not part of the graph. the tangent values become very large. with a period π 173 . tanx may have any numerical value positive or negative tanx is a periodic function with period π. The graph approaches each asymptote. but never reaches it because there are no values of the function for etc.. Indeed. what is its period? What is its domain and range? Solution : From the graph of y = tanx(fig 6. They are asymptotes. the tangent function is periodic. we see that the graph from π 2 to π 2 repeats in the interval from π 2 to 3π 2 consequently. y 4 3 2 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 π 2 x' 2π 3 π 2 π  π 2 π 3 π 2 x y' Fig 6. + 52π ... 32π . Example 17 Is the tangent function periodic? If so.As we approach π 2 ..
18 Solution: In the graph of the function f. For example. multiplication and division are called algebraic functions..6 5 4 3 2 1 0 y' 1 2 3 4 5 6 x 1 Fig 6. Therefore the period of this function is 4. k is an integer} Example 19 What is the period of this function? y y = f(x) 1 x'. 2 π 2 ie. and if the graph is translated four units to the left or right. 2x etc are algebraic . 4x 7x+3. x ≠ π 2 + kπ. 6. and roots of independent variable and the four fundamental operations of addition.5. 7 2 3 x . {x : x ≠ + kπ.5 ARITHMETIC OF FUNCTION 6. The secant function is undefined for those numbers for which cosx = 0. k is an integer} Range is R (set of all real numbers) Example 18 What is the domain of the secant function? Solution : The secant and cosine functions are reciprocals. Hence f(x) = f(x+4) for any x. subtraction. it will coincide with itself.Domain is {x . The domain of the secant function is the set of all real numbers except π + kπ .3x2. functions 174 3x + 5 . the function values repeat every four units.1 Algebraic functions Those functions which consist of a finite number of terms involving powers. k is an integer.
(+) f(x)+g(x) = (3x+5x) + (42) ∴ f(x)+g(x) = 8x+2 = (f+g) (x) (ii) 2 Consider f(x) = 3x24x+7 and g(x) = xx+1 be two quadratic functions then the sum of 175 . (ii) (iii) f The domain of the quotient g is the common domain D of the two functions f and g excluding the numbers x for which g(x) = 0 The product of a function with itself is denoted by f2 and in general product of f taken 'n' times is denoted by fn where n is a natural number....5.2 Arithmetic operations in the set of functions Consider the set of all real valued functions having the same domain D. functions from D into R. a1... f + g. .. Let f. It is obvious that this function is defined for all values of x.3 Computing the sum of functions (i) For example consider f(x) = 3x+4 . a2. f(x) f ( g ) (x) = . 6.g(x). g(x) =5x2 be the two linear functions then their sum (f+g) (x) is f(x) = 3x+4 g(x) = 5x2 (+) .. g ∈ E.. fg and f ÷ g are defined as follows: (f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x). (fg) (x) = f(x) g(x).5.Also.. +an where a0. g(x) ≠ 0 g(x) Observation : (i) The domain of each of the functions f + g. algebraic functions include the rational integral function or polynomial f(x) = a0xn+a 1xn1+a 2xn2+. ie. f . ∀ x∈D (f .. fg is the same as the common domain D of f and g.. The arithmetic of functions ..g) (x) = f(x) . a are constants called coefficients and n is n nonnegative integer called degree of the polynomial... Let us denote this set of functions by E.. 6.g..
f(x) = sinx. then the sum f(x)+f(y) is ex+e y Consider. g(x) = e5x then the product f(x) g(x) is e3x .5.g(x) = loge 5x .g(x) = e3x .5. f(x) = loga x and g(x) = loga 3x then (fg)x = f(x)g(x) = loga x loga 3x (iv) Consider.6 Computing the Quotient of functions (i) Consider f(x) = e4x and g(x) = e3x then 4x f (x ) is e 3x = e4x3x = ex g (x ) e 176 . e5x = e3x+5x = e8x 6. g(x) = tanx then the sum f(x)+g(x) is sinx + tanx (iv) (v) 6. g(x) = log e (5x) be two logarithmic functions then the sum (f+g) (x) is f(x)+g(x) = loge x + loge 5x = loge 5x2. f(x) = (x2x+1) and g(x) = x+1 then the product f(x) g(x) is (x2x+1) (x+1) = x3x2+x+x2x+1 = x3+1 (iii) Consider.5. Observe that here f(x) + f(y) ≠ f(x+y) Consider.loge 3x = loge (5x ) 3x = loge 5 3 6.loge 5x and g(x) = loge 3x then (fg) (x) is f(x) . f(x) = ex and f(y) = ey be two exponential functions.4 Computing Difference of functions (i) Consider f(x) = 4x23x+1 and g(x) = 2x2+x+5 then (fg) (x) = f(x)g(x) is (4x22x2) + (3xx) + (15) = 2x24x4 (ii) Consider f(x) = e3x and g(x) = e2x then (fg) (x) = f(x) .e2x (iii) Consider f(x) .f(x) and g(x) is f(x)+g(x) f(x) + g(x) (iii) = (3x24x+7) + (x2x+1) = (3x2+x2) + (4xx) + (7+1) = 4x25x+8 = (f+g) (x) Consider f(x) = log e x .5 Computing the Product of functions (i) Consider f(x) = x+1 and g(x) = x1 then the product f(x) g(x) is (x+1) (x1) which is equal to x21 (ii) Consider. f(x) = e3x .
6 SOME SPECIAL FUNCTIONS 6.2(3) . g(x) = x2 then the quotient 2 f (x ) is x − 5 x + 6 g (x ) (x − 2 ) which is equal to ( x 3)( x 2 ) = x3 x −2 Example 20 Given that f(x) = x 3 and g(x) = 2x+1 Compute (i) (f+g) (1) (ii) (fg) (3) (iii) (fg) (0) Solution: (i) We know (f+g) (x)= f(x) + g(x) ∴ (f+g) (1)= f(1) + g(1) = (1)3 + 2(1)+1 = 4 (ii) We know (fg) (x) = f(x) . f(x) = x x' O x x y= Observation : (i) The graph is symmetrical about the yaxis (ii) At x = 0.1 Absolute value function f(x) = x Finding the absolute value of a number can also be thought of in terms of a function. the absolute value function f(x) = x.6. the range is the set of y positive real numbers The graph has two parts. f(x) = x For x > 0. The domain of the absolute value function is the set of real numbers .(ii) Consider. x has a minimum value. f(x) = x For x < 0.1 = 20 (iii) We know (fg)(x) = f(x) g(x) ∴ fg(0) = f(0) g(0) = (03) (2 x 0 + 1) = 0 (iv) We know (f÷g) (x) = f(x) ÷ g(x) ∴ (f÷g) (2)= f(2) ÷ g(2) = 23 ÷ [2(2) + 1] = 23 ÷ 5 = 8 5 (iv) (f÷g) (2) ÷ 6.g(x) ∴ (fg) (3) = f(3) .g(3) = (3)3 . 0 177 y' Fig (6. f(x) = x25x+6 .19) y= x .
we have f(x) = [x] = 5 and so on. x<0 y' O x or x = 1 for x > 0 x for x = 0 f(x) = 0 − x = 1 for x < 0 x Fig (6. we have f(x) = [x] = 0 3 1< x < 2. the point corresponding to x= 0 is excluded. In this graph. y = 0.6. In general. we get the point (0. In this graph. 6. is the greatest integer that is less than or equal to x. f: A→B 178 .7 INVERSE OF A FUNCTION 6.6. the graph of y = 1 is a straight line parallel to xaxis at a unit distance above it. [3. we have f(x) = [x] = 2 5< x < 4.2 Signum function The signum function is defined as y = f(x) = y y=1.6. In particular. the graph y =1 is a straight line parallel to xaxis at a unit distance below it. [1] = 1. and thus graph the function for all real numbers.21) 2< x < 3. [4. f(x) = [x]. 6.5] = 4.20) For x > 0. it is called a oneone function. x>0 x  for x ≠ 0 x 0 for x = 0 x' y=1.1 Oneone function If a function relates any two distinct elements of its domain to two distinct elements of its codomain.3 Step function The greatest integer function. we have f(x) = [x] = 1 y' Fig (6. we have f(x) = [x] = 2 2< x < 1.9] = 4 We can use the pattern above to graph f(x) for x between any two integers.7. For x' 3 2 1 y 3 2 1 O 1 1 2 2 3 x 0 < x<1. 0) and for x < 0. the point corresponding to x = 0 is excluded for x = 0.
such that f(a) = b is called the inverse mapping of the mapping f: A→B. from fig (6.25) f Observation : (i) If f : A →B is oneone onto.23 6.7.a 1 2 3 4 .6.22 is oneone function.3 Inverse function Let f: A→B be a oneone onto mapping. 179 . f : A→B 1 2 3 3 fig 6.d 6.d fig 6.shown in fig.24) f(x1 ) = y 1 e t c . f 1: B→A f : A→B x1 x2 x3 A fig 6.c . then the inverse mapping of f is unique.b . f : A→B .22 . then f 1 : B→A is also oneone and onto (ii) If f: A →B be oneone and onto.7. then the maping f 1: B→A which associates to each element b∈B the element a∈A.25 1 y1 y2 y3 B (y 1 ) = x1 e t c .24 y1 y2 y3 B x1 x2 x3 A fig 6. (iv) If f is continuous then f 1 is also continuous.c .a . from fig (6.2 Onto function For an ‘onto’ function f: A→B. range is equal to B. (iii) The domain of a function f is the range of f 1 and the range of f is the domain of f 1 .b .
Interchanging the xaxis and the yaxis has the effect of reflecting the graph of these points across the diagonal line whose equation is y = x.7.26 we see that the graph of y = sin 1x is the reflection of the graph of y = sinx across the line y = x 180 x y = sin x Fig 6. tan1x are the inverses of sinx.π <y< π . Example 21 Given f(x) = 2x+1.4 Inverse Trignometric functions sin 1x. y ≠ 0 2 2 sec 1 x : Suppose  x  > 1.π <y< π 2 2 cos x : tan1x : 1 Suppose 1<x<1. x' (i) From the fig 6. find an equation for f1(x). Let y = 2x+1. cos1x.(v) Interchanging first and second numbers in each ordered pair of a relation has the effect of interchanging the xaxis and the yaxis. Then y = cos1x if and only if x = cosy and 0<y<π Suppose x is any real number. cosx and tanx respectively. then y = sec 1 x if and only if and only if x = secy and 0<y<π y ≠ π if x = coty and 0<y<π 2 y 2π π π 1 11 1 π y = sin 1x y=x π 2π Two points symmetric with respect to a line are called reflections of each other across the line. Then y = sin 1x if and only if x = siny and . The line is known as a line 2 π of symmetry. interchange x and y ∴ x = 2y+1 => y = x 1 2 1 Thus f (x) = x 1 2 6. Then y=tan1x if and only if x = tany and .π <y< π 2 2 and .26 y' 2 π . sin 1x :Suppose 1<x<1.
27 and 6. f(x) = (x)2 = x2 = f(x) Observation : (i) If f(x) is an even function then the graph of f(x) is symmetrical about y axis (ii) There is always a possibility of a function being neither even nor odd. for all x eg : 1.28 respectively y 2π y = cos1x π y y=x 1 x' 0 −π x y =cos x 2π 2π x' −2π −π y' 0 1 π x 2 π Fig 6. f(x) = (x)3 = x3 = . f(x) = sinx is an odd function consider .8 MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS 6.2 Even function A function f(x) is said to be even function if f(x) = f(x). (iii) If f(x) is an odd function then the graph of f(x) is symmetrical about origin.1 Odd Function A function f(x)is said to be odd function if f(x) = f(x).f(x) 6. f(x) = x2 is an even function consider. f(x) = x3 is an odd function . 1 f(x) = cosx is an even function consider.8.27 6. consider.28 y' Fig 6. 6.(ii) The graphs of y = cos x and y = cos1x are given in fig. 181 . f(x) = sin(x) = sinx = f(x) 2. for all x eg. f(x) = cos(x) = cosx = f(x) 2.8.
.3 Composite Function (Function of a function) Let f : A →B and g : B →C be two functions then the function gof : A→C defined by (gof) (x) = g[f(x)].(x+4)  =  x+4  ∴ f(x) ≠ f(x) and f(x) ≠ f(x) ∴ f(x) =  x4  is neither even nor odd 182 .8. (ii) fog ≠ gof in general (iii) fo(goh) = (fog)oh is always true (iv) (fof . we have z = g(y) = g[f(x)] Observation : (i) In the operation (gof) we operate first by f and then by g.1)(x) = x. Proof : f(x) =  x4  ∴ f(x) =  x4  ∴ =  . where f 1 is inverse of ‘f’ (v) gof is onto if f and g are separately onto. Example 22 Prove that f(x) =  x  is even Proof: f(x) =x ∴ f(x) =  x  =  x  = f(x) => f(x) = f(x) Hence f(x) =  x  is even Example 23 Prove that f(x) =  x4  is neither even nor odd.29 i. for all x∈A is called composition of the two functions f and g A f x z C B y=f(x) g Fig 6.6.e.
(gof)x = g(1x) = (1x)2 + 2(1x) = 34x+x2 L. g(x) = 2x Find (i) f{g(5)} Solution: (i) f{g(5)} g(x) = 2x ∴g(5) = 2x(5) = 10 f((g(5)) = f(10) = 10 = 10 183 (ii) g{f(6)} . g(x) = x2+2x both f and g are from R→ R → verify that fog ≠ gof Solution: L.H.H.f(x) Hence f(x) = exe x is an odd function Example 25 Let f(x) = 1x . (fog)x = f(x2+2x) = 1(x2+2x) = 12xx2 R.S. Hence fog ≠ gof Example 26 Let f(x) = 1x.Example 24 Prove that f(x) = exe x is an odd function Proof: f(x) = exe x f(x) = exe (x) = exe x = [exe x] = . g(x) = x2+2x and h(x) = x+5.S. Find (fog) oh Solution: g(x) = x2+2x ∴(fog) x= f[g(x)] = f(x2+2x) = 12xx2 {(fog) oh} (x) = (fog) (x+5) = 12 (x+5)(x+5)2 = 3412xx2 Example 27 Suppose f(x) =  x .H.S.H. ≠ R.S.
g{f(x)} f{g(x)} = f{3x+b} g{f(x)}= g{2x+7} = 2(3x+b) + 7 = 3(2x+7) + b = 6x+2b+7 = 6x+21+b since f{g(x)} = g{f(x)} we have 6x+(2b+7) = 6x+(b+21) ∴ 2b+7 = b+21 b = 217 b = 14 EXERCISE 6.S.(ii) g{f(6)} f(x) =  x  ∴ f(6) = 6 = 6 g{f(6)} = g(6) = 2 x 6 = 12 Example 28 f(x) = 2x+7 and g(x) = 3x+b find “b” such that f{g(x)} = g{f(x)} L.S. f{g(x)} R.H. g(x) = x3 .2 ) (vi) (fg) (0.x verify that φ(a) + φ(b) = φ a + b 1+ x 1+ ab If f(x) = logx .2 1) 2) Prove that (i) f(x) = x 2 + 12x + 36 is neither even nor odd function (ii) f(x) = 2x3 + 3x is an odd function If f(x) = tanx. verify that f(2x) = 2f (x ) 1{f (x )}2 3) 4) 5) If φ(x) =log 1.5) (viii) (f ÷ g) (2) also find the domain of f ÷ g Given f(x) = sinx. g(x) = cosx compute (i) (f+g) (0) and (f+g) ( π ) 2 184 . write the expressions for a) f{g(2)} b) g{f(2)} ( ) If f(x) = x3 and g(x) = 2x+1 find the following (i) (f+g) (0) (ii) (f+g) (2) (iii) (fg) (2) (iv) (fg) ( 2) (vii) (f ÷ g) (0) 6) (v) f(g) (1.H.
For a linear function f. 5] is (a) 3 (b) 5.350. In 1977 it was Rs.3 Choose the correct answer 1) The point in the interval (3. make a prediction of the life expectancy of females in that country in the year 2013.4 is x +3 (a) {x / x ≠ 3} (b) { x / x > 3} (c) { } (d) R 185 . Assuming the life expectancy to be a linear function of time.π ) 4 4 f (f÷g) (0) and (f÷g) (π) .3 2) Zero is not a point in the interval (a) (∞. 1.π ) and (fg) ( π) 2 (fg) ( π ) and (fg) (.(ii) (iii) (iv) 7) (fg) (. In 1978 it was 60 years.200.x x x x 2 (d) f(x) = x 4) For what value of x the function f(x) = (a) x < 0 (b) x < 0 is not real valued? (d) x < 2 (c) x < 2 5) The domain of the function f(x) = x .35 (d) [∞. ∞) (b) 3<x<5 3) (c) 0 (c) 1<x<1 (d) 4. (iv) The life expectancy of females in 2003 in a country is 70 years. f(1) = 3 and f(2) = 4 (i) Find an equation of f (ii) Find f(3) (iii) Find a such that f(a) = 100 9) 10) EXERCISE 6. Also find the domain of ( g ) Obtain the domains of the following functions (i) 1 1+ cosx x  x  +1 (ii) x 1− cosx (iii) 1 sin2 xcos2 x 8) (v) 1+ cosx (vi) tanx 1− cosx The salary of an employee in the year 1975 was Rs. 1] Which one of the following functions has the property f(x) = f( 1 ) x 2 (a) f(x) = x +1 x 2 2 (b) f(x) = x −1 (c) f(x) = 1. 1. Express salary as a linear function of time and calculate his salary in 1978.
.. therefore what is the period of the function g(x) = 3sinx? (a) 3π (b) 6π (c)2π (d) π 3 7) The period of the cotangent function is (d) π 2 The reciprocals of sine and cosine functions are periodic of period (a) 2π (b) π (c) 4π (a) π (b) 1 2π (c) 2π (d) 2 π 8) 9) If f(x) = 2x+4 then f 1 (x) is (a) 2x4 (b) . in the range 3 < x<4 has the value f(x) = ... x>0 is x (a) m=1 (b) m=0 (c) m=1 (d) m is undefined The greatest integer function f(x) = [x].6) The period of the function f(x) = sinx is 2 π.x 2 +2 (c) ... (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 2 The slope of the graph of f(x) = 186 .. g(x) is 2 (a) 4 x (b) 0 (c) 1 x (d) 1 In a function if the independent variable is acting as an index then the function is known as (a) exponential function (b) logarithmic function (c) trigonometric function (d) Inverse function The minimum value of the function f(x) =  x  is (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 1 (d) 1 2 14) 15) x  .1 2 x+4 (d) 42x 10) If f(x) = log5 x and g(x) = log x 5 then (fg) (x) is (a) log 25 x2 (b) log x 2 25 (c) 1 (d) 0 11) 12) 13) If f(x) = 2x and g(x) =( 1 )x then the product f(x) ..
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 7 Calculus is the branch of Mathematics that concerns itself with the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity. Limiting process can be explained by the following illustration: Let us inscribe a regular polygon of ‘n’ sides in a unit circle. In this chapter. Thus as the number of sides of the polygon increases.2 Limit of a function Let f : R→ R be a function. the area of the polygon approaches the area of the unit circle.units). 7.1.1 LIMIT OF A FUNCTION 7. The foundations of Calculus were laid by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm V Leibnitz. 7.1. Obviously the area of the polygon is less than the area of the unit circle (π sq. area of the polygon increases but still it is less than the area of the unit circle. Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus. 187 . Now if we increase the number of sides ‘n’ of the polygon. we learn what a derivative is. how to calculate it . We are interested in finding a real number l to which the value f(x) of the function f approaches when x approaches a given number ‘a’. on Calculus is divided into two parts: namely.1 Limiting Process: The concept of limit is very important for the formal development of calculus.
00002 0. we observe that as x→3+ (i.00002 … … … From this table.001 1.0001 7. x → 3+ f(x) = 2x + 1  f(x) – 7  3.002 0.1 0.2 3.0002 0.999 0. i.. x →3 from left of 3) f(x)→7.9 6.00002 .0002 2.e. difference f(x)4 can be made as small as we please by taking x sufficiently nearer to 2.9999 6. x→3 from right of 3) f(x)→7.001 7.002 3.1 x →3 Lt f ( x ) = 7 From the above table we observe that as x→2 from the left as well as from the right.999 6.0001 4...9 3.1 7.0002 3.8 0.e..0001 0.{2}→R be defined as x f(x) f(x)4 1.02 0. x→3 → f(x) = 2x +1  f(x) – 7  2.. x −2 2.0001 2 2. Here 7 is called the right hand limit of f(x) as x→3+ .01 7..Illustration 1 Let a function f : R→R be defined as f(x) = 2x + 1 as x→3.99998 0.02 3.99 0.9999 0..001 2. f(x)→ 4.01 4. .2 2. Here 7 is called the left hand limit of f(x) as x→3.99 3.00001 7.002 2.1 4.01 0.01 1.e.999 3. the difference f(x) – 7  can be made as small as we please by taking x sufficiently nearer to 3. This is denoted by Illustration 2 Let a function f : R . From the above table.e.998 0. Hence 4 is the limit of f(x) as x approaches 2. . 188 .0001 x 2 − 4 as x→2.001 4.2 0. f(x)→7.98 0.(i.9998 0.02 2. This means that we can bring f(x) as close to 7 as we please by taking x sufficiently closer to 3 i.9 0..001 0. we observe that as x→3.99 6. Thus we find as x→3 from either side. Further.99999 6.9999 3.1 1.01 2.
we get the functional value f(a). 7. Observation : (i) If we put x = a in f(x). n is a rational number. (ii) The limit f(x) as x tends to ‘a’ exists if and only if Lt+ f (x ) and x→ a x→ a Lt − f (x ) exist and are equal. Lt It is denoted by x→ a f (x ) = l. Even if f(a) is undefined. the limiting value l of f(x) when x→a may be defined as a finite number. f(a) ≠ l.Lt g(x) x→ a x→ a x→ a Lt [f(x) . g(x)] = Lt f(x) . then l is said to be the limit of f(x) as x approaches ‘a’. θ 189 .4 Standard results on Limits (i) (ii) x→ a Lt xn − an x −a = n a n1 . provided x→ a x→ a x→a Lt g (x) ≠0 = c x→ a (v) x→ a Lt [c f(x)] Lt f(x) 7. Lt g(x) x→ a x→ a x→ a Lt [f(x) / g(x)] = Lt f(x) / Lt g(x) .1.3 Fundamental Theorems on Limits (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) x→ a Lt [f(x)+g(x)] = Lt f(x) + Lt g(x) x→ a x→ a x→ a Lt [f(x) g(x)] = Lt f(x) .e Lt f ( x) = 4 x →2 From the above two illustrations we get that if there exists a real number l such that the difference f(x)l can be made as small as we please by taking x sufficiently close to ‘a’ (but not equal to a). θ →0 Lt sinθ = 1.i. In general. θ being in radian measure.1..
(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Example 1
a x −1 = log a x→0 x e Lt ex −1 x →0 x
Lt
=1
n →∞
Lt (1 + 1/n) n = e
x →0
Lt (1+x) 1/x = e Lt
log 1+ x) ( = 1 x
x →0
Evaluate Solution:
x 2 − 4x + 6 x →2 x +1 Lt
x 2 − 4x + 6 x →2 x +1 Lt
=
x →2
Lt (x 2 − 4 x + 6)
x →2
Lt ( x + 1)
= Example 2 Evaluate Solution:
x →π 4 x →π 4
(2)2 − 4(2) + 6
2 +1
= 2/3
x →π 4
Lt
3 sin 2 x + 2 cos 2 x 2 sin 2 x − 3 cos 2 x
3 sin (π 2 ) + 2 cos(π 2 ) 2 sin (π 2 ) − 3 cos(π 2 ) 3 2
Lt 3 sin 2 x + 2 cos 2 x Lt 2 sin 2 x − 3 cos 2 x
=
= Example 3 Evaluate
x→5
Lt
x 2 − 25 x−5
190
Solution:
x→5
Lt
x2 − 25 x− 5
= Lt
x →5
(x + 5) (x − 5) (x − 5)
( x + 5 ) = 10
= Lt Example 4 Evaluate Solution:
x →0 x →0
x →5
Lt
2 + 3x − 2 − 5x 4x
Lt
2 + 3x − 2 − 5x 4x
= = =
x →0
Lt Lt Lt Lt
(
2 + 3x − 4x
(
2 − 5x
)(
2 + 3x + 2 − 5x
2 + 3x +
)
2 − 5x
)
(2 + 3x ) − (2 − 5 x )
4x 2 + 3x + 2 − 5 x
x →0
(
)
x →0
4x
(
8x 2 + 3x + 2 − 5x
)
= =
x →0
2 2 + 3 x + 2 − 5x
2
2 2 +
=
1 2
Example 5 Evaluate Solution:
x→ a
Lt
x3 5 − a3 5 x1 3 − a 1 3
x→ a
Lt
x 3 / 5 − a 3 / 5 x 1/ 3 − a 1/ 3 x 3 5 − a3 5 = Lt ÷ x →a x−a x1 3 − a 1 3 x−a
= 3 a2/5 ÷ 1 a2/3 = 9 a2/5 + 2/3 = 9 a4/15
5 3 5 5
191
Example 6 Evaluate Solution : sin 5 x sin 3 x
sin 5 x 5x × 5x 3 x × sin 3 x 3x 5 = 3
x →0
Lt
sin 5 x sin 3 x
x →0
Lt
=
x →0
Lt
5 = 3
x →0
Lt
sin 5 x 5x sin 3 x 3x
Example 7 If Solution: LHS =
x4 −1 = x →1 x − 1 Lt
x→ a
Lt
x 3 − a3 , find the value of a. x2 − a2
x4 − 1 = 4 x →1 x − 1 Lt
x→ a
RHS =
Lt
Lt Lt
x3 − a3 x2 − a 2
x3 − a 3 x− a x2 − a 2 x− a
=
x→a
=
3a 2 2a
=
3a 2
x→ a
3a 2 ∴ a = 8 3
∴ 4 =
Example 8 Evaluate
x→∞
Lt
6 − 5x 2 4 x + 15 x 2
192
Solution:
6 − 5x 2 Lt x →∞ 4 x + 15 x 2
Let y = 1
x
6 −5 2 = Lt x x→∞ 4 + 15 x
so that y→0, as x →∞
= = Example 9
y →0
Lt
6y2 − 5 4 y + 15
5/15
=
 1/3.
