PROAKIS J. G. va SALEHI M.

cAe HE THONG THONG TIN HIEN NAY . .
~rRINH BAY ~rHONG QUA SD Dl)NG MATLAB
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HA NOI- 2003

NGUOI D~CH: TS. NGUYEN Quae

BINH

Proakis J. G.

va Salehi

M.:

cAc H£. THONG THONG TIN HI£.N NAY
Ml)C Ll)C

Uri nguOi dlch LOi gim thieu Uri n6i d~u

7 9 11 16 16 16 28 33 38 44 48 52 63 63 63 69 76 83 89 100 100 101 101 112 119 125 126 134 139 147 164 164 165 166 172 172 183 183 188 201 201 201 202 209 213 223 225 226 228 235

CHVONG 1. cAc TIN Hlt;,U vA cAc Ht;, THONG TUYE:N TINH 1.1Gioi thieu chung 1.2 Chuoi Fourier 1.2.1 Cdc tin hieu tudn haem va cdc h¢ thong tuyen tinh khong bien ddi thea thai gian 1.3 Cac bien d6i Fourier 1.3.1 D!nh /.y My mdu 1.3.2 Phan tich tren mien tan so' cac h¢ thong LTI 1.4 Cong suat va nang luong 1.5 Ttrong dirong thong thap cua cac tin hieu dai thong CHVONG 2. cAc QuA TRINH NGAu NHIEN 2.2 Tao cac bien ngau nhien

2.1 Giai thieu chung

2.3 Cac qua trlnh ngau nhien Gauss va Gauss-Markov
2.4 Ph6 cong suat cua cac qua trlnh ngau nhien va cac qua trinh trang 2.5 Loc tuyen tinh cac qua trinh ngau nhien 2.6 Cac qua trinh thong dai va thong thap CHVONG 3. DIEU cRE TVONG rir 3.1 Gioi thieu chung 3.2 Dieu che bien d9 3.2.1 DSB-AM 3.2.2 AM tl'llye'n thong 3.2.3 SSB-AM 3.3 Giai dieu che cac tin hieu dieu che bien do 3.3.1 Gidi die'll che'DSB-AM . 3.3.2 Gidi dieu cMSSB-AM 3.3.3 Gidi die'll cM AM truyen thong 3.4 Dieu che g6c CHVONG 4. BIEN DOl TVONG rir - SO

4.1 Gioi thieu chung 4.2 D9 do thong tin
4.2.1 Mii hoa khong tap

4.3 Luong nr hoa
4.3.1 Luang tu hod VO III(O'l'Ig 4.4 Dieu che rna xung (PCM) 4.4.1 PCM voi luang tli: hoa de'll 4.4:2 PCM vai luang tli: hod khong de'll CHVONG 5. TRUYEN DAN TJN HIPcU SO BANG GOC 5.1 Giai thieu chung 5.2 Truyen dan tin hieu nhi phan 5.2.1 May thu tOI uu dOl viti kenn A WGN 5.2.2 Mo phong Monte-Carlo mot h¢ thong truyen tin nhi phdn 5.2.3 Cac phuang phap truyen ddn tin hieu nhi phdn khdc 5.2.4 Bilu d6 sao ctia tin hieu dOl viti cac tin hi¢1I nhi phdn 5.3 Truyen dan tin hieu nhieu bien d<) 5.3.1 Cdc dang song viti 4 muc bien d¢ 5.3.2 May thu tOI' WI dOl' viti kenh A WGN 5.3.3 Cdc dang song tin hieu viti nhieu muc bien d¢
~ '" , A "" _ ",'

Ml,IC UJC

5

Proakis J. G.

va Salehi

M.:

cAc ~

THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY
239 239 249

5.4 Cac tin hieu nhieu chieu 5.4.1 Cac tin hieu true giao nhieu chieu 5.4.2 Cdc tin hi¢1t true giao doi CHlJdNG 6. TRUYEN DAN SO QUA KENH CO BANG THONG HUU HAN 6.1 Gioi thieu chung 6.2 Ph6 cong suat cua mot tfn hieu s6 PAM 6.3 D~e tnmg cua cac kenh e6 dt) rong bang thong hihl han va meo kenh 6.4 Dac tnmg cua xuyen nhieu gifia cac dau 6.5 Thie't ke' he thong truyen tin d6i voi cac kenh e6 bang thong htru han 6.5.1 Thier kt tin hieu dl lSI bdng khong 6.5.2 Thief kt tin hieu dl c6 lSI kilm sodt duac 6.5.3 Tien mil hod dOl viti cdc tin hieu ddp ~g mst phdn 6.6 Cac b¢ san bang tuyen tfnh 6.6.1 Cdc bQ san being tuyer: tinh thicli nghi 6.7 Cac b¢ san bang phi tuyen CHlJdNG 7. TRUYEN DAN SO THONG QUA DIEU CRE SONG MANG 7.1 Gim thieu chung 7.2 Di6u che bien d¢ s6ng mang 7.2.1 Gidi dilu checac tin hieu PAM 7.3 Dieu che pha s6ng mang . 7.3.1 Gidi die'lt chepha va tach tin hieu 7.3.2 cheva gidi dilu chepha vi sai 7.4 Dieu che bien d¢ vuong goc 704.1 Gidi dieu cM va tach tin hieu QAM 7.4.2){tic sud: 16i dOl viti QAM trong mat kenh AWGN 7.5 Dieu che' s6 song mang '7.5.1 Khoa didi tan ,;07.5.2 Gidi '.Xiill chi va tach cac tin hieu FSK 7.5.3 ){tic sua! 16i dol viti tach khong ket hap tin hieu FSK 7.6 Dong be trong cac he th6ng thong tin 7.6.1 Ddng b<J song mang 7.6.2 D6'ng b(J dong flo
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A ~

261
261 261 266 278 283 284 289 295 299 309 316

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327
327 327 330 334 338 345 354 355 357 362 362 364 370 375 376 382

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CHlJdNG 8. DUNG LlJQNG KENH v): MA. HoA KENH 8.1 Gicri thieu chung 8.2 M6 hmh kenh va dung luong kenh 8.2.1 M6 hinh kenh 8.2.2 Dung luang kenh 8.3 Ma hoa kenh 8.3.1 Mil khOl tuye"'ntinh 8.3.2 Cac mil chap CHlJdNG 9. cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN TMI PHO 9.1 GiOi thieu chung 9.2 cae h¢ th6ng trai phd chuei t11;Ie tiep 9.2.1 Gidi dieu chetin hieu 9.2.2 ){ticsuat 16i . 9.2.3 Hai ung dung cua cac tin hiiu tnii pht5 DS 9.3 Tao cac chuoi PN 9.4rTrw phd nhay t~ 9.4.1 ){ticsua'! 16i d6i viii cac tin hieu FH 9.4.2 Sitdlf.ng phdn tq.p tin hieu dikhiic phuc nhilu mQt phdn bang

393
393 394 394 395 406 409 423

447
447
448 451 453 455 462 468 470 476

Tai Ii~utham khao

484

MlJC LlJC

Proakis J. G.

va Salehi

M.:

cAc

HI;. THONG THONG TIN HII;.N NAY ._---

LOI NGUOI D~CH

Cac he thong thong tin lien I£;lC hien dang phat trien het sire nhanh chong. Ngay

a Viet

nam, trong hem rmroi nam qua chung ta dll diroc clnrng kien mot su

bien d6i ngoan muc cac he thong thong tin lien lac, voi viec dira vao khai thac tren dien rong mot co so' ha tang vien thong to lon, phuc V\1 flit nhieu dich vu rnoi tren cO'sa cac he thong thong tin so. Tuong irng voi dieu do, vice dao tao mot the he cac can bo ky thuat co trinh d¢ cao, cap nhat voi sir phat trien cua cac cong nghe moi dll va dang diroc xiic tien mot each co h¢ thong. Tuy nhien, mot trong cac di~m chung tai cac twang dai hoc dao tao ky sir va can bo ky thuat chuyen nganh dien

nr-vien thong hien nay cua mroc ta la su thieu thon cac tai lieu hoc tap chuyen nganh tot cho phep ngiroi hoc co diroc cai nhin sau sac vao nhtrng van de ky thuat

phirc tap cua cac he thong thong tin. Chung toi dll chon dich cuon sach nay trong
so rat nhieu cac tai lieu tieng Anh ve ky thuat thong tin khac nham bu dap phan nao sir thieu hut noi tren. Ban doc dang c6 tren tay ban dich cua cuon "Cac he thong thong tin hien nayTrinh bay thong qua sir dung MATLAB"

(Contemporary Communication Systems-

Using MArLAB), nha xu at ban Brooks/Cole, My, xuat ban Ian thu nhat nam 2000.
Cac tac gia cua cuon sach nay la cac hoc gia lirng danh va la cac giao sir dai hQC day kinh nghiem cua My!. Cuon sach nay, thea suy nghi cua cluing toi - nhtrng nguoi dang tnrc tiep nghien coo va giang day ve ky thuat vien thong - la mot cuon sach rat tot v~ noi dung, hien dai ve plnrong phap trinh bay va phil hop voi nhieu

I Proakis 1. G. III tac gia cua cu6n "Thong tin s6" (Digital Communications) tai ban b My tm Ian thu nr trong yang 10 nam gan day.

n6i tieng, dii duoc
7

Lor NGVOI DlCH

Proakis J. G.

va Salehi

M.:

cAc ~

THONG THONG TIN HI:eN NAY

doi nrong, tu sinh vien dang thea hoc nhtrng nam cuoi chuyen nganh dien tir-vi~n thong den cac ky sir dang tnrc tiep nghien coo va cong tac tren cac he thong vien thong. Cu6n sach cung cap nhtmg tom tat ly thuyet co ban nhat ve cac he th6ng

thong tin hien nay - ca h¢ thong nrong tv Ian h¢ thong so - mot each het sue sue tich
rna van d~ hieu, dong thoi cung cap cho ngiroi h9C kha nang dao sau vao cac van de

kY thuat

r~t phuc tap v6n co ve nhu het sue te nhat thong qua sir dung ky thuat mo

phong may tfnh. Noi mot each khac, cu6n sach nay IDi cuon va goi len duqc niem hung khoi d6i v6i nguci d9C trong qua trinh h9C t~p va tap dirot nghien coo. Hien tai, cac thuat ngu ky thuat trong cac tai lieu

an hanh a mroc

ta con chua

thong nhat, Trong qua trinh bien dich, cluing toi da co gang tham khao each sir dung cac thuat ngtr ky thuat trong cac tai lieu tieng Viet khac va trong nhttng

tnrong hop con chua hoan toan thong nhat, cac thuat ngu ky thuat diroc chuyen
nghia sang tieng Viet thea cac

tv dien

phd thong va chuyen nganh dang diroc hru

hanh rong rai, De nguoi doc thuan tien trong tra ciru, trong nbitng tnrong hop nay cac thuat ngir ky thuat dtroc chua thong nhat bang tieng Anh. Mot so thuat ngif dii Viet hoa rong rai diroc dung

a dang

phien Am, hoac gan nhu da Viet hoa thi diroc

de nguyen the tieng Anh va in nghieng (nhu symbol, analog ...). Ve phan cong bien dich, Ts. Nguyen quan su dich cac chuang Qu6c Blnh thuoc H9C vien ky thuat Huy Quan thuoc

1-5 va 7-9, chuang 6 do Ks. Nguyen

HQc vien Cong nghe biru chfnh va vien thong dam nhiem. Ts. Nguyen Qu6c Blnh hieu dinh toan bo va chiu trach nhiem trinh bay sach. Trong qua trinh bien dich va trlnh bay sach, chan chan con co nhung thieu sot. M9i y kien gop y v6i nhimg

»g11D1 D?ch xin girl ve dia chi: Ts. Nguyen Quoc Binh, B(>mon thong tin, H9C vien
KTQS, 100 Duong Hoang Qu6c Vi¢t, Ha noi.

Ha noi, thang 10

nam

2002

Nhlrng nguoi dich

8

u'n NGUCn DlCH

----

Proakis J. G. vd Salehi M.:

cAe H\$ THONG THONG TIN Hrt;:N NAY

LOI GIGI THItu
"Muc dich ella tinh toan la d~ thau hieu van de chrr khong phai la cac eon so."-R. W. Hamming, Cdc phuong phdp tinh so dann cho
\..

cac ky su va cac nha khoa hoc, Nha xuat ban McGraw-Hill, Inc.

D6 chinh la tinh than trong suy nghi cua chiing toi rna thea d6 chung toi cho fa Bookware Companion Series TM. Cac c6ng nghe mal nhat va cac phtrong phap hien dai ngay cang diroc nhoi nhet nhieu hon vao cac cua giang von da day dac cac

1y thuyet

quan trong, Hau qua

1a bay gia nhieu giang vien da phai dat cau hoi rang "Chung ta dan gian di day cho sinh vien ve c6ng nghe moi nhat hay ta day cho ho each suy luan?", Chung toi tin nrong ding ca hai dieu can thiet do khong loai trir lan nhau. That vay, bo sach nay dira tren niem tin rang cac viec giai bang may tfnh va

ly thuyet

co th~ dong thai ho

tro Ian nhau. Khi diroc SlY dung mot each dung dan, viec tinh toan co the minh hoa cho ly thuyet va gitip cho sinh vien suy nghi, phan tich va suy luan thea cac each day

y nghia.

No cling giup cho sinh vien hieu duoc cac moi quan he va cac lien ket

gitra thong tin mal voi hi~u biet hien co va giup cho ho trau doi cac ky nang giai quyet van de, kha nang tnrc giac cling nhu nr duy phe phan. Bookware Companion Series da duoc phat trien nham dap irng nhiem vu nay. Dac biet, bo sach nay diroc thiet ke' cho nhirng ngiroi lam cong tac dao tao muon tich hop cac cong cu hoc t~p dua tren may tinh vao cac cua giang cua minh va cho cac sinh vien muon tv minh di xa han ntra ngoai khuon kho ella giao trinh, Cac giang vien se tim thay duoc trong loat sach nay cac phuong tien cho phep SlY
UJI Glen THI~U 9

Proakis 1. G. Vll Salehi M.:

cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY

dung cac cong cu phan mem manh h6 tro cac hoat dong giang day cua ho

rna

khong can phai tv mmh tao lay cac trng dung, Cac sinh vien se tim thay nhiing van de lien quan va co the nhanh chong va d~ dang co diroc each truy nhap dien

tit d6i v6i cac van de do. Dieu quan trong d6i v6i ca hai d6i

nrong la tien de xay

dung nen b¢ sach nay: cac sinh vien hoc diroc t6t nhat khi ho diroc 16i cu6n vao mot each tich eire trong viec hoc tap cua rieng minh. Bookware Companion Series

se thu hut ho, cho ho nem thir cac van de cua cuoc song thirc, bay cho ho cac ky thuat r6 rang de giai quyet cac van de thirc te va thach thirc ho tv minh hieu va ap
dung cac ky thuat nay.

De phuc

vu cac nhu diu cua cac ban t6t hon, cluing toi luon mong

co duqc

cac each thtrc cai tien bo sach nay. Nham muc dfch do, cac ban hay vui long lien he voi chung toi tren trang Web cua chung toi: http://www.brookscole.com/engineering/ee/bookware.html 'th~ '-]" -<, h 1 /., ('--" ban co e ch0 cac ,01 kh uyen ve cac .. truro .ac
A

h D9 la..TTI C••O LA'

1 .' non mra, sacn tot h

chia se cac

y ttrong

cua cac ban v~ each sir dung cac cong nghe trong lap hoc v6i. cac

dong nghiep cua cac ban, goi

Y mot

van de d~c biet hoac mot thf du nao do cho hill

xuat ban sau hoac cho cluing toi bict suy nghi cua cac ban. Chung toi cho doi nhan
diroc phuc dap cua cac ban va

cam on cac ban ve nhfrng tro giup thuong xuyen.
bill.stenquist@brookscole.com heather. woods@brookscole.com nathan. wi lbur@brookscole .com christina.deveto@brookscole.com

Bill Stenquist Heather Woods Nathan Wilbur Christina DeVeto

Ngiroi xuat ban Phu trach bien t~p Phu trach tien thi . ~. Tro ly tiep thi

10

Proakis J. G.

va Salehi

M.:

cAc

m:

THONG THONG TIN HleN NAY

Tren thi twang hien nay r~t nhieu giao trinh d~ cap t6i nhiing van d~ can ban trong cac he thong thong tin so va nrong tv, bao gam cac thuat toan rna hoa va giai rna ciing nhir cac ky thuat dieu che va gild dieu che, VI sv can thiet, hau het cac giao trinh nay d~u chuyen chu vao cac

1y thuyet

nhan manh den viec thiet

ke va phan tfch hoat dong cua mot so khoi hlnh thanh nen cac phan tir co ban cua he thong thong tin nhu cac bo rna hoa va giai rna, cac bo dieu che va giai dieu che. Tuy vay, kha it giao trlnh, d~c biet 13 cac giao trmh duoc viet cho cac sinh
vien con dang thea h9C, lai chua dung mot 10<;\t trng dung diroc thiet ke' nharn cac

thuc day ho trong hoc tap. Pham vi ciia cuon sach Muc tieu cua cuon sach nay la phuc phan bd sung cho bat
VI)

nhir mot sach huang dan hay mot

ky

mot giao trinh hon hop nao v~ cac he thong thong tin.

Cuon sach nay cung cap mot loat cac bai tap c6 th~ giai diroc tren may tfnh (dac biet thich hop v6i cac may tfnh ca nhan) bang each sir dung phien ban MA TlAB phd cap cho sinh vien. Cuon sach diroc chuan bi thoat tien nham phuc V1JC thuat dien, ky
VI)

cac sinh

vien dang h9C 0 nhiing nam tren va cac sinh vien dang lam tot nghiep trong linh

ky

thuat may tfnh va khoa h9C may tfnh. Chung toi xern rang

sinh vien (hay ngiroi sir dung sach) thl da diroc lam quen v6i cac van d~ co so cua MATLAB. Cac chu d~ nay khong duoc d~ cap den 0 day nfra do da c6 vo s6 sach tro giiip va cac cAm nang v~ MA TLAB. ve thiet trf rna n6i, viec d~ cap toi mot loat cac chu d~ se diroc trlnh bay vfut tat. Chung toi se trlnh bay dong co thnc dAy van d~ va mot d~ giro ngan gon v~ timg chu de mot, thiet lap cac ghi chti can thiet rai sau d6 minh hoa cac khai niem co ban

LOIN6IDAU

11

------_. Chuang 2: Cac qua trmh ngau nhien Trong chuang nay._--------- thong qua mot thi du. va Salehi -- M. viec tao cac mau cua cac qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss va Gauss-Markov. Chuang 1: Cac tin hieu va cac he thong tuyen tinh Chuang nay cung cap mot tong quan ve cac cong cu va ky thuat co ban til' viec phan tich cac he thong tuyen tinh bao gom ca cac dac tinh mien Uln so va mien thoi gian. Chung toi mong doan dan giai co ban nay cung voi ngiroi giang se cung cap mot mire hieu biet sau sac can thiet doi voi cac van de dUQ'C cap de toi.N NAY . Chuang 3: Dieu che analog Viec thirc hien cac ky thuat dieu che va giai dieu che analog trong cac dieu kien co va khong co nhieu cong dUQ'Cde cap trong chuang nay. Thf du. Motchirong cac ky thuat truyen tin analog va Sal! nira bao phil chuang con Iai thi chuyen VaGthong tin so.: cAe HI. va dac tnrng cua cac qua trinh ngau nhien dirng trong mien thoi gian cling nhtr trong mien tan so. cac sa d6 dieu che goc nhir 12 LOIN6IDAU . cluing toi minh hoa cac phirong phap tao cac bien ngau nhien va cac mau cua cac qua trinh ngau nhien. G. Hai chuang dau ve cac tin hieu va cac h~ thong tuyen tmh cling nlnr ve cac qua trinh ngau Mien dira ra cac kien thtrc nen. chiing toi dira ra bo thu 19Cphoi hop va bo thu nrong quan va xac nhan rang cac thiet bi nay dan den viec giai dieu che toi lID cac tin hieu bi nhieu boi tap am cong trang chuan (AWGN: Additive White Gaussian Noise). nhir dieu bien hai bang bien. Sir chimg minh nhu the noi chung deu da dUQ'C cung cap trong hau het cac giao trmh ve cac he thong truyen tin. Cac he thong diroc nghien ciru bao gom dieu che bien d¢ (AM). dieu che don bien va dieu che bien do truyen thong. Cac chu de bao gorn viec tao cac bien ngau nhien co mot ham phan bo xac suat nhat dinh nao do.: THONG THONG TIN HII. Ket cau cua cuon sach Cuon sach nay gom chin chuang. ProakisI. Cac ky thuat phan tfch tren mien tan so diroc nhan manh do cac ky thuat nay thirong diroc sir dung nhat trong khi de cap toi cac h~ thong truyen tin. noi chung can thiet trong nghien ciru cac he thong truyen tin. song cluing toi se khong cluing minh dieu xac quyet nay.

