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Illustrated Design
(Design of G + 3 Storeyed Office / Residential Buildings)
FOURlH EDmON
Reinforced Concrete Buildings
of
Late Dr. S. R. Karve
B.E. (CiviJJ, ME. (structures). Ph.D., M.I.f.
Fo~ at Department of AppJied Mechanics, College of Engineering, Pune. .
Dr. Y. L Shah
8.E. {CivilJ, ME (Structures),
Ph.o.: M.I.E.
Formerly Professor and Head of Applied Mechanics Department, Engineering College, Pune.
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Structures Publications
tlJal·Torang", 36, Porvati,
Pune  411 009.
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Published by : and
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Mrs. $wati S. KalVe
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Mrs. Pramila V.. Shah'
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This book or part thereof sha" not be reproduced " in any form or translated or reprinted without the written permission of authors.
First Edition Second Edition Third Edition
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November 1989 October 1990
April 1994 1995 '
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Reprint Fourth Edition ' Reprint Reprint Reprint
March
April
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November 1995
1997 November 1998
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'December 2001
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Price Is. 240/.
Published by :
i Head Office
Structures PUblications
7,'Sn~';R~i~riCyI Sonewadi: A~ndh', ~~ 411 007. pJallarang, 36, Parvati, Pune  411 009. Phone: (020) #42530", 4471568 "!:
Branch Offke
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Phone: (020) 5~88793 ..
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satisfilcti~ in presenting this book deaIfug 'i.vith "Illustrated Design 'of Reinforced C6ncreul ' BUil~p";' ThiS Book is an outcome' of presistant demand from Students, Practisirig En.gi.n.eets·· and' BUilding DesignerS: To fulfill the immediate need. of Students, Teachers, the Authors have already published the 'Text· Book, '. ~t· State . Theoty & Design of Reinfo:rced Concrete". ~ch Is .a, }ludeus to Limit State Theory. We suggest the. readers to scan through this book.to know the fundamental aspects of the Limit state Method. This would facilitate ~ study the design of' M~tist;)ryed Buildings. It is the propose of this book to attempt to explain the basic principles and the metb.odof Design of different types of buildings. It gives
the authors great pleasure and deep sence of
I
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In Developmg CitieS', the MuniciPal Authl)rities .do not .giv~ ':PerDhssion to construct high rise. buildings to a~id congestion, pollution etc .. They only give permission. to C()DBtrnct ~und plus t\yo or three storeyed buildings. Hence, the authors have lim,ited the deSign, details for ground plus three sto~y structures. . are devoted to explain the need and the ~ethodof awroaeh ' to properties of constituent materials of reinforced .. coperete. critical load. combinations. and fundamental aspects of structural analysis of residential/office buildings. It is suggested that the readers to go tbiOugb. these three Chapters 80 that the further . duipters on Design of various structu.tes will become elucidative. .First
three Chapters
struetur.u :. planning,
Chapter
Structural
IV reviews the basic. Limit State Theory. while the procedure Components is given Chapter V.
for Design of
Three projects have .~ included, illustrating three different types of buildings. A single storey public bUilding designed in detail· from fui1t prirleiples" iriChapter VI. A publie building having regular layout and which can be divided into a nUJnber of simihu vertical plane f.!ames. has been illustrated in Cha~terVII. The ChapterVIII gives Design of Residential Building using. Design aids.
At the end exhaustive
tables. Charts. Design aids, any othet' Hand Book.
80
Appendices have been given which· includeimporlut ·design that design of building can be done without further rei:nDee to
I
While writing this book we .had extensive discussions with the practisiJaC design engineers, so that this book does not remain a theoretical model but a useful wOrk whic:h. can assist practising engineers involved in the design of buildings. In spite Of meticulous care taken in writing this book some eJTOr& might have the authors would highly appreciate if these are brought to our notice. 1, ·Sneh Reaidency~ Sanewadi, Aundh,Pune JalTarang , 36 Parvati, Pune  411 009. , Dr. V. L. Shah.  411 007. Dr. S. R. Karve enpt in,
Preface to the Second' Edition
it is very encouragint,'tIia~.t(ffirsfedi!ion·~tlh~'book
. :(, L. ~~
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h1urbeerivety well received by the
. :.
Engineers. The book is widely used by consulting Engineers and Civil engineering students of
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Engineering.
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Colleges .. and Technical
I~titutions.
The second aditdon is revised
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incorporating corrected.
some more comments, r,evised text and many of the p~~ting
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h.ave.been
The author. ecord his gratitude to Dr. L. S.;Sane for his continued helpful suggestions; The author further welcomes constructive criticisms and .suggestions tor' fts improvement. Oct. 1990
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Dr.V. L. Shah ..
Preface to :the;.ThirdEditien .
In the third Edition Chapter  Ii on Designof R.C.Portal Fra'inewith fb:~d'base alid' hinged base; along with the detailed "awing, has, been added. The ~oothlgs
of these p0rt~l.
distribution view
frames are good examples of eccentric footing subjected to uniform soil pdssure and a 'concentric footing with linearly varying ~ilpre88ure of
8.
distrlbtion. T!J,axonometric
four storeyed
011
residential
multicolour students.
th~ cnerpage
to brizic oU:t structural .the
huilding designed in Chapter~VIIr h8;S been printed 'in
and interior details~fthe
building,,"lt is hoped
tbt the New Edition wiU :be more ueefu1 to 'the
Dr. V.
det~.il8 ofr~i.~4
eo1ierete el~~t.
design engineers and field engiBeers.
April. 1994
I/Shah
Preface to the Fourth Edlt_oD
In the fourth edition, the different layouts used fortbe construetii.f It is hoped that the new edition will be very useful ~ Uft~' ahd the discussed and their 'detailed design and drawings have been included ~ ChapterX.
to
stud~llts. teachers.
field! practising engineers. Further suggestions will be greatly appreciated. November. 1995 Dr. V. L. Shah

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.Contents'
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Chapter ~~1"The 1.2
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1:
Introd,UCtiOD
to Structurai
Design
Design
Design
Process,
112
1
Stages in Structural
<'~.Structural
Planning ];4 <'~,'MarlPng of Frame Components 1.4.1 Column Reference Scheme • 10 1.4.2 Grid Reference Scheme • 10  1.4.3 Scheme used iJlPrivate Sector , 11
1 19 911
1.5
Design Philosophies, 2: Loads and Material
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12
Ch8pter 2.1
2.2
Introduction : Definitions 2.1.1 Characteristic load _. 13 2.1.2 Design Load • 13 (. . Types of Loads 2.2.1 Dead Loads, 13 2.2.2 Live Loads , 142.2.3 Other Load , 16 _
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1324
13

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1316
2.3
2.4
2.5
Critical Load Combinations, Arrangements, and Partial safetY. _factOrs. Bearing Capacity of Soil Properties of Concrete 2.5.1 Grade of Concrete • 18 2.5.2 Compressive Strength • 18 2.5.3 Tensile. Strength • 19 2.5.4 Shortterm Modulus of Elasticity • 19 2.5.5 CreeP.. 19 2.5.6 ShriDkage , 19 2.5.7 Longterm MOdulus of E1asticity , 19 2.5.8 Modular Ratio • 20 2.5.9 StressStrain Cun;e • 20 Concrete Mix Proporticmjng Period and Stripiping of Characteristic Steel Time for Striking of, forwork _ StrengthDetermination
 16 17 1820
2.6 2.8 2.9
20 21 21
22
~.7 d)uring
Acceptance Criteria for Concente
2.10 Properties of Reinforcing
23U
Chapter  3 : AaaJ.y.is
3.1 Methods of Anal)'Bia 3.1.1 Elastic XDal)'Bia • 25 3.1.2 Limit Analysis , 26 Elastic Analysis of Building Frame 3.2.1 General. 28 3.2.2 Substitute Frame : Analysis for Vertical Loads • 29" , 3.2.3 Types of Connections. 32 3.2.4 Types of Support or End Condition • 33 3.2.5 Stiffness of Members , 35 3.2.6 Effect of Stiffuess on Distribution of Moments in Beams and Columns. Design Assumptions and Approximations.
2527
3.2
283'l
3.3
36 3743
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3 Procedure of Design of Beams .3 Bond . 54 .3 Design of Beams 5.Biaxial Bending 64 4.4 Hooks and Bends • 57 4.2.2.' Contents Calculation of Loads on Stru~~~~rt~..3 Bond Length or Development Length .2..1 General.2. 58 Serviceability (De1lection and Cracking) 4.2 .5..10 Side fiHe SteeI • 56 4.3 5.4 Properties of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Section.3.2 Cracking.4 Shear Resistance of R.2.2.3 Loads 'on Columns . 66 Design of Twoway Slab .5.2. 58 4.8 Equivaieat' ~'.3..3 Eccentrically Loaded Columns • Uniaxial Beo~ng . 55 4.nc:in . 69 Design of Stairs 71 . 50 4.2.4.2.5 Properties of' Flanged Section .2.' : 4. 5.C.j' 4. 46 .6 Shear Design in case of Bar Curtailment.3. Members ~:'1' Flexure : Theory of beams and Slabs 4.' General..2 Properties of Singly Jleinforced Rectangular Section . Member with Main Steel but' without Shear ~ment .4.1 Deflection.1 5.3.50' 4. 58 Axial Compression and BeDding '" 4.6 Curtai1ment of Bars .1 Critical Section for Shear" 54 4.5 . 3.2 Axially Loaded Columna • 61 4.' ".4.5. 53 •• 2v Shear and To.~. 3.Shear Resistance of Shear Reinforcement .5 : Design of Members Priliminaries Design '5.5 4.2. 57 4.4.1.3.5 Check for Deve10pmeDt Length.5.5.4 4.1 Definition. 56 " '. 51 4.4 Eccentrically Loaded Column .2» S~ of Stift'ups • 56 4.3.Oneway Slab .2 Design Shear Force .3.4.2.2 5. 56 4.1.1 Loads on.1 Basic Assumptions .1.1. 54 4. 57 4.2 Categorisation of Beams 71 5.2 Loads on' ~ Supporting Twoway Slabs • 45 3. 55 4.'. 49 4. 43 3.4 of Slabs 65 Design of .5 :.7 Equivalent ~ Moment • 56 4.Beams 'Supportiflg oneway Slabs .3 Shear ~ of Section in Diagonal Compression" ~ .1 Basic Design Aspects • 59 4.3 Design Constants for Balanced or Critical Section. 72 f 7179 .4 : Limit State Theory for RoC.4 3.3.VI .2 Bond Strength • 57 4. 71 5. 62 4.2..3.1 5. J 65100 65 6571 .1. 4.~ force coefficients for Standard eases '4944 4~3 Chapter .5 Slender Columns 64 1 I ·5859 Cha~ 5.. Bending Moment and Shear . 4.
'" 93100 .4 Equivalent axial Load and Design of reinforcement. 5. 84 5.9.2. SlabS2./. 83 .3 117 Design of Stair .3 Categorisation of Columns • 80.4.2 Assessment of Loads and Grouping • 161 6.I.3 Effective Length and Slenderness..4."I...: Introduction 6.8.1 6.. 89 Design of Tw~way Slab.8 Design of Column Section ./ .2.'83 ".Exact Theoretical Method. 5.2 Compiitation. 5.~c.9 Design of' ~lumns .' ..8.1. " ~_"r~ . Design of Column Footing . .3 6.2..:': _" vn 5. 5.7.4. f . 103 6~ ...Exact Method. . .4. 163 6.92_ 5.4 6.:".~ 6.2 Design Steps for Beams of Category I • 90 5.2 Common Data for Design of Beams .Desi~ 6..i . Beams of Category' IV • 92 5.i.9.5 Isolated Sloped Footirig for Axially Loaded Columns .2.'.89 . 103120 114 6. 95 5.2 Design Procedure • 79 5..J.'0'. 98 5.:.5 Grouping of Columns • 95 5.4 Computation of Floor Load.9.1 Categorising and Grouping of Beams • 121 6.'> 8992 f· : \ . . .2 5~8 '.9.3 Design Steps for Beams of Category IT & ITI .5 6.4. 89 5.1 General. of. .3.1 Introduction.3 Design of Typical Beams.9.6 }. 165 121160 l51170 164 .Exact Method • 94 5.. 5.8. 94 5. 161 6.. 79 5..3 Preliminaries. 119 of Beams SlabSl.1. .7 of Slabs Design of Oneway Slab . Columns • 82 5.2 6.Contents Design of COlumns 5.7 Assessment of Loads and Column Design.6 Design ¥en of SiDgIe storey Public BuiIdiaa . 123 6.: .4:5 Calculation of Moments il.5. ~  5.6..2 nata. 100 1011SO 101"".5 Design Steps for Beams of Category V • 92 5.j . SlabS3.10.9.4.8 Assessment of <Moments due to Fixity .4. 101 '..8. of Floor Loads on Columns • 93 5. 99 .Design ..4 DesignSteps'for. 'of Oolumns . ~labfJ...3.7 Grouping.8.3.9. 108 107 108 .:..'6..~1.4 .4 6.' 87.4.1 Categorisation of Columns • 93 '5.4.1.1 Categorisation and Grouping of Beams. :'.9 Design of Column Section .1 Categorisation of Columns..4.5. 6. 5. SlabS5.4.:'_ .1 • ..3 MomEintsin Columns .4 Effective Length of Columns .Design of Columns 6. 89 of Beams .1 5.2..s9 89 . 101 6. '''. 125 .5 Check for Effect of Bending and Slenderness.103 Chapter ...7..2.) . 6. SIabS4. Calculation of Unit Loads Design 5.6 Effective Length of Column and Type of Column . .9./ . .4. on Column • 81 5. 85 .6 Design of Reinforcement.4.
171 Footing for' Column in G:roup3 . 199 7. '1.VIII Contents .1 6. 171 Grouping of Footings • 171 Design of Footing ..8 ComputerBesu.2 8.1 7.3 Roof Beams t 205 205217 7..Substitute Frame .5.. 191 .6 7. ' .7.7 : ProjectU .~diDa.6 .Design of Column section • 215 217220 7.4. Pmme·_ U.Members t.S 7.m .2 :t81220 Introduction Salient Data Features ". Load Data • 186 . of Mu1tiStoreyed.4 6. 205 7..10 Design of Footings i • .·Offiee.2 8.1 Structural Planning 8. DeeigD.3 8.9 Compuison flltesults .5 Grouping of Columns • 215 '1.3 8. 7.2 Intl'oduction Data 221 221222 I 8.~ ~ Form " " :.. .5. 248 J .6 Design Moments. 7. and Shears by Substitute Frame . 188 7. . "1~7..9. AIlalyais' of Frame 7.5 of Column Footing .'I CompuisonfJfltesults at 'I1lree Meth8da .72.194· .3 e.8._Design ".: 181 .4 Design Numbering and Nomenclature for members • 222 222 Ultimate Loads 8.3 of Slabs Roof Slab • 224 Floor Slabs .2 Design of Middle Storey Longitudinal Be8ms . ' Chapter _ 8 : Project . .5.9.. ~184185 7.8 Design of Beams '1.5.1 8.. ana . 204.1 8.4 DetenninatiUl of Effective l.4 230251 8. ~  Chapter. 230 Floor Beams • 240 Concluding Remarks 24:7 Design of Plinth Beams.by AnalJais' of .8..1. .frame . 7.2.1 Member Data • 185 7..5.·~jt.'.9.4. 81 &: 82 .~".5.5.9 ' Design of ColUJlUl8 7.1.5 ISS . .' '1. j.4 7.~ •..5 Design of Beams 8. m : DeslgD 221 of Multi8toreyed Raidentlal ~ 2212'17 8. 211 '..6.9.2 8.S. 197.1ta using Stifthesa Method for ~.· 7.4.1 Design of Middle Storey Transverse Beam. .. 184 184 . 172 Design of Footmg in Tabular 176 ". Design Moments and Shears by Subtititllte.I .5.5.7.7.5. 201 .2 6. .9. 188 '1.2.8.1 Roof Beams.2 Calculation of Colum1l Loads in Diffetalt Storeys .9. 227 Design of Stairs • 228 224229 8..Hand cemputati8Il'and Computer. 7.3 Fixed BDd Momenta .7. 181 Loads Design of .' t' 171180 .' 6. 7. t: ~ .i.'I Design' of Floor Slabs.1 Categrory of Column • 205 '.' 7.3 Moments in ~ .Categorisation of Footings'.7. ·201205 7.I .eDgth and' Slendetn~ ofColuDms • an 7." Design Momellts and ShearS .
n.of Fixed Base Portal Frame 9. 8.2.Beams. 304 10.6. 304 . 8.e ~nd Foundation •.3. ·Categorisationof Footings. Chapter .• . 275 1 '8. 251.2.10 : neaigD.6. .~ 303319 10. Introdue~ion. 275 8~7.. Design of Hinged Base Portal 9.2 Grouping of Footings..1 Slab Supported on'Cantilever ~ams which are Embedded inWalJs. 256 8. 304 10.2. .2 Cantilever Slab supported over Beams . .1D~sirQ "'" . 254 8. aeams.3 Methods of Analysis. :':AnaIYBis 'and Deaign of Portal Frame 9. 304 10.6 .2 DitT. " . 278302 Introduction 9.2'.. 285 9.7 Chapter .8.2.~3. .2. 293 I 9. .2.3 Design. ' 303~S04 10. .3 Slab Simply Supported on Beams with Supporting End . 276 275277 8.6.3.3 Desig~ of Portal Without Redistribution of Moments.3 Illu8trative Examples 305319 ~~~~~ . 282 9.' " 10•. 251~275 8. : 8.Design of Columns . '1.' "".2•• Slab Simply Supported over Cantilever Portion of Floor .~ .• .hich are ltigidly .4 Calculation of Column Loads in each storey.Contents IX . 281 9...1..3....beam Resting on Cantilever elida of Floor.2 Assessment of Loads on Cloumns. I ".~ '.()f Hin.~ 'Choice of Preliminary CrossSectional 9. 251 .5. Design ·of Portal With 30% Redistribution of Moments..6. '.5 Calculation of Equivalent Design Axial Loads & Design of ColumnSection. 253 8.298 . .tp of Portal Frame .~DttypeS 'of layoutS.2 Determination of Cross Sectional Dimensions. 279 278 279280 shape and Dimension.. ..• I 10. .a"JDesign of Footing. of Porch . 298302 .Comlected with Columns.6.2.6 Check Column Section for Axial Load and Mome'nt.4.3 Determination of Effective Length and Slenderness.' 303 10. 279 " 280297 9.7.7 Approximate Method of Computation of Loads on Columns..6. 268 Design of footings .6. ! ~ .1 'Introdtictlon' .1 Categorisation of Columns.9 9..1 : De.Slab supported along all its Four Edges by Beams. 304 . 279 9.1 'Design of Slab SI.255 8.
A23 Table D6 (b) . A20 Table D5 Percentage of Steel Required for Givert Moment of R.Doubly Reinforced Secti()ns. ..G Table GI .A .'o.. A12 . A4 .Moment of Resistance Factor.of Singly·:{leinforced and Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams . " ".3. A6 Ultimate Moment of Resistance of Slabs for Different Depth for Given Diameter and spacing' of Bars. All .: A24 .B Table BI Table B2 APPENDIX .. A14 " .. . : A1. AlB Table D4 Percentage of Steel Required for Given . Table D8 Ultimate Shear ResistanCe 'ofMinimum Stlrft.. A7 Distribution Steel for Different Depths of Slabsand Grades of Steel.Sectious.tps. '.g Moment Coefficients for Standard Cases. A23 TableD6 (c) Effectiv~'.edst8.. Table AI APPENDIX ..1987 Oecupancies as" per APPENDIX .. Design of OneWay Slabs (Residential Buildings).150'..A24 Ultimate Moment of Resistance of Rectangular Beams 230mm side) Al3 . Table D6 (a) NumberDiameter' of Bars in 'Ascending Order of Area of Steel.. A24 :'.D Table DI Table D2 . ) APPE~DIX .' Ultimate Moment of Resistance . A2 Bending Moment Coefficients for Twoway Slabs. A6A12 Maximum Span for given Depth of Slab Satisfying Serviceability Requirements of Deflections. AiA53 Load Data for Residential Building.. in Layers A23 Table D7 Minimum Shear Reinforcement in Beams for different Widths.. Al A2A5 Bendip.:' :.C Table CI Table C2 Table C3 1'~ible C4 APPENDIX .' .:: Table D9 . ..x Oontents AP·PENDICES APPENDIX .. :.Dee Factor .' Table D3 Ultimate Moment of Betlistance of Flanged. A22 .riHn wide.. " '.~ ..bovet for Bars of Different Diameters... Maximum Number of Bars in one Layer for Different Widths. A24 Shear Strength of 2Legged "stirrUps.E Table EI Table E2 Table E3 Table Table Table Table APPENDIX Table Table Table (a) E3 (b) E·4 E5 E6 F FI F2 F3 : Imposed Floor Loads for Different 18:875 (Part2) . J...
2 STAGES IN SDUClORALDESIGN : The process of structural design involves the foll~ing stages •.1H"! . or R. 1 .ng (roof) struc1tare.. bYelaws. the deSigner is required to' select material appropriate to the form.u.> .· Once the fOnl and the material to be used are finalised.the structural system." a .the destgaer is required"~ decide first the appropriate fOR and/or sYBtea of the cCPI'er:f.C. . The form and the system will have to be ded.1 'l'BE J ~IGN' PROCESS : Structural design is an art and science ofdesignfng. serviceability t durability and economy of the structure for its intended use over the life span of the structure are attended to by the structural designer. And finally. 1. He has to fix up whether the roof shall consiat of steel roof trusses and girders. in tbiBchapter and the remaining in the subsequent chapters. serviceable.g.. the choice of material will also be governed by the requir~nt8 of as the tics . folded plates. Detailing and Preparation of Schedules. a safe.c Qesign 1. ' V Drawing.. Introduction to:Structu~aJ.the aetbod of analys~s. configuration of trusses etc.er:' ~4~. I Structural Planning II Estimation of Loads. and about the'limitations 'and 'intricacies of structural science.backc!d up by ample experience. The requirements proposed by the client may not 'be'well defined: They may be'vague 2a~raay also be impracticable because he is not aware of the various implicationfFlnvolved in the process of planning and design. positioning of columns. intuition and judgement. C. .· or a prestressed haa&inB roof.the layout of its components.. (Many' tillles. economy and the availability of tbe materiai.' . .astructural engineer is required to act in capacities of both ~ the architect·and the structural designer). and the.. After decldina tbe fot'll and the system.) will be required to be determined.' III Analysis of Structure. the designer will have to choose the realistic design philosophy and the method of analysis appropriate to the structural system and the material used. such as relevant design codes and. and a durable structure.diCI fro.ly to' meet the functional requiremen~s of the user or the client.3 This involves determination of the form of the structure. or combination of above. Of course. shell 'or a eablestayed tension structure or a beamslab grid system. the consideratioqs of functional requirements such as unobstructed area." s.headroos and also from considerations of economy and asthetics. the Iiateria1 for the same. The functional requirements aod theaspect'6f asthetics are looked into normally by an architect while the· aspect of safety'. The process of design commences with planning of a structure~ tlprlmari. The first stage of structural planning has been discussed. spacing of trusses.'·' 1. philosophy of structural design. or beams. The entire process of structural planning and. or R. if a large area is to be provided·with a cover. the layout of the componen~ ~bers (e.. "C l1h !r.. design requires not only imagination and conceptual thinking (which form art of designing) but also sound knowledge of science of structural engineering besides knOwledge of practical aspects. IV Member Design. For example. witheconomy and elegance.
as follows: (i) Slabs to cover large area. be an exception in case of columns in ~alls on the property line.. :: __ ' ..always cbeaper.~ . (2) Whenthe centre. II~S ... Q_f.e~. ~q~ toa. . . :.large area 9£: th~ suppor~ing soil.in span. " (d) Layout.· with:the 1n~ease. J" ~ ._ce4FOOTING under the . support !>ens. CQluams sbould preferably'..St.:. be.' ••.in general. ..>~~hling" the structural. (b)Be~. (~) T~pe of footing.the property line as shown in Pig. . to support wal~ alone u. .~ beam· increases.~ ~itm. ~panning of. 'CROsS .al 100d. ":: k r( .l.~1.! .!!i:!..s.(c) ."I _.pet.~IISIE beeauae spacing of columns decides the span' ._.to R.~1l~~~tS'~f ~~'tRi. FollowilLgare some_ t~~_. . and planning. a ~1ne4 PROP£ATY' UN£ footina or a strap footing may ~ provided.es el'lCGWltered' proin I vid1ag footing for such colt. and.=======l and1atf~hEl. t.l.unit..<leight.larger spans of beams should preferably .of ~he.. .. ther~ can . •_ .t~J'}lLiDJltipnofthe £o+lo_wing: (a)CQ~~mn. '. the column may be shifted inside al~ a cross wall to make room for aCC:OIJmodating the footing within ..difficulU. .:.. cases.!!ln...be avoided for econ~y reasons.. length increases ~apidlywith the. After getting . ~here is considerable increase in the size of the beam. L ...' (It . _ .it!OIlS. the be_. . boundary· line.I.and (iv) Footings to distribute concentra." . basically the :function of ~pecolumnis: to.Buildings. j WALL" (1)..:.".tis' well known that the . On the other hand. ._ C j (.As the span (Fig and.1llln. to centre distance ~tween the intersections of walls is large or where': there are no cross walls. ) t:ed at or near ltbe cornecs of a build~ng. .' .. Therefore. In this·case..1 .·" t~ r ~~ f . "J:'inciples:Jfhich help in deciding .incr~sesi the J:fIqUi~ed.ted column lqad_sover a'..' depth oi: _ 01) p~opeTty Une'.:a (a> .2 Introduqtion ~ . Alternatively.the length) of . short'.a" • tt .C.' the increase ill total load (and hence the increase in s:1z"e)due to increase in length 1s negligible as long 4S the' columnis..the of p eplUlqll. ' . either one column at C can be provided making AC&~two span continuous beam or t:wo columns can be provided at E and G to fora AB a three span continuous beam.) ' .. l Chapter/L ~.~_. Since colUIUI footing requires ee:rtain area beyond the colUlm. 1. span as compared·to that of col1. the discussion is.oment governing the beam desip "val. p~apning .This aspect is illustrated in Fiq.$. Ifm1eeal~tbe structural plannins of R.therefore._...~:!]". ositions. Brackets may.ies.bence its seif. . of the building frame is done.with the sq_uare of the span and directly w!th the load. (1ii) Coldmnsto support be~ms. sl.l. Hence. .int~rsection~ . 10<.:iii~~ ~r~e ar~ .I..frames.walls to support them.In such '.the: cost of the .case of· a column. the spacinB' between twocoluams Is.. This involves de.. :. }. .1 Pas_ ItlonlnJJl:?f ~u of the heal .compared to beams on.PQ. ._. governed.~A'OP~ of this book is I'estricted... ._=====.tl@MIrif ~ ~..C. the be8ll.' .:l~. stair.~..'....an4. (ii) Beamsto support'slabs' a~d'walls.. which are nonnally pl. ~~.~ . ~~ .2.9EN4 ATPLlNt'" .'' .an architectural p~an.'l. J. Therefore.~ . ·:~:::L~< '. J~ ':\J!'~ .__inithe.abs.. " ". ' ..: :.19~ati6nsr p .of walls.. ElEVATION'·(af however.ColullDl!!. • :: '.' *e .the pasis of unit cost.1iding.\ii~.beam.by l~i tattons 'on spans of supported 'beams. becaaee. taken out from the column in continuation of ero~s be.
However. 'i.. .l tQ. a8 'C4. W·O. ded.~l~ varies directly with tlu! cube of the span and inv~rsely ~1th the.~~keral. fear of coUapse). increase in alMa vbJ. column i.two point' 'loads. .2 Pqsltionlng of' Colu'.. .ease ill D is less thao..lt. Length of beam CDLUMNS s'panis reduced.Sect. 3 In the first case.J . . (3) Larger spans of beams shall also be avoided' frC* "the cOI1814ft'at1oa.nd ._ .the .than the lncrease 'in the cost.:.iE. headroom.re<iuci' ". HeaYy ceet..::.) Positioning~of F H Cblumns..asth~tic~ and psychologlca~ effect (a loq.·· since .../r . andobatructs the clear view and the.:the cost of providing single column· C Will be cOa~atratively le.m ~eam Type cantileyers' Simply Supported .tto dolum~si J B ad:G (carty. the second alternative is UJcely. 8 1Ietres 12 metres I (live ioad ' . of e_conol!lY. spans AC and CB will be large..' ':. it increases . ~.'.' avoiding large spans . at inghalf ~e load). the fuaetioaal utUit): . . posiaa proltl_ of stocltfe:OlWmB in lower storeys' of a mult1storeyed building.r and the beam has to carry'. '".. '..y proporti00:4l to. transferred from secondary be~s. " .:~ ~_~ .and it is required to carry only one concentrated load and that too on central span which further reduces the· . the appearance.Flal1&ed ':). ~he rigidity EI ~s a function of.'h1s is more true in case of 'JDul torey building frames..4nereaae in cost. (ofc~umns and f'ootings) due to provision of' . ...3(a. three span beam. '~ 3 metres ' 5 metres be ~educed ~"' 6 metres 10 metres .beavy I . 1. ~.'>. to work'out to be cheaper.it: oceun 1fbeD the corner ofa. .e).0: .W 8 SOLU TION..a. .for b •••• tion in the cost of beam...a8 .'t·b\tt . Therefore.·' tis . ~iXed/contjnuoU$ Rectangular.~. . . . not'IUlly higher. 1.deptb._ .UMble apaee.rryidi live loads upt04 may be ll~i... On the other hand'. :. incr.e..ss .pf beam due to proifi~lng 8iqle column~ ThUs..Consequently. It i8 well !kDown that·· tbe. __ ~ ~ __ ~ ____..:" .. .In. themaxlmum'8.fe.' I .. o c~trolling the deflection and crackiog. 2 . deep beaa creates a psychological .when two col~nB areproviA M====:::::if=Jfls. '..the load on the colUiln at each floor .arid obstruct the floor area. over.. f .g. \ (6) Whenthe locations of two co"lumnsare very near (e .~u:."tolumnshould be' avoided inside a big hall as it .ldon' so as to reduce the" hea~ moment.8~ea~.1. The· upper limit sbali greater :than 4 leNl sq olQ) • by judgement for beavy loads 'if'. : oneat' E and the other at G.spans of beams (aad hence apaciaa of columns) which require the depth of beg greater than one metre should as far ~ible be avoided:' .tter case.then one column should be provided instead of two at: such.ted to the fol}owingvalues.. This will requit:e·heavier section for the beam.itit~<\~fbeams ca. 'one at E_ and the other at G. (5) targ~r spacing of columEls not only increases the apan aad the eO&~ of ~. .• thea:o~t of. o~ets cirom valls '.0 momentiri outer spans AE' and GBwi~hout apprec Iabke increase in des_ign moment 1n Flg. In the'la.J ' kNtsq. L/4 ratio is taken to restrict the 4epth from coliaideratioaa .ch reaulu in greater'deflection for large span. ..iODa x. .. the point of intersecdon of wall's e~ very c:lCMle to ~ach other}.1na of a. for 1&rae apua.:::::.::::. .Load on. the beam TWO becomes B.. . "0. D (sinc~ ... .. crushina load leadina to 4. ~ ". building and. '.. . I'".na portion EG leading to considerable' .