Show that Solution:
n →∞
n →∞
Lt
12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ...+ n 2 n3
=
1 3
Lt
12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + . . . + n 2 = Lt n→∞ n3 = =
n →∞
n (n + 1 ) (2 n + 1 ) 6n 3
Lt Lt
1 n n + 1 2 n + 1 6 n n n
1 6 1 1 1 1 + 2 + n n
n →∞
Let y = 1/n so that y→0, as n →∞ = Lt
y→ 0
1 6
[(1) (1) (2)]
=
1 3
EXERCISE 7.1
1) (i) Evaluate the following limits
x →2
Lt
Lt
x3 + 2 x +1
x 2 − 5x + 6 x 2 − 7 x + 10
(ii)
x →π 4
Lt
2 sin x + 3 cos x 3 sin x − 4 cos x
2− x − x 2+ x
(iii)
x→ 2
(iv)
x→ 0
Lt
193
(v)
x →3
Lt
9 x − 2 x − 3x x −3
(vi)
θ →0
Lt
tan θ θ sin 5 x 3x
tan 8 x sin 2 x 5 x 2 + 3x − 6 2x 2 − 5x + 1
(vii)
x→ a
Lt
Lt
x5 8 − a5 8 x1 3 − a1 3
x −1 x +1
(viii) Lt (x)
x →0
(ix)
x→ ∞
x→0
Lt
(xi)
x→ ∞
Lt
(3 x − 1) (4 x − 2 ) ( x + 8 ) (x − 1 )
xn − 2n x−2
x→0
(xii) Lt
x→∞
2) 3)
If Lt
x→ 2
=
80 −1
find n. (where n is a positive integer) = n.
Prove that
Lt
(1 + x )n
x
4) 5)
If
f(x) =
x 7 − 128 , find x 5 − 32
x →0
x→ 2
Lt
f (x) and f (2), if they exist.
If f(x) =
px + q , x+1
Lt
f(x) = 2 and
x →∞
Lt
f(x) = 1, prove that f (2) = 0
7.2 CONTINUITY OF A FUNCTION
7.2.1 Continuity In general, a function f(x) is continuous at x = a if its graph has no break at x = a. If there is any break at the point x = a , then we say the function is not continuous at the point x = a. If a function is continuous at all points in an interval it is said to be continuous in the interval. Illustration 1
y
y=x2
x' y'
x
194
From the graph we see that the graph of y = x2 has no break. Therefore, it is said to be continuous for all values of x. Illustration 2 From the graph of y =
( x − 2) 2
1
we see that the graph has a
break at x = 2. Therefore it is said to be discontinuous at x = 2.
y
y=
1 (x2) 2
x' y'
x
Definition A function f(x) is continuous at x = a if (i) f(a) exists. (ii) (iii)
x→ a x→ a
Lt f(x) exists Lt f(x) = f(a).
Observation: If one or more of the above conditions is not satisfied at a point x = a by the function f(x), then the function is said to be discontinuous at x = a. 7.2.2 Properties of continuous function: If f(x) and g(x) are two functions which are continuous at x = a then (i) f(x) + g(x) is continuous at x = a. 195
(i) f(a) = f(0) = 1 is defined at x = 0.(ii) (iii) (iv) (v) f(x) – g(x) is continuous at x = a. 1 is continuous f ( x) (vi) If f(x) is continuous at x = a. (ii) Every rational function is continuous. g(x) is continuous at x = a. Example 11 2 Find the points of discontinuity of the function x 2 + 6x + 8 x . Identity function is continuous. provided g(a) ≠ 0. Hence the function is discontinuous at x = 0. Lt f(x) = 3 ≠ f(0) = 1 condition (iii) is not satisfied. (ii) (iii) x →0 x →0 Lt f(x) = Lt sin 3 x x →0 x = 3. Observation: (i) Every polynomial function is continuous. f (x) is continuous at x = a. x≠0 x=0 Is the function continuous at x = 0 ? Solution: Now we shall investigate the three conditions to be satisfied by f(x) for its continuity at x = 0.5x + 6 196 . (iii) (iv) Constant function is continuous. Example 10 sin 3 x . Let f(x) = x 1 . g (x) If f(x) is continuous at x = a and f(a) ≠ 0 then at x = a. f(x) . then f(x) is also continuous at x = a.
01 10.e.000 (. the account’s balance is 10. 0 1 2 3 Xt time (in months) Since the graph has break at t = 1.100.000 is deposited into a savings account for 3 months at an interest rate 12% compounded monthly.201. 10. t = 3. 10.x – 5x + 6 = 0 . the account’s balance is 10.100(. Example 12 Rs.201 (.01) = Rs.201 3 10.01. 2 ⇒ (x – 3) ( x – 2) = 0 ⇒ x = 3. t. Hence the points of discontinuity of the function are x = 3 and x = 2.100 10. x = 2.303.201 + 10. At the end of the third month.000 2 10. i. t = 2.01) = Rs.303.Solution: The points of discontinuity of the function is obtained when the denominator vanishes. Where is the graph discontinuous? Solution : At the end of the first month the account’s balance is 10. ie.. 10.100 + 10. it is discontinuous at t = 1. X (time) Y (Balance) 1 10.01) = Rs. At the end of the second month.000 + 10. Draw the graph of the account’s balance versus time (in months).100 Y 10. 197 .201 Account's Balance 10. 10.303. t =2 and t = 3.01 The graph of the account’s balance versus time.
Observation: These discontinuities occur at the end of each month when interest is computed and added to the account’s balance. x −1 Locate the points of discontinuity of the function ( x − 3) ( x − 4 ) x+ 2 7. EXERCISE 7. Let ∆x denote the increment in x.3 CONCEPT OF DIFFERENTIATION 7. The corresponding increment in y is denoted by ∆y.2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Prove that cos x is continuous Find the points of discontinuity of the function 2x 2 + 6x − 5 12 x 2 + x − 20 Show that a constant function is always continuous. Prove that f(x) = x +2 is discontinuous at x = 1. ∆x ∆y is called the differential coefficient (or derivative) of y with ∆x dy respect to x and is denoted by dx dy ∆y ∴ = Lt dx ∆x →0 ∆x Now ∆x →0 Lt 198 . Corresponding to any change in the value of x there will be a corresponding change in the value of y.3. Show that f(x) =  x  is continuous at the origin.1 Differential coefficient Let y denote the function f(x). Since y = f(x) y+∆y = f (x + ∆x ) ∆y = f (x + ∆x ) .f(x) ∆y ∆x = f ( x + ∆x ) − f ( x ) ∆x ∆y is called the incremental ratio.
Let P (a .3. f(a)) = Lt h→0 199 . QM and draw PR ⊥ MQ.LP = f (a+h) – f (a) QR PR = f (a + h) − f (a) h As Q→P along the curve.The process of obtaining the differential coefficient ( or derivative ) is called differentiation. f /(x) . the limiting position of PQ is the tangent PT to the curve at the point P . f (a + h) ) be the two points on the curve y = f (x) y Q P y = x2 R x' T S y' L M x Draw the ordinate PL. D( f (x) ) are used to 1 denote the differential coefficient of f(x) with respect to x. Also as Q→P along the curve. The notations y . h→0 Slope of the tangent PT = Q →P Lt (slope of PQ) f (a + h ) − f (a ) h ∴ The derivative of f at a is the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f (x) at the point (a. we have and PR = LM = h QR = MQ .2 Geometrical interpretation of a derivative. 7. f (a) ) and Q ( a + h .
Evaluate Find Lt ∆y ∆x Step (iii) Step (iv) Step (v) ∆x→0 ∆y ∆x 7.3 Differentiation from first principles.e.7.4 Derivatives of standard functions using first principle (i) Derivative of xn. The method of finding the differential coefficient of a function y = f(x) directly from the definition is known as differentiation from first principles or ab. y = f(x) In the given function replace x by x + ∆x and calculate the new value of the function y + ∆y.initio. Proof : Let y = xn Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding increment in y.3. Step (i) Step (ii) Equating the given function to y i. Obtain ∆y = f(x +∆x) – f(x) and simplify ∆y. where n is any rational number.xn ∆y ∆x = = (x + ∆x )n − x n ∆x ∴ dy dx ∆x →0 Lt ∆y ∆x ∆x = ∆x →0 n n Lt (x + ∆x) − x = ∆x →0 Lt ( x + ∆ x )n − x n ( x + ∆x) − x 200 . ∴ y + ∆y = (x + ∆x) n ∆y = (x + ∆x) n – y = (x + ∆x) n . This process consists of following five steps..3.
Let Then y + ∆y = sin(x + ∆x) ∆y = sin(x + ∆x) – y = sin( x +∆x) – sinx ∆y ∆x = sin( x + ∆x ) − sin x ∆x ∆x ∆x 2 cos x + sin 2 2 ∆x = ∆x ∆ x sin 2 = cos x + . x + ∆x→ x = n xn1 d xn dx xn − an = nan1 ) x−a ( ) = nx n − 1 (ii) Derivative of sinx Let y = sinx ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y b e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g increment in y. ∆Lt 0 x→ 201 .∴ dy dx = ( x + ∆ x )→ x Lt ( x + ∆x) n − x n ( x + ∆ x) − x ( Q Lt x →a as ∆x → 0. 2 ∆x 2 ∴ dy = dx ∆x →0 Lt ∆y ∆x sin ∆x 2 ∆x 2 = ∆x →0 Lt cos(x + ∆x/2).
ex = ex (e ∆x – 1 ) ∆y ∆x = e x (e ∆ x .y ∆y = ex+∆x .sin = cosx ∆x →0 2 Lt ∆x 2 ∆x 2 (Q θ →0 = (cosx).1) ∆x → 0 ∆x Lt = ex 1 (since = ex ∴ d (e x) = ex dx Lt h→ 0 (e h .1) ∆x ∆x →0 ∴ dy dx = Lt = ∆y ∆x e x (e ∆ x .1) =1) h 202 .1 = cosx d (sin x ) = cos x dx (iii) Derivative of ex Let y = ex Lt sinθ θ = 1) Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding increment in y. Then y + ∆y = ex+∆x ∆y = ex+∆x.1) ∆x ∆x → 0 Lt = ex (e ∆ x .
y = log (x + ∆x) . dy dx log (1 + h) = hLt 0 → hx loge (1 + h) = 1 hLt 0 → x x x x h = 1 hLt 0 log (1 + h) h → = 1 1 = 1 (Q hLt 0 log (1 + h) h = 1) → ∴ d (log x ) = 1 x dx 1 1 203 .(iv) Derivative of log x Let y = log x Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding increment in y.log x x + ∆x ∆y = loge x ∆x = log e 1 + x ∆y ∆x ∆x log e 1 + x = ∆x ∴ dy dx = Lt ∆ x →0 ∆y ∆x ∆x log e 1 + x ∆x = Lt put ∴ ∴ ∆x = h x ∆x → 0 ∆x = hx and as ∆x→0. Then y + ∆y = log (x + ∆x) ∆y = log (x + ∆x) . h→0.
∆y are the corresponding increments in u.Observation : d (log x) = 1 Lt log (1 + h) h dx x h→ 0 1 = 1 loge e x (v) Derivative of a constant Let y = k. Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y increment in y. ∆v. Then ∆u.3. Let ∆x be a small arbitrary increment in x. Then y + ∆y = (u + ∆u) + (v + ∆v) ∆y = (u + ∆u) +(v + ∆v) – y = u + ∆u + v + ∆v – u – v. Then y + ∆y = k ∆y = k – y =k–k ∆y = 0 ∴ ∴ ∴ ∆y ∆x dy dx be the corresponding =0 = ∆x → 0 ∆ x Lt ∆y =0 d (any constant) = 0 dx 7. ∆y = ∆u + ∆v 204 . where k is constant.5 General Rules for differentiation Rule 1 Addition Rule d (u + v ) = du dx dx + dv . dx where u and v are functions of x Proof: Let y = u + v. v and y respectively.
∆y are the corresponding increments in u. v.dv dx dx Rule 3 Product rule d (uv ) dx = u dv dx + v du dx . where u and v are functions of x Proof: Let y = uv where u and v are separate functions of x. Let ∆x be a small increment in x and let ∆u.∴ ∴ ∆y ∆x dy dx = ∆ u + ∆v ∆x ∆x = ∆x → 0 ∆ x Lt ∆y = Lt = ∆x → 0 ∆u ∆ v + ∆x ∆x ∆u + Lt ∆x ∆ x → 0 dx dx ∆x →0 Lt ∆v ∆x = du + dv dx dx ∴ dy dx = du + dv Observation : Obviously this rule can be extended to the algebraic sum of a finite number of functions of x Rule 2 Difference rule If u and v are differentiable functions of x and y and y = uv then dy dx = du . ∆v + v ∆u + ∆u ∆v 205 . Then y + ∆y = (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v) ∆y = (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v) . ∆v. and y respectively.y = (u + ∆u)(v + ∆v) – uv = u.
∆v.u(v + ∆v) v(v + ∆v) 206 .v and y respectively. Then y + ∆y = u + ∆ u v + ∆v v + ∆v ∆y = u + ∆ u y = u + ∆u .u v + ∆v v = v (u + ∆u).∴ ∴ ∆y ∆x dy dx = u ∆v +v ∆ u + ∆ u ∆v ∆x ∆x ∆x = = ∆x → 0 ∆ x ∆x → 0 Lt ∆y Lt u ∆x → 0 ∆v + Lt v ∆ u + Lt ∆ u ∆v ∆x → 0 ∆x → 0 ∆ x ∆x ∆x ∆v + v Lt ∆ u + Lt ∆ u Lt ∆v ∆x → 0 ∆ x ∆x → 0 ∆ x ∆x → 0 ∆x ( =u Lt = u dv + v du + du (0) dx dx dx dy dx Q ∆x→0. ∆v = 0) = u dv + v du dx dx Observation Extension of product rule If y = uvw then dy dx = uv d (w) + wu d (v) + wv d (u) dx dx dx Rule 4 Quotient rule d u = dx v v du dv − u dx dx . where u and v are functions of x v2 Proof: Let y = u v where u and v are separate functions of x. ∆y are the corresponding increments in u. Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆u.
u ∆v v(v + ∆v) v. dx dx v2 Rule 5 Derivative of a scalar Product of a function: d dx [c f ( x )] = c d [ f (x ) ] . ∆v = 0) dy dx = du dv − u.u dx dx v2 + 0 v. where c is constant. ∆x ∆x v 2 + v∆ v = ∴ dy dx = ∆x → 0 ∆ x Lt ∆y v. ∆u ∆v − u.= ∆y ∆x v ∆u . ∆x ∆x v 2 + v∆v = dv v du . dx Proof: Let y = c f(x) Let ∆x be a small increment in x and ∆y be the corresponding increment in y.c f(x) = c(f(x + ∆x) – f(x)) = c( f ( x + ∆x) − f ( x) ) ∆x 207 . (Since ∆x →0. = ∆x →0 Lt ∆u ∆v − u. Then y + ∆y ∆y ∆y ∆y ∆x = c f(x + ∆x) = cf(x + ∆x) – y = cf(x + ∆x) .
cosecx = secx .∴ dy dx = = ∆x → 0 ∆x → 0 Lt Lt ∆y ∆x c(f (x+∆x) .cotx .cosec2x = ex (sinx) (cosx) (tanx) (cosecx) (secx) d (cotx) dx d dx d dx (e x) (e ax + b ) = a e ax + b 208 .tanx = .f(x)) ∆x = c f  (x) ∴ d dx (cf(x)) = c f  (x) Standard results (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) d ( x n) dx d 1 dx x d (x) dx d ( dx x = nxn1 = − = 1 ) = 1 2 x 1 x2 d (kx) dx d dx d dx d dx d dx d dx = k = cosx = .sinx = sec2x = .
1 dx Example 14 Find the derivative of 3x2/3 – 2 log e x + ex Solution: Let y = 3x2/3 – 2 log x + ex e dy dx = 3 d d d (x2/3) – 2 (loge x) + (e x) dx dx dx = 3 ( 2 / 3) x –1 / 3 – 2 ( 1 / x ) + ex = 2 x 1/ 3 – 2 / x + ex Example 15 If y = cos x + tan x . Solution: Let y = 6x4 – 7x3 + 3x2 – x + 8 dy = d (6x4) – d (7x3) + d (3x2) – d (x) + d (8) dx dx dx dx dx dx = 6 d (x4) –7 d (x3) + 3 d (x2) – d (x) + d (8) dx dx dx dx dx = 6(4x3) – 7(3x2) + 3(2x) – (1) + 0 dy = 24x3 – 21x2 + 6x . dx Example 13 Differentiate 6x4 – 7 x3 + 3x2 – x + 8 with respect to x. find Solution: y = cos x + tan x dy dx dy dx at x = ð 6 = d d ( cos x ) + ( tan x ) dx dx 209 .(xiv) (xv) (xvi) d (log x) dx = 1 x 1 x+a d [ log ( x + a )] = dx d ( Constant ) = 0.
= .sin x + sec2 x dy dx (at x = π )= 6 . logx with respect to x Solution: Let y dy dx = cosx .x+1 with respect to x Solution: Let y 2 = x 2+ x +1 x x +1 210 .sin π + (sec π/6)2 6 3 6 =1 + 4 = 5 2 Example 16 Differentiate : cosx .sinx logx x Example 17 Differentiate x2 e x logx with respect to x Solution: Let y = x2 e x logx dy d d d = x2 e x ( logx ) + x2 logx (e x) + ex logx (x2) dx dx dx dx = (x2 e x ) (1/x) + x2 logx (ex ) + ex logx (2x) = x ex + x2 e x logx + 2x ex logx = x ex ( 1 + x logx + 2 logx ) Example 18 2 Differentiate x 2 + x + 1 x . logx = cosx d d (logx) + logx (cosx) dx dx x = cosx 1 + (logx) (sinx) = cos x .
1) (x 2 .x + 1)2 = EXERCISE 7. (i) (iii) (v) (vii) (ix) (xi) (xiii) (xv) (xvii) 3x4 – 2 x3 + x +8 1 + ex 3 x tanx + logx x+ 3x3 .3 1) 2) Find from the first principles the derivative of the following functions.x 2 ) (x 2 .dy dx = (x 2 − x +1 d ) dx (x 2 + x + 1 − x2 + x +1 ( x − x + 1) 2 2 ) ( d ) dx (x 2 − x+1 ) = (x 2 − x + 1) (2x + 1) . (i) cosx (ii) tanx (iii) cosecx (iv) √x Differentiate the following with respect to x.2) secx tanx (xz. secx (xviii) 1 .(x 2 + x + 1) (2x .cosx 1 + cosx (xix) 3 − 5x 3 + 5x 2 (xx) x − 2 3 4 log e x x+2 1 (xxi) x + x (xxii) x 2 log x (xxiv) ex (1 + x ) (xxiii) x tanx + cos x 211 .3 + 5 x4 x x 3 + 2x − x 2 x x3 e x axn + b xn (x2 + 1) (3x 2 .x + 1)(x2 + x +1) x2 tanx + 2x cotx + 2 ex 1 +e x (x) (x2 + 2) sin x (xii) x2 sinx + 2x sinx + e x (xiv) xn logx (xvi) √x .x + 1) 2 2 (1.4x2 + 2 x (ii) (iv) (vi) (viii) 5 2 .
u is a function of v and v is a function of x .7. then dy dy du = dx du dx If y is a function of u .Chain Rule. If y is a function of u and u is a function of x . then dy dy du dv = and dx du dv dx so on Example 19 Differentiate with respect to x (i) Solution: (i) y y = = (sinx) (sinx) u u 1/2 and du dx (ii) e x put sinx = u dy = 1 du 2 = cosx dy dy du ∴ dx = du dx = 1 u –1 / 2 cos x 2 = 2 (sinx) (ii) y =e x x cos x dy = d (e dx dx ) ( x ) =e = Example 20 Differentiate x d dx e x 2 x x x log e x + ex with respect to x e e 212 .3.6 Derivative of function of a function .
ex)2 .(ex + ex)2 (ex + ex ) (ex .ex) } dx dx dx x x x x = ex − ex .2 .d { log (ex .ex ) = = e2x2 + e2x e2x .ex) dy = d { log (ex + ex) } .e2x −4 e 2x − e − 2x Example 21 Differentiate log (logx) with respect to x Solution: Let y = log (logx) dy = d { log (logx)} dx dx = = ∴ dy dx 1 log x d (log x) dx 1 1 log x x 1 x log x = Example 22 Differentiate e4x sin 4x with respect to x Solution: Let y = e4x sin 4x 213 .e2x e2x .e x + ex e +e e e = (ex .Solution: Let y y x x = log e x + ex e e = log(ex + ex) – log(ex .
provided ≠ 0 dy dx dx Standard Results (i) (ii) d (sin 1 x) dx d (cos1 x) dx = = 1 1.3.2) / (x + 2) } e log ( sin 2 x ) sin x 2 cos 2 x log { (1 + x2 ) / (1 – x2 ) } sin ( log x ) (3 x2 +4 ) 3 e tan x {log ( log ( log x )} n e –x log ( e x + 1) 3 x3 + x + 1 log (log x ) x 7.dy dx = e4x d ( sin 4x) + sin 4x d (e 4x) dx dx = e4x ( 4 cos4x) + sin 4x (4 e4x) = 4 e4x ( cos 4x + sin 4x ) EXERCISE 7.2) log {e 2 x cot x (x .7 Derivative of Inverse Functions If y = f (x) is a differentiable function of x such that the inverse function x = f 1 (y) is defined then dx dy = dy 1 .x 2 1 1.4 Differentiate the following functions with respect to x 1) 3) 5) 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) 17) 19) 21) 23) 3x 2 − 2x + 2 sin ( e ) log sec x log ( x + log cos x2 e log { (e x / ( 1 + e x ) } sin x + cos x x 2) 4) 6) ( 8 – 5x )2/3 e sec x ex 2 (x 2 + 1) ) 8) 10) 12) 14) 16) 18) 20) 22) 24) cos ( 3x .x 2 214 .
(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) d (tan1 x) dx d (sec1 x) dx d (cosec1 x) dx d (cot1 x) dx = = = = 1 (1 + x 2 ) 1 x x2 1 1 x x2 1 1 (1 + x 2 ) Example 23 Differentiate : cos –1 ( 4 x3 .3x ) with respect to x Solution : Let Put then y x y y y dy dx ∴ = = = = = = = cos –1 ( 4 x3 – 3 x ) cos θ cos –1 ( 4 cos 3θ – 3 cos θ ) cos –1 ( cos 3θ ) 3θ 3 cos1 x −3 1− x2 Example 24 Differentiate tan –1 1 − x with respect to x 1 + x Let Put ∴ y x y 1− x = tan–1 1 + x = tan θ = tan–1 1 − tan θ 1 + tanθ = tan–1 tan π / 4 − tan ϑ 1 + tan π / 4 tan θ π = tan–1 tan − θ 4 215 .
8 Logarithmic Differentiation Let y = f (x ) be a function.3 2x + 1 x +2 3x − 5 6 2 15 2x +1 x+2 3x − 5 6 2 15 = y − − 2 x + 1 x + 2 3x − 5 = (2 x + 1 )3 (x + 2 )2 (3 x − 5 )5 2 15 6 2x + 1 − x + 2 − 3x − 5 Example 26 Differentiate (sin x)cos x with respect to x 216 . Example 25 Differentiate Solution: Let y = (2 x + 1)3 with respect to x ( x + 2 ) 2 (3 x − 5 )5 (2 x + 1)3 ( x + 2 ) 2 (3 x − 5 )5 log y (2x + 1)3 = log 2 5 ( x + 2 ) (3 x − 5 ) = 3 log (2x + 1 ) – 2 log ( x + 2 ) – 5 log ( 3x – 5 ) Differentiating with respect to x.y y ∴ = = π −θ 4 π − tan −1 x 4 dy 1 = dx 1+ x2 7.5 .2 (1) . y dx dy 1 .3. dy 1 . The process of taking logarithms on both sides and differentiating the function is called logarithmic differentiation. y dx dy dx = = 3 1 1 (2) .
Solution : Let y = (sin x)cos x Taking logarithms on both sides log y = cos x log sin x Differentiating with respect to x dy 1 . y dx = cos x = cos x = d (log sin x ) + log sin x . d (cos x ) dx dx 1 .4x3 ) 2) 3x − x3 tan 1 1 − 3x 2 Sin –1 3) 1 − x2 cos –1 1 + x2 t a n –1 4) 2x 1+ x 2 1 + x 2 − 1 x 5) 2x 1− x 2 6) t a n –1 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) cot 1 1 + x 2 − x xx 8) t a n –1 x a − x2 2 10) (sin x) log x −1 xsin ex 3 x 12) (3x – 4)x2 14) xlog x 16) (x2 + 2)5 (3x4 – 5 )4 x 4 + 5x 4 − 5x 217 .5 Differentiate the following with respect to x 1) sin –1 (3x . cos x + log sin x ( − sin x ) sin x cos 2 x − sin x log sin x sin x dy dx = y [cot x cos x − sin x log sin x ] = (sin x ) cos x [cot x cos x − sin x log sin x ] EXERCISE 7.