1.qu_ m.V........ ~1_ che _ nhi phfin Ifin nhieu mire deu diroc xem xet.. cac V V .. cluing toi xem xet hai mo hinh kenh: kenh d6i xtrng nhi phan (BSC: Binary LOIN6IDAU 13 .-_ ~_nAA'AwnN In ono l~ At A h A" ~A" C~ kv th.'-1.. Chuong 5: Truyen dan so bang goc Trong chuang nay chiing toi dua ra cac ky thuat dieu che' va giai dieu che "d~ kp 1M 61 ...Proakis J... ypt ~. __ . _'-1.. va Salehi M. l nav chunz tAi Jl. ..h "'.. • c.. Viec bien d6i cho phep chung ta truyen hay trfr cac tin hieu thea phirong phap s6.10n n hrrrrn b o C .lJ. G.1-6 "'". dill" ti'nh rl?HI "1'..I. Giai dieu che t6i uu cac tin hieu nay diroc mo ta va chat luonz cua bo ziai dieu ch€ dime danh 1!1H..1-... Chuong 7: Truyen dan so thong qua dieu che song mang Chung toi thao luan 4 kieu tin hieu dieu che song mang thich hop cho truyen dfin ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ bien do vuong goc (QAM)... .. Chuong 8: Dung luong kenh va rna hoa Trong chuang nay cluing toi xem xet cac mo hmh toan h9C thich hop d6i voi cac kenh truyen tin va dua ra mot dai hrong co sa.l'f.'trr.'\n . J _ ... Chung toi se chi cho ngiroi sir dung thay rang mea cua kenh tao nen xuyen nhieu gitra cac symbol (lSI: InterSymbol Interference) rna chung gfiy nen cac 16i trong giai dieu che tin hieu. • • '-" • ..I . goi la dung luong kenh.... D~c biet. lrp...: CAC He THONG THONG TIN H\$N NA Y dieu che tan s6 (FM) va dieu ch€ pha (PM). han. Chuong 4: Bien d6i tuong t.I. ..-so Trong chuang nay chung toi khao sat mot s6 phtrong phap diroc sir dung de bien d6i cac tin hieu nguon nrong tv thanh cac chuoi s6 mot each hieu qua.t.I Chuong 6: Truyen dcln tin hieu so qua cac kenh co bang tan han che T· b .I_...J.I... _J d'· YO'! truyen _....h" ...nthe A' rt'~l1....1..i..L_J YPTn ... no cho cluing ta gioi han v~ hrong thong tin co the truyen qua diroc tren kenh. "'~v v .I..b ..... ~...L_.U..... Chung toi xem xet ca sa do nen dft lieu co that thoat thong tin nhu dieu che rna xung (PCM) Ifin nen dft lieu khong that thoat thong tin nhu rna hoa Huffman. ...... Sau do chung toi se de cap t6i viec thiet ke' cac mach san bang kenh rna chung bu khir meo kenh... dieu che pha s6 (PSK) va dieu che tAn s6 s6 (FSK). (T che va van de thiet ke cac dang song cho cac kenh nhu vay..... .l.... _ong t' so Lhe 0..

Cac file nay bao g6m cac trlnh MATLAB diroc str dung trong tai lieu nay. Trong nhtrng tnrong hop khi rna nguon hieu qua nhat lai co the lam cho cac file tr6' nen kho theo ddi thl cluing toi da chon sir dung rna ngu6n kern hieu qua han song lai de d9C han. Cac mo hinh kenh nay diroc str dung trong viec de cap toi cac rna chap va rna khoi nham c6 diroc viec truyen tin tin cay thong qua cac kenh nhu the. cac he thong trai ph6 chuoi true tiep (DS: Direct-Sequence) va trai pho nhay tan (FH: Frequency-Hopped) duoc xem xet lien doi voi cac sa do dieu che pha so (PSK) va dieu che tan s6 s6 (PSK) mot each nrong irng. Ian in moi nay la Trung tam nguon lire Bookware Companion 0 do cac ban se tim thay Trung tam nguen hrc Bookware Companion Series Cai moi d6i vci Series. Trong hau het cac tnrong hop.html. trang chii trung tam h6 tro toan bo bo sach. cac file MATLAB co the tai xuong duoc cho cuon sach nay. Chuong 9: Cac he thong thong tin trai ph6 Die phan tir co ban ella mot h~ thong thong tin trai ph6 duoc de cap toi trong chuang nay. Viec tao cac chuoi gia nhieu (PN: Pseudo noise) d~ sir dung trong cac he thong trai ph6 cling duoc de cap toi. Dac biet. Chung toi du tinh giG" cho cac file nay diroc ph6 bien. G.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY va kenh AWGN. V~ phan mem Cac file chuang trinh MATLAB cho cu6n sach nay co tai Bookware Companion Resource Center tren rnang thea dia chi http://www. Tuy vay.-------_ Symmetric Channel) Proakis 1. Tai Trung tam ngu6n lire. cac ket noi toi 14 LOIN6IDAU . cling nen hru y rang trong qua trinh phat trien cac file nay muc dich chn yeu cua chung toi Hi sir ro rang trong rna ngu6n MATLAB han Et tinh hieu qua cua no. cac ban cling se tim thay duoc cac ngu6n lire khac nhu cac thong tin phu ve bo sach cua chung toi.brookscole. mo. nho d6 co diroc hau het cac Uti the cua viec tan phat tren mang.com/engineering/ ee/bookware. vel Salehi M. cluing toi deu da kern them VaG do nhtrng chu giai cho cac file MATLAB d~ lam cho cluing d~ hieu han.

Proakis J. Proakis M asoud Salehi LOIN6IDAU 15 .: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI-eN NAY cac trang chu MA TLAB co tac dung tro giup.com/engineering/ee/bookware. G. chung toi co ke hoach rnb rong trang chu nay thanh mot ngan hang de trao d6i cac tiep. . Ban co mot y nrong tin cay v~ giang day cling nhu de nrong thuat tnrc y nrong doi voi mot van d~ hay thf du doc nhat nao rna ban muon chung toi xern xet den trong Ian xuar ban toi day cua cuon sach nay khong? Neu co.brookscole.fohn G. vci nhfrng ngiroi nhir cac ban.html. voi cac sinh vien cling nhir voi nha xuat ban. Trung tam nguon lire diroc bo trf tai dia chi http://www. V~ lau dai. hay dao qua trang chu cua chung toi va bam len bieu nrong Mb ban thao de tharn du VaGmot cuoc thao luan tnrc tiep voi cac tac gia. va Salehi M. va cac y nrong v~ cong nghe day hoc trong lap til cac tac gia cua Bookware va til nhfrng ngiroi Hun cong tac dao tao ky thuat khac.

Proakis. dinh thong thap cac tin hieu dai thong.l.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HIeN NAY CHVONG 1 cAc TIN HI~U vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TtNH 1.2. Chung ta khoi dau voi cac chuoi va cac bien d6i Fourier. G. va Salehi M. Cac he thong tuyen tinh va cac dac tinh cua cluing trong cac mien thai gian va ain so.2 CHUCn FOURIER .1) 16 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HIeU V A cAc He THONG TUYEN TINH . cling voi ly thuyet xac suat va viec phan tich cac tin hieu ngau nhien la hai chu de can ban nhat thiet phai hieu r5 tnroc khi nghien ciru cac he thong truyen tin.1 GIOI THI~U CHUNG Trang chuong nay cluing ta se xem xet nhtrng cong cu va cac ky thuat co ban tir viec phan tich h~ thong tuyen tinh dlIC!C dung trong phan tich cac h~ sir thong truyen tin. Hau het cac kenh truyen tin va nhieu khoi con cua cac may phat va may thu co tht rna hmh hoa t6t dircc nhu la cac h~ thong tuyen tinh khong bien d6i thea thai gian (LTI: Linear Time-Invariant) va va do vay cac cong cu ky thuat ndi tieng xuat phat nr viec phan tfch cac h~ thong tuyen tinh co the ap dung diroc trong viec phan tich cluing. Chung toi nhan manh cac cong cu phan tfch thai gian-tan s6 do day la cac ky thuat diroc sir dung thuong xuyen nhat. viec bieu dien 1. sau do cluing ta se xet tat ca cac khai niern vt nang hrong va cong suat.z-)dz-ex) (1. 1y lay rnau. Quan h~ vao-ra cua mot he thong tuyen tinh khong bien d6i thea thoi gian duoc cho boi tfch chap duoc xac dinh thea Q() y(t)=x(t)*h(t)= Jh(z-)x(t .

. la bien d¢ (phirc) cua tin hieu 16i vao nhan v6i co fhCr)e-i21ifo'dr: -co Hay chii y rang dai hrong tren day Hi mot ham cua phan img xung hU) cua he thong tuyen tinh LTI va tan s6 to cua tin hieu 16i vao... 'Io~:':f:.>. Bien d¢ (phirc) cua tin hieu 16i ra.. Mot chuoi Fourier la mot khai trien tnrc giao cac tin hieu tuan hoan c6 chu ky thuat khai trien cac tin hieu ky To khi duqctheo tap tin hieu {ei27tnfolfTo} ~=-co diroc sir dung lam co sa cua khai trien...) ~ A[ _1h(. Neu tin hieu 16i vao x(t) la mot ham mu phirc diroc cho bci x(t)= Aei21ifol (1... -J'''... Voi co -THtI".2..2. tuy vay..:.._:_-"::... 16i ra la mot tin hieu mfl plnrc c6 cung tan so voi tin hieu 16i vao. bat ky tin hieu tuan hoan' X(/) x(t) c6 chu ky To nao cling deu co the bieu dien = Xn co LXnei27tnIITo n==-oo rI . va Salehi M.l- n ? 4) --- trong d6 cac he s6 duoc cho bOi ~" ''=.. x(t) la tin hieu 16i vao con yet) la tin hieu 16i ra..: CAC ~ THONG THONG TIN HreN NAY trong d6 h(t) ky hieu phan img xung cua he thong. diroc goi la cac h¢ s6 chuoi Fourier cua tin hieu x(t) va 1) M¢t di~u kien dii de t6n tai chuoi Fourier lit xit) thoa man dieu kien Dirichlet.Proakis 1....2) thl tin hieu 16i ra diroc cho thea y(t) ~ _1AeJ'''oII-.. viec tfnh toan phan img cua cac he thong LTI voi cac tin hieu mu phtrc 16i vao la dac biet d~ dang. mot each hoan toan W nhien ngiroi ta tim each khai trien cac tin hieu nhu mot tong cac tin hieu mii plnrc. H¢ qua Ia trong phan tich cac he thong tuyen tfnh LTI. dt }J'"'' (1...(.h(..3) N6i mot each khac.(. Chuoi Fourier va cac bien d6i Fourier la cac thanh cac tin hieu mii plnrc. ---" .' i r'--' -'----'----'-< sa nay.. G. . Chuang 1: CAC TiN HI~U vA CAC ~ THONG TUYEN T~ 17 .c 1\':UAT-OlfMS1.!. Do vay..

Jsm(21tt-) 1'0 1'0 (1. Tan so fo=ln'o so fll=nrro diroc goi la hai thir n.Proakis 1. cac he so cua chuoi Fourier phirc ngay ca khi x(t) la mot tin hieu co gia tri thuc.' n cos (2 1tt. hien nhien chung ta thay rang (1. jx(t)eJ21ln/ITodt =T 0 1 [U+TO . nghia la phan thirc cua cluing thi chan con phan £10 cua chung thi Ie (hoac tuong dirong la bien d9 cua chung chan con pha cua cluing Ie). jx(t)e'}2'!I1/IT dt O == x.2. diroc biet voi ten goi chuoi Fourier hrong giac.5) 6 day a la mot hang so bat ky diroc chon sao cho viec tinh tich phan tr6' nen duoc goi la tan so co ban cua tin hieu tuan hoan con tan dan gian. 0 = n) . 0. Dang nay cua chuoi Fourier diroc xem 1ft chuoi Fourier dang mil va co th~ ap dung cho ca cac tin hieu x(t) thirc Ian phirc chirng nao chung con la cac tin hieu tuan hoan.2. a Til day.9) rna theo cong thirc Euler e -i'MtlT.2. va Salehi M.6) a.. cac he so chuoi Fourier cua mot tin hieu thirc thi co tfnh doi xirng Hermit.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY (1..2.8) (1.10) 18 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HIeU vA cAc He THONG TUYEN TfNH . Dang khac cua chuoi Fourier. G.. Trang hau het cac tnrong hop hoac a=0 hoac c= -ToI2 la each chon thich hop.2. co th~ ap dung diroc chi doi voi cac tin hieu thirc tuan hoan va nhan diroc bangcachxac di~li Xn = a n -J'b n 2 (1. Trang tnrong hop tong quat. = {xll} la cac so T o 1 a+To.].. Khi x(t) la mot tin hieu co gia tri thirc thi chung ta co x.2.7) Nhu vay.

12) Y rang doi v6i n=O. R' = . cac h¢ so chuoi Fourier lien he v6i an.2.elxnJ .) 1'01'0 (1. Chuang 1: cAc v): cAc H~ TH6NG TUYEN TfNH 19 .15) rna day la dang thir ba cua khai trien chuoi Fourier doi v6i cac tin hieu thirc va tuan hoan.Proakis J. Tong quat. chung ta luon co bo=O nen ao=2xo. )dt + fan n=1 (1. Bang each d~t (1.2. = -2Im[x n] {xnl doi v6i cac tin hieu thirc ell :::: IXnl (1..2. L.13) va sir dung quan he a coso + bsin~ = -Ja 2 + b2 cos(~ .12) b dang (1.arctan~) a (1.) + b.16) 811 = Lxn Cac d6 thi cua IXIII va LXn thea n hay nfo diroc goi la phd rOi..11) cx 2 cos(27tt!:.)dt 1'0 1'0 cx+To f x(t) sin(27tt!:.: cAc ~ TH6NG THONG TIN HmN NAY ta co an b... Do thi cua IXn thuong dtroc goi I la phd bien TIN H~U dQ con cua Lxn thi diroc goi Ia phd pha. va do do x(t) D~ =1'0 =1'0 =~ 2 2 f x(t)cos(27tt!:.rae cua x(t). va Salehi cx+1O cx M. G.2.2. en va On thong qua ( an b. b.2. sin(27tt!:.14) chung ta co th~ viet phirong trinh (1.2.

Ttrong tu. moi he s6 x" den Iii.IPnay. neu x(t) thuc ._____ Proakis. o 12 1~ cling bang khong va moi h~ so x. doi voi mot tin hieu xl') thuc vii. Gilt sir rang A=l.Hay ve pp. Tin hieu chir nhat net) thirong diroc xac dinh boi I. ( dinh thea It < to I 2 t = ±to (1.17) bang khong VI ham duoi dau tich phan la mot ham Ie thea t. = doi voi It I S.?. nAT T!P MINH HOA.18) tnrong hop nay. G. == 2 1012 1'0 - J x(t) sin(21tt~)dt 7' 10' '2 To 0. Nhu the. chung ta c6 b. deu la so ao. chan.T. chuoi =- 2 Tol2 To J x(t)cos(21tt~)dt -7. net) == l A A'. an thi (1. Trang tnrong h<.1 [chuoi Fourier cua mot day tin hieu hinh chtr nhat] Cho tin hieu tuan hoan x(t) c6 chu ky To diroc xac x(t) = An(_t_) u. 0.6 rbi rae cua . nghia la nell x( -t)=x(t). Hay xac dinh cac he so chuoi Fourier x(t) . thi bang each Hiy a=-To!2. trong d6 to<Io/2.: cAe H\$ THONqTHONG TIN HI~N NAY Nell x(t) la mot tin hieu thirc va chan. .1.. 1'0 /2.~ chuoi Fourier luong giac bao gom tat ca cac ham cosine. It > to I It I < 1/ 2 t { 1/2. Bal tap minh hoa 1. Trong Fourier hrong giac chua tOM cac ham sine. .2. va Salehi LV!. To=4 con to=l: 1.s6 thuc.2. a dang mtl va hrong giac .20) It I > 1/ 2 cua x(t) Do thi cua x(t) diroc ve tren hlnh 1. = ±l /2 (1.2. .2. va le.19) 0. nghia la neu x( -t)=-x(t).

3.1 D6 thi ham sine duoc cho tren hinh 1. -to Hinh 1. T2 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI~U V A./4 =---e -Z jnn --e j21[n14] (1.2. vel Salehi M.25) Mot do thi cua cac xap xi chuoi Fourier d6i voi tin hieu nay ve tren mot chu ky voi n=O. rt ° 2 (1. G. 5. cluing ta c6 x(t) = n.3.__ - ProakisJ.-<Xl f _!_sinc(~)ej21[ntI4 2 2 = _!_ + fsinc(~)cos(21tt~) 2 n=1 2 4 (1.2. Bang each su dung cac he sO' nay. cluing ta c6 x=-e" 1 4 _I f/ 1 f -j2m!4dt 1 [-j2.21) = _!_sinc(n 2 / 2) (1.22) trong d6 sinc(x) diroc dinh nghia la smc(x) = ----- . 7.23) .24) y rang voi cac n chan. cn 8n Chu = = ISinC(i)1 = 0.2.2. sine 7tX) 7tX (1. cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH 21 .r.: cAe H~ THONG THONG T[N Hlf. D~ tinh ra cac he s6 chuoi Fourier trong khai trien cua x(t).:N NAY --.t. Hien nhien la moi he sO' Xn deu thuc (do x(t) tlurc va chan) an = Sl.2.----~------ LOi giai 1. 9 diroc trmh bay tren hlnh 1. khi d6 ao=co=1 va xo=l/2). 1.Il C (n) b.2.1 Tin hieu x(t) cua bai tap minh hoa 1. xn=o (ngoai trir n=O. Hay chti y rang khi n tang thl xap xi tro nen gan han voi tin hieu goc x(t).

_ 0 0.4.5 1.6 0. G. Do vay..4 0.- __ .5 Hinh 1..._-'-----'-_'-- -8 -() -4 --2 0 2 -1 (. Phd roi rae dtroc trlnh bay cAc TIN HI~U V A cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TfNH . 1.B 0.J.2 _---L. 2. 0: r L I 0.5 2 -2 -1. __ -L.5 -I -0.. (I.2 --I-- . 22 Chuang 1: la ~ ISincc%)I. tuy thea dau cua no pha se Xn hoac Ia khong hoac n.2 o -().___l.4 0._=O -l 0. Hay chii y rang Xn luon luon thirc. 8 !O Hinh 1.2.--- O.Proakis J...2 Tin hieu sine.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY __.3 Mot s6 xap xi chuoi Fourier d6i voi tin hieu chit nhat cua bai tap minh hoa 1.!!.4 -10 -'-_L-.!__ ~_~_.e..1. DQ 100 cua cac tren hlnh 1... va Salehi M.

stem(n.4 Ph6 roi rae cua tin hieu trong bai tap minh hoa 1. 1--. I -----r----T----l-----r------------'--.LJ 20 Hinh 1. va Salehi M. .1 j I Ll I. Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI~U vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TINH 23 .. Khi tin hieu x(t) duoc rna til tren mot chu ky gitra a va b.5 M9t tin hieu tuan hoan.. x=abs(sinc(n/2))..--.. . . I I II 5 10 15 I 1 i -1 (II) "1 i 0. Chapter 1. Hlnh 1.x). 'cJ . .5. Ii. nhu diroc trlnh bay tren hinh 1. . . ---r-----··-l f oo! 0. b] duoc cho trong mot m-file.S (H) Problem 1. C.1.35 l t L I I • i ~ I I 03 ~ 02:i I . . I •• .Proakisl . !:If-----· ---". m-Ille % MATLAB script for Illustrative n=[-20: 1:20].m diroc cho dum day. va tin hieu trong khoang [a. cac he so chuoi Fourier co the nhan duoc bang each sir dung m-file fseries. IS ···IO-S -I Ol)5 () iLL 20 t LL Jill JJ L () II j J_Ll_ 1 J__L.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HIlSN NAY ---- MATLAM script de ve ph6 roi rae cua tin hieu nay duoc cho duoi day.

: cAc HI. xx(i+ 1)::eval([' 1/('.funfcn' .'.b.P i . song do Chuang 1: cAc a day x(t) la thirc nen TfNH 24 TiN HI\$u vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN . *quad(funfcn.argsj) . Hay chii y rang m-file fseries.pl. xxO. '). tol=the error level.tol.[].b.p2. argsO.p2.a.TOL.num2str(t). cluing ta c6 th~ chon khoang [a.a.N.num2str(t).p3=parameters offunfcn. num2str(i). j=sqrtt-I). in an m-file.A. newfun = 'expfnct' .'. The function is given over one period extending from 'a' to 'b' xx=vector of length n+ l of Fourier Series Coefficients.tol.[] end .. xx( 1)=eval([' 1/(' .P2.:rnONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY m-flle function xx=fseries(funfcn.. argsO=[].2 [Ph6 bien de) va ph6 pha] Hay xac dinh va ve cac ph6 bien d¢ va phd pha cua tin hieu tuan hoan x(t) v6i chu ky bang 8 va diroc xac dinh thea x(t)=A(t) d6i v6i ItI ~ 4 .p3) %FSERIES % % % % % % % % % Returns the Fourier series coefficients.a. It can depend on up to three parameters pi . *quad(new _fun. XX=FSERIES(FUNFCN. LOi gbii Do tin hieu diroc cho bang mot m-file lambda. ')' ] .. for i=I:n . args=['. BAI T ~P MINH HO~ Bai tap minh hoa 1.b. G.xxn.m.p2.n. va Salehi M.tol.4] va xac dinh ducc cac he s6. for nn=1:nargin-5 end args=] argsO. '). b]=[-4. pi . '. and p3. num2str(t).xxi .')'].P3) funfcne/The given function.m xac dinh cac h¢ s6 cua chuoi Fourier d6i v6i cac gia tri khong am cua n.B..args]).Proakis 1.

..--'-.2. :r--.-----...·.__.--.6 cac phd bien d¢ va phd pha ella tin hieu nay duoc ve M. -1 I ~I ._ -21· ·-3 f -4 L_ .----~-.~)I)()('(l()()o)()(l('" noON"'" O{l(""''')OO I· .--~! -10 () 10 20 -r-ri--: -I 30 () I-··--··. b=4..:N NAY -----Tren hinh 1. -30 ·20 2 '...L.6 Ph6 bien d¢ va phd pha trong bai tap minh hoa 1. Chapter 1. Chuang 1: cAc TiN msu V A. 1 ----. MA 1LAB script d~ xac dinh va ve phd bien d¢ va pho pha diroc cho dum day. cAc ~ THONG TUYEN TiNH 25 . chiing ta co X_n=Xw cAe H~ THONG TH6NG TIN lUI. m-file % MArLAB script/or Illustrative Problem 2.Proakis 1._--'- 1 --20 --10 -30 o 10 20 30 Hinh 1.."\n'u)() ooooooo ".. echo on fncte'Iambda'.-. G. a=-4.: va Salehi d6i v6i n diroc chon bang 24.