1.c.s.~ing wit" 'waU' • leSt .thick columns eolu. at'rlgtet'· . . this solution is PossIble' Only for upper two floors since 150..der.' _ f . b) •• tl:hing· of coluen width the· eol. ELEVATION PLAN more floor space.pl~ne of the wall!} tQ.rs enG at cross ".lwqn" shall be i:nthe.ns .n~atjon ·of Coluans : .column is perpendicular to the major " __ . ~t <~he tn. d) Use of: L & T section 150_ .spac1pg of the cQlumns should be considerably reduced so that the load on column at: eael'\ floor is less and the necessity of ..!.Now a days use of 150 mm thick block walls . ~.aU. the depth of the . co.too . As far as possible._unn ·from . (1) According to requirements of.astheticsand ut1I'1ty.1 • " to . •" of two walls at right ailgles where 150 DUll side of the column "plUld be . For this.~ thickness may become lnadequatefor the lower storey co~uans carrying heavier lOads. This leads to the problem of orientatioD.width of cd'lumnnecessitates the other'side (the depth) of column to be larger to get the desired load carrying capacd ty .'of "Coloa._'. and keep th~ column short. it is required to carry moments in addition to the ~i~i load~ I~.uch cases.iof such rectangular columns for which the following guide lines can be"y'se'ful.3(cJ. .Iuanar.o. fro.Jsrequir~ .terseetion ". Architectural . column should 8.. to use L shaped columns at the c01'1lers"or Tshaped columns . the width of.I?eamfor effctiye' load transfer.. furniture flush with the.' posed this problem / 'tor~.i~ith width of column not' less than the width of the supported..22Smm to p~event '.tri.l. avoid . (2) Wh~na co1W1nis rigidly connected ::to beams..hecoluans to linte~ in the cross wall...' e') avoiding oth.bad appearance but also obstruct the use of c6r~erstand.projections of columns outside the wall.such offsets..(b) Such columns should be laterally braced ~t the lintel level by conne~~ing .J r No~ally.tlon authorities for outer "alis also to get. ..4 Introduction Orie. " Chapter 1 ''. Alternatively. See Pig.3(a)) should be avoided as they not only give .allowed by the construe.e_{"i~ctanguiar~. walh:TJiedepth of the..3. not les:sFIrf. junctions may .ln such cases" ._ see Pig. " " /.pzovfded in a b:Uildl~~:. gl.c~eate ~roblems" in placing . .~prov~ed only 're'Specthely.teorn. in the room (and especially at the corner. colue". ..l.' )~_l ~.large sections for columns does not aJ.' .be kept.' 'Restriction on 'the . only alternati~ is either.3 Orientation . at right angles.1so not exceed the thickness of of the wall to' avoid offsets. The problem of projection of column normally occurs in the 1nt~rnal walls since they are usually thiuner.because t~e width ' / of colqam. _ j .. This wili~reduce the effective length of the column. See P1g. the column should be so oriented chat.·c) 8recing iQf 1'150 •• thick sleD.'1$~. Besides.ns.rs~ctioti of intermediate cross wall's as shown in Fig. .~.cTiteri~a than.at ~ Int.1.l~ter~ walls I . 3{d)..matched with one of the walls. bas (d) (e)".
the .e • its volomel. dr. !' .' aJ»:t:d! :g. ..0 3.t increasl~g !thectdepth . lsr. e8llls.may. The maximum and miniJJlUl'4 .. Max.in~ ·~th~ plane of 'bending ). i i .ryp ing. frames.· }k.ep:. .~ (3)A1s0'. ._··. by increasing :the .·ofa columnin.. L cdfx LARGE ne frame freeto sway. . some extent by li~itiitg rthe. herefore.'apla. 4¥pth. 2. 1. of concrete to Carry a ·given load (i.crst:iffn" •• s .ria.Ln.ty~t .. n:1.1Das is 200 mmwhile the .~·u. .:.godownsarid heavy duty· floors) ~ the maximum 'spacing of beaa8(. of.'c~U.as a oneway supported slab. .components) . larger·effect1ve·:length: fig.4 Or ientat. .load rat1ouis: W!ry :high 'COIIIlpaJ.:thfvtop).. Therefore.r.:iih'~r~he a~pth of the:. loads . .l.•" Oneway Twoway Simply supported.of .is'traJ...rni:ngil" .Sect.ed to other . Slab requlres the JD8l[im .3{b) a.under ··the 1Ialls ol{. i ..cfimension <'·shall:he in·the piane.) having .fo.. ...1.i·.4tb} "" "I ~ < (b) " . T thei1ihlcknessofslab:. .h~ JlrOment"lear.eaf3es: its stiffness . volulte./. r.is of benddng .al.~ Siie' Pifj .be kept minimum.. ' . designer is free to decide as to .buildings. lan.live loads less than':5 leN/sq •• " (. be avoided to.ontng.f TO X AXIS ..5· 4i5· 4.ase~it."be provided · . _" In case. so as to reduce. b (1) Beams shall normally.·the.'laferred tio the column..nf.~ . 'Left/D ratio' and to. '!.. r: length of the column in one PlANE (F BENDING V Y plane :1s great:er· than'..loads.irections. •..g.ion of . 'Oneway TWoway" Fixed/Continuous" One~filJ... ·.:~ _.x.incbease theload:~carrying capacity·of"t~.tha.minimum is .directly coming on !Slabs. Baste p~1ne.'{of 'the"frame.100 rani •.•.5 6. ' ~ ~. .so.' '.h...govern .c'. .:.helow a heavy '~oncentratedload' to avoid these .' This ..:. _other ~tban warehouses. " : J •• :Following are same of . thickness· forresldent1al/offltCe/publicbuild. and.capad.whether the slab should be designed as oneway or twoway. the gove.iecide thespaclng of beams 1lre . ~ith . 4{ a)"..:requlr.ple in deciding the layout of compOnent members. ".or"only in one direction.is' more in the plane :of the frame.e. by' loading andul:1tiitlD~pth1clcness given above.should be tOPM.. ·HoweverJ the twoway actioo'of slab does not depend' only on the'manrier' in'which it ·is supported but also OIl the aspect ratio r. then the slabacts. of steel.greateJfl..slabs'. Coht. l·ta apac1ns J'8..d . it acts as a twoWay·supp~rted·'slab •. (e..Span in metres (c) Spannfnao£ Slabel.5 c. c::" '..:. It shoul.the guiding principles for posld.d.the columt1i. .edc~to.'{SpauaOf_~8labS which. This decision may be taken considering· the follOWing points.c:olumn.y Tllfr>wIJY :.WOen· ·the slab"1s supported in two perpendicular d.Wbea the suppdt'ts are only on opposite sldes.e of 'bending not only inc:t.: Support Slab Condition Type' Cantilevers . at·.} b .perc~ntage..but'3~1nCreasiing'itslJlomenbof resistance. to the values of maximum spans of' slabs g1ven below.ng:ttl. be decided by the \maximuntspans:of .can.: ...ftecti.tl\e' shortest path. .yIL~ (ehe'ratio of Long span Ly to Short span L)f)' the rat10 of reinforcement in the two directions {AstxlAsty or mUK/muy) and the bouodary conditions.when·.. J '0 ..Len..:oi .largetmoment r~sisting capa~iri¢..va h..1.ferred't. ·.!:.thereby more mom~nt..': •. '. The maximumpracti..AXIS OF BENDING X X other plane' at right 'angles C"J. ~. (2} Since beam's 'are ~rlU1aMly provided to ~support ·slaba.• ?.ltall. '. t'lmt·in .be limi ted. ...o the foundation along.! 1jj)J:e . c:olumn·sha1lc' be. Fig.dUln acroas it wheh all...~'the·ef£ectlve .~... :~.also<iIic. 'be> i1intn\! :in min.is that: heavy.0 This Is' decided by the positions 'of supporting beams or walls..· are latera'lly " braced.. 1. 1..e..
.btlbadcal compared to oneway slab because steel along both thespans'.' . '...1.pter 1 . tihen 4t '1.cis al.~ll:_?f_.p. 'Iuf'ig.snort span by proyiding main.it. Also .'..!\8::.I>:.o.·In . slab~ main 'steel ~is provided.this · ..i'ds 'gt:eater than 3 . $iDee 't~ does not :exist ·.iApto.~~~~~:in.supported over.rban 3 a) ..S.times that.:.t. .g:Sf·'~ .1~:4~ll~ for.. .(2~YA twbwaY""slab.'..t1o~~L\4. In ~ase of· c.inP'..Sl.fYO~y:~~~~~. "the distribution· of..in"i'one'!""Way.eel along. made to act asonevay...top across the short edge'8upport: to .ql~L~lBEI"~(48/5)( StILl 384~Il 'ls '9.ble.~ '8 '. s t.1. .it should be noted.lab.ab.. ~""T9". .I:LrSl~w111 not 'get ·the. thesnort·.1.along therc:.O}f_~.having Ly/ Lx< 2 .l.tiales tha~ . " "~'. .the..~~..and for lfve' "lo.. .' " "..s •~ .' A .oportiOnal·to·.us'lng tension at top along "the aupp.whether a cantilever. along the short..fg.:bJiJf~~b.. " (3) The twoway~ct.' .l1.!. desired fixity or structural cont1liuity over AB.s and light loads..~I V is four .'practice..4~~Efc.!lt the supporting beam due to lack of adequa teend restra:b.:rhei.~i.since the slab is .. supported.'r. the slab . The crack.g~ally:.he sl. ..~ '. the di'I'ec.t·~for ttu{'beam..shor t span.a crack develops at top ~alOD.m .be made ..kN/sq.~ 1:!l:astic theory. as.e cOQ. " 0 a +""" l'. ..:maUl·. .:tr.load istransferted to tWo op~site supports only.nter1:onnectiug the slab all!i the .C:•• $ ty of would simply rotate in absence of any balancing 19a(1.tion parallel to 'AB. that .increases the ·stiffness of ..ed or a continuous slab.' .l.8 slabc01'ltinuous : over the supPort 'AB . .1abl ~i~'signed'as two~ay on~y when Ly/ Lx< 1.ge~lso.y. . (6) While deciding the type of slab. edge.asp~~t :ratio'" Ly/Lx<.not differ appreciably as compared to steel fOJ.A~.steel required lfor twoway slab does."""".  Cha.By providing! mOre steel only in short 4irection'muxb. J:n' such cas~~I'tprQvi~j.load (Besides..0.cspan"and.the 8.adjaceat.ry that slab S2 also spans .trary. deflection of a cantUever 'ai.·of a simply supported slab (m =JiL'/B) .. .). ._. 5'" Spanning.o act as <1lblle~ay slap"'" sps'nning .•t.'across the.all'"d5tfL. .t::~x:di.ion between tl1e.th of slab due to:'differentlaldeflect. ~. on AB. ".tgere is a probability of increase in deflection'due to·Ptob4l..tbat._.all . U1ws"'~ " . '. .·behaves asone18.. 'I n>..t.( a cOlltinuous or fixed slab (m =wL'/10 towLII/11J: for:the'·418me·:Span length.1~"..utllevers.'~ only..ageous ! essentially: for large spans (gr. st.ne ::theory~~ load distribution in two orthos()nal directions depends upon the ultiaate 1Boment eapa<. A' slab :titll 'Ly/rt.aaed.M. If .nl~)..~ . can.For . :tbe. load ~ beiug ipr..ny "shel at topaeros. :a.y.ls' advant.eater . . a tendaocy. Therefore.....side beam.Bowever.hei."':" "'"".".f mOlje.1f. of such case f even though full steel is ptovided at top H i across As to cater for the support .steel~! and transfers the Load toall the' fou~..ever (m c: w.dEt..:acts.O~.' span oIily~ .across AB.ansferred along the: stiTffer shOli't...according to 'yieldl:1. is pre+ ··'dt)lD'tnent .stee1.all s1deS'" but .oment. while it is fiV:fI"to six.should 'be taken to provide minimum steel '.rels./is. 'tpe. it should beborne in mind that ( for uniform loading) the maxi_WI bending moment in a eantil.rx >2 'is' 'designea·.8void 1:b..geiu a .the requl~ementof'minimum.steel: along<the long span. ". : The steel ...1ffness' in ·two·' orthogonal: directions imajor load is.·howeve'r.lpport.P"f.i'. necessa.". e span and . then .:as"· onewanrrl1i!ntre·iin :ethat case oneway· act Lon .:V.suppot'tsfwhile.ities mux and muy in thesedirections.it::~nirec. ".. ..8or>J:dec'1ded: byJ)the.yrun throuahthe '.6 times t.'a~.""'and only distributiou~.'.beataAB S18. .the s ..sp~u'... I. oneway slab becatlseJof." 'designed as.ec.:iQpg<. 'e. ~.hat of s~ply supPQrte(bsl.8~ted.tion . continuity 0.lst !act"S as 'dist:ribtitions~eel and is not designed for transferring' the Load . tratlon.of the load ·:onthe slab by the 'Side' ofBUpport:.¢.l\'U .additional\reduction in def1ect~~'isobtalned tn staply supported slab due to partial fixity at supports) . uece~8ity of contiliuity :1:0..l.'made 'far greater than muy and the slab is.• ' .' care .a simpl.ortilla·<f!dae. alld 51 simply acts 4S a slab freely.b$' .t .. (4) A:.' 1""' '.slab having suppor taon .·A..sl. Similarly.~ Edg •• coming from 52.' . 1I8.is . . .on_.' (S) Spanning of slab '. 4eaf. ' .~~!fn~Q({uct ion '.jspan· j1.2 •.a~lon.to· the nearer support ea.t. 5.slah and the ~supporting short: edge beam/wall:.is cracking.:to ~tt"n8ferred.. .'"kf:Slab aC~B.t.orieWay ''slab spanning .r.t.
The presence of a vertical parapet wall at the edge of a balcony makes the cantilever sp~DDlngfurtber uneconomical because of additional moments induced by the weight of the parapet acting at the free end as point load and due to horizontal loads act1ng on edges of vertical wall.if a cantilever canopy slab 51 Balconies..6U. retaining walls by making the vertical stem to span longitudinally across the counterforts instead of transversely (i. .l.. _"':" Therefore.pet i load utmost importance to see whether adequate anchorage to the same on CantU. the slab will have to be designed as cantilever because provision of a separate supporting beam at JK would induce large twIsting mOlllentin beam BH. then adequate anchorage will not be . transverse beams are available. If the slabs are spanned 10ngitudina1ly~ the weight of parapet wall can be transferred directly to the supporting cross beams since the wall itself can act as a vertical deep beam provIded ofcourse it is supported transversely at top by either a transverse parapet wall or a baud rail.' However.. . In such case.de very deep. . In such a ease.For a Ly t.". 4. it. In case of balcony 53 in this figure which does not extend over the complete length of the roomttransverse beaa coUld be made avail bale at AB by extending the beam CB.Uable because slab S1 cannot be extended· :iDslde the hall due to level dUference betwen 51 and S2. in all the cases illustrated above. ( This principle is adopted in counterfort..':1.In both the cases~tbese supporting heams will be subjected to very large torsional moment.. in case of balcony slabs . long balcony where number of J 51 .differeuce between 51 & S2.l. ~ e D E longitudinally across the ~ " transverse end beams instead 53 of as a cantilever slab.any slab as a cantilever slab. ' B~======~======~~==~ _0 I ~. in case of an isolated single balcony.e. and C8DOPY slab connected to its bottom. vertically as cantilever) when the height is large.u L..Sect. .l. with depth equal to level. Ffg~ 1.ver is aval~4ble or not.3(c) . If the width of balcony • 52 BEAMS (Lx) is large and the trans. 1. See Fig.6(b). ~:. times the width... even a Fig. 1 . it will be economical to design the slab Lx las simply supported spanning. verse beams DE and FG are available at the ends.6(a} if)'transverse beams are available at the ends and if the length of balcony is less than two . r.. it has to be seen whether the supporting transverse beams can be·made available by ex 'ens ton of inner floor beams as brackets or not. or a seperate beam will have to be provided below AS at the· level of 51 if the projection of the canopy is large.' s of Par. Sl in ·Pig.he economic spanning is 'gove''rrieCi t ~_.2Lx . theJbeam AB will either be required to be ..l. in Fig. ~. F nal span to width can even be TRANSVERSE 52 • 2.5... For example.'the ratio of length of balcony (the longitudinal span for simp1ysuppOrted/conf1~u~ us slab) to the width of balcony(which can act as transverse span for'd:inifle1itfi) and the availability of supporting transverse beams for longitudinal spanni~Vlc:' Thus.this ratio of longitudiH .~~a) Spanning of 8alcony Slabs longitudinal beam EF can be Longitudinal and Transverse provided along the free edge below the parapet wall and the slab 51· could be made to span across the' floor' beam DG..6(c} (page 8) is to be provided outside the entrance instead of a column supported porch and that too at a level different (lower) than that of the floor beam AB.6(a}. But it would not be available along JK as there is no floor beam inside in line with it.' (7) While designing .See l'ig.
(11) greaterl1ve load on stairs than that on floors'lberefo~e.t ahouldbe anchored in betlD!sbelow. Beams at EF and GH not only reduce the span of stair slab but the landing slabs beyond EF or GH acts as cantilevers . .ow:J. corner slab 53 can just be overhanging extensions of slabs 5) and 52 8 with 50 % load transferred in each direction. ends of radial _ bars . of stairs.. CanQ4' y SleD.. Balc011i.l(a} beams can be provided either at Ai3 or at $F on one side and at GR or at CD on t. For example. if both 51 and.Wherever possibletlandi~ beams may be prOVided at the end of flight to reduce the span. Since .longer spans for the flights be avoided as far as possible. ____ 51 her unecoil6mical 54 54 and complicated. . essentially by the availabl~ room.Staira : .l. I is that of a corner balcony 53... (2) Stair flightB shall preferably be supported on beams or walls.::::.of steps.·'. slab S3 should 51 A B be supported '_ by 3 radial bars' of "l __:_ 52 I E F . and due to ~ditioual weight ..:eomP4~ed f~oor slabs because of to length. because this causes stress concentrations in the supporting landing slab at their junction~ (3) .would b~/' :.I. Supporting stair slabs along AB and CD is uneconomical.: aod 'it$!ayout isgove'rued.~ f and DF could be talten ..$olution . of . '. . of s~b acting over horizontal span. bars ~s:shown in l'ig.O'.: 'br~~kets CE . of S1'&S2 ':'furt'+__"'_~.ou~ .in Fig.U.hich·reduce the design moment at midspan giving double benefit and hence this arragement is most economical. corner slab 53 does not get any support except from S2 S1 and S2 Which themselves are' elastic cantilevers.out across which 5i':"c~uldbe _ . The ~ of st&l.f_ting of the radial (4) .beau .yto preve~t".J\.8 Introduction Chapter 1 An alternative better.. spanned longitudinally.say at EF.ded .'Sl : (8) Another common problem in case. provj.0 Pig.6(d) • If I o f' balconies 51 and' S2 are both spanninglongftudinally across transverse beams ASand AD. some use£ulguide 'lines in deciding the la.. On the other hand.6(d)  8iz~ ~f stairease of the staircase.7(b)." C r:.. J.·~f'" . SECTtON (c) '4=i~... See Pig.1.the transfer of load of 53 on to 51 and 52makes the design ..pi! the positions .top bars of supporting beams B1 anc:\B2. the flight may be suppo~ted on landing slab itself.6(C) AncnOf'll1g . Supporting the flight on landing slab should be avoldedas far as possible espeeially when the span of the landing slab exceeds twice the width of stair.fort:Ms . Layout ef .he other side.' . (1) heavy dead load due to inclined.'_. 52 are cantilever balconies with no beams at AS and AD.and ancbored backwa~ in slab 54 thro": o 4 c C'ornlt.: slabs tin general.6(d) ugh equal length. (1) T~' stair .. t "! '.of.balconies '~I .C and D f~omwhlch. . beams and columns along the boUDdary FoU.::====A.ls not possible due t:ononavallabil1ty of adequate headroom under the landing.F 'should pre~~n~AA1. A diagonal bar 'E. . When the provision of a mldlanding beam.. minimum 12 ·mm dialleter.es.l. This is PLAN (C) economical..'. . to provide columns at.ng are.1.above the rear._aruii.The landing slab may be made to span transversly across AE and BF on walls or on bracket beam taken out from the columns as shewn .are . t::ig~1.
.696:Code of Practice for General lacfaeering Drawings.5525 : Recommendations for deta1liDC of Reinforced Concrete Works.4 Choice of Footing .7{c)..4 IIAHl'lfG 01' ftAMB 00HP0IIDIrS : a .G c ~ A L t .S. (e) Choice··of PootiDg 'rJPe : A E . raft foundation can also be an alternative solution.. etc.C.... 11st1n&~ and scheduling. isolated column footings are normally preferred except in case of soils with very low bearing capacities~ If such soil or black cotton soil exists for greater depths. . .l.!t\ 'stri ! d B~ Before starting the structural design of R. it 18 always necessary to mark or designate them first to facilitate identificatioa. ·1. For a col~n'on a boundary line.the flight may b~ supported on a central stringer beam spanning a~ross AB & CD and the steps of the stair flight cantilevering out from the stringer beam on both sides.8 combined footing or a strap footing may be provided. This arrangement is'asthetically excellent for public buildings like hotels.II E G ~ : . This scheme of marking will be called as column Reference SCbeae (b) Scheme as recomme~ded by I.S. The different schelllesadopted for . .fraae components. (a) Scheme as recommended by I.arking or ideutificaUOIl are given below.banks.__ :I I III c I B F 1I Il2 I H 0 L3 t 9 F H III . _ Crid Reference Scheme. .. .ver the o skew support.5 metre.Sect.. (d Scheme followt:!o bv the private sector •.. (5)Skew supports shall as far as possible be avoided since they induce torsion in the flight slab. be an ' appropriate choice." . This scheme of marking will be called . pIle foundations can. 1.r The type of footiugdepends upon the load carried by the column and the bearing capacity of the supporting soil. For framed structures under study.' Type 9 (4) If the span of stair flight is greater than 4. .theatres.t. See Pig. Beams shall be provided . H q l _II :4 b d • I I ~~rl IJ h . If columns are very closely spaced and the bearing capac'ity of the 80il is low.~ • t .
Chapter 1. from the column attop' left3000 531 .ms which are not suppOrted on columns but on other main beams and which run in Ydlrectlon are given odd numbers such as BiS._.which suffix i refers to column ~B~~4~®_4~8~~~2r_®e~ 8~S2~_eGD __ __ . designate slabs as wSij inwhich prefixing letter w indicates cLaas of live load (value in kg/sq. See Fig. Bi8etc.f.S.deptband aount .Thus.l...column~. This record Is helpful to avoid wrong usage or overloading of the room in future due to chanae of user which 16 very common in Government departments or public sector..I.designers in private sector. . going southwards with no column beyond.m) for which the sla.. Scheme of marking coiumns in tbis way is very common. the column at X in. but that for beams and slabs is not very much favoured (espeCially writ~ng suffi~es m and b to mark beam and slab respectively.a. therefore.4. j '" 882 .l. by the 8pe~lflc:ations of the slab.96) deals with steel frame work and....while suffix j indicates the type of slab_ wbether one . thus. 0 o in which it runs. Beams are marked as Bml. proceeding vertically downwards baywise and then rightwards.9. Slabs are designated serially as Sbl.3 ~esi$Ued as tWCf:::way a l~ve load of 200 kg/mil! • This practice for is useful and advantageous for' 'maintaininga proper record especially when different slab panels are desig:ned for different loads.eastwards in X~~rection.7. :: iJ 816 ___1:  N u) III P> = 1.m or in N/sq.l.1 for beams o ID g o 2000 571 going nothwards in (y) d'itrectio£l.2 for two_y slab). The secondarybea. In this _s~he~":""'. BB. while beam B52 is a beam starting from the' same column 5 but running .9 is marked as CD3. ForillustratiQn.L6~ _ Beams are designated as Bij in ID 3000 5 31 . 8i7. Sb2.C.Fig. serially starting from the "top left corner and proceeding downwards and then rightwards (baywise) sequentially. Z Grid Jlefereoce SchMe : In this scheme of marking.n Reference sc h e e e with no col~. while j 4 is used for cantileverbea~_.beam B51 .b is designed. CC Jetc. 33 as shoWn in Fig.. going westwards fig..(diameter: and .. 1 This scheme is followed by Public Works Depart:meut of some states and by steel structures fabricators and erectors. See also Fii.B. series of imag1. See Fig. is considered to be superfluous).8paciag) of bars.beyond).l.8i9 etc: while those inX direction are designated_by even numberes such as Bi6. . 1. iiilJii. Category of slab 1s kaowo. and vertical grid lines passing through each column are marked as 11.uamely . (j . start~n8 from the colU11ln at the bottom left corner. This scheme Is partially followed in practice. The Government Departments which adopt this marking scheme.a Colu·.l. . corner proceeding rightwards and 3000 522 then downwards as shown in Fig. 200S32 indicates sl~b of category No..BI1l2 etc. (See Fig.naryho·rlzontal grid lines passing through each column are marked as AA. starting from panel in top left co~er. The colUmns are designated as eij in which suffix i and j ·refer to horizontal (i th) and vertlcal(j th) grid lines intersecting at the column. suffix i indicates category number of the slab. is a beam starting from column No. Tbetypical marking plan given by t~e Code (I. number from which the beam starts 2000571 and suffix j refers to the direction '" VI 11'1 .2 for beams going eastwards in(x) 3000581 . It is not very commonWith R. 22. ar~_r__ __ ~frrs~of all n~bered serially star~ : tins.5 and runing in Y direction.~y or twow~y (j • 1 foro~way alabandj . j = 3 is used for canti886 lever beam. does not specify mark!ng for slabs. direction.l.B).9..
end conditions and the load so that In Privet . B2...es not especially \ on the drawings.e signate slat . '!'be span1c~rn~i pr . 10 • However.s. it requires grouping of Components used in PriVCIte ecw.s ste schedules under remarks column. See Fig. e co .. or by category twc n~cled numbers such as 1 ' '2 . the loads for which the slabs are designed are many tt.S1 anels are dEfirst all the beams in horizontal or sage or oVGe~ectionand then numbering upwards in ommon in 0' ·ection starting from leftmost beams town in Fig.Chapt€ 1. Reference Sche~e rking 'for s11•4•3 Sche. since these drawings form a pe~t record dered to b~the user or with the licencing bodies like municipal corporations.. thus nwnbe. to left panel first havfng nearly equal Fig. Beams are marked serially as BI. Seheme hile beam B5 s in Xdirect columns bu .3 . ter3andd ~!a~tarting from first column and moving <D 5 N ~ des~n~wards first' and then downwards (or ~ a van atds as the case may be). by the side '.of Slabs is shown. S .14 I me states an with R. ' Bm6 r 1"1 Bm 13 0 ne. it is CI ... ss ro Sbll CD E . a ories of slabs required to be designed are reduced to a min1au. used in Private Sector: {value in kg/In this scheme. bers such as numberes sue l Bm20 1111 " CD E e. However.(!) 3000 S 31 co Ill' ~j l e m . Bm 21 E m 8m34 CD E Sb..0 of the coluau atartiftD eway or f lab i I1r from top (or bottom. and spacing of reinforceC o. • 8m 18 an )® I " . Bm32 1"1 8m 1/. this way is At present.. Bm' 8m II COJ /'" I® .~' Bin 29' cot III N cot 3000 S 81 en at B8 ID E Sb2 <n III E Sb4 CD CD E Sb7 N III e Bm30 Sb12 8m 31 ' .: ~ac t . Scheme of Marking FrCIIM .C2 . the columns are marked serially as ci .. E ..9 Grid I® . by arrows on the plan and besides specifying seperately •• .s ~s as the case may be). " III e L_ .. 8m 35  I@ cr. 8m 25 3000 S 31 Sbl co e 52 2000571 &t'I <i m\ Ill' m 8m 5 e Sb3 m Bm 12 E X Sb6 N N co N • : . I"J I"J Sb13 G . Sedor a y..l. 3 etc.10 Nuking Sch ••• used lIP S1 b .1.4.~ i .C.lO. .C3 etc. 1. ~ic:~( ~~h) i ~aCi1itates scheduling of slabs. the slabs lot marked serially but are marked bottom left ding to their categories based On h '1 in specifications (namely the thickea~ cohum dia~eter.9 is marklt eless.de e Code ICD Fig. along two perpendicular spans).) left corner and moving rlghtwards and downwards ( or s. r8m 7 CD E Sb5 ~ E til Sb8 ('oj . m Bm 19 e III Sb9 E BmT1 8m28 CD I"J CD B S6 2000571 e. :~ ~I \ r .1. '"".