1 17) 19) xx 1 1 + x x 18) (tan x) cos x 20) 1+ x2 1− x2 x 21) x3 x2 + 5 (2 x + 3 )2 22) a 23) x x 24) (sin x) x 7. prove that f dy dx = y x Solution: xm y n = (x + y)m+n Taking logarithms. The functions of the form f ( x.3. m n dy m + n dy + = x + y 1 + dx x y dx ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ m + n m + n dy m n dy + = + .9 Derivative of Implicit Functions The functions of the type y = f (x) are called explicit functions. m log x + n log y = (m + n) log (x + y) Differentiating with respect to x. Example 27 I xmyn = (x + y)m+n . − = − y dx x + y dx x + y x dy n m + n − dx y x+ y = m + n m − x+ y x dy nx + ny − my − ny = dx y (x + y ) mx + nx − mx − my x(x + y ) nx − my dy nx − my = dx y x 218 . x y dx x+ y x + y dx n dy m + n dy m + n m .y) = c where c is constant are called implicit functions.
y = a ( 1 . We find given below Let x = f(t) .10 Differentiation of parametric functions Sometimes variables x and y are given as function of another variable called parameter.sinθ ) . y dy dx dy for the parametric functions as dx = g(t) then = dy dx ÷ dt dt Example 28 If x = a ( θ .cosθ ) find dy θ dx 219 .2 =1 a2 b x2 – 2xy + y 2 = 16 6) 8) ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 x4 + x2 y 2 + y 4 = 0 xy = y x y = cos ( x + y ) (cos x) y = ( sin y)x x + xy = e xy y = a 10) 12) 14) x2 + y 2 + x + y + λ = 0 x2 – xy + y 2 = 1 7. x y nx − my = y x EXERCISE 7.∴ dy dx nx − my = .3.6 Find 1) 3) dy of the following dx y 2 = 4ax xy = c 2 2) x2 + y 2 = 9 4) x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 5) 7) 9) 11) 13) 15) x2 y2 .
y = log (cost) x = at2 . y = e θ (sin θ . y = b tan θ 2) 4) x = ct . dx 1) 3) 5) 7) 8) 10) x = a cos θ .y =a sin 3 θ 6) x = log t. It is namely d dx written as d2y dx 2 d2y dx 2 2 (or) y .cosθ) = = = dy dθ . y = b sin θ x = a sec θ .11 Successive Differentiation Let y be a function of x. Therefore dy d dy namely dx dx dx dy is in general another dx dy can also be differentiated. y = 2at x = 2cos2 θ . y=t+ 1 t 9) 11) x = cos (log t) . y = 2 sin 2 θ 7.Solution: dx dθ dy dx = a ( 1 . 2y = t 2 x = a cos3 θ . Similarly the derivative of d y 2 dx 2 3 is called the third order derivative and it is written as d y and so on.c o s θ ) x = t . dy = a ( sinθ ) dθ ÷ dx dθ a sin θ a (1 − cos θ) 2sin è/2 cosè/2 = cot θ/2 2sin 2 è/2 EXERCISE 7. The derivative of dx is called the derivative of the second order. y = c t 3 x = t3 . and its derivative function of x.3. dx 3 220 .7 dy Find for the following functions. y = sin t x = e θ (sin θ + c o s θ ) .
Derivatives of second and higher orders are called higher derivatives and the process of finding them is called Successive differentiation. y = a ( 1 – cost) = a( 1 + cost) . find Solution: x dx dt dy dx at t = π 2 = a ( t + sint ) . Example 29 If y = e x log x Solution: y y1 = ex log x = ex = y 1 find y 2 d d (log x) + log x (e x) dx dx ex x x + log x (ex) 1 = ex + log x y 2 = ex d 1 1 d (e x) + log x + + logx x x dx dx y 2 1 1 1 = ex − 2 + + + log x e x x x x = ex − = ex 1 1 1 + + + log x x x x2 2x −1 + log x 2 x d 2 y dx 2 Example 30 If x = a (t + sin t) and y = a(1 – cos t). dy = dt dy = a sint dt = 2a sint/2 cost/2 ÷ dx dt = 2a sin t/2 cos t/2 2a cos 2 t/2 = tan t/2 221 . = 2a cos2 t/2 .
we get ( 1 + x2). m 2 2 ) m −1 2x 1 + 2 2 1+ x ( ) m− 1 1+ x2 + x 1+ x2 = m x + 1+ x2 1+ x2 my 1+ x2 ( ) m y 1 = ⇒ ( 1 + x2) (y1)2 = m2y 2 Differentiating with respect to x. 2 = x + 1+ x ( = m x + 1+ x = m x + 1+ x ( ).d2y d dy = 2 dx dx dx = = 1 dt sec 2 t/2 2 dx 1 1 sec 2 t 2 . 2 (y1) (y2) + (y1)2 ( 2x) = 2m2y y 1 222 . prove that ( 1 + x2) y 2 + x y1 – m2y = 0. 2 2 a cos 2 t 2 1 sec4 t/2 4a = d2y dx 2 at t = π /2 = = 1 (sec π /4)4 4a 1 4 = 4a 1 a Example 31 If y = x + 1+ x 2 Solution: y y 1 ( ) m .
y dy dt = t= 1+ 1 t 1 t2 1 t2 = dy dx t2 −1 t2 dy dt = dx dt t2 +1 t2 = = ÷ t2 +1 t2 . . find the value of t d 2y dx 2 = t + = 1  . we get ( 1 + x2 ) y + x y = m2y ⇒ Example 32 2 2 1 1 ( 1 + x2 ) y + x y . 2 = t2 t −1 = d dy dx dx d dx t 2 +1 2 t −1 t2 +1 t2 −1 d2y dx 2 = t 2 − 1 2 t − t 2 + 1 (2 t ) dt = 2 2 dx t −1 − 4t t 2 = 2 2 2 t −1 t −1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( = (t − 4t 3 2 −1 ) 3 223 .m2y = 0 Given x = t + at the point t = 2 Solution: x dx dt 1 t 1 t and y = t  1 .Dividing both sides by 2 y 1.
2 For the parametric equations x = a cos3 θ . when y = ( 4x1)2 dx 2 d2 y dx 2 d2 y dx 2 2 2 2) If y = e ax. find 3) 4) 5) 6) If y = log (x + 1).8 1) Find d y .d2y dx 2 at t = 2 = − 4 (2 ) (4 − 1) 3 3 = . Find y . y = 2at find y . if y = a cos ( logx) + b sin ( logx) When y = log x find d2y dx 2 EXERCISE 7. dx 2 1 Prove that ( 1 – x2 ) y – x y – y = 0. if y = 2 2 1 e sin −1 x Show that x2 y + x y + y = 0. find If x = at2 .9 Choose the correct answer 2 1) Lt 2 x + x + 1 is equal to x→ 2 x+2 1 (a) (b) 2 2 (c) 11 4 (d) 0 224 . y = b sin θ. when x = a cosθ. y = a sin 3 θ. find I f y = A eax .B e ax prove that If y = x2 logx Show that d2y = a2y dx 2 d2y dx 2 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) d2y = 3 + 2 log x.32 27 EXERCISE 7.
then f(x) is defined for all real values of x except x−6 when x is equal to (a) 36 (b) 6 (c) 0 (d) None of these The point of discontinuity for the function (a) 0 (b) 8 (c) 2 2x 2 − 8 is x−2 (d) 4 x→a 9) 10) A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = a if (a) f (a) (b) f (a) (c) 2 f (a) Lt f(x) = (d) f(1/a) 11) The derivative of 2 (a) x x with respect to x is (b) 1/2 x (c) 1/ x (d) 1/4 x 225 .x ..n (d) m n m (a) 0 3) x→ 1 (c) 5 (d) 2 Lt (a) mn 4) x→∞ Lt (a) 1 5) x → ∞ [(1/x) + 2] is equal to Lt Lt (a) ∞ 6) x→∞ (b) 0 1 + 2 + 3 + .2) x→ 2 Lt 2x2 .9) (b) 0 (c) 9 (d) 4 (c) m ..1 is equal to x2 + x 1 (b) 1 x 1 is x n 1 (b) m + n (x2) (x + 4) is equal to x(x . + n is 2n2 + 6 (b) 6 sin x = x (b) π 2 (c) 1 (d) 2 (a) 2 (c) 1 4 (d) 1 2 7) x→π / 2 Lt (a) π 8) If f(x) = (c) 2 π (d) None of these x 2 − 36 .
3 log x then (a) 5e x – 3x (c) e x . then (a) 2x log 2 (c) log 2 x (d) x log 2 14) If f(x) = x2 + x + 1 . then f / (π/2) is (a) 5 (b) 1 dy is dx (b) 5e x – 3/x (c) 1 (d) 0 17) If y = 5e x . then f / (0) is (a) 0 (b) 3 is (b) (1/x3) (c) (1/x4) (d) (2/x2) (c) 2 (d) 1 15) d 1 dx x 3 (a) − 3 x4 16) f(x) = cos x + 5 . d ( log sec x) = dx (a) sec x (b) 1/secx (c) tan x (d) sec x tan x 226 .12) d 1 is dx x (a) log x (b) 1/x2 dy is equal to dx (b) 2 x (c) (1/x2) (d) (1/x) 13) If y = 2x . then (b) cos x 2 sin x sin x 2 cos x 20) d (e 4x ) = dx (a) e 4x d ( sin 2 x) = dx (a) 2 sin x (b) 4e 4x (c) e x (d) 4e 4x1 21) (b) sin 2x (c) 2 cos x (d) cos 2x 22.3/x (d) 5e x – 1/x 18) d e log x dx (a) log x If y = (a) ( ) is (b) e log x (c) 1/x dy = dx (c) cos x sin x (d) cos x sin x (d) 1 19) sin x .
y = log cos θ t h e n (b) tan2 θ dy dz (c) tan θ is (c) 1 is (d) .tan2 θ 30) If y = x and z = 1/ x then (a) x 2 (b) .1/x2 31) If x = t2 . and y = 2t then (a) 2t (b) 1/t d2y dx 2 (b) 4y is dy is dx (c) 1 + 2t (d) 1/2t 32) If y = e 2x then (a) 2y (c) y (d) 0 227 .cot2 θ (a) . then (a) 2 x1 dy is equal to dx (b) 2x log 2 (c) 2x log(1/2) (d) 2x log 4 24) d ( t a n1 2x) is dx (a) 1 1+ x 2 (b) ax 2 2 1 + 4x2 is (c) 2x2 1 + 4x2 (d) 1 1 + 4x2 25) If y = (a) 2axy e .23) If y = 2x .x 2 (d) . then dy dx (b) 2ax (c) 2ax2 (d) 2ay 26) d dx (1 + x2 ) 2 is (b) 4x ( 1 + x2 ) (c) x ( 1+x2 ) 3 (d) 4x2 (a) 2x (1 + x2 ) 27) If f (x) = (a) 1/e d ( x logx) is dx (a) log x log x then f /( e) is x (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) 1 e2 28) (b) 1 (c) 1+ logx dy dx (d) log x x 29) If x = log sin θ .
my 34) If y = 3x3 + x2 + 1 then (a) 18 x d y is dx 2 (b) 18 x + 1 (c) 18x + 2 (d) 3x2 + 1 35) If y = log sec x then (a) sec 2x d2 y dx 2 is (c) secx tanx (d) cos x (b) tanx 36) 37) d2y at x = 0 is dx 2 (a) 3 (b) 9 (c) 0 If y = x log x then y is 2 (a) 1 (b) log x (c) 1/x If y = e 3x then If y = log ( sin x ) then (a) tanx (b) cot x (d) 1 (d) x 38) d2y is dx 2 (c) sec2 x (d) cosec 2x 39) If y = x4 then y 3 is (a) 4x3 (b) 12x2 (c) 0 (d) 24x If y = log x then y 2 is (a) 1/x (b) .1/x2 then dy is dx (b) 1/2x (c) e x (d) 1 40) 41) If y 2 = x (a) 1 (c) 1 / 2y (d) 2y 42) 43) 44) d (x a ) is ( a ≠ 0) dx (a) a x a1 (b) ax d (a a ) where a ≠ 0 is dx (a) 0 (b) a a a1 d ( log √x) is dx (a) 1/ √x (b) 1 / 2x (c) 0 (d) x a1 (c) 1 (d) a log a (c) 1/x (d) 1/ 2√x 228 .33) If y = sin mx then (a) .m2 y d2 y is dx 2 (c) my 2 (b) m2 y (d) .
we will perform an operation that is the reverse process of differentiation.1 CONCEPT OF INTEGRATION In chapter 7 we have dealt with the process of derivatives of functions f(x). f(x) is called ‘integrand’. ∫ f ( x ) dx is called indefinite integral. Generally f /(x) will be another function of x. provided n ≠ 1 INTEGRATION TECHNIQUES 229 .INTEGRAL CALCULUS 8 In this second part of the calculus section we shall study about another process of calculus called Integration. It is called ‘anti differentiation’ or Integration. If as F(x) = d [F ( x )] = f(x) dx F(x) is called ‘the integral of f(x) and that is represented symbolically ∫ f (x ) d x The symbol “∫ ” is the sign of integration and the above statement is read as ‘integral of f(x) with respect to x’ or ‘integral f(x) dx’. where C is an arbitrary constant. 8. 8.2 Standard results (i) ∫ xn d x = x n+ 1 n +1 + C . Integration has several applications in Science and Technology as well as in other fields like Economics and Commerce. Generally ∫ f ( x ) dx = F(x) + C. In this chapter.
f(x) dx ∫ k.cotx + C .(ii) (iii) ∫ 1 dx xn 1 dx dx = = x − n +1 + C .cosecx + C ∫ f 1(x) dx + ∫ f 2(x) dx sin1 x + C (xiv) ∫ cotx cosec x dx = (xv) (xvi) ∫ [ f1(x) + f2(x)] dx = ∫ dx 1− x2 dx 2 = (xvii) (xviii) ∫1+ x ∫x ∫ dx = = tan1x + C sec –1 x + C x 2 −1 (xix) (xx) f / (x ) d x f (x ) = = log f(x) + C ∫[f(x)]n f '(x)dx [ f ( x )] n +1 n +1 230 +C .cosx + C sinx + C tanx + C secx + C . dx ∫ ex d x = = = = = = = = = = log (x+a) + C k ∫ f(x)dx + C kx + C ex + C ax +C loge a (viii) ∫ a x d x (ix) (x) (xi) (xii) (xiii) ∫ sinx dx ∫ cosx dx ∫ sec2x dx ∫ secx tanx dx ∫ cosec2x dx . provided n ≠ 1 − n +1 log x + C ∫x (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) ∫ x+a ∫ k.
Example 1 Evaluate Solution: 1 ∫ x − x dx 2 ∫ x − x = 1 2 dx 1 dx x2 = ∫ (x2 .2 + x2) dx ∫x 2 − 2+ = Example 2 Evaluate Solution: x3 1 − 2x − + C 3 x ∫ e x − 2x 2 + xe x dx x2ex ex 1 2 ∫ e x − 2 x 2 + xe x dx x 2e x = = ∫ x 2ex − x 2e x + x2e x dx ∫x dx − ∫ 2 1 dx + ∫ dx x ex 2 x2 xe x = ∫x −2 dx 2 ∫ex dx + ∫ 1 dx x 2+ 1 = x2 +1 +2e x + log x + c  = Example 3 Evaluate Solution :  1 +2e x + log x + c x ∫ x +1 x+2 dx ∫ x +1 dx x+2 = ∫ x+2 dx − x+2 ∫ dx x+2 (adding and substracting 1 in the numerator) 231 .
cosx) + C EXERCISE 8.∫ (x+2) 3 2 dx 2 (x + 2 ) − 2(x + 2 ) + C 3 1 (x + 2 ) 2( x + 2 ) 2 − 1 + C 3 1 2 (x + 2 )2 3 (x − 1 ) + C ∫ 1 + sin2x dx ∫ 1+ sin2x dx = = = = ∫ sin 2 x + cos 2 x + 2 sin x cos x 2 dx ∫ (sin x + cos x) dx ∫ (sin x + cos x) dx (sinx . tanx + 2cosec x) 2 dx 7) ∫ x7 2 + x5 2 + 1 x dx 8) ∫ x 3 + 3x 2 + 4 x dx 232 .1 Evaluate the following : 1) ∫ (4x 3 −1) dx dx 2) ∫ 5x ∫ 4 + x − 1 x 2 7 x dx dx 3) 5 3 x ∫ 2x + 8x + x + e 1 ∫x + x 3 4) x + 5) dx 6) ∫(5secx.= = = = = Example 4 Evaluate Solution: ∫ x + 2 dx − 1 ∫ dx x+2 −1 2 1 2 ∫(x+2) 2 dx .
1 Integration by substitution Example 5 Evaluate Solution: ∫ = dx x +x x +x Put 1 + x 1 2 x dx dx x +x ( ) x 1+ x ( ) = t = dt = ∴ ∫ ∫ dx x 1+ ( x ) 233 .9) ∫ 3e x + x x2 −1 2 dx dx 10) ∫ ∫ x3 + 1 x4 x 1+ 1− x x x+3 x +1 dx 11) 13) 15) ∫ (3 − 2 x )(2 x + 3 ) 12) x dx 14) 16) ( x ) 2 dx ∫ ∫ 1 + 3 cos x − 7 sin 3 x x+2 x +3 dx ∫ ∫ dx dx 17) 19) ∫ ∫ x2 − 1 x2 + 1 dx 18) x2 ∫1+ x2 dx 1 − sin 2 x −4 dx 20) ∫ dx 1 + cos x 21) 23) 25) ∫ (x ∫ (x − e − x ) dx 22) ∫ (x −1 − x −2 + e x ) ex − x ∫ xe x dx 2 dx 24) 26) ∫ (3 x + 2 ) ∫ 1 − sin 1 dx dx −2 + e − 2 x + 7 ) dx x 8.2.
= ∫t 2 dt = 2 log t + C = 2 log 1 + x Example 6 Evaluate Solution : Put −1 x ( ) +C ∫x 1 2 e −1 x dx = t dx = dt dx = 1 x2 ∴ ∫x 1 2 e −1 x ∫e t dt = et + C = e Example 7 Evaluate Solution : −1 x + C ∫ sec x dx = dx ∫ sec x ∫ sec x (sec x + tan x ) dx (sec x + tan x ) dx = sec 2 x + sec x tan x ∫ (sec x + tan x ) Put sec x + tan x = t (sec x tan x + sec2x) dx = dt ∴ ∫ sec x dx Hence sec x dt t = log t + C = ∫ ∫ dx = log (sec x + tan x) + C 234 .
2 Evaluate the following 1) 3) 5) ∫ (2 x − 3) ∫ (x − 1) x2 −5 dx 2) 4) 6) ∫ (3 − 2 x ) dx 2 ∫ 5 4x + 3 3 2 dx dx ∫ e 4x +3 dx dx ∫ (3x 2 + 1)(x3 + x − 4) ∫ sin x x dx 7) ∫ x sin (x 2 ) ∫ (log x ) 2 x dx dx 8) 9) 10) ∫ (2 x + 1) x2 + x dx 11) ∫ ∫ x x2 +1 dx 12) ∫ (x +1)(x ∫ x2 4 + x6 dx 2 + 2x dx ) 3 dx 13) 2x + 3 2 x + 3x + 5 dx 14) 15) e x − e− x ∫ e x + e −x dx dx 16) ∫ x log 1 x 3 17) ∫ sec (log x ) x 2 18) ∫ ( 2x + 1) 2 dx dx 19) 21) 23) ∫ x log x dx log (log x) 20) ∫ (1− sec x x) 2 tan 4 ∫ cot x dx dx 22) ∫ cosec x d x 24) ∫ x (1 + log x ) ∫ x 1tan x x + 1 4 2 dx 25) 27) ∫ ∫ 3 + log x x sec 2 dx x dx 26) 28) ∫ x(x ∫ dx 4 +1 ) dx x tan x 2x + 4 235 .EXERCISE 8.
29) 31) ∫ (x 2 − 1 . Example 8 Evaluate Solution: ∫ = dx 4 .2 Six Important Integrals (i) ∫x ∫x ∫a ∫ ∫ ∫ 2 dx + a2 dx − a2 dx − x2 dx = 1 x tan −1 a a 1 x− a log 2a x+ a 1 a+x log 2a a−x + + + + C (ii) 2 = C (iii) 2 = C (iv) (v) (vi) a2 − x 2 dx x 2 + a2 dx x −a 2 2 x = sin −1 a = log x + = ( log (x + x2 + a2 x2 − a2 ) ) + C + C In the subsequent exercises let us study the application of the above formulae in evaluation of integrals.2.x2 ∫ dx 4.2 x dx ) 4 30) 32) ∫ ( 2 x + 1) x2 + x + 4 dx sec 2 x ∫ a + b tan x dx ∫ tan x C dx 8.x2 2 Example 9 Evaluate ∫5+x dx 2 236 .x 2 ∫ dx = sin 1 ( x ) + c (2)2 .
2. Otherwise the denominator of the integrand can be written as the sum or difference of squares and then it can be integrated. then it can be split into partial fractions.3 Integrals of the type ∫ ax 2 dx + bx + c If the denominator of the integrand is factorisable. 237 .Solution: ∫5+x dx 2 = ∫ ( 5) 1 dx 2 + x2 + C = Example 10 Evaluate Solution: x tan −1 5 5 ∫x = 2 dx −7 dx 2 ∫x 2 dx −7 ∫x 1 − ( 7) 2 = x− 7 log x+ 7 2 7 + C Example 11 Evaluate Solution: ∫ dx 4x 2 − 9 ∫ dx 4x − 9 2 = ∫ 1 2 4 x2 − 94 ( dx ) 2 = ∫ dx x − (3 2 ) 2 = 1 log x + 2 2 x 2 − (3 2 ) + C 8.
6x) = 7 – (x2 – 6x + 9 – 9) = 7 + 9 – (x – 3 )2 = 16 – (x3)2 ∴ ∫ 7 + 6x − x dx 2 ∫ 7 + 6x − x dx 2 = ∫ (4 ) − (x − 3) 2 dx 2 = 1 4 + ( x − 3) log 4 − (x − 3) 2 ×4 1 x +1 log 8 7−x + C + C = Example 13 Evaluate Solution: ∫x 2 dx + 3x + 2 x2 + 3x + 2 = (x + 1) ( x + 2 ) Let 1 A = + x 2 + 3x + 2 x+1 B x+2 ⇒ 1 = A ( x +2) + B ( x + 1) When x = 1 .Example 1 2 Evaluate Solution: 7 + 6x – x2 = 7 .log ( x+2) + C = log x+1 + C x+2 8.2.4 Integrals of the type not factorisable ∫ ax 2 px + q + bx + c dx where ax2 + bx + c is 238 . B = 1 ∴ ∫x 2 dx + 3x + 2 = ∫ x+1 dx  ∫ x+2 dx = log ( x+1) .(x2 . A = 1 When x = 2 .
A + B = 7 ⇒ A = 1/2 . B = 13 / 2 ∴ ∫ 2x 2x + 7 dx = 2 + x +3 = 1 2 ∫ 1 2 ( 4 x + 1 ) + 13 2 2x2 + x + 3 4x+1 13 dx + 2 + x +3 2 and dx ∫ 2x ∫ 2x 13 2 2 dx + x +3 1 Let I1 = 2 I1 I2 = = ∫ 2x 4x+1 dx 2 + x +3 I2 = ∫ 2x 2 1 log 2 x 2 + x + 3 2 13 dx 2 ∫ 2x2 + x + 3 ( ) dx + x +3 + C1 = = = 13 4 13 4 ∫ (x + 1 4 ) ∫ (x 2 dx + (3 2 − 1 16 23 4 ) 2 ) dx + 1 4 )2 + ( x + 1 4 13 4 × tan−1 23 4 + C2 4 23 ∴∫ 2x + 7 1 dx = log 2 x 2 + x + 3 2 2x + x + 3 2 239 ( ) + x +1 4 13 tan −1 23 4 + C 23 .To integrate a function of the form px + q = A d ax 2 + bx + c dx ( ) px + q . in usual manner. we write ax + bx + c 2 + B After finding the values of A and B we integrate the function. Example 14 Evaluate Solution: Let 2x + 7 = A d ( 2x2 + x + 3 ) + B dx ∫ 2x 2x + 7 dx 2 +x+3 2x + 7 = A ( 4x + 1 ) + B Comparing the coefficient of like powers of x . we get 4A = 2 .
( x2 – 4x –5 ) .8.( x2 – 4x + 4 – 4 – 5 ) .5 Integrals of the type ∫ dx ax + bx + c 2 This type of integrals can be evaluated by expressing ax2 +bx +c as the sum or difference of squares.[(x – 2 )2 – 9] 9 – (x – 2)2 2 Solution: 5 + 4x – x2 = = = = ∫ dx 5 + 4x − x = ∫ ∫ dx 9 − ( x − 2 )2 dx 3 − ( x − 2 )2 2 = = sin −1 Example 16 Evaluate Solution : x− 2 3 + C ∫ dx 4x 2 + 16x − 20 4x2 + 16 – 20 = 4 (x2 + 4x – 5 ) = 4 [ x2 + 4x + 4 – 4 –5] = 4 [ (x + 2)2 – 9] ∫ dx 4 x + 16 x − 20 2 = = 1 2 ∫ dx 4[( x + 2 ) 2 − 9 ] ∫ (x + 2 ) log dx 2 − 32 = 1 2 {(x + 2 ) + x2 + 4x − 5 } + C 240 .2. Example 15 Evaluate ∫ dx 5 + 4x − x 2 .
Example 17 Evaluate Solution: d x2 + 2x − 1 + B dx 2x + 1 = A ( 2x +2) + B Comparing Coefficients of like terms.(2 x + 2 ) − 1 x 2 + 2x − 1 dx =∫ Let I1 = Put (2x + 2) x + 2x − 1 2 dx  ∫ dx x + 2x − 1 2 x2 + 2x − 1 x2 + 2x – 1 = t2 ∫ (2 x + 2 ) dx (2x + 2 ) dx = 2t dt ∴ I1 = ∫ 2t t2 d t = 2 dt = 2t = 2 x 2 + 2x −1 + C1 ∫ Let I2 =  ∫ dx x 2 + 2x − 1 241 . 2A + B = 1 ⇒ A= 1 .2.8. B = 1 Let 2x+1 = A ∴ ∫ 2x + 1 x + 2x − 1 2 dx ( ) ∫ 2x + 1 x + 2 x −1 2 dx = ∫ 1 .6 Integrals of the type ∫ px + q ax 2 + bx + c dx To integrate such a function choose A and B such that px + q = A d dx (ax2 + bx + c) + B After finding the values of A and B we integrate the function in usual manner. we get 2A = 2 .