1\ 0.: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY n=24. 26 Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI~U vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH ..tol). pause % Press any key to see a plot of the magnitude spectrum n l=j-n:n]. stem(nl. xx=fseries(fnct..b.n.3. G.I.2 (1.7. OA O.7 Tin hieu tuan hoan trong hili tap minh hoa 1.3 0. pause % Press any key to see a plot of the phase stem(nl. xxl=[ conj(xx 1).a. absxx l=abstxx l ). D6 thi tin hieu nay diroc cho tren hinh 1.25 11.1 0.Proakis J.15 (1. tol=O. va Salehi M.05 \ .absxxl) title(. 6].J5 -------r-n---'---'-- " --.The Discrete Magnitude Spectrum') phasexx 1=angle(xx 1). 0 -20 ) -15 -10 \ ) -5 0 \ 5 j 10 \ 15 20 Hinh 1.phasexxl) title('The Discrete Phase Spectrum') BAI T!P MINH HO~ bien d9 va phd pha cua mot tin hieu tuan how voi mot chu ky bang 12 rna no dune cho thea trong khoang [-6.xx]. xxl=xx(n+ 1:-1:2).

r-------T------.·-----.--J ~--___J ! 20 --If) ~ o 10 20 .1 -I -2 -3 -4 '--_ -30 .3.---.8 Phd bien d¢ va phd pha trong bai tap minh hoa 1.O9 (1. --'t'~-----..____ -20 .07 .---- Proakis J. 0. ----1 ""'II fl.:Uv)...----.m. va Salehi M. - r-------·l lO 2 I . File nay can hai tham s6 la m va s la ky vong (tri trung binh) va dQ lech quan phirong ella bien ngau nhien do rna trong bai tap nay cluing Hln Iuot la 0 va 1.-: -------'T---- ---. chung ta co the sir dung MATLAM script sau day d6 co diroc cac d6 thi ph6 bien do va ph6 pha nhu dU9Cth~ hien tren hinh 1.081 r-------. Do vay.()2 t I I ~ O')~ -30 4 IIIL I.O~ 0. cAc H~ THONG TUYBN TYNH 27 . G.--------.: cAc HI) TH6NG THONG TIN Hlf~N NAY LOi giai Tin hieu nay chinh trung v6i ham mat dO xac suat cua mot bien ngau nhien Gao-xo (normal-chu~n) co ky vong khong va phuong sai bang 1 diroc cho trong m-file normal.03 O...-·--------. {1. Chuang 1: cAc TiN RJ:r.~ -10 0 10 20 30 Hinh 1.8.06 ~ 11 11' - I II 1 0.

cAc TIN Hl~U TUAN HoAN vA cAc H:e THONG TUYEN TINH KHONG BIEN DOl THEO THOI GIAN (LTI) Khi mot tin hieu tuan hoan x(t) diroc cho qua mot he thong tuyen tinh khong bien d6i theo thoi gian (L TI) nhu diroc th~ hien tren hinh 1.O. stem(n1. n=24.1.tol.T. va Salehi M. B~ co the dua ra mot thi du nao rna chu ky tin hieu 16i ra khac vci chu ky tin hieu 16i vao khong? Chuang 1: cAc TIN H\$U v). xx 1=I conj(xx 1).a. thuong thirong co cling mot chu ky nhir cua tin hieu loi va02 (tai sao").xx].: cAc H:e THONG THONG TIN H\$N NAY m-Ille % MATLAB script/or Illustrative Problem 3. xx1=xx(n+ 1:-1 :2).b. pause % Press any key to see a plot of the magnitude n1=[-n:n].n. Chapter 1. x(t) H¢ th6ng LTI y(t) . Neu x(t) va yet) duoc khai trien theo 2) Chung ta noi thuang thuang co cung chu ky vm tin hieu 16i vao. Hinh 1. absxx 1=abs(xx 1). b=6. va do do no co mot khai trien chuoi Fourier. echo on fnct='normal'. tol=O. pause % Press any key to see a plot of the phase stem(n1 .9 Ole tin hieu tuan hoan qua cac he th6ng LTI.absxx1) title('The Discrete Magnitude Spectrum') phasexx 1=anglerxx 1). G.phasexx 1) title('The Discrete Phase Spectrum') 1.l. 1).Proakis.2. cAc H:e THONG TUYEN TiNH . a=-6. xx=fseriesrfnct..9 thi tin hieu lei ra yet) cling III mot tin hieu tuan hoan.

't)h('r)dT LXn( w ~ = '1 IXllej2ITII(I-. Hay ve do thi phd rm rae cua x(t).2.dap (eng tan s6 cua he thong. Hay xac dinh cac h~ so chuoi Fourier cua x(t). G. tam giac x(l) co chu ky To=2 duoc xac dinh tren mot chu t+}.26) (1. 3. va Salehi co M.2.28) Tir quan he tren day.27) x(t) = LXnejhntlTo n==--oo thi quan he gifra cac he sO' chuoi Fourier cua x(t) va yet) co th6 nhan diroc bang each Slr dung tich chap yet) = } x(t .'d't)ei2irntITo =::: IYnej2mllil~ 11:::0-00 ~ (1.)n:) -if}1 .32) 3) Cling con diroc goi HI. 0~t<1 V oi cac gia tri t khac (1.2.29) La trong do HCJ.2.'" --co h('t)d't Ih('t)e-J27t"'!7.31) = { -t + 1. A(t) ky thea (1.) la ky hieu cua ham truyerr' cua he thong LT1.Proakis J. ta co n Yn = xnH(-) T (J .2. Gia sIr tin hieu nay di qua mot he thong LTI co dap ling xung dtroc cho thea h(t) ={ t.4 [Vi¢c IQc cac tin hieu tuan hoan] Mot chuoi xung . Ia bien d6i Fourier cua ham phan ling (hay dap (rug) xung h(t) cua no: H(!) BAI T ~P MINH HOA = 00 Jh(t)e -j2Jt/i dt (1. Chuang 1: cAe TiN HI~U vA eAe H~ THONG TUYEN TfNH 29 .: cAc H~ TliONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY -(1. 0. °~ -i s r s o t~ 1 V6'i cac gia tri f khac 1. 0.2.2.30) --00 Bai tap minh hoa 1. 2.

10 Tin hieu lai vao va phan ling xung cua he thong.IS 0.35) 30 ChU(JfZg 1: cAc TIN H~U vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH . Chung ta co (1.33) (1. G.1 0.2. Lffi glai 1.: cAc 1\$ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NA Y hay ve d6 thi phd roi rae va tin hieu 16i ra y(t).15 0. ":: f--'~'---'-I-~--~l 0. Cac d6 thi cua x(t) va h(t) diroc eho tren hinh 1.1 nos II) -·K -6 --4 ·-2 () II 2 4 6 II 10 Hlnh 1.Proakis f.2. wi Salehi M. -1 Hinh 1.2 1 O.34) = ~ fA(t)e-jltntdt -0() (1.10.2.11 Phd fbi rae cua tin hieu.25 0.

= -SIne 2(n) - 1 (1. chiing ta hay ap dung quan he (1.5:ts: 1. % sampling interval ts=1/40.2.39) Ph6 roi rae nhan dircc cua tin hieu 16i ra dircc trinh bay tren hinh 1. Chuang 1: cAc TIN HIeU VA cAc He THONG TUYEN TfNH 31 . cluing ta co xn=O voi moi n chan ngoai trir n=O.11. Chapter 1. Hien nhien.5]. Mac du di~u nay co th~ lam diroc mot each giai tich.2.2. Bien d¢ nhan diroc cua ham truyen va ca dolan cua H(nfl'(1)=H(nI2) diroc th~ hien tren hlnh 1.38) 1. 1] va bien d6i Fourier cua A(t) Ia sinc2(f). Tnroc het chung ta phai tim H(f). Mot do thi phd roi rae cua x( t) diroc th~ hien tren hinh 1.: cAc H1. G. Ket qua nay cling co th~ nhan diroc bang each Slr dung bieu thirc d6i v6i A(t) va lay tich phan tirng phan (phan doan). m-file % MATLAB script for Illustrative Problem 4. = -SIne 2 2 n n (-)H(-) 2 2 (1.12. % impulse response fs=1/ts. cluing ta vAn cu chap nhan giai phap tfnh s6.36) (1. va Salehi M.5*(sinc(n/2)). % Fourier series coefficients of x( t) vector x=.13. 2. 3. MA TLAB script cho bai tap nay nhir sau.37) 2 2 o day chung ta da Slr dung cac su kien Ia A(t) dong nhat khong ngoai khoang [-1. D~ xac dinh phd roi rae cua tin hieu 16i ra. ham truyen cua h¢ thong."2. THONG THONG TIN meN NAY ="2 F[A(t)]f=nI2 1. % Time vector t=I -. echo on n=[ -20: 1:20].Proakis J.2.

zcros(l. % rearrange H Hl=fftshift(H). y=x. " ~"ill -20 -15 "'""WlJllWJllllllllill [till Ulllllllluuuuuuuuuu. eyo frequency resolution df=fs/80.Proakis J.20).TlIONG THONG TIN HI-e.NNAY h=[zeros(1 .: cAe H-e. % Plotting commands follow l-rcqucncy 0.t(21 :61). f=[O:df:fs]-f8/2.4 va dQ 100 cua H(n/2). va Salehi M.*Hl(2l:61).3 . 32 Chuang I: cAc TiN HI-e.U vA cAc H-e. -10 -5 () II 5 10 15 20 Hinh 1. G. % transfer function H=fft(h)/fs.12 Ham truyen cua he thong LTI trong bai tap minh hoa 1.THONG TUYEN TiNH .20)].

3.2) Neu x(t) la mot tin hieu thuc thi Xfj) thoa man tinh chat d6i ximg Hermit.N NAY 0.3. G. nghia la X( -j)=X*({) (1. va Salehi M. --IS _'___~LLL__'__'___~ __ _'____' -10 -5 0 II 5 10 15 20 Hinh 1.1) Bien d6i ngiroc Fourier cua X({) la x(t) diroc cho theo F-' [X(f)] = x(t) = 00 f X(f)e j21tft df (1.3. o ·20 ____. Tinh chat tuyen tinh: Bien d6i Fourier cua mot t6 hop tuyen tfnh cua hai hay nhieu tin hieu la t6 hop tuyen tfnh cua cac bien d6i Fourier nrong irng: 1: cAc TIN HII.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN Hn. 1. 1. Bien d6i Fourier cua mot tin hieu x(t) (x(t) thoa man mot s6 dieu kien nhat dinh goi la cac dieu ken Dirichlet [1]) diroc ky hieu la X({) hay diroc ky hieu mot each nrong dirong la F[x(t)] va diroc xac dinh bOi 00 F[x(t)] = X(f) = Jx(t)e-j21tftdt (1.Proakis 1.3 cAc BIEN n6I FOURIER Bien d6i Fourier la sir rna rong cua chuoi Fourier cho cac tin hieu khong tuan hoan.13 Phd roi rae cua tin hieu 16i ra.1 lUI'.U Chuang vA cAc H~ THONG TUTIN TlNH 33 .2 015 0.25 0. Cac tinh chat quan trong nhat cua bien d6i Fourier diroc t6m Hit nhir sau.3) C6 cac tfnh chat nhat dinh rna bien d6i Fourier tho a man.

fo) + X(f F[x(t)cos2rifot= + fo)] ( 1.: THONG TUYEN TfNH .12) * Y(f) va Y(f)=F[y(t)]. Tich chap: Tfch chap tren mien thai gian thl tuong dirong v6i tich thuong tren mien tan so va ngiroc Iai. G.4) 2.13) -co 34 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HIeU v A cAc HI. thl a:. Tinh dOl ngdu: Neu X(f)=F[x(t)].fa) i[X(f .10) 7.8) 6. Su dieu che: Viec nhan tren mien thai gian mot tin hieu v6i mot ham mu tuong ling voi viec dich chuyen tan so tren mien tan so.9) X(f) F[x' (t)]=}21tfX(f) F[-x(t)] dtn dn = (j21tff (1.: cAc He: THONG THONG TIN HI~N NA Y F[ax. F[x(t) *y(t)]=X(f). thi (1.6) 4.3. Quan h¢ Parseval: Neu X(f)=F[x(t)] .(t)+j3xit)]= aF[xlt)]+ j3F[xit)] thi 0. Ddi ry l¢ xich: SL! rna rong tren mien thai gian dan den su thu hep tren mien tan so va ngiroc lai.3. Neu X(f)=F[x(t)] va Y(f)=F[y(t)].Jx(t)y' co -00 (t)dt = J X(f)Y' (1.3. thi (1.y(t)]=X(f) thl (1.5) 3. F[X(t)]=x(-j) ( 1. Vi phdn: Vi phan tren mien thai gian dan den viec nhan v6'ij21tftren mien tan so.t:O (1. Neu X(f)=F[x(t)]. thl t f F[ei27tJoix(t)] = X(f .11) (1.----- Proakis 1.3. thi (f)df co 8. Neu X(f)=F[x(t)].7) 5.3. Neu X(f)=F[x(r)]. Neu X(f)=F(x(t)J. Dich thai gian: Sir dich chuyen tren mien thai gian dan den dich pha rren mien tan so.3.3. Y(f) F[x(t). va Salehi M.3.3.3.

(1.3.15) -1 con gn)(t) ky hieu eho dao ham bac n cua tin hieu xung.3.3.16) Noi mot each khac. G.18) Bien d6i Fourier cua mot tin hieu dUQ'e Ia ph6 cua tin hieu. thea dinh nghia. Doi voi mot tin hieu x(t) tuan hoan voi chu ky To rna cac h¢ so chuoi Fourier cua no diroc eho Ia XII' nghia Ia 00 x(t) = LXnej2ltntlTo n=-oo thl bien d6i Fourier nhan dtroc thea 00 r. XTo(J) Ia bien d6i Fourier cua xToCt) la tin hieu duoc cat ngan xac dinh thea XTo(t) = {x(t).- To v &i cac gia tr! t khac 2 (1. Bang 1. diroc dinh nghia thea 1' sgn(t)::: t>O t=O t<O { 0. Trong bang nay. Cting co th~ bieu dien cac he s6 chuoi Fourier thong qua bien d6i Fourier cua tin hieu duac edt ngdn (truncated signal) thea x n 1 n =-x TO'1:/ (-) 1: o 0 (1. Ph6 cua mot tin goi Chuang 1: cAc TIN H~U vA cAc ~ THONG TUYEN TINH 35 .1 cho cac cap bien d6i Fourier hiiUIch nhat. U_l(t) la ky hieu ham bac thang don vi. To --<t 2 5.: 00 cAc He 00 THONG THONG TIN HIeN NAY df flx(t)12 dt -00 = fIX(f)12 -00 (1. ~t) la tin hieu xung. va Salehi M.Proakis J.14) Quan he thu hai tren day cling con diroc goi la quan he Rayleigh. sgn(t) la ham signum (ham dau). 0.17) trong do.1J ' 00 X(f) = F[x(t)] = F[ LXllej21tntITo] n:-oo = LXnF[ej21tntITo] n=-oo =L n=-oo x/)(f -~) To (1.3. bien d6i Fourier cua mot tin hieu tuan hoan bao gom cac xung tai cac tan so Ia boi cua tan so co sa (cac hai) cua tin hieu goc.3.

f --) IO(i n =-00 I.f ' (~2n.f~n n1'a) 2 .(/) e -1)/ u_1 (z') ' a>O I ./\.f)1 va pho pha L. - 1'a n = -00 I 1'a BAI T~P MINH HO~ Bai tap minh hoa 1.X(.. a> 0 2a 1 jn. ~t) ----------+1 XIV) I ~/-lG) I~n I c· i 8(. Bang 1. 36 . va Salehi M: cAe H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY hieu noi chung la mot ham phirc X(j).5 [cac bien d6i Fourier] Hay ve cac phd bien d¢ va pha cua cac tin hieu xJCt) va X2(t) diroc eho nhu tren hlnh 1. G._(t:_) -_.f).14.Proakis..fo) .fo) +o(f ~[8(f + .( t) sinc/(r) I sinc (j) 2 IT(/) .o(.f j2rrJio -..f n o(.f + . thuong thirong phai do thi: phd bien d(l IX(.f .fo)] 1 -2j [o(.1 Bang cac cap bien d6i Fourier _x_. + _1_ j2n. VI vay d~ ve ve hai do thi phd.l. Chu01Ig 1: csx: TiN ~u v): cAc H~ THONG TuTIN TfNH .f _!_ o(f) 00 I j2n.J~) .fo)] IT(t) sine(/) sinc(t) /\.+ a >0 ~21tJ 1 (a+ j2nf)2 «: Ii.

16. A J •I )\ . x l (52:61 )=ones(size(x 1(52:61))). x l=zerostsizeuj). chung ta co th~ dean diroc cluing co cling phd bien d¢.ts.L f41L '61). m-file % MATLAB script/or Illustrative Problem 5. f=[O:dfl:dfl *(length(xll)-I)]-fs/2. plot(f. Trong muc 1. ts= l/fs.df).'--') Chuang (500: 1: cAc TIN H\$U vA cAc ~ THONG TUTIN TlNH 37 .x l Ldffl=fftseqtx l. t -1 1 Hinh 1. Xl1=Xl/fs.L [Xl.ts. x2=zeros( size( t)).x21.3.Proakis J. [X2. df=O. t=[ -5:ts:5].fftshift(angle(X21 525))). G. .fftshift(angle(Xll(500:525))).14 Cac tin hieu xJCt) va X2(t).f(500:525).15 va 1.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HleN NAY --~----+-----~--. x1( 41 :51)=t( 41 :51)+ 1.L ''''I\-x1 .df). "2(~1.1. fs= l O. Chapter 1.OI. MA TLAB script cho bai tap nay cho a dum day. Ph6 bien d¢ chung va hai phd pha dUQ'C chung tren cung mot he true diroc trinh bay mot each wang trng tren cac ve hlnh ve 1.df2]=fftseq(x2. 1 2 LOi giai Do cac tin hieu nay nrong tv nhau chi khac la dich v~ thoi gian. va Salehi M.fftshift( abs(X 11))) figure plot(f(500:525). X21=X2/fs. chung toi SlT se chi cho thay lam the nao ct~ co dtroc bien d6i Fourier cua mot tin hieu nho dung MATLAB.

I'i _ _.1__.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HIeN NAY 0(. 'I 1 .05 0.3.----- Proakis 1.05 (l 0. no tao ra eo so eho moi quan he giira cac tin hieu eo thoi 19 lay mau noi rang mot tin gian lien We va cac tin hieu eo thoi gian roi rae._. cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TINH .1 -0.~ 0 ~ ·1 t·· "- :t -··1 1 -n.1 DJNH L Y LAY MAU Dinh 19 lay mau la mot trong cac ket qua quan trong nhat trong phan tfch cac he thong va tin hieu.l'i Frequency Hinh 1.-""._._1 ~ ._. va Salehi M. ·1 I) I /\1 I 5 2 3 4 Frequency Hinh 1..I .nghia la mot tin hieu 38 Chuang I: rna bien d6i Fourier cua no cAe TIN HI~U v). _ . C.~.. 1 .1 n._. _ ~_. .15 Ph6 bien do chuug cua cac tin hieu x/t) va xit) .. 1.J ·2. (1/1 . -n.__ -·5 -4 .__.:::::~~"=-~-=-:~_.16 Cac ph6 pha cua cac tin hieu x/(t) va xit). I 0) ()b_-::. .l . Dinh hieu eo bang tan han che ._~===-~-====~J ._1~~ . oe: . J .

. diroc goi Ia khoang Nyquist (hay l~y mau voi toe d¢ Nyquist).22) So sanh cac phtrong trinh (1.v "'l "'f'\) thi e6 bien d6i Fourier diroc eho thea Xo (f) = ~ T" lOOn I X(f n=-oo --) Ts v6i 1119i t<1n s6f =--X(f) 1 T. 2}. -1. x( t)=sinc( t+3)+sine( t+2 )-sine(t+ 1)+ 2sine( t)-2sine( t-l )+sine( t. G.21).3. .1.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY bang khong voi If I > W voi mot gia tri W nao d6 .21) nen khi eho n6 qua mot mach 19c thong thap e6 d¢ rong bang Hi W va co tang ich Ia Ts trong bang thong se cho ra Iai tin hieu ban dau.Proakis J. (DFf : D'iscrete ~ ourier rr \ ~ransjorm ) cua ? CIIUOI h. chiing ta e6 ket Iuan rang X(f) == TSXd(f) voi \f\ < W (1.3..&.3.I71a mot bieu dien cua (1.3.19) doi voi Ts=I va {x[nJ} ~=-3 2.23) rna n6 eho chung ta moi quan he gitta bien d6i Fourier cua mot tin hieu tuong tIl Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI~U VA cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TfNH 39 .22) va (1.)} theo (1..3.3) ~j{' men ooi n''_'' p . 1.J. ouner rei rae.2)+ 2sine( t.~ v6iIJl<w (1. N6i each khac. va Salehi M.e6 the mo ta diroc mot each day du thong qua cac gia tri mau cua no lay qua cac khoang Ts mien Ia TssI/2W..::'" roi rae thea thai gian x[n] Xd(f) duoc bieu dien thea = 00 Ix[n]e-j21'fitTs n==-c() (1. Hinh 1.19) = 00 Lx(nTs)sinc[2W(t n==-w -n'fs)] Ket qua nay dira tren sir kien rang dang s6ng sau lay mau xiJ) xac dinh boi x8(t) = 00 Lx(nr~)8(t-nYs) n=-oo ( 1 1.3. ll' -I-'. Neu viec l~y mau dtroc thirc hien qua cac khoang Ts=I/2W.3. -2. =I 1. tin hieu x(t) e6 th~ khoi phuc lai diroc ~=-oo tir cac gia tri mau cua minh {x[ n] xCt) = x( n t.L.