The limit state method has proved to have an edge over the workiD8 stress design from the view poiGt of eeonoay~ Consequelltly J there 1s no point :$.marriage hall and it collapsed due to overload.12 Intr.oduct ion" .s. For4eta. This will enable ·theta freely use the eoapu. The latest r.pari$Oft Of the three methods.5 DESIGN PIIILOSOPBIBS : can be designed·by using one of the follow Reinforced concrete structures ing design philosophies.a. It is a judicious amalgamation of WSM and. It 1s not used at all in many advanced countries of the world because of its inherent drawbacks." Working Stress Method twss}. ULII removing all drawbacks of both methods but maintaining their good points. It is also based aD sound scientific principles backed up by 25 years of research.ceas gives "emphasis on Limit State method which is the modified version of Ultimate load method. ( One case of failure of a structure has been reported 1n the newspaper when a· 40' year old building meant for residential purpose was converted into.. " ":j": . of :I. bu. 1) 2) Ultimate Load M~thod (ULM). . 3) Limit State Method (LSM) .msare switching over to this method. referte author1s text book. . advisable to reeocl tb~_'deslgn live load along ~ith the specification of grades of concrete and steel in the notes on the drawings~ Rather." In this book. ..terpr_raas now readl. Working str~s8 methodused over decades is now practically outdated. . The Government departments and large consulting fir.o t~~s philosophy even in routine dea1p. f" ~ Chapter 1 '.ly __ Uable for desip based on lillit 8tate method..C. the limit state philosopby of design has been followed thropghout using SI units. therefore. authors feel' that this should be made obligatory by the licensing bodies to avoid change of use of the premises in future. and avoid possible failures. It is high time that even small practicing f1ms and engineers in the private sector should switchover t._" .Udings.) 1 • .l1ed cOfl.11 sticking to Wor~nastres8 method of deslga lterea£ter. ..
weight of structural components such as slabs..2 rYPES OF LOADS please refer to .: j Characteristic Load (F t) It 1s defined as ttlat value of 'the load which 'has'9.this requires large amount of statistical data. and weight of floor and roof finishes are given in Table 2..5. (b) Live load. 'But since such data 'are not available at present to express the load in statistical form.Materials 2. Ratio of the two greater than unity is kriqwn as Partial Factor of Safety~ . beams. (b) Weights of finishes (c) Weights .1 .19. (c) Other loads • . as the characteristic loads •• 2. Weight of members of common sizes are given in Table 2. Such a value is known as Characteristic 'Value.2 of Author·s Handbook.:'able12 of Code.2 Loads and properties of materials constitute the basic parameters affecting the design of a R.2 Desip"Load It is given by Fde (F ) d Y f.(a) Dead load.C.5% 'probability of not being exceeded during the life time 'of the:Btructure..m 24 kN/cu. For· such a quantity of varying nature.structure. Both of them are basically of varying nature.a 20b/eu •• 78. etc. ~ .. The various types of loads acting on the structure which need consideration in building d~si8n are as follows: .. It 'can be determined using statistical probabilistic principles from the mean value and standard deviation..0£ partitions.2. However. a single representative value. and Yf • partial safety factor for load (>1) For values of Y f' 2. 2.m 25 kN/cu..walls. grills etc.1 Dead Loads It includes (a) Self weight. The unit weight of materials.1 : Deail Loads . refer to I.1. The value id be taken in design which·prQvides appropriate or desired margin' of safety is known' as Design value.1.columns.5 kII/eu•• 10 kJi/eu. it is necessary to arrive at. (a) unit Weight of Materials: Material Asbestos sheets Brickwork ConcretePlain ConcreteReinforced Unit Weight 140160 kN/sq." Loads and . plaster Steel Water Unit 1Ie1ght 1618 kJl/cu.1. decided in the past using the principle of equivalent load giving the same 'maximum effect and which are based on past experien~e and judgement.2.m Material Earth Mortar.m Table2. DlTRODUc.rIOlf: DEFllfI"lIO}JS Chapter.m 20 kN/cu.1 and 1. Fk where Fk  characteristic load.1.grills.10 • .11 or Table 1. For details. walls. 2.Code recommends to take working loads or service loads.J..
parapets 'i..HOweve~.5 to 2.200+25 lUll ~ 150 am .2 Live Loads Live loads on roofs and on floors are taken according to I5:875..2.1 to 2.5 kN/sq..Grills.s.00 4.5 to 7 kN/m approx.8 kN/sq. Separate load shall be taken for lofts in rooms projecting outside the valls.5 S 3 3 metres 13.m) + live load . 15 U/a 9 \tNt.14 Loads and Materials of Building Components Chapter 2 (b'1~'Unit Weight r.. (800. and for lofts OVer sanitary blocks • J '~]Not.morter bed.6 kN/sqa (600 kg/sq.' f Formula 25bD kN/m (b & ':25D kN/m/m (D 20B kN/m/m (B 25t kN/m/m (t D in metre).m) + floor finish.salso.3. These are .unde~eath ceiling plaster .Depth 300 .< ctiU.2. 2.825 kN/sq •• ( 82.m) for stairs = 10 kN/sq~m (1000 kg/sq.2 : lifeigltts of lfellbers .kg/sq.75 3.mm 140 150 160 130 180 200 100 110 120 Weight in kN/m 2..5 kN/sq.00 3.'slabs. 2 to 5kN/m approx. normaily~there are no ~indowsin internal walls and reduction in load due to . Columns.125 kN/sq. 900 IBID 4 3 12 kN/m 9 kN/m 5 15 kN/m 1 to 2.5 metres. no such reduction may be made in internal walls because.m reduction may be made in weight of grill for' openings • 2) Some deSigners a+low appropriate reduction in wall load for large openingsln external "'al1.00 Wall / of Q~~ .Depth 300 .50 5.150+25 IIDl .50 2..m Roof finish including weight of waterproofing course.150+25 _ . ~~Slab Depth in.50 3. of Solid Concrete Blocks including plaster of Hollow Concrete Blocks including plaster of Brick including plaster Beams and Columns 225. . in metre) in metre) in metre) D b width of beam/column Depth of beam/column or B = width of wall [ slab t = thickness of parapet = = (c) Weights of Finishes: Floor finish including weight of ti1e. given in Table 2. :1) Appropriate •> rableo2.. (9 to to to (4t+lt") +1 to) 600 .5 kN/m apprpx.225+25 .m) which consists of~~ weight of 125 mm (5") thick slab .the total loads are roughly taken as'fo11ows: for rooms . ~for rooms ..5 kg/sq.m for sanitary blocks (Indian type) '1.' . fixtures cupboards .m (312. residential buildings with spans less than 3.5 kN/.»~am.25 3. DUD wide 300 mm wide ISO mm wide Not. 900 .Depth 300 Heightl metre 4.p~rt:~~t ~I.m).3 below. Brick walls R.shelves etc.75 to 1 kN/sq. .door openings is offset by increase in wall loads due to wall mountines. ~for cantilever balconies . 2.75 4. 0..5 kg/sq.C.0 kN/sq •• (200 kg/sq.200+25_ .: '" i.m).: For Thickness ..~~.
which J entire length of beam.badrooms and private ) total load of 2. factories.. } ndent cantilever steps.. } . hospital wards. office entrance 3000 ) times the val~es in ) column 3 for any givhalls and reading rooms. ) distributed on the floors or places of assembly with fixed ) entire a~ea of the seating..30 iN conceotrated to overcrOltid • ing ) load at the unsupported Stairs. gross weight : Slabs Beams Floors used for garages tor vehicles not exceeding 40 kN gross weight. Balco. and for all other ) of structurally indepeclasses.iniaum of ) one and a b4. workshops.::.waiting halls etc... are lacking. 5000 Floors of warehouses..2 Table2. 7500 }Subject to a .. . ) The Live Loada as per 7500 Floors of warehouses. circulatiog space in ) slab panel or the machineray halls. 4000 Shop floors used for the display and sale 4000 ) en beam. Stairs Stairs.times the values in Sitting rooms in hostels & dormitories 2500 Office floors other than entrance halls.1f t:illles ) maximum wheel load but ) not less than 9 kit .Nlm1 (3) Alternative Minimum Live Load (4) )ot actual wbeel loads )whichever is greater.3 : Live Loads an Types of Loads. ~ 1 .restaurants. public rooms in hotels..m~ 41 Class 2000 loading but not liable ) 1. )This 'total load shall of merchandise. power stations etc. ) are given in 10000 Floors of warehouses. factories 7500) IS : 875 (Part 2) • 1987 and other buiidings or parts of buildings ) of similar category for medium weight loads.bination Floors used tor garages exceeding 2S 4000 '2500 2000 )Subject to a minimum Floors in dwelling houses. "'2500 J column 3 for allY giv"'4000') en slab panel and 6 floors of light workrooms.Balconies not liable to overcr~ding J nies For class 2000 loading 3000 ) For all other classes 5000 ) Balconies liable to overcr~ding 5000 ) "'The l~er value of 2500 Nlm~ should be taken where storage facilities are ~~Ovided and the higher value of 4000 Nlm~ should be taken w.floors of class rooms in schools. ) floors of book stores and libraries. 3000 Floors of banking halls. are not occupied by plant or equipment. kN Garage Light _ tor .factories 10000) Appendix. Type of Floors (2 ) Minimum Live Load. landing and corridors for 5000 ) end of each step for Class 2000 loading but liable to ) stairs constructed out overcrowing. vehicles not Jor the worst ca. floors of places of assembly without } Note: fixed seating. tenements. office floors for storage and filing purJ poses.:.dered to be dutribu} ted over 7 SO . landings and corridors for JOoo )Subject to a .floors of workrooms gene) be assumed uniformly rally. workshops.here such Jlrotfiso:u.. workshops.Sect. roofs J of pavement lights over basements project) lng under the public footpath.5 ) . dance " } halls.]. 5000 ) and other buildings or parts pf"buildings J ) of similar category for light weight loads.5 Floors {according to IS:87S:l964} Loading Class (1) 2000 . .con) si. 2. G and other buildings or parts of buildings ) of similar category for heavy weight loads.
they shall carry maximum design load 1.onsideration shall be fully loaded (i.e. ABRArw. not considered. !'S(OLi'lL) {i 90l 1S(OlHl) 09·OL all other spans 3 Fig.S. the most critical of all. For buildings of less than 4 storeys'.3 (]UTICA!. (say s p an AB) For get~ing maximumregion of negative moment in any span..5(DL+LL) whe'n wind load "is' not considered.5(DL+LL) in limltarrangellent for lundllu" positive span .um negative MOMent in span only.Fig. 2 they shall carry Fli9 "d :2 ~ .of this book.2. .that span and all other alternate spans shall carry minimum load (I .axillu. c c .e .~' J 2. are required to be considered and"'the structure is designed 'for. theel~nts are requi~edto be des~gned for critical ~ombination or dead load and live load only. See Fig.Code prescribes different load factors as given below. the wind load and earthquake load are the main loads required to be considered in building design especially when.noruU. . maximumdesign load 1.and there will be minimum load ( . (c) aax:lmum support shear. Note: The attention of readers is invited to the fact tbat'because of purely transitory nature. in limit state method ). 2. dead load (. .aud minimum10ads.1 under consideration loading for and all other alter_. ..9DL) Loading arrangement t or maxi.o wind is less than the allowance given in design by the Code.9DL) and all remaining spans shall carry maximumdesign loads (i. of wind. Such cases occur. normally when the number of storeys ..(b) maximumspan lIoaent and. Dl + Lt 0'9 L For maxlmumspan .2.1.interested in determination of <a) maximum support moment. in the earlier section. Design of building for parthquake is also outside the scope. In case of design of beams and siabs. code allows 33% increase In permissible stresses in working stress design when effect of wind is considered~ln limit state design the factor for design load is reduced to 1. momentJ the span Fig. !DAD COMBINArIONS.9DL) on all other spans. two spans adjacent to support under c.2 (DL+LL+WL) when wind load is co~sidered. ( i.16 Loads and Maf.oment (say span AB) state design) and 0"90l. as against 1.S (DL+LL) .~}:ais i Chapter 2 Besides dead load and' live load. Since. negative moment at· support A according to Code '. See . the height of'buildlng exceeds two times thedimeiisions transyerse to exposed\wind face.th~ action of wind is. For deciding critical load arrangements.9 DL (minimum LL being zero) Critical LoadiDg Arranaewmta : c . .e· . O.5(DL+LL) .·s (Dltll)()90l l S(Ol+U)090l fully loaded.See Fig.5(DL+LL».7 ~ . A B will carry minimum .all load combinations . 2.EKENrS Atm PAUIAL .e. Maximum load w R 1.. For further details.ingeneral. L 0""'0' . wind load is not considered.4 of Author's Textbook. Wind load is not critical in buildings of height upt04 storeys' and wh~~h have walls in bothdirections in between columns and' beaas .For this. we are . refer to Sec. the scope of this book is restricted to design of such buildings only. " For maxim~ support moment and maximumsupport shear. As discussed .. we are requl"red to use maximumand .2.2.3._. . Minimumload w = 0.{ ) 0 n.· ·the dead load of a concrete structure is so large compared to wind load that tbeactual increase in stresses'due t.3. 08 lng . AFftY S f'AC'lORS While designing a structure.'c nate spans shall be 0'90t l5(Ol+ll) 090l .. since ·for buildings upto 4 storeys.exceed 4.
dry 450 250 250 150 100 a thumb nlfil 3.4 BEARING. the allowable bearing value shall be reduced by 50% if the water table is above or near the bearing surface of tbe soil. (b) For noncohesive soils. Loose coarse to medium sand. ~ .m kN/sq. Loose gravel or. hard or stiff 450 1. Medium sand compact and dry 4. Coarse sand compact and dry* 3. according given in Table 2. If the water table is below the bearing surface of the soil at a distance . #4)Cohesive soils are susceptible to long term consolidation settlement.. the picket shall be pushed vertically into the soil by the full weight of person weighing at least 70kg. bearing capacity of supporting red. the loose state shall be assumed to exist. The values of bearing capacity of different sof Ls. 2. In such areas. Black cotton soil or other shrinkable or expansive clay in dry condition(50%saturation) 5. Sand and Gravel 450 L kN/sq. *3)Dry means that the ground water level is at a depth not less than the width foundation below the base of the foundation.at least equal to the width of the foundation.Soils ~onCohesive Soils in Type of Soil Type of Soil Values Values in compact offering high resistance to'penetration when excavated by tools.sand gravel mixture.fills and madeup ground shall be deterained after investigation.4 below. no such reduction shall apply. No generalised values for safe bearing pressures can be giv~n for these types of soils. that is. Medium clay readily indented wi th 250 150 150 100 50 Not•• : (l)Increase or decrease the allowable bearing values as follows: (a) The allowable bearing values· may be increased by an amount equal to the weight of the material removed from above the bearing level. 2. Fine sand.m clay in deep bed.4 2.Code of Practice for Site Investigations for Foundatlons}shall be carried out and expert advice shall be sought. dry 5. CAPACITY OF SOIL Bearing Capacity of Soil 17 For designing the foundations. silt (dry lumps) easily pulverised by the fingures 6. Very soft clay which can be penetrated several inches with· the thumb. 2)Compactness or looseness of noncohesive materials may be determined by driving a wooden picket of dimensions 50X50X7~with a sharp point.4 : Safe Bearing Capaci~y of Different SOils soil is requito IS: 1904 are ~~# Cohesive. Soft clay indented with moderate thumb pressure 6. If the penetration of the picket exceeds 200m. Gravel. Fine sand. adequate site iDYeStigation (See IS:1892 .proportional reduction of the allowable bearing value may· be made.Sect. the base of the foundation. For intermediate depths of the water table. loose and dry ~~Softshale. S)The bearing capacities of peat. Moist clay and sand clay mixture which can'be indented with strong thumb pressure 4.2. Table2.
cube of size lSOmm.imen.8. New nomenclature M 15.(i.5.67 times the strength of concrete cube. the size effect.trength refer to Sect:. Thus.5 = 0.S.a single representative' value . state of stress in a mem:ber. ) & Partial safet¥ Fa~tor(y.Therefore.For sampling.lsarrived at using statistical probabilistic principles. testing and acceptance criteria.e.67fck/l. following three grades uf concrete are common.mm. namely. the c~cteristic strength of concrete ina member is taken as 0.curing aftercast'in..concrete is known by its compressive strength. Test specimens a re .18 Loads and Materials Chapter 2 2.e. M 25 for fck in kg/sq. and casting and.characteristic strength of concrete is defined as the test strength of . curing conditions for concrete in test specimen differ considerably from those of concrete in the member.Code. and = 1. of Concrete ia ffeaber : It may be noted that the strength of concrete cube does not truly represent the strength of concrete in member because "Other factors noted earlier. M 250 for fCk 2. Old nomenclature M 150.a cube (haVing hid ratio = 1 where h is height. Ym = 1. cubes or cylinders.2. Concrete is known by its grade which is designated as MIS.see Sect.f1:cations tbatthe test strength 1s a function of shape (hid ratio) and size of test speciaen.there is 95% probability of achieVing this value.5 for concrete. 20 etc.of size 150mm.2. In R. denotes thecharacteristic compressive strength of concrete (fCk) in N/mm2• Thus.at 28 days of age (28 BYS of .5 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 2..15 for steel. .8 of this book. M 200.For further details of obtaining the test strength under different conditions. (b) Characteristic strength of Concrete TestSpecimen . the state of stress in the specimen. For the procedure for determination of characteristic s.under uniaxial compression.normally . Design strength of concrete in member = O. Taking this into' consideration.and tbe age of curiogof tbe test specimen.1 Grade of Concrete .2 of Authors· Textbook. 10 India. the prism effect (ratio bId of the specimen).) The value of Ym depends upon the type (in facttreliability) of material and upon the type of limit state.the strength of concrete is also a quantity which varies considerably for the same concrete mix.) foe Mateeial Strength d The strength to be taken for the purpose of design 1s known as design strength and is given by Characteristic strength (fck) Design Strength (fd) = Partial Safty for material strength(¥. is taken as the t.2 Coapressive Strength Like load. (a) Characteristic strength (fkJ : It is defined as that value of the strength below which not more tban5% of the test results are expected to fal1. of the test specimen) .known as characteristic strength. or only 5% probability of not achieving the same).C. According to l. (c] Characteristic strength. and d is transverse dimension.work.2.cm.45 fck (f (d) Design Steength . (fL) CA : The strength of concrete is obtained by testing a concrete specimen of specified shape and size under specified condition.5. M 20.g)~ It may be noted from above speci. the shape effect. .refer to Sect. in N/sq.stspec. M20 etc in which letter M refers to concrete Mix and the number 15.
It. modular ratio Es/Ec changes with time.5 Creep It is defined as the continued deformation given by a creep coefficient defined by under sustained load.odulus of elasti~~ty of concrete takes into account the effect of creep and shrinkage and is given by Effect of the this reduction in Ec with time is to increase deflections and cracking with time. 2. Thus.t.and'hence concrete develops cracks. It depends mainly on the duration of exposure. it produces tensile stress in the concrete. According to the Code. shortterm days age is given by Ec (Ec ) of elasticity of concrete at 28 modulus N/sq. plays a very important role in liait state of serviceability and in calculations of deflection and cracking.5. therefore.5. working stress method which takes single value of modular ratio m does not represent the true strength and behaviour of concrete members.mm = 5700 Ifck 2.7l'fek N/sq. Since.it also occurs to the extent of 75% of total or ultimate shrinkage strain within first 6 months and remaining 25% in remaining 4t years.) 2.iee of . the effect of creep and shrinkage is to reduce the modulus of elasticity of concrete with time.mm 2. Practica1ly.7 LoQatera _MOdulus of Elasticity (Bee> I J As seen earlier.in Ecr' 0. It is further noted that as Ec changes.6 times the initial elastic strain at 28 days. value of ultimate creep coefficient is 1.e 19 2.Code gives ultimate shrinkage stra. Ecs The loS. If this strain is prevented.Sec 2.5.5 Frop ert. the longterm .ee/ £i It is e :II creep strain/Elastic Creep strain £ec depends primarily on the duration of sustained loading.5.3 Tensile Strength (f cr ) The flexural tensile strength or the modulus of rupture strength of concrete as given by the Code is as follows: fer or Fhe cracking = O. the modulus of elasticity of concrete is reduced (and thus the modulur ratio Es/Ec increases with time. the effect of creep is to increase the total strain (£t+€ce) keeping the stress unchanged. Therefore. which means that the total creep strain after 5 years is 1.75% of the total creep occurs in first 6 months and 100% in 5 years.Conc r et. Just like creep..6 Shrinkage It Is defined as the volumetric contraction under zero stress.0003.5. .6.. strain .4 Shortterm Modulus of Elasticity According to the Code.The shrinkage is measured by shrinkage strain.
I~.5 : Ifodulus of Elasticity of Concrete iUJtl Ifodular Ratio a ebc MIS 5 22075 8490 9.4. This value of m takes into account only partially the effect of creep and shrinkage. .0035. The meth~ of of concrete mix design is given In I5:10262 1982.002 and straight line line beyond with a constant value ~f stress upto an ultimate (crushing) strain of e..1:. Curve 4 is idealised curve for design strength of concrete in member.O.5.t:urve 1 is actual curve for characterisUc cube strength~ Curve 2 Is idealised curve for characteristic cube strength.. fc . E fig.45fcd(2£c/ECy)(E:c/ECy)2]. Cu . water) so that the resulting mix has proper workability for placing and gives the desired strength.33 Curve F The typical ~tressstrain curve for concrete issbown in Fl.2. The shortterm modular ratio is based on Ee = 5700~ and 10ngterm modular ratio is based on Eee = Ee/(1+6).However.and.•.Code recommends the value of m = 280/(3XGebc) where aebe = permissible stress in Concrete in Bending Compression..ID lID: ~ The structural desi&ner specifies the strength and properties of concrete assumed in design.6 COIfCR. I s~ I 045 fck o Straifl_ I 35 €cu. 2.67 13.. _.0.40 N/mm2 Shortterm Longterm Shortterm Longterm Ee Eee WSM 18.The equation for the parabolic partis given by . Curve 3 is idealised curve for characteristic strength of concrete in members.sand.ients making concrete (namely.fe 450 Ec(l250X£c)*fC:k 111  .ceaent.lthere Ecy. it is conveniently being done by volume.f.. (b) By adopting· nominal concrete mix..lised curves are parabolic upto a strain 0.06 23..coarse aggregate.8 Modu1a~ Ratio (m) I~ is the ratio m = Es 1 Ee where Es = modulus of elasticity of steel = 2XI05 N/mm2 (2XI06 kg/cm2) Ee = modulus of elasticity of concrete. ..  Concrete Modulus of Elasticitq of Concrete Modular Ratio Grade Table2.6.9 Stre8sStr~ H20 7 25490 9805 7.for small routine jobs..002 ••' . For working stress design. 2.85 20.5. (a> By designing concrete mix..I. such a concrete is called Design mix concrete.. the quantities of concrete constituents for 1 cu..4 Str&$$Strain Curve for Conc:r. Normally. For general guidance.. The proportioning is done by any of the following ways. it is desirable to proportion the ingradients by weight..S.m of compact concrete are given in Table 2.56 2.20 Loads and Materials Chapter 2 2. The engineer is required to proportion the various ingrad. . such a concrete is called Nominal mix concrete • The fo~mer is used for large and important works while the later is used for medium type routine concrete construction with concrete grade lower than H20.
.m broken stone cu.5m .m 0..eBn strength and standard deviation. The sampling sl~ll be spread over the entire period of concret. the Code lays down certain requirements for sampling.o 0. 15 M ~~'~.0 Cement in bags 6.days and it shall be kept in forms tilrthe concrete attains the strength of a~ least twice the stress to which the concrete would be subjected at the time of removal of. Also.o f!m ii) spanning over 6m DET!'JlMIKAtIOli OF CIWlACTElUSTIC 1 Walls.te Quant.c. Assumptions :(a) Voids..upon the nature of work. For exampl~.number of test specimens to be taken.onstituents per Cu~mof COmpacted Concrete Curing Period by Volrme 21 1 I ~~Mix .7. each concrete batch has reasonable chance of being tested. and importance of the location of the component Beaber from the viewpoint of stress condition. 0.7 : Stripping Time for Striking of Fo~rk ~ . . the formwork. The minimum frequency of sampling of concrete of each grade at each t~e shall be decided from volume of concrete as shown in Table 2.410 Sand moist Coarse Aggregate in cu. 2 Slabs (props left under) J Beam soffits (props left under) 4 Removal of props under slabs i) spanning upto 4.In normal circums~ances. broken stone 45%.425 M20 Water/cement Rat:i.55 0.m 0. period of 7. 2 8. i) .42 Water.The frequency of sampling will depend.854 0.r'nsand 40%.50 0.8. {b) Bulking of moist sand = 20%.aken so that. and where ordinary portland cement is used . specific gravity of cement = 3.6 ': Appco1CillliJ. and the formula relating characteristic strength with .5 kN (50 kg).aken at random in case of continuous concreting with the same mix. 2. .the props under the cantilever beam shall be removed starting from free end of. '.spanning upt. ~~CDlUHG PERIOD AND STRIPPING TIME· FOR STlUlaNG .1 Sand dry in cu.~~24 to 48 hours as decdded by the engineer incharge 3 days 7 days 7 days 14 days 14 days 21 days 2. Table2.824 27.Sect.)(a) Salapling : The samples may be t.it_ies of Cl?ncrete .ing and lIIaybe t.in litres/bag 21. The props under the slabs and ~eams shall ~e removed in such a sequence as to effect the same type of structural action and support condition as envisaged in design.forms may be reaoved after the expiry of the periods given in Table 2.8 S'l'REIICTII For determining the characteristic strength of concrete. 5 Removal of props under beams.51 0.•.5 Notes: 1) Weight of one bag of~ement = 0.7 OF FORHWOJU( ) The concrete after casting shall be cured under moist condition for a minimum. 2) . 2.procedure for determining the standard deviation (representing workmanship of concrete manufacture. ~~Member Period columns and vertical faces of all structural members.5m ii) spanning over 4. the volume of concrete. and arches. c'antilever towards the fixed end sequentially.1.7 Table2. it will be appropriate to have higher rate of sampling and testing at the earlier part of the work to ~stablish level of confidence in the quality of concrete at the earliest.
(ff. 1 2 3 4 4+x Where x is the number based on the rate of one' additional sample for each additional volume of 50 cu...7 N/sq.em 3. if: has a test 8treugt~not less than the characteristic value.~~~ .5 . the code prescribes the followi~ values for atandarddevfat.mean value of n number of' test results.15+1.average or mean streegth f. for getting fCk .15+1.64 5 where f.or of one or more saaples.8fek.. or part there of. " sample of concrete for testing strength at 28 days~ Additional specimens may be made for other tests like 7 days test or modulus of rupture test.Staadard'deviatinn in N/sq.m.65/...where ~each (b) TestSpeciaen : Minimum of three test specimens shall be made from Minimumnumbercof samples. r • " rable2. in . but shall not be less than the greater of fCk .1. though less than the ' characteristic each case.35 5 and O.l:J2 I '{n~15 8' .) fn.64 is the value corresponding to acceptable probability of 5 % for nonachievement of the value of fc«" Thus ..The average strength of 'the 3 specimens shall be called the' sample test strength.m.64x3. standard deviation..Lon ...1IlID. aad it can be accepted as concrete of grade M15. 19. = mean strength.22 Loads and Materials Chapter 2 Quantity 'of:Concrete work in cu.f»53/ ... . .1.rn) x5 (b) The concrete shall be deemed not to comply with the strength requirements if: (1) the strength of any sample is less than the greater of (fet . and the average value of all tlie samples is not less tban ' fCk + (l.64x2. .. .f. fc} ~andard Deviation : For determination of standard deviation.The individual variation shall not be more than ±15 % of the ~verage.fCk +1... 15 615 1630 3150 Above 50 . tbe required f. S . 4 S 6 For example.1 N/sq . 9 ': Stadlard DeViation for'Concrete ~tlJ ~.5 .mm. +·(t.1n).S 'r (a) The concrete (1) every sample (Uhhe strength value is. In absence of sufficient test' results.35 S) and 0. = 1r.5 N/sq.. .· ".2 .nd conslstancy in workmanship Is observed. devia·tion·bf: t'est result from mean .8fck . . However. required f. Exact acceptance criteria as presc'r1bed by the Code are given Itl subsequent section. s .mm for MIS grade.red from the same mix •.1. standard deviaion will be The obtained from the following relation: .15 N/sq. at least 30 test results areirequf.5 shall be deemed to comply with the strength requirement. required to let the lIesired characteristic strength fet is given by f. (d) Characteristic ~reugtlJ : It is given by the relation fek .etc. and 1.651. the standard deviation obtained from these records may beallowed. or (ii)the average strength of all the samples is less than fe . Concrete Grade JU5 When past records of siml1armlx or grade exists a.20.. if past records assure a standard deviation of say .
}: above but has a strength greater than that required by (b) above. the Bars used as reinforcement following types • . 2.available in the above three grades.2 %0 proof stress).strength in N/sq. is = Es.S.Cold twisted bars. .2 sect.nd the a number following it represents. Reinforcing steel is known usually of round bars. commercially manuf~ctured under trade name "TORsteel" and conforming 'to IS:1786.5 l:.1985 IS : 1786 .:ous me. (whether plain or deformed).10 I I ) Properties . lugs on their surfaces. Belation : . as needed. refer to Table 2.sper..10(b) below. 1 (c) Concr. and the reinforcementt consisting by the type of bar.ifi~~ in ~Ga._ :.2% proof stress 1s consiE dered cas yield stress.5.mm Type Grade of Steel Fe250 Fe41S FeSOO Releva1!t I. in R.S... steel is commerciallY.2%) at B fig .' (d) If the concrete is deemed not to comply the.abovet the structural adequacy of the affected part shall be investigated .2. 2]. guaranteed yield . f c) structural SpeciE ications: Bar Table2. See Fig. " < .S.00144. . . .1139.Es • For steel of grades Fe 415 and FE" 500. for the different grades of ._. Stress 250 415 500 elongation at failure Cede fd} ~ressStrain HYSDToR40 HYSDToR50 M.% .1982 IS : 1786 .ete which does not mect the r equf. curve at the origin.remeut.· They are available in two types. HYSD bars have ribs. requirements of (b).bycore test or load test and consequential action.  t The minimum yield stress (or 0. fbI Type of Bars : '. . Stram __ stress corresponding to the point of intersection of the stressstrain curve and the line BC drawn from a residual (tnftial) strain of 0. as.~.he engineer in charge.constructionare available in. 'Round 23 14..10 PROPERTIES OF REINFORCING STEEL by its grade. fs = Es.. It is that value of the .available steel are given in Table2. and Fe500 where r Fe' stands forF:err. ~ ii) High Yield Strength Deformed (HYSD) bars (of grades Fe415 and FeSOO). .i) Plain round bars of mild steel (grade Fe. is known (a) Grade of steel: I I I I Grade of steel is known by its characteristic yield strengtqand i&designated as Fe250.pre·At sent.Hot rolled bars conforming to I.tal. E . and hence 0.e.and . For strains above . Fe415. taken~ .Es upto a strain of .2. shall be.• 00144.lJ!III.1985 For steel of grade Fe 250. . . 2.10(a) for ready reference. I .C •. *N/sq.The HYSD bars do not' exhibit a well defined yield point. may be accepted as being structurally adequate without further testing.It . at the discretion pf t. the minimUlllpercentage elongation at fallure~ ultimate stress etc. 0. StressStrain of and parallel to the line OA which is tangent to the HYSO hers. IS 412 .002 (i.'~ ? of ~ steel .10(a) : Specifications Yield of Reinforcing Bars Nin.250).
l1 360 .27 III 3.' 352.17 259 347.96 302.89 254 346.52 332 356.~~141 282.14 255 346.32 113 312.29 217 3J1.37 3~ .86 312 354.29 294 353.313 355.~' '".62 .50 288.68 188 322. E:sxl0 e .23 154 298.  str. 5 '5 .J'? 200 .02 267.20 26) J.79 334 356.45 353 358.199 In..64 338 J57.34 342 357.32 2.06 286 3S2.66 2113)8 190 323.ilvesOL It J S ~~~~~~~e.30 340 351.59 147 291.31 US.65 321 .17 194 325..33 152 296.85 369 359..35 3.91 303.44 151 295.67. / . 1.45 311..64 J01.51 167 168 169 170 309. .77." 211 3'1.04 351" 358.70 27.49 268 349.55 176 177 178 179 314.01 303 354.11 292 353. £. .~.42 347:358.15 213 332.J2 .70 289.69 310 35'4.10 349 358.6D ' 314 355.51 . JS1.75 345 357.01 301354.81 162 305.71 265 348. £. 3Si7 35'.12 333.09 297 353.92 3~ .74 323 355.64 298 353.00 .57 343 357. .37 295 .10(bj:·':: ''t.53 195 325·...B2 223 336.61 333 356.91 258 347.40 378 J60.20 309.31 330.19 111 311.2.34'.54 358.86 250 345.56 175 314.322 355.39 269'350.81 380 360..06 316.45 .54 .XIO f.51 271.BO 217 l51~19 nt_3S2.1 142 243 2.88 215 33i.22 339 357.91 324 356. lSl.Chapter 2 f'l!ible2. 1 4 21lt 352...2DS 329. 321.22 262 348.17 27)351.24 Loads and "Materials .49 149 293.H4 359.4 3'1.67 367 359.4 316.34 .. 351.C) 24.66 333.1.00 2JIJ 33e.'8.31 334."1 319 355.2f 362 359.~fs'.94 201 .63 253 345.68 331.49 23J J3' ••' 271 350.18 184 319.Xl0 f.81 300 353.4.40 291 353.66 344 357.90 .13 232 Jl'.355.02 2" 352.o :fs I .97 266 J49.26 & 1J1 3J'. 142 143 144 145 284.09 247 344.86 193 325.93 301 353.07 1.80 .lSD •.76 329 356.49 261 J47.14 376 360.)110 fa .11 202 328.82 310.4.11 "55.0 2 360. 208 209 210 330. 3.94 290 353....10 326 356. 62 .94 360_.43 260 347.i.5~.96 336 357.1SS 358.89 153 291.47 203 328._JfDr dHferent va1ues·of~·'Straj~s for' steel « cz.56 183 319..74 346 357.24 J65301.12 156 257 158 159 160 300_.43 122 J.65 182 318.29 ~60."1«1.71 356358.44 330 356.94 221.38 148 292. .91 :U'~Q~ J18 355.56 "4 264 lel.81 31S.57 2" 238 U:1.21 316 355.06 216 331.17 155 299.46 370 360.19 309 354.46 302 354.93 186 321.35 334.84 204 l2t~21 ..18 212 332.92 30& 354.06 343.10 181 317.69  220 335.74 201 328.03 ~74.lSI) 358..75 163 306.82 261 J52.·19 ." 320 355.5' 6' 2.60 249 344.04 33~1. 256 346.19 125 3.18 327 356.95 166 308.11 ·251 345. lOS 3S4.59 24' UJ •• 3 246 34'.02 311 372 373 374 375 272 312. 215)52.." 321.05 293 353.53 191 324.~5 .95 .50 J65 359.72 299 353.12 315 355.90 1U 340.06 360 359.90 337 357. 27())50.26 328356. 287 352.50 352.54 150 294.66 359.15 161 304.30 286.1 206 329.36 352 358.17 192 324~80 . J35.33 240 34}.32 363 359.81 185 320.60 J4J. £sxl0 fs £s](10.30 189322.60 348 358. 308 354.70 2" J52.59 361 359.54 27")5.69 180 317.·$6 358 l58.5 .275 ..30 3.20 331 356.46 296 353.51 214 332.02 301..23 2'JJtO .41 2B.72 319 360. Fe 415'.37 360.85 289 352.84 146 290.94 174 313.353. 1 ' .39 196 326.37 191 326 ..lS.99 ' 341 357.248 3".SS 317 360.00 356~09 359 359./IIfl.16 304 354.2s 216 217 218 219 252 345.07 301.76 368 359.36.70 211 331.28 187 321. 138.87 335 356.98 257 346.