= ∴ ∫ 2x + 1 dx (x + 1 ) 2 − ( 2) 2 = . then ∫u dv = uv  ∫v du Observation: (i) When the integrand is a product. 242 .3 ( x 2 + 2x −1 + C ) Evaluate the following integrals 1) ∫3+ x ∫x ∫ ∫ 2 1 2 dx 2) ∫ 2x dx 2 +1 2 3) dx −4 dx 2 4) ∫5−x ∫ ∫x ∫ ∫x ∫x ∫ dx 5) 9 x −1 dx 9 − 4x 2 2 6) dx 25 + 36 x 2 2 7) 8) dx + 2x + 3 dx 9) ∫ 9x ∫ dx + 6x + 5 dx 2 10) x + 4x + 2 2 2 11) 3− x + x 2 12) x+1 + 4x − 5 x+2 − 4x + 3 2x + 4 dx dx dx 13) 15) ∫x ∫ 7x − 6 − 3x + 2 4x + 1 2 dx dx 14) 16) 2 2x + x − 3 x 2 + 2x − 1 8. we try to simplify and use addition and subtraction rule.2.log ( x + 1 ) + EXERCISE 8.log (x + 1) + ( x 2 + 2x − 1 ) +C2 ∫ x 2 + 2x − 1 dx = 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 . When this is not possible we use integration by parts.7 Integration by parts If u and v are functions of x such that u is differentiable and v is integrable.
e = x ex − x x ∫e x dx = xe .e x dx dv = ex dx v = ex = x . = dx .e + C = ex ( x – 1 ) + C Example 19 Evaluate Solution: Let u = log x du = 1 x ∫ (1 + x ) log x 2 dx . . I → Inverse trigonometic function Logarithmic function Algebraic function Trigonometric function Exponential function L → A → T → E → Example 18 Evaluate Solution : Let u du x ∫ x. − ∫− 1+ x x 1+ x = − = − 1 (log x ) 1+ x + 1 ∫ x (1 + x ) ∫x 1 − 1 1+ x 1 (log x ) + 1+ x dx (Resolving into Partial Fractions) 243 .(ii) While doing integration by parts we use 'ILATE' for the relative preference of u .( log x ) . Here. dv = (1+ x)2 (1 + x ) dx dx 1 dx v = − ∫ (1+ x) log x 2 dx 1 1 1 = . dx ∫ x.
n ∫ x log x x n +1 log x − n+1 ∫ x n +1 1 n+1 x dx x n +1 1 log x − n +1 n+1 x n +1 1 log x − n +1 n+1 x n +1 1 log x − n + 1 n+1 244 ∫ x n dx x n+1 n+1 + C + C = = . 2 2 − x cos 2 x sin 2 x + + C 2 4 Example 21 Evaluate ∫x n logx dx .= − = − Example 20 Evaluate Solution: Let u = x du = dx (1 + x ) (1 + x ) 1 1 (log x ) (log x ) + + log x − log (1 + x ) x 1+ x + C log + C ∫ x. sin2x dx = − cos 2 x = v 2 + + ∫ x. n ≠ 1 Solution: Let u = log x . du = 1 x dv = xn d x v = = = x n+1 n +1 dx dx . dx dv .sin 2 x dx = = = − x cos 2 x 2 − x cos 2 x 2 ∫ cos 2 x 2 dx 1 sin 2 x .sin2x .
8 (i) (ii) (iii) Standard Integrals dx dx = = = x 2 x 2 x2 − a 2 − x 2 + a2 + a2 log x + 2 a2 log x + 2 ( x 2 − a2 ) + C + C ( x2 +a2 ) ∫ a2 − x 2 dx x 2 a2 − x 2 + a2 sin 2 −1 x a + C Example 22 Evaluate Solution : ∫ 49 − x 2 dx ∫ 49 − x 2 dx = = ∫ (7 ) x 2 2 − x2 dx 49 sin 2 −1 49 − x 2 + x 7 + C Example 23 Evaluate Solution : ∫ 16x 2 + 9 dx ∫ 16 x 2 + 9 dx = ∫ 9 16 x 2 + 16 dx 245 .EXERCISE 8.4 Evaluate the following 1) 3) 5) 7) 9) 11) ∫xe −x dx dx 2 2) 4) dx dx 6) 8) 10) ∫ x log x dx ∫ log x ∫ x ax ∫ log x x2 dx dx ∫ (log x ) −1 ∫ x cos2 x ∫ x sin 3x ∫ tan −1 dx ∫ cos x dx ∫ x sec x tan x ∫ ∫ x 2 − a2 x2 + a2 x dx dx 12) ∫x 2 ex dx 8.2.
3 DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral of the continuous function f(x) between the limits x = a and x = b is defined as ∫ f ( x) a b dx = [ F (x ) ] b a = F (b) . 246 .= 4 x 2 3 x2 + 4 2 ∫ 3 x2 + 4 2 2 dx = 4 x 2 + (3 4 ) 2 log x + 3 x2 + 4 2 + C = Example 24 Evaluate Solution : 16 x 2 + 9 + 9 log 4 x + 16 x 2 + 9 8 ( ) + C ∫ dx x 2 − 16 dx ∫ x 2 − 16 = = = ∫ x 2 x 2 x 2 − (4 ) x 2 − 16 − x2 2 dx x 2 − 16 x2 ( − 16 − 8 log (x + 16 log x + 2 )+ − 16 ) + C C EXERCISE 8.F (a) where ‘a‘ is the lower limit and ‘b’ is the upper limit and F(x) is the integral of f(x) .5 Evaluate the following: 1) (3) 5) ∫ ∫ ∫ x 2 − 36 25 + x 2 4x2 − 5 dx dx dx 2) 4) 6) ∫ ∫ ∫ 16 − x 2 dx x 2 − 25 9 x 2 −16 dx dx 8.
t = 10 log 10 . Then obtain the difference between the values by substituting the upper limit first and then the lower limit for x. t= 5 x= 3 .To evaluate the definite integral. Example 25 Evaluate Solution: ∫ (4x 2 1 3 + 2x + 1 ) dx ∫ (4 x 2 1 3 + 2 x + 1) dx = x4 x2 4 +2 + x 4 2 1 2 = ( 24 + 22 +2) – ( 1 + 1 + 1) = ( 16 + 4 + 2 ) – 3 = 19 Example 26 Evaluate Solution: 2x ∫1+ x2 2 3 ∫ 1+ x 2 3 2x 2 dx 10 dx = ∫ 5 dt t Put When 1 + x2 = t 2x dx = dt x=2 .log 5 = [log t ]10 5 = = Example 27 Evaluate = loge e 10 5 log 2 ∫ xlogx 1 e dx 247 . integrate the given function as usual .
dx 2 x ∫ xlog x dx = = x2 logx − 2 ∫ x2 1 logx − x 2 2∫ 2 2 2 dx 2 2 = x log x − 1 x ∫ x log x 1 e dx = x2 x2 log x − 2 4 1 e − e e = log 2 2 2 e 1 − 0 − 4 4 4 = e x1 − e + 1 4 = Example 28 1 4 ð 2 Evaluate ∫ sin 0 2 x dx ∫ sin 2 x dx = ∫ 2 1 − cos 2 x 2 − sin2 x 4 dx = x 248 .Solution: In ∫ x logx dx let u = log x du = dv = x dx v = 1 dx x x2 2 x2 1 .
6 Evaluate the following 1) ∫ (x 2 1 2 + x + 1) dx 2) ∫2+x 0 2 5 dx 249 .π 2 ∫ x sin 2 x 2 sin x dx = − 2 4 0 0 2 π = Example 29 ∞ π 4 Evaluate Solution: In ∫ xe 0 −x 2 dx −x ∫ xe 2 2 dx put x = t 2x dx x = = dt . t = 0 . t = when x = 0 ∞ 2 ∞ ∞ ∴ ∞ −x ∫ xe 0 dx = ∫2e 0 1 −t dt ∞ = = = 1 2 [−e−t ]0 1 [0 + 1] 2 1 2 EXERCISE 8.
+ f (a + nh )] 250 .3. then ∫ f ( x) a b dx = n →∞ h→ 0 Lt h[ f (a + h) + f ( a + 2 h) + . . so that nh = b – a .3) ∫ 1+ x2 0 3 1 dx 4) ∫2 0 1 x dx 5) ∫e3 0 x dx 6) ∫ 0 π 4 1 xe x 2 dx 7) ex ∫ 1 + e 2x 0 x ∫ 1+ x 4 0 2 1 1 dx 8) ∫ 0 1 0 tan 2 x dx 9) dx 10) ∫1+ x2 ∫ 0 π 2 4 1 − x2 dx 11) ∫ log x dx 1 π 2 12) 2x + 4 dx 13) π 2 ∫ cos 0 2 x dx 14) ∫ (1 + sin x )( 2 + sin x ) 0 cos x dx 15) ∫ 0 3 e2 1 + cos 2 x dx 16) ∫ x (1 + log x ) 1 3 dx 2 17) ∫ 0 dx 9− x 2 18) ∫x 0 1 . .e x 4 dx 8. b ] be divided into n equal parts and let the width of each part be h.1 Definite Integral as the Limit of the sum Theorem: Let the interval [ a.
. Solution : b ∫x 1 2 2 dx from the definition of an integral as the limit ∫ a b f ( x ) dx = n →∞ h →0 Lt h[ f ( a + h ) + f (a + 2h ) + .. + n 2 )} na 2 = n→∞ h→ 0 = Lt h na n→ ∞ h→ 0 2 + 2 ah n (n + 1 ) h 2 + n ( n + 1) ( 2 n + 1 ) 2 6 ∫ 1 x 2 dx = nLt∞ 1 n + 1 . a + nh are the points of division obtained when the interval [ a ... + f ( a + nh) ] Lt h {( a + h) 2 + (a + 2h ) 2 + . n (n + 1 ) + n ( n + 1) (22 n + 1) → n n 6n = n + 1 n ( n + 1) (2 n + 1) Lt 1 + + n →∞ n 6n 3 1 1 n 3 1 + 2 + 1 n n = Lt 1 + 1 + + 3 1 n 6n →0 n 251 .. a + 2h . Example 30 Evaluate of a sum. b] is divided into n equal parts . . + n ) + h 2 (1 2 + 2 2 + 3 2 + . ...where a + h ... a + 3h.. h being the width of each part. [ Proof is not required ]. + (a + nh) 2 } 2 ∫x a dx = n →∞ h →0 = n→∞ h→0 Lt h{(a 2 + 2 ah + h 2 ) + (a 2 + 4 ah + 4 h 2 ) + . .(a 2 + 2anh + n 2 h 2 )} Lt h { 2 + 2 ah (1 + 2 + 3 + .
8 Choose the correct answer 1) The anti derivative of = 5x4 is (a) x4 (b) x5 (c) 4x5 + c (d) 5x4 2) ∫3 (a) 3 dx is (b) x + C (c) 3x (d) 3x + c 3) ∫ 10 x 1 x −x dx is (b) − (a) 4) 1 x2 (c) 10 log x + C (d) log x + C ∫e dx x is (b) e x + C is (b) 14x (c) e x + C (d) e x + C (a) .e + C 5) ∫ 21 x dx (a) 21 x x x + C (c) x x + C (d) x +C 252 . 1 1 1 + 2 + 1 n n = Lt 2 + + 1 n 6 →0 n = 2+ 2 6 = 7 3 EXERCISE 8.7 Evaluate the following definite integrals as limit of sums 1) ∫ 1 2 1 2 x dx 2) ∫e 0 1 1 x dx 3) 3 ∫x dx 4) ∫x 0 2 dx EXERCISE 8.
3 −x dx is (b) sec 2 x tan x + C (c) tan2 x + C (d) tan x + C (a) 2 tan x + C 12) dx is equal to (b) 2 (a) log x + C 3 (2 3 ) x log e 2 + C 3 x (c) 13) (2 3 ) x log x 2 3 2 (d) log 3 ∫ x +1 2 dx is equal to (b) 2 log (x + 1)+c (d) log (x + 1) + C (a) 2 log (x + 1 ) + C (c) 4 log (x + 1) + C 253 .6) ∫e 5x dx is (b) e 5x + C 1 (c) 5 e 5x + C (d) 1 5x e 5 (a) 5x + C 7) ∫ sin ax (a) dx is (b) 1 cos ax + C (c) sin ax + C (d) cos ax + C a −1 cos ax + C a −2 8) ∫x (a) dx is + C (b) 1 x + C (c) 1 x 1 +C x2 (d)  1 +C x2 9) ∫ 2x 1 dx is x +C (b) (a) log 10) 1 log x 2 (c) log x + C (d) 1 log x + C 2 ∫ e x +4 dx is (b) e x + 4 + C (c) (a) e x + C 11) e x+ 4 + C 4 (d) e 4x + C ∫ 2 sec2x ∫ 2 x .
14) ∫ (x + 1) (a) 9 8 dx is equal to 9 ( x + 1) +C (b) (x + 1)7 7 + C (c) (x+1)8 +C (d) (x+1)4 + C 15) ∫x 4x 3 dx is equal to 4 +1 (d) None of these (c) log ( x4 + 1 ) + C 16) ∫ cosec x x4 ∫ 1 + x5 dx is equal to (b) log cosec x + C (d) log ( cosec x + tanx ) (a) log (tan x/2) + C (c) log tan x + C 17) dx is equal to (b) log ( 1 + x4 ) + C (d) (a) log ( 1 + x5 ) (c) log ( 1 + x5 ) + C 18) 1 log ( 1 + x5 ) + C 5 ∫x 2 dx is equal to +a2 1 x tan −1 + C a a 1 −1 x (d) sin +C a a (b) x +C a −1 a (c) tan +C x (a) tan −1 19) ∫ e [ f ( x) + x f / (x ) ] dx is equal to (d) e x + C (c) e x + C 20) ∫ e x (sin x + cos x) (a) e cosx + c (c) e x + C cosx x dx is equal to (b) e x sinx cosx + C (d) e x sinx + C 21) ∫ 1 + 4x (a) dx 2 is equal to (b) 1 tan −1 x + C 2 1 tan −1 2 x + C 2 1 (c) tan −1 ( x + c ) 2 (d) tan1 (2x) + C 254 .
22) ∫ (2x + 3) (a) 3 dx is equal to +C (b) +C 8 (2x + 3)2 + C (d) 16 (2x + 3)4 (2 x + 3)3 4 (2x + 3)4 + C (c) 8 23) The value of (a) log 2 1 ∫x 1 2 1 dx is (b) 0 (c) log 3 is 2 3 2 3 (d) 2 log 2 24) The value of 1 3 −1 ∫x 0 2 dx 1 3 (a) (b) − (c) − (d) 25) The value of −1 ∫x 1 4 dx is 1 5 1 5 (a) 0 (b) 1 (c) (d) − 26) The value of 4 (a) 3 1 ∫ (x 0 2 + 1) 2 3 dx is 1 3 (d) − 4 3 (b) (c) 27) The value of ∫1 + x 0 x 2 dx is 1 2 (a) log 2 4 (b) 2 log 2 (c) log (d) log 2 28) The value of ∫x 1 x 32 5 dx is (a) 62 5 (b) (c) 255 15 4 (d) 31 5 .
π 3 29) The value of ∫ tan x 0 dx is (a) log 1 2 π (b) log 2 (c) 2 log 2 (d) log 2 30) The value of (a) 1 ∫ sin x 0 dx is (c) 2 (d) 2 (b) 0 π 2 31) The value of (a) 0 ∫ cos x 0 dx is (c) 1 (d) 2 (b) 1 32) The value of ex ∫ x −∞1 + e (b) 1 ∞ 0 dx is 1 log 2 2 (a) 0 (c) (d) log 2 33) The value of (a) 1 ∫e 0 −x dx is (c) ∞ (d) 1 (b) 0 34) The value of π 4 ∫ 0 4 dx 16 − x 2 (b) π 3 is π 6 π 2 (a) (c) (d) 1 35) The value of π 2 −1 ∫1 + x (b) π 4 dx 2 is π 4 (d) π (a) (c) − 256 .
A share may be of any face value depending upon the capital required and the number of shares into which it is divided. The holders of the shares are called share holders.1. 10.4 Dividend The profit of the company distributed among the share holders is called Dividend.1 Shares The total capital of a company may be divided into small units called shares.000 and is divided into 50. A company may consolidate and convert a number of its fully paid up shares to form a single stock. SHARES AND DEBENTURES 9 When the capital for a business is very large. a Joint Stock Company is floated to mobilize the capital. The company may raise funds for its requirements through the issue of stocks. each unit is called a share of face value Rs. The shares can be purchased or sold only in integral multiples.1.000 units of Rs.2 Stocks The shares may be fully paid or partly paid. 9. shares and debentures. if the required capital of a company is Rs. The value notified on their certificates is called Face Value or Nominal Value or Par Value. Debentures The term Debenture is derived from the Latin word ‘debere’ which means ‘to owe a debt’. 9.3. 9. Each share holder gets dividend proportionate to the face value of the shares held. A debenture is a loan borrowed by a company from the public with a guarantee to pay a certain percentage of interest at stated intervals and to repay the loan at the end of a fixed period.1 BASIC CONCEPTS 9.1. 257 . Dividend is usually expressed as a percentage. Those who take the initiative to start a joint stock company are called the promoters of the company. 5.00. Stock being one lump amount can be purchased or sold even in fractional parts. 9.1. For example.STOCKS. 10 each.
100 in the stock market for the purchase of a stock. It is usually expressed as a percentage. shares and debentures is done through agents called Stock Brokers.8 Types of Shares There are essentially two types of shares (i) (ii) (i) (ii) Preference shares Equity shares (ordinary shares) The right to get a fixed rate of dividend before the payment of dividend to the equity holders.5 Stock Exchange Stocks.1. It is based on the face value and is usually expressed as a percentage. brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. The price at which they are available there is called Market Value or Market Price.9. 9. When stock is sold. They are said to be quotedat premium or at discount or at par according as their market value is above or below or equal to their face value.9 Technical Brevity of Quotation By a ‘15% stock at 120’ we mean a stock of face value Rs. shares and debentures are traded in the Stock Exchanges (or Stock Markets). 9. Preference share holders have the following preferential rights 9. When stock is purchased. 120 and dividend 15% 258 . The right to get back their capital before the equity holders in case of winding up of the company.1. Both the buyer and seller pay the brokerage.1.1. The charge for their service is called brokerage. 100. market value Rs.7 Brokerage The purchase or sale of stocks. The consequent annual income he gets from the company is called yield or return. 9.1. brokerage is added to cost price.6 Yield or Return Suppose a person invests Rs.
the share holders may lose a part or full of their capital Investment in shares is 7. 8. capital of the comapny. The risk is very minimal. Debenture holders have no such rights. The debenture holders invariably get back their investment. Debenture holders being creditors get guaranteed interest. Share holders get dividend only 2. 3. 2. as agreed. Shares are not to be paid back 5. speculative and has an element of risk associated with it. The interest on debentures is very well fixed at the time of issue itself. up. debenture holders are paid their due first. The share holders are part proprietors of the comapny. Share money forms a part of the 1. SHARES 1. 6.10 Distinction Between Shares and Debentures The following are the main differences between shares and debentures. 4. Debentures have to be paid back at the end of a fixed period. 7. out of profits and in case of insufficient or no profits they get nothing. depends upon the profit of the company. T h e d i v i d e n d o n s h a r e s 4.9. whether the company makes profit or not. Share holders have a right to 8.1. attend and vote at the meetings of the share holders. Share holders are paid after the 3. Debenture holders are just creditors. 5. DEBENTURES Debentures are mere debts. by the company In case the company is wound 6. 259 . Debenture holders have to be paid first their interest due.
We shall now take up the study of the mathematical aspects concerning the purchase and sale of stocks.) 8 80 Stock = 80 x 100 8 Stock (Rs. 840 Example 2 Find the amount of 8% stock that will give an annual income of Rs.) 7 ? = 120 x 100 x 7 100 = Rs. 100 Solution: Face Value (Rs. Example 1 Find the yearly income on 120 shares of 7% stock of face value Rs. 100.000 Example 3 Find the number of shares which will give an annual income of Rs. 1.) 100 ? 260 .) 100 ? = Rs. 80.) 6 360 Stock (Rs. 360 from 6% stock of face value Rs. shares and debentures by the following examples. Solution: Income (Rs. Solution: Income (Rs.) 100 120 x 100 Yearly income Yearly income (Rs.
) 20 ? .Stock = 360 x 100 = Rs.400 x 100 70 = Rs.000 at 10% discount. Solution: Investment (Rs. 6.) 70 8400 Stock = 8.000 6 ∴ Number of shares = 6000 = 60.) 150 x 100 100 Income = Income (Rs. 8.000 Stock (Rs. Solution: Stock (Rs.200 for 150 shares of face value Rs. 1. 9.400. If the rate of dividend is 20% find his income. 8 Rate of dividend = 8% Example 5 Find how much 7% stock at 70 can be bought for Rs. Solution: Investment (Rs. 100 Example 4 Find the rate of dividend which gives an annual income of Rs.) 1200 ? 100 x 1200 150 x 100 = Rs.) 90 9000 261 Income (Rs. 12.) 100 ? Example 6 A person buys a stock for Rs. 100.
) 100 9300 Purchase Price Purcahse Price (Rs. 8.) 540 6 Purchase Price = Purchase Price (Rs.) 100 ? = Rs. 8 3 % stock at 4% discount.) 7200 ? 6 x 7200 540 = Rs.000 Example 7 Find the purchase price of Rs. Solution: Income (Rs.) (1004) = 96 ? = 9.000 x 20 90 = Rs.928 Example 8 What should be the price of a 9% stock if money is worth 8% Solution: Income (Rs. 4 Solution: Stock (Rs. 540.50 Example 9 Sharala bought shares of face value Rs. If she got an income of Rs. 80 262 . 2.300 x 96 100 = Rs.200. 9.) 8 9 Purchase Price = 9 x 100 8 Purchase Price (Rs.100 of a 6% stock for Rs. 7.Income = 9. find the purchase value of each share of the stock.300. 112.
Example 10 Find the yield on 20% stock at 80.) 120 100 Yield = 100 x 20 120 2 Income (Rs.) 20 ? = 16 2 3 % Example 13 Find the yield on 10% stock of face value Rs. Solution: Investment (Rs.) 80 100 Yield = 100 x 20 80 Income (Rs. Solution: Investment (Rs.) 20 ? = 26 3 % Example 12 Find the yield on 20% stock at 20% premium. 15 quoted at Rs. 10 263 . Solution: Investment (Rs.) (10025) = 75 100 Yield = 100 x 20 75 Income (Rs.) 20 ? = 25% Example 11 Find the yield on 20% stock at 25% discount.
) 100 150 Yield = 150 x 10 100 Income (Rs.) 7 ? = Rs.) 9 ? = Rs.) 80 80 x 96 Income = 80 x 96 x 7 80 Income (Rs. 672 9% Stock Investment (Rs.) 10 ? = 15% Example 14 Which is better investment : 7% stock at 80 or 9% stock at 96? Solution: Consider an imaginary investment of Rs. Face value (Rs.) 96 80 x 96 Income = 80 x 96 x 9 96 Income (Rs. 150 Now. 720 264 . (80 x 96) in each stock.) 15 ? = 100 x 15 10 = Rs.) 10 100 Face Value Face value (Rs.Solution: Investment (Rs. 7% Stock Investment (Rs.
(140 x 70) in each stock. Example 16 A man bought 6% stock of Rs.) 20 ? = 140 x 70 x 20 = Rs.) (9692) = 4 ? = 12000 x 4 = Rs. 1. Find his gain.) 100 12000 Gain 100 Gain (Rs.) 10 ? = Rs. ∴ 9% stock at 96 is better. Solution: Stock (Rs. 9% stock fetches more annual income than 7% stock.For the same investment.400 For the same investment. 1. 480 265 . both stocks fetch the same income ∴ They are equivalent stocks. 20% Stock Investment (Rs. 12. Example 15 Which is better investment : 20% stock at 140 or 10% stock at 70? Solution: Consider an imaginary investment of Rs.400 10% Stock Investment (Rs.000 at 92 and sold it when the price rose to 96.) 70 140 x 70 Income = 140 x 70 x 10 70 Income (Rs.) 140 140 x 70 Income 140 Income (Rs.
765 Example 18 Find the brokerage paid by Ram on his sale of Rs. 400 shares of face value Rs.) 100 400 x 25 Brokerage = 400 x 25 x 1 100 2 Brokerage (Rs. Solution: Face Value (Rs.250 stock at 87 if he had bought it at 105? Solution: Stock (Rs.) 70 x 100 100 Rate of Brokerage = Brokerage (Rs. 105 to a broker for buying 70 shares of face value Rs. 100.) 1 2 ? = Rs.) 105 ? 100 x 105 70 x 100 1 2 =1 % 266 .) (10587) = 18 ? = 4250 x 18 = Rs. 50 Example 19 Shiva paid Rs. Solution: Face Value (Rs. 25 at 1 2 % brokerage.Example 17 How much would a person lose by selling Rs. 4. Find the rate of brokerage.) 100 4250 Loss 100 Loss (Rs.
500 at a premium of 18%.) (100+18+2) = 120 7. Find the face value of the stock purchased and the dividend. Find the purchase price of the stock.250 267 .) 100 ? = Rs.) 100 20.500 Face Value = 7500 x 100 120 Face Value (Rs.) 100 5000 Purchase Price = 5000 x 91 100 1 2 1 2 %. 6. 5.000. 7. brokerage being 2%.400 Example 22 A person buys a 15% stock for Rs.550 Example 21 A person sells a stock at a premium of 44%. The brokerage paid is 2%.) (1009 1 2 + ? 1 2 ) = 91 = Rs. %. 20.000 at a discount of 9 paying brokerage at Solution: Face Value (Rs.Example 2 0 A person buys a stock of face value Rs. Solution: Purchase Price (Rs. 28.) (100+442) = 142 ? = 20000 x 142 = Rs. what is the sale proceeds? Solution: Face Value (Rs. If the face value of the stock is Rs. 4. Purchase Price (Rs.000 Sale Proceeds 100 Sale Proceeds (Rs.
400 at a discount of 11%. 18. 937. find the percentage of his income.) 15 ? = Rs.50 Example 23 Ram bought a 9% stock for Rs.) 100 6. (Brokerage 1%) Solution: 9 1 2 (90+1) = 91 ? 1938 x 91 91 2 1938 19 2 1938 Investment = = x 91 x 91 = 1938 x 2 19 = Rs.250 Dividend = 6250 x 15 100 Dividend (Rs.564 268 . Solution: Investment (Rs.) 9 ? = 10% Example 24 Find the investment requierd to get an income of Rs. 5.) (10011+1) = 90 100 Income = 100 x 9 90 Income (Rs. If he paid 1% brokerage. 1938 from 9 1 2 % stock at 90.Also Face value (Rs.