._-----.. . -.17 Bieu dien dinh ly l~y mau. Ket qua ella bien d6i la mot day c6 d¢ dai N mau cua Xl]) trong khoang tan so [0.J -2 -I 0 Time 2 J 4 Hlnh 1. Khi cac mau nam each nhau !1f=j~/N. chung ta phai nhan ket qua voi Ts hay mot each tuong duong la chia cho f~ nham nhan diroc bien d6i Fourier ella tin hieu analog g6c.. trong do fs=l. I -2 -..rrs=2w la tfin s6 Nyquist.---.. THONG TUYEN TINH 40 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI~U vA cAc H~ ._J -L_..L ••_. y ding do thuat toan FFr ve co ban cho chung ta bien d6i Fourier roi rae (DFT) cua tin hieu hieu tirong aa dtroc lay mau nen d~ nhan diroc bien d6i Fourier ella tin tv chung ta phai ap dung bien thirc (1.3. ~.1 .... gia tri cua iJf cho chung ta d¢ phan gi(li tan s6 cua bien d6i Fourier nhan diroc.: _ _ _----_...._..--.. N. ---.------. . L -5 ~I ._ _-_ . la mot luy thira cua 2.1Y mau urong irng ella n6.3 .-..-._-. l _. va bien d6i Fourier roi rae ella tin hieu duoc 1.-. . cAe H~ THONG THONG TIN Hl~N NAY .. G.- 2 o .--._ ~_.---._. neu dQ dai nay khong phai la mot lu~ thira cua 2 thl no se duoc lam thanh mot luy thira ella 2 bang cac ky thuat nhu la ky thuat "nhoi them khong" Hay chu (zero·padding).. is].-----. mot day e6 do dai N cac mau cua tin hieu x(t) lay tai cac khoang Ts duoc Slr dung nhu bieu dien cua tin hieu.-----. 3 ------..23)..ProakisJ. Trong thuat toan nay.. Thuat toan FFT hieu qua v~ mat tinh toan neu d¢ dai ella day loi vao.L . Viec tinh toan so' bien d6i Fourier rei rae dircc thuc hien thong qua thuat to an bien d6i Fourier nhanh (FFT: Fast Fourier Transforms noi tieng... ... . Dieu do c6 nghia la sau khi tinh FFf. Trong nhieu tnrong hop. va Salehi M.

if nargin == 2 n 1=().: THONG ]}i9NG TIN Hli. M is the FIT.18.zeros( 1. 1's=1/ts.~~~ Ham MATLAB fftseq.m.fftseq(m. m-Ille function [M. % else n l=fs/df: end n2=length(m)._ . khoang thoi gian lay mau ls. m=[m. G. BAI T!P MINH HOA.n-n2)J..dj7 =.n). bien d6i FFf cua day M nay va do phan giai tan s6 yeu cau. 1).ts) (foFfTSEQ Generates M. va Salehi M.:~.dfl=fftseq(m. 2. n=2/\(max(nextpow2(n M=fft(m. % The sequence is zero padded to meet the required frequency resolution df.ts.6 [Tfnh toan so va giai tich bien d6i Fourier] Tin hieu x(t) diroc xac dinh boi t+2.24) 0. df=fs/n. % ts is the sampling interval. Hay xac dinh bien d6i Fourier cua x(t) mot each giai tich va ve d6 thi phd cua x(t).ts.va d<) phan gi ai tan s6 yeu cau df r6i chuyen thanh mot day co d<) dai la mot luy thira cua 2.. hay xac dinh thea phuong phap tinh s6 bien d6i T3 Chuang 1: cAe TIN HII.fftseq(m. Bai tap minh hO.df) /l'vI. va v oi cac gia tri t khac diroc the hien nhu tren hinh ve 1.: cAe Hi.3.. Bang each sir dung MA 1LAB.df!=.nJ vA cAe H:e THONG TUYEN TINH 41 . The output df is the final frequency resolution. _-----Proakis!_.m diroc cho dum day nhan dau vao cua no la mot day thea thoi gian m. % Output m is the zero padded version of input m.m.df) % lM. 1.1 1.nextpow2(n2»). the FFT of the sequence m.m. x(t) -2~t~-1 -1 < t = 1. -t s1 +2 1<t~2 (1.

U XI. tfnh chat d6i ty l~ xich va S1.U vA.tJ\ CO tl e Viet cnroc thanh A A' £ x(t) va do = 2A(-) 2 t .18 Tin hieu x(t).19 42 Chuang 1: phd bien d¢ cuax(t).5 -I -0.N NAY Fourier va ve ra ket qua. bien d6i Fourier la thirc. G.5 Frequency Hlnh 1. Hien nhien.3.5 0 0.. co duoc mot each giai tich. 2.5 2 2.5 2 1.3.cAc cAc Iffl THONG TUYEN TlNH .5 1. 1 2 LOi giai 1. x(t) 1 -2 -1 lfinh 1.5 -2 -1.25) do X(f)=4sinc2(2f)-sinc2Cf) (1.26) trong do cluing ta da S11 dung tinh chat tuyen tinh.A(t) (1. va Salehi M.Proakis J.J kien bien d6i Fourier cua A(t) la sinc2(f).19.5 J o:~~J -2. L' L T'III hiH.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HII:. 1 I ' h~ .. TIN HII:. Ph6 bien d¢ diroc the hien tren hinh 1.

5 4 (1.01 Hz nen d() phan giai tan so ket qua dUQ'C chuyen d6i boi fftseq.. khoang each lay mall la Ts=1/f')=O.··-"--._-2. D~ eho an toan chiing ta se lay d(>rong bang la 10 Ian nghich dao ella thaI gian ton tai tin hieu. J .5 I' '.-.Proakis I G. Thai gian ton tai cua tin hieu nay la 4. Chuang 1: cAe TIN HI~U v A eAe H~ THONG ruTIN TlNH 43 .S . Ob-~~~~~~L-~~JL~~~~--= -2. 1.5 D.-".5 -I -0. Do tin hieu kha tron chu nen dQ rong bang ella n6 ty 1¢ voi nghich dao thoi gian ton tai tin hieu. bang each sir dung mot MA TLAB script dan gian e6' up dung ham fftseq. va Salehi M.20 PhISbien di) ella x(t) tinh bang s6.0098 Hz thoa man voi yeu cau ella bai toan.5 0 0. 4J va lay mau n6 thea cac khoang Ts. hay BW = lOx -~ -z: 2.27) va do vay tan s6 Nyquist la hai Ian cua dQ rong bang tin hieu va bang 5.5 2 2. Nhir the. Vee-to tin hieu x e6 0(>dai 41 diroc nhoi them khong toi dQ dai 256 d~ thoa man yeu cau d9 phan giai Hin s6 va cung la d~ lam cho 0(>dai thanh mot luy thira cua 2 nham dat hieu qua tfnh toan cao.20.--.V m sir hra chon nhu the.m chung ta c6 th~ tinh FFT duoc bang so.N NAY ---------------. Chung toi dii chon do ph an giai uin so yeu cau la 0.5 Frequency Hlnh 1. f"-----·-.o- '2.-----_.3. D6 xac dinh bien d6i Fourier bang each su dung MA TLAB. Chung ta xet tin hieu tren khoang [--4.' .5 1.····.m Ia 0.: eAe H~ TI-IONG THONG TIN HIl~. Mot do thi phd bien d9 cua bien d6i Fourier dircc eho tren hinh ve 1."".5 -2 -1. truce tien cluing ta hay eho mot iroc hrong ve dQ rong bang tan cua tin hieu.2.

28) chung ta nhan diroc 1y chap. % scaling f=[O:dfl:dfl *(length(x)-1)]-fs/2.zeros(1.5:0.ts. Y(j)=X(j)H (j) trong d6 (1. % derive the FFT X1=X/fs. Chapter l echo on ts=0. xlabel('Frequency') title(.2 PHA.5].Ac ~ HWU:V A cAc ~ THONG TUYEN TlNH .e-j2tr/1dt (1. m-file % MATLAB script for illustrative Problem 6. % set parameters fs= l/ts: df=O.29) 44 Chuang 1: c.: cAe Hi.[1 :-0.fftshift( abs(X1»).2.001 :2.abstyj).1\2. 1.3.30) c6 th~ viet dUQ'Cdum dang Ia ham truyen cua he thong. % Exact Fourier Transform pause % Press akey to see the plot of the Fourier Transform derived analytically elf subp1ot(2.x.1\2-(sinc(fl».3.2:0].3.9). 10)].[0:0.29) H(!) = F[h(t)] 00 = [h(t). 10).2) plot(f. 1) plot(fl . va Salehi M.2: l]. % frequency vector for analytic approach y=4*(sinc(2*fl». % frequency vector for FFT f1=[ -2. [X.3. xlabel('Frequency') titleCMagnitude-pectrum of x(t) derived analytically') pause % Press akey to see the plot of the Fourier Transform derived numerically subp1ot(2. THONG THONG TIN H~N NAY MA TLAB script cho bai t~p nay diroc cho dum day. Phuong trlnh(1.1 . x=[zeros(l.df).ones( 1.Magnitude Spectrum of x(t) derived numerically') 1.3.Proakis J.Ol.N rtca TREN MIEN TAN s6 cAc ~ THONG LTI Tin hieu loi ra cua mot he thong LTI c6 phan U'ng xung h(t) khi tin hieu l6i vao la x(t) diroc cho boi tfch chap y(t)=x(t)*h(t) Bang each ap dung dinh (1.dfl]=fftseq(x. G.

Day la mot hinh sine voi nira chu ky bang 2. Lei ghli Tnroc het chung ta tim bieu thuc ciia phan hinh sine cua tin hieu.31) = IX(f)IIH(f)1 = LX(f) + LH(f) cho chung ta quan h~ gitra cac phd bien d¢ va phd pha cua cac tin hieu Ioi fa va loi vao..21 g6m mot so doan thang va mot doan hmh sine.32) khac hay ve do thi tin hieu loi ra. Neu tfn hieu diroc cho qua mot bo 19c co phan ling xung diroc cho boi r t. Tin hieu c6 mot bien dQ bang 2 va diroc nang len cao dQ 2. do d6 n6 c6 tan so [0=1/4=0.57tt+ 8>+2.: cAc HB THONG THONG TIN Hn. O~t<l 1~/~2 Voi cac gia Iii t lo. Gia tri cua g6c pha Btim each sir dung cac dieu kien bien 1: eAe TIN HI\$U vA cAe H\$ THONG TUYEN TlNH diroc bang Chuang 45 .Proakis 1. BAI T~P MINH HO~ Bai tap minh hOC.N NA Y (1.7 [Phan tich he thong LTI tren mien tan so] Tin hieu x(t) co do th~ nhu tren hmh ve 1. G. Neu tin hieu di qua mot b¢19C thong thap 1y nrong c6 d¢ rong bang la 1. hay tim tin hieu lui fa cua mach 19Cva ve do thi cua no.21 Tin hieu x(t). do d6 bieu thirc t6ng quat doi voi nola 2cos(27txO.3. va Salehi IY(f)1 { LY(f) M. Hay xac dinh FFf cua tin hieu nay va ve d6 thi cua no. 2.l1.5 Hz.3. 3. 1. h(t) = J 1.25t+ B)+2=2cos(0. (1. -2 3 4 Hlnh 1.25 Hz.

5nt).S 1. D(> phan giai tan s6 yeu cau la 0. 46 Chuang 1: cAc TIN Hr.5< Is 3.3. Do do tin hieu tong cong co th~ viet diroc thea t + 2.5 -I -n.5 5 (1.5 2 2.34) x(t) = 2 + 2 cos(0.: cAc H.5 -2 --1.---.. va Salehi M. H(/) Os/s1. 2.5nt+B) t=2=0 (1.------.33) hay 0=0.5 Hinh 1.22. Viec sir dung ham truyen nay cho tin hieu 16i ra diroc ve tren hinh 1.5 1.-----.e THONG TUYEN TlNH .eU vA cAc H. rna no diroc nhan voi X(j) d~ tao ra Y(j) la bien d6i Fourier cua tin hieu 16i ra. ll.01 Hz.6 day fs=5 Hz. H r----r--. D6 thi cua phd bien d(>cua tin hieu diroc cho tren hinh 1. D(> rong bang cua tin hieu da diroc chon bang 5 Hz.5 Hz nen ham truyen cua no diroc cho boi rI.eN NAY 1 2+2cos(0. cluing ta co th~ tiep tuc loi giai.---.'-------'---2. -2 s t s 0 O<tsl I<ts3 3<ts4 (1.3. Do d¢ rong bang cua h(>19C thong thap la 1. v oi cac gia tri t khac Khi dff co mot mo ta day du ve tin hieu.Proakis 1.3.5 n Frequency n. 1.--. 0.-------r------. 1.e THONG THONG TIN HI. G.--------j ~ 71- : [I 42- \ I o '----'--.35) = '~O.5 < Is 3. 1.23.22 Ph6 bien dQ cua tin hieu.

7. G. \! .eN NAY ----- 3. echo on Chuang J: cAc TiN HIeD VA cAe He TH6NG TUYEN TlNH 47 .24 Tin hieu lei fa trong phan 3 ella bai t~p minh hoa 1." .. d day cluing ta nhan dtrcc tin hieu 16i fa cua bo loc bang mot tfch chap dan gian.___.: cAc H.. MA TLAB script cho bai tap nay dtroc cho dum day._ __ -'--_. Ket qua dUQ'C ve tren hmh 1.23 Tin hieu 16i ra ella bQ loc thong thap.. va Salehi M.} -2 -I 0 Time 2 1 ·1 'i Hlnh 1.L...e THc)NG THONG TIN HI. -'i. Chapter 1..--'- __ '---'-_-L---'_--' -10 -8 -6 --4 -2 0 lime 2 4 6 8 IO Hinh 1..24.. m-file % MATLAR script for Illustrative Problem 7. 8 h 4 2 o l____.Proakis J..

% Output of the filter % Part 3 % LTI system impulse response h=[zeros(l .ceiI(7/ts)ceil( 6/ts) ). 1.dfl]=fftseq(x. x(32:41 )=2+ 2*cos(0.5*pi *t(32:41 ».df). va Salehi M.fftshift( abs(X 1)) pause % Press a key to see the output of the lowpass filter pIot(t.abs(yl (1 :Iength(t»».diroc xac dinh thea -00 P x = 1 T/2 (1.ceil(1. x=zeros(1. CONG SUAT vA NANG LUQNG Cong suat va nang lUCJ11gua mot tin hieu tlnrc x(t).5/dfl »).x1.ones(1 . x(27:31)=2*ones(1.5/dfl) ). % Output of the LTI system pause % Press a key to see spectrum of the input pIot(f..4. % Spectrum of the input f=[O:dfl :dfl *(length(x1)-1)]-fs/2.Proakis 1. y2=eonv(h.y2). % frequency vector X1=X/fs.4.ceiI( 1.'.Iength(X)2*ceil(1.t(ceil(5/ts)+ 1:ceiI(6/ts».51-eeil(7 /ts»].length(t».zeros( 1. G.Ol. ts= Lfs: t=[ -5:ts:5].ts.5/dfl »)]. Y=X.5). fs=5. % Uutput spectrum y1=ifft(Y).: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY % Freq.ceiI(5/ts ». Ian hrot diroc ky hieu la c Ex va P x.ones( 1. x(42:46)=2 *ones( 1. resolution % Sampling frequency % Sampling interval % Time vector % Input signal initiation df=O. pause % Press a key to see the output of the LTI system pIot([ -10:ts: 10].'H.1) 2 lim T~oo T fx (t)dt -T12 48 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI~U vA cAc ~ THONG TUYEN TINH .5). % Scaling % Part 2 % Filter transfer function H=[ ones( 1.x).zeros(l . x(16:26)=t(16:26)+ 2. % Part J [X.

A. con mot tin hieu co cong suat hfru han dirong la mot tin hieu kilu cong sudt (power-typev .6) va mat d¢ phd cong suat noi chung diroc cho bOi Sx!J)=F[R:/.4. Ian kieu cong suai.~U VA CAC H~ THONG TUYEN TINl-I '" '" A .Proakis J.4) Rx (r) = fx(t)x(t + I:)dt = x(I:)*x( -I:) ( 1. va Salehi M. MQi tin hieu tuan hoan" deu la cac tin hieu kieu cong suat.3) -00 Bang each sir dung dinh Iy tich chap.4._ r)] trong do R:/.' "'" '" Chuang 1: CAC TIN HI.._ r) la ham tv nrong quan cua x(t) diroc xac dinh thea cc (1.. MQt thi du ve cac tin hieu 5) Tnrong hop ngoai l¢ duy nhat la cac tin hieu bing khong khap moi noi.oo T 1 TI2 lim . (1._ r)] (1. M(lt d9 phd nang luang cua mot tin hieu kieu nang hrong cho chung ta phan bo nang hrong tai cac taan s6 khac nhau cua tin hieu va diroc cho boi (1. Thi du.4. chiing ta co Gx!J)=F[R:/.4.fx(t)x(t+l:)dt -T12 (1.2) Dodo.5) d6i voi cac tin hieu gia tri thuc. trong khi do x(t)=cos(t) la mot thi du ve mot tin hieu kieu c6ng suat.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY MQt tin hieu voi nang IUQ'Ilg huu han duoc goi la mot tin hieu kilu ruing luang (energy-type). G. '" 49 . x(t)=TI(t) la mot thi du ve mot tin hieu kieu nang hrong.7) Cong suat tdng cong la tfch pharr cua mat d¢ phd cong suat diroc cho thea 4) CO cac tin hieu chang phai la ki~u nang Iuong nhir vay la x\t)=e'U_1 (t).4.4. chung ta dinh nghia ham tu tuong quan trung binb thai gian (time-average autocorrelation function) thea Rx(l:) = T-). D6i voi cac tin hieu kieu cong suat.

8) -<Xl Truong hop dac biet. Ham 50 Chuang 1: 1 N-l (1.: cAc Iffl THONG THONG TIN HI-eN NAY (1.4.9) rna dieu nay co nghia la moi cong suat deu tap trung tai cac hai cua tan s6 co ban va cong suat tai hai thir n (nrro) la IxJ.10) Neu chung ta sIr dung tin hieu thai gian roi rae (duoc liiy mau) thi cac quan h¢ nang hrong va cong suat nrong dirong voi phtrong trinh (1.1) roi rae a dang tin hieu ve thoi gian se tro thanh (1.4. Khi tin hieu x(t) di qua mot bo 19C co ham truyen Htf).4. mat d¢ phd cong suat diroc cho boi (1.4. = lSy(f) iH(f)I' Gx(f) = iH(f)j2 Sx(f) (1. 100 he s6 nrong trng cua chuoi Fourier. thi [Ex = Ts~X'[nl = -Ix2[nJ N n=O 1r.12) MATLAB power.ir. G.4. mat d¢ phd nang hrong hay mat dQ phd cong suat cua tin hieu 16i ra nhan diroc thong qua nghia la bang binh phirong cua d¢ f o.11) va neu FFf diroc ap dung. d6i v6i mottin hieu tuan hoan x(t) co chu ky To va cac he so chuoi Fourier la xn. nghia la neu d¢ dai cua day la hfru han con day duoc lap di lap lai. va Salehi M.m diroc cho du6i day cho cluing ta cong suat chua trong cAc TiN H\$U vA cAc Iffl THONG TUYEN TINH .4.Proakis J.

G.111 duqc l'a 1 0003 W .m va specplot.m. x 47t) + cos(2n x 219t). mot c6 tan so 47 Hz. Cac dinh doi trong phd e6ng suat nrong ling voi hai tAn so co mat trong tin hieu. Chapter 1. LOi giai ..: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY mot vee-to' tin hieu.m.. A!(t im V 0'1 h' _.8 [Cong smlt va ph6 cong snail Tin hieu x(t) co thai gian ton tai la 10 va la tong cua hai tin hieu hinh sine cling co bien d¢ bang 1.23) va duoc cho boi (1. " ? Brtng each sir dung spectrum.OOI.. Mat do phd cong suat cua mot day x[n] tim diroc de dang nhat bang each sa dung ham MATLAB spectrum.. ts=O. cluing ta co the ve mat d¢ phd cong suat cua tin hieu nay nhu duoc the hien tren hinh 1. °~ t~ 10 Voi cac gia tri t khac Tin hieu nay duoc lay mau voi toe d¢ lay mau la 1000 mau tren giay. MA TLAB script eho bai tap nay nhir sau. Neu Xi/) la OFT cua day x[n] thi mat d¢ phd nang hrong cua x(t)-la tin hieu analog nrong duong-se nhan duoc bang each sir dung phirong trinh (1. eong su_~eua tf h'l~U t1.3.. m-flle function pespowertx) % p+spowertx) %SPOWER Returns the power in signal x p=(nonn(x)J\2)!length(x).13) trong do Ts la khoang thoi gian Ufymau.4. WI Salehi M. _ In . Chuang 1: cAc TlNHleU vA cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TlNH 51 .Proakis J. A .25. BAI T!P MINH HO~ Bai tap minh hoa 1..m. Hay sir dung MATLAB de tim e6ng suat va mat do phd cong suat cua tin hieu nay. __am MATLAR spower. m-file % MATLAB script/or Illustrartive Problem 8. mot co Hin so 219 Hz: x(t) = f cos(2n l0.

Proakis 1. d6i v6i mot tin hieu dai thong X(j)=9 d6i v6i II± 101> W.__ •. 1."~.fs) % Press a key to see the power spectrum 10 I 10" 10 " 10 "'II.L . trong do W<<ifo. C.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY fs=l/ts.5 TUONG DUONG THONG THAP CVA cAc TiN HI~U DAI THONG MQt tin hieu dai thong Hi mot tin hieu rna d6i v6i no moi thanh phan tan s6 deu narn trong mot vung quanh mot tan s6 trung H\rnJo (va. psd=s pectrurn (x. x=cos(2*pi*47*t)+cos(2*pi*219*t). Tirong irng v6i mot tin hieu dai thong x(t) chung ta co the xac dinh tin hieu gidi tich z(t) co bien d6i Fourier diroc cho thea (1.J.. II) 12 III I i "::'::<~::. va Salehi M.<~.L-_ o 2::::.1) 52 Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI~U vA cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH . __ _ .~ . p=spower(x). 50 100 150 200 250 Ficqucncy 300 350 400 450 soo Hlnh 1.. 1024).25 Mat d<)pho cong suat cua tin hieu g6m hai tin hieu hinh sine tai cac tan s6_h=47 Hz va/2=219 Hz.L---_. -L.___--I. t=[O:ts:10].L... t~t nhien la quanh cft -10)' Noi khac di. MQt tin hieu thong thap la mot tin hieu rna v6i no cac thanh phan tiin s6 deu nam quanh tan s6 0. _ . nghia la d6i v6i If I > W chung ta co X(j)==O... % Press a key to see the power in the signal pause p pause specplot(psd.• l!)·-I·...5.