~ . Law fa :..ruc tura! Mechanics which includes Mechanics of rigid bodies (i.e·. t 1 ! .al1able.~r1t:~~. (1. .e.1..e.for whiCh .e.of de'foimatlcin.these . ee) Strain Energy Method. 'e (2) Limit Analysis based on Plastic Tlieory or'Ultimate""LOad' ·Tbeor.:ellethod..mechanics .i. bendingmom:erit~.twlstirig ' moment etc.and the Limit analysis is used in UltiUte Load or Ultimate strength Method of design (ULM)..Defor. under the act Ion of given external loads. . . 111. (a) Stiffness Method. (iii)Matrix Methods: .he lana Lys Ls of the struc'ture~i. (b)Cantilever Method.tructure in the sense that they do not affect the analysis.BooI. tbod (iv) CoIIlputer Methods: (a) Matrix Method.e.membersar·~. (b) Kani's Method. more suitable for band calculations when the computer is not a. (b) Slopedeflectioa MedIo4.ut1c ADa1ya1. (1i) Relaxation IIterative Methods: (a) Me.1 .itd\~~~d~S'igned.'~rl~~'!3 . However. in the component metnbers. In this section.etbolla 1Ib1ch are . (c::)Pinite D1ffere. Normally.~)'atld theory of structures '(i..':f~. be brief11' ly reviewed ~ \ 3. '" . (1) Elastic Analysis baaed on Elastic Theory. This proceas requires "the ~c)wledge of St.the Limit State Method of design includes design for ultiaate limit state at which' ultimate load theory applies. The latter is a method of analysing a structure . '"1 '. one should not get c~nfused between the limit state philosophy of design and limit analysis. It· is based on the £ollOWiuca. 3.ent Distribution Method...e:: d~iei:mfba~ffon'.at collapse. tlon.: lf~ !t • The different approaches to structural atUilysis are given ·below'.s i I_: of ~Jt I'.el~tioIi b4!tween farce and displacement is linear. (b)Finite Eleaent Method.' the elastic analysis is used in Working Stress '(or permissible stress) Method of design (WSM).ptioua. (1) I.'0 i:~.both these approaches of structural a~lysiS. mechanic's of forces) . (v) Approx1aaate Methods: (a> Substitute Prame Method.. thus requiring'study of both the theories. A' brief review is taken of s true:tural 'analysis"tb ntt:resh' ~the basic principles. ..mechanics of deformable' bodies(i. Elastic 'analysis'deals With the study of strell8th and bebaYlour· of the ___ bers and structures atworkiugloada. (c)Portal ~ (vi) Coefficient Method With the availability and easy access to computers.of the internal forces like axial :compression.l.1 \ 'J~~~ .~ .\_~~#'~I~·J!r~. At the same time. and also for service state at lIfhich elastic theory applies.aly~. ':r>. '. _L. Methods of elastic analysis can be broadly classified as UDder : (i) Classical Kethpds: (a) Method of Consistent . the above ~ w11l now be divided into two major groups.1 Bl. the science 'dealing with response 'structural1.J~f~~~r.I~ This chapter deals with t. ~. .yStem to external loads).':'. (b)llexlbility Method.1 METHODS ANALYSIS OF .' . applicable~' (ii)Displacements are extremely small compared to tha seometry 'of ~.shear._: . First group includes· those. . (c)PID1te El~ . while the former is a method of design for different limit states •.
s nec. . Hom. ""The. at fixed ends A and . ".lent's c makf. When the JIlaxlmum.{ Thus.thOds are suitable .h~ ..oct¢~~~'l! (.~~lt. .re.It must be borne 1n mind that this ultimate state is never allowed to be reached by the use of appropriate safety factors.i'ffne~s .: '.e .g. Thlsti9~3. ..imate.ely necessary to know ~be exact margin of safety.. the.lstent . the moments at the fixed ends remain unchanged as t he beam section at these locations cannot offer any additional" resista. .of R. Let the load at this stage be Wl and ~IA = ~8 = w. J'. :&ra.~th...tic material like .developed at this seetior ~ due to plastificat·lon ofconcl:'.s the working load cQ:nsider..red. Computer is cons ide..v. limit ana}.e frame method for analysis of . ii:<ed.!use of .na~ysing a buildit1$. __ .d .. which is gradually increased t. .....the knowledge of ~. .C.~ Capacity of the beam. . plastic hinge is .~Sub~titute Frame Me. Ly converts a iixed beam into a hinged beam (Le.redistribution of moments. a statically p indeterminate ~ea~ into a statically determinate beam). or ultimate load.~cal loads. is very common in buIlding design for analysing simple ·frames and s tandard ebeaaasuch as cantilever. The load Wu causing collapse Is cnown as . andcontin~ous beams and single baysingle acoreyed r~ctat. the load safety ~. The:Coefficient Method or the approach of determining th~ design forces (e.ou~o~ a s1mply. Since the scope .3 storeyed buil_«iog.f!Jr.4 . .!rsorily reviewed in the next subsection. :KpprOlCi1Dlite 'Methods.• . When. . The ultimate load wu...1..1~ 1.behaviour at collapse is absolut. ' • It is an analysis 4eaUng 'With tbe s"t:Udy 0·£ stre'QIth and bebav1our .ceQ.e ..~f the methods requiring the .e$made 'up of perfectly.se t. ..ll collapse occurs.of this book is restricted to design of G+.and erackl1l8 .t..ysis or theulti. hers and structure at c.) by use of coefficients available for standard loading cases.he... axial loads etc.st . The beam section is so designed that.the Cantilever Method and the Portal ~thod are su. Considl!l' . ~u • ~ult/8 •.collapse 19ad" .behavlour~ .~i.duall'Y io.5 as. ~ of concrete accompanied by yielding of steel . and' .<!sed on ultimate load theory for structures of reinforced concret.But this does not"cau.(iii) and (Lv) above come under this group. and carrying a uniformly distributed load.ete 1n eo!ltpresdon. beam·to collapse.•It Is based on plastic theory for st:ruet:ur....f~~r~S.. simply supported.are presented in Appendix B1.~~l~<li:ng~.:steel. I I slabs. the df scuss Ion is lim! ted co ~seof subat f tut.1s t·a~eD.it develops an ultimate moment capacity ~vr equal to ~u. ases~the coeiflc.oment at fixed ends reaches t~e ultimate moment capacity ~ur of the section (say at ·StageI) plastic binges develop.1. I J ~.1 divides the beam into two sepents and causes the beam to ~18 c:lllapse.i. framef0X:.9p~$.essary to know the.proximate methods using st. Use . bending moments..Deformations. at both ends A.26 Analysis Chapter 3 . .ollaps.nce.5 time.~s~.atelo~4 analysis .lllomen~.'.U/12 = :1ur' The corresponding moment at midspan at thIs stage is JUSt W1L2/24. However.C • .of Ap..b~.. Matrix Methods and Computer"Methods described in~arts ... the cennre reaches the uft.~~ruct~t'es·.jy~rt. ..ndetertainatebeam a beam f Lxed.in tension. r. frq. . _ ~. pias.illt Dbtribution Method.e..: of .~l..t 1.B. the maximum :noment ~u at.. ' .e. 'See_ fig. and Coefficient )~Iet~od come under this group.  ...· aq4 :. . Since in maQ. hu~ the mo~ent in the span region lncreases.choic·e in des~s~: ·oJ R...' . 3. shear. Thus.itable(or analysing the ef fec ts of horizontal loads .l'heir coeff1cients. Kanl's Method.I. additional load Is resisted .equal to 1. Now consider the behaviour of a statiCAlly 1.actoras prescribed by the Code.B.l'CuLar load." ' 'J. .beha. .. Load Lug•. $u:ppcn:"t~beam s~bjeet.. second t8. ..ofwhichis character1sed by crushing of concrete and yielding of steel at collapse. wpile it 1s b. at a ..use ·of computers.and redistribuCion of moment$~ This is..tberefor.lgular '( po!ta~.. On loaairtg further..building frames for ve rt Ica.on frames.. It s .approach on Personal.). ..' '.j)al:c:.cr:eaE!1ng uniipcmly d1stt"ibut~ load.c.while .
W1L2/12 = wuL2/16 or wu . > wuL2/S In brief.~rea. Mur = WUL2/8 .1.wuL2/12 at support instead of wuL2/16 while the moment at midspan will be just wuL2/24 instead of wuL2/16.te a. This can be seen in ease of • continuous beam designed for . This" load causing collapse is known as ultimate load wu. (3) It reduces steel required at 8upports.dM/2) in' the midspan moment. econoaieal.~s. if the limit analysis is not used and the redistribution of moments is not to be allowed.1 2 Redistribution of MDMnts .A mechanism is said to have formed which leads to collapse of the beam...eat for a Simply supported beam. for beam subjected to uniformly distributed load. there is an increase in load carrying capacity of a statically indetermi~ate beam by 33 % . (5) It not only reduces the moment' at support but.I 1 I Sect.. limit analysis involves the process ofredistributionof moments which allows the designer to take design moment at support less than that obtained fig. 3.at supports..3.' . (2) Equalisation of span aoment and support moment gives better distribution of moments and reinforcement· detailing across the length of the ~. This would obviously be uneconomical because of higher value of absolute maximum moment.. the sum of the support . ". A stage is reached when the bending moment at midAB$.1.oments subject to following conditions.27.33w.. ches a value Muc=Mur when a third hingeis developed at C~" This c:auses3iidlilsion of beam into two segments AC and CB with rotations occurring "a~A.e. maximum moment diagram obtained by consideration of all possible loading arrangements.in. avoids. But MuA = Hur. (4) Increase in the span moment helps to take advantage of the flance action of the beam at midspan. it also does 80"& increase the design moment at midspan.eat envelope i.2 Limi t AnallJ!f:. and therefore. At this stage. many times.aximum moments decided by bending aa. M sup + Mspen .bYc'span region only).1. (1) Elastic Analysis for ultimate (factored) loads.e. the maximum moment at supports will be wuL2/12 according to elastic analysis and the beam will be required.Muc=MurwuL2/8HuA.(See ChapterJ of Authors' Text book).Hur or Mur = wuL2/16. Therefore.3.' the load required to be carried by the beam is still Wu. Thus. Design is.'·l The procedure for limit analysis involves the following. Thus.. (a) Equilibrium shall always be maintained i.oment and" the span moment shall never be less than the maximum span .MuA 1sa180 equal to.. This analysis is known as Limit analysis which involves rearrangement called redistribution of moments along the span of the beam from Diagram I to Diagram II prior to collapse as shown in Fig. therefore. Thus. to be designed for Hur . (ii)Redistribution of . B a~d C •. Therefore.• Statically lnter.wlL~/12. The redistribution of moment allows us to design the section for a single value equal to wuL2/16 only. Redistribution of moments has the following advantages: (1) Reduction in absolute maximum design moment and hence reductioa1D~roassection (depth in case of Blabs). It will be obse"rved that at collapse since HuA =Mue Mur =wuL2/16. by elastic analYSis with corresponding increase In span moment to maintain equilibrium. This leads to better concreting at the beaacoluan junction and increases the reliabl1i ty of the joint. a reduction in support moment by dM must be accoapanied by corresponding increase (. . congestion of steel . On the other hand.2.
The frame consists of a continuous oneway slabSl..2 ElASTIC .YSIS OF BUIlDING FIWIE .U.AmoUntof.0S·. 3. rather essential for resisting horizontal loads like wind' 'load or earthquake load.cation . beau Bl.7x1.C.d 'or xu.ln R. of loads and Typical Building F.ural frame of a building consists of.beaN B3.eJ¢ mealier uaaecount of effect .0.5. . n (d) The depth of neutral axis shall be . . 3.AMAi.sed loads aadactiona.MEW. therefore costly .. he structure .. xu. All the components of. the actual conditions differ widely from the 'conditions assumed in theoretical analysis. The approximate lu!thods are more than adequate. .lnterest. the design moment Mou shall· be less than.to failure of...28 AnalysLs Chapter 3 (b) ..84.. Elevat ion The approxillate methods are based on the principle of dividing ·. her ·1)f membera and nUllber of ri&id "oillts. design momentMou) shall not exceed prescr1bedpercentage given below. The resulting frame acts as one integral unit.• iraaas a whole. The design of such buildings does not demand the use of rigorous classical •• .aay COIlpoQ. This:is' required for satisfying the requirement. aetbods is Plan beyond the capac! ty of manUal/band caleulatloas. This enhaaces the reserve strength of the structur~ and elimioatesthe possibility of collapse of the stTUCture due . by Use of clusical.formulation wtll involve eonsi~eration of large number of unknown displacements and wIll I require . The solution Is also.. and supporting be~s . buildings. that floor. 2. the frame are usually cast together for~ng a monolithic construction.mproduces a moment of only IS1. The above simplifi. M at Since MEU l.:i'..5 MEW Le..aud aain .entire frame .bigbly statically inderminate.Mou> MEW.The continuity between. lim! ted to .s based on the fact that a load on a.:1s increased.uxwhichever is less. the reach of a cOllllon designer.~ ISl . . horizontal loads.~. In fact such <ri&orous computer analysis will be: required only for tall and unconventIonal Irregular structures. .f.:large computer meaory.or early. effect..Sxthe \Workingmoment MEw. The exact analy1S182 sis of. hI.ofaeabarsaru:l proper detailing enables to have rigid connections between the aesbe~ so that every.1n Limit state ..J_2.7 times the elastic moment· EU ultimate state. The rigidity of the connection is also desirable or.. For example. ~. '. a unit moment applied at one end joint of a continuous bea.. It call only be done by cOJDpUter_ Besides. MOU> 1. aeGberS. redistribution ( dM== Elastic momentl\JMeu' _ assumed.lna . nc\ beyond.Ia analysis..'1'he frame as· • whole conon [51 ~jSl 31 11) sists of a. of rotation capacity at a point where redistriDution of moment is done •.B.slabs .lilllH <""(O. ': it means that Mou>O.onolithically ISI with secondary. .the.ember acts integrally with the connected members. The monolithic cast.0£ loce. theta abo¥e and. Safety 'Of t:'bebuU ." .1 parts of.6dM/I00)..B2. ' 15 % in Working stress design. ~ into parts and analYSing only the Fig... A typical frame of a multlstoreyed building Is shown in Fig.10 % in case of mult~storeyed frames in which design is governed by. resistances of members far away from the member of interest.' :30 %..ny member and its stiftness hardly affect a·member which is two spans or two storeys beyond. Tbe _in .: and columns. 1. cast . ~I (c) 'Nowhere. The struct. .' 'l'he structure ~s....beam is cont1iluous ovPr c01_s aa4 is . disregarding the. floor and roof ..rigidly connected to IS1 Is1. Besides. the members help to distribltte the forces to large number of co~ted. .design \ ~:>.
s obtained .2. suitable for vertical loads. the su bs't It.only will be discussed here.ure frame method . 7%~t3rd _ r~e.t(§~:' .2 Subs~.eTop StQrey .21%~:ra1:i. 'much'affecting the accuracy.3.2b) is analysedfor the loads (vertical or horizontal) in the plane of the frame and is . Each plane frame (See Fig.2.2. Middle floor ~~~ . 'and also 2 5 9 13 3 7 11 15 4~ 6 10 8 12 16 ("t FIoOt 'I. "joint aiU:l~onfy 1:2% at 4'fli joiJ~:... Therefore~ as a first degree (or level) of approximation.2(cJ· PIM Fig.are on 'th~ safer' side. The approximate method.3.~ ~Zr 3T .boriou8.2{dJ Substitute flQCW Fr..The. is a three dimensional 'frame t..3.al efforts :t. 1~~ 2q_ Fi~.me·tbod of analysis is known is Substitute Frame Method.3.4 Roof III Fig. it is also not necessary (or not even justified) for the degree of accuracy required in R.. portions ~f the whole fra1l1e~'ktiown s Substitute Frames or Subframes principally cOI\slsting a of the members of interest and other adjacent members connected to it....!t:ut:e Fraaes : ADalysis for Verti~ Loads A building frame.2. See Fig. Since the' scope of this book is ]}estrictedto buldings of upto 4 storey height for which the effect of horizon·tal loads is not worth considering.therefore.2(aL The analysis of a space frame is'itompl~. construcLion. 1a. l~ .adopts some standardised small..i:hTheassuttfedapproximations 'r~uce the compu'tati<)n. in fact. and the reaul t..e... the three dimensional space frame is divided into a number of two dimensional plane frames.o)a:gf~af extent without. a space frame.\nexf second joint.3.2..1 £ I ~ .2.2(al Building Sp~ Frame l timeconsuming.2(b) Frame Elevation ALL~£fig..C. .TableB:.2. 3.3. Besides. 17 .
no relative def oraat Lon between the adjacent frames.3.()ot Ol beams beyond the adjacent.2.•As an illustration'.II : Bay Fr. '~Thisassumption. the second degree of approximation.3.2(e) to determinetbe maximum forces for des1cn of aembers.apprOlCimation.eI sideration is.ori~ As stated ear tLer .holdsgood when all the parallel fraJDes.third degree (level) of . case of unsyrnmet:ricframes anMor unsymme'tric loading.to give lateral support to the plane frame (Le.building is. . A.I : Floor ~s Substitut..aregard tng its . Lyv.Frome In ". This assumed condition is normally achieved. Thus.CC etc in Fig. Fig.so that there Is. and the struptural properties '(the stiffnesses) . The substitute frames for the 'top floor .}·2 This third degree approximation holds good..2(e) Substitute Floor Fra. the vertical frame which is plane before loading remains plane after loading. assumed to to be fixed at their far ends. th~ir effect on the beam under con.are subjected to Ldent Ica l loads. (a).C.2(b) sho~s' 'the front elevation of vertical frame marked BB in Fig.•This plane frame is further subdivided into substitute frames in different manners dbcussed below making second degree (or. Frotne 1. for symmetric frames for symmetric loadings.3. the r'elative deformations which are caused due to them are ignored in the analysis by' this 'first degree of approximation .2.and interaedlate floors are shown. This frame can be analysed by any method for different loading cases shown in Fig.the difference .1(c1). However.used in analy~is for vertical loads only •.of adjacent frames.2(c) .3.Subat1~ute ~ . stiffness of the adjacent beams to half.level) of approximad.2. However.Ls fnt.df.BB.2(<.3. . instead of taking all beam segments and all columns in the adjacent two storeys.carried out for each floor. in Fig. the torsional and/or lateral' bending stiffness of members (cross beams) at right angles are ignored..3.3. The analysis is . the cross members are assumed to be very rigid).A. the entire vertical frame is subdivided into number of two storey frames for each floor.e& m MOL 8 12 10 In the ..2(f)(Page 3D. theoretically.The results are likely to differ from exact values in. The frame at any floor consists 0'£ beaus.3. these members are assumed .2. the basic frame cons tde red rfor analysis of a ·R. (b) t 3 u 7 n 2 Substitute Frames .Fig.I.at that floor level together with all eonneet:ed columns in adjacent upper and lower storeys.·2. Load tngeondf' trons·. . With the result.Chapter . Since Wmin .2.:). assumed to behave Lndependent e .Floor. Such a frame is called Substitute Bay Frame."say .erconnec tdon. and moments and 'shears in all beams and columns are determined. the description of substitute frames given is restricted to those . with the a:(i"j~cer:tt frames.but if at all there is any difference in the.. a vertical plane frame. spans are not considered. trame.accounted for by reducing the' loading Cases. 2 this frame is further subdivided into separate bay frames eacb one consisting of the beam 6 of interest together with connected columns 10 and beams in the adjacent spans only as shown in Fig.The farends of beam Wmax '" 1'S(l>l+LL) and columns are assumed as fixed.2.
. 18 now analysed for all possible loading arrangements shown in Fig. * Beam Stiffness to be reduced to half F!g.n:: 2 l'S( DL+LU 5 9 ~'~ .. is.ed .than analysing i::' number of .2.2 SubsHtute Frame. Since.2.. The continuous bea. the rigidity offered by columns is ignored in this approach. . at times.in beams of inner bays) compared to actual moments.maxi~ mum fQrce~~in:c'ol'umns a~dl'b. the floor ~Taae .3.ac~ual rigidity does induce moments in the columns which cannot be ign3red in design.2(g).di~feren.' 7 m Column Systflll Column Systems 51 & 5·9 • Stiffness for MQximun Mom~t in Columns 73 & 711 & 812 of beam to tIe . degree of approximation.2.differen~ loading cases is much invol..2.2. ximum shear.2.l.ll lnterediete Floor. aDd .ly supported.substJ. 0'9DL 10 l·S(OL+LL) ~Y"~ a'90L 1'5{OL+LL) 5 ' 6 7 8 2 5 6 10 3 also .~l~!.or any degree beyond this need not be used when analysiS is to be done on a microcomputer.J.alculation. cases Jt~Q get . to the extent of 30% to 50%. ~loa4ing '. the aoaeuts in beams work out to be very large. Different Loading Cases.l. It. Sutstilule Fr::me 6.n systems . and moments are obtained in the beam assuming ends st. the deSign proves to be uneconomical.2(h) Substitute FraMeIII Col~ Sfsteas Fi~. (c) Substitute Pra.2{g> Substitute FraMeIll Syst_..e . .n S.Sect...I 1n (a)above instead of 8ubdividiuS ioto number of bay frames is brokeR or separated into a beam system made up of only a continuous beam at the floor.u systems as shown in Flg.'~UCed to half '~J. (especially . and colu. though the analysis is simplified.e.SU!)Slitute Frome m'8eom Sys~em.teIIs As a further fourth degree (level) of approximation.tQtl!! bay frames.thattbis ~4··'~~\l'()J(l.the moments in columns are obtained by considering only co~u. Tbus. Loading Cases.. may be noted"that ana1ysinga fullSubstitute floor frameI for all. Ewentbougb.the interconnec~ion between beams and columns has been ignored in r. Therefore. 8eaa aad Co1u.l.eamsas usual.llt ignores the fixity offered by connected columns.401:: . The continuous beam ideal1aation tot.3.BaySysl.III :.However J authors are of the opinion .: geaIn Fig. even.2(a>. 3.2(t) Substitute Bey Fr. II ..
he connected members".2.o~". Besides. This has been=df.tion free. the~anal¥sis"is based on the fundamental fact that the joints between the nembers 'are rigid .placed' on longer beam on one side and minimum load on the shor~2r'beam on the other side.3. Chapter 3.ments.been fully illustrated in Project.e. If the results of this totally' apptoxifuate method are required to be b~ought nearer ·to .satisfied. 3. the following conditions·are required to be satisfied. the joint'will not act as a· r. For illustration..3(. the effect of column moments on. It transf~rs the moment besides shear and axial force from one member to other.in (a) above.75 IlL.2.<be$lls columns are assum. If they are satisfied partially. For this. .Inthe . for vertical downward loading) for a length eqdal to developaent length and at the same time it must be extended further 1n the c.verapproximation" ts adopted.e. The different types of supports in R. the stiffness (k) which depends' upon the ratio IlL and the nature of support :ondition of the member at the far end. semirigid) joint.Qles analysed for such loading are on beams so as'to 'cause maximum column mQ. cotation free~ the stiffness of the member is taken equal to 0.2~2(h).The column sub.!t"6With~:~.2 . .the accuracy in relation to the simplicity of calculations.3.frameanaJ.ln all substitute frames discussed above..3 Types of CoooecUons .bers. For transfer of moment and hence for joint to be rigid.• .acussed in subsequent Sect.ruction have been discussed in Sect .igid joint.itions are not.ected members either by requiSite development length or by mecbanieal anchorag~..'.omputiog the sti£faess.whether the support is rotation free or not.C.. therefore. raJ A SbqJle or Singed ComJectiOD : It allows relative rota. whate. It does not transfer moment frOll one component to other but it :ioes transfer the transverse shear and the axial load • .ed 2 and to·be fixed 'and the stiffness ot'beami"m'~"reau¢ed. namely. the joint will act as a partially rigid (i. (ii)The 'interconnecting steel should be adequatly anchored in both the co_!Y!.4.. at top. From above.3.2. and the solutions are 'compar~ to bring out the merit~ and demerits of these methods in regards to. be interconnecting tension steel between the':two members on the tension face with area sufficient enough "to effect the transfer of momeht.Pw how rigid connection is obtained in a R.tive rotation between the two connected me. nOJ'eiatlve translatory movement can be alloWed betWeell thea.3. If far eod is hinged i. consider a beam colUDlllC:on1lect1on shown in F1g.:'frB.olumn through a distance BA .it should be seen that above cond. to resist moment Mt at support. When tvo membera are to be CODDected. 11lerefore~eonneet:ion between' the two IIleIRbersare oa1y of two types.3.Code r~('ommends not to use this method of analysis.to:half to compensate' for the effec:t of bays beyond •.. For the Joint to be rota.e. (i)There should.It is.S.2 later. For the connection to be rigid2 adequate area of tuterconnecting steel Ast'. neee'Ssary~to k!l.those of SystemI .. and shear should further be considered and beam shear aud moments be modified • '.See Fig~3.). the analysis is based 'on an important structural' property.3. and the diffe3 rent alternative methods of computation of stiffness (IlL) are presented in Sect.ysis discussed above. th~ far end of the member is assumed to be fixed.f. bJRigi4 ColmeCtion : It does not allow the rela. const. must be provided on the tension face (i.2. IIl8ximumload 'should be .a:'th'·tW6beams' adjaceiltto thejoin1: !lsshoWn:'in Fig. 'All these methods have . 'it is nec. beam moments.C.2. (h).mM'e'Yup'of iUlfpe~ 'and lower col1lmnuat"ia?'jo:tWtt. .ssary to decide .construction and what: are the types of connections..The ·iar':erids·(.t1onbe'tween t. it is evident that forc. If anyone of the above conditions is not satisfied.
the. 3.3.3.tiOii. 'In bu1ldings~ a member like slab or be .. As an illustra tion. Connection be hoOked round bent through 9~ sUppOrt For rigid Connections A 51 Note: For Ast Full m~t QH!Q for A'. I J fo 'Ast . .. Connections Fig. no steel.at the junction of upper part of column cast with the beam and lower' part of. consider' a monolithically cast slabbeam connection shown in Fig. or a slab resting on wall. the column bars should be bent and extended in the beam through a distance Be equal to the development length.c. The connection will not be a rigid one unless sufficient tension steel Is available at the top of slab and which is adequately anchored by extending it by a bond length distance or ~cbanically hooked round the beam bar through 1800• If no separate tension steel is provided at top of slab and if it is Simply left..MN simple conMction Ast 1 & no homc:ing round beam ber SLAB Bt.... A roller support is the only support of this type.2. The structural continuity is obtained only' by rigid connection. be provided at top in the beam.2. a simple support neither offers sliding resistance nor any resisting moment.iIf.3(a' Rigld & 5 ill$) 1.Slab 1 'Seam For rigid (51 must beam bar or . reinforcement into. ot.. or cast. over the beam. supporting wall or column and) s1lllplyresting on wall or column can be called a simple . a""Ld Constr Joint B Q for Hanger bars~anger .. :1tis: found that this length is large. it has a tendency to rotate at support.: bars A'st As11 1 :Oft5tr.O.support. insitu slab restlpa on steel beam are some more illustrations of this type of support.ws rot. When the beam deflects. It also allc...3(a).2.2. A precast beam.the column. then instead of extending beam. st .2.'.through column width only. the column.. (cast separately fro.~(b) 8eMSlab Connection " It may be borne in mind that only monolithic . just for getting sufficient lateral support at top. Following are three different types of ideal supports • . the connection will be 8> s1apleOn~ •. for a connection to be simple between the beam and column.l.d.osliding at the 1a£erfaee. This connection will allow the rotation by development of a vertical crack at the column face or.he'rthan anchor or hanger bars. (a) Sjaple SUpport It is the support which can allow the •• ber to move in the direction of the plaae of support. it does not allow movement in the direction perpendicular to support. On the contrary...3.4'l'Jpea of tJuppo£t or Bod Coad1.The slab "ohly will rotate (and not· the beam) by develOptle1ltof crack at the top of slab just at the beam face. It is only U8~ in bridge bearings. neglecting the frictional resistance t.2.AM CONNECTtON CONNECTION Fig. Thus.' these bars may simply be continued straight in. Main a ~ 'd Teonsionstee' rnernen t ot sUPPOfI :0.4 Types of supports 33{ equal to anchorage length (which is equal to development length LdT . However.ing plane. The beam will act as a flanged beam only if there is a rigid connection between the beam and the slab.3(b}.If the connection is rigid.the column top cast ealier.casting of the two cOmponents does not ensure structural continuity.:."' ~EAMCOu. See Note in Flg.. . and furthermore. 3.Sect. It offers reaction only in a direction perpendicular to the support. For 5 imple Connect ion "'st .and the beam itself' is simply supported~ it will also rotate along with the slab."..
ss at the ot ae r edge. But a rigid connect~on betweem two members does not necessarily~give a fixed end condition to the supported member.3. the footing could be designed for axial load only. for the column base to be filted. the loads ont~ spans.hinged support or a rotation free support is also many times loosely termed as a simple support (though a simple support is truly a roller support) (c) F jxed Support It 'the stipport which not only resists translation but also rotat10n.2.34 Analysis .2.for the purpose of analys'is._footing is a typical one.. it Is .e o a:upport whicb can be considered as rotation fixed support condition . .hinge is not provided at the support. Thus.2.ifona pressure distribution at the base of footing in case of· a concentric footing as shown in Fl&. ·Consider • two span continuous beam carrying equal U. It resists mODlent.3.3 can be r. and offers reaction in any direction.ple conaection between two . ny tLaes Dot possible to provide a fixed base i..Consider a column subjected to an axial l~ P and a ao. i. is . rotation will be possible if the supporting soil.. yields more on one side and le. 11.3. For soils with large bearing capacity.n free support even though actual.This support offers reaction in any direction Qut does not resist moment. it is not even interCOlllleCted with the "support. Chapter 3 .e.~ ~" . A slab or. load on both the spans. Thus. The question of end c~ition for the column at the 'end of the.3.2. Rigid <:cmnec:tion i1llplleszel'0 relatl've rotatioJl between the connected members. Even a slab cast monolithically and rigidly connected W:i. the syaaetry of the load1 . rotation of footin~ is not ~ossible ar~ such footings cannot be designed for axial loads only.i6 rotation free condition is possible only with so~ls having low or medi~ bearing capacities. the column .tenaecllat. The beam is sapl. Since. If the bearing capacity of the solI is low. Any support which can offer resisting moment so as to prevent rotation can be called'a fixed support. but does not allow any translatory movement..e. If the supporting column also rotates along with the beam.It is to be seen whether the footing end could be called hinged or fixed.ade avallable either by nonun.embers can be said to give a simple'rotation free end ~ondition to the supported member. or alternatlvely. The support is known as rotation free support. . In such case.4(8). '. fixed support is a support which does not rotate. __ ent resistant footina. this.ply zero r"'~'tion of the joint or of the supported mellber.his resiT sting moment can be .the beam is said to have a rotation free (or hinged) end condition.be support is simple because rotation is' possible due t to change in. :.3.S.2.!1ection shouldaot be taken as to give fixed .4(b).. ltd_a not 1. the footing cannot offer resist!ng moment.eoD..has a teudency to rotate at the base. 'ComIlt101'l f Zero rotation at .3.end condition.ent M at the top •. As stated above.Over three supports.: . A slab havfng simple connect ton with the supporting beam as explained in part (a) of Se~t.till.. . The rotation of beam is possible if that b~am itself is simply supported at its ends The same is true even for a beam rigidly connected to columns. span •• end eonditions~ creates a. the footing should be able to offer a resisting mOllelltequal to Ml2 besides axial reaction .8 beam eabeded in a rigid wall can be said to give a'rigid support.resisting. supported . It has already been_de clea~ in part (b) above ·that a rigid .is free to rotate along with the slab.th the supporting beam as described in part (b) of Sect.moaent can also be made available by an eccentric footing baving uniform pressure distribution at the base as shown in Fig. it must be noted that a s1.the ia... St111. thus creating a rotation free condition as shown 1n Fig.4(c).otation free at support if the beam itself.is said to have rotatio.a sllPport which allows the supported member only to rotate.However. A.D.It is.