000 worth 7% stock at 80 and invested the proceeds in 15% stock at 120. 7. 270 Example 26 A person sells a 20% stock of face value Rs.) 15 ? 120 = Rs. Solution: 7% Stock Stock (Rs.200 Income = 7200 x 15 Income (Rs. 630 Also Stock (Rs.(2) comparing (1) and (2). 5.) 100 9000 Sale Proceeds Sale Proceeds (Rs. we conclude that the change in income (increase). 900 . (Brokerage 2%) 269 .Example 25 Kamal sold Rs.) 80 ? = 9000 x 80 100 = Rs. Find the change in his income. 9. = Rs.(1) = Rs. With the money obtained he buys a 15% stock at a discount of 22% What is the change in his income.) 100 9000 Income = 9000 Income (Rs.) 120 7.000 at a premium of 62%.) 7 ? 100 x7 .200 15% Srock Investment (Rs.
000 Sale Proceeds .Solution: 20% Stock Face Value (Rs.(2) comapring (1) and (2) we conclude that the change in income (increase) = Rs.) (1622) = 160 ? = 5000 x 160 100 Rs. 1. 500.(1) Sale Proceeds (Rs.) (10022+2)= 80 8. If 12% stock brought Rs.) 100 5. 1.000 Income = 5000 x 20 Income (Rs.500 . Face Value (Rs.000 Income = 8000 x 15 Income (Rs. find the amount invested in each stock. Example 2 7 Equal amounts are invested in 12% stock at 89 and 8% stock at 95 (1% brokerage paid in both transactions).000 15% Stock Investment (Rs.000 Also. 120 more by way of dividend income than the other.) 15 ? 80 Rs.) 20 ? 100 = Rs. 270 .) 100 5. 8.
Prema sold Rs.) (95+1) = 96 x Income = x x 8 96 15 Income (Rs.) 8 ? = Rs.) 100 8. 8.000 Income (Rs. 2x 8% Stock Investment (Rs.) (89+1) = 90 12 x ? Income = x x 12 90 = Rs. x = Rs.x = 120 15 12 Multiply by the LCM of 15 and 12 ie. 2x . 3x = 7200 ie.Solution: Let the amount invested in each stock be Rs.5x = 7200 ie.000 worth. 100 of a 10% stock by which her income increased by Rs. 60 ie. 7% stock at 96 and invested the amount realised in the shares of face value Rs. x 12% Stock Investment (Rs.) 7 ? 271 . Find the purchase price of 10% stock. Solution: 7% Stock Stock (Rs. 2. 80.400 Example 2 8 Mrs. x 12 As per the problem.) Income (Rs. 8x .
40. 40. 5. Solution : Preference Shares = Rs.000.000 ordinary shares of par value of Rs.000 x 100) = Rs.000 Ordinary Shares = Rs.000 Sale proceeds Sale Proceeds (Rs. (4.) 96 ? = 8000 x 96 100 = Rs. 120 Example 2 9 A company has a total capital of Rs. (560 + 80) = Rs. 4. 100 each. Income (Rs. 7. The company declares an annual dividend of Rs.) 100 8.00.) 7680 ? = 10 640 x 7680 = Rs. Find the dividend received by Mr.Income = 8000 x 7 100 = Rs.000 272 . Gopal having 100 preference shares and 200 ordinary shares.000 x 100) = Rs. 560 Also Stock (Rs.00.000 Total dividend = Rs. 100 each and 4.000 divided into 1000 preference shares of 6% dividend with par value of Rs. 640.00. 1.) 640 10 Purchase Price Purchase Price (Rs. (1.680 10% Stock Income = Rs.
273 . 1. 600 Gopal’s income from ordinary shares Share (Rs.60.000) = Rs.000.000 .) 100 1.000 in depreciation fund. 6. 10.000 34. 1. If Rs.000 400000 = Rs.000 200 x 100 ? Dividend = 200x 100 x 34.) 4. The par value of each of preference and ordinary shares is Rs.000 100 x 100 ? Dividend = 100 x 100 x 6.000 Dividend = Rs.00.000 preference shares with a dividend of 16% and 25.700 Total Income received by Gopal = Rs.6.000 Gopal’s Income from preference shares Share (Rs.000 6.) 6 ? = Rs. (40.) Dividend (Rs. 2. 34. (600 + 1700) = Rs.Dividend to preference shares Shares (Rs. 20.) Dividend (Rs.) 1.000 Dividend to ordinary shares = Rs.00. what percent of dividend is paid to the ordinary share holders.000 100000 Dividend (Rs.000 ordinary shares. The company had a total profit of Rs.00. 10.000 were kept in reserve and Rs.300 Example 30 The capital of a company is made up of 50.
50. (1.50.) 100 16 5.000 Ordinary Shares Total dividend = Rs.) Dividend (Rs.80. We can find the corresponding effective rate using the formula.Solution: Preference Shares = Rs.000 ? Dividend = 500000 x 16 100 = Rs.000 50.60.000 Dividend to ordinary shares = Rs. E = F M [(1+ i k k ) −1 ] 274 .2 EFFECTIVE RATE OF RETURN ON DEBENTURES WITH NOMINAL RATE When the interest for a debenture is paid more than once in a year the debenture is said to have a nominal rate.000 . 50.) Dividend (Rs. Share (Rs.30.) 2. 1.20.000) = Rs.000 x 10) = Rs.000 250000 = 20% 9.00.000 Now for ordinary shares.30. (25.000 .000 = Rs.000 .000 100 ? Dividend = 100 x 50.00. 2. (50000 x 10) = Rs.10. 5. 80.000 Dividend to Preference Shares Shares (Rs. (1.000) = Rs.
2041 + 1.where E = Effective rate of return F M i k = Face value of the debenture = Corresponding market value of the debenture = nominal rate on unit sum per year = the number of times the nominal rate is paid in a year.0375) −1] = 100 [( . 100 issued at a premium of 2% interest being paid quarterly.000 offered at Rs.0161 4 x 0.1569 Example 32 Find the effective rate of return on 16% Water Board bonds of face value Rs.0644 0. Solution : E = F M = 100 102 102 [(1 + [(1+ 0. 1.0375 = antilog = log 100 log 0. 1569 = 15.1601] 102 102 = 100 [0. 0375 ) − 1 ] 102 1 = 100 4 4 [(1+ i k k ) −1 ] Logarithmic Calculation 0.160] = 0.1955 1 .160 log 102 antilog = = = 0.1955 = 100 [1.15 4 4 ) −1 ] log 1.0000 1 .160 2. Example 3 1 Find the effective rate of return on 15% debentures of face value Rs.0086 1 .16 2 2 ] ) −1] −1 275 . interest being paid half yearly. Solution : E = F M 990 = 1000 [(1 + [(1+ i k k ) 0.0644 1.2041 2. 990.69% = 0.
8% stock at 4% premium.77 % 1 . 22.0668 0.1 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Find the yearly income on 300 shares of 10% stock of face value Rs. Find how much of a 9% stock can be bought for Rs.166] 99 99 antilog = log 100 log 0.0000 = 100 −1 ] = 100 [1.0334 2 x 0.9956  log 99 = 1 . 9. 08 ) 2 2 −1 ] Logarithmic Calculation log 1.166 2. Which is better investment. 6.166] = 0.1677 = 16. Krishna invested in 12% stock at 80. Find the yield on 8% stock at 4% premium. 08 ) [(1 .1677 EXERCISE 9. 90.2245 = 0. 100. Find the amount of 9% stock which will give an annual income of Rs.000.166 = = = 100 [0. Find the yield on 18% stock at 10% discount. 900 from 9% stock of face value of Rs. Find the purchase price of a Rs.480 at 90. Find the rate of return. Find the yield on 15% stock at 120. 6% stock at 120 or 5% stock at 95? 1 % 276 . Determine the annual income realised by investing Rs.400 a t 7 2 stock at 112.= 100 99 99 [(1 + 0 .2201 1. Find the percentage income on an investment in 8% stock at 120.2201 + 1.2245 antilog 1 .08 = 0. Find the number of shares which will give an annual income of Rs.0668 1. 25.
If he paid Rs. Mr. He gets an income of Rs. how much stock of each kind does he hold? 1 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 277 . 100 at 1 2 1 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) % brokerage.000. 100 debentures available at 90 to earn an income of Rs. How much would a person lose by selling Rs. Find the face value and the dividend. 20) Mr. (Brokerage being 2%) Mrs.000 worth 7% stock at 80 and invested the sale proceeds in 15% stock by which her income increased by Rs. Find the purchase price of 15% stock. 3.100 annually. Ganesh on his sale of 350 shares of face value Rs. 70 quoted at a discount of 10% How much money should a person invest in 18%. 4. 10. 18% debentures at 10% premium or 12% debentures at 4% discount? Find the yield on 12% debenture of face value Rs. Find the change in his income. Kamini sold Rs. Find the brokerage paid by Mr. 10. How much of 8% stock at a premium of 9% can be purchased with Rs. Rs.500 stock at 90 if he had bought it for 105. 8. With the proceeds he buys a 15% stock at 12% discount. Mr. Ramesh bought 500 shares of par value Rs. find the rate of brokerage. If his annual income be Rs.000 at 102. find the purchase price of the stock. Find the purchase price of each share bought. James sells 20% stock of face value Rs. If he gets an annual income of Rs 150. 100 of 10% stock by investing Rs. Sharma bought a 5% stock for Rs.1035 at a premium of 14%. 8.13) Which is better investment. 500. 9. Mr. Bhaskar invests Rs. brokerage being 1%. 34. A person bought shares of face value Rs. 6050 if brokerage is 1% A person buys a 10% stock for Rs. 100 as brokerage.000 partly in 8% stock at 80 and the remaining in 7 2 % stock at 90.000 in the market.900. 3. 270.
7.500 (b) Rs. If 1% brokerage is to be paid then the sale proceeds of the share is (a) 109 (b) 111 (c) 100 (d)none of these The calculation of dividend is based on (a) Face value (b) Market Value (c) Capital (d)none of these 3) 4) 5) Rs. 6. 27) EXERCISE 9.000 (d) Rs. 5. 7.100 The sale proceeds on the sale of a stock of Rs. 12.100 is invested to purchase a stock at 108. 3.000 consists of 1000 preferential shares of 10% stock and remaining equity stock. 20.000 (c) Rs.000 (c) Rs.000 (b) Rs. 7.26) A company’s total capital of Rs. 5. 5.800 The investment required to buy a stock of Rs.000 at 102 is (a) Rs. 10. 5. 12. find the effective rate of return. If the interest is paid half yearly. 8.000 (b) Rs. If 1% brokerage is to be paid then the purchase price of the share is (a) 109 (b) 111 (c) 100 (d)none of these A share of face value 100 is traded at 110.2 Choose the correct answer 1) A stock of face value 100 is traded at a premium.500 The yield on 9% stock at 90 is (a) 10% (b) 9% 6) 7) 8) 9) (c) 6% (d) 8% The yield on 14% debenture of face value Rs. Find the rate of dividend for equity stock if all the shares have a face value of Rs. 7. A 16% debenture is issued at a discount of 5%. 6.00. 11. The amount of stock purchased is.000 at a permium of 10% is (a) Rs. In a year the company decided to distribute Rs. 200 quoted at par is (a) 14% (b) 15% (c) 7% (d) 28% 278 .300 (d) Rs.200 (d) Rs.300 (c) Rs. (a) Rs.000 as dividend. Then its market price may be (a) 90 (b) 120 (c) 100 (d)none of these 2) A share of face value 100 is traded at 110. 100.
280 (b) Rs. 400 The yield from 9% stock at 90 is (a) 6% (b) 10% 11) (c) 6. Ram gets an income of Rs.5% 12) If 3% stock yields 4%.000 in the Stock Market for the purchase of the shares of face value Rs. 120 279 . 8. Mr. 133 (c) Rs.75% (d) 6.10) By investing Rs. 100 of a company. 80 (d) Rs. Then the market value of each share is (a) Rs. 200. 75 (b) Rs. 250 (c) Rs. the dividend being 10%. then the market price of the stock is (a) Rs. 260 (d) Rs.
gives a single value which represents the entire set of data.1 MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY data” 10 “An average is a value which is typical or representative of a set of .STATISTICS 10.Bowley highlighted the importance of averages in statistics as saying “Statistics may rightly be called the Science of Averages”..Murray R. Various measures of Averages are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Arithmetic Mean Median Mode Geometric Mean Harmonic Mean Averages are important in statistics Dr.L. x2. This tendency of clustering around some central value is called as central tendency. A measure of central tendency tries to estimate this central value. The set of data may have equal or unequal values. For example. majority of the values may be around 160 cm.A. xn (i) Mean = x= n Σx 280 .. in the data on heights (in cms) of students. It is generally observed that the observations (data) on a variable tend to cluster around some central value. Recall : Raw Data For individual observations x1.Speiegel Measures of central tendency which are also known as averages. Measures of central tendency are also known as “Measures of Location”..
6. 6. 6... 7. 7. corresponding to a maximum frequency. 3. x with corresponding n frequences f1. 6 Solution: Mean = x= Σnx = 3 + 6 + 7 + . . corresponding to the cumulative frequency (iii) just greater than 2 Mode = the value of x. 6. 6.(ii) (iii) Median Mode = Middle value if ‘n’ is odd = Average of the two middle values if ‘n’ even = Most frequent value Example 1 Find Mean. 6. 6. 10. 1.. x2... + 4 + 10 + 6 = 5. 2. 5. 6. 2. Mode for the following data Value (x) 0 1 2 3 4 Frequency (f) 8 10 11 15 21 281 5 25 . Example 2 Obtain Mean. 5.. Median. 4.fn (i) (ii) Mean Median = x= Σ fx N . 3. Median and Mode for the following data 3. which is even ∴ Median = Average two Middle values =6 Mode =6( the values 6 occur five times in the above set of observation) Q Grouped data (discrete) For the set of values (observation) x1. 4. 6.14 14 Median : Arrange the above values in ascending (descending) order 1.. 3.. 7. where N = Σf N = the value of x. f2. 7... 10 Here n = 14.
of Students 5 8 12 15 6 4 282 . d c = N x (Σfd ) x. ∴ The value of x corresponding to c.17 Median : N = Σf = 90 N 90 2 = 2 = 45 the cumulative frequency just greater than 2 = 45 is 65. which corresponding to the maximum frequency (25) is 5.A c is deviations of each mid values. ∴ Median = 4 Mode : Here the maximum frequency is 25.1 Arithmetic Mean for a continuous distribution The formula to calculate arithmetic mean under this type is = A+ N x c where A = arbitrary value (may or may not chosen from the mid points of classintervals. = magnitude or length of the class interval. The value of x.Solution: x f fx cf ∴ Mean 0 8 0 8 = Σ fx N 1 10 10 18 2 11 22 29 3 15 48 44 4 21 80 65 5 25 125 90 N = Σf = 90 Σfx = 285 = 3.1. 65 is 4. ∴ Mode = 5 10.f. N = Σf = total frequency Example 3 Calculate Arithmetic mean for the following Marks 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 7080 No.
5 129. c=10 3 2 1 0 1 2 fd 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 7080 15 16 12 0 6 8 Σ fd = 29 x ( Σfd ) 29 = 55 + ( 50 x 10) = 49.5 189. Solution: Wages No.of Workers : 36 21 0 5 6 Σ fd = 46 . c=20 d= 2 1 0 1 2 fd No. of Students 5 8 12 15 6 4 N = Σ f = 50 ∴ Arithmetic mean. Mid value x 25 35 45 55 65 75 x.5 x.2 = A+ N x c : 100119 120139 140159 160179 180199 18 21 13 5 3 Example 4 Calculate the Arithmetic mean for the following Wages in Rs.A d= c A=55.5.5 149.Solution: Marks No.A c A=149. of workers f 100119 120139 140159 160179 180199 18 21 13 5 3 N = Σ f = 60 283 Mid value x 109.5 169.
Median is obtained by the following formula. Example 5 Find the Median wage of the following distribution Wages (in Rs.) : No. 3 8 28 38 43 2030 3 3040 5 4050 20 5060 10 6070 5 .17 = A+ N x c 10. of the preceding (previous) Median class = frequency of the Median class = magnitude or length of the class interval corresponding to Median class.5 + ( 60 x 20) = 134.f.1. = c.of labourers: Solution : Wages 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 No. Median where l m f c N N−m x c 2 =l+ f = lower limit of the Median class.x (Σfd ) 46 = 149. of labourers f 3 5 20 10 5 N = Σ f = 43 284 Cumulative frequency c. = Σf = total frequency.2 Median for continuous frequency distribution In case of continuous frequency distribution.f.
75 Example 6 Calculate the Median weight of persons in an office from the following data.) just greater than 2 = 210 is 271 and the corresponding Median class 66 .) No. m = 8.68. f = 138 . m = 133 .5 is 28 and the corresponding median class is 4050 ⇒ l = 40.f. f = 20.68.5 ⇒ l = 65. c = 3 285 . c = 10 ∴ Median = l + N 43 ( N 2 = 40 + (21. Weight (in kgs.Here 2 = 2 = 21. 20 133 271 401 420 =210 N The cumulative frequency (c. 46.5 cumulative frequency just greater than 21.5 .5 .of Persons Solution: Weight 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274 No. of persons 20 113 138 130 19 N= Σ f = 420 Here 2 = 2 N 420 6365 113 6668 138 6971 130 7274 19 c.58 x10) 20 : : 6062 20 m xc f ) = Rs.f. However this should be changed to 65.
133 x 3) = 67. frequency of the class just succeeding the modal class. class magnitude or the length of the class interval corresponding to the modal class. Observation : Some times mode is estimated from the mean and the median. For a symmetrical distribution. median and mode coincide. If the distribution is moderately asymmetrical the mean. N−m x c 2 ∴ Median = l + f = 65.(f + f ) x c 1 0 2 where l = f1 = f0 = f2 = c = ( ) lower limit of the modal class.) : No. of Workers : 5060 35 286 6070 60 7080 78 8090 90100 110 80 . f1 .1. Mean .f 0 Mode = l + 2f .2mean.median) => mode = 3 median . frequency of the modal class.5 + ( 210 . frequency of the class just preceding the modal class. median and mode obey the following empirical relationship due to Karl Pearson. mean.3 Mode for continous frequency distribution In case of continuous frequency distribution.mode = 3(mean . Example 7 Calculate the mode for the following data Daily wages (in Rs. mode is obtained by the following formula. 138 10.2 kgs.
48.. f0 = 78..... 287 .(78 +80) x 10 = Rs. 85.. x2. c = 10.xn their Geometric mean.xn) 1/n Observation: log G = log (x1.....xn or (x1.(f + f ) x c 1 0 2 110 78 = 80+ 2(110) .... x2. 24...... f1 f 0 Mode = l + 2f . That is for the set of n individual observations x 1.xn) log G = n Σ log xi i= 1 1 n 1 ⇒ log G = Σ logx n ∴ Geometric Mean = G = Antilog Example : 8 ( ) Σ logx n Find the Geometric Mean of 3. 6... f1 = 110.Solution : The greatest frequency = 110.....4 Geometric Mean (i) ( ( ) ) Geometric mean of n values is the n th root of the product of the n values.1. x2 .. f2 = 80. so modal class interval is 8090..xn)1/n = n log (x1. denoted by G is n x1 . ∴ l = 80.16 10. x3 . x2 .. x2 . which occurs in the class interval 8090..
xn occur f1. G is given by G= where N = Σf = f1 + f2 + . x 3 6 24 48 log x 0. +fn Observation: log G = N log 1 1 1 (x f1 1 x 2 f 2 . = 11... fn times respectively.99 (ii) In case of discrete frequency distrisbution i. x2.e...M.4771 0.. the Geometric Mean... x n f n ) = N [f 1 log x1 + f2 log x2 + . + fn log xn] = N Σ f i log xi ⇒ log G = Óf i logxi N ∴ G = Antilog Example 9 ( Ófi logxi N ) 25 10 288 40 7 50 3 Calculate Geometric mean for the data given below x f : : 10 4 15 6 .. if x1. f2.6812 Σ log x= 4.. x n f n ) 1 N (x f1 1 x 2 f 2 ..3167 G...7782 1.Solution : Let x denotes the given observation.3802 1..
5243 . of students : Solution : Marks No.5441 1. ∴ G = Antilog ( Óf logx N ) where N = Σf and x being the midvalues of the class intervals Example 10 Compute the Geometric mean of the following data Marks : 010 5 1020 7 2030 15 3040 25 4050 8 No.3473 ) 30 Óf logx N ) = Antilog (1. of Students f 0 – 10 10 – 20 20 – 30 30 – 40 40 – 50 5 7 15 25 8 N = Σf = 60 289 Mid value x 5 15 25 35 45 log x 0.0000 1.1761 1.2256 Σf log x = 84.3979 1.6990 N = Σ f = 30 f logx 4.3979 1.2327 20.0970 Σ f logx = 41.2147 5.Solution : x 10 15 25 40 50 f 4 6 10 7 3 log x 1.9685 38.89 (iii) In the case of continuous frequency distribution. 6532 f log x 3.6990 1.6021 1.3473 ∴G = Antilog = Antilog ( (41.9790 11.0000 7.3782) = 23.4950 8.6025 13.1761 1.0566 13.
≤ A. 1 .1. G. for a given data 10. .3190 290 .M. It is denoted by H. 14.5243) 60 Óf logx N ) = Antilog (1..0476 0. 21. The total of the reciprocals is = Σ 1 x1 x2 xn x 1 mean of the reciprocals is = Σ x () and the n ∴ the reciprocal of the mean of the reciprocals is = H = n 1 Σ x n 1 Σ x Find the Harmonic Mean of 6..0333 Σ 1 = 0. Thus.∴G = Antilog = Antilog ( ( 84.. xn are the observations..0714 0. x2. 30 Solution : x 6 14 21 30 x 1 x 0.M. if x1.4087) = 25.1667 0.5 Harmonic Mean (i) Harmonic mean of a number of observations is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of their reciprocals. 1 .63 Observation: Geometric Mean is always smaller than arithmetic mean i..e. their reciprocals are 1 .
3333 0.5000 1.... where N = Σ f and x = mid values of the class intervals Óf x () 291 .H = n Σ1 x = 4 = 12. the Harmonic mean.0500 Σ f = 4...e. ...52 4..+ x n N = 1 N N 1 = f ) Σ (x Σ f x () where N = Σf Example 12 Calculate the Harmonic mean from the following data x: f: Solution : x 10 12 14 16 18 20 f 5 18 20 10 6 1 N = Σ f= 60 H = N Σ x f = (iii) 60 = 13.3190 ∴ Harmonic mean is H = 12. i.54 0.. f2. x2. if x1..xn occur f1.54 (ii) In case of discrete frequency distribution. H is given by H= 1 f1 f 2 fn x1 + x2 +.4286 0.6250 0.4369 x 10 12 5 18 14 20 16 10 18 6 20 1 f x 0.fn times respectively.4369 The Harmonic Mean for continuous frequency distribution is given by H = N .5000 1.
24.2182 0.2118 0. ≤ G. 30. 34.of Workers : 5 7 12 2) 15 6 18 10 3) Calculate the arithmetic mean of number of persons per house.M. 29.Example 13 Calculate the Harmonic mean for the following data.M. (A.)2 EXERCISE 10.2933 0.) x (H. H.M.2308 0.M. ≤ A. 27. of houses : 10 25 30 25 10 292 . Given No. ≤ G.M. 31.M. Age in Years : 8 10 12 No.0594 Σf x Observation: (i) (ii) (iii) For a given data H.) = (G.1053 Σ f = 1.M. Calculate the arithmetic mean for the following data. 36. of persons per house: 2 3 4 5 6 No.683 1.1 1) Find the arithmetic mean of the following set of observation 25. 32.0594 5060 12 6070 15 7080 22 8090 18 90100 10 x 35 65 75 85 95 x f x 0. 28. Size of items No. of items Solution : size 5060 6070 7080 8090 90100 f 12 15 22 18 10 N = Σ f = 77 H= N = 77 = 72.M.