. chiing ta co ~(j)=Z(j+/o)=2u_l (j+/o)X(j+/o) (1.5..eN NAY trong do U-l(j) la ham bac thang don diroc viet thea z(t) = x(t) + jx(t) Trang mien thoi gian." ' cua x ('I' eon P. ? ? . = Re[x/(t)e'27tfot] = Irn[x.5. duoc goi la thanh phan cling pha .5. t) k' va dl1yC-Y hieu la xs(t).. bi~u dien = z(t)e- J27t !ot (1. Phan thuc ella no.9) Neu chung ta bieu dien xlt) trong h¢ toa dQ eire thi chting ta co Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI\$U v): cAc m: THONG TUTIN rfNH 53 ..(t) ky hieu la xlt). Phan thirc ella z(t) la day tin hieu goc (ntc Ia x(t)).5.2) trong do x(t) la bien d6i Hilbert ella x(t) diroc xac dinh thea x(t) =x(t)*(1/nt).5.. trong mien tan so. Ttrong duong thong thap cua tin hieu x(t). THONG TIN Hr.m. duoc diroc thong qua z(t) thea x. ao cua no diroc goi.Proakis J. ky hieu la x/t).5.? (\' h-i?n ' .5. tao ra day plnrc z(t). l' thanth pnan vuong goc cua x tJ a . con phan ao ella no ehinh la bien d6i Hilbert ella day g6e...4) Tir quan h¢ nay.: cAc m: THONG vi. quan he nay (1. nghia Ia (1. dieu nay diroc eho hOi A X(f) =-j sgn(f)X(f) (1.5.(t)e !ot] J21t (1. cluing ta co X(t) { x(t) .7) va ~(j)=X(j-/o)+)(( -1-/0) Noi chung. G.8) Bieu dien thong qua cac thanh phan cling pha va vuong goc chung ta co X(t) = Xc (t) cos(21tfot) .3) Ta hay chti y rang ham bien d6i Hiltbert trong MA TLAB.. va Salehi M.6) (1..5) Trang mien tan s6.Xs (t) sin(21tfot) { x(t) = Xs (t) cos(21tfot) + Xc (t) sin(21tfot) (1. nrong dirong thong thap cua mot tin hieu dai thong thirc la mot tin hieu phuc. diroc ky hieu la hiltbert.

5. ---(1.10) trong do Vet) va G(t) diroc goi la duong bao va pha cua tin hieu x(t). Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI~U V A cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TlNH .: cAc HE. z=hilbert(x).fO) %LOWEQ % t=[O:ts:ts*(length(x)-l )]. Cac ham MA'ILAB nrong img la analytic. THONG THONG TIN HIEN NAY ._---------- va Salehi M.ts. quadcomp. jD is the center frequency.. chung ta c6 x(t)= V(t)cos[27t/ot+8(t)] (1.---~-- (t) + x~ (t) X ~ I G(t):= arctan-v.. Returns the analytic signal corresponding to signal x.2 !"-------.x(t) 1G(t) l chon (1.m.--.ts.. .m va env _phas.m. hien nhien la duong bao thi d9C lap voi viec lua . Cac ham nay duoc li¢t ra dum day.r: L (t) -. dirong bao va pha.. (1~.11) Duong bao va pha c6 th~ bieu dien diroc thea .fcl trong khi d6 pha thi phu thuoc VaG viec lira chon nay. Bieu dien thong qua hai ham nay. cac thanh phan cung pha va vuong g6c.5. G. ! Vet) I = ~X.27[/. xl=z. m-file function z=analytic(x) % z=analytici x} %ANALYI'IC z=hilbert(x).1 2') x.--- Proakisl . 54 Returns the lowpass equivalent of the signal x. *exp( -j*2*pi*fO*t).--./ . m-file function xl=loweq(x.13) Tir cac quan he tren day.m. bien dien thong thap cua mot tin hieu.tt) hay nrong duong voi fV(t) =: := p.5.(t)+X2(t) arctan x(t) .fO) % xl=loweq(x.---.). ts is the sampling interval. Chung toi da viet mo: vai file rv1A TIAB don gian d~ tao ra tin hieu giai tich. loweq.

dirong bao cua tin hieu nay.tU).ts. if nargout == 2 z=loweq(x. Lap lai phan 2 voi gia thie"tj.ts.xs]=quadcomp(x.jD is the center frequency.xs ]=quadcomp(x . m-file function [v.fO) %QUADCOMP Returns the in-phase and quadrature components of the % signal x. ts is the sampling interval. BAI T~P MINH HOA Bai tap minh hoa 1. Hay ve do thi tin hieu nay va do thi ph6 bien d¢ cua n6.fO).tsjD) % v=env yhas(x.S Hz.phij=env _phas(x.fO) % [xc.14) 1. % jD is the center frequency.=100 LOi gial Bang each chon khoang lay mau Ia ts=O. Cac do thi ella tin hieu va phd bien d¢ ella n6 dircc eho tren hinh 1.5. xc=real(z). 1. hay tim nrong dirong thong thap va ve do thi phc bien d¢ cua no.9 [Bien d6i tir dai thong thanh thong thap] Tin hieu x(t) diroc cho theo x( t)=sinc( 100t)cos(21tx200t) (1. 2.ts.Proakis 1.fO) % [v phil+env yhas(x. V6i!o=200 Hz.ts. Hz.OOI s. chung ta c6 nhir sau.tsjD) %FNV PHAS Returns the envelope and the phase of the bandpass signal x. Hay ve do thi cac thanh pharr cimg pha va vuong g6c. z=loweq(x.ts. end v=absfhil berttxj). Cac Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI\$V VA cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TfNH 55 . phi=anglefz). ts is the sampling interval. 3. G.: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY m-file function [xc. Bang each chon mot d¢ phan giai tfuI so mong muon la dJ=O. xs=imag(z). va Salehi M.26. chung ta c6 mot tfuI so lay mau lafs=1/ts=1000 Hz.

. .l-~__ .26 Tin hieu x(t) va phd bien d(')cua no 2..:> o 'j'il!H.16) So sanh v6i 56 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI\$U v A cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TlNH . ---'1"'-'------'-'1 0. _.15) (1._JLL ...m...1> :::I o 0.- ___j 2 0. _. cluing ta nhan diroc phd cua no. ··T--··· -rr- r" I 5 I \ -~·l 'I ~-'I J I I I I I 21 u __ -SOU -400 .~ -3UO·20() 100 () 100 20() Frequency 30{) 40{) SOD Hinh 1..l. cluing ta tim nrong duong thong thap voi x(t) bang each sir dung ham loweq. Bang each ch9n.5 ._ _ I i II llA IU. .._ ._.2 l.·-1· I lUI r ":" . Sau d6. 1---'--' I ..(~.27.5 1.-------'.k=200 Hz.x 1 I t. va Salehi M. G..I 0.Proakis 1..-_··· ..MA1LAB.• L . _. \ .'\ --r'---- . Ta co the thay duoc rang phd bien d(>lamot ham chan trong tnrong hop nay 00i vi chiing ta co the viet x(t)=Re[sinc(100t)ej21tX2ool] (1.. .~.. d6 thi phd bien d9 cua no tren hlnh 1.. ___1 • ..5.------J . bang each sir dung fftseq.m. i II .5. ··.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY do thi diroc tao fa bang ._ ._. ~~__I.L.1__ ~ --2 6 x: tD 'I J... .

G./ M.fA'. Nhir co th~ thay a day..: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY Frequency Hinh 1.("\("\ TT_ 1..5.Proakis J..17) rna dieu do co nghia la trong tnrong hop nay tin hieu wang dirong thong thap Ia mot tin hieu thuc..28. 'u. .it)=O.29.\ . . Ph6 bien d¢ cua tin hieu nrong dirong thong thap diroc ve tren hinh 1. L>"~ +A _ __ '::_L L VV' ""\'J UVU5 ual t<.30.. chung ta ket Iuan diroc rang xlt)=sinc( lOOt) (1.. ph6 bien d¢ thieu tfnh d6i ximg hien htru trong bien d6i Fourier ciia cac tin hieu thirc. 3.012 va Salehi ..27 Ph6 bien do cua tin hieu luang dirong thong thap UV' . 0...5. xc(t) ~ xc(t) 1t. ° <° (1.<.18) Cac d6 thi cua xc(t) va Vet) duoc cho tren hinh 1... Chung ta cling ket luan diroc rang vet) == Ixc(t)1 { e(t) = { a. Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI\$U vA cAc H\$ THONG TUYEN TINH 57 ... den Iuot rninh lai co nghia la xcCt)=xlt) con x.....7 J\.. Neu/o=100 Hz thi cac ket qua tren noi chung se khong con dung nita va xlt) se la mot s6 phirc.lUJO""LVV ilL. Dieu nay.tp 11111111 uya 1 f'\ Ll_~ _r ... Hay d~ y rang viec chon fa lam tan s6 rna X(f) d6i xirng qua do dAn den cae hlnh ve nay.. Cac de>thi cua thanh phan cung pha cua x(t) va dirong bao cua no diroc cho tren hinh 1.1.

----.7 f IlI'I ()51 0..._.5 2 Time Hinh 1.i I II f --.. To=10 va to=l.5-1 -I -2 -0...1 duoc th~ hien tren hinh 1.~__ I:> J 05 I) U....» I lUll 0. J .. . _ __ ..1. r------.._. To=4 va to=2.____.1.~_~.._~.. Gia sir A=I. -..11liM---------------1 .-.5 2 Tim\! i I ._ .____.. __ o.._. __ . cAc BAI TAp 1. gia sir rang A=1.5 J 1.._._..:::: '~-"~~T~-'--~--'--j . 1..----l------r-----r----r---...-.---.'1 ~ lUio 11 ::.--..1 va hay chang minh rang cac sai khac d6 la dung....2 Trang bai tap minh hoa 1.28 Thanh phan cimg pha va dirong bao ella x(t).. hay xac dinh va ve phd roi rae cua tin hieu nay. o -I I lUIi I .5 0 0_5 1.1...1 Hay xet tin hieu tuan hoan cua bai tap minh hoa 1.-.._ _ . I L__.- I)' II -llA I I . _ .__. Hay so sanh cac ket qua cua ban voi cac ket qua da nhan duqc trong bai tap minh hoa 1... hay xac dinh va ve 58 Chuang 1: CAe TiN HI~U vA cAc H~ TH6NG TUYEN TlNH ..___Jj ..

1 v6i A=I.Bay gio. Phd pha rna ban da ve tnroc do co hay giro thieh tai sao. Ban co quan sat thay su khong nhat quan giira hai ket qua khong? Tai sao? 1. hay xac dinh va ve cac phd bien do va pho pha ella tin hieu tuan hoan x(t) co ehu ky To=4.3.3] bang quan he x(t}=A(t). Tai sao cac ket qua khong tuyet d6i gi6ng nhau.6 va so sanh cac ket qua voi cac ket qua nhan dircc bang each sir dung phuong trinh (1.2. Hay ve cac pho d6 voi -24:::. To==4 to=I/2 v6i -24:::. 0.m.m. n :::.3.Proakis 1. thong nhat voi ket qua nay hay khong? Neu khongthi 1. va Salehi M.3 voi To=4.2. Hay so sanh cac ket qua ella ban voi cac ket qua da nhan duoc trong bai tap rninh hoa 1.t dung m-file fseries.24.24.4 Lap lai bai tap 1. 3.5).3 Si. hay xac dinh cac he s6 chuoi Fourier va ve phd bien do. ehu ky bay Chuang 1: cAc TiN HIeU vA cAc ~ THONG TUYEN TINH 59 .Hay ve do thi phd bien d9 va ella tin hieu. G. hay dinh nghia x(t)=A(t) trong khoang [-1.5. 1. n :::. LL_-'--_-' -400 --:100 -200 --I(XJ 0 Frequcucy 100 20{) 300 -'WO . Bay gio.9 khi!o=100 Hz.3].01 :::[ OW1 I I.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HIeN NAY phd rei rae ella tin hieu.5 Su dung MA rLAB script dis _ spct.6 Trong bai tap 1.012 r 0.5). 1.1 va hay chirng rninh rang cac sai khac do la dung. 2. hay xac dinh cac h¢ s6 chuoi Fourier ella tin hieu da eho tren hinh 1.6 va diroc mo ta trong khoang [-2. bang each sir dung phuong trinh (1.29 pM bien dQ cua tin hieu nrong dtrong thong thap voi x(t) trong bai tap minh hoa 1. hay xac dinh mot each giro tieh cac he s6 ella chuoi Fourier ella tin hieu va hay cluing rninh rang moi he s6 do deu la cac s6 thirc khong a day co cling am.500 o''': -soo Hinh 1.

5 1. A .5.5 ·1·0. PhD bien dq hay phD pha cho thay mot sai bier dang ke han? Tai sao? I I ! I I --'T -.5 o Tillie I j I 0.2 v6i [a.·1 I ~ I I I 0.'i 1 . 1- .------_··_·-·-1 I i I On -2 I • __ •• _------l .1 i---'-"---'~---r------- -v-r-r----T-·--·T---r-------r-. i 06 O._.6. Hay xac dinh va ve cac pho bien d¢ va pha bang each sir dung MATLAB script dis _spct. .---~. I ~ -U.7 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 1.~ __~ J 1._J.: cAe H-e THONG THONG TIN lU:e. Hay chu y rang tin hieu nay thi giong nhu tin hieu trong bai tap 1. G.IiiIw--.---. 1. r-' ---~ ox I I D.--. b]=[-4.30 Thanh phan ding pha va dtrong bao cua tin hieu x(t) k!lifo=100 Hz...5.4 0.. A ""'" It I s 4.4] va x(t)::::sin(nt/8) d6i v6i 60 Chuang 1: CAC TIN HI~U VA CAC H~ THONG TUYEN TINH .-..l oL~ __~ -2 .(> . Hay so sanh phd bien d¢ va pho pha voi die ph6 bien d¢ va pha nhan diroc trong bill tap 1.c) (1.8 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 1.n ()~II I 0.5 ~.2 v6i [a.m.5 (J. 4] va x(t)=cos(nt/8) d6i v6i 1. 1. r6i It I s 4 N" .5 2 Hinh 1.-------------"""""'.-.21 1)1 I I ()') !I ill 0.S 0 Tim" U.5.. 1J..3 (J.N NAY gio van la To=4._-- Proakis 1. -1 I. . va Salehi M.l. b l=I -4.

0~t~4 Voi cac gia tri t khac 1. h(t) = { 0.: THONG THONG TIN HII. . O~t~l 1~t~2 2~t~4 Voi cac gia tri t khac x(t) = 2. 1.-7 • 1. Voi cac gia tri t khac 0< t < 4 -- hay tinh bang so va ve phd roi rae ella tin hieu loi ra. x(t) -2~t~-1 It < 1 1~t~2 = Itl. mot Ian bang each sir dung cac bien d6i Fourier ella hai tin hieu d6. va Salehi M.: cAc HI.13 Hay ve cac d6 thi pho bien d9 va phd pha ella mot tin hieu eho boi 1. 1. T4 Chuang 1: cAc TiN HI~U v): cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH 61 .10 voi x(t)=e-2t doi voi ItI ~ 3 va J. G.5. +4. 1. 0. Tin hieu nay di qua mot he thong LTI c6 phan ling xung duoc cho boi h(t) = r e -112 [o.7. -t 0. .9 Hay xac dinh bang so va ve cac phd bien d9 va pha ella mot tin hieu x(t) e6 ehu ky la 10-6 giay va diroc xac dinh theo x(t trong khoang ) ={ r -106 t + 0.:N NAY -- so sanh cac ket qua ella ban voi ket qua nhan duoc trong bai tap 1. °~ t ~ 5 X 10-7 Voi cac gia tri t khac It I ~ 5 x ] 0. I v oi cac gia tri t khac 1.14 Hay xac dinh va ve pho ella mot tin hieu chan x(t) rna doi voi cac gia tri dirong ella t n6 diroc eho boi t + 1. 1. mot Ian lam bang each xac dinh tnrc tiep tich chap.12 Hay kiem chirng dinh ly tich chap ella bien d6i Fourier bang tinh toan s6 doi voi cac tin hieu x(t)=I1(t) va y(t)=A(t).11 Lap lai bai tap 1. 0.10 Mot tin hieu x(t) e6 ehu ky To=6 diroc xac dinh boi x(t)=I1(t/3) doi voi ItI ~ 3.Proakis 1.

h(t) 0:s.25. cos(2n x 47 t) thong cao v6i cling cac tan s6 d. hay xac dinh till hieu thong thap urong dirong va cac thanh phan cling pha va vuong goc cua tin hieu nay. Mot Ian gia su fa = 47 va mot Ian gia su fo = 219.16 song Ian nay hay thiet ke cac bo IQc Butterworth cua ban va tien hanh so sanh chiing. va Salehi M.. hay ve cac ket qua + cos(2n x 219t).14 diroc cho qua mot he thong LTI co ham phan irng xung diroc cho thea I. Hay xac dinh va ve bien d6i Hiltbert cua tin hieu nay.16 Tin hieu x(t) ={ COS(2n x 47t) + cos(2n x 219t).1. hay xac dinh tin hieu loi ra cua mach 19C do va ve phd cong suat cua no. 1. 0.2 2<t:S.3 V oi cac gia tri t khac = { 2.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY 1. Hay xac dinh va ve phd cong suat cua tin hieu 16i ra va so sanh no voi hlnh 1. hay thiet ke mot mach 19C Butterworth thong thap bac 4 co Uln s6 cit 100 Hz r6i eho x(t) qua bo Ioc nay. Bang each su dung MA TLAB m-file butter.t va cling bac nhu trong bai tap 1.bai tan minh hoa 1.16. c.8. G. d. Hay xac dinh va ve dirong baa cua tin hieu nay.m. . Bay gia hay thiet k€ mot b¢ loc Butterworth bac 8 voi cimg mot tan s6 cit. 0. Hay so sanh cac ket qua cua ban trong hai tnrong hop nay. t 10 Voi cac gia tri t khac J ° s diroc xem xet.' '-" SlT tin hieu nav diroc lav gii . Nhir trone_:.15 Tin hieu da diroc mo ti trong bai tap 1. :s.0. b. Hay xac dinh tin hieu giai tfch nrong ling voi tin hieu nay. 62 Chuang 1: cAc TIN HI\$U v). Hay xac dinh cac phd bien d¢ va pha cua tin hieu loi ra.t:s.18 Hay xet tin hieu x(t) = { . "" • mau voi t6c d¢ 1000 mau/giay. 1. cAc H~ THONG TUYEN TlNH .17 Lap lai bai tap 1. V 6i cac gia tri t khac a..Proakis J. 1.

Chung ta bat dau voi viec mo ta mot phirong phap tao cac bien ngau nhien co mot ham phan bo' xac suat xac dinh.: cAc HI. cluing ta cung se xern xet ham nrh nrong quan va pho cong suat cua mot qua trinh ngau nhien diroc 19C tuyen tinh. Phan cuoi cung cua chuang nay giAi quyet van de cac dac tinh cua cac qua trinh ngau nhien thong thap va thong dai. Chu de thu ba rna chung ta se xern xet la vice dac ta mot qua trinh ngau nhien dirng bang ham tu nrong quan cua no tren mien thoi gian va bang pho cong suat ella no tren mien tan so.Proakis . cluing ta co the CUll xet cac tac dong cua no thong qua viec mo phong cac he thong truyen tin va danh gia Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGA.I. Sau do chung ta se xern xet cac qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss (chuan) va GaussMarkov va minh hoa mot phirong phap tao cac mau cua cac qua trlnh nhu the. Do cac mach 19C tuyen tinh dong mot vai tro rat quan trong trong cac he thong truyen tin. va Salehi M. THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY CHU(jNG 2 cAc QuA TRINH NGA.U NHIEN 63 . Tap nhieu nhu the t6n tai trong cac thiet bi va he thong dien tU va thuong han che kha nang truyen tin tren cac cir ly 1611 tach cac tin hieu nrong doi yeu va cua cluing tao Bang each tao ra tap nhieu nhu the tren mot may tinh. 2.2 T~O cAc BIEN NGAU NHIEN Cac lx) tao so ngau nhien tlurong dircc su dung trong thuc te de mo phong tac dong cua cac tin hieu kieu nhieu va cac hien nrong ngau nhien khac thuong g~p phai trong the gi6i v~t lY. G.1 orot THI~:U CHUNG Trong chuong nay chung toi minh hoa cac phirong phap tao cac bien ngau nhien va cac mau cua cac qua trmh ngau nhien.U NHIEN 2.