The moment of Inertia of gross concrete section excluding reinforeeeen~ may be 'obtained using followIng equations : Rectangular Section: Igr • bD'/12 Flanged Section ! /2)1( . e Whatever may be the basis adopted for calculation of I.kfbwD'/12 . The plinth beam also helps ~n reducing the effective length of column at ground floor.5 M= P·e ' + FOOTING (a) CONCENTRIC (b) eCCENTRIC cc) •• . ' " (2) rrans£~ Gross Section: I of transformed gross coaerete section .Sect. when the cost of wall below plinth works to be greater than the cost of plinth beam.adular ratio.k~+(1k)3(kl1)(kk2)JJ .Depth of N .·4. The common. Code allows to take any one of the following definitions of moment of inertia for determining the stiffness.practice is . •••• Flg. x ( bwD2 /2+(bt bw )Df . .by providing a heavy· plinthbe_in the plane of bending near the footing.the value of kf may obtained Handbook.4 End Conditions tor Coluan footing They have to be designed as Dioment resistant or fixed • Themament. 3.C~buiding construction when the depth of footing below plinth is very large i.III kf k.'. from Fig. because In that case the beaa acts as rectangular beam in the negative moment regIon and a flanged beam in positive l .23(b) of Aut.itis r~uired to be applied consistently to all members. k2 = Df/D and k· x/D. . :at the footing can also be avoided or reduced.bers For calculating the stiffness of a member.2.therefore .odUlar ratio.e.\' bwD+(bf bw )Df) . including the reinforcement transformed on the basis of .bfX~/3(bfbw)(xDt)~/3+bw(Dx)S/3 or where Igr . However.'. This practice is common in R.1.5.2.2.hor's AlternatIvely . (I) Grosssectioo : I of concrete gross crosssection (Igr)igDoring reinforcement.'.5 Stiffness of Ne. In preliminary design. 3. the moment of inertia (1) of the members meeting at a joint· are required. • bf/bw.to take I of concrete gross section (Igr) ignoring reinforcement.main difficulty in calculating I arises w~en the beam 1& continuous at both ends as in case of beams in frames.4(k.I II Igf . since neither the moments are knowunor cbe reinforcement. the question of using the second or third method of finding I (described above) does not arise at all.A. (3) / TraDSforaetJ Cracked Section: I of concrete sec tion in cOIIpre88ion (Ir) including area of reinforcement transformed on the basis of .
Since 100% fixity at: supports Is lol to O'581 hardly ever possible because_ of rotatiQna1 displa.iMry dealan of re:inforc __ t. dependi"q upon ret los MAIMFAand Me/MF8 c~entsatsupports due to flexibility of supports. or txotL~KOf  onl.' In fact..e teken equal to .6 Effect of StiffDesa on DistrtlMt.ts of rectangular sectionouly gives higher moments in 'ColWllns.1 of Appendix B of the Code _using value. Thus .ent 1s ~ as unbalanced mOGlent.. effect_lve value of I to be taken: forst1ffness would depend upon the ratio of regi'On (L~)_ of _positive MAQ..connected where Kce • stiffness of column above the jOint . A correctslnale equivalent. Kb • stiffness of beam Ib/Lb. In th.. See Fig.M.) i. Hcol.2. value of effective aoment c4.M. However. ~col .Rect... _it lsnot c... acting at the joint. of rectangular section 1s. d. (~/{Kca+Keb+Kb»).58 Lfor a beam fixed at both ends to L for a beam simply supporxoO to Q·21l tetiat both ends.This mo.. tKea/(K~a+Kcb+Kb)}.3..I of beam: on the . if a beam is of smaller crosssection and has a large span..stiffness of column below the joint.tf eau be obtained considering the effect of craekiq throughout the. that if the coluaQ ·has lar&e crosssection and is short compared to beam. beall is.t .er aided aaaly.5 Varying M. However.4..2 times that of . reader may refer to Sect. eats '.CD :..1oa _. since A C 0B 1talue of Lodepends _upon the end conditions..... It can only betaken in the :prelt.moment region.b . It will be observed from the above relations.f1xed end moment 'Me Is first calt!Ulaced or clamping of the joint. Co~· to columns.eabec. 6 and DtlD . moments in columns are obtained as follows.onstant~ Ttvaries from· 0. iuer1:i. seetion nars take Igr .2. since this calculation i8 very cuabera_e and leD8thy !'or hand calcultions with no special benefit. MY be used In eoaput..5)..aacl floor t.o floorheight for columns except in case of grOUbd flOaT ~oluan for Vh1eb tbe length is taken from bottom of footing to the top of floor levelwban there ls no plinth beam I and fJ'OID the top of plintb beam when the same exists.. "Ul be large.a I... the . the stiffness of beam Kb is reduced to half to account for the effect of loads on spens beyond.2. it. its M be_  Me I Kb/(Kca+Keb+Kb) J = . for .Ica/Lee. where MFF~xeodend Moment the ratio LolL is normally large. (3.bU •• .ope.bavingblb .I.centre to centre distance between the support. Kcb .)W'8 moment to length L of the beam. also prevalent.3. Thus. Authors consider' to take Igr ~f be~·2xbwDs/12 t . equfva Lent.. flanged section ignoring the .rectangu1arbeul e t.8... prac~icesdiffer appreciabiyfrom the actual sectIonal properties.. Taking .bas. on the assUmption of zero rotation When . If the beam is con~inuous beyond.2. of coefficient kl given in Table 21 of the Code.~~~. its st. . ICb/Lcb.5. A single. The joint Is then released or uucla..This moment is now distributed to various members meeting at the joint in proportion of their st1ffnesses .ped by applying an opposite moment.~OD. .Fla"ged sect~ difference between Lo and L. in tl9DS for I of flanged section are involved .. aDd.of a.. (3.3 of ~uthor1s Textbook'·'.1fftteM _ (It. hence some desigAC & 80 .such 'a beam is 0£ varying mOmentof inertia along the:letigth. _pan and by adopting the procedure given under Cl. For details.. ta~n8 Itr throuabout the leagtb of the heaa is alSo theoretically not correct. AS the calculafig. in ~alcu1at. more acceptablel~7. Sa .1GD of Bt. 3...6 ).B2.. While. The values obta~ ft'Oll these.0. loading and the moments developed at supports.is case multiplying factor ·2 cocrespoada to a flangedsect..iffness K(:" 1c/Lc . the practice of takin:g 19. . in analysis and 4_1p.a fbced/ContlnUC)(ls8e_.._I1s..eaian Ole leagth of the .
atiaa. are liven below.fixity which interalia depends upon the (b) .l.: 'cO 'i'" "~ ". r: '. if the column crosssection Beam rigid is small its stiffness will be sma!! and consequently joint wi1. it is not necessary that 11: shaW.ns. If the beam is fixed at the ends.a.1 rotate and practically no fixed end moment will develop e i the'rLn the column or' in the beam. 3. This situation 'is common ·inl'ower storeys of multistoreyed frames having large span bays. Some of the assumptions and approx1.actua! bending mOl1lentin the beam E(l(fs prCKticaUy and column at the joint lies between 0 and wL2/12 ..'3.This situation gives rotation free' simple support for the beam. It may cause rotation of the beaa itself If the beam itself is Simply supported a~ its end.bly small~~dtat1on ]. if the crosssection of SAaS·O beam is large and span short.3.beam and' the column. The same assumption can be made applicable to beaas also because whether a beam is connected rigidly or simply to a support1n& eotu. The 'bending moments in thebeauFand column will both be nearly wL2/12.putati~l efforts and.i)f. Design Assumptions &.its stiffness will be la) l~rge.2. .ptions and: approx'imations for making the analysis simple to save c:c. 3 .6b).d.rily ~ure fixed end condition.a designer is many times'required to make ~rtataaB~ .'an allowance should be made the analysis . SuctLA rigid connection does ~ uecesa.ions: .beamnSee Fig.8 Thef:1r!ty'offered is more if columns are two in numberdwhile:the beam is only one.the rigid connection between the slab and the beam induces torsion in the ~ &1~ iog condition of partial fixity and not full fixity.g. If at all they 'are found to be on 'the' ~e t ' stae at~certain' places.wi1loc'cur " at the joint and the column "i.N~y.ds :. it is usually rotation free at the ends and therefore assumed as simply supported at the ends when one is not sure about the condition of rotational ~1Dt at the ends.3.3~S(practically entire value of fixed end moment Me at the joint gets released with no~ s..on The first and the foremost assumption that is required to be IU&Ie is about the support condition Or the type of support for slabs and beams.' $t'iffrl~§~l?~dl!l smalLConsequently.6 Effect of Stiffness on To satisfy the condition of equilibrium" the sum Moments in Be__ end Colu. it is ctacoaly assumed that a slab 1s simply stlpported at discontinuous end and cODtiuu3US o. lDoment'remaining in thebeata). of the moments in the beams meeting at a joint must be 'equa. be connected rigidly to supporting beams.ti1ae.r intermediate support. relative stiffnesses of the.2.'The desIgn assuaptions.' " 3'7.. should be 'such 4S to aake"''the design :e"rr'·on he safer side.3.Sect. Fig. . Simultaneously." .f:saidto offer practically h full fixity ~to .:)\~"c.' aeam tlel!ibte' On the other hand.2.. Approxiniat. of course.Thus. !theactal magnitude depends upon the ~J4tt'O degree.3 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS AND APPIlOXIMUIOIfS In practical design.'I: .based 'Oo'earlier observations and judgement. in t e)' AsSUlllptions regarding Support Conditi.~~ slsb is cast aonolithically with the besm. 're.6(a)J. and opposite to the s'um of the moments in the columns meeting at that joint. ( See Fig.3. Therefore.rotat~ in 'general. H>e negl1gi.
thoUcb lIlay not.II heavy and. he very little tuuffie1eKateel ov. safety and a satisfactory performance.stance.3(a).1ng to'mOllent. praetice which aalces the bea. this is • crude s 4~1sn.. espeCially for beams with unequal spans and loads. lertgtb in ltotb the spans . 3.1at.' Fig."Point of serviceability or performance of the structure. simplicity structural toaether with the desired economy.f1lDloUS postlintel: construction adopted in the past over number of centuries.ta1l continuous 81mplifled by analysing and designing each beam (span) seperately considering of aoments approximate moments at continuous end based ~n redistribution is achieved explained in Sect. .at D and E.definitely unsound forresist1ng hor. For example..3. it is quite likely that there •• y 110t be any steel or Il'here _. the . the beam can be divided into three segments ABCD. in the illustration of Fig..'the negative 1I000enl: that maystruet. tory. the exact analysis of acontinuo~s beam or slab having large number of'spans. assumption 1s. This assumption of providing a simple support for beams has a backing of ageold practice of . DE .tsuses t:be principle of co.8 Accordingly. illtenaejiate support due to physical continuity of beam andlor rlgldityof intemed.DE and EFGH for the purpose of analysis only and each segment analysed independently assuming full fixlty at D and E. The load is fully sustained if the midspan section is designed .e walls/colUIID'S Is~pports would cause cracking of concrete at top at the face of support which could be ~ulte objectionable. consider a beam in a public building shown in Fig. ~an st111 be accepted since the difference on account of this appro:<imation is f ouad to be well withio the degree of accuracy expected in reinforced concrete structures.urallJ' deNelop at.eupport condltion.discontinuity is assumed at D Om and E'. though it may not be a sian of structural unsoundness or lack of safety. The analysis is made simple by introduction of a discontinuity at suitable 'intermedlatesupport (like the discontinuity at support in a mUltispan bridge).3(b).. .to DE (oTviceversa).y occur. though may not be rigorously correct. LJJ.'ABCDfreely supported A and D. the analysiS of a lluutis.and unacceptable frcm :vie. are likely to be very serious.3. is.whenever it .Similarly.' continuity of beam/slabfor more than 4 spans has little advantage. In this approach.¢iorrespond. It simplifies'the analysis to a great extent. Especially I such desigo.pJ.t Ion can be obtained by not allowing the top bars ~ to extend.res'f. As an illustration. and 'consequences of collapse.!..each span of a continuous beam.0' . be unaafe for vet:'~teal loads.or :a s1tl..J J If a physically continuous beam east monolithically Is 4estgned by assuming it as made up' of a number of simply supported beams..~a An~lysis Chapter 3 The above assumption is for ends of corit.simply supported . A structural discontinuity can be introduced at supports 0 and E" and the entire beam can be divided into 3 separate beams. and it will n~t live any reserve strength at collapse. beam can be On the other hand..zontal loads . required to be made for an intermediate support also".J LJ.1{a) IntrodUCtion of Discontinuity in a lonO unequal span continuous beam fram CD . it should not be extended to.. As cracking occurs.oment at support Is transferred to the midspan..er the top of intermediate support extending tbrough anchor.. (say more than 4) 1s extremely laborious. the same condf. However.f. and EFCH freely supported at E and H.3(a). This assumption of treat1ng structural continuity as fixity.. and besides.tnucusbeams or slabs ..!. However.3. As the structural. many times.
the hogging bending moment can occur at the centre of the short span. Each '~ne is analysed separately using the standard bending moment coefficie!J.Sect. Here. The Spcins support moments on either side of an intermediate Cast' II F(tt Wftlo. (b) Int~rrnedi:l1e Soon 3.made up of number of independent single span beams or a group of t. be different either due to the diffe& WmHl on OA & Be rence in spans and/or due to difference in the Fig.·~'fJ 5oDJS~~ '1~.'(b)(iJ Approxj~ ~t load and support condition. b .support will.>1 . Such continuous beams/slabs can also be" approximatly designed' by treating a continuous beam/slab as if .The coefficients for equal span continuous slabs/beams for other standard loadings like central point load or equal point loads at 1/4th or 1/3rdspan points are also available in various design aids.3. ( Tables 2.ypical multispan. cases available in various desi?n aids3.er extenSion of the principle used in Substitut'e Frame Method of dividing a large structure into parts for the purpose of analysis .ts which are based' on the ordinates of the bending moment envelope [See Fig.arises in determination of bending moments in continuous beams/slabs.Ae .6 and 2.3.3l.l:Yla  . In other cases.JlO con~nuous beams/slabs of unequal spans also provided longer span Is not greater than twice the Co) End Span shortest span3.4 ).7 in Author's Handbook 3. It may be noted. it is applied to continuous beams of equal ·spans. They can be obtained directly using the coeffi~i'~rd:'sJ stanfbr dard loading. In such case.3. D1ffich~ty'H.3. negative bending moments at intermediate supports adjacent to the short span shall be calculated as if all spans J I wer~ equal to longest span and the moment of resiW~/12 wiIn. If the short span occurs between t.3(b)(ii). The results obtained by approximation under discussion lie nearly between the elastic moments and those obtained by limit analysis allOwing redistribution of moments. on . 4'. The sUi'i>0rt section may Coeft icients fo~ ar. This approximation is a fu~th. that redistribution of moments is alloweq to the extent of 30%. am:g.nbr~aiiy .. hence tite'difference of 30% is acceptable between the design moment the elastic moment at support with corresponding increase in midspan mbment. The design moment coefficients used for typical bea~s are as follows'·9 "do' :"!{.3(b)(i)] and allowing redistribution of moments. 'Codes prescribe coefficients 'for continuous beams/slabs with approximately equal spans (variation between long and short span not exceeding 15 % of'long span) and carrying uniformly distribted 10ads. A Intermediate spans wL2/12.3(b)(ii). They give values within 30% of the'exact theoretical values. f Central Point Load (W) : End spans WL/6 Intermediate spans WL/7 wl!/1o The above apprOXimation can be extended to ""~""W.tecf Span : be designed either for greater of the two moments f f 1. stance should be provided throughout the short span for at least mean of the two negative moments wi!/ and for positive bending moment as shown in Fig.::.These are given in Sect. the midspan moments Case I For Wmcu( on adjacent may be obtained by using above coefficients. 1:~L~ Calculation of exact bending moments in single span slabso~411{e~m's' 'not pose any problem.~""/_. 3.5.~ and l I > i Moments at'supports as well as midspan: 'Uniformly Distributed Load (w) :' End spans wL2/10.3 (b) Design Assumptlons & ApproXimat~6ns 39 :1'"..~ See Fig.and then analysing each part 'independently.' Approximations regarding 'Bending "aments in ~~s '"i ~ '.wo long spans. beams.
definitely. na£~r:.99 383.75 105.40 kN/m twospan Continuous Beam Span AD" 6.:~r~geof+\th~ t~"o.D. : A 72 kN A~~" •.13 383.taking greater of the two moments at B 501.s Bending Moments in kN.eA.tgn moments by above approximate method are as follows! Span AB M" 40x62/10 = 144 kN. y The comparison of these values with exact values is given below. _ . o.analysis considering @ rigid frame action. 368. at supports. 40leN/.40.av.v/s Exact.I~ +bent .00 36% 36% 339. Analysi? Chapter 3 CT).v/s Exact.m at midspan as well as at support B. eo1Umtls.1 .42/10+72x8. 0(0'51 ) values of continuous beam analysis m.Y~r.. rio:idly connected to (APPROXIMA ~ eo. ."s UOOs' beans .C.7% 290..I~ MAX B.' this 10 12 approximation is safe.s.. 383..2 m from B.:.tfrom this exaaple that it will be advisable . The @ former.. ( Results of Solution I of exact metbod have been obtained from Project II .s approximation in case of frames in a R. .36 ..7% 10..'.UQus beams a l.__ 1I'IQIl. mClll. The moments are on higher side by 10 % QV to 35 z .. l <.!i.D.3.taking average of the two moments at B % Difference . 8...:2'4 nate bars from adjacent spans are 12 Wsl~ . Design moment at support B. way slab'.W + Wo providing steel for average of the two moments is suitable when alterAPPROXIMATE w.52 12.42/10+72x8. <0·851 .With 30% redistribution of moments Approximate Method dp.04 kN. are by themselves on higher side as compared to .~1'p. U.04 leN.n.0 m.MS..• ~c 1n ~m~I45'l".SolutionI A~prox.~ Des. 11.Yd~PFbA case in of floor made up of continuous ~woWs(~ .structure which can be divided Lnt o standard substitute frames especially when desktop computer is available in design office.Without redlstrlbution of moments Sol.00 144. 'r4!. This appr9ximation should UNEQUAL . _. It will be eviden. used while the latter practice of W.mat MidspanAB Support MidspanBC 105. Fig.pot be used for 'contin.scribed above: So1.(taking greater of the two values)'" 383.t~t. praeticeof' providing steel ~~~l for greater of the two moments is sUitable when no bentup bars are 1.Be ~ 8.04 32% ~xact Method: So1. 22% j I . because even ·the exact (I'.4/6 .'Method III)." Span .= lma.314. It can be applied .4 _.!5(bHU) not to use thi.··.04 263..Load . I.T4 to contip.11.Ns. . \"'AX. Type of analysi.1 . 4{) kN/m.so .m at support B.m..p~p..t. U..'4~or for t~~.t:i~}~"is .98 231.SolutionII A?prox. it does not at all give economic design. + W.04 383.75 144.els. Span Be : M = 40x8. Though..' I~ _ W.4/7 .04 kN~m at midspan and M == 40x8. The use of this app~oach and the difference of the results from exact solution of continuous beam are shown in eumple· Af>KIOI(IMA1l:: below.. & Poin~ load =72 kN at 2.LGad .
e. it is always assumed' that the 8uppo_rtB~'are igid i.beams is about the type of the section (whether flanged or rectangular).% deviation where Is is moment 'moment of inertia' of secondary beam.! and L are the moment of inertia and the length of supporting beam and t is thickness of slab L1 u G See Fig. . J3..ent at top and which has stirrup$ running through total depth (includIng thickness of slab portion) will structurally act.'.. The area of steel (Ast. the quantity of steel required to balance the compression in outstanding flange portions depends upon the t ~fd~ ...3(di AssUllption r.10 x Is.supporting beam in relation to supported slab or beam would obviously depend on acceptable" deviation of results (moments:e~c. 4Iing. Since.3(c) Assumptions regarding Rigidity of Support ..I relative 'rigidity Ib/(Lt3/12) I . the system as a whole will be required to be analysed as a stiffened or ribbed plate.3..3(d). the supporting beam will not act as arlgid support.l.3(c)(ii).S7fyjud»)] obtained on the basis of 'this assumption of rectangular section is always greater than that required for flanged section because the lever arm (zujud) of tlie ~ectangular section is always less than that of a flanged section since Xu in a rectangular un :. "7 I L shoula be at least 4 for 10% deviation of results where Ib 1I_~ __ . Required rigidity of the . In case of flanged beam.1. 1 _. when xu<D1)' and this condition Is normally satisfied in. Df (i. If this condition is not satisfied. required Ib .L section 1s al~ays greater than Xu for flanged AssumeQ section (for required total compression).3.oDSregarding Be. as a flanged beam.Kou/(. The beam designed on the basis of this as sumption is always on the safer side when design bf~~ moment is less than Hut which is the value of K4If' of flanged section for Xu . to offer a rigid support unless it has the flexural rigidity far more than that of the supported slab or the secondary beam. Section Xu . Section I J i I i i Another 111lportantassumption made in design of R.T L___ 1 (d) Assuapti." required value of II I.Y . In . they do not deflect..3.)' from the exact values~For oneway slab resting on beams. In that case. A beam having a slab actina as flange on compression side and having minimum transverse reinforca.'lel AssiuJptioDS regarding Rigidity ::iT the analysis of continuous beams or slabs.all cases of beam design.For a second(i ) ary beam supported on main beam required Ib10Is(Ll/L2P for 10 Fig.. The area of steel increases with the increase in the value of Xu and 1~ maximum when F'i9.design of a flaaaed beam is complicated and laborious as compared to deslgn of rec tangular be_.. the design could be done assuming beam to be of rectangular section only when the design moment Koo 'does not exceed M ur •• ax of the rectangular balaaeed section.. .C..Df.e. See Rectangub wctian Fig.' il::> <c of Support . Taking the worst case of L1 = L2. L1 is Length of main beam and L2 is length of secondary beam.3 Sect. 'II. ..3(c)(i)... See Fig. Design Assumptions & Approximations 41 . it cannot r be said.. If the support is a beam.
32.Calculations ~ .2.Fe 415.Fe 415.6x32xl06 1 .e. " : A beam continuous at both ends.However.ter than Mur ••ax. this assumption should not be made i.lIax:) is obtained by additional tension and compression Jteel in case of a rectangular section.• b.00 leN. m > 32 kN.!n&!!lar ection: s be singly rel11forced.Load (a) Wu .67 kN. Lo .67 D. Section shall.2• Required : A. the design moment Mou is provided by Muw of rectangular part of web.07x230x3452xl06 • 56. Mur\JI8X . Section 230 mm x 380 mm. :Ii may be mentioned that the maximum additional steel required due to assumption ofrectangular section in place of a flanged section is about 20% for Xu = Dt.) Moo. ~'"':' Required Ast (O.11(4. • . This simpiificat·ion is very useful when the tables and charts for rectangular SeCt~on8 are readily available. /USx23Ox3452)Jx230x345 llequlred A.rresistance required (Mu2 .1290 mil For Xu·Df .2.e. Mur. while 1n case of a flanged section... Xu < Dt and b .(4.24x42/12 I .0. 2! llect.Ru ••• x bcP.m.5xI5/415)[ 1. the beam shall be designed as flanged beam. .6x56. Solution': Let d '.36x15xI290(345o.." MIS . b.61.42 Analysis Chapter 3 ratio Dt/d and bftbw and is a variable quantity. (O.Lo/6 + bw + 61lf • 2400/6 + 230 + 6x110 .W'u L2/12 ..42xllO)xl06 . 42.(4..t EO. 286 mm2• (b) KOU . Thus. the area of steel should no~ be worked out on the assumption of rectangular section because that would necessitate the rectangular section to be designed as a doubly reinforced.O.6 kN/. Illustr~tlve Data Example: _.m deslgp base4 ~ Tsecti~n: /(l5xl290x34Sl! )]x1290x345 * When design aoment MOO is grea.6x32xl06/(15x1290x3452) ]x1290x345262 ·mm2• .~ly 11.MOU . ~ l'sec'tlon: . when the design moment Mou exceeds Mur•IIBX of the assumed rectangular section. In other words. the projecting 'flanges of a flanged beam take the place of compression ~teel in a doubly reinforced rec~angular section. The following example will clearly bring out the difference between the area of steel required when design is based on assumption of rectangular section in place of a flanged section.345 mm.and the balance moment (Mou ..ma~ of a rectangular beam especially when the neutral axis lies inside'the web.CalculatiOll ~deslpbased .Dt(dO.. . d .07 N/mm2.5xl5/41S){ 1 . Mut in a flanged beam ~rresponds to Mu2 in a doubly reinforced rectangular beam.. Span = 4 m. ~ 488!!!PtlO1l MOO < Itur _ • '. .35 om. m . 469 1IIIl2• 11 ....11 .m (. ... This is the reason why the flanged beams are capable of resisting moments greater than Mur..k4000 . by cprapresston In concrete in the projecting flanges..Hut .. O.. c'ontiauousat both euds . 56.. Slab 110 mmthick.42. Ru•IUX!.67xl06 .C&l<:ulatlf!!! . for be.36fck .Muw) is provided by Mut i. of a rectangular section with b bwJ the additional moment o.D.'.6 * 42/12 I ..5:i:'15/415){ .229 kN.t.Required Ast .24 kN/m2 (b) Wu . Howey~r to get.42Dt) . 2400 lIID bt .. U..Mur..* In such case.rough idea. For M IS .
W The values of continuity factors may be taken as follows.' c" • 43 IIcCalculation.intensity of load on slab per unit area.0 beaa . while for Mou = M'ur.4. .. 67x106 . . in Fig. based 'on assumption of rectangular section: Moo =. 3. Thus.2).r. 1 and 3 ) when 11ve load is not greater than tFI the dead load.4 Loads on structuraf'Ei&n'ents .qLx where q .. • 0. End beam Penultimate beam Intermediate Continuity factor (CO 0.4. The value shall be taken equal to I 9·3.2!!~t.l(b). the area of steel is about 21% higher than that'given by Tsection solution (= 469 mm2).Sum of shears from adjacent slabs(W) assuming slabs as simply supported x Continuity factor (el) .B on Beaas supporting Oneway Slabs using procedure given below: Load on beam is the shear at the end of the slab. 3...6x56. Fig.shear coefficient _. 3.h ends uf a beam/slab either saply (il)~= supported or continuous at both ends (End CoaditlO1l ! 05 NO:l. load on beam may be calculated as follows. If demanded by the client. 3.maK • Sec t Lon is singly reinforced.5x15/415)[ 1 .4 CALCIlLA'fiOB OF LOADS ON S!ltUC'l"IJ.YeA + Vsc' b2 Slab fnd Sheers as The shear V at the slab ends can be obtained by a general formula V .Shear of Slab Sl at left = VAS Load on B2 • Shear of Slab 51 to the right + Shear of Slab S2 to the left .ELEKENrS Loads on beams and columns may be calculated 3.!I~t_f!. r . The above values of shear coefficients r are obtained from the shear force envelope. Required Ast =(0.Sect.2 1.4.4.567 mm2• / (l5x230x3452) ]x230x345 given by Tsection solution.Oact. !!.maK.4~l:r.55 for live load when live load exceeds dead load r t Isolated Span ot II Continuows ee.50 at bot.!_1 Allor ~~!!~~!!It may be observed : that Ast (= 286 mm2) obtained by assumption of rectangular sectiori forMou < Mur. ICb) S.(4. Coeff1cienh tor en 0. M ur . Lx • span ~f slab(or spacing of beams).3. • 0.2).Cl.11 .r supported at one end and continuous at "the other span (End condition No.45 at discontinuous end of a beaa/slab slap!)' (i)Out.60 at continuous end of a beam/slab slaply supported at one end and continuous at the other ( End C~ndition No. In case of an intermediate beam.RAL . Load on beam . it is the sum of slab shears on two sides of the beam.maK is just about 9% higher than Ast (=262 mm2) I any of the above assumptions shall not be used blindly without understanding..~.the designer will have to prove it by calculations based on explanations given above on the basis of theory..9 1..1(a). Alternatively.lhl> Load onBl .0. See Fig.