66. 58. of Persons (f) : 7 12 37 25 22 30 11 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) The marks obtained by 60 students are given below. 65. 69. of Students : 10 18 20 39 15 80 8 5) From the following data. 42. Marks (out of 10): 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 No. 70. Marks : 1025 2540 4055 5570 Frequency : 6 20 44 26 Find the median for the following data. 91100 6 11) 7085 3 85100 1 12) Class limits : 110 1120 2130 3140 4150 5160 6170 7180 8190 Frequency : 3 7 13 17 12 10 8 8 6 13) 14) Find the mode for the following set of observations. Class limits: 1019 2029 3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089 Frequency : 5 9 14 20 25 15 8 4 Find the median of the following set of observations. Find the median of the following frequency distribution. 69. 46. 57.) : 5 10 15 20 25 No. Marks : 40 50 54 60 68 No. 61. of sets produced: 10 28 22 14 20 30 48 15 8 32 102 16 4 17 3 34 55 18 2 15) Calculate the mode from the following Size : 10 11 12 13 Frequency : 10 12 15 19 293 . 36. 72. median and evaluate the mode using emprical relation Marks : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 No. 41. 34. 82. 53. 37. 31. of Students: 1 5 6 7 10 15 11 5 Calculate the median from the following data. 32. 50. 61. 27. Find the median. 75. 95. median and mode for the following frequency distribution. 38. Daily wages (Rs. 46. 21 Find the median of 57. compute arithmetic mean. 30. 45. 39. 69. Find the mode of the following: Size of Dress : 22 No. 28.4) Calculate the arithmetic mean by using deviation method. of Students : 5 10 25 30 20 10 Find the arithmetic mean. 91.
compute the value of Harmonic mean. So to evaluate the degree of variation among the data. 4. Class limits: 1015 1520 2025 2530 3035 3540 4045 4550 Frequency : 4 12 16 22 10 8 6 4 Calculate the Geometric Mean for the following data.Bowley In a group of individual items. certain other measures called.16) Find the mode of the following distribution. 2. 35. 125. For example. 118.A. The common averages or measures of central tendency which we discussed earlier indicate the general magnitude of the data but they do not reveal the degree of variability in individual items in a group or a distribution.2 MEASURES OF DISPERSION “Dispersion is the measure of variation of the items” . all the items are not equal. Class interval: 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 Frequency : 4 6 10 7 3 10. 386. 8 10 Calculate the Harmonic mean. 1246 Calculate the Geometric Mean for the following data. 6. 153. Measures of Dispersion in particular helps in finding out the variability or Dispersion/Scatteredness of individual items in a given 294 . Marks : 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 Students : 3 8 15 20 10 4 Find the Geometric Mean Calculate the Harmonic mean for the following data. it could be easily found the difference or variation among the marks. Size : 6 7 Frequency : 4 6 8 9 9 5 10 2 11 8 20) 21) 22) From the following data. Value : 10 12 15 20 Frequency : 2 3 10 8 50 2 17) 18) 19) The following distribution relates to marks in Accountancy of 60 students. if we observe the marks obtained by a group of studens. measures of dispersion is used.L. There is difference or variation among the items.
consider the following marks of two students. The mean or even Median and Mode may be same in two or more distribution.1 Range Range is the difference between the largest and the smallest of the values.S where L = S = Largest value Smallest value L+S Coefficient of Range is given by = L S 295 .distribution. called measures of Dispersion. Standard Deviation and coefficient of variation. 10. Range = L . the first student is almost equally good in all the subjects. Therefore we need some other measures.2. Since less variation is a desirable characteristic. but the composition of individual items in the series may vary widely. Few of them are Range. The variability (Dispersion or Scatteredness) of the data may be known with reference to the central value (Common Average) or any arbitrary value or with reference to other vaues in the distribution. Also it may be noted that the variation among the marks of first student is less than the variation among the marks of the second student. Symbollically. Student I 68 72 63 67 70 340 Average 68 Student II 82 90 82 21 65 340 Average 68 It would be wrong to conclude that performance of two students is the same. For example. because of the fact that the second student has failed in one paper. It is thus clear that measures of central tendency are insufficient to reveal the true nature and important characteristics of the data.
D.25 9 26 .2 Standard Deviation Standard Deviation is the root mean square deviation of the values from their arithmetic mean. Here.2.28 19 29 . S. is the abbreviation of standard Deviation and it is represented by the symbol σ (read as sigma).22 L +S 10.34 42 27 S = Mid value of the lowest class ∴ S = 20 + 22 = 21 2 ∴ Range = L . Size Number Solution: Given is a continuous distribution. Hence the following method is adopted. The square of standard deviation is called variance denoted by σ2 296 .22 7 23 .Example 14 Find the value of range and its coefficient for the following data 6 8 5 10 11 12 Solution: L = S = ∴ Range = 12 (Largest) 5 (Smallest) LS=7 L+S Coefficient of Range = L S = 0. L = Midvalue of the highest class ∴ L = 32 + 34 = 33 2 20 .4118 Example : 15 Calculate range and its coefficient from the following distribution.31 32 .S = 12 Coefficient of Range = L S = 0.
D in this case σ = ( )− ( ) Σx 2 n Σx 2 n 297 . 73. 75. σ = (ii) Σd 2 n = 44 10 = 2.x n = number of observations.(i) Standard Deviation for the raw data. Example 16 Find the standard deviation for the following data 75.09 Standard deviation for the raw data without using Arithmetic mean. 72. 74. σ = Σd 2 n Where d = x . 70. 77. 76. The formula to calculate S. 72. 76 Solution : x 75 73 70 77 72 75 76 72 74 76 Σ x = 740 d = x x 1 1 4 3 2 1 2 2 0 2 Σd = 0 2 d2 1 1 16 9 4 1 4 4 0 4 Σ d = 44 x= Σx 740 n = 10 = 74 ∴ Standard Deviation.
D. Solution: Taking A = 41 53 12 144 62 21 441 41 0 0 59 18 324 48 7 49 31 10 100 33 8 64 24 17 289 x: 25 32 d = x A 16 9 d2 256 81 298 . 48. 59. 1. for the raw data by Deviation Method By assuming arbitrary constant. 41. 53. 32.Example : 17 Find the standard deviation of the following set of observations. 6. 33. 3. the standard deviation is given (Σnd ) − ( Σnd )2 2 =xA A = arbitrary constant Σd 2 = Sum of the squares of deviations Σd = sum of the deviations n = number of observations Example 18 For the data given below. 7. 31. 10. A. 2. 4. Solution : Let x denotes the given observations x : 1 3 5 4 6 7 9 8 10 2 x2 : 1 9 25 16 36 49 81 64 100 4 Here Σx = 55 Σx2 = 385 ∴σ = = (iii) by σ= where d (Σnx ) − ( Σnx )2 2 (385) − (55 )2 10 10 = 2. 62. 9. calculate standard deviation 25.87 S. 5. 24.
Here Σd = .21 Standard deviation for the discrete grouped data In this case σ = where d = x  x Example 19 Calculate the standard deviation for the following data x 6 9 12 15 18 f: 7 12 13 10 8 Solution: x 6 9 12 15 18 f 7 12 13 10 8 fx 42 108 156 150 144 d = x x 6 3 0 3 6 Σ fx = 600 d2 36 9 0 9 36 fd2 252 108 0 90 288 Σ fd2 = 738 N=Σf =50 Σ x= Σ fx = 600 = 12 N 50 Σfd 2 = N σ = (v) 738 = 3. In this case σ= c x Σfd2 N fd − (ΣN ) 2 where d = x .A c 299 .84 50 Standard deviation for the continuous grouped data without using Assumed Mean.2 Σd 2 = 1748 σ = = (iv) ( )− ( Σd2 n ) 2 (1748 ) − (10 )2 10 Σd 2 n Σ fd 2 N = 13.
and is given by C. 300 . it is used to compare two or more groups.V.V. (ii) The group which has less coefficient of variation is said to be more consistent or more stable. and the group which has more coefficient of variation is said to be more variable or less consistent.Example 20 Compute the standard deviation for the following data Class interval : 010 Frequency : 8 Solution : Taking A = 35 Class Intervals 010 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 Frequency f 8 12 17 14 9 7 4 N= Σ f = 71 σ= c x Σfd2 N fd − (ΣN ) 2 Mid value x 5 15 25 A35 45 55 65 d = x A c 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 12 17 14 9 7 4 fd 24 24 17 0 9 14 12 fd 2 72 48 17 0 9 28 36 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Σ fd=30 Σ fd2=210 = 10 x = 16. = ( σ x 100)% x Observation: (i) Coefficient of variation is a percentage expression.3. Coefficient of variation Coefficient of variation denoted by C.67 210 71 30 − ( 71 ) 2 10.2.
Example 21 Prices of a particular commodity in two cities are given below.V. (x) = 1338 = 11.V.96 10 σx x 100 x = 11. (y) = σy x 100 y = 7.x 21 19 9 13 9 11 7 5 3 1 dy=y.y )2 100 169 49 4 1 49 100 121 25 16 Σ d2y = 634 Σ x=610 Σ y=620 x= Σ x = 610 =61 n 10 n 10 y = Σ y = 620 = 62 σx = σy = C. City A : 40 80 70 48 52 72 68 56 64 60 City B : 52 75 55 60 63 69 72 51 57 66 Which city has more stable price Solution : City A City B 40 80 70 48 52 72 68 56 64 60 52 75 55 60 63 69 72 51 57 66 dx =x.84% 62 301 .y 10 13 7 2 1 7 10 11 5 4 d2x=(x.x )2 441 361 81 169 81 121 49 25 9 1 Σ d2x = 1338 d2y=(y.57 10 634 = 7.96 12.57 = 18.97% 61 C.
27. 14. C.D. 10. 6.Crores): 2040 4060 6080 80100 No. 24.D. 35.V. 4. 31.D.of Goals Scored in a Match : 0 1 2 3 No. 40. 62. 51.D. 8. 9. for the following continous frequency distribution. 11. Size : 6062 6365 6668 6971 7274 Number : 5 18 42 27 8 Find the range and its coefficient from the following data.of Matches : 1 2 4 3 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 4 0 5 2 9) Calculate the S.2 1) Find the range and coefficient of range for the following data. 40. 8. 12.Crores): 100120 120140 140160 No. 39. Wages (in Rs) : 3545 4555 5565 6575 7585 No. from the following set of observation by using i) Mean ii) Deviation method iii) Direct Method. (y) < C. 48. Annual profit (Rs. 30. 42. 45. a) 12. Class interval: 46 68 810 1012 1214 Frequency : 10 17 32 21 20 Calculate the S. 25.V (x) ⇒ City B has more stable price. 32.Conclusion Comparatively. of the following set of observations by using Deviation Method. 33 Find the standard Deviation for the following data x : 1 2 3 4 5 f : 3 7 10 3 2 Calculate the standard deviation for the following No.of Banks 33 24 16 10) 302 . 10. 12. Calculate range and its Coefficient from the following distribution. 39. 59. 9. 23. 36. 40. 36. 29. 45. 30. 7. 15 b) 35.of Banks : 10 14 25 48 Annual profit (Rs. Find the S.of Workers : 18 22 30 6 4 Find the standard deviation of the set of numbers 3. 52. 53. Find the S. 46. 43. EXERCISES 10. 10. of the following frequency distribution.
. called probability which express the element of chance numerically. find the city in which the price was more stable. when a coin is tossed everyone knows that there are two possible out comes. in which the result is uncertain. (iii) Petrol is poured over fire. But no one could say with certainty which of the two possible outcomes will be obtained. But in some of the experiments such as (i) spinning a roulette wheel (ii) drawing a card from a pack of cards. such experiments. In each of the above experiments. find out which share is more stable in its value..3. 303 . in throwing a die we know that there are six possible outcomes 1 or 2 or 3 or . 6. namely head or tail. x : 55 54 52 53 56 58 52 50 51 49 y: 108 107 105 105 106 107 104 103 104 101 12) 13) 10. (iii) tossing a coin (iv) throwing a die etc. In all. Similarly. the result or outcome is certain. that there is an element of chance. That is.. But we are not sure of what out come will really be. For example. City A : 498 500 505 504 502 509 City B : 500 505 502 498 496 505 From the following data. in experiment (i). (ii) A spoon full of sugar is added to a cup of milk. the ball is certain to touch the earth and in (ii) the sugar will certainly dissolve in milk and in (iii) the petrol is sure to burn. CONCEPT OF PROBABILITY Consider the following experiment (i) A ball is dropped from a certain height. and is known in advance.11) Calculate the coefficient of variation of the following 40 41 45 49 50 51 55 59 60 60 From the following price of gold in a week.
Since a card drawn cannot be both a spade and a hearts. one of the fundamental tools of statistics. Probability.The theory of probability was introduced to give a quantification t o the possibility of certain outcome of the experiment in the face of uncertainty. had its formal beginning with games of chance in the seventeenth century.1 Basic Concepts (i) Random Experiment Any operation with outcomes is called an experiment. A : The card is spade B : The card is hearts. (iii) Sample Space The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is known as sample space of that experiment and is denoted by S. 10. For example Consider the following events A and B in the experiment of drawing a card from the pack of 52 cards. These two events A and B are mutually exclusive. (v) Independent events Events (two or more) are said to be independent if the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one does not affect the occurrence of the others. That is two or more mutually exclusive events cannot occur simultaneously. (i) in which all outcomes of the experiment are known in advance. (iv) Mutually Exclusive events Events are said to be mutually exclusive if the occurrence of one prevents the occurrence of all other events. 304 . But soon its application in all fields of study became obvious and it has been extensively used in all fields of human activity. and (iii) the experiment can be repeated under identical (same) conditions. in the same experiment. (ii) Event All possible outcomes of an experiment are known as events.3. (ii) what specific (particular) outcome will result is not known in advance. A Random experiment is an experiment.
The event ‘A does not occur’ is denoted by A C o r A or A’ and read as complement of A.1) (5. (ix) Exhaustive Events The totality of all possible outcomes of any experiment is called an exhaustive events or exhaustive cases.3. then the ratio m/n is called the probability of occurence of the event A. if any one them cannot be expected to occur in preference to the others. then A is an impossible event. denoted by P(A). ∴ P (A) = m n Observation : (i) O < P(A) < 1 (ii) If P(A) = 0.6) (6. In this experiment. (vi) Complementary Event The event ‘A occurs’ and the event ‘A does not occur’ are called complementary events. the number of cases favorable to the event of getting a sum 7 is : (1. third toss and subsequent tosses.For example Consider the experiment of tossing a fair coin. 305 . (viii) Favourable events or cases The number of outcomes or cases which entail the occurrence of the event in an experiment is called favourable events or favourable cases.5).2) (2. (4. (3. For example consider the experiment in which Two fair dice are rolled. (vii) Equally likely Events (two or more) of an experiment are said to be equally likely. The occurrence of the event Head in the first toss is independent of the occurrence of the event Head in the second toss. mutually exclusive and equally likely cases and m of them are favourable to the occurence of an event A.3).2 Classical Definition of Probability If an experiment results in n exhaustive. That is there are 6 cases favorable to an event of sum = 7. 10.4).
Example 22 A bag contains 3 red. of favourable outcomes m = 3 ∴ P (getting atleast one head) = 3 4 306 .T)} ∴ The total no. the total number of cases favourable to the event A is 6C1 x 7C1 = 6 x 7 = 42 i. Since there are 6 white balls and 7 blue balls. Find the probability of getting atleast one head. 2 balls can be drawn in 16C2 ways. 6 white and 7 blue balls. (H. (T.The number of favourable cases (m) to the event A. ∴ n = 16C2 = 120 Let A be the event that the two balls drawn are white and blue.H).T). (T. cannot be greater than the total number of exhaustive cases (n).H). m = 42 ∴ P(A) = m n = 42 = 7 120 20 Example 23 A coin is tossed twice. (T. (H.T). of possible outcomes n = 4 The favourable outcomes for the event ‘at least one head’ are (H. What is the probability that two balls drawn are white and blue? Solution: Total number of balls = 3 + 6 + 7 = 16 Then out of 16 balls. Solution: Here the sample space is S = {(H. That is 0 < m < n ⇒ 0 < m <1 n (iii) For the sample space S.H). S is called sure event. P(S) = 1. ∴ No.H).e.
3. 35. 49. 40.. 98) ∴ No. In order to study the theory of probability with an axiomatic approach. 45.3 Modern Definition of Probability The modern approach to probability is purely axiomatic and it is based on the set theory. denoted by S. 28. of favourable outcomes = 20C1 = 20 ∴ P (that chosen number is a multiple of 5) = (ii) 20 100 = 1 5 The favourable outcomes for the event ‘divisible by 7’ are (7. 20. of favourable outcomes = 14C1 = 14 ∴ P (that chosen number is divisible by 7) = 14 100 = 7 50 (iii) No. 42. it is necessary to define certain basic concepts. 21. 70. 14. of favourable outcomes to the event ‘greater than 70’ = 30 ∴ P (that chosen number is greater than 70) = 30 100 = 3 10 10. 55…. Solution: Total number of possible outcomes = 100C1 = 100 (i) The favourable outcomes for the event “Multiple of 5” are (5. 63. 15. 35. 10. 91. (ii) Event: Any subset of a sample space is called an event. 77. 30. 56. 84.100) ∴ No. 25. 307 . What is the probability that it is i) a multiple of 5 ii) divisible by 7 iii) greater than 70. They are (i) Sample space: Each possible outcome of an experiment that can be repeated under similar or identical conditions is called a sample point and the totality of sample points is called the sample space. 50.Example 24 An integer is chosen at random out of the integers 1 to 100.
.2 P(w3) = 1 3 P(w1) = 0.3. w2. With every event in S we associate a real number denoted by P(A).2. i..) = P(A1) + P (A2) +.3. A 2 . P(S) = 1 Axiom3. Example 25 Let a sample space be S = {w1.4.. consider S = {1. called the probability of the event A satisfying the following axioms. is a sequence of mutually exclusive events in S then P (A1 ∪ A 2 ∪ . For example.e. P(w2) = 2 3 308 . P(w1) = P(w2) = 2 3 P(w3) = 1 3 3 2 . P(w ) = 1 .3. Axiom1.4 Definition of Probability (Axiomatic) Let E be an experiment.(iii) Mutually Exclusive Events: Two events A and B are said to be mutually exclusive events if A ∩B = ϕ. A and B are disjoint sets. if...5} Let A = the set of odd numbers = {1.4} Then A∩B = ϕ ∴ events A and B are mutually exclusive. Which of the following defines probability space on S? (i) (ii) (iii) P(w1) = 1.. Observation: Statement Meaning interms of set theory (i) A ∪B => Atleast one of the events A or B occurs (ii) A ∩B => Both the events A and B occur (iii) (iv) A ∩ B => Neither A nor B occurs A ∩ B => Event A occurs and B does not occur 10. w3}. P(A) ≥ 0 Axiom2. 2 3 3 P(w3) = . If A1.5} and B = the set of even numbers = {2. Let S be a sample space associated with E.
Solution: (i) Here each P(w1). Find P(w2) if P(w1) = 1 and P(w3) = 1 3 2 Solution: Here P(w1) = 1 By axiom 2. But P(w1) + P(w2) + P (w3) ≠ 1 So by axiom 2. this set of probability functions does not define a probability space on S. P (w2) and P (w3) are nonnegative. w3}. (iii) Here all probabilities.2. (ii) Since P(w3 ) is negative by axiom 1 the set of probability function does not define a probability space on S.P(w1) . P(w2) ≥ 0. = 1 which is nonnegative. P(w2) and P(w3) are nonnegative. P(w1). Also P(w1) + P(w2) + P(w3) = 0 + 2 + 1 3 3 =1 ∴ by axiom 1. w2. ie: P(w1) ≥ 0.1 3 2 3 and P(w3) = 1 2 are both nonnegative. P (w3) ≥ 0. Example 26 Let P be a probability function on S = {w1. the set of probability function defines a probability space on S. P (w1) + P(w2) + P (w3) = 1 ∴ P (w2) = 1 . 6 ⇒ P(w2) = 1 6 309 .P (w3) =11 .
probability of an impossible event is zero.P(B∩C) + P(A∩B∩C). Then P( ϕ) = o.P(A) 10.C and we have P(A∪B∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) .6 Addition Theorem Statement: Observation: (i) If the two events A and B are mutually exclusive. ie.5 Basic Theorems on Probability of Events Theorem : 1 Let S be the sample space. ∴ P(φ) = 0 Theorem : 2 Let S be the sample space and A be an event in S Then P( A ) = 1P(A) Proof : We know that A∪ A = S ∴ P(A∪ A ) = P(S) P(A) + P( A ) = 1 by axiom (2) and (3) ⇒ P( A ) = 1 . If A and B are any two events. then P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) .B.P(A∩B) . P(S) + P(ϕ) = P(S) by axiom 3.P(A ∩C). What is the probability that it is either a spade or an ace? 310 . Proof: We know that S∪ϕ = S ∴ P (S∪ϕ) = P(S) ie.10.3. then A∩B= ϕ ∴ P(A∩B) = 0 ⇒ P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) The addition Theorem may be extended to any three events A.P(A∩B) (ii) Example: 27 A card is drawn from a well shuffled pack of playing cards.3.
What is the probability that it is either a multiple of 3 or 4 Solution: One number is selected at random and that can be done in 20C1 ways..P(A∩B) (by addition theorem) = 13 52 + 4 . out of 1 to 20 number.1 52 52 13 = 16 = 4 52 13 ⇒ P(A∪B) = 4 Example 28 One number. Let A be the event that the card drawn is a spade. ⇒ S = {1. C1 = 4 52 The compound event (A∩B) consists of only one sample point. and each and every sample points has the same probability (equal probability). is selected at random. P (A∪B) = P (that the card drawn is either a spade or an ace) = P (A) + P(B) . ie: Sample space S consists of 20 sample points.Solution: Total number of cards in a pack = 52. the ace of spade. ∴P(B) = P (that the drawn card is an ace) 4 = 52 C1 since B consists of 4 sample points ie: 4 ace cards.. ∴ P(A) = P(that the drawn card is spade) 13 = P(A) C1 C1 52 since A consists of 13 sample ie: 13 spade cards. ∴ The sample space contains 52 sample points.2. ∴ P(A∩B)= P (that the card drawn is ace of spade) = 1 52 Hence. = 13 52 Let B be the event that the card drawn is an ace. 20} 311 .3..
Then A = {3.9.12.8.18} ∴ P (A) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 3} = 6 Let B be the event that the number choose is Multiple of 4. ⇒ A ∩B = {12} P(A∩B) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 3 and multiple of 4} = 1 Hence P(A ∪B) = P (that the selected number is either multiple of 3 or multiple of 4) = P(A) + P(B) . which is a multiple of 3 and multiple of 4. required probability. Then B = {4.20} P(B) = P (that the selected number is multiple of 4) = 5 20 20 The event A∩B consists of only one sample point 12.Let A be the event that the number chosen is multiple of 3. Solution: Total numberof balls = 11 number of balls drawn = 2 ∴ Exhaustive number of cases = 11C2 = 55 Let A be the event of getting both the balls are black and B be the event of getting both the balls are red. Hence by addition theorem of probability.12.16.6.15. What is the probability that they are of the same colour. Two balls are drawn at random. P (two balls are of same colour) = P(AUB) = P(A) + P(B) 312 .P (A∩B) = 6 + 5 .1 20 20 20 2 = 20 10 20 P(A∪B) = 1 Example 29 A bag contains 6 black and 5 red balls.
3. of balls = 15 Number of balls drawn = 4 ∴ Exhaustive number of cases = 15c4 = 1365 The required event E that there is atleast one ball of each colour among the 4 drawn from the box at random can occur in the following mutually disjoint ways. B=2) + P(R=2. A person draws 4 balls from the box at random. B=1) + P(R=1. B denotes Red. W=2. (R.6 = c2 c2 5 11 + 11 c2 c2 = 25 = 5 55 11 = 15 55 + 10 55 Example 30 A box contains 6 Red. provided P(A) ≠ 0. P(E) = P(R=1. P(A) 313 . W = 2. B = 2) U (R = 2. Solution : Total no. W = 1. W=1.7 Conditional Probability Definition: Let A and B be two events in a sample space S. B = 1) U (R = 1. W=1. B = 1) Hence by addition theorem of probability. B=1) 6 = c1 x 4c1 x 5c2 15 6 c4 + c2 x 4c1 x 5c1 15 6 + c1 x 4c2 x 5c1 15 c4 c4 = = 15 1 [(6 x 4 x 10) + (15 x 4 x 5) + (6 x 6 x 5)] c4 1 [240 + 300 + 180] = 720 c4 1365 15 = 48 91 10. W = 1. Find the probability that among the balls drawn there is atleast one ball of each colour. The conditional probability of the event B given that A has occurred is defined by P(B/A) = P(A I B) . 4 white and 5 black balls. W. White and Black balls) E = (R = 1.
n(S) 8 Hence by formula. P(B/A) = P(A I B) P(A) 1 8 1 2 ∴P(B/A) = = 2 = 1 8 4 Example: 32 A box contains 4 red and 6 green balls. Example: 31 Three fair coins are tossed. (THT). (HTT). (TTH). (TTT)} ⇒ n(S) = 8. If the first coin shows a tail. P(A) = n(A) = 4 = 1 n(S) 8 2 Let B be the event denotes getting all tails: ie:(TTT). Two balls are picked out one by one at random without replacement. (THH). What is the probability that the second ball is green given that the first one is green 314 . if P(B) ≠ 0.Observation: (i) (ii) Similarly P(A/B) = P(A I B) P(B) . (HTH). Event A = the first coin shows a tail = {(THH). Let B∩A denotes the compound event of getting all tails and that the first coin shows tail. Whenever we compute P(A/B). (TTH). P(B/A) we are essentially computing it with respect to the restricted sample space. find the probability of getting all tails Solution: The experiment of tossing three fair coins results the sample space. (TTT)} n(A) = 4. (HHT). S = {(HHH). (THT). ⇒∴ B∩A = {(TTT)} n(B∩A) =1 ∴ P(A∩B) = n(A I B) = 1 since B∩A = A∩B.
.Solution: Define the following events.. P(A) = P(that the first ball drawn is green) 6 = C1 C1 10 = 6 10 Since the first ball(green) pickedout is not replaced. When the first ball is drawn. 3 4 calculate the probabilities that 315 . If all of them fire at the same target..3. total number of balls in a box gets reduced to 9 and the total number of green balls reduced to 5. ∴ P(A∩B) 6 = C1 C1 5 10 x C1 C1 9 = 6 x 5 =1 10 9 3 Hence P(B/A) = = P (that the second ball drawn is green given that the first ball drawn is green) P(A I B) P(A) 1 3 6 10 P(B/A) = = 1 x 10 = 5 3 6 9 10. Here we have to compute P(B/A). ∩A n) = P(A1) P(A2) P(A3) . A = {the first ball drawn is green} B = {the second ball drawn is green} Total number of balls = 4+6 = 10 Two balls are picked out at random one by one.8 Multiplication Theorem for independent events If A and B are two independent events then P(A∩B) = P(A) P(B) Observation: For n independent events P(A1 ∩ A 2∩ A 3 . 2 for B and 3 for C.. P(An) Example 33 In a shotting test the probabilities of hitting the target are 1 2 for A.
2 = 1 . P(C) = 3 2 3 4 4 4 P( A ) = 1. P( C ) = 1.1 = 1 . B.P(A∩C) .P(C∩A) + P(A∩B∩C) = 1 +2 +3 1 2 2 3 1 3 +1 2 3 2 2 3 4 2 3 2 3 4 8 2 4 2 3 4 = 1 +2 +3 1 1 3 +1 3 4 3 4 = 23 24 316 . P(B) = 2 .(i) all the three hit the target (ii) only one of them hits the target (iii) atleast one of them hits the target Solution: Here P(A) = 1 .3 = 1 2 2 3 3 (i) P (all the three hit the target)= P(A∩B∩C) = P(A) P(B) P(C) ( Q A. C hits independently) 4 = 1 2 3 = 1 2 3 4 (ii) E1 = = {(A I B I C ) U (A I B I C ) U (A I B I C)} E2 = {atleast one of them hits the target} = {(A U B U C)} Hence P(E1) = P(A ∩ B ∩ C ) + P( A ∩ B ∩ C ) + P( A ∩ B ∩C) =1 1 1 + 1 2 1 + 1 1 3 2 3 4 4 2 3 4 2 3 4 Let us define the events {only one of them hits the target} = 1 (iii) P(E2) = P (A∪B∪C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) . P( B ) = 1.P(B∩C) .