. G.2) Ham phan b6 xac suat nay va giai gia tri cua F(A) la Og(A)~1 voi O~~l. *) Continuum: Ten goi luc Iirong cua tap hop L cac diem trong doan thing O~:::..Proakis. d6i voi bien ngau nhien phan b6 deu A chiing ta c6 1 ham phan F(1) = ff(x)dx =1 (2. Do vay. va Salehi M.-' 1? mer mot san P lam vang L~ h""? ITIyl .. Kill gia su rang oat xy gia [11 nao trong xnoang • ? ? ~ "II . rna no chinh la gia tri cue dai c6 th~ dat duoc bOi mot b6.2..lC cong.10ra mot con s6 nam gitta 0 va 1 voi xac suat nhu nhau.0 ~ ~. duoc minh hoa tren hinh 2. . (TITdien toan h9C. • '" _. ... la mA= 1/2.. "".. Chung ta deu bier rang san pham s6 cua mot may tinh s6 c6 tinh chinh xac han che. duoc ky hieu !altA).. . :.. "II..:f ~ cnuug 1 ~ ~ U1 \.. s6 cac san phAm trong khoang O~~1 du 100 . Tich phan cua ham mat do xac suat.1'. .. 64 Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN '" . Neu A ky hieu cho mot bien ngau nhien nhu vay thi giai gia tri cua no la khoang O~~I.1(a).. Chung ta goi tin hieu 16i ra cua mot b¢ tao s6 ngau nhien la mot bien ngau nhien.. . nay cling la mot san pham c6 the c6 tir bo tao s6 ngau nhien.l. ?.. Chung ta chu y rang gia tri trung binh hay gia tri ky vong cua A.. dien tfch mien nam duoi ham mat d¢ xac suat Iuon la 1." ueu "" ~:' U\} _.1 (b).... va he qua la khong the bieu dien continuum O~~l. rie -. me yen iong Jl .:::'~ *) cua cac s6 trong khoang Tuy nhien..--. Nxb... Hau het cac thu vien phan rnem may tinh deu chua mot b¢ tao s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu.J. cluing ta c6 the gia su rang Af_? lU~~' rmh cua chung ta bieu dien _]... Khoa h9C va ky thuat... 1977.4 so 1011cae .....: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HleN NAY chat hrong hoat dong cua nhtmg h¢ th6ng nhu vay trong dieu kien c6 tap nhieu...1) D6i voi bien ngau nhien bat ky.2. Mot bo tao s6 ngau nhien nhu the t'. . Ha noi. diroc the hien tren hinh 2. ND)..1 h O(. "II. ky hieu la m ....J oang uau pnay LInn ..... diroc goi la ham phan b6 xac suat cua bien ngau nhien A va diroc xac dinh thea A F(A) = ff(x)dx (2..:' 1~ ~ 1~ OIL 0" . . x . Ham mat do xac suar deu d6i voi bien ngjiu nhien A. rna no bieu thi dien tich mien nam diroi f(A). TTA qua la d6i v6i moi muc dich thirc te.

2(a). b+ 1). 1/2) nhu duoc th€ hien tren hlnh 2.: cAc HI. gia su rang cluing ta muon tao mot bien ngau nhien C voi ham pharr bo xac suat F( C) nhu duoc minh hoa tren hlnh 2.3.. Mot bien ngau nhien pharr bo deu tren giai (0. bien ngau nhien B se la bien phan bo deu tren khoang (-1/2. dieu do co thti thuc hien diroc mot each dan gian nho su dung s6 loi ra A cua mot bo tao so ngau nhien va dich no di mot hrong bang b.:THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY . Nhu the.Proakis 1.2. 1). neu b=·-1/2.1 Ham mat do xac sulitf(A) va ham phan b6 xac suat F(A) cua bien ngau nhien A phan b6 deu.4) va Salehi M.2 Ham mat d<)xac suat va ham phan b6 xac suat cua mot bien ngdu nhien phan b6 deu e6 ky vong bang khong. B (b) ~B (a) Hinh 2. Neu cluing ta d~t Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRi~'H NGAU NHIEN 65 . G. cluing ta bat dau bang viec tao ra mot bien ngau nhien A phan bo deu trong khoang (0. Ham phan be xac suat F(B) cua no diroc th€ hien tren hinh 2.2(b). 1). ((. Do giai cua F(C) la khoang (0. mot bien ngjiu nhien moi B co thti xac dinh duoc thea B=A+b rna no bay gio co gia tri ky vong la mB=b+ i.F(A) I ~----1~/2-----Ll~~A (a) (b) 1 Hinh 2. (2. ((BP~ 1 -112 0 112 . Thi du. Neu cluing ta muon tao mot tap am trong mot khoang (b. 1) co th€ diroc sir dung d€ tao ra cac bien ngau nhien vci cac ham pharr b6 xac suat khac.3) Thi du.

Chuang 2: 66 cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN .2.: cAc rn. G. F(C) / F(C)=A C=F-1(A) :I C0 Hlnh 2. Bang each nay.3. chting ta nhan diroc mot bien ngau nhien moi C v6i ham phan be xac suat F( C).1 hay tao mot bien ngau nhien C co ham mat 0(>xac suat tuyen tinh nhir diroc th~ hien tren hinh ve 2.4) d~ co duqc C va loi giai cua (2. chiing ta giai (2.5) Nhu vay.2.5) se cho chung ta gia tri cua C rna v6i no F(C)=A. va Salehi F(C)=A M.Proakis J. OsCs2 V6i moi gia tri C khac o (a) Hinh 2. 0.3 anh xa ngiroc tITmot bien ngau nhien phan b6 aen tnanh mot bien ngau nhien moi C.4) thl (2. Anh xa ngiroc tit A thanh C nay diroc rninh hoa tren hinh 2.4(a). nghia la fCC) = {~ c.4 2 (b) Ham mat dQ xac su!t tuyen tfnh va ham phan b6 xac su!t nrong irng.2. BAI T!P MINH HQA Bai tap minh hoa 2.: THONG THONG TIN HleN NAY (2.2.

Trong bai tap minh hoa 2.7) Nhir the. anh xa ngiroc C==Fl(A) la dan gian. .r. Van de nay nay sinh khi co gang tao cac bien ngau nhien co ham phan bo chuan (Gauss). Trong mot s6 tnrong h9'P thi anh xa ngiroc nay lai khong don gian.. F(C) = ~C2 4 == A (2.Praakis.4(b).8) Chuang 2: CAe QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN ... ::z: " 67 . C<O F(C) = ~C2 .2.: cAc Hi.4(b).2.5 o (b) c Ham mat d¢ xac suat Gauss va ham phan b6 xac suat nrong trng. Tap am g~p phai trong cac h~ thong vat ly thuongdiroc dac t3. bang pharr b6 xac suat chudn (Gauss) diroc mirth hoa tren hinh 2. f{C) ---------r--------. Ham mat d¢ xac suai diroc cho bOi (2. THONG THONG TIN HI~~NNAY LOi giai Bien ngau nhien nay c6 ham phan b6 xac suat 0.5. cluing ta duoc C=2JA (2. 0~C~2 4 1. va Salehi M. cluing ta tao fa mot bien ngau nhien C c6 ham phan be xac suat F(C) nhu diroc minh hoa tren hinh 2. G.2.1. Chung ta tao mot bien ngau nhien phan b6 deu A va d~t F(C)=A. Do d6. C>2 nhu diroc minh hoa tren hinh 2. C o (a) Hinh 2.6) Giai tim C.

11) (2. va Salehi M. G. 1) thu hai la B va xac dinh E>=21tB (2.13) va do vay R = 20'2 In(_1 ) I-A. H~ qua la anh xa ngiroc rat kho rna dat duoc.: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN HIeN NAY . chung ta co (2.2.14) trong do A. 2n).2. C). (2.15) thl til (2.9) Chang may la tfch pharr trong (2.10) lily ham ngiroc diroc d~ dang.2.2.11) va (2.2. la mot bien ngAu nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang (0. la d¢ do sl. neu cluing ta tao ra mot bien ngau nhien pharr b6 deu trong khoang (0. 1). Nhu vay. Mot each thtrc da: duoc tim ra nham pha va kho khan nay. Ham phan bo xac suat F( C) la dien tich mien narn dum f( C) tren giai (-co.{doang rong cua ham mat do xac suat f( C).2. Phuong phap dii mo ta tren day thuong diroc su dung trong thuc te de tao cac 68 Chuang 2: cAe QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN .12) D=RsinE> trong do E> Ia mot bien ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang (0.9) khong the bieu dien dUQ'Cbang cac ham don gian.2.12) chung ta nhan diroc hai bien ngAu nhien pharr bo chuan doc lap thong ke C va D. Til ly thuyet xac suat ngtroi ta da: biet duoc rang mot bien ngau nhien pharr b6 Rayleigh R co ham phan b6 xac suat R <0 R~O (2.trong do if la phuong sai cua C. F(C) = c ff(x)dx -00 (2.2.Proakis J.2. Tham so if la phtrong sai cua C va D.2. Do (2. BAy gio.10) hen he diroc voi mot cap bien ngau nhien Gauss C va D thong qua bien d6i C=Rcos0 (2.2.

gsrv2J=gngauss(m. Neu muon c6 mot bien ngau nhien chuan ky vong khac khong.-- Proakis 1. rna n6 diroc sinh ra boi cac chuyen dong ngau nhien cua cac dien til du6i tac dong nhiet. % a uniform random variable in (0.gsrv21=gngauss(m. sgma=m. it % takes the mean as O.sgma) % (gsrvJ. MATLAB script thirc hien phirong phap n6i tren nham tao cac bien ngau nhien phan bo chuan diroc cho diroi day. If one of the input arguments is missing. cac bien ngau nhien nay c6 ky vong bang 0 va plnrong sai bang d. khi d6 C va D c6 th~ tinh tien diroc bang each cong them gia tri ky vong.N NAY --. 2. G.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HIl-.5. Ly do doi v6i dac tinh Gauss cua tap am nhiet la dien tao ra til chuyen dong cua cac dien til trong mot mach dien til c6 th~ xem Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN . sgma= 1. % If neither mean nor the variance is given. z=sgma*(sqrt(2*10g(l/( I-u»». u=rand. gsrv2=m+z*sin(2*pi*u). c6 th~ rna hlnh hoa rat sat bang mot qua trlnh ngau nhien Gauss. end.gsrv2J=gngauss(sgma) % (gsrv1.gsrv2]=gngauss % GNGAUSS generates two independent Gaussian random variables with mean % m and standard deviation sgma.1) gsrvl=m+z*cos(2*pi*u). elseif nargin == 1. m=O. Ly do can ban doi voi tam quan trong nay la a cho tap am nhiet a cho dong 69 trong cac thiet bi dien til.---------- bien ngau nhien phan bo chuan. uerand. m=O. it generates 1l1/0 standard (If) Gaussian random variables. Nhu thay diroc tren hlnh 2.1) % a Rayleigh distributed random variable % another uniform random variable in (0.sgma) %1 gsrv l .3 cAe QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN GAUSS vA GAUSS-MARKOV Cac qua trlnh ngau nhien Gauss d6ng mot vai tro quan trong trong cac he thong truyen tin. m-file function [gsrv l . if nargin == 0. va Salehi M.

rCx) = -(2-n-y-I2-[d-e-t(-C-)]!/2 X=(Xb X2. Tmh chat 1: D6i v6i cac qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss. va Salehi M. Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh ngau nhien X(t) Ia mot qua trinh Gauss neu voi Gauss cling nhau. HC1l1 do mot mo ta th6ng ke d~y du cua {X(/. Ngoai tap am nhiet.1) trong d6 vee-to xn)' ky hieu cho n bien ngau nhien x.: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN HfflN NAY nhu la tong cua cac dong nho cua mot s6 rat Ian cac nguon-la tirng dien tir rieng le. viec biet duoc vee-to ky vong m 70 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHI13N .m) C (x ~ m)] -t (2.i. eon C Ia rna tran hiep phirong sai (covariance matrix) nxn cua cac bien ngAunhien (Xl' X2. Mot s6 d~e tinh Iy thu cua cac qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss diroc trinh bay du6i day lam eho cac qua trinh nay tra nen d~ xu 19 mot each toan hoc va d~ dang e6 the gia quyet diroc.. chi phu thuoc VaG vee-to ky vong va rna tran hiep phirong sai C.! the.3.cX(t).Proakis 1.3. X(t2» cling duoc phan b6 thea mot bien ngau nhien Gauss hai chien. G. Til dinh nghia nay e6 the thay rieng ducc rang tai bat c- 1 la ky mot thai t b t2 diem to nao bien ngau nhien X(to) cting Ia mot bien Gauss va tai hai diem bat ky nao thl cac bien ngau nhien (X(tl).: independent and indentically distributed). Chung ta se rna d~u bang mot dinh nghia e6 tfnh hlnh thirc ve mot qua trinh Gauss. C6 the gia sir diroc rang chf it Ia da s6 cac ngu6n nay chay mot each doc lap va do vay dong dien tong cong la tong cua mot s6 Ian cac bien ngau nhien doc lap e6 phan b6 nhir nhau (i. nghia Ia m=E(X). eon nghich dao cua rna tran hiep phirong sai C. cac qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss eon cho nhtrng mo hlnh kha tot doi v6i ca mot s6 nguon thong tin. e6 the bieu dien dtroc thea .)}. cluing ta e6 diroc cac tfnh chat sau.'''' Xn) v6i cac phan nr (2. Theo dinh Iy gi6i han trung tam. m Ia vee- to gia tri ky vong. dong tong cong nay e6 mot phan b6 Gauss.d.'''' ill exp] -"2(x .2) Chi s6 tren t ky hieu eho chuyen vi cua mot vee-to hay rna tran.

va Salehi M.4) Nhu the. hiep phuong sai cua X Hi Cx=E[(X-mx)(X-mx>']=E[Y yt (C!/2)'] (2. Y2.3. Tinh chat 2: Neu qua trinh Gauss X(t) diroc cho qua mot h¢ thong LTI thi tin hieu loi ra cua he thong nay cung la mot qua trinh Gauss. clning ta xac dinh vee-to (nxl) X diroc bien d6i tuyen tinh thea X=C1I2xY+m x (2.3) V~y. Tac dong cua he thong toi .2.3.5) Biroc kh6 khan nhat trong qua trlnh nay Ia viec phan tich rna tran hiep plnrong sai C. thanh thira s6. Chung ta hay di~n ta thu tuc nay bang mot thf du ap dung phan b6 Gauss hai bien. BAI T~P MINH HQA sir thay d6i ve gia tri ky vong bien] Hay tao cac mau cua mot qua trinh ngau nhien Gauss nhieu bien X(t) c6 LOi giai Tnroc het cluing ta hay tao mot day gam n bien ngau nhien Gauss doc lap thong ke c6 ky vong bang khong va phuong sai bang 1 bang cah sir dung plurong phap da diroc mo ta trong muc 2. Mot tinh chat rAt quan trong ntra cua mot qua trinh Gauss lien quan t61 cac di_lctrung cua n6 khi di qua mot he thong LTI. chung ta hay phan tfch thanh thira so rna tran hiep phtrong sai nxn mong muon C.Proakis J. Tfnh chat nay c6 th~ phat bieu diroc nhir sau. thanh c =C x 1l2 x (CI/2)' x (2."" yS· Thir den. G.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY va rna tran hiepphirong sai C cho chung ta mot mo ta thong ke dAydii ve qua trlnh nay.X{t) chi duoc dap anh mot each don gian bang mot va hiep phuong sai cua X(t). Gia sir cluing ta bat dau v61 mot cap bien ngau Chuang 2: cAc QuA TR1NH NGAu NHIEN 71 .3. Ciing ta hay ky hieu day n bien nay bang veeto Y=(Yl.

-_ .7) Ma tran hiep phirong sai C c6 th~ phan tich diroc thanh C=C1!2(C1!2y .: cAc HI. trong do (2. echo on mx=[O 0]'. x = [Xl] = ClI2[YI] x2 Y2 = _1 [J3 + 1 J3 -l][YI] 2F2 __ 1 J3 -1 J3 + 1 Y2 ./3 -1)Y2] + 1)Y2 (2.~ CflCf2 (2. x=multi_gp(rnx. Ta Xl muon bien d6i cluing thanh mot cap bien ngau nhien Gauss m=O va rna tran hiep phirong sai va X2 c6 ky vong (2.6) trong do Cfj 2 va Cf~ nrong ling la cac phuong sai cua Xl va X2 con p la hiep phuong sai chuan hoa duoc xac dinh thea p= E[(Xj -ml)(X2 CflCf2 -m2)] =.3. Chapter 2. xI=-3:delta:3. G._------------ Proakis 1. 1/2 1]. 72 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN .3. .9) Cac MA lLAB script doi voi tfnh toan nay diroc cho dum day m-file % MATLAB scriptfor Illustrative Problem 2.3._.Cx). % Computation of the pdf of (xl . nhien Gauss doc lap YI va Y2 c6 ky vong bang khong va phirong sai bang 1.3.3. Cx=[1 1/2. x2=-3:delta:3.:N NAY.2F2 [(J3 + l)Yl +(J3 (J3 -l)YI +(-.8) Do vay. va Salehi M.x2) follows delta=0.: THONG THONG TIN HII.

and covariance matrix C. x=sqrtrn(C)*y+rn. f(i. end.3. for j=1:length(x2).x2(j)]-rnx»). % plotting command for pdf follows mesh(x 1.1 4 o Hinh 2.!). echo on. G.j)=(1/((2*pi)*det(Cx)A 1/2»*exp(( -1/2)*(([xl mx')*inv(Cx)*([x 1(i).Ct % MULTI GP generates a multivariate Gaussian random oL J _"-'£" .4 0. y(i)=gngauss. Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN 73 . s=s': 0.3 0. N=length(rn): for i= lN.C) % !xl=multi eotm. % process with mean vector m (column vector).6).6 rninh hoa ham mat d¢ xac suat cung nhau (joint pdf) d6i v6i rna tran hiep phuong sai C diroc cho trong (2. echo off.x2. end. Hinh 2.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY for i=l:length(xl). end. (i) x2(j)]- m-file function [x] = rnulti_gp(rn.2 0.6 Ham mat dQ xac suat cimg nhau cua Xl va Xz.5 U. va Salehi M.Proakis 1.

.3 [Qua trinh Gauss-Markov] Hay tao mot day (phan each 74 Chuang 2: CAc QUA c6 phan bo Gauss thi qua trinh X(t) co diroc se la mot qua TRiNH NGAU NHIEN . chung ta co n C1/2= L. .--.3. X(t) la mot qua trinh Markov rna Phuong phap don gian nhat dti tao mot qua trinh Markov la phuong phap SlY dung cong thirc lap don gian (2..3.-. chung ta c6 th~ xac dinh cac gia tri rieng {Ak> 19~n} va cac vee-to rieng nrong ling {Vk> l~k~n}..--. < til thi P[X(tn) < Xn I X(tn-I).-2)' .3.13) Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh Gauss-Markov ham mat d(>xac suat cua no la Gauss.d) co ky vong bang khong con pIa mot tharn so xac dinh bac cua tuong quan gitra ~ va ~_I..3.------.3...14) khi W" la mot day cac bien ngjiu nhien (trang) doc lap cling phan bo (i.AkVkV~ k=l n (2.J. nghia Ia (2. G.-~--. va Salehi M.15) Neu day {wn} trinh Gauss-Markov. ! X(trt_I)] (2... BAI T~P MINH HOA Bai ~p minh hoa 2.12) Dinh nghia nay dan den neu t I < t2 < .-------- Proakis.i.3.: cAe H~ THONG TH()NG TIN HI~N NAY Nhu da neu..11) Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh Markov X(t) la mot qua trinh ngau nhien rna qua khii cua n6 khong anh huang gl toi nrong lai neu hien tai cua no ducc xac dinh. X(t. neu tn>tnl thi (2.{~/2V k~1 k v~ (2. nghia la.--~-.10) va do C= C 1/2( C 1/2y. X(tI)]=P[X(tn) ~ x.--. biroc kho nhat trong tfnh toan la xac dinh C'": V6i rna tran hiep phuong sai rnong muon da cho..-. V~y thi rna tran hiep phuong sai C c6 thti bi~u dien duoc theo c= L.

% plotting commands follow m-flle Rx (m).N).N) % GAUS _MAR generates a Gauss-Markov process of length N.. end.rho.1.\0=0 con {wn} Hi mot day cac bien ngau nhien Gauss i. XO=O.95. .8 Ian hrot minh hoa day (A:z) va ham tu nrong quan m-file % MATLAB script for Illustrative Problem 3. .: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY deu nhau) gorn 1000 mau cua mot qua trmh Gauss-Markov tit cong thirc l~p (2.17) LOi gild 2. 1000 trong do . for i=2:N. Rx=Rx_est(X. end. % % for i=I :2:N. Hay ve do thi day {A:z. rho=O. .3. X=gaus_mar(XO.rho.i.3.N) % [X]=gaus_mar(XO. Chapter 2. X(i)=rho*X(i-1)+Ws(i)...Proakis J.16) n=l.7 va 2. 2.50 (2.d co ky vong khong va phirong sai bang 1. function [X]=gaus_mar(XO. = 0. [Ws(i) Ws(i+ l)]=gngauss. .. M=50. % Generate the noise process % First element in the Gauss-Markov process % the remaining elements Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHrEN 75 . N=1000. 1~ n ~ 1000} nhir la mot ham cua chi s6 thoi gian n va nr nrong quan m trong do N=1000. The noise process is taken to be white Gaussian noise with zero mean and unit variance. G.rho. X( 1)=rho*XO+ W s( 1).M). va Salehi M.