!>ution of moments. long span_ the load tratifened to tbebealt a1o.cc9~:~. i~ . HcHii).':Qf Load qI'!.(1/4). C1 = (i/2)x(213) 0/3). "  When reinforcement is provided across ..beams is 'Shown .~i. top 'Of short edge alonc t~. the equivalent UD load for 8.at. if no redistri.a.4. to.. 'i.1(c)(i). H0wever.Ly L Load on beam = q x Area x C1.l.e.~port span while there 1s justa..2 'below.% _ana~qr~~sE..3AI.Lx/2 as obtained above . thecontinuity factor for tihe penultimat~'beam 'va~~es from' 25"1' for. it is always on the safer side to consider load on secondary beams to be that over rectangular area as shown Fig. the trapezoidal distribution transfers lesser load .(l/2) x (1/2) .u. asIa b with more than 3 spans.3...'two""&pa.4. C2 • 113 and C3 1/4. if any.~~)t'~"" . slab to". ~.5t% fori .to.q.the loads on beams shall be c~lculated from first. in the above case_ since the h~. where q is the intensity of load art the slab per unit area.The triangular load may be converted into an equivalent uniformiy distributed load by using an equivalence factor explained in Sect. Beam B1 B2 B3 B4 .M.'.~i~~1.. a.4. as in case of a square slab simply supported on a l.. t __ Con dnui ty f~c tor . • For' unsymmetrical loading. iii 8 The loads on long beams shall be multiplied by continuity factors if the slab is simply supported on peripheral beams and continuous over inner beams. on short beam." '~:" ::.~'o. a part of the floor load is transferred to these U) (if) short beams also. principles of structural mechanics.te beam by 10%) • Rigorously. The load on long beam however is taken equal to C1.a.3._~c~nge "~~di?'3!r':'Jdu~ C~}~..4. equal toLx!4 Instead of Lx/2. the be~As subjected .4. c:. In case of an Hg.8)' Slebs isotropic slab (i.s s~pporting One"".On the other hand. ~ r'']o~:' :\.t of triangle is Lx/4 instead of Lx/2 taken in twoway slabs.Lgh. slab having equal reinforcement in two perpendicular directions.l~addue to the end reaction from secondary beams. and the equivalent UDL for shear" C3 x (q x Lx/2). <··"~.*' the short.3. the equlvalec. weight of beam. . Jttefer:to Fig. A/2 A Nil Nil where A .t .pd a point. UDL due to self. co' Bes tdes load transferred from slab. by' different beams are as follows.M. wall load if anY.. D'y. This is because the former assumption not only considers higher load on secondary beams but also transfers' full load on main beam as central point load. When the slab is oneway reinforced. However. is done.:. when the slab is designed as oneway and the main steel is only along the.1(c) ~s on ae.. .. :.3. K.y::?of::bs ' to Sla (reduction of .beappro#~t~ly taken equal to the area of thetrlangle banng height.load on end' be~.:" UDL factor for B.the beams B3 and 84 at top to'prevent cracking. .h~q_.3. edge ma"y. Thus.L sides).oii the basis of yield line theory. and that for shear C3. = C2 x (q~x Lx/2).'~~.1(d)(ii).1nlmua steel . for loads on beams supporting twoway slabs.iJft~rmct~~.the loads transferred in Fig..a..:.<'.1(d)(i) (page 45) instead of that over trapezoidal area shown in Fig. In case of slab supported on secondary beams B2..:j \_1.Area. . the load transferred to short beams is the load over a triangular area cosisting of a 45° isosceles triangle· having base Lx and height of vertex = Lx/2. Areas of floor carried.
ng In Case of beams Fig.. Thus.3. ./2) (Lx/2Lx/6) = qL s/24. by equatill8 MX1Ja.1(d) Loads Secondary supporting twoway slab.!j !I x having length Lx and height Lx/2.. [11/(2B)] (q Lx/2) c C3 (q L)(/2) giving C3 _ Il1/(28)J.load to Weq.for.. Such double triangular load can be replaced by equivalent uniformly distributed load of intensity equal to half the ordinate of trianglar load..1 self. we equate ~~ the maximum bending moment at centre equal to Fig. rt ng ly )f >n 1 ... For further details.2..~ I L~ I alN III  0 .t/4.. ~ :t II .. : :Proc. from frat hown 1 alN . ' x This gives weq./2 ~_ .Lx • . weqs Lx'" (l/2)(tx/2)(q L)(/2) giving weqs ...4. q L..M. . The equivalent UDL factor (e2) for D. x and q Lx/2 is the central ordinate of the triangular load •• ·. the load distribution is trapezoidal on long beams and triangular on short beams with base angle of 45° as shown in Fig.J' ~ 1~t w~qL'(/4 (Ii) o ... where B = Ly/Lx' The loads are multiplied by continuity factors If the slab 18 at..n but at quarter span points)./e) SeMS •I J~ Onew.. C2 (q L)I./2) giving C2 • [11/(382)} for shear Weq·s . q ~/3.toe .14.) . To get the eqUivalent un load for shear~ equate the total..'.g't'voway S1abs ~>< W Q'«ly/2 (i) . 10 N_ o • 4 1'" I~ 2 r 2 J....ay Slab's .s Handbook... Shor t on supporting e.) #' slabs beam nuity ':".B4 obtain equivalent UD load for B..weqb.ent un loads..4.4.2 as centr~l point load on main beam and the balance load also as triangular load over the beam in the form of two triangles. Therefore... weqs .3. with .:S.M.[11/(382)] (q L)(/2) .2~ I ~~ I .. '. The load on short beam 1s triangular .M.2 Loads on Be_a supporting w'8Clb L"... (I/2){q Lx/2) .. 8 t L ) o a••• : WQLrr. ¥.C22/3.ua values due to actual load ~ith that due to equival. to Seams 83.. refer to Table 2.eding on the same lines as for short beam above.4.2 Loads 'on Beams supportiu.12 of Author'.er 3 Sect.1 N W""CI'«( L/2t. The ordinate of trapezoidal and triangular 10ad*q'Lx/2 The triangular and the trapezoidal loads are converted into eqUivalent uniformly distributed loads by using the equivalence factors.Thus.2/81dth that due to triangular load Twoway Slabs.1(d)(il}. 3.ply supported along peripheral beams and continuous OVer inner beams... . we obtain for B..b = (qLx'/24)/(Lx'/8) = (2/3)(q'Lx/2) • C2(q L /2).4 In case of slabs supported on secondary beams as shown in Fig. rr long B .4./2) (L. 2t.. .. the equivalent uniformly distributed load on main beam replacing two tr1aQcalar loads is qLx/4 instead of qLx/3 (because vertices of triangle are not at . 0 . .qb .. ' "".3. '.1...4. CJ (q LJ(/2) and C3" 112.their vertices at quarter span points instead of at midspan. r.(1/2)q (L. and that for shear (e3) are obtained as under..
load on flg.4.*'This load sball further be [}lstdblatiOh of Floor Ar_s multiplied by co.1 and 3. The total load acting on any column is the algebric of the shears V at the end of all beams meeting at the column.ntinu.3.1 (For category of a column. ents due' to '·partial.el. 4 in Fig.3.3{b) loads on Column by column each floor ley.~.d OD. The loads transferfrOAl Be_ Shears red from slab to colUmns Cl~ C2.first.ns (a)Tbe actua.4. the procedure explained in Sections 3. .3. To this floor load.4./. column. 3(a).2. .Loads on Colu. + Pc at Corner columns Cl s O. and C4 are shown by encIrcled figures IJ2~ 3.1. above procedure'of calculation of column loads on the oasis of The column load area may not work.: . in plans having number of secondary beams irregularly supported on main beams.3(a) Loads on Column' column.ltyfactors given in Seet. The reader is advised to refer to Section 2 of Author's Handbook for exhaustive information. This has been illustrated in ProjectIII.3. load Pa coming from the upper column and its self weight' P self • sum Thus. refer to Sect.3(c) for read)' reference.~ !l!}'J.4. The ranpof allmraoce etf~t 'of partial/full fixlt is given in Fig.4. eolUIIIAc01Ies frOil both directions·the continuity factors shall be as follows.2.'. This allowance is normally decided by individualdesigne~r on the basis of bis past Fig.3(c) Allowances f« bending. the axial. the wall loads between the floor to floor height and self weight (based on assumed crosssection) are added to obtain.it is sufficiently accurate to consider the load over. In such cases. because load on secondary beams lying within the column load area is not fully transferred to that column but to the columns supporting main beams on which this 8ec9~dary beam rests.3(b). The bending moment and shear force coefficients for some typical beams and loading cases are'presented in Appendix .& ".) The design load may be obtd.ned by addiD& «rtain allowanee depeudina upon the position of the column in plan to accowt for: the effect of mom and Internal columns Cl = 1. due to experiern:e and j~dgement.5.the area of the floo'isupported by the flg • . Since the los.4. The column loads are then obtained by addition of beam shears. Y !~~~r_k~_. P = Vl+V2+V3+V4+Pa+Pself (b}When the load on the column is required prior to design of beams.1 above.4~3. 4. Chapter 3 3.C3. .l load on column can best be obtained by calculating first the loads ~on"'beams· and their end shears.4.and beam shears are calculated using appropriate continuity factors according to.B. at any floor level See Fig·. 3. only !roads are obtained approximately on various beams. f~][ity between the beams and 33 to 50·'.4.4.8~ Side columns Cl .46:' !ona.3.
London.E.R. 3.K and Evans. "Examples of Design of Buildings to C.. Sect.5 Reynolds. 1978.K.9 Reynolds .Edward Arnold Ltd. "Basic Reinforced London.345. "Elementary Reinforced Second Edition.S.1980.C~B..A.14.Butterworth and Co.1f41f < \ _ l. London. and Salman. Ex •3 •~ •2 . Concrete Publication Ltd. Chap. 3."1 ~arve. . New York.S. 3. C.W.C.C.~e~~ren~e"~~.E.4.7 Wang. 3.·.3. 1979. lhird Edition.L. Bureau of Indian Standards.Harper Publishers.F.P. and Shah. 5 •_ 3.V.R. Surrey. "S"tructural Concrete" .169.3 'Explanatory Handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete'.2 Kong. "Reinforced and Pr'estrreased Concrete" .C. Concrete"~ Structures Publishers.Thomson Nelson and Sons Ltd. 4111 Reprint .l0.H.Special Publication SP:24 (S & T) 1983. Pune.6' Wilby.J.s • Concrete 'Design". Concrete Design".. Chap. Sect.'f I 3. "Limit State" Theory and Design'i* Reiuf.. Cha p •3 .4(a).·'l'~· \ References: : ".4 Karve.and C.. View Point Publication.lI. Page 50.1997 "Handbook of Reinforced Concrete Design". 1983. p.294. London.G.C. p. 5" Reprint .1998 Pune . Pone. and Row 3.ll.R.. p. and Steedman.110 and Allied Codes".p.8 Morgan.283.C. 3. Struc:tures Publishers. 3. "Reinforced Concrete Design". Chap.1966..
DOC . . . . / \.~ ..48 Page for PersonalNotes GP324.
e.45 ick.0035 • The variation of compressive stress with strain in concrete in compression regioll.1. €IX x .e.C..0.: (a) Flexure. be'less than 0.Chapter. For detailed study of . 4. See Fig.4 Limit State . (d) Axial Compression (Crushing and Buckling).III~)( ) in concrete k.2. While designing a member. On the contrary. the distance x of c.S that yield strain in steelEsy . ' Concrete does not carry any tension.S.ISEs) i. design requirements given according to 15:4561978.42 XU' >: • ~~ .002+fyl(1. and position of total compression.361 say 0. a cursory review of the theory has been taken in this chapter and the relevant equations and the. Parameter for maximum stress (f C. fc. ftamed structure is subjected to following structural actions.36 fCk' and x = k2 Xu = 0. its strength at: collapse and behaviour at working loads for each of the above structural actions are required to be known thoroughly. 1.0.42.1 FLEXURE': (THE01lY OF BEAMS AHD SlABS) 4. the reinforcement must yield prior to crushing of concret~ at collapse.plane after beoding~ This implies that longitudinal strain at any 'point in a section is proportionalto the distance x of that point from the neutral axis..416 say 0.lII~x k3 fck .2(b). As stated earlier in the scope of this book.C. (b) Shear. . Is rectangularparabolic as prescribed by I. Graphically.the object of this chapter is not to explain the Theory of Limit S.36. Code and shown in Fig. 4.e. Thus. fc. It may be observed from Fig.O. and (e) Combination of above.£ c " The stress in the reinforcement is corresponding to the strain in steel at that point as obtained from the.lSEs)' stressBlock Parameters : The parameters giving maximum stress in concrete.Mathematically.the Limit State Theory. 0. as given by the ~..strain in steel at ultimate state (i. e: s . Parameter for position of total compression in con crete (i..av kJ fck 0. Members A member in a R. The tension is carried by steel only. Parameter for average stress (fc•av) In concrete kl ..tate·Design io deatH. at collapse) shall not. Limit state of collapse in bending is said to have reached when the maximum strain in concrete E:.known as stressblock.1.1.OO2+fy/(I.4.prescribed stress8train curve for the type of steel used for reinforcement. Basic Assumptions (I) : ~ t t (2) l' I ! (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) I I A normal section which is plane before bending remains.ax at the outermost fibre reaches the ultimate value E cu .Code are as follows. Perfect bond exists between concrete and steel right'upto collapse. Mathematically.4.446 say 0.2 a . However. (c) Torsion.Theory fO'[ R.45. the strain diagram across the section is triangular. average stress in concrete.it is presumed that the reader knows the theory well. 1. .g of stress block from highly compressed edge) k2 = 0.1. See Fig . 0. the reader may refer the Authors' textbook. The maximum .
87fy Ast if (1 ./fy){1 .bd •••• ·.4.0 0..(b).a1ned by solution of Eq.11 .Tu.36 fCkku (1 .36 fck.87 0.4 is qudratic in Ast and is 81 ven by e .6 Mu/(fek . Since the maximum strain in steel & s.80 ju 0.1.Ku/(O._x.8 0.: The relat10nbetveen Ast and Mu Is obt.. Expressing moment of resi6taoce £actor Ru • Mu/bd2 .vr .Chapter '4 (c) ·JfoiIent of Resistance (. It can be expressed either ollS {Cu x lev~r ana} or (Tu x lever arm). Code in Appendtx E in Cl.b &u(d .0.1. a.G.G~ of steel we set. are well versed with thf' Working StreasMethod. Ru J The momentof resistance 1s the moment of a tension . Mu.42 ku) •••••••••• (4._x is not allowed to be less than Esy according to Assumption No.16) The value of ju aay be obtained Ratio Mu/Mur .hP)J ·. ~.89 0.6 Mu/(fek.13a) (ii) Taking momentof total tension Tu about C.the follew1ng lever ani.13) ...O.1.0 .eel(A.t.40 0.5fek/fy)(1 .50 0.Cu x:tu' ..87f~ Ast (d .pproach is given for calculation of Ast.11 .90 0. Hur . Ast . The strain distribution diagram for a such a section is shown in Fig. 4.87£yJud) .0.3 Des1p Constants A balanced or critical for Balanced or Cr1t1ca1 Seetioa section is that section in which maximum strains in reach their ultt.42 xu) (4. of compression Mur . 2b(Page 51).(4.93 0..60 0. .0.ate values simultaneously.95 4.(fy/fck)(Ast/bd)] •••••••••• (4.O.91 0..El.1. of st.of totalcompresslon C:uabout:C.' It can be obtained from the strain diagram and is given by : both concrete and steel .compression couple.O.5. .85 0.30 0.zu .42xu) •••••••• :.1. (1) Taldag moment .4. x Lever arm factor frOil the following 0.(4. cPtl.4.e.55 0. the value of Xu for the critical section is the maximum allowable value xu.7 given in Sect.• bd:t»). • •••• (4. Ast .15a) who are not fsailiar with the Litdt State Method but.14a) or Mur .10 Table. Pt' .15) (d) ~ which Note: Design engineers or.825 0.(0.(0.90 : 0.l.5fck. Hur· . or Ru/R1u ••• X"""1. and is equal to ultimate design momentHu i..(4..4.14b) This equation is given by 1.
"'_Tu In above equation. 0.700 II .~x Steel grade .87fyAst··(4.3) Equating total compression (in concrete and compression steel) with total tension in tension steel.1.15 0.19) Fig.12 : Values of f se (ilJ 1I1_~) for DifEeresL aat:1os of d·c/d Eor BYSD Bars : > . 0. ~0.: Fe250 Pe41S 2.>•.(d'c/d)/ku) For mild steel (Fe250). 4.2b P·t.72 Fe500 2..46 348 352 334 342 314 329 422 424 401 412 386 395 ~ 355 .003S{1 . Once the value of k u ..36fck ku•max.£ sc .40 0.87£y) •.< r 51.10 0.limit and Pt. of fsc are obtained from stressstrain diagram of HYSD bars corresponding to values of esc for different ratios d'c/d and are given in Table. the direct relation between f5c and E Ie C4Qt\Ot be obta1lled because stressstrain variation 1s Dot linear..limit· on redistribution are obtained using Eq .dtc/xu) •••••(4. Diagram' s s The values of the design constants Ru.113)· For lfYSD bars.. t Table 4.0..05 0. '= '2xlo5\'N/~2" POO/(1100 + 0.20 233349 371 349 0.1t • •• Xu.66 0... fsc .13) and Eq.4 Properties of Doubly Ile~orced kectanaular SeCtloa : N/mm2 % 2.112} . .11 : Design Constants foe Balanced or Critical .m8xbd2 .53 0.45 fek.10 0.00351l0.liI.•• (4.4.110a>" Strain If redistribution of moments is allowed by oM r.07 0. or Xu. Oist~1&ut1on E .42 u •• ax ) •• (4...Rence.17) Xu. 0.4.76 FeSOO 4.1ia).0055+fy/(l.87 £y)} d~~ ••• (4.For s.96 2..HY10j Concrete grade : H20 MIS . get.05 354 0.4._:j3 6.97 1.76 fa) Depth of Neutral Axis (Xu) (See F18.87 fy} .limit < .48 . Pe415 2.·(l0.Sect.I.4.max ku•max i. (4.46 0..1 xu.15 Es)).20 0.(4. we.Eq.c I k {ld_xl.7a) .. ku.23 1.15 0.81fy Sust1tuting Es .18)' Mur•max·= Ru.oo2+C>8ify ku .the value.12 for ready reference.00 0.18 and .32 0..2 x 105 N/mm2 and Esc from Eq. other constants can 'be ob+ tained from Eq.1.1lOa by replac1ng k·~ ax by k u..max . ..48 0. O. and 1s given by : £ sc 0. Fe 500 Fe 415 ku d' c/d 0. €eli'" 0003 5 . Table 4..0.4.30 393 314 233 353 340 417 0. fsc .. 0. O.4.111) For simplification fcc may be ignored or may be taken • 0..57 Fe2S0 2.0035(1 .48 Xu •• ax 0..87 £'1 .1.3 Doubly Aeint~ced Rectangular Sections strain d1agram.36fck bxu + Uscfcc )Asc .fsc is stress in compression steel corresponding to £ se It can .max / Flexure : RectaJ)gular Sections(· 0. (4..(4.max ld z:: 700/(1100+ 0.(d'e/d)fkul <. . .Es < 0.36fck kU•1II8X /(0.(4.4.76 SectiO~ !.46 Ru •• ax Pt..1::. obtained from the be F1g. Ru•max .12.max is known..6M/100 < ku•llax.6 .1.max.
(i) Tension ~ Compression Steel : The area of cOIIlpression steel(Asc) is obtained by equatingMu2 with the moment of Cu2 {(fscfoc)Ascl about tension steel.13 : Values of (D~87fyJI(f$CfccJ for D1frerent . Astl ..ina!f.die») ••••• (4.037 1.52 Limit (L) state Theory.4 . The values of RU.mom.lternatively. Members Chapter' 4. ' .20 · 0.t.48) · · mix Table 4. Thus in design.aax )] ••••.87fy(4 .:.120 1.L4(a) as . Matios of djc/d HiS H2O 1.4.126 Approximate % increase over Ast2 O.042 1. "compression in compression steel) about cetroid of tensioristeel.tII8X ~ can tie obtained from Table.Mu2 .4.IS % 12% ~ . Ast2 . (4.max from Eq.87fy/(fscf'cc:)J required in Bq .87fyAst2) about the comptessioosteel.10 0. 4'..053 1.201 2.079 1.10 d'c/d 0..d. 42xu) + (f sc!cc )AsC<ddt c). 1 value of [(0. Ast:2 ••••• (4. No~ H'ur ax .1~5e) above are given in Table....Mu:2/{O.115c) . ' (c}Area u:. the section is kept balanced to make full utilization of the resistance of concrete.'.OS d'c/d 0.048 1. Mur = Mul' +.043 1.a'l.of resistance of a balanced section. Ast1 P t.(total comression in concrete ). Hu == Hur = HU1+Mu2 herein HUI.194 1..13 below for different ratios d·c/d for ready reference. Astl .073 1.max • Art!a of tension steel and ceapreasdon steel for resisting Hul "and Hu2 can be obtained as follows. R •• ax: bd 2.fy Ast2)/(fsefcc) oo •••• (4oo115e) where fs~ is.0% 4% In general 5%  8% 10% 12% · · 5% In general 8% . : is obtained of Area of tension steel Astl '"' Ast ••ax: corresponding to Hut = M'ur. Home~t ot:~e~is!~e (If l!r): . .Hur. and Cu2 ~rot.Alternatively.Hut/{O.lllex bd .15 0.115d) or equating C u2 . for' BrSD Bars: . .: •• ~ (4. Balance moment' remains to be resisted is MIl2 == Hu . For simplification fcc be ignored or may be taken . The section is normally designed as doubly reinforced when the design moment to be resisted is greater than the moment. ~ .T u2 Asc .' .3) .1II8Xku ••ex. (4.120 1.87£y(d .equat.. of ~..ent 'Ita' (0.15 0.046 1.• balanced section.O~87.C •.1. (See F1& ..05 0.equal to 0.077 1. Asc «Ku2/{(f$C~fcc}(dd'c)] . 1.084 1.45 fck·' The stress in compression steel is obtained from Eq.42 Xu. The ultimate\nomertf of ''resistari~e is\~l?t~ixied by taking moments of Gul .A. the stress in compression steel.11'4) .=Murax of a singly reinforced w . we are requ~red to determine the area of steel for a given section to resist a given design moment 'Mu. 13).u2 with the .46) Fe415 and (ku . == • 36fck bxu(dO.1.128 1.(4 .1iSa) where X·U.  of Steel (Ast) In design problems..0.. ..' The area of tens 1011 steel Ast2 is cbta~ by .~ ••• (4.20 1.0. (ii) may Concrete Fe500 and (ku = 0.11Sb) Total area of tension ste~l Ast .
.119) FOr Xv >.e. (ii)For Lbeams : b. for normal loads and beam spanning.Of and Ast may be obtained by using Bq. Ast .0..6L to L depending on moments at both ends. Of = Depth of flange (= slab thickness) bf<= bw+half the sum of clear distances to adjacent .5 Properties of Flanged Section J: (f)For Tbeams': bt = Lo/6 + 6Df + b.75L.. '" ••••• (4. In this sitl.. (4. Beam continuous at both ends .(4.. we are required to obtain the area of steel for a given or assumed section to resist a given design moment Mu.J6fckbwxu(d0. 0. Ast can then be obtained by using Eq.6 Mu I(fekbfd'»)btd . we get Mu . = 10/12+ 3Df + b. (0.(4.Sect~ 4.0.1'18a}. In this case.it is necessary·.Depth of flange is less than.(4.1.J6fck bf Dt (d . the~e are two possibilities. Yt . . Beam simply supported at one end and continuous at the other .2L.18) only except that Yt will be replaced by Df. I o} Area Mur .to know in advance whether the neutalcrxls would lie in flange or in web for the given moment. J of Resistance (/lur): : of steel lAst}: .then Xu > Of and then Xu will first be obtained by using Eq. .1at1on..Mvrl . (iiiH'or isolated . Xu>Df): In this case. Df > (317)xu or Xu « 7Dt13.. Beam simply supported at one end and fixed at the other end ..f given by D Murl . (1) (Xu ): Neutral axis lying inside the flange (i.. (0.. the depth of rectangular part of thestress block i..36fck b ...116b) where. iiven Mu is compared with Hurl of the section for Xu .'. Xu + 0.beams.45f ck (bf .3) and Eq.15xu + 0~65 Df not greater than:D.. and when the depth of the beam Is taken between Ll12 to L/I>i the neutral axis lies inside the flange only.118b)'·' II . I ..O.1. by .O~7SL to L depending upon moment at continuous end.87fy Ast ) ••••• (4.(4.e. .36fck bt Xu (d ..1.b. Beam simply su~ported at both ends .7L according to the Code) Since small variation in bf does not materially change the strength of the section especially when xu<Df(wbich is the normal case).(4.(4. for T beams ••••• (4.0. Hence value of Lo 0.Hence putting b=bf in Eq.116a) . tbe'depth of neutral axis is obtained using Eq.7Dt13. (4.. the effective width of flange Ls giVG{l.1 5 Flexllre : Flanged Sec t ion' '53 4.0..5). ' fCk/fy) [1/14..7L is normally taken for calculating bf of continuous beams.1.(4. ..In this case.7Dt/3 replace Yt by Df in the above equation..0.. b~ = breadth of web. for L beams In any case bf <= actual flange width. Beams fixed at both ends . Dt <.5 If<Mtent In deSign.Muw + Mut .e.119 and lab).42xu) O •••••(4.42 Dt) o .the depth of neutral axis may be obtained from the relation.117b) (ii) Neutral axis lying inside the web (i.Depth of flange is greater than the depth of rectapgular part of the stress block i.' •(4.117b) If Mu > Murl.120) If Nu <. To know this.116d) bf = O.. Values of Lo may be taken as under: Cantilever .Lo = Length of beam between points of zero bending moment.(3/7)xu or Xu >.then Xu <. beam acts as~ recta~ular beam with b = bf.5Lo/(Lo/b+4) + b.6L.e.L. • ~'••• (4 • 116c ) bt "" Lol (Lo/b+4) + b..42xu) + 0. .118&) where Yt • O.4Sf de (btbw}yf(dyt/2) •••• (4.. Xu <z Df): In this case.117a)· The solution of the quadratic equation gives the value of Ast • .beams on either side. ' .0. C01II1Ifents: In most of the cases. (a) Effective Width of Flange (bf (bJ Depth of Neutral Axis.
.45..thout : ("uc) > WbeD.100 Ast/(bd) A$t .Vu •• ax Wu b /2 (where bs is width of support) ••••• (4.2 is at a'distance 'd' from the face of and 'at th~ face of support offering support tensile Design Shear . Since the sbear resistance· due to aggregate interlock is effective only after the development . aad. shear f~rce at the end.4 $bear JresJ.'S xl.O. Vue . ~~~J". 1 for c.30 .ux .1 Crit..Limit .arade of concr.21a) Design shear force for support off.• ~_(54!'.sbear resistance ofR..cal Section for Shear: ". MaiD Steel but: v1. eo. _ .J.. Tuc.2.odification factors given below for caculatina shear resis tance of concrete in slabs..25 1..!!ring tension rea~tion Vue .85 I.8fc4l/(6.for 8upport~.lt. IIIiuer . Design shear force.2..2.10 1.C. Shear resiated by dowel action.of Tue for concrete grades MIS and H2O are given in Table 4.89Pt) but >.."" 0. ~OllCrete in4::oapression is func~on of grade of concrete and of ~he percentase of teaslon steel.8 Nlmm2 for concrete ef grade M20.TucW where.. t"· • f > 1'.area of rongitudinal tension steel at the sect10n.. .Sfet){ 11+5B 1 )/(6B) ._f.fr State Theory of R.00 1.'ruc"aI< bd ••••• (4. it is ignored by the Cod4! and kept as reserve atrength.ate.or beam simp. nth. resistance of concrete in compression.presaiOll.2 below. Vue . It is given by the following relae1on: . Sbear aelaforceM:Gt..60 at _the contdnuoue end of end span of continuous beam.offering compression reaction is equal to: VuD . These values wtll be increased by .3 Shear Strength o£ Sectl~ .2.C.Lysupported or continuous at both ends .)Ck ._} I ~ j' i ~. : : be .15 1._crete of grade M IS.C. The .. Wh~reJ r . (4.of diagonal crack.x . Depth of slab in am >300 275 250 225 200 175 <ISO Modification faetor k 1.5. steel.IMX: . a bema is provid~d with . O. 4.dowel action of main.._.0 Pt .23) B .trithout s'hear re1. 4.1. Critical secti~nfo~ shear offering compressive 'reaction reaction.2. Tue .. 4.atanee of I.22) where '1' UC.IIBX) .(0.0.(l)s/2+d) Wu ••••• (4.wu is given by the e~pression .ufocementL the shear 1s jOintly resisted oby shear.:values .05 1.21b) VU. . Ill steel(l.. memberwithout shear reinforcement (but with main reinforcement) isaany times loosely termed as shear resistance of concrete.20 1. Members Chapter 4I i. and .2."Dd~the .. by aggregateinterl.IIIIX depeudsupoD the .t.Vu.e. r Wu L "_" s 4.nDiagoDal.at the simply supported end of end span of continuous beam.Force (Vuo) : The maximum. I '. of a beam carrying uniformly distributed load of intensity . . If shear at a section exceeds VUC•a5K• the section Is inadequate and should revised either by changing b or d Vue. (VUC.2 SIIEAIl AIID ~ION 1 Part A : Shear  i .
53 0.24a) V usb .68 0.71 0.of Itu' c.SVu• ••••• (4.5 Vue t A.81 0.72 · · · 2. (iii) Inclined Stirrups or Series of Bentup Bars • Shear Resistance of Isolated Bent up Bars at a section : •••••(4. Total Shear Reaistanee of Shear Reinforcement for cOlibinatiOllof (4) v1th (2) or (3): Vu.50 1.39 0.71  ~4.70 0.y/(b.55 0. H.24 0. .5 Shear &es1stau.82 : (Vus) (2) (3) (4) (S) (6) (7) .aaeaber with Minimum Stirrups : •••••(4.2 : Shear stceDgth.90 0.I d (sin a + coso)/a ••••• (4./(0.35 0.27) V"r .inclination of bentup barls with the axis of the ..0.73 0.30 0.75 0.0.~y •••••4..00 2. 348bd say •35M Shear R.24b) Shear Resistance of Vertical stirrups with area of vertical leas A.80 1.5s shear at tile section.44 0.0.~ Tuc  .0.24«1) K1n1aUII Stirrups : When shear at a aectlan Vu exceeds 0. ln • Vue + V ".68 0.80 0.eaber Shear Resistance of Inclined Stirrups or a series of Bentup bars bent at different sections at a pitch distance apart : Vusi .51 0.50 0.ee o£ Shear b1D£orc_t (1) 0.20 >2.69 0..60 0.7Sd or 45a.7S _ for ea.10 0. V".v f).28 0.2Sb) Shear It.(8) (0) (9) Types of Shear Reinforcement: (i) Bentup Bars.68 0.50 0. + Vusv• but b <.19 0.':"'~~~J!lPfl:55 · Pt% HIS · .v: Vusv .10 0.38 0.2 Table 4.60 1. UJSbear resistance at the section i.v dIs ••••• (4.~:.20 0.10 2. Max1a1. 4. 4. NI_a :.30 0.eat : No bar in tension reaion shall be curtailed unle8s anyone of the followina conditions ia aatisfied.60 0.71 0.24<:)" where. not less than 1.40 0.29 0.esistanceof JUnia_ Stirrups : ••••• (4.66 0.:.PK1Da not esceediq d/(8B) wbere 8 is the ratio' of area of curtailed bars to area prior 1:0 curtailaent.55 0.24 0.a Spac!1l8 : 8 <.30 1.58· 0. A.70 0. (lii)Tbe continuing bars provide double the area required for flexure at the point of cutoff aDd the shear at the secdon does not exceed 3/4th of the shear resistance at the section.76 0.C.62 0.spacing of stirrups.25 0.71 0.67 0.71 0.70 0.48 0.70 1.87f).36 0. c\ MIS H2O .26) Vun •• in .iniaullSpac1ng : 8 >.2.4b) ••••• (4.63 0. (il) Vertical Stirrups.6 Dear DeaJaa 1a e. Tuc HIS H2O Pt % .72 0. where.esi8tance of a R.V .2.7Sd beyond the cutoff point with resultant .43 0.71 0..:c:~~..77 0.64 1.46 0.of Concrete in .O.vhichever is less •.55 1.v •• in I \.65 0. (ii)Additional stirrups with area equal to area of minimum stirrups are provided fora distance .62 c 0.57 0.) > O.53 0.20 1.32 0. Pt % ~Tuc .60 0.2Sa) ( or 8 <.nau.87fy A ab sin CJ .90 1.40 1.e of concreting.O.87fy A.15 0.80 0.33 0.00 1. A. ~ • H20 0.Asb .area of bent up bar/so a .s .71 0.Sect. .50 0.