. B.3.P(A∩B) . Then Baye’s theorem says 317 .Example 34 A problem is given to three students A. What is the probability that the problem 2 3 4 is solved. An be disjoint events in S and B be any arbitrary event in S with P(B) ≠ 0. C whose chances of solving it are respectively 1 .4 . Solution: P(A) = P(that A can solve the problem) = 1 2 P(B) P(C) = P(that B can solve the problem) = 1 3 4 = P(that C can solve the problem) = 1 Since A.3 + 1 = 18 = 3 24 10.P(C∩A) + P(A∩B∩C) = 1 +1 +1 1 1 1 1 1 1 +1 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 4 24 2 3 4 4 = 12 + 8 + 6 . 1 and 1 . B.. C are independent P(A∩B) P(B∩C) P(C∩A) = P(A) P(B) = 1 1 2 3 = P(B) P(C) = 1 1 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 = P(C) P(A) = 1 1 P(A∩B∩C)= P(A) P(B) P(C) = 1 1 1 ∴ P(that the problem is solved) = P(that atleast one of them solves the problem) = P (AUBUC) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) .9 Baye’s Theorem Let S be a sample space Let A 1.2 .. A2.P(B∩C) .
3 white and 7 red balls. A2 be the boxes containing 4 white and 3 red balls. Let B be the event that the drawn ball is white.P (Ar /B) P(A r ) P ( B/A r ) = r=1 Σ P(A r ) P ( B/A r ) n Example 35 There are two identical boxes containing respectively 4 white and 3 red balls. If the ball is white. ∴ P(B/A1) = P(that the drawn ball is white from the Ist Box) P(B /A1) = 4 7 ∴ P (B/A2) = P (that the white ball drawn from the IInd Box) ⇒ P(B/A2) = 3 10 P (B) = P (that the drawn ball is white) = P(A1) P(B/A1) + P (A2) P(B/A2) = 1 4 +1 2 7 3 2 10 = 61 140 318 . Find the probability that the ball is white.e A1 4 White 3 Red Total 7 Balls A2 3 White 7 Red Total 10 balls One box is chosen at random out of two boxes. what is the probability that it is from first box? Solution: Let A1. 3 white and 7 red balls. ∴ P(A1) = P(A2) = 1 2 One ball is drawn from the chosen box. i. A box is chosen at random and a ball is drawn from it.
3000 bolts per day respectively. probability that the white ball comes from the Ist Box is. A 2 produces 1. P(B1/A)= P(A1 ) P(B/A ) 1 P(A1 ) P(B/A ) + P(A2 ) P (B/A2 ) 1 1 4 4 2 7 7 = = 40 61 1 4 + 1 3 4+ 3 2 7 2 10 7 10 = Example 36 A factory has 3 machines A 1.Now by Baye's Theorem. A 3 producing 1000.02 We haev to find P(A 1/B) Hence by Baye’s theorem.015 and P(B/A3) = P(that the defective bolt from the machine A 3) = . What is the probability that it comes from machine A 1? Solution: P(A1) = P(that the machine A 1 produces bolts) = 1000 = 1 6000 6 P(A2) = P(that the machine A 2 produces bolts) = 2000 = 1 6000 3 P(A3) = P(that the machine A 3 produces bolts) = 3000 = 1 6000 2 Let B be the event that the chosen bolt is defective ∴ P(B/A1)= P(that defective bolt from the machine A 1) = . 2000.5% and A 3 produces 2% defectives. A 1 produces 1% defectives. A 2.01 Similarly P(B/A2) = P(that the defective bolt from the machine A 2) = . we get P(A1/B) = P(A1 ) P(B/A1 ) P(A1 ) P(B/A1 ) + P(A 2 ) P(B/A2 ) + P(A3 )P(B/A3 ) 319 . A bolt is chosen at random at the end of a day and found defective.
4. 2 percent are defective bolts.04) (.05) + (. A bolt is drawn at random from the product and is found to be defective.04 and P(B/A ) 3 100 Similarly P(B/A2) = = 2 = . 35% and 40% of the total output.4) (.35) (. A3 manufacture respectively 25%.02 100 we have to find P(A 2/B) Hence by Baye’s theorem.35) (.015) + 1 x(.02) 69 = 28 320 .01 = .25) (.25 100 Similarly P(A2) P(A3) = 35 = .01) 6 = 1 x (.01 + . we get P(A2/B) = = P(A 2 ) P(B/A 2 ) P(A1 ) P(B/A1 ) + P(A) P(B/A 2 ) + P(A 3 )P(B/A 3 ) (. ∴ P(B/A1)= P(that the defective bolt from the machine A 1) = 5 =.02) 6 3 2 = .05 100 4 = .1 x (. Of these 5.01 = 1 . A2.1 10 Example 37 In a bolt factory machines A 1.01) + 1 x (.03 + .06 .04) + (.4 100 Let B be the event that the drawn bolt is defective. What is the probability that it was manufactured by machine A2? Solution: P(A1) = P(that the machine A 1 manufacture the bolts) = 25 = .35 and 100 = = 40 = .
A ball is drawn at random. A number is chosen out of the numbers {1.. If two dice are thrown simultaneously.100} What is the probability that it is (i) a perfect square (ii) a multiple of 3 or 7. 3 red. 5 black. 2 black balls. Find the probability of getting (i) no heads (ii) at least one head. what is the probability that the sum of the points on two dice is greater than 10? A person is known to hit the target 3 out of 4 shots where as another person is known to hit 2 out of 3 shots. What is the probability that (i) both are white (ii) both are black.EXERCISES 10. A bag contains 4 white. Similarly defective percentage for machine A 2 and A 3 are 3% and 5% respectively. 35% and 45% of the total output respectively. 2white. Find the probability of getting a total of 9. A perfect die is tossed twice.. 1 black ball : 2 white. Find the probability of the target being hit when they both shoot. 3 red and 2 black. Two balls are drawn at random. They produce 20%. 1 red. 1 red and 1 black ball respectively. What is the probability that it has been chosen from U 3? 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 321 . The two balls are 1 red and 1 white. What is the probability that is red or white. A product is chosen at random and is found to be defective. A bag contains 4 white and 6 black balls. There are 3 boxes containing respectively 1 white. What is the probability that they come from the second box? In a company there are three machines A 1. U 2 . One of the urns is chosen at random and a ball is drawn from it. 2 red. The colour of the ball is found to be black. and 6 red balls.3. A 2 and A 3 .. Find the probability that it would have been produced by machine A 3? Let U 1 . A box is chosen at random and from it two balls are drawn at random.3 1) Three coins are tossed. 3 black balls. Previous experience shows that 2% of the products produced by machines A 1 are defective. U 3 be 3 urns with 2 red and 1 black.2..
20. and the C. then the arithmetic mean is (a) 20 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) None of these Probability that atleast one of the events A.V. (c) C. (a) 1 (b) 1 (c) 1 d) None of these 52 13 4 13) 322 . 1 is (a) 20 (b) 10 Mode is (a) Most frequent value (c) First value of the series (c) 8 (d) None of these 2) 3) 4) (b) Middlemost value (d) None of these (d) None of these 5) 6) The Geometric mean of 0. then P(A ∪B) is (a) P(A) + P(B) (b) P(A) + P(B) . 2 is (a) 2 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d)None of these Median for 2. B occur is (a) P(A∪B) (b) P(A∩B) (c) P(A/B) (d) None of these P(A) + P ( A ) is (a) 1 (b) 0 9) 10) 11) (c) 1 (d) None of these 12) If A and B are mutually exclusive events.EXERCISE 10.M (b) S.P(A∩B) (c) 0 (d) None of these The probability of drawing any one spade card from a pack of cards is. 8.4 Choose the correct answer 1) Which one is the measure of central tendency (a) Range (b) Coefficient of Variation (c) Median (d) None of these Arithmetic Mean of 2. (d) None of these If the mean and variance of a series are 10 and 25.2. 8. of a series are 5 and 25. then coefficient of variation is (a) 25 (b) 50 (c) 100 (d) None of these If the S. the Harmonic mean is a) n Σx (b) n 1 Σ1 x (c) Σ n 1 x (d) None of these 7) 8) Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion.D. (a) H. 10.V. 10 is (a) 2 (b) 10 (c) 0 For ‘n’ individual observation.D.
P(B) = 0 P(B) (d) None of these (d) Mode (d) None of these Which is based on all the observations? (a) Range (b) Median (c) Mean Which is not unduly affected by extreme item? (a) Median (b) Mean (c) Mode The emprical relation between mean. 22) 2 23) 24) 25) Probability of sure event is (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) S (d) φ Probability of an impossible event is (a) 1 (b) 0 (c) 2 A single letter is selected at random from the word PROBABILITY The probability that it is a vowel is (a) 3 11 (b) 2 11 (c) 4 11 (d) 0 323 .M.)2 (b) H.P(A) 19) 20) 21) If A and B are independent event. = (G.M.M.)2 (d) A. P(B) ≠ 0 P(B) (b) P(AI B) . < G.mode Square of S.)2 (c) (H.M.M. 8 black and 10 yellow balls is (a) 1 52 (b) 0 (c) 1 24 (d) None of these (a) (c) 16) 17) 18) P(AI B) P(A) P(AI B) .mode = 2 mean (d) mean = 3 median . is called (a) mean deviation (c) variance (b) quartile deviation (d) range (d) P(B) .) = (A.M. < A. then P(A I B) is (a) P(A) P(B) (b) P(A) + P(B) (c) P(A/B) Which of the following is correct? (a) H.M. (d) None of these (b) A. < A.M.M.mode = 3 median (b) Mean mode=3 (mean median) (c) Mean .14) The probability of drawing one white ball from a bag containing 6 red.M. x H. (c) A.M.D.M. < H. x G.M.M.M.M. median and mode is (a) Mean . x H.M.M.+ G. Which of the following is correct? (a) (A. > G.M.M. = H. < G.
BA = 7 −18 −15 − 8 38 3 − 4 14 1 − 9 41 8 5) 7 16 −10 9 13 . BA = 14 16 − 3 6 18 4 10 iv) 0 6 − 2 8 −12 − 4 4) 11 − 40 39 AB = 0 18 −14 .ANSWERS MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS Exercise 1.6 2 324 18) 2 1 1 1 .1 12 i) A + B = 4 6 7 12 7 −1 8 3 12 ii) 4 6 7 12 7 −1 8 3 2) 15 5 10 iii) 5A = 20 45 40 10 25 23 3) 8 4 AB = − 9 12 . 11 15 16 25 35 43 14) 15 15 16 15) 3 . BA = 3 5 6 10 12 1 2 AB = 1 2 1 2 1 2 11) 12) 13) . BA = 17 16 − 6 AB = 12 18 8 −1 4 12 20 24 6 AB = 29. BA = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Total requirement of calories and proteins for family A is 12000 and 320 respectively and for family B is 10900 and 295.7 .
3 1) (c) 6) (b) 11) (b) 16) (c) 21) (a) 26) (b) 2) 10 3) 1 5) A is nonsingular 9) 5 2) (c) 7) (a) 12) (c) 17) (a) 22) (b) 27) (d) 3) (a) 8) (c) 13) (c) 18) (b) 23) (a) 28) (d) 4) (c) 9) (d) 14) (b) 19) (b) 24) (a) 29) (b) 5) (b) 10) (a) 15) (a) 20) (b) 25) (c) 30) (a) ALGEBRA Exercise 2.2 2(x +1) 3 3x +1 .22) (i) 60 27 44 32 (ii) 58 31 40 34 (iii) 44 6 32 (iv) 0 − 5 10 58 72 40 80 19 18 23) 45 60 55 30 (i) 58 72 40 80 (ii) 2 x 4 45 60 (iii) 55 30 (iv) (i) is the transpose of (iii) Exercise 1.2 1) n = 10 5) 6666600 2) 21 3) (i) 3! 3! 3! (ii) 2! 2! 2! (iii) 4! 4! 2! 4) 1344 6) (i) 8! 4! (ii) (7!) (8p 4) 7) 1440 8) 1440 9) (i) 720 (ii) 24 325 13! 11! 11! 2 5 9) 3x−2 + 2 x 2 x1 4 x5 10) 2(x 1) .2 1) (i) 24 (ii) 9 (iii) 8 4) A = 0.9(x + 2 ) . A is singular 6) 0 7) 0 8) 120 Exercise 1.4(x+1) + 1 2 3(x+ 2) 2(x+1) 8) x −1 (x+3)2 Exercise 2.x +1 1 1 1 1 4 1 2) x+ 2 + x + 3 1 2 2 19 21 3) x + 3 + x + 3 3 21 21 5) 25(x + 3) + 25(x − 2 ) + 5(x − 2 ) 2 1 1 6) 9(x 1) .1 2 7) 4(x 1) .1 1) 5 ( x 3 ) + 5(x + 2) 4) 2(x + 2) + 2(x − 2) .
9c5 x 96 6) 12c4(2 4) Exercise 2. 64 326 . 1215 . 11 1 . 19 Exercise 3.Exercise 2.5 1) 3) n(n +1) (n + 2) (n + 3) 4 2n(n + 1) (2n +1) 3 2) 16 6) 858 3) 8 7) 9 4) 780 8) 20790 2) n(n+1) (n +2) (3n +5) 12 4) n(3n2+6n+1) 6) n(n +1) (n + 2) 6 5) 3 (2n2+15n+74) Exercise 2.2 1) 11.3 1) (i) 210 (ii) 105 5) 3360 Exercise 2. 14 1 . 17 1 4) 4.6 1) 11c5 (2)5x. 45. 135. 3) 10c4(256) 5) 9c4 3x 17 11 n 6 c6 2 x 2) 12c6 4) y3 x3 144x 2 y7 16 19 .7 1) (a) 5) (a) 9) (c) 13) (a) 2) (a) 6) (a) 10) (a) 14) (b) 3) (b) 7) (a) 11) (a) 15) (c) 4) (b) 8) (b) 12) (a) 16) (b) 17) (d) SEQUENCES AND SERIES Exercise 3. 17. 405.1 1) 23 . 23 3) 1 8 4 2 2) 248 1 2) 15.
27 . 5 4) (a) n2 1 1 1 (d) 1. 40. 15. 3 (c) 1.796 10) Rs.5 1) Rs.073 6) Machine B may be purchased 7) Rs. 80.40 Exercise 3. 512. 32 (d) n21 (e) 10 n 3n 5) (a) 1. 6. 2 1 −1. 10. 1. 5 1 6 c) 1.228 3) Rs. 8. 3. 720 6) Rs. 1. 29 2) 2. 16 .279 4) Rs. 1. 123. 0. 15131 Exercise 3. 6. 1.1% Exercise 3. 11.7 1) (a) 7) (b) 13) (a) 19) (b) 25) (b) 31) (b) 2) Rs.405 3) Rs. 17. 27. 1 2 3 (f) 1. 1 . 14. 40. 5. 73. 13. 3. 24 .350 4) Rs. 1.4% years (nearly) 9) 16.050 13) Rs.000 7) 12% 10) 12. 6. 1. 403. 2 . 3 . 1 2 4 8 (e) 1. 4.710 ii) Rs. 5. 9. 30. 13. 3.987 11) Rs. 46.097 12) Rs.398 2) (a) 8) (a) 14) (c) 20) (a) 26) (b) 32) (c) 3) (b) 9) (a) 15) (d) 21) (a) 27) (b) 33) (b) 327 4) (d) 10) (b) 16) (a) 22) (d) 28) (c) 5) (a) 11) (d) 17) (b) 23) (b) 29) (d) 6) (b) 12) (a) 18) (b) 24) (b) 30) (a) . 20. 1. 95. 256 . 23. 7.110 8) 22 1 2 2) i) Rs. 3125 (e) 2.590 8) Rs. 5. 3 (h) 1. 16. 5.757. 1 3) (a) {0. 8.6 1) Rs. 5. 20 2 3 (b) 1 . 11. 3. 1 . 1} 1 (b) 4n1 (c) 2+ 10 n 1 1 . 0. 1 . 2} b) {1. 96. 160 (d) 2. 6. 1. 12.398 5) Rs. 4.Exercise 3. −1 . 34. 1.198 9) Rs. 2560 (g) 5. 364 (g) 1. 55. 2.4 5 1 1) (a) 2. 1. 4 . 5. 0. 2. 91 (b) 5.14 5) Rs. 12. 121. 3 1 4 . 152 (f) 2.
33y + 16 = 0 .75 9) 2y = 7x+24000 4) x2y+2 = 0 7) y = 7x+500 Exercise 4. π 4 5) x2+y 28x+2y23 = 0 7) x2+y 26x8y+15 = 0 9) x2+y 24x6y12 = 0 Exercise 4.1 1) 8x+6y9 = 0 2) x4y7 = 0 3) 8x2+8y22x36y+35 = 0 4) x2+y 26x14y+54 = 0 5) 3x4y = 12 6) x23y22y+1 = 0 7) xy6 = 0 8) 24x2y 2 = 0 2+3y2+2x+12y1 = 0 9) 3x 10) 2x+y7 = 0 Exercise 4. 0. 2x + y = 0 4) 5 7 2 =0 3 y + 2 +3 3 =0 5) .5 1) x+3y10 = 0 3) 6 units 6) 2 1 2) x2+y 24x6y12 = 0 4) x2+y 2+8x12y33 = 0 6) x2+y 26x6y+13 = 0 8) 5x2+5y226x48y+24 = 0 2) 2x+y7 = 0 4) a2(l2+m2) = n2 46 Exercise 4.ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY Exercise 4.4 1) x2+y 2+8x+4y16 = 0 3) π.22 = 0 Exercise 4.2 or 6 3 17 6) 2x3y+12 = 0 7) x 8) 9x .2 1) 2x3y+12 = 0 2) xy+5 3) x + 2y .6 1) (a) 2) (b) 7) (c) 8) (c) 13) (b) 14) (a) 3) (a) 9) (b) 15) (b) 328 4) (b) 10) (b) 16) (b) 5) (b) 11) (a) 17) (a) 6) (b) 12) (c) . 77x + 21y .6 = 0 .3 2) k = 33 5) 3x+y5 = 0 8) y = 4x+6000 3) 4x3y+1 = 0 6) Rs.
2sin4Asin2A (iii) cos20o π 6 (ii) 5 π π 6 (iii) 3 π 4 (iv) π (v) . (i) 2cos42osin10o Exercise 5.cos2B) (iv) 2 (cos3A + cos 3 ) 1 1 A (ii) .2 3) cosA = 24 . cosecA = −25 4) −1331 25 7 276 5) 1 6) cotA 8) (i) cosec 23o Exercise 5. θ = 2nπ + 3 .6 1) (i) 1 1 1 A 117 cos3A = 125 . n∈Z iv) θ = nπ + 3 .1 12) 12 31 13) 8 1 14) 1− 3 2 2 18) 4 3 19) 1+ 2 Exercise 5. (i) (2+ (ii) cot 26o 3 ) (ii) 2 2 1− 3 8) (i) 36 325 (ii)  253 325 Exercise 5. n∈Z.4 14) sin3A = 125 Exercise 5. n∈Z π (iii) θ = nπ + 2 .π 6 4 π (vi) π 4 2π 2) (i) θ = nπ + 3 .7 6) x = 1 or 6 1 7) x = 2 or 4 329 1 9) 65 33 . (i) 2 ( cos 2 .5 1.3 5. tan3A = − 44 − 117 44 (ii) 2 (cos2C .cosA) (iii) 2 ( 2 + cos2A) 2.TRIGONOMETRY Exercise 5. n∈Z π (ii) θ = 2nπ + 3 . n∈Z Exercise 5.
1 5) 2x3+h 6) 0 7) Domain { x / < 0 or x > 1} 9) (∞. −1 2 π 7) (iv) (0. (log2)3 5) (i) 1 (ii) 11 (iii) 5 (iv) 1 (v) 4129 2 (vii) 0 (ii) 1. ∞] = 3x + 5 x 1 100n .2 } 1 1 (iii) 2 .{(2n+1)π . 1 . n∈Z} 8) 10) Rs. 1 (viii) 3 8 (vi) 0.25 6) (i) 1. n∈Z} (ii) R{2nπ .2 4) log 8 . 1.425 1 9) 74 years 10 i) f(x) = 3 x + 3 ii) f(3) = 3 330 (iii) a = 290 . 0 ≤ n < 25 8) C = 115n .n 2 . f(x) 13) 2 x2 +1 . n∈Z} (iv) R (vi) R{(2n+1) 2 . The domain is R{(4n+1) 2 . 2] and [3. 0) . n∈Z} (iii) R{nπ+ 4 π . n is an integer} (i) R . domain is R{ . n∈Z} 13 π (v) R{2nπ . + 2 Exercise 6. 25 ≤ n 25 1 12) f( x ) = 1 − x 3 + 5x 1 .8 1) (d) 7) (b) 13) (c) 19) (d) 25) (a) 31) (c) 37) (a) 2) (a) 8) (d) 14) (a) 20) (a) 26) (a) 32) (a) 38) (a) 3) (c) 9) (b) 15) (d) 21) (c) 27) (b) 33) (b) 39) (a) 4) (a) 10) (c) 16) (c) 22) (c) 28) (c) 34) (a) 40) (b) 5) (c) 11) (c) 17) (c) 23) (c) 29) (a) 35) (d) 6) (a) 12) (b) 18) (b) 24) (c) 30) (d) 36) (d) FUNCTIONS AND THEIR GRAPHS Exercise 6.Exercise 5.
1/ √2 (viii) 5/3 (v) 2 (ix) 1 (x) 4 4) 28 / 5 .sin x (6) x = 3 and x = 4 (ii) sec2 x (ii) (iii) .1 1) (i) 10/3 (ii) .1) + x cos (x . .4/3. Exercise 7. Exercise 7.cotx cosec x (iv) 1 2 x 2) (i) (iii) (v) 12x3 – 6x2 + 1 1 − 1 + ex 3x 2 3 − 20 6 1 + 4 − 2 x5 x x −1 3+ x x2 2 x sec2 x + 1/x (iv) ( 2 ) (vi) x2 e x ( x + 3 ) (vii) 15 x 3 2 − 6 x 1 2 − x − 3 2 (viii) n ax 2 n − b 2 x n +1 (ix) 2x(6x2 + 1) (x) x2 cosx + 2 ( cosx + x sinx) (xi) (xiii) 2x (2x2 + 1) (xiv) xn1 ( 1 + n log x) (xv) 2 ( x tanx + cot x) + x( x sec2 x – 2 cosec2 x) (xvi) sec x ( 2 x tan x + 1) 2 x ( ) sec x( 1 + 2 tan2x)(xii) 2sinx ( x .3 1) (d) 2) (d) 7) (b) 8) (c) 13) (a) 14) (b) 3) (a) 9) (b) 15) (b) 4) (a) 10) (c) 5) (a) 11) (d) 6) (c) 12) (a) DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Exercise 7.2) + ex (xvii) (1 + e ) ex x 2 331 .2 2) 5/4. f ( 2 ) does not exist.3 1) (i) .5 (iii) 1/3 (vi) 1 (xi) 12 2) 5 15 7 24 a 8 (xii) 5 / 2 (vii) (iv) .Exercise 6.
log x.2 sin 2x 21) 1 3 x + x +1 3 1 log 1 + e x − x 1 +e ex 2 ( ) 20) ( ) (3 x −2 3 + 1) 22) cos (log x ) x 4x 1− x 4 23) xlog (logx) [1+log (logx) Exercise 7. ecotx 13) 15) 1 (e 2 tanx tan x sec2 x) 19) 16) 2x cos x2 18) .5 1) 6) 3 1− x 2 24) 18 x ( 3x 2 + 4) 2 2) 3 1+ x 2 3) 2 1+ x 2 4) 2 1+ x 2 5) 2 1+ x 2 1 2 1+ x2 ( ) 7) 1 2 1+ x2 ( ) 8) 1 a − x2 2 9) xx ( 1 + logx) 332 .4 1) 3 (8 − 5 x ) secx (secx tanx) 5) tan x 4) e 3x − 2 x + 2 2 3x − 1 2) − 10 13 3) ex cos ( ex) 6) 2xe x 2 7) 10) 1 x2 + 1 8) . log( log x) 12) .(xviii) tan x 2 x 1 + tan 2 2 (xxi) 1 − 1 x2 (xix) (3 + 5x )2 − 30 2 (xx) x − 1 x2 − 4 (xxii) x ( 1 + 2 log x ) (xxiv) xex (1 + x) 2 (xxiii) x sec 2 x + tan x – sin x Exercise 7.3 sin(3x2) 11) 9) 2x tan(x2) 2(x 2 − 3) x2 −4 esinx + cosx (cosx – sinx) 1 1 + ex 14) 2 cotx n −1 17) n [log(log (log x ))] x.cosec2 x.
x x (1 + log x) ( ) 2 log x x 5 15) 5 3 4 + 5x 8 . log x + x 3 ( x − 2 ) log (3 x − 4 ) 12) (3x – 4)x2 + x−2 3x − 4 14) xlogx 11) xsin1 x x [ sin1 x x + log x 1. 3 4 − 5 x 16 − 25 x 2 16) x 2 + 2 ( ) (3 x x 4 4 10 x 48 x 3 1x 1 −5 2 + 17) x 2 (1 − log x) 4 x + 2 3x − 5 x ) 18) (tan x)cos x ( cosec x – sin x log tanx) 19) 1 + 1 1 1 20) log 1 + − x x 1+ x 1 + x (1 − x 2 ) 2 2x 32 21) x3 x2 + 5 3 x 4 + − (2 x + 3 )2 x x 2 + 5 2 x + 3 (22) ax log a 2 + log x 23) x x 2 x Exercise 7.x2 ] 13) e x .6 1) 2a y (24) (sin x)x [x cot x + log sin x] 2) − x y 3) − y x 4) −b2x a2y 5) b 2x a2 y − x y 6) − (ax + hy ) (hx + by ) 7) 1 8) − x (2 x 2 + y 2 ) y (x 2 + 2 y 2 ) 9) 10) y x log y − y x y log x − x 11) − 2x + 1 2y+1 12) − sin (x + y ) 1 + sin ( x + y ) y − 2x 2y− x 13) log x (1 + log x )2 14) log sin y + y tan x log cos x − x cot y 15) 333 .b cos ec θ a log sin x 10) (sinx)log x cot x.
tan θ 9) t tant sin(log t ) 6) t cos t 10) 1 7) tan θ 11) 1 t 8) 2(t 2 −1) t 3/ 2 Exercise 7.1 (1) x (x3 – 1 ) + C (3) (5) (7) x4 + 4 x 2 + 5 log x + e x + C 2 (2) x 5 + (4) 2 x x − 14 3 x + C x2 + log x + 2 x + C 2 x4 1 3 − + x 2 + 3 log x + C (6) 5 sec x .7 1) b cot θ a 2) 1 t2 3) a cos ecè 4) b 1 t 5) .Exercise 7.9 1) (c) 2) (b) 7) (c) 8) (b) 13) (a) 14) (d) 19) (a) 20) (b) 25) (a) 26) (b) 31) (b) 32) (b) 37) (c) 38) (d) 43) (a) 44) (b) 3) (d) 9) (c) 15) (a) 21) (b) 27) (c) 33) (a) 39) (d) 4) (a) 10) (a) 16 (b) 22) (c) 28) (c) 34) (c) 40) (b) 5) (d) 11) (c) 17) (b) 23) (c) 29) (a) 35) (a) 41) (c) 6) (c) 12) (c) 18) (d) 24) (b) 30) (b) 36) (b) 42) (a) INTEGRAL CALCULUS Exercise 8.8 1) 32 2) a2y 3)  (1 + x ) 1 2 4)  1 2 at 3 1 x2 5)  b cos ec3θ 2 a 6) 1 sec 4 θ cos ec θ 3a 11) − Exercise 7.2 cot x + C 4 2 2x 2 2 7 x 7 2 + 2 5 x 5 2 + log x + C (8) 2 72 6 52 x + x + 8 x1 2 + C 7 5 334 .