\$N NAY : 1-----.----.. 2. .------ Proakis J... 76 Chuang 2: cAe QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN .__~ HI 15 ~I 20 25 .1 I 70n ROO 'Ion woo I-finh 2..L__J_~==d 30 35 40 45 50 '" Htnh 2....8 Ham tu urong quan cua qua trlnh Gauss-Markov. ' .4 PHO CONG SUAT CVA cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN QUA TRINH TRANG " vA cAc ~ Mot qua trinh ngau nhien dimg X(t) duoc dac tit tren mien tAn s6 bang phd cong suat cua no Sij) Hi bien d6i Fourier cua ham tu nrong quan Ri r) cua qua trinh d6.. _.------._. G.(.100 500 II (.7 Day Gauss-Markov.--.__ HKI .. '-'j -2 i n __ -'.. -··8 -10 200 ~oo . II '2 (I --.. .-..._L __ _-'-_ ..1.. '_ __ .I .("" 1 2 o -I o 5 _.on ..: eAe H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI.-. va Salehi M. __ L L __..---r--- . __ . Ii 5 j R..-----.

ifr df (2. IV1yt qua trinl h ngau HIllen nnu the diroc dinh nghia nhu sau. cluing ta thay diroc rang neu S/J)=C doi v6i moi r'thi <Xl <Xl JSx(f)df -<Xl = Jed! = 00 (2. MQt vai qua trinh .(r) = Khi mo hinh hoa tap eo f Sx(f)e J2 .KA" '" l'A 1 1 A' am ru U tue ia mot qua" trtnlh ngau nruen trang. nghia la «.4.4. Dau sao.4. Hien nhien la chang co mot qua trinh vat ly thirc nao lai co the co cong suat vo han va do do mot qua trinh trang khong the la mot qua trinh vat ly co y nghia nao. ham tv nrong quan RxCr) cua mot qua trinh ngau nhien dimg X(t) nhan diroc til phd cong suat S/j) bang bien ddi Fourier ngiroc.4) Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN 77 . (f) = eo fRx (r)e-J2Tifr d t (2. Tuy nhien. va Salehi M.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY nghia la s. G.4.nghia la neu Sij) la mot hang so v6i myiJ Nhu oa neu.. no co mot phd cong suat bang phang .2) -<Xl am nhiet phat sinh ra trong cac thiet bi dien tu diroc sir dung trong viec thirc hien cac he thong truyen tin.diroc slr dung de mo ta mot so cac nguon thong tin . chung ta thirong gia sir rang tap . viec phan tfch co che hrong tu cua mot tap am nhiet cho thay rang n6 co mot mat dQ phd cong suat cho diroc theo S (f) n - 2(ehJlkT hi -1) (2.3) eho nen cong suat tdng cong bang vo cling.Proakis 1.~'1' A " L'A ~ "R.1) Nguoc lai. tarn quan trong cua cac qua trinh trang xuat phat til su thtrc la tap am nhiet co the mo hinh hoa diroc mot each sat thirc bang mot hang s6 ve pho tren mot dai tan so rong.cling mo hinh hoa diroc nhir san pham dau ra cua cac h~ thong LTI co dau vao la mot qua trinh trang. h t.

vfrn co th~ mo hlnh hoa diroc d6i voi moi muc dich thirc te nhir la mot qua trinh trang v6i phd cong suat bang kT12.li/=O. tai nhiet dO trong phong (T=300 K).9. I I. Til dieu nay cluing ta c6 th~ ket luan diroc rang tap am nhiet. Gia tri kTI2 tlnrong diroc ky hieu la No. D6i v6i mot qua trinh ngau nhien trang X(t) co phd cong suat S/..4.•.R 1.4 1. _.9 D6 thi cua SJf) trong cong thirc (2. 15 L .. Phd nay dat gia tri 100 nhat cua n6 tl. Phd nay tien den khong khi f tien den vo cung song t6c dO hoi tu toi khong rat cham. _ j 2 2.4). - I 2 ~------l.38x 10-23 11K).4 r I ~:f r I Of: L 0.. >( 10?1 _ .r.1012 Hz rna tan s6 nay nam tren cac tan so' diroc su dung trong cac he thong truyen tin truyen thong. S. Thi du._.•./. i -1 j I ! o . . T ky hieu cho nhiet dO Kelvin. va gia tri eire dai nay la kT12.. Chung ta tit day tro di se tranh dung thuat ngtr do rna chi sir dung mot each don gian la phd cong sua! hay mdt dq phil cong sudt.__ trong d6 h ky hieu eho hang s6 Planck (bang 6..j) ha thap xuong con 90% gia tri eire dai cua no tai quang / ~ 2. G. I ./.: cAe H~ THONG ~H6NG I_IN ~_ltN_NA ~ __ .j)=N 0/2...6 I- - ____ --------• 1.1 f Hinh 2.5 -'_. 0. mac dau khong trang mot each chinh xac. wi Salehi M.2 [.______ _!roaki!_J._. do vay mat dO phd cong suat cua tap am nhiet thtrong diroc cho la S.~ '..__ . . ham 78 Chuang 2: tv cAe QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN .j)=N 0/2 va doi khi n6 cling diroc goi v6i ten la mdt dq phil cong sudt hai phia nham nhan manh rang phe> nay trai tren ca cac tan so' dirong Ian am.6x10-34 Is) con k la hang s6 Boltzmann (bang 1. Phe> cong suat nay diroc the hien tren hmh 2.

tinh ham tv nrong quan va tinh phd cong suat S/j) diroc cho diroi day..6) Il+ m.l.-2.eN NAY = ~o V!.m 1l=lml I I IX X Il N (2.4.. diroc tfnh toan mot each hieu qua nho sir dung thuat to an FFT.I TAp MINH HQA Bai tap minh hoa 2... trong khoang (-1/2.4 [Ham nr tU011g quan va ph6 cong suat] Hay tao mot day roi rae thea thai gian gam N=1000 so ngau nhien phan bo deu i. cluing ta co RxC 1')=0. Chung ta nen d~ y rang ham tv nrong quan va phd cong suat th~ hien mot su bien dong dang k~. can phai lay trung binh gia tri tv tirong quan mau tren mot so IAn thuc hien.11 minh hoa RxCm) va S/j) nhan diroc bang each chay chuang trinh nay va ap dung lay Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAu NHIEN 79 .Proakis J.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI. VI vay. diroc xac dinh thea Sx(f) = Ig. neu qua trinh ngau nhien con la qua trinh Gauss thi cac bien ngau nhien co diroc do lay mau se la cac bien ngau nhien Gauss doc lap thong ke.4. 1/2) va tinh gia tri nr nrong quan cua day {X}. m = -1. G. Cac hinh 2. . va Salehi M. Ngoai viec la mot qua trinh trang..10 va 2.d.1'-1 Cling hay xac dinh phd cong suat cua day {~J bang each tinh bien d6i Fourier roi rae (DFT: Discrete Fourier Transform) cua DFT nay. BA.M 1 -N .4.7) LOi giai MA TLAB script thuc hien viec tao day {X}. diroc dinh nghia thea m = O.(m)e-J27tfm/(2M+l) m=-M M (2.5) trong do ~ 1') la ham xung dan H~ qua la doi voi moi t: * 0... nghia la neu cluing ta lay mau mot qua trinh ngau nhien trang tai hai diem tl va t2 (tl* t2) thi cac bien ngau nhien diroc tao ra khong nrong quan voi nhau.i. jeJ21(Tdf -~ nrong quan RxC1')Ia Rx(r) = jSx(f)eJ21(Tdf -~ = ~o oCr) (2. . .

. Chapter 2.--0' ' ' 0.~_ . 0 lKn th.. m-flle ~o MArLAR script/or Illustrative Problem 4..05 I n.5 Hinh 2.3 ()..--.~Jm n. echo on N.M+ 1). ~~50.l. bffih C\.N NAY ---- tr\ t~ Uldn'?.11 Phd cong suat trong bai tap minh hoa 2. . Chuang 2: cAC QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN . (J.4.l/.1 n.---.---..1 :~: .0(.n.02 lUll II -lUll o III Hlnh 2. 0. ~_.~l\C\uatnnh n..ia...._~~.2 ·0.-------r-----r --------. n.4 ·0.1 () f 0..1000.r!~ o. RX_av=zeros( 1.5·0. .~c 1 m..10 Ham nr wang quan trong bai tap minh hoa 2.hien.2 0. C\uat\ tnm'g.4.-.1 r-------r·---"--r~-·-.--._.ua..:1 -0.__ l~ _~_. g.-.. va Salehi M..l 0.o: 0.4 0.-----..---. G.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN Hlt.Proakis.12 0. __ -0.

-. Rx=Rx_est(X. end. No 12 Ifl~B IfJ>B (2.R 0.12 minh hoa Rx( ·r).4. Sxefftshifuabstfft/Rx Rxjiv=Rx __v+Rx. Rx uv=Rx jav/l O.1) chung ta co R (T) = x B -B JNo 2 ej2rtfc dlf = N B si~271:B-t 0 2nB-t (2.2 \/V\/~'j -4 --3 -0.8) Ta hay X3. a Sx_av=Sx_av+Sx.i. uniformly distributed random variables % between -112 and 112 % Autocorrelation of the realization lj). Sx_av=Sx_av/ 10.N)-l/2.4 - 0. echo off. n.4 -5 -2 -I 0 234 5 Hinh 2.4.4.M+ 1). X=rand( 1.C dinh ham tv tuong quan ella no.9) v6i B=No=l. % Power spectrum of the realization % sum of the autocorrelations % sum of the spectrums % ensemble average autocorrelation % ensemble average spectrum MQt qua trinh ngau nhien voi do rong bang han che X(t) co phd cong suat S (f) x- = I[o. % Plotting comments follow % take the ensemble average over 10 realizations % N i.12 D6 thi ham nr urong quan Ri.M).Proakis 1.: CACHl. T5 Chuang 2: cAe QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN 81 .) duoc cho boi (2.6 0.va Salehi M.: THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY Sx_av=zeros( 1. ~--_------. G.9) Hlnh 2. echo on.d. for j= l :10.4. Tir (2.

3 .e.1 • ~".U-"". voi moi ve 1.<MHr~.IT~P MINH HOA Ba] tap minh hoa 2.: cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI. Hay chii y rang chung ta chi W nrong quan R_lz) bci vi chung ta da chi lAy If I s B. 1J.5 [Ham tu tuong quan va ph6 cong suat] Hay tinh ham tv tuong quan RxC z) doi voi qua trlnh ngau nhien rna phd cong suat cua no diroc cho boi (2. r-r-r-r- 07 OJ . va Salehi M. LOi ghii £)~ thirc hien tfnh toan nay. Thuat toan FFT co th~ sir dung duoc cho viec tinh toan nay.Proakis J.1l . 4f va tang so mau bang each lay ca. lJA f 02( 0."'-O I II Iii o () 5 10 Q e Iii 15 6 e '" II I} 20 II e 25 6 II II ee• 30 35 /I Hlnh 2.4. cac mau voi !fl"> B. chiing ta se nhan diroc cac gia tri trung gian cua RxCr).5 voi 32 mau. Hinh 2. 82 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN . BA. 1·_· tI'! . Phan each tan so trong thi du nay Ia !lJ=2B/N. Ket qua cua viec tinh toan FFT ngiroc voi N=32 diroc minh hoa tren hlnh nhan diroc mot bien dien tho cua ham mau sij) trong dill tan so Neu cluing ta gift nguyen ve 2. 0.14 minh hoa ket qua tinh toan FFT ngiroc v6i N1=256 mau trong d6 N=32 mau bang 1. G.13. chung ta bien dien Sij) bang N mau tren dai tan mot mau diroc chuan hoa so If! s B .13 FFT nguoc cua phd cong suat cua qua trinh ngau nhien voi bang han che' trong bai tap minh hoa 2.N NAY MA TLAB co th~ sir dung diroc d~ tinh R_l z) til S/j) va ngiroc lai.8).

% second part Sx2=[ ones( 1. MA1LAB script thirc hien cac bien d6i Fourier ngiroc k~ tren diroc cho dum day. Rx2=ifft(Sx2.1) Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN 83 .__ Hinh 2.224). % plotting commands follow 2.16).16)].256). G.14 FFf ngiroc cua phd cong suat cua qua trinh ngau nhien voi bang han che trong bai tap minh hoa 2. va Salehi M.: cAc H:e THONG THONG TIN HIBN _ _NA_Y .5 voi 256 mau.32)]. Rxl=ifft(Sx 1.Proakis 1.ones(1 .5 L<)C TUYEN TiNH cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN Gilt Slr rang mot qua trinh ngau nhien X(t) diroc cho qua mot mach loc tuyen tfnh khong bien d6i thea thoi gian diroc d~e tlt tren mien thoi gian bang ham dap irng xung h(t) cua no va tren mien tan so bOi dap irng tan so cua no ec H(!) = Jh(t)e-j21tji dt (2. echo on % first part Sxl=[ones(l. Chapter 2.zeros( 1.5. m-flIe % MArLAB script for Illustrative Problem 5.32).

vrv{ .Proakis J. BAI T~P MINH H<)A so Bai tap minh hoa 2.: cAc Hi..6 [Tap nhieu dUQ'c IQc] Gilt nhien trang X(t) su rang mot qua trlnh ngau co phd cong h(t) suat Sij)=l v6i moi j'kich thfch a 10i vao mot bo loc (2..: THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY Do do san pham 10i ra cua bQ19Ctuyen tinh la qua trinh ngau nhien a) yet) f X(t)h(t . \vr.6) tuyen tinh c6 dap img xung = {e0.r)dr -a) = mx '" fh(r)dr -'" =mxH(O) (2.lif=O. V.T)dr: (2..3) trong d6 H(O) la dap img tan so H(j) cua bo 19Cdiroc danh gia t'.4) = f fRx(T-a)h(t--T)h(t+1:-a)dr:da -a::J-OO Tren mien tan so..2) Gia tri trung binh cua yet) la my == E[Y(t)] = '" fE[X(r)]h(t -a) . va Salehi = M. giai Dap irng tan so cua bo 19Cnay d~ dang thay diroc la 84 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN .5.5.4). )1 J . G. L<ri.5.5. phd cong suat cua qua trlnh ngau nhien 10i ra Yet) diroc lien h~ voi phd cong suat cua qua trinh ngau nhien 10i vao X(t) va dap irng tan cua bo 19Ctuyen tinh theo bieu thtrc (2.1.a)dTda = f f E[X(T)X(a)]h(t 00 '" (2..5.5.. I . t~O t<O Hay xac dinh phd cong suat S/J) cua san pham 10i fa cua bo 19C. t .JL·' \". Ham nr nrong quan cua yet) Ia ('T'\ R y\" a) '" - A.T)h(t + T .r)dr = mx '" fh(t ..5) Dieu nay d~ dang thay diroc nho lay bien d6i Fourier cua (2..

5 -1 0. -- ---r---T--'--i 11._..1 0. 0:' r··-·· . *H:"2.6 d6i voi phd cong cAc QuA TRlNH NGAu NHIEN 85 Chuang 2: .: Lcc~--oc<~--~_~-2 ·1.: cAc H\$ THONG THONG TIN HI~N------NAY (2.OI.15 D6 thi cua Sit) dtroc eho boi (2..5.. echo on delta=O. m-file % MATLAB script/or Iflustrative Problem 6..5..-_· ---T-· -.8) BAI T!P MINH HQA Bai tap minh hoa 2.5..15. f=F_min:delta:F _max. olll (U ~ r---···.7 [Ham ttr ttrong quan va ph6 cong suat] Hay tinh ham tv wang quan R/ z) irngvoi S/J> trong bai tap minh hoa 2. Proakis 1. s.7) (2. Chapter 2. MATLAB deli voi Sij) va Ji(j) da X3e dinh diroc cho diroi day. F_min=-2..5 (11.8) script d~ tinh S/f) 1 1+ J2nf Dodo.length(f).5 1. F_max=2. (f) = IH(f)12 = -1 + (~nf)2 D6 thi cua S/J> duoc minh hoa tren hlnh 2._-_.. H=l'/(l +(2*pi*f). G./\2). Sy=Sx. va Salehi H(f) _ M.5 () 0. ::.5 2 I Hlnh 2. Sx=ones( 1.

BAygio cluing ta hay xet van de thoi gian roi rae tuong duong.0181· (>. .lJ.----.. Hinh 2. Chapter 2.0[ O. -(N/2-1 )*deltaf:deltaf:-deltaf]. -...7.l.. n.(Kl6 0. L<ri gbii Trong tnrong hop nay.004 Hlnh 2.. {C'. San pham 86 .:tal .012 0. va Salehi M. G.¢tb<)IQc tuyen tinh rei rae ve thoi gian voi ham dap irng xung hen). _~f'f' . . D .---.. u~lLa...L\ \... MA TLAB script cho tinh toan nay diroc cho dum day....J) j.. m-flle % MATLAB script for Illustrative Problem 7. echo on N=256.5.: cAc H~ TH6NG THONG TIN HI~N NAY suat da dinh S/j)=l.n .----.. .16 D6 thi cua RiJ) trong bai tap minh hoa 2. chung ta co th~ sir dung thuat toan FFT nguoc tren cac mau cua S/j) da cho b&i (2.l-v . % swap the first half % sampled spectrum V/o nutocorretauon oJ r rrl I. .8). Sy=l. % number of samples % frequency separation ..02 )..1'\.) -1.--.._./(l +(2*pi*f).O(}8 O.Proakis 1. ~f'_f\ 1 • f=[O:deltaf:(N/2)*deltaf. r---. Gia sir rang m¢t qua trinh ngau nhien dirng X(t) diroc l~y mau va cac mdu dff lay diroc cho qua n).\. % plotting command follows ploufftshift/reaklcy) 0. .A2).l.016 0.014 0.• ...16 minh hoa tinh roan nay voi N=256 mau tAn so va khoang phan each tan so /¥=O..

5..5. n~O n<O NGAU NHIEN 87 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH .10) do H(O) iii dap H(f) ling tan s6 H(j) cua be 19C diroc tfnh t~il=O va = Ih(n)e-n=O 00 j21tf .5.14) va S/f) IRy(m)e-j21t!m m=-CC) (2.5.5. Gia tri trung binh cua qua trinh 16i ra la ~ 00 m .k)X(n + m -l)] (2.13) a day cac pho cong suat ducc xac dinh thea SxCf) = = 00 IRx(m)e-j21t!m m=-CC) 00 (2..0 con yen) 18.9) trong do X(n )==X(tn) la cac gia tri thoi gian roi rae cua qua trinh ngau nhien 16i V8.: cAc H-e THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY 16i ra cua bo 19Ctuyen tfnh nay diroc cho boi cong thirc tong chap 00 Y(n) = I:h(k)X(n k=O -.k)] = mx Ih(k) = mJ!(O) (2. (2.h(k)h(l)R.15) BAI T!P MINH HOA Bai t.:: Ih(k)E[X(n trong . (2.5.12) = Iz.k) (2.11) Ham ttr nrong quan cua qua trinh 16i ra la R/m) 00 00 = E[Y(n)Y(n + m)] = IIh(k)h(l)E[X(n 00 Of) . = E[Y(n)]~.tpam trang dUQ'c loc] Gia sir ding mot qua trinh ngau nhien trang voi cac mau (X(n)} diroc cho qua mot mach 19c tuyen tfnh co dap ling xung hen) = {(0. san pham lui ra cua bo 19C roi rae ve thoi gian.ProakisJ.(m -t + k) Bieu tlurc nrong ling tren mien tan so 18. va Salehi M.9Sf.~p minh hoa 2. 0. G.8 [T:.5.

250 200 15U 100 - -3 -2 -1 o 2 3 Hinh 2.95e-j21<fy n=O = 1 -j2rtf 1.9 cos(21tf) 1.j2rtf 12 Do d6. 0/ Sy ?C " Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN .16) (2. Hay de <.5.18) 1 1. 88 % one period .. va Salehi M. G..5. Chapter 2. delta_w=2*pi/l00.0.17 D6 thi cua S/J) trong bai t~p minh hoa 2.95e (2.8.: cAc f\$ THONG THONG TIN HI:eN NAY Hay xac dinh phd cong suat cua qua trmh 16i ra {Y(n)} LOi giai De dang thay diroc rang H(f) = fh(n)e-j21<f n=O n = f(0. MATLAB script cho tinh toan nay diroc cho diroi day. 1 (n (" ~ •.9cos(21tf) c. ding Sij) tuful hoan voi chu ky 2n. m-flle % MArLAB script/or Illustrative Problem 8. ph6 cong suat cua qua trinh 16i ra la (2. w=-pi:delta_ w:pi. ..17 minh hoa Sij). Hinh 2.Proakis J.95e..~7) trong do cluing ta da gia thiet Sij) diroc chuan hoa thanh 1.9025 -1.9025 -1.J..0.5.17) va IH(f)12 = 1 1 = 1 1.

Ham tv tuong quan cua qua trinh 16i fa {Y(n)} c6 th~ xac dinh dircc bang khi so sanh ham each lay FFf ngiroc cua quan ~y v6i ham S/1). Tham s6 B duoc goi la do rong bang cua Bili tap minh hoa 2. 2.d. THONG THONG TIN HII.r nrong tv nrong uuan nh~~.9 [Cac qua trinh thong thap] Hay xet van d~ tao cac mau ella mot qua trinh ngau nhien thong thap bang each cho mot day tap am trang {X:l} qua mot b¢ loc thong thap. ne0 n <0 va dUQ'Cdac t<ibang mot phuong trinh (sai phan) lap vao-ra Yn = 0. va Salehi M. B¢ loc thong thap c6 dap img xung hen) = {(0. N6i mot each khac. Y-l = 0 Hay tinh day loi fa {Yn} va hay xac dinh cac ham tv wong quan Rx(m) va Ry(m) nhu da diroc chi fa trong (2. BAI Tf~P MINH HOA If I > B. Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh ngjiu nhien diroc goi la thong thap neu pho cong su~t cua n6 100 quanh tan s6 [=0 va nho (tien den 0) tai cac tan so cao. n 2.6).3.uy~ irong bai tap minh hoa 2. Day 10i vao la mot day cac bien ngau nhien i.N NAY Sy=I. 1/2).: cAe HI.i.cong suA't Sxif) va Syif) Chuang 2: eAe QuA TRINH NGAU NHrEN 89 .6 cAc QuA TRINH THONG DAI V A THONG THAP Cling giong nhu trong tnrong hop cac tin hieu t~t dinh.Proakis 1.9 Yn-l + Xn.9 r.Sy).4./(l. phan bo deu trong khoang (-1/2. G.9025-1. % plotting command follows plot(w. Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh ngau nhien thong thap X(I) 1<'1 o bang han che c neu pho cong suat Sxif)=O voi qua trinh ngau nhien d6. cac tin hieu ngjiu nhien cling c6 th~ duoc dac ta thea cac qua trlnh ngau nhien thong d<ii va thong thap. Hay xac dinh cac phd.". mot qua trinh ngau nhien thong thap c6 hau het cong suat cua n6 tap trung tai cac tan s6 thap.9*cos(w». 1. Sinh vi en se thay 19 thu tt. 0.

Svavezerosi 1.J 12.M) 90 Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN " "" :iI:: '" . Rxav=Rxav+Rx.19 minh hoa cac ham nr nrong quan va cac phd cong suat. V(1 \--(). SX=fftshift(abs(fft(Rx))). .N)-(] /2). Rx=Rx_est(X. X=rand( 1.Proakis J._j-V. Chapter 2. Sxav=Sxav+Sx.112) end.M). Syav=Syav 110. / J Sxavezerosi l.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY bang each tfnh DFT cua Rim) va Rim). N=1000. % Plotting commands follow m-file function [Rx]=Rx_est(X.18 va 2. Ryav=Ryav/Iu.. % The maximum value ofn M=50. end.M+ J '" ~ 1).9*Y(n-l)+X(n). Chung toi luu Y fang cac d6 thi cua ham ttl nrong quan va cac phd cong suat 13. cac trung binh qua mum Ian thirc hien qua trinh ngau nhien..M). va Salehi M. Ryav=zeros(l. echo on.L % take the ensemble average ove 10 realizations % Generate a uniform number sequence on (.1). LOi ghli Cac MA TLAB script cho cac tfnh toan nay diroc cho dum day. G. Rxav=Rxav/l 0. Syav=Syav+Sy. % note that Yin] means Ytn-L] % Autocorrelation «f {Xn} % Autocorrelation of {Yn} % Power spectrum of {Xn} % Power spectrum of {Yn} for n=::2:N. Y(n)~~O. Ryav=Ryav+Ry. echo off.M) % /Rxj=Rx_est(X. m-file % MATLAB script for Illustrative Problem 9. \_J.M« 1). SxaveSxav /10. Rxavezcrost l.Ms. Sy=fftshift(abs(fft(Ry))). Cac hinh 2. Ry=Rx_est(Y.M+ 1'): for i::::I:IO..

_--'_ ..05 • o ~ 5 10 1.L.3 0..c. __ L I.. end. 1 0.--'-- _j_ o 1 5 10 15 20 25 m 30 35 40 45 50 0.18 Cac ham tv urong quan Rim) va R/m) trong bai tap minh cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN hoa 2.15 \ ...4 0.. for m=l:M+ 1.: % cAc He THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY RX_Esr Estimates the autocorrelation of the sequence of random % variables given in X Only Rx(O). 1 I -(J. Rx=zerostlMs. ... L_. G. . forn=1:N-m+1. 91 Chuang 2: .1). % Note that Rx(m) actually means Rx(m-l).. Rx( 1).9. Rx(M) are computed.Proakis J.5 20 25 :30 35 o --'-_--'---'---'-_-'---1.25 0. va Salehi M.OI _. . end. Rx(m)=Rx(m)+X(n)*X(n+m-1).2 . N=length(X)..:15 0.__ ._ 40 45 50 '" Hlnh 2. Rx(m)=Rx(m)/(N-m+ 1).J.r 0.

_' .2 --0. J.----~' ._~_. __ . .IU) THONG TIN HII.1.. va Salehi M..--.12 - ----.5 -0.1 0.__ .: cAc H:e THONG II.1 0."-'-"-1"---~ SU) -"--'~__:_"~----T-------r-----.1 (I 0.N NAY '.. so tap trung quanh mot tan so trung tam ±fo va so nay._.4 0. . r I ".---- Proakis J.4 -IU (j 2· -0.--.---~----L-------L -L-_----L..--l I I i .4--0. _..2 O.5 () .4 0.T---T-r-·-·--...1 0 j 0. __ •• .__ __ ~ ~ I i .3 0. ----._-'.-. 0.l. Dinh nghia: Mot qua trinh ngau nhien dUQ'C goi Hi thong dai neu ph6 cong suat cua no 16'11rong mot bang tan t kha be ben ngoai bang tan neu d¢ rong bang cua no B<<fa... __ .'...2 D. G. Mot qua trinh ngau nhien diroc goi la bang hep Cacqua trinh thong dai thich hop cho viec bieu dien cac tin hieu da diroc dieu 92 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN . --1 j 4 3 (J --~_.r"" . _ i.'.L. J I 0.3-0.-.:'''~r-vJvvA~ 00(.. D.-----. () _ .-----.5 --0._." ! \ill._- r----" ---- T--.J 0.19 Cac phd cong suat Sij) va slj) trong bai tap minh hoa 2..9..----.5 f Hinh 2.---'--r-_ . __ ---'.14 D..

x(t) va ~(t). Do do. That vay.6.~ b0 rna N~ong c h/ tuycn ung mmn. qua trinh '\.Rx (r)cos2ifor (2. 1. ham nrong quan cheo ella. K quan trong giira X(t). tin hieu dii qua dieu che la mot qua trlnh ngau nhien thong dai.2) trong do Rx( r) la ham tu nrong quan cua qua trinh thong dai X(t) con la bien d6i Hilbert ella Rx(r) rna no diroc xac dinh thea (2. va Salehi M.5) Bai ~p minh hoa 2.Res (r) sin 2ifo t BAI T!P MINH HQA (2. 1. co ih~ de dang chirng minh diroc (xem [1]) rang cac ham tu tirong quan ella.4) Cu6i cling.6.6. Cting nhu trong twang hop cac tin hieu tA'tdinh.x( t)cos2nfot. ham w nrong quan ella qua trinh thong dai X(t) bieu dien diroc thong qua ham tir nrong quan RcC z) va ham nrong quan cheo ReS< r) theo R. Trong mot he thong truyen tin. G.x(t) va ~(t) la cac qua trinh thong thap.6. .3) Cling vay.x(t) vaXs(t) dtroc bieu dien thea Res (r) Rx (r) = Rx(r)sin 2ifo t .: cAc H\$ rnONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY che. (r) = R. mot qua trlnh ngau nhien thong diii XCt) co the bieu dien duoc thea X( t)=. h / .~(t)sin2nJot (2.10 [Tao cac mAu cua met qua trlnh ngAu nhien thong Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHrEN 93 . tin hieu rnang thong tin thirong la mot qua trmh ngau nhien thong thap rna tin hieu nay dieu che mot song rnang de truyen ddn di tren mot kenh truyen tin thong dai (bang hep).(t) va J«t) cling la cac qua trinh co IcY vong bang khong va dung cling nhau. (r) cos 2ifo t .1) trong do Xe(t) va ~(t) diroc goi la cac thanh phan cung pha va vuong goc ella Cac qua trinh ngau nhien . CuO Cl ung La mot mor quan 1 • 11y X(t).6.x( t) va ~(t) la nhu nhau va co th~ bieu dien diroc thea (2. diroc 1. ~~" sau cay. Dinh ly AA A '1'" ~ .Proakis J.

Proakis 1.. suat tinh duoc ella qua trinh thong dai dtroc th~ hien tren hlnh 2.(1) va Xit) dtroc tao ra nho loc hai qua trinh tap nhieu trang doc lap bang bo loc thong thap nhu nhau.cos 2Ttj~t Hinh 2.i .sin 2Ttf..h'p r-. 94 Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN ~ ~.20.20 Viec tao ra mot qua trinh ngau nhien thong dai. N= 1000.(t) roi sau do sir dung cac qua trlnh do dieu che cac song mang vuong pha nhau eos2rrfot va nhir diroc th~ hien tren hinh 2.21.9z-1 Cling nham muc dich do. Sau do -X(n) dieu che song mang dUQ'C lay mau eos21tfonT con X.0. cos 2rc{fl WGN . chung toi da chon T=l va fo=1000/1t. chiing ta nhan diroc cac mau )(.@-~ . Chapter 2.X.: cAc H£~THONG THONG TIN l--II~N NAY dai] Hay tao cac mau ella mot qua trtnh ngau nhien thong dai bang each tnroc het tao cac mau ella hai qua trinh ngau nhien doc lap thong ke -X(t) va x. G. 'X " .(n) thi dieu che song mang vuong goc sin21tfonT.1. % number of samples Ph6 cong for i=1:2:N. chung toi da chon bo loc thong thap co mot ham truyen nhu sau H(z) _ 1 . cac mau ella cac qua trlnhngau nhien thong thap )(.. Nhu the. LOi glai Tren mot may tinh so.(t).x.-1 I ~~ th~~~. va Salehi M.(t) t +~ BQ loc ~(t) - WON th6ng t~4 sin 2rcfnt ---' f ~(t). m-Ille % MATLAB script for Illustrative Problem 10. Nham muc dich minh hoa. MA TLAB script eho cac tinh toan nay duoc eho duoi day.(n) va Xs(n) nrong ling voi cac gia tri lay mau ella va )((t).. trong do T la khoang lay mau thich hop.

A.9].BAJ TAP Chuang 2: CAC QUA TRINH NGAU NHIEN .1 0 0.1 Hay tao mot tap gom 1000 s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang [0. % lowpass filter parameters B=1. % plotting commands follow JS 30 25 - ill IS iO ___.Proakis J.pminh hoa 2. A=[1 -0.X2 ).1] bang 95 . echo off. bpp_spectrum=fftshift(abs(fft(bpp_autocorr»). echo off.: cAc ~ THONG THONG TIN H\$N NAY [X1(i) X1(i+ 1)]=gngauss.3 0.1 0.___.3 -0... CAC. .__2=j -0.21 Phd cong su~t cua qua trinh thong dai trong bai t\$. Xc=filter(B. end. [X2(i) X2(i+ 1)]=gngauss. % Determine the autocorrelation and the spectrum of the band-pass process M=50. va Salehi M..X 1). % standard Gaussian input noise processes echo on. % carrier frequency for i=1:N.2 -0. .10.5 f Hlnh 2. end.A.2 0.Ivi). G.. Xs=filter(B. bpp_autocorr=Rx_esi(band_pass_process. x '" 2. band_pass_process(i)=Xc(i)*cos(2 *pi*fc*i)-Xs(i )*sin(2 *pi*fc*i). % T=1 is assumed echo on.4 -0.4 0. fc=1000/pi.

N). 2.2.2 Hay tao mot tap gam 1000 s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang [- I' +] bang each sir dung ham MA TLAB rand(1.3 Hay tao mot t~p gam 1000 s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang [-2. Bien do tan suat co the xac dinh diroc bang each chia khoang noi tren thanh mum khoang con co d(>rong nhir nhau.6 Hay tao mot tap gam 1000 s6 ngau nhien Gauss co ky vong bang khong va phirong sai bang 1 bang each sir dung ham MA Tl. Hay ve bieu do tan suat va ham phan b6 xac suat cho day nay. trong do d la 2. lap day dai [0. Hay ve bieu do tan suat va ham phan b6 xac suat cho day nay. va Salehi M. dai cua cac s6 ngau nhien co th~ diroc chi a thanh cac khoang con co d(>rong d/5. N). N). G.5. phirong sai. Hay ve bieu do tan suat va ham phan b6 xac suat cho day nay. Hay ve bien do (cot) tan suat (histogram) va ham phan bo xac suat cho day nay.All randn(l. 2. bat dau v6i khoang thu nhat phu ca dai -d/10<x<d/l0. Trong viec xac dinh bieu do tan suat.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN HI~N NAY each sir dung ham MA TLAB rand(1. Hay so sanh cac ket qua nay voi cac ket qua nhan diroc trong bai tap 2.Proakis J. N).1] va dem cac s6 roi vao moi khoang.AB rand(1. 2. 2.2] Hay ve do thi bieu do tan suat va ham phan b6 xac suat. 2] bang each sir dung ham MAT1. Hay ve bieu do tan suat va ham phan b6 xac suat cho day nay. 2.7 Hay tao 1000 cap s6 ngau nhien Gauss (Xl' X2) rna chung eo vee-to ky vong m = E[x J X2]==[~ ~J 96 Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN ..4 Hay tao mot tap gom 1000 s6 ngau nhien co ham mat d(>xac suat tuyen tinh 0~x~2 x ~ [0.5 Hay tao mot tap gam 1000 s6 ngau nhien Gauss co ky vong bang khong va phirong sai bang 1 thea phirong phap da duoc mo ta trong muc 2.

va Salehi M. 2. 1000. ..8 Hay tao mot day g6m 1000 mau cua mot qua trinh Gauss-Markov bbi quan he lap n=l. X2i).d.11 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 2. 2... 1000 trong do ~=O. p=0. .10 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 2. cac bien ngau nhien Gauss co ky vong bang khong va phirong sai bang 1. _m)2 2 Cij = -- 1 1000 1000 L i~l (Xli - m1 )(X2i • -- m2) diroc mo til b. i=L.Proakis 1. = 1000 Cling hay xac dinh cac phirong sai cua chung &2 _ --"(x 2- i 1000 1000 f:: 2.5 khi phd cong suat cua mot qua trinh ngau nhien co bang han che' la Ifl~B voi moi gia trif khac 2.d.6 v6i mot b¢ loc tuyeri tinh co dap irng xung 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHrEN 97 Chuang . . G.. Hay so sanh cac gia tri tinh diroc tir cac miiu voi cac gia tri ly thuyet.. co ky vong bang khong va phirong sai bang 1. Hay xac dinh cac tri trung binh cua cac mau (Xl. 2. 2.i.9 con {Wn} la mot day cac bien ngjiu nhien Gauss i.: cAc H~ THONG THONG TIN Hr\$N NAY va rna tran hiep phuong sai a.i. .4 v6i mot day i.9 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 2. 2. diroc dinh nghia theo A 1 1000 ~Xli> 1=1 ».

1000 s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong i J.-.5)'" 0.~ . che song mang cos(1t/2)n.BN NAY t~ ={ e./ ° 0. cluing ta nhan dtroc hai day. 2.d. M6i mot day trong hen) cluing deu diroc cho qua mot mach 19c tuyen tfnh c6 dap (rug xung = {(0. con day 16i ra {xsn} dieu che s6ng mang vuong g6c 98 Chu?. {xn} gam N::. n?: 0 n <0 Phuong trinh l~p mo tit 16i fa cua b¢ 19Cnay nhu mot ham cua 16i vao la n?O.14 Hay tao 1TI9t day i. khoang [--~.i. Hay so sanh ket qua d6i voi ling nhan diroc trong bai tap minh hoa 2. {xcnl va {xsn}. Hay tinh cac ham tv nrong quan Rx(m) va Ry(m) cua cac day {xn} va {yn} va cac pho cong suat nrong ling S/j) va S.8 khi h(n) . t <0 2. = r (0.8)\ n >: 0 n< 0 2.i.4. cAcH~ THONG THONG TIN HI. Day 16i ra {xen} dieu Nhu the.7).95)\ h( n ) -. ±]. Xo=O./j) bang each sir dung cac quan he da cho trong (2. va Salehi h(t) M.: J .u nhien tai 16i ra cua b¢ 19c tuyen tinh trong bai tap 2.ng 2: cAe QuA TRINH NGAU NHIEN . 10. C.Proakis J.d. Sit> nay voi ket qua wang 2. {wen} va {wsn} gam 1000 s6 ngau nhien phan b6 deu trong khoang [-~.8.13 Lap lai bai tap minh hoa 2.6) va (2. Y_l=O.11. Day nay diroc cho qua mot b¢19C tuyen tfnh c6 dap (rug xung _ f(0. n~0 n <0 rna dac tinh vao-ra cua n6 diroc cho bci quan he lap n > 1.15 Hay tao hai day i.4. 10.12 Hay xac dinh bang phuong phap tinh s6 ham tv nrong quan cua qua trinh nga.

Chuang 2: cAc QuA TRiNH NGAU NHIEN 99 . va Salehi M.Proakis J. S/j) va S/j). Hay tfnh va ve do thi cac ham W tirong quan thanh phan Rc(m) va RsCm) d6i v6i Iml ~ 10 tirong ling cho cac day {xcn} va {xsn}. Hay tinh ham tu nrong quan RxCm) cua tin hieu thong dai d6i v6i Iml ~ 10.: cAc Iffl THONG THONG TIN HI\$N NAY sin(7t/2)n. Tin hieu thong dcii diroc hlnh thanh bang each ket hop cac thanh phan da diroc dieu che nhu trong (2. G.6. Hay ve cac phd cong suat nay va binh luan ve cac ket qua.1). Hay sir dung thuat toan DFT (hoac thuat toan FFT) d~ tfnh cac phd cong suat S/j).

: cAe HU THONG THONG TIN HII.1 GIOI THI~U CHUNG Trong chuang nay. Bieu dien tren mien thoi gian cua tin hieu dil dieu chc 2. Cong suat cua tin hieu dil dieu che 5. Cac he thong diroc nghien ciru trong chuang nay bao gom cac sa do dieu che bien dO (AM: Amplitude Modulation) nhir th~ dieu che bien d¢ hai bien (DSB-AM: Double-Sideband-s. Bieu dien tren mien tan so cua tin hieu dil dieu che 3. va Salehi M. va cac sa do dieu che goc nhir dieu che uin so va dieu che pha. Ton tai mot quan he chat che giira cac bieu dien mien tan so va mien thoi gian cua cac tin hieu th~ hien thong qua quan he bien d6i Fourier.---------_. Do sir khac biet can ban gitta cac sa do dieu che goc va dieu che bien d¢ nen cac sa do nay diroc de cap den mot each rieng re va trong cac muc khac nhau. Cac tinh chat nay hien nhien la khong doc lap voi nhau. Moi mot thanh vien cua lop cac sa do dieu che tuong deu diroc dac tnrng boi nam tinh chat co ban: 1. dieu che don bien (SSB-AM: Single-Sideband-Amplitude Modulation) va dieu che bien d(~ truyen thong (AM). D¢ rong bang cua tin hieu dil dieu che 4. tv Ty so tin hieu tren tap am (SNR: Signal-to-Noise Ratio) sau giai dieu che. cluing ta nghien ciru d~c tinh cua mot loat sa do dieu che va giai dieu che wang tir. G. Cling nhir vay. ca trong tnrong hop co Lin khong co tap nhieu cong.:N NAY CHVONG3 DIEU CHE TUONG TV 3. 100 Chuang 3: DIEU CHl3 n1dNG rtr . d¢ rong bang cua mot tin hieu diroc xac dinh thong qua cac dac tnrng tan so ella no.T. Proakis.

2. trong lien lac di~m tm diem (SSE) va trong cac irng dung ghep kenh (thf du nhu trong truyen dan nhieu kenh dien thoai tren cac kenh vi ba). la ho cac SO' do dieu che trong do bien d<)cua mot song mang hlnh sin bi bien d6i nhu mot ham cua tin hieu dieu che. va Salehi M. Cac he thong nay dircc sir dung rong rai trong phat quang ba (phat thanh AM va phat thi tan trong truyen hinh). trong doW ky hieu eho d¢ rong bang cua tin hieu ban tin.2. 3. Cac h¢ thong dieu che bien dQ thirong duoc d~c tnmg boi mot yeu cau kha thap ve do rong bang va tinh khong hieu qua ve cong suar so voi cac SO' do dieu che goc. D6i voi SSB-AM dQ rong bang la W.Proakis 1. dieu che don bien (SSB-AM) va dieu che' vet dan bien (VSB-AM: Vestigial-SideBand . Yeu cau d¢ rong bang doi voi cac he thong AM xe xich gifra W va 2W. G.: THONG THONG TIN nIeN NA--Y SO' Chung ta bat dau chuang nay bang viec nghien elm do dieu che dan gian nhat la dieu che bien d¢.2. thirong diroc xem la dieu che tuyen tfnh. Dieu do co nghia la bieu dien tren mien thoi gian cua tin hieu sau dieu che diroc cho boi (3. doi voi DSB-AM va AM truyen thong dQ rong bang la 2W con doi voi VSB-AM thl dQ rong bang nam gifra vV va 2W. thi du nhir trong tnrong hop DSB-AM. 3.2) T6 TV 101 . Lap cac SO' do dieu che nay gam dieu chc hai bien (DSB- AM). dieu che bien d¢ truyen thong.2 DIEU CHE BIEN DO (AM) Dieu che bien d¢ (AM).Amplitude Modulation). Sir phu thuoc gitra tin hieu dieu che va bien d¢ cua song mang da diroc dieu che co th~ Ia rat don gian. bien d¢ cua tin hieu da dieu che ty l¢ thuan voi tin hieu ban tin. nhir trong SSB-AM hay VSB-AM.1) trong do c(t)=Aceos(21tfct) ~ '" Chuang 3: DIEU CRE TUONG (3.1 DSB-AM Trong DSB-AM. hoac phirc tap han nhieu.: cAe HI.

. L:S __ . _ .1. Hien nhien kieu dieu che nay dAn den mot sl! dich chuyen ±Ie va mot su d6i ty l~ Ai2 d6i v6i phd ella tin hieu ban tin.m2 (t)cos2 (2nfct)dt = 1+cos(41tfct)d t T/2 = 2( T ~oo T -Tl2 I'lID -1 J m (t) dt+ . Cong suat ella tfn hieu da dieu che diroc cho bOi p..1 pM cua tin hieu ban tin va cua tin hieu dieu che' DSB-AM.4) Mot phd tin hieu ban tin tieu bieu va ph6 ella tin hieu dieu che DSB-AM urong ling duoc the hien tren hlnh 3. -- 2 1m -1 Jm -T12 t t ) cos( 41t. c d t = 2 .2. va Salehi M.. con met) la tin hieu ban tin. = = - T ~oo T -T12 TI2 -T/2 1 TI2 lim .Ju2(t)dt = T~oo T A2 c { · I1m -1 J A2 m 2()t c TI2 2 T ~oo T -T12 2 ~oo T 1 TI2 lim .Proakis J. Bieu dien tren mien t~n s6 cua tin hieu DSB-AM nhan diroc bang each lay bien d6i Fourier cua u(t) va dan den V(f) = ~c M(f -fJ+ M(f + fJ (3..2. D¢ rong bang truyen dan diroc ky hieu boi BT bang hai Mn d¢ rong bang ella tin hieu ban tin (3.3) trong d6 M(j) la bien d6i Fourier ella m(t). ~ --+-.JA..: cAc m: THONG THONG TIN HreN NAY ~c la s6ng mang. rh4_( I U(f) A!2_~___~~ fc f -fc Hinh 3./") } 102 Chuang 3: DIED CH~ TVdNG Ttl . G.