. ..C. the f6rce transfer 'can be made by mechanical anchorage at the end.2~9a) The shear reinforcement consists of only closed vertical stirrups. The member is then designed for this total resulting S..1 Definition : Bond is defined as interfacial shear acting Over the contact surface of the bar which prevents relative movement between the two constituent materials. C. .S)(d/d.2.(4.. members. :.Side Pace Steel : When the side of beam exceeds 450mm (750 mil ..2.3 BOND 4. of R.'Xl or (X1+Y' )/4 or 300.ent acting on the member is converted :lnto equ Lva. _.om."~..9c} or V us • ('1'u/b1 + Vu/2.. • .vertical distance be~ theceatres of outermost corner bars. Tu.28a) Muel .:.(4 ..if meIlper isuot subjected to torsion). the torsional m. additional.(l+D/b)i1...ent bend Lag moment and equivalent shear which is added to actual'B. In absence of bond. \ ~ 4.. and shear acting at the section.9). . Vue .M. . d. Y1 • vertical distance between cent'C.7 Equivalent Bending MoaeDt : Olue) ••••• (4. Bond is due to chemical adhesion (gripping of"conc~ete to bar on setting).. mechanical friction and bearing on projections (lugs or ribs) on bars as in case of deformed bars.?.. (4.210) Where Vus 1s given.M.••• (4. 4. ~ccordlng to the latest theory of tatsion for'R.s . Mu + Mt where Mt . closed stirrups .6Tu/b \ 4.~.. 4 Part BLTors!on .Vue ••••• (4.= Actual bending ~oment at the section..29b) VU1 . Vue .l. S <.2~.75d Whichever !sthe least. and shear..9 Spacing of Stirrups : Spaclngof.'28b) Mue2'" Shear <Vue) •••.10 . 4. by Eq..horizontal d1stance between centres of vertical legs of etirrups.2.3..7 Tu = Torsional moment ~t the section. . Mu .87fyAsv et» us ••••• '(4. ' where x.':.) where h1 ·horizOntal distance between tbe centres of outerat03t corner bars.~.8 Equi~alent steel will be provided on compression Mt . O.2.2. .1 % of the crosssectional area (equally distributed on two faces) and the spacing betWeen these longltu4iual bars shall not exceed bw or 300 mm whichever is les$..·56 Limit State Theory '>' ""..Mu'" '" face to resist a B.or 6.esof hori.Vu + 1.ztJntal legs of stirrups. It will be designed for greater of the following: . . Members Chapter ~ '~..It is necessary for transfer of strains and hence forces from concrete to steel so that the 'two materials act together as one cOllposite mate'f'1al. \ ~'. bars will be prov1ded along the two side faces of web with total area equal to 0.M. When Mt > Hut 4.
ot the point of contraflexure). I..:.87£ y/ (4 Tbd )] .M.lad Anchoraaes : Hooks aDd JleJtds A bar gives an addition~l equivalent bond length of for every 45° bend.(LdI3bs/2) where bs 1s. For developing full strength in'the bar.1.from the point of critical stress where xo "is the length of negatIve moment region from the centre of support.tlor. the breadth of the . (b) lleabers under Bending : I (l)Check ~or Development Length for Support Steel or Neaatlve·~t SteeL: At least onethird of total tension steel provided for negative aOllle1lt 8Up.e.3. 1. for plain round bars in tension. Required Ld <.the values of k are given'below for different grades of concrete and steel.·ultimate..Lex ... •k ' .imit state) for bar diameters less than 36 ilIm.sect.AvaHable bond length .k .sion or CoapressionJ : I I I I .5 OIeek for Devel. 1 .Nt/V + LextO.3n ( where.."art.2 .e.ent Length : It is\def~ned as that length (Ld) of bar required to develop a design . hooks and_ bends are ineffective and cannot be used as anchorage.4 Staudard .. as· . . The Code gives following.3 Bond Length or Develop. Force (Teo.extension_of bars beyond the centre line of support (hut<.. discontinuous end of a beam supported on two supports.opMlDt Length (a'J'eJlfberslJDlJer Direct / 4..0 .."' ""~~ ~ .d . _ 4.Bond strength Tbd in N/mm~ Increase in strength = 25 % for bars in compression = 60 % for deformed bars (irr~spective of its grade) 4. :. Bond ~ 57 ~":I!:"'. on each side' of.4.87fy• • . this check shall be applied at the point of zero bending moment (i.stress (as)' in the bar (of diameter d) at prescribed rate of average/bond 'strength Tbd and is given by the expression Ld "'{Os/(4Tbd)}f/J=k¢ ••••• (4. ! i .d or 12~ whichever is greater». In case of bars in compression. 1. {{0. (il)For midspan steel or positive moment steel. Fe41S Fe415 FeSOO Steel grade Fe250 Fe500 68 46 41 57 Development length factor 57 55 4. For round bars under t"ension."4..4~·J (.a 'critical section (i. Concrete grade H20 MI5 Fe2S0. The point of critical stress is a point of maximum stress which 18 either the centre of an intermediate supportor the face of cantilever support.l.3K1!V+L_ at supporu offering eomp~81ve reaction) ••••. • Moment of resistan.os/(4 Tbd) Is known as development length factor.: z MI5 M20 M25 Grade of Concrete .val~es of bond stength for limit state method (for .3. ~. the total length of the bar. tances ahall be less than 2Ld ).31) where.ce of beall at the section ..t port shall extend for a length not less than SHter· of [xo + (d or 12 _ or clear span/16 whichever is greater) and Ld.. under 0.3.0 cir .Bond Strength 'slonal t ilnd .:t4:'3~/. Every bar shall extend a distance equal to development length I.. subject to a maximum of 16¢.
These are gl ven in the desian procedure for the •• • Ghars in the sub~queJl~ section.1: \4 .0 " .' 20.. ) (6' .o than allowable LId.x:·are·the areas of tension steel at the support and at the midspan respectively../bfto be obta1ae4 fro. .d) aDd ~t . IJ 4. .6 Curtau.ed181leter) Is assUmed to be equal to. Sect. . e .2..o Ir J ' _'WI \\ f ._ ··where.1lOd1fleationfactor for span> 10. M  .ua &aount of reinforcement for various "'bera of the fraae (e..xo4X rb " .t /3 at continuous end where Ast . "Control of crack!na.7 for cantilever. / 4.ent '0£ Bars Reinforcement.._ For two...f.\ • )oUlO StEEL aAR! \J U 0 :_ 1 . x are the number of bars at support and at: midspan r.t/4 steel at midspan.adlfication faetor for b.26 for c. ~.Oa aad' CraCk'D8) .I4oO.. thea~ requ1r_ta are 'a.espectively. 4.."ay slabs ha'l11"D.(:ode·prescribes tbe' folloW!ng all..(1) aDd CI •. Members Chapter 4 If moment·of resistance of' bars at midspan (aU having . . whichever is lese.. the design moment MUle at midspan..l<lfl/N. (12 1 (for pc 0). aid.\at. ...on ~ectoraltor Pt ~l:.... CI .IO/span.. F1g.A$t1··and'A·st~II.~ v .is' achieved byobaeniq all requirements .2 Crackf". .1u1aumand a.' . . prescr1'becl by ~he code for 1l1n1aWl cover.3. In case of.. .. 02mOdIfication factor fot ~ ~"~'" ~~..x . which is no longer required to resist flexure beyond ee~tain Point may be curtailed subject t o its extension beyond that point by.. of cantilevers. ratio •• lwa MlGw.1: !. i.oatinuoue: :: a I .hall be ." M.) Allcwab. IU ~ .I.ax. '. UUatJon fac:tor for ./MlialC<'" Ai': 11Ast~.. t.28 for 8111p1y aupported aDd 32 for COlit~oua. ·required minimumA st I at support for adequate end anchorage is A.pan for beams IlUpPorted on two supports aDd at f1u4 'eac1 in ca..maxt. I M WI . _t if actual U4rad.... 4.4. and UIlt./N_x) ..iVen by P1&.1 MadIUcetl.. In case of flauged bena~ pte will be baaed 011 100 Ast/(bt.. beam..4. :.. ~io1. " 4.. H SfR!NGTH BAAS " 4" 'GfWWr· (10 . . a' disunce 12 _ or 'dt whichever is greater and subject to proviSion of addltlonai. • (J f x02%a..4.. do !lOt.S a &ad LL <3 klfl.area of tension at discontinuous end· andA. ..58 Limit state Theorlj ct·R .. .. c. r.laba.. 1he .\ .....farade 'e41S.4 .2.ale or HI ..Pef~tlc.the sam.a span L <l.20 for simply supported. .4..Je Deflections: .4. .. and HJ & N..eetJ.owable defl«:tions. 'If .6.'.' U u UM percentale of cOIRpression steel " steel Pc a8 liven by F1&..hear Reinforcement· as explained In. coltmms J footings). f. .labs. :" ~~: . ~~oft:enslon8t~(pt) nquired' 'ali .C.Ml . Total deflection <'Spau/250 Deflection after the erection of walls (load trausfer) <:Spaal3SO or ia 1•• Allo1rable LId ratio where r b • Basic LIt!· ratio .0 ' I.4 SBIlVICBODJTY: (Defl. allowable LID ratio r.· aad steel Q.3 (paae 59).4.. ci .4.lilGlfdle '£/tl IMt.xiatabar d1aaeter.(N.. 4..· . :: u l. Also.. apply.. .. :J..M. then . F10.1 .be_ beea.i4 to .1 .....
bw~bt : : Limit state of collapse is said to have been reastrain in concrete reaches the . ..8 1..0035 for pure bending and for a cracked section ../ 0 /'" V . ched.u the clear distance between the end restraints.00 0.2 .e ~ for Percentage of Conpression Steel.1 Basic Design Aspects (a) Basic Assu. Fig.S. <.e.3 1.Floor to floor height .4.. L .catlon.1n..J.under bending and axial cOIIpression (i.e..00 2. . defined.4.4.002 at a distance of 3»17 from the highly compressed edge.of a compression l't_ber is. when part of t~ section Is in tension).Fector a. .entire section under coapresslon).3 Modlf.5. .0.50 /v / I / . sway) at the two ends4 The effective lengths of a column for various end conditions are given below.total depth of shallower beaa. .0 bw/bf· 4.1 .00 o 0. See Fig... .2 1.e. ~ 2. 0.75 x £.' . (e} Effective Length . 4. a 2 . is the minimum compressive strain in concrete under combined bending and flg. I __.S AXIAL COIIPUSSIOIf AHD BENDlHG 4.c / .{Left} : (iJ General: Effective length of a column is defined as the length between the points of contraflexure in a buckled column. .4.ptioDS: Flg.4.1 axial coapression for uncracked section (i. (b) l1lJ1JUpported Leagth (L) : The unsupported lenath ..1" where e: . 4. g ~ o : ..V .70 3.2 Modificetion t ac t or. 0.1... . It depends upon the restraints against rotation and translation (i.4 : 1.5.0035 . 1.tor.sect.e..002 for pure axial compression 0. / .. when the maximum this ·is equivalent': ee a compressive strain of 0.. LS 1.. ?:IN .4' '.it is equal to floor to floor hel.0. follOWing values. Thus.50 1.5 '..0 Z L 0. ". u :. 0. For a beamslab floor construction.ht minus the total depth of the shallower beaa £raalng into the column at top.50.
not effectively held in position at anyone the two ends): L eft = ..0 L For columns with sway (i. The effective length of a column in a rigid.). • & I • .0L (ii of J ColuJIIDS in ~raaes : .e.IlL of ~C)lUlln aDd ktI .sway and from Fig.IlL of beam I .2(a) for columns not free to . ke . 1.60 Limit and state. a The ratio Leff/L depends upon the rotation release factors 61 and 62 at top and botto. .free to rotate at both ends _(both ends hinged) 0.5. fully fixed. h1qed). r 1.rotat101l free (i..position fixe4 but .restrained against rotation at both ends (both ends fixed) . the ends of the column are held in position as well as restrained against rotation (i.O. Theory of R.restrained against rotation at one end only / {one end fixed.Restrainedaga__inst otation at both ends. 2.' .. 51) kc .a1ue.Moaaent of inertia of t~ member.t IlL and for unbraced frames kb • (3/2) (IlL) The value of IlL 1s based on the assumption that both.. 2 Effect..&.4.. D <II.haa an. For a col~ with the other end . For braced frames kb.8 L 1.tbot~ . WlthSwey Fig .Dil~.0 L One end is held ihposition aQd restrained against rotation also while the oiher is. rotati.5. plane frame is obtained by using the ratio LettlL obtained from 1'1. Metifber: __ Chapter 4''''' Fer columns w~thOi1t_~way (i..5 L One end is held in pos'ition but free to rotate while the other end is not heldJn p_osit1on but restrained agafnst.!Ye Lengths of ColLllfts In Fr.. o£ coluam respeet1we1y where. other hipged} . of eolUIID.75UU.s . 1 at: top 8..65 L 0.2 L Restrained against rotation fully at one end and partially at the other end..effective1y held in position at both ends) Lett .e.~¢.fully free in position and rotation. 8 • I kef{ t kc + I kb) • (4. 5.Length of the member between centres of the joints at twoends.on: 2.4.e'.e. L .2(b) for co1U11Dl1 ida are free 1:0 sway.. !:! With No Sway ft. .
an axis perpendicular to b.lDin will be taken while for buckling about yaxis. A column is said to be short when the slenderness ratio the most equal to 12. ' .67fyAsc) •••••(4.y /b for bending @. from yaxis: minimum of 20 mm •••••• .+ 0.ent (1) Minimum Percentage 0.75fy Asc Ac zero eccentricity) where Ac ":"c\rea of Concrete in cotllpression. ~oaded'"C.67fy Asc . (a) Colwans with (1) Lat:..s i.min . Lett.aken appropriate to the axis of buckling.5_ uteral ..2 Azlally Loaded !~1'_' : the the bar >. else the column is slender or long.92 0.87 0. The ultimate load carrying capacity of an axially loaded coluan.94 0. e )(.x ID for benddng @ x axf. 61 .. + 0. is less than or at + b/30 + D/3O designed by (4.8% (ii) MaxLmua Percentage 6% preferably <.xaxis : Both subject to .Fe 415 Pu • A(O.0·. (i.. for a minImum eccentricity given frQDI.75 0. and the values Grade of Concrete Steel M 15 .Il~ender~essof . 1s obtained from followIng relations.53) When minimum eccentricity <.e.· When buckling is considered a bout xaxis.~itudinal Reinrorce. II :Transverse Reinforcement:. • 6 for circular section.(d).54&) of A are as under: 350 & above.e. I Axially.48 ilStr and least 4.0.. Both of them wIll not be considered to act siaultaneously •.Fe 250 M 15 .C.s.decidedby the slenderness ratio of the column and is defined as the ratio of the effective length of column to.OSh) Puz .. It is equal to: Leff.05 x lateral dimension.. dimension).4% (Ui) Minimum Number • Number of corners of the _cross section· ....92 0.y axis i. •••• (4. (Lateral Ties) : (1) Minimum Diameter «(6tr) ali.4fck Ae.70 Width of column (b) in _.in > .be . an axis perpendicular to D.54) (iii) For columns with width < 400mmand eMin20 mm (i. e. • "1".eX..2 .00 1.lllin = L/500 ey.4th 'the diameter of main (il) MaximumSpacing s • least of (16 .85 1. member in as. 200 230 300 250 Reduction Factor A 0. ey •• in will only be taken. L/500 :. (e) Hinimam Eccentricity (em!n) Every column will·. Pu = O.00 .secb~~1.98 0.e.52) ~ Anyone of the above two minimum eccentricities shall be t. ultimate strength of aR.ial compression) .Column : • It\~s.e.eral Ties: axial strength (with Ideal (ii) ••••• (4•.96 0.5. ff) Requir~nts of Reinforcement: I .4fck Ac + O. A$c = Area of Steel in Compression.its lateral dimension' perpendicular to the axis of bending.45£010. 150 0.. (iv) Maximum Spacing between bars 300 1B1II.olumns . .90 0.
(0.S . tenaiOD vel.l (f..Strain at level of 1th row.C2) .2 x clear cover +t/J ISbwhere f/J sh is diameter of helical steel.1 Xu ..16).55) where Vh .Area of concrete core .4J6ku ••••• (4.. Itu . where.xu/D.0.(8/7)(4/(7ku .Diameter of concrete core measured to outside of helical steel.Dk2/4 .Volume of concrete core per pi tch length .»/2 + Xl)/Xu Diagrilll : C2  O.10 when =1 >.0. Cl  Equations (4.0 ..serial number of row of reinforcement.O.Hue + t H usl where. . 6( (Ag/Ak)l)] •(fJklfy) 3 ••••• (4..250£1) fck for £1 <.Axial Compression and Uniaxial Bending) (Ia > DJ : lB1Dg OUtsJ4e t:be Section ~uc + IPual C. positive towarcia hi.<4.S10b) .S8c) •••••(4. "hen *=1 <.58b) . Vt .59b) •••••(4.I?)/{1...56b) .l fel £1 Xl  fel lei For Fe25O. It • total n __ ber of rOW1S ofre:1nforetllMllt.62 Limit (b) state Tbeory oE R~C.n . AI( .stress 1a. . Hue • Puc D (0. Pu . 4.l~OSx axial strength of columns with lateral ties. (4.446 (1 .C. f.002.57c) ••••• (4.59.510a) ...O.C.57a) . C2 .36ku.56a) •••••(4. (.. Members Chapter 4 Coluans w£th Helical rIes... fsl For Fe41S...Asc.Asb. .CI fok hD{O.5 .6c) •••.=1 E. Dk ..IIUUal Axis 19iDfl Inside the sectl. fck bD I As1 (fsl . •••••(4.51) ..(e.0.xI. but <.87ly.l.1 varies frOli 1 to n where_. ..is known as PuMu interaction and the diagram . 4. T_.II u Iltteractl08 A diagram show1na strength of a member 1n axial compression CPu) accompanying ultimate flexural strength Mu.fel):q Where.l fsf . bD + EA..0035 (xu . :1 A. • £ 1 B.) • distance of'lth row from the centroid of the section.••(4. . . Puc • _t Pusl Pu  Pu 0·.5 . 101l +ve . Ash • Area of helical steel~ s . • area of steel III It. . (fs .446fdc for £ 1 > 0.1 Xl lA.l .58) above hold good in this case also but and ~.Volumeof helical steel per pitch length • Jll.b • anus 1u steel t..00144.a. I b} . 3Bc:c:eatrlca1ly (Strenath kis_ Loaded CollwoSu.feL> . cOllereteat leveloflthl'OW correspoadtng to £1.l BeDdiaa J uDder Combined. lth roW.).Cs/6). S.Ak S Ag .S8d) (c J p u .hly compressed edce aad negative towards the least c~pre8sed edge. ..5 . Cl .Cl felt bJ)·(O. ...D .} ( .(4.s7. ••••• {4. CZ} E MUll • 1:1'.spacing of helical steel. provided V"/Vk>O. (4.56d) ••••• (4.(4.f.pre .._tr. ••·••• (4.0.5.gross crosssectional area.56) .OO2(xuD/2+x1)/(xu3D/7} (4....fet) C1 fete.588' C.let) Hu . C:z and £1 will be taken as UDder.on (Xu<= DJ : the values of CI.57b) ••••• (4 ..002.3»)t.Dk.. and £{ 0..t f.el) + tAa (fs1 .446 £1 (1 .OO144tand shall be obta1ned from Table 2..
512) r Es~ T EatCKn5 :am where values of constants C4.rj".Loaa of (i) Grade of concrete fck.Hub" ••••• (4.0035/(0. "i.002. Pu and Ku are funct. and hence of arrangement of bars. and (vi) Position of (Depth) of neutral axis.tion.. I I . Point Point Point Point 'Point A corresponding corresponding B' corresponding C corresponding D corresponding B to to to to to zero axial load. for Pu > Pub.4. COlumn.) .and Mub .5. See Fig..5.0055)7/11 are known as Pub aDd Hub respectively. . Puz with zero eccentricity. '. .. For sections re1nforced with equal steel only on opposite faces.. Pu for Xu • D (Limit of cracked 8ection)~ Pu with minimum eccentricity..3(a).57d. D ••••• ••••• (4.. In these equations. balanced or critical seetion. the values of Pub and Hub can be obtained using following equations ( ignoring the concrete d1sp1aced by A. 4. / hence of ku)..3(. The balanced section has maximum curvature aDd maximum .. fsi and fei are functions of Xu and Xi~ (i.56d' and 4.4.. Asi lsa function of number of rows and number' of bars in each row . . 5. In columns~the section is considered to be balanced when the maximum compressive strain in concrete reaches a value 0. ember m of given c~rossse(.511) \. (v) Arrangement of steel. A curve showing values of Pu and Mu can be o~tained for given values of quantities (1) to (v) above for different values of Xu (or ku)' A typical PuHu "interaction curve is shawn in Fig. (ii) Grade of steel fYJ (iii)Crosssectionb.e.3 Eccentrically Loaded Fora . £y Asc • C6 tek bD2+ C7 £y Asc:.. f I 4' I . bending strength. I I _P.S·<63'~:4~ .513)' F1g.he • C" fck bD + C.C5tC6 & C7 are as follows: (4. The values of Pu and Mu for this section corresponding to ku • .Sect.4.3(b).(pure bending). The above diagram between Band D can be approxiaated to a straiaht line BD and f0110Wiq equat10ns can be obtained corelat1tli P" and Hu with Pub t Hub and Pta for any point on BD i..'(b} Stress Oiegr_ tor Balanced Section of a Col~ ... the values of Pu and· MU"i are\ gi~n'bY~r(:~:' Eq.e.._. (iv) Area of steel Asi.. " o F10.D.. Consequently.0035 and the maximum ~el18ile strain in steel reaches a value 0."~ Following are 5 critical points on the curve.ku' and Xl/D).eo e~~_ Interaction D1egr_ for • MUM II Mu/Mub • (puzpu)/(PuzPub) or Mu· {(PuzPu)/(PuzPub)}. .5.c) : Pub . Cl and C2 are functions of Xu (and.y e' :1 . i \ I ".
O.053 t C7 .4Hu2 •••• (4. Clu • 1 forP . (11)For unbraced coluans : The initial (e) ro~al Deslgs ~t ~t not less Hi  moment K1<.518) ..0.350 0. Pub .lues of K.(puz .s (bisecti11&.lZ .2 Cln • 2 far Pu/foz >.tional 1f0lll!lJts due to Slenderness : HaM'" (Pu D/2000)(Lett.. Y.0. (i) For braced columns : (4.5168) It may 'be noted that faT design.1.267 0..Smaller end moment.P"')/(PJ.and is a fuactionof rat::io PyiPut.al. • Given bending momentabout x ax~. Mi .al " " BeDdiag : The safety of ~column subjected to ~xial .. .. 0.(kt+k2P/fct)fckbDk. to arrive at additional moments because the reduction factor 1t depemis upon P.g.0.D).6Mu2 .'aDd Nu2 • Larger end mOllent. i . in rel. C6 c.er co~ i .0 ••••• (4. to begin with. Hi ..05 0.re required to be taken 1a.. .' FO...Momentresisting capacity of tbecoluma under axialload~~or uniaxial bending about yaxis only.al "owmts : Y.x /D)2 k .. and'their use refer to Sect. their basic equations.. Ku2 : HuT '_ Initial Moment+ Additional Moment. 4.tt ILater.6Mu2 + O..: .ationto pure axial.C.0.218 0.'.514) where Mux.5.4Hul . Muy • Given beDding aoment a~t.416 0.5:"17&) Single cUrv'ature. resisting capacity ?_.trial reinforcement is required to be assumed.t state Theory of R.4. k .5. addition to the ialt1al _nu..1 I '.eetlon with. (4. cUaeaalon :> j2~ gives rl_to additional aOllea:t.1S3 0.090. . ' ' Muyl . ~. an is a factor accpuntin.O.·/bP k ••••• (4 . •• • •••• (4.0535 0. xaxis only.190 The interaqt10n diagrams available in most of the design aids are usually in nond1mensional form. and Pub ~which can be obtained only when the section is known. 4..Compression andbiax:ial bending can be verified using the following interaction formula.51Sb) where.206 0.515 .195.coluaAS haviDa L..053 0.S Sleuder Col. of Author's Textbook on Limit State Theory and Design of Reinforced Concrete.64 Limi.4 Becentrlcally Loaded ColUllllSBiap.) May • (pu b/2000)(Leff.4Mu2 but >.ers ''at.Memb..as : /' ' bukl1D& effeet In case of slend./Puz <.169" 0.e./D c 0.axis (bisecting' b~.17b) Double curvature.4Hul but :>.5.ng capacity' of the column under axial loadPu for uniaxial bend~g aboUt.5.O.Hi + Me than Mu ln or Mu2whichever is greater.cb .9.. For drawing these diagrams.8 The intermediate values are obtained by linear ~terpolation. NUX1 • Homentresisti.a trial . for theeffect of pven p. ~.054 0~054 0.. (4.250 0.Pub) <. cu. 0. C. (Nux /Mux1 )an + (KuyIMuY)an <. (aJ Jtddj.where Huf . & K~ ere given in Table £6 .Momentdue to minimum eccentricity.fckbD+(k2Ast x 100) (4.5 16b) (bJ ID1t1. They give variation of'Pu/fQtbD with Mu/fckbD2.
.EI. column.~' Design . columns..stairs. (ii) centre to centre dimensions between beams and between columns i.IMINAlUES Before starting with the design. (iii) marking of slabs. the design will first be done of footings and columns by estimation of approximate equivalent axial load On columns as detailed in Sect. PartB gives the proced~re for design of members using d. the calculations will be done for unit loads such as (i) unit loads on slabs of roof.wherev~r necessary.be necessary to give sizes of footing and ground floor columns first. (in kN/m/m)...stairs..and column footing using theory and equations i.balconies.~ . internal) per metre height.. This Is because the design procedure for above two types is different.2 DESIGN OP SlABS 5. plan thestr~ctural:frame according fo the principles explained in Chapter 1.floor. .1 Pll. This approach. 1.and spanning of slabs. In the text that follOWs.layout of stairs.~.' . use of Theory and Equations (From first princ~ples.1 Genera1 To begin withtclassify classes. first'ofall.4 or any other standardised/established methOd. (in kN/a).  . (ii) unit loads of walls (external. the span lengths of slabs and beams. and columns using one of the marking schemes given in Sect. the slabs to be designed ·and Brvowa9 into the following two main AOnew. slab. namely. After thepreparatlon of structural plan.. ~S:. The procedure for 'de~ign of component members. should be avoided as far as possible. (ill) unit loads of parapet walls.! .esign aids i. weather sheds etc. wi thout the use of Design Aids) 5. beam.Chapter.. stair.. once these preliminaries are over.. .. and type of footing.ay Slab. beams. This involves determination of positions of columns.and bathrooms. ~ . lofts etc. charts and tables suitable for calculations in a tabular form • . and column footings provided sufficient time is available for dOing the design prior to commencement.e. design the frame components starting· from slabs. Part A: Design brj.. fromfirst principles has been presented in Part A of this chapter.::_' . However.C.spanning of slabs. the presentation follows the sequence slabstairbeamcolumn and column footing.4.it may. (in kN/m)..!f the work is to be started urgently. =The structural plan.3. namely..3 glvins sufficient allowance for effect of continuity of slabs and beams.W. both the procedures have been given. followed by stairs.'~ ~l. floor to floor height.. S. and floor to beam soffit height etc.of Members .' . beams. prepare a structural plan from the given architectural/ building plan.positions of beams. grills. . For this... of the construction work.!al bending in columns due to fixity with beams.slenderness of column etc. Slab. will be drawn showing therein (i) positions of columns. However.!iD~ .2.beams.e. uniaxial/bta. In such case. ofcQurse.e.
fJ is.Lee or (Le~) whichever is less when ba<Lc/124 L • Lc when bs>Le/12.2 No.tre to Centre distance between the supports (Lcc) or clear span (Le) + effective depth (d).ply supported end..gorised.1 : L . Twoway sla~ may be c~tegorised not only according to the boundary conditions but mainly according to the condition of the corner restraint as follows: .h sides.tlan of beambetween two.1 above.1 .e. the effec.he ceatte.eat:' . L.Total Depth (D) ~ effective cover (d') to t.te the .8 IIII1l to 12mm . whichever is less. approxiaately.' normally.lab or beam 1s tak.2 af the Code as fOllows : End Condition No. Effect.pan (Lc) . (EC = 3). 1 (EC .20 .. Steps: 1.ince the depth of slab 1s not known 1n advance (as it Is to be designed) and the width of support is normally greater than the effective depth of slab. Whenthe width of support at continuous end bs 1 > Le/12 : L .er 5 ?MtVi'1ltis'~. categorise oneway slabs into de~Pt~W(.4: L .2.rta: For beas/slab overhangina at one end only L.having cate. No. suppo.Cen.widthof support at continuous end. in practice. and (2) Slabs with Corners not Restrained (i.in.lear ~Yet:' +dla1aeter of a. . whichever Is greater. corners free to lift).Lc+d/2 WhereLc 1s the length 0£ cantilever to face of support EC. (EC == 4). . 5 (EC = 2).1t1on )~ . and b$2 .. bar 11/2.enaccording to Cl.an fot' . . 2.l~ e~rcP . End Condition following categories do affect the design.After .width of support at discontinuous end. EC.e. .. In fact.2 : When the width of support at contiaUOGSend bal <.Le/l2 : L.(Lc + ba2/2) or (~ + d/2) ~hever is less where bs2 1s the width of support at ai.aioa .5~f DealP ~aariay Slab .15 Ilia or . EC..etc. t (1) ~.1 &1 ven above. where. (1) Slabs with Corners Restrained (i. . Effective depth • d . b.. Slab Mark: Write the slaoiiark or desigaation such as Sl. corners not free to lift).c..liP()~ "~~. EC .. I.d t . _.1).1 Thus. 3. or descr1be the end conditiOtL wherever necessary.partlci:aiWl. . aDd· the wUth of support. . This 1s same as end eopd. . End Condition (5) Overhanging Slabs. No.66 Desig'll t:of Members' Chapf.S2.tMl.·tive flp.implySupport~d Slabs ~: End Condition (2) Slabs Simply. ~ Lee or(Lc + d) whic.. L +bsJ.vespan (L)froa the eiVA cl. according to the category of the slab as given in Section 5•.SP'~ditions because end conditions . Span (L) :Wrj. Clear cover . ' Effective Span EC .5 : For overbangill3 portion of the slab/beat L . For por.$".write the end condition Ko.Supported at One End and Continuous at the Other : End Condition (3») Siabs Co'nUnuousat Both Ends : End Condition (4) Cantilever Slabs.Le + b$1/2. End Condition(EC) : . . the effectlce span Is taken equal to centre to centre distance between the supports on safer side •.Lc+bsl/2+bs2/2 For beam/slab overhan.gina on bot. 3 No.3 : L . (EC .3.1.eff~<:U..heverts less. 'l'tteQretlcally.i~nd~. 4 No.2.~~cation. he" detaHilig~)jf reinforcement.2 and 5.S.of tea. 5). POl" slabs. ~he slabs under each category may be designed according the pr~edure gi~n inSect.21 .
EC 1 2 3 4 Design Moment Coefficient a 1/8 1/10 1/12 1/2 for un load.t~. • Whe'n maximum and minimum loads are required for analysis.4.20 mm.upon 'Pt%.wu.1. apply the following check. .4 for Fe415.12 % for Fe41S. 1000_. 1.In general. Live Load LL As per data.span/(Allowable LId ratio.2. Sst 1s area of ODe bar. Ru •• ex .15 % for Fe250.0.1 met. ).1) . _. _in'"' 0.35) for cantilever slab.e.9 DL.2. Check that H'ur •• ex: . Design Moments : In case of slabs. Minimum spacing s>.3) for continuous slab and by (7/20=0.(O..TriR! j) . Alternatively. >.20 mm approximately. Dead Load Self weight Ws • 25D whereD shall be in metre. Trial d .e.and lOmm. For H15Fe41S .26 for continuous (X 7 for\~antllever~ Ql depends . ' rb = 20 for simply supported.75 mm from prac~ical consideration of good coocreting.Trial D .s '"' 1000 a$t/A$t where. Pt •• !n ..5xw. Kur . Loads: " Calculate load in kN/m on a 1 metre wide strip of slab. For Pt . For otiter grades. Check foe Serviceability : Calculate required Pt% (at critical section as defined in Sec~.07 N/mm:l.Ly .3 % to 0.t •• tn . DL+LL Total working load Total imposed load Wi • FF + LL (i.h.Sfek/fy) (l . Then re = rb x (11 == 20 x 1. x .> M u •• ex for adequacy of concrete 'depth for 8trenat. the values of design moment coefficients may be taken as under. Main Steel (Ast): " R.2 4.A. Multiply above value by (26/20=1... refer to table 4. Lf it exceeds.45 % for steel of grade Fe415.) x a 1. and Minimum design load w. Calculate Assume bar diameter (Smm for steel of grade Fe41S.3d or 450 mm whichever is less (In practice.rial Section 5. See Table 2. 4.ra)+effectivecover(d') or'JDaioL/ra ei' + re = Basic LId ratio(q. Assume Pt = 0.It u••• x l:)(J2.3 %.Required Ast x 100/bd (b = 1000 mm for slabs).1 or AI..this condition is satified and therefore it uy safel.'" Reqired n . and 0.I Sect. For slabs t b .11 .tl4X a x Wu L:l where a is design mOlient coefficient.6Mu•ux 7Uck. governed by serviceability· criteria. It is norma l.l~ for Fe2S0).4 = 28 for simply supported slab.s.1. Check for Concrete Depth: the maximum moment carrying capacity of a balanced 'S4Ktlon. it is the totcilldepthof slab D'iiirniDi. (11 = 1.~.bcP)]bd .j MU.in wbere A.. Eff.re i. 200 .equirf!d Ast . The spacing shall preferably be between 100 mm to 150 mm. be OIlit. .cover d'.4.. Round off the value to multiple of 10 mm or 25 mm on lower side asdeslred. Obtain (11 from Fig. Sst mm2 SO 78 113 Maximum spacing s<. Maximum. '. Total dead load DL '"' Ws + FF. ". f} mID 8 10 12 9.. 'T. 5. coefficients may be taken from Table In&ppea41¥ B or bending moments calculated from first principles.5{DL +11) . NOI1lla11y.0. Floor Finish ~F As per data. .P t ••ln· bD.1 corresponding to assumed Pt.4. deSign load w •• ax" 1. Required spacing .ws) Total ultimate Load Wu 1. This shall Dot exceed assumed Pt in Step 4 above. 8. End Condition No. W .ted. 6.:. w .3.slab) to be'rounded to multiple of 10 . "See Table 2.L/28 + 20 mm (for s.
50 qu L at both ends in case of slabs with EC :a 1 & 3. Check that Vue > V u •• ~. In practice. Distr ibut. it is not necessary to provide minimum stirrups as they are required in case of beams.flax: . Vu. Calculate' the depth. ion steel Calculate a 1 cor reapond tng t orthe required Pt.4. s=< 5d or 450 mm whichever is less. • .4.00 '1.. spacing is kept.3. ax In other cases. Tuc depends uponPt ~ 100 Astlibd • It is obtained from Table 4.Rlax (LdL e)() (1.abs..slabs.1 ). The increased resistance is obtained by applying a multiplying factor k given below. 0.llex )=(M 1 I MU. the depth of slahs In bui~dlngs is less than 150 m. .Available Ld = 1.20' ·1. On Short Edge when it does not carry the long beam as a secondary beam and that too for the purpose of design of supporting bea~ only and..ofslab is greater than that of:beam because of the membrane action of the slab due to its thinness in relation to its width. ax Required (A st1 I A st.max =. Triangular load with central ordinate a qu Lx/4.68 Design of . ' .4. 3x Q quL2 )=r(LdLe)()I (1.2. 60 qu L at continuous end of the above slab with EC .ontinuous end. )=r (a) Calculate. and therefore a factor 1. while. Check for Shea.251. Equivalent Load on beam for bending qu Lx/6 for shear qu Lx/S.. D'ser= LI (rb x a 1) + d'.This check for shear is mostly satisfied' in all cases of slabs subjected to'uniformly distribted load and therefore~many times omitted in design calculations. Shear resistance (Vuc).Members.. 3M·u } I ••ax:)• Assuming V U. (c) calculation of End Shears (Loads) on Supporting Beams On Long Edge Same as V u.qu Lat.3Ml/V+Lex (See Sect.not. Lex=O:>s50)j2. . V u. A st. Required spacing.lllax=V U. Eq. not for load on column. where. It may be noted that when the check for shear is obtained.xD since b = 1000mm for slabs Pt..2.05 1. from Fig.Ll! .min = P t. Now. in case of slabs. Maximum spacing.izequfr ed for serviceability . (Refer to Sect 3..12 % for HYSD bats.3. Ast'area·of tensiou steel at. (b) Calculate shear resistance (Vuc) of slab.• cO.lS % for steel gr ade Fe2S0 and 0.llax = {). the maximum shear may be calculated from prinCiples of mechanics.' " . In case of.Thismay be obtained from relation" Vue '_ Tuc. 11. I : . support. Check that D >= Dser~ If .quL(LdLex)/ (1. Check cor Development Length! Required Ld <.32).fl2IX '" r. 3xC!L).iO 1.4S . Assume bar diameter (6 mm for steel grade Fe250 and 8 mm for Fe415). " 1 Vu.increasethe trial depth D and revise design calculations from Step 4 above.·. . design ·(max~um)shear. Required (Ast 1 I A st.quL and Hu •• ax: . Astl = Ast/2 1f alternate bars from midspan are bent to top at si1llple support and Ast1 = 2Astl3 if every third bar from midspan steel is bent up.·.: a qu..bd (b = 1000 mm in case of slabs).r : . For sl..S.15 1.between lSO. V = Vu . design shear may be taken equal to maximum shear at support. simply supported discontinuous end for a slab with e~ condition EC = 2.er 5 10.C.a4b in mil >lOO 275 250 ·225 200 115 <150 Hultiply11l3 factor It 1. If not. ! Required 12.4.min bD/lOO = lOxp t.30 Normally.llax above.l. Required Ml = V(LdLex)/1. s= 1000 astfAst.. Depth of.Ml'pt.mm to 300 mm.4. It is the 'bottom steel at simply supported end and top steel at c. lncreasethe depth •.min··=·O.min to be rounded off on lower side in multiple of 10 mm or 25mm as desired.min.3 isused.
Required'D == L/(O.:.'69 . 3.(H.' '.effective depths for reinforcement in "short span and long span dif4er by a bar diameter since long spansteel is placed above the short' span steel..LafLed incase of residential buildings..with ntild. This condition is normally satisfied and it can safely be omitted in l~t stat~"de5ign. m'uy" a y Wu Lx· From above four values.2 above.o .":". 3 Design.(clear cover + ¢ 12) say (D .oments at four locations.outer . ••nts : It may be noted that (i)for long span also the bending.5. :Write End (Boundary) Condition No. 5. Trial Depth CD) : It will be decided by serviceability criteria based oiisJiort span Lx.. ~si~ .1. Thus. Location B. Therefore. Long Span Ly.8 x 40) == L/32 for continuous slabs. inner .the effectice depth is do only for both spans..M. This may be obtained by assuming Pt . (U) value of (I y 1& &aileas that of II x for aspect ratio .20) mm. Bending moment Span Short . Values of coefficents. 7. Loads: 6. do D .) " 5.st_eelreinforcement.2 % to 0. ~2!~!!~~ It may be noted that for condition(i)above. Design Moments: Obtain the bending mODients by using the relation mu . for a slap. and the aspect ratio. Spans : Write Short Span Lx . ofTWoVay Slab t. Wu .IIIIX bdo2 which shall be greater than au. according to Table B2.~ame a~ that for onewaysh.. allowable Lid ratio will be .3 % and proceeding as'in Step4 of Sect.· Sec t: .>. R iI. '. Above values will be multiplied by 0.H~'u. Check tor Concrete Depth: In case of a twoway slab.S~pp6rt a'x m'ux • a'xwu Lx' Midspan ax m ux· a XWu Lk2 Long .tI8X • Ca.the ratio is LID while it is LId in general. 23. + FF +LL) kN/m.b.ter than _..1 of the Code.RU.5 metre or live load > 3 kN/m2.Midspan ay .5{25D Calculate load in kN/m on 1 metre width strip of slab. which shall be grea.M ur .2.max. 11:: ...1.' Allowable LID ratio ra = 35 for simply ~upported'$lab.Coef.may be obtainedfrom Table B2 for given boundary condition No.~ say (D30) mm.thi's condition is'aat. Condition Norui~~ly.Steps:". Mur. 2.8 x 35) == L/28 for simply supported slabs. {.~. Calculate the value of wuLx2 andau1tiply it with four values of a t as shown below to get the values of bending .kN/m2.Support a'y m'uy co o'y W" Lx2 .max. Lx upto 3..!~!3. of' TWOWay Slabs." 'siiib Mark ': ~~ End No..' '. di ~ do . Mur and requirement of area of steel is based on effective depth do of outer layer for short span steel aDd on effective depth di of inner layer for long span steel at midspan. (i)According to Note2 of Cl.and the aspect ratio Ly/Lx• 4.oaent is a function of Wu Lx I and not Wu LyZ. If Lx' > 3. .5 metres and live Load upto 3. write down the value of maximum B. a wu"Lx'. As far as support section is concerned.0.max bdi 2 . ~and' = 40 for continuous slab.8 for slab with steel of grade Fe415. and == L/(0.for condHion(i) above for slabs with reinforcement of grade Fe415.
m t uy do A' sty Midspan muy di Asty .. At" (3/8)Asb(.. 9~ Check for Serviceability: If serviceability check ta llOt1I&11y satisfied.5 .at simply supported discon. At • O. this check will be required to be "applied for reinforcement .e.If it is not satisfied.Reinforcement calculated.2./ 1 .one at top and the other at bottom of slab.espla. Lx <.at middle of short span i. way as it is obtained (b) Shear resistance for and hence shear check is obtained in the sa oneway slabs (St. . this is achieved by provIding the main steel in the edge strips also and continuing all the bars at bottOll within a width Lx/5 each way and bending back the bars at top through 1800 & continuing them through aLdistance Lx/5 at top.. Torsion Steel: At corners where.e.eel : Chapter 5 Calculate area of steel required at four different locations by equation Ast = (O. AssUme bar diameter and calculate the required spacing as explained in Step8 of oneway slab design. At middle of lOng edge .. thea calculatetbe depth required for serviceability correspondiD& to ptxrequ1:red . .above is provided only in middle strips of width equal to 3/4th th~ slab width(at right angles to the span i. d Ast (Ii  s Support m t ux do A' stx Midspall mux do Astx Long Support .e. slab is discontinuous over both the edges..ep+ l Ib of Sect..bted in Step9 of 0Dewa)' slab d_J. The above area of torsion steel will be provided at corners over width equal 1:oLx/5 l11eacb direction in each layer of bars provided orthogonally in two ae8hes .qu Lx (6/(28 + 1)} where B Ly/Lx Increase above value by 20% for shear at continuous edge and decrea£' Ehesame by 10 %.t 10.2). Va.70 Design of Members 8. There will be no main steel parallel to the support in edge strip of width equal to 1/8 th of slab width (i. Ash.4.. 100 Astx/bd. Calc~te Ptx .(3/4)Ly for short span steel and (3/4)L" for long span steel).6'Mu /(fckb(P)]bd using appropriate obtained in Step6and effective depth obtained from Step7. .rip~only distribution steel will be provided which is obtained as explained in tStep. 2 Ia actual practice. If :aot. mu Span Short Location.a. However . to SteplObelov .tinuous edge for a slab simp] supported at one edge and contl~ over the other.At • (311t)Astx.5 m and LL < . Check tor Shear: (a) Design (1ftaXimum) shear in twoway slab may be obtained usi~ followin~ realtions.5fck/fy)[1 .p.q" Lx/3 per unit width.3. ..5. Va. At corners where slab 1s contlnuousover both the edges. Check that this 1s less than or equal to 888 __ %.2.10 of S~ct. In practice. At middle of short edge .Ly/8 for short span steel and Lx/8 for 10ug span steel). 3 ltN/m2. the main reinforcement is provided over the entire width of slab to lUke provis1oa for torsion reinforcement required at the corners as described. In this eqe st.aex . 11. At corners where slab is disconttnuous over ~nly one edge.. Main St.
~. (4) Section Type ( Rectangular. Check for Development Length: .e.e.. 4.4 Steps: DesfiD of Stairs' :. For details.Compute the span L • Horizontal distance between the supports.'"' 1 f.It is quite liitely that 8cae of beams may have same end conditions)spans.e. take shear coefficient = 0. Equivalent UD load for bending w u. 5.1.at every floor level. Equivalent UD load. (3) Load Type ( un load.3.2 Categorisation of In . see Sect.5.2. . 3.Itwould not be practicable to design all beams serially from first to last .and/or loadings.5 w Reaalning design steps are same as those for oneway slab.there can be large number of beams with different spans. It will be applied in the. .I a2 + T2 I T Number of risers = H/R Number of risers for any .3. Point load.2.Under such eieuastances. ~ 0 ' ': 5.625) 12. Flanged). Functional details: Assume Rise R (150 mm to 200 mm) Tread T (200 mm to 300 mm) Sec ¢ . ~~ . Trial Depth • Span/2S to Span/20.3. slab silnplysuppc:sited at one end and continuous at the other. (c)Calculation of End Shears (Loads) on suppor t Ing Long Edge Trapezoidal Load' with ordinate qu Lx/2.. (S) Load Magnitude. S. & 25% at continuous end of two span continuous beam (i. reduce the load at simply suppo.same way as it is applied for onewa:y·slabs • .eqb = Cqu' . f or 'shear w ueqs = (qu:t.1).3 ~. .· .l ~GROF~ 5.floor to floor hei$~dH) ~live . 2. Since categorisation of beams would principally depend upon the end conditions of beam.3.rted end by 10%_(i.~ n Data: Staircase room size. (1) End Condition (EC .4. end conditions. = qu Lx/4 .Sect. and loadi·:1gs..45 and increase the same:by 20% at the continuous end (i. aea.(See Sect. . Loads .12 Based on these 'requirments decide the number of risers per flight.2. for: bending • Wu . In case of span of.5).load •.4~2.~qb = qu Lxl3 for shear w·ueQs. take shear coefficient = 0. ~ _.1 Calculate going • Number of steps per flight x Tread Depending on the size of staircase room fix up the size of· landing. This is the waist thickess of slab. w • self weight of slab + weight of steps + FF + LL • 25 D sec~ + 2S a/2 + FF + LL (D and R in metres ) wu· 1. Short Edge Triangular load with central ordinate = qu Lx12. it 1s necessary.6) •Refer Sect.1 Ceaeral a building frame.1. Number of steps per flight • Number of risers .flight < .3~4..a Thecategorisation of beams may be done on the basis of design which depends on the following factors.shear cop. triangular/trapezoidal load etc). and reduCe the computational efforts. . it is always advisable to categorise them and group them to facilitate design. (2) Span. in the beginning. to take certain decisions or make suitable simplifying assumptIons regarding the following. 5.
Cha. simul~eously taking· care to prov!4e steelat top at least equai to 1/3 rdthe Jl1ds_patl 'Steel to account forparti41 fbt1.':.III : Beams continuous at botb ends and ca rry Cantilever beams.pter 5 " .l!~thpp.La..ial unit. the design maybe for a small single unit .5.m Hark: .cur by using simplifying.cont). the be_I!. A small excess of concrete and/!?F:~~fte..Wb:et. " . unusual loading like UD load over part of the length of beam. .3 Steps: into'different groups Proeedure for Desip of Beaa Specify beam mark (e.to appreciable increase in overall coSt of materials in the entire scheme.oped.3. __ ~". _ IV : MiscellaneQus bealls such as oYerhangin& \bel!l!Ds.2.~uou~. For example. (3) What is the accuracy required? It depends upon the importance of the building and magnitude and repetitious nature of the work. A beam may. <' .. carrying only Uniload./.. as described in Step2 of Sect..up~~the follow~ll8: /'.p~~Sq'~. assumption in design of one unit canlead.. . as well as poblt load/s.2. . " ·.rqpriate a .. _.pe (~~lysed designed as a whole '. (ii}\~t will b~"the end>~. .3. Span (L) : In general.~ __.1re/offlce record. : Write down End condition No.ln~b~ay p~. c '.j (liJ~i1ejf. But the same'may be required to be used for. and e&rrying UDload only.'~g. End Condition No.mu1ti.condd t Ions as.t. it may be taken as centre to centre distance between the supports.g.2.the assumptions made for tne end "conqiti_ons of _ the beam materially..ends .be assumed as simply supported at discontinuous erid for simplicity On safer Side.' .}~trplained in Sect. In general. I(a): Beams s'im..3.. upt?f ind~peT..!r~~.a big~iesidend:aI complex 'with' large number of auch units. ~ 's1lrply au. affe'cts the design procedure anddesigu ItsE!lf..(i)..ply supported fomlyDlstrlbuted _' I(b}: Beaulssimp1y supported .a bungalo~ or a single resident.pported at: one end both ends and.. (2) Whether the client requires only the results in thezform of schedules of members as in case of . but carrying un load tug' The beaas under each category may further be divided on the basis of approximate equality of spans and loads.no"!:r.:' ' ~: "'. UD'load 'only.by: . Bearing _the above points in aiDd~_the decisi~~ . .uouS: at the otber.:£1 rum and c~t:1D.l buildings constructed .' .~ontinuous beams with abnormally unequal spans etc •. B2~ etc) as per selected scheme of marking. 5..:.72 Design of Mem~rs .~er the .5.private owners or bUilders.' (UWhether detailed calculations are required by the client ( as in case 'of public bui1~ings) for futl.~.f. may to now be categ~rlsed at on thebasLs of etidcondltions category·.l(:l~ntt.. 1. r eafdent. as follows. The decision regardi9g .or: asmade.beams with V any end condition but carryin.has ~'t. Bea.devel.aken regarding the end conditions of 'beams and s1apllfying assUIlpt:lons and approximations very carefully.. 2. Bt..?~ditJ~ns of the beams? and end The decision 'would '~~p~nd . at bOth..~~Jl" :. .2. . For exact value. 3..oPe~~.on safer side. refer to Sect... .
'.. J(b·)rDep..Number of secondary"beams supported.. 1 " Give total No. (g) Breadth of support bs ':.tthickness. midspall with the \ value of Ii u.)Dl nearest support..150. Slab Depth (Dt..e Sect. .Breadth..Loads: .. '.. .300 mm.ide t'rom availability and spanning .~.4.." .ar beamsd' = 4050 3550 mm Flanged beams' d' = 6080 4060 mm (d) Effective Covered t c) for compression steel ! Assume 35 mmto 50 mm. ' Beam Shear Wi in leN. & ~ in metres). . t o 990 in multiples of 50 mm for module 50 mm.(B & H in.Depth of.:. c. IE J 6.l0 taL/IS. Def. metre!?).~he same way as in step (iii) above. Give Data for each beam as follows : SecondarYl~eam Hark Ii.1I'I0X whether at all it is necessary tO'de Ian it as a fl. (c) Effective Cover Cd') for tension steel in mm : Assume for Fe250 Fe415/Fe500 Rec tangul.' . Side: Wsl. )~ Short span of Slab in metres..4.~~c~·!.600..900 mm (module' 75 mm/3") 300.r .25tH (t.::~~.2 and Sect.H Height._ bela ~ Values of RU•1II8X 'are taken frOfll.225 (230) .Df Resistance: Calculate Mur. at contiuuoua eod) and a~ midspan by using either the standard bending moment coefficients given in Appendix B1 or by USing any. Load. .2.= Wd = 25bDr:'(ban4_Dr ...· 1. If '1~C act _ flaD&e4 S~Ct10DI decide by cOIIparing the design moment MU~NX '. other method .450. i..C.Yu..3.in . (iii) Slab from Lef t... ' (a) Uniformly Distribut. "". (f) Depth of 'flange Df = Depth of slab. (Left or'Right side will be. distribution on slab(reetangular.3 .5.. Distance(xi) . {b)Haximum Ul.Sect.' Wall : w~ = 20BH.Wall/GrIll: Ww "'..' _".timate Moment.' 300. the same ' sball be calculated here according to Stepll(e) of..J. t. ". {c)Section type:.ofWall.wbedler the ~l~paJ1 se·. . '.Dt.• of \ Beams Procedure 73 .H •• aDd (vI) Design (Ultimate) Load: W". Design moments are determined at support (i.Sect.. It 1s obtained in .Lon foi'openings in grills...3 or as explained in Sect.3. (v) Total Working Load : w in kN/m.in metres). Dr . . . " '.~~· Ass.. decided as we look the building plan from below and from right side of the plan.. of ioads .t:h .  . '(ii) lfasonary. 4~ "~ Design ~ __ _. R.375.trapezoidal or trian...tion can a~t as flanged section or not.be used and (a)..grades of concrete and...2...~'.b => Breadih.'. 'commonvalues .5w in· kN/~.the grade of \ concrete and grade of steel used....a:a&ecI section (Se. 5.of slab . '~. . / .2. . proceedtb Part:III of Step7 else decide whether the rectangular seetlea vU1 be required to 'be designed as singly reinforced or doubly reinfor~ed section.'th~ "~D~=L/._.~_. steel to .3d) • If it is to be designed as a flaqed sect:1ora. . 5.:":·~....525. (a) Design Moment: (M".I&8)() ..If slab end shear is not calculated in slab design.Table 4..ed.ux . 'sectJon:'a'!iakiterial's:' _. w· Wd + Ww + (wsl +'Ws2) for calculatio~ ofB.).' . . B.u . ~read. Make " ' '.825.'" " approp~iaie deduct.~~ 5.11 corresponding to . Slab End Shear as calculated in sr epLl Ic) of slab .. D .~' __ t~.675. Give Data: Slab mark (SI S2 etc. (e) Effective depth d =(D .of structural analysis explaIned In Chapter3.gU1ar).design • Wsl. Common values ".ume".e.750. 3.<J'"._<. Load : ~{w ) in 1dJlm (i)'rSeIJ.1 and 3.. db .of Wi·fJ"t.' . (Lv) Slab on Other Side Ws2.d t) 'in mm. (b) Point Loads: W In kN.
. If this check is not obtained..max /(fck bd"] bd Alternatively.4.11.36 fck bt Df (d . .~' 'the section will be required to be designed as: doubiyreiniorced..• ex see Table 4.Rl8X:/(O.. .d'c)] fccH or alternative'loy. Main Steel (a)Tension ~. Xu > Df.12(d).~I :.5 fu/fy)[ 111 .42 xu . Proceed to PartIV 7.0.1II8~':llO.Check for width ': 'For ¢ <.may be directly taken from Table.~.4. ~ ~ . Xu <·Df.." )~.Lofl2+ bw +3Df. . 7.0.D6(a) such that (Ast)provided ~. Pt. 7. (n) Ast2 .. If Mu > Hurl. lOb.."x' is given 'as %. (f) Astl .4. '" .Ji..87fy(d . whetherxu<Dt or Xu>Df) 'Calculate Hurl· for. or the .i.$ee Sect~4 . = (b) Compression steel • Asc Mu:2/[(fsc . increase the bar diameter and reduce the number of bars (ND) in a row.15(c). (b)Posifionof Neutral axiS .'.• _).whichcase proceed to PartII of Step7 below.87f.e.6Mu.<= Mur~max the section will be designed as singly re mtorced .·(i.iti~h'jc:asepfoc:.\~. O~4Sfdt aad fsc may value of the factor O.4. '. Mu2/10.] or~alterna~i:vely.This caseIs' very rare. : Part n : InIbly Reinforcai Rect<mgu1ar J arm factor Secticn Mul "'Mur •• ~x Mu2 Mu.' h)··:·For ·vaiuesof'xu ••ax'and Pt ..•a~·"b . (0. 1 . in.i!n." .74 Design ..fcc) (d Asc co Ast2 IO. 0. (i11) Ast Astl + Ast2 . Main Steel : (a)Width of Flange For Tbeam : For Lheaa : For details and Part III : Flanged Section (bt) : bt Lo/6 .~to<'l?art':"I . of Step 't below.Ast .m·axMul Mur.· bt . bw + 68t. be obtained from table 2... State·the Number of Rows(NR) and Number of Bars(NB) in each row.eea.··Astl· steel: Pt .:. (c)Area of Tension Steel: (1) If Xu <Df.. d' /100". Main Steel:' Part IV : Detailing of Bars bf d 2) J..(~st)required.87fy jud) wherein the values of lever ju may be obtained from Table given in Note of Sect.1{fscfcc) Proceed to ~art~IV • = .max. fee .'Dt from relation: Murl ...87fy(d . ~i(.. .2"5 _~ Requiredb c NBx~+' (NB + 1)x25mm <.87fy/{f'S6 _.IfjMu~niax Part I : S:1n8ty'Re1rifOrcei Rectangular secUoo 7.S{a). . 1.~. bf d (d)Num~r(N)Diameter(¢) Combination: Select N¢ combination from Table. value of Lo.42 Df> If Mu <Mur 1.'\" . ..1]. if lever arm approach is used 'Ast = MU. (1) .OV!f~:H~~max'> Mur..assumed b.d' c)] .xi. _'"_ ofMemb~rs Chapter 5 .. This case 1s very COfIIROIl.6Mu ••alC lUck (11) If Xu > Df t calculate Ast as explained in Sect.4. Main' Sfe~~ : ~ Required Ast = (O~5fck/fy}[l". "... where.
'Iv Lx/8. 'Total Wu • self + _a+l + Wu. wu.support: or continuous at both ends: case of beams either simply supported V u•• ax . (iii)No. VU..load on slab.eqs from slabs on both'sides. For triangular load on short edge beam carrying twoway Slab. SO WU L at both ends." . & 2.eqs .) .: 2S + ~ + (¢/2 or 15/2 mm whichever is greater> for··2rows.Max >= Vuo.O... the bar diameter and (e)Detailing : Decide (i)No. (i1)In case of beams carrying triangular/trapezoidal loads (suvporting twoway slab)... .J~~.· Shear Design: (a)Calculation of total unifirmly distributed load on beam for Vu . 2 of ajar ~ of 10. increase . where oneway slab.u L at continuous end. shear strength of conorete in diagonal coapres.. if Vue. Normally.. (respec~lvelJ. (b)Calculation (i)m of maximum shear VU. if any. calculate equivalent unifcrmly distributed load for shear replacing triangualar/trapezoidal load. wu.~on. substitute Wu instead of Viol 'L 10 (b) above.Design of 1J~'diif~:P'rcJcediire' 75'.t..:. For o.IIIU: at centre of .reduce the number 'and hence number of rows.eqs .t1(I)J. (qu Lx/2)(1l/(2e)].If this check is not obtained. of extt'a bars required.NaK • • TUC.0.60. 2 for MIS & H2O ccncrete "Thus. of bottom straight bars at midspan..ther loadlnc. "l.5 N/mm2 bd . at top at left/right support. :.. of bentup bars.2. (1ONo. ·'.MX : concrete in diagonal ~~on.. wu.NX .. (i1)In case of beams simply supported at one end & continuous at the other... the section Is adequate. <= asssumed coverd'. and diameter ofstraight bars at top at midspan as anchor bars.. If V uc.eqs: .. x • (i)In case of beams carrying uniformly distributed loads : Wu is same as that calculated earlier for bending (for beams supporting oneway slab) .._ ':_::HI .. qu . In case of central poillt load. d'=_ 2S + (J/2 for 1 row. .of where Vuc •• ex Tuc. (c)Checking adequacy of concrete section Compute maximum shear resistance.8 N/ . 8.45 Wu L at Simply supported end. (Note: This situation hardly ever arises In case of beams with UD loads.calculate shear at supports from principles of aechan1es.qu Lx/4._.. (iv)No. For trapezoidal load.' .'/~~trf '.supports. Advantage can be taken of the top anchor bars by continuing them over the.\ (ii)tp~'i~for!"effecdVe cover Cd') : Required effective '~~o~:~. or 2 of 12 mm diameter. = 25'+ 1. .aax: < V uO j revise the section by increasing b or D. .3 rows. • 0. Vu . where. Wu • intensity of loading.Go to Step(b) below.5 ~ + (¢ or 15 mm whichever is greater) for.
sin a but not grea!er than O. 6 .llin >= VU.Go to Step(vi). if used as shear reinforcement . decision is required I to be taken in the beginning regarding number of bottom bars (midspan steel) to be bent up (may be for resisting either negative moment or shear at 'support).Asv fy/(o. _ Or Design of She~rReinfo~cement • ~ ~  .. Bars shall be bentup at a distance not exceeding 2d from the centre of support. The normal practice of continuation of bars to supports is as follows. For deiermining the 'area of steel Astlat support.Sd from the face of support).2 corresponding to percentage (Pt) of tension steel at support.pe~i. _.min.bd . If Vur..rete '(Vue) Vue = Tue:. Vu •• Wu (bs/2 + d) for supports offering ax c01Ilpressive reaction..f1gala1mum stlrrups1a step(vi). ...gnof r • ... where.. b . Normally. and beam carrying