2 (1) (3) (5) 1 +C 12(2 − 3 x ) 4 (2) (4) 1 +C 2(3 − 2x) e 4x + 3 +C 4 5 (4 x + 3 )6 5 + C 24 2 x2 + 4x + 8 + C 3 x −1 1 cos( x 2 ) + C 2 ( ) (6) 1 3 x + x−4 2 ( ) 2 +C (7) − (9) (11) (8) 2 cos x + C (10) (12) (14) 2 2 ( x + x) 3 2 + C 3 1 2 x + 2x 8 1 (log x ) 3 + C 3 x2 + 1 + C ( ) 4 +C (13) log ( x3 + 3x + 5 ) + C x 1 tan −1 + C 2 6 3 335 .(9) 3ex + 2 sec1 (x) + C (11) 9x (13) (15) 4x 3 +C 3 (10) log x − (12) 1 +C 3x3 2 32 2 52 x + x + x2 + C 3 5 2 32 x + +C 3 3 23 x + 3 sin x + 7 cos x + C 2 2 x x +3 +C 3 (14) 2 x 1 2 − (16) 2 (x + 7 ) x + 1 + C 3 x +C 2 (17) x – 2tan1 x + C (19) (sin x + cos x) + C 1 + e −x + C 3 x3 1 (23) log x + + e x + C x (18) x – tan1x + C (20) tan (21) − (22) log x + ex + C (24) 3x3 + 4x2 + 4x + C (26) tan x + sec x + C (25) − 1 − 2e − 2 x + 7 x + C x Exercise 8.
3 1) 3) 5) 1 3 x tan −1 +C 3 2) 4) 1 tan−`1 2 1 ( 2x ) + C 5 + x +C 5 − x 1 x − 2 log +C 4 x + 2 1 log 3 x + 9 x 2 − 1 + C 3 ( ) log 2 5 6) 1 log 6 x + 36 x 2 + 25 + C 6 1 x + 1 tan −1 +C 2 2 ( ) 7) 1 −1 2 x sin + C 2 3 1 3x + 1 tan −1 +C 6 2 1 + 2 8) 9) 10) log ( x + 2 ) + { x2 + 4x + 2 + C } 11) log x − 1 1 x −1 3 − x + x 2 +C 12) log x 2 + 4 x − 5 − log +C 2 6 x+5 ( ) 336 .(15) log ( ex + e – x ) + C (17) tan ( log x) + C (19) log {log (log x )} + C (21) log ( sinx) + C (23) log ( 1 + log x ) + C (25) (27) 2 (3 + log x )3 2 + C 3 (16) log ( log x ) + C (18) − (20) 1 +C 4 (2 x + 1) 2 1 +C 6 (1 − 2 tan x )3 (22) .log ( cosec x + cot x ) + C (24) (26) (28) 1 tan −1 x 2 4 { ( )} 2 +C 1 x4 log 4 +C 4 x +1 (tan x ) (x 2 2 +C +C ( 2 x + 4 )3 2 3 + C (29) (31) −1 5 ) 5 (30) (32) 2 2 x + x+4 3 ( ) 32 +C 1 log (a + b tan x ) + C b log sec x + C Exercise 8.
5 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) x 2 x 2 − 36 − 18 log x + x 2 − 36 + C ( ) x x 16 − x 2 + 8 sin −1 + C 2 4 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 + 25 + x 2 − 25 − 4x2 − 5 − 25 log x + 25 + x 2 + C 2 25 log x + 2 ( ) ( x 2 − 25 )+C ) 5 log 2 x + 4 ( 4x2 − 5 + C ) x 2 9 x 2 − 16 − 8 log 3 x + 9 x 2 − 16 + C 3 337 ( .log (secx + tanx) + C 12) ex ( x2 – 2x + 2 ) + C Exercise 8.4 1) .13) 14) 7 9 x− 2 log ( x 2 − 3 x + 2 ) + log +C 2 2 x −1 1 x −3 log (x 2 − 4 x + 3 ) + 2 log +C 2 x−1 15) 2 2x 2 + x − 3 + C 16) 2 x 2 + 2 x − 1 + 2 log ( x + 1) + Exercise 8.ex ( x+ 1 ) + C 4) 2) { x 2 + 2x −1 + C } x2 1 log x − + C 2 2 3) x ( log x – 1 ) + C ax 1 x − + C 5) x ( log x )2 – 2x ( log x – 1 ) + C log e a log e a 6) − 8) 1 (log x + 1) + C x 7) x sin 2 x cos 2 x + +C 2 4 sin 3 x x cos 3 x − +C 9 3 1 10) x tan−1 x − log 1 + x2 + C 2 9) x cos −1 x − 1 − x 2 + C ( ) 11) x sec x .
360 11) 7 9 13 1 3 2) Rs. 160 17) Rs. 1. 5. 40. 90 14) 13 18) Rs.8 1) (b) 2) (d) 7) (a) 8) (b) 13) (a) 14) (a) 19) (a) 20) (d) 25) (c) 26) (a) 31) (b) 32) (d) 3) (c) 9) (a) 15) (c) 21) (a) 27) (d) 33) (a) 4) (a) 10) (b) 16) (a) 22) (c) 28) (a) 34) (d) 5) (b) 11) (a) 17) (d) 23) (a) 29) (b) 35) (a) 6) (c) 12) (b) 18) (b) 24) (d) 30) (c) STOCKS.1 3) 15 4 4) 1 3 Exercise 8. 130 21) Rs. Rs. SHARES AND DEBENTURES Exercise 9. 1. 9.Exercise: 8. 900.500 22) Rs. 750 6) Rs.1 1) Rs.6 1) 29 6 2) 5 log 2 6) 1 (e − 1) 2 π −1 2 3) π 4 4) π 4 1 log e 2 5) 3 (e – 1) 9) 13) 17) π 8 π 4 π 2 7) tan –1 (e) − 11) (log 4)1 2 8) 1 12) 16) 8 3 2 3 π 4 10) (3 3 −1 ) 14) log 18) 4 15) 3 1 (e − 1) 4 Exercise 8. 7.500 % 8) 15% 10) 20% % % 12) 5% stock at 95 15) Rs. 675 . 525 20) 2% 338 13) 18% debenture at 110 16) Rs.5% 5) Rs.000 7) 6 2 3 3) 100 4) Rs.200 9) 12.7 1) 3 2 2) e .500 19) Rs.
6 2) 13.2 1) (a) 11.V(B) = .35 21) 8. 43 10 100 5) 2 3 37 6) 1 12 7) 11 12 8) 6 9) 45 74 10) 15 Exercise 10.000 26) 5% Exercise 9.58 (b) 29. . 24.24 7) S. 120 27) 17.0896 3) 40.D = 13. . Exercise 10.71.4 1) (c) 2) (b) 7) (a) 8) (b) 13) (c) 14) (b) 19) (c) 20) (a) 25) (c) 3) (c) 9) (a) 15) (c) 21) (a) 4) (a) 10) (a) 16) (c) 22) (b) 5) (c) 11) (c) 17) (a) 23) (a) 6) (c) 12) (a) 18) (b) 24) (b) 339 . 333. 1 15 11 3 4) 1 .92 12) C. 10. since C.24 (iii) 13.24.67 16) 26.D = Rs.D = 3.D = 2.44 9) S.33 4) S. .33 25) Rs.39 2) 12.V(y) = 1.3 7) 34 11) 48.V(y) < C.67 17) 183.3 1) 1 .1 1) 29.D = 2. Rs. 31.24 (ii) S.1 6) 49. 7 8 8 2) 1 9 3) 2 .229 22) 30. C.18 12) 44. CityB’s price was more stable. 13) C.D = 13.V(x) City y’s share was more stable.38 Exercise 10.2 1) (b) 2) (b) 7) (b) 8) (a) 24) Rs.V =(x) = 5.5 13) 69 18) 17.93 3) 4 8) 59.V = 13.47% 3) (a) 9) (a) 4) (a) 10) (d) 5) (a) 11) (b) 6) (d) 12) (a) STATISTICS Exercise 10.90.47 10) S.000.23) Decrease in income Rs.87 (Crores) 11) C.V(B) < C.07 8) S. .67 Since C.02 5) 33 10) 8 15) 13 20) 4. C.52 5) S.D = 1.07 4) 58 9) 20 14) 32 19) 28.V(A) = .D = 1.V(A).25 6) (i) S.
LOGARITHMS Mean Differences 00 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 0000 0414 0792 1139 1461 1761 2041 2304 2553 2788 3010 3222 3424 3617 3802 3979 4150 4314 4472 4624 4771 4914 5051 5185 5315 11 0043 0453 0828 1173 1492 1790 2068 2330 2577 2810 3032 3243 3444 3636 3820 3997 4166 4330 4487 4639 4786 4928 5065 5198 5328 22 0086 0492 0864 1206 1523 1818 2095 2355 2601 2833 3054 3263 3464 3655 3838 4014 4183 4346 4502 4654 4800 4942 5079 5211 5340 5465 5587 5705 5821 5933 6042 6149 6253 6355 6454 6551 6646 6739 6830 6920 7007 7093 7177 7259 7340 33 0128 0531 0899 1239 1553 1847 2122 2380 2625 2856 3075 3284 3483 3674 3856 4031 5200 4362 4518 4669 4814 4955 5092 5224 5353 5478 5599 5717 5832 5944 6053 6160 6263 6365 6464 6561 6656 6749 6839 6928 7016 7101 7185 7267 7348 44 0170 0569 0934 1271 1594 1875 2148 2405 2648 2878 3096 3304 3502 3692 3874 4048 4216 4378 4533 4683 4829 4969 5105 5237 5366 5490 5611 5729 5843 5955 6064 6170 6274 6375 6474 6571 6665 6758 6848 6937 7024 7110 7193 7275 7356 55 0212 0607 0969 1303 1614 1903 2175 2430 2672 2900 3118 3324 3522 3711 3892 4065 4232 4393 4548 4698 4843 4983 5119 5250 5378 5502 5623 5740 5855 5966 6075 6180 6284 6385 6484 6580 6675 6767 6857 6946 7033 7118 7202 7284 7364 66 0253 0645 1004 1335 1644 1931 2201 2455 2695 2923 3139 3345 3541 3729 3909 4082 4249 4409 4564 4713 4857 4997 5132 5263 5391 5514 5635 5752 5866 5977 6085 6191 6294 6395 6493 6590 6684 6776 6866 6955 7042 7126 7210 7292 7372 77 0294 0682 1038 1367 1673 1959 2227 2480 2718 2945 3160 3365 3560 3747 3927 4099 4265 4425 4579 4728 4871 5011 5145 5276 5403 5527 5647 5763 5877 5988 6096 6201 6304 6405 6503 6599 6693 6785 6875 6964 7050 7135 7218 7300 7380 88 0334 0719 1072 1399 1703 1987 2253 2504 2742 2967 3181 3385 3579 3766 3945 4116 4281 4440 4594 4742 4886 5024 5159 5289 5416 5539 5658 5775 5888 5999 6107 6212 6314 6415 6513 6609 9702 6794 6884 6972 7059 7143 7226 7308 7388 99 0374 0755 1106 1430 1732 2014 2279 2529 2765 2989 3201 3404 3598 3784 3962 4133 4298 4456 4609 4757 4900 5038 5172 5302 5428 5551 5670 5786 5899 6010 6117 6222 6325 6425 6522 6618 9712 6803 6893 6981 7067 7152 7235 7316 7396 1 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 12 11 10 10 9 4 17 15 14 13 12 5 21 19 17 16 15 6 25 23 21 19 18 7 29 26 24 23 21 20 18 17 16 16 15 14 14 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 9 8 33 30 28 26 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 11 10 10 9 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 22 21 20 19 18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 11 8 11 14 17 8 11 13 16 7 10 12 15 7 9 12 14 7 9 11 13 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 8 11 13 8 10 12 8 10 12 7 9 11 7 9 11 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 9 10 8 10 8 9 8 9 7 9 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5441 5453 5563 5575 5682 5694 57985809 5911 5922 6021 6128 6232 6335 6435 6532 6628 6721 6812 6902 6990 7076 7160 7243 7324 6031 6138 6243 6345 6444 6542 6637 6730 6821 6911 6998 7084 7168 7251 7332 9 10 11 8 10 11 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 9 10 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 340 .
LOGARITHMS Mean Differences 00 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 7404 7482 7559 7634 7709 7782 7853 7924 7993 8062 8129 8195 8261 8325 8388 8451 8513 8573 8633 8692 8751 8808 8865 8912 8976 9031 9085 9138 9191 9243 9294 9345 9395 9445 9494 9542 9590 9638 9685 9731 9777 9823 9868 9912 9956 11 7412 7490 7566 7642 7716 7789 7860 7931 8000 8069 8136 8202 8267 8331 8395 8457 8519 8579 8639 8698 8756 8814 8871 8927 8982 9036 9090 9143 9196 9248 9299 9350 9400 9450 9499 9547 9595 9643 9689 9736 9782 9827 9872 9917 9961 22 7419 7497 7574 7649 7723 7796 7868 7938 8007 8075 8142 8209 8274 8338 8401 8463 8525 8585 8645 8704 8762 8820 8876 8932 8987 9042 9096 9149 9201 9253 9304 9355 9405 9455 9504 9552 9600 9647 9694 9741 9786 9832 9877 9921 9965 33 7427 7505 7582 7657 7731 7803 7875 7945 8014 8082 8149 8215 8280 8344 8407 8470 8531 8591 8651 8710 8768 8825 8882 8938 8993 9047 9101 9154 9206 9258 9309 9360 9410 9460 9509 9557 9605 9652 9699 9745 9791 9836 9881 9926 9969 44 7435 7513 7589 7664 7738 7810 7882 7952 8021 8089 8156 8222 8287 8351 8414 8476 8537 8597 8657 8716 8774 8831 8887 8943 8998 9053 9106 9159 9212 9263 9315 9365 9415 9465 9513 9562 9609 9657 9703 9750 9795 9841 9886 9930 9974 55 7443 7520 7597 7672 7745 7818 7889 7959 8028 8096 8162 8228 8293 8357 8420 8482 8543 8603 8663 8722 8779 8837 8893 8949 9004 9058 9112 9165 9217 9269 9320 9370 9420 9469 9518 9566 9614 9661 9708 9754 9800 9845 9890 9934 9978 66 7451 7528 7604 7679 7752 7825 7896 7966 8035 8102 8169 8235 8299 8363 8426 8488 8549 8609 8669 8727 8785 8842 8899 8954 9009 9063 9117 9170 9222 9274 9325 9375 9425 9474 9523 9571 9619 9666 9713 9759 9805 9850 9894 9939 9983 77 7459 7536 7612 7686 7760 7832 7903 7973 8041 8109 8176 8241 8306 8370 8432 8494 8555 8615 8675 8733 8791 8848 8904 8960 9015 9069 9122 9175 9227 9279 9330 9380 9430 9479 9528 9576 9624 9671 9717 9764 9809 9854 9899 9943 9987 88 7466 7543 7619 7694 7767 7839 7910 7980 8048 8116 8182 8248 8312 8376 8439 8500 8561 8621 8681 8739 8797 8854 8910 8965 9020 9074 9128 9180 9232 9284 9335 9385 9435 9484 9533 9581 9628 9675 9722 9768 9814 9859 9903 9948 9991 99 7474 7551 7627 7701 7774 7846 7917 7987 8055 8122 8189 8254 8319 8382 8445 8506 8567 8627 8686 8745 8802 8859 8915 8971 9025 9079 9133 9186 9238 9289 9340 9390 9440 9489 9538 9586 9633 9680 9727 9773 9818 9863 9908 9952 9996 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 341 .
20 .33 .21 .26 .03 .23 .31 .28 .34 .40 .32 .10 .24 .49 1000 1023 1047 1072 1096 1122 1148 1175 1202 1230 1259 1288 1318 1349 1380 1413 1445 1479 1514 1549 1585 1622 1660 1698 1738 1778 1820 1862 1905 1950 1995 2042 2089 2138 2188 2239 2291 2344 2399 2455 2512 2570 2630 2692 2754 2818 2884 2951 3020 3090 11 1002 1026 1050 1074 1099 1125 1151 1178 1205 1233 1262 1291 1321 1352 1384 1416 1449 1483 1517 1552 1589 1626 1663 1702 1742 1782 1824 1866 1910 1954 2000 2046 2094 2143 2193 2244 2296 2350 2404 2460 2518 2576 2636 2698 2761 2825 2891 2958 3027 3097 22 1005 1028 1052 1076 1102 1127 1153 1180 1208 1236 1265 1294 1324 1355 1387 1419 1452 1486 1521 1556 1592 1629 1667 1706 1746 1786 1828 1871 1914 1959 2004 2051 2099 2148 2198 2249 2301 2355 2410 2466 2523 2582 2642 2704 2767 2831 2897 2965 3034 3105 33 1007 1030 1054 1079 1104 1130 1156 1183 1211 1239 1268 1297 1327 1358 1390 1422 1455 1489 1524 1560 1596 1633 1671 1710 1750 1791 1832 1875 1919 1963 2009 2056 2104 2153 2203 2254 2307 2360 2415 2472 2529 2588 2648 2710 2773 2838 2904 2972 3041 3112 44 1009 1033 1057 1081 1107 1132 1159 1186 1213 1242 1271 1300 1330 1361 1393 1426 1459 1493 1528 1563 1600 1637 1675 1714 1754 1795 1837 1879 1923 1968 2014 2061 2109 2158 2208 2259 2312 2366 2421 2477 2535 2594 2655 2716 2780 2844 2911 2979 3048 3119 55 1012 1035 1059 1084 1109 1135 1161 1189 1216 1245 1274 1303 1334 1365 1396 1429 1462 1496 1531 1567 1603 1641 1679 1718 1758 1799 1841 1884 1928 1972 2018 2065 2113 2163 2213 2265 2317 2371 2427 2483 2541 2600 2661 2723 2786 2851 2917 2985 3055 3126 66 1014 1038 1062 1086 1112 1138 1164 1191 1219 1247 1276 1306 1337 1368 1400 1432 1466 1500 1535 1570 1607 1644 1683 1722 1762 1803 1845 1888 1932 1977 2023 2070 2118 2168 2218 2270 2323 2377 2432 2489 2547 2606 2667 2729 2793 2858 2924 2992 3062 3133 77 1016 1040 1064 1089 1114 1140 1167 1194 1222 1250 1279 1309 1340 1371 1403 1435 1469 1503 1538 1574 1611 1648 1687 1726 1766 1807 1849 1892 1936 1982 2028 2075 2123 2173 2223 2275 2328 2382 2438 2495 2553 2612 2673 2735 2799 2864 2931 2999 3069 3141 88 1019 1042 1067 1091 1117 1143 1169 1197 1225 1253 1282 1312 1343 1374 1406 1439 1472 1507 1542 1578 1614 1652 1690 1730 1770 1811 1854 1897 1941 1986 2032 2080 2128 2178 2228 2280 2333 2388 2443 2500 2559 2618 2679 2742 2805 2871 2938 3006 3076 3148 99 1021 1045 1069 1094 1119 1146 1172 1199 1227 1256 1285 1315 1346 1377 1409 1442 1476 1510 1545 1581 1618 1656 1694 1734 1774 1816 1858 1901 1945 1991 2037 2084 2133 2183 2234 2286 2339 2393 2449 2506 2564 2624 2685 2748 2812 2877 2944 3013 3083 3155 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 342 .05 .08 .18 .44 .47 .16 .36 .37 .48 .13 .46 .06 .01 .30 .09 .35 .19 .27 .00 .14 .12 .11 .22 .29 .04 .42 .07 .39 .43 .25 .38 .17 .15 .45 .ANTILOGARITHMS Mean Differences 00 .02 .41 .
52 .77 .64 .82 .96 .89 .92 .55 .57 .99 3162 3236 3311 3388 3467 3548 3631 3715 3802 3890 3981 4074 4169 4266 4365 4467 4571 4677 4786 4898 5012 5129 5248 5370 5495 5623 5754 5888 6026 6166 6310 6457 6607 6761 6918 7079 7244 7413 7586 7762 7943 8128 8318 8511 8710 8913 9120 9333 9550 9772 11 3170 3243 3319 3396 3475 3556 3639 3724 3811 3899 3990 4083 4178 4276 4375 4477 4581 4688 4797 4909 5023 5140 5260 5383 5508 5636 5768 5902 6039 6180 6324 6471 6622 6776 6934 7096 7261 7430 7603 7780 7962 8147 8337 8531 8730 8933 9141 9354 9572 9795 22 3177 3251 3327 3404 3483 3565 3648 3733 3819 3908 3999 4093 4188 4285 4385 4487 4592 4699 4808 4920 5035 5152 5272 5395 5521 5649 5781 5916 6053 6194 6339 6486 6637 6792 6950 7112 7278 7447 7621 7798 7980 8166 8356 8551 8750 8954 9162 9376 9594 9817 33 3184 3258 3334 3412 3491 3573 3656 3741 3828 3917 4009 4102 4198 4295 4395 4498 4603 4710 4819 4932 5047 5164 5284 5408 5534 5662 5794 5929 6067 6209 6353 6501 6653 6808 6566 7129 7295 7464 7638 7816 7998 8185 8375 8570 8770 8974 9183 9397 9616 9840 44 3192 3266 3342 3420 3499 3581 3664 3750 3837 3926 4018 4111 4207 4305 4406 4508 4613 4721 4831 4943 5058 5176 5297 5420 5546 5675 5808 5943 6081 6223 6368 6516 6668 6823 6982 7145 7311 7482 7656 7834 8017 8204 8395 8590 8790 8995 9204 9419 9638 9863 55 3199 3273 3350 3428 3508 3589 3673 3758 3846 3936 4027 4121 4217 4315 4416 4519 4624 4732 4842 4955 5070 5188 5309 5433 5559 5689 5821 5957 6095 6237 6383 6531 6683 6839 6998 7161 7328 7499 7674 7852 8035 8222 8414 8610 8810 9016 9226 9441 9661 9886 66 3206 3281 3357 3436 3516 3597 3681 3767 3855 3945 4036 4030 4227 4325 4426 4529 4634 4742 4853 4966 5082 5200 5321 5445 5572 5702 5834 5970 6109 6252 6397 6546 6699 6855 7015 7178 7345 7516 7691 7870 8054 8241 8433 8630 8831 9036 9247 9462 9683 9908 77 3214 3289 3365 3443 3524 3606 3690 3776 3864 3954 4046 4140 4236 4335 4436 4539 4645 4753 4864 4977 5093 5212 5333 5458 5585 5715 5848 5984 6124 6266 6412 6561 6714 6871 7031 7194 7362 7534 7709 7889 8072 8260 8453 8650 8851 9057 9268 9484 9705 9931 88 3221 3296 3373 3451 3532 3614 3698 3784 3873 3963 4055 4150 4246 4345 4446 4550 4656 4764 4875 4989 5105 5224 5346 5470 5598 5728 5861 5998 6138 6281 6427 6577 6730 6887 7047 7211 7379 7551 7727 7907 8091 8279 8472 8670 8872 9078 9290 9506 9727 9954 99 3228 3304 3381 3459 3540 3622 3707 3793 3882 3972 4064 4159 4256 4355 4457 4560 4667 4775 4887 5000 5117 5236 5358 5483 5610 5741 5875 6012 6152 6295 6442 6592 6745 6902 7063 7228 7396 7568 7745 7925 8110 8299 8492 8690 8892 9099 9311 9528 9750 9977 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 8 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 9 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 7 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 10 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 343 .80 .56 .61 .87 .73 .70 .79 .90 .74 .88 .76 .67 .93 .83 .94 .91 .50 .51 .66 .72 .60 .59 .81 .85 .84 .95 .78 .62 .71 .98 .ANTILOGARITHMS Mean Differences 00 .86 .69 .58 .63 .68 .97 .53 .75 .54 .65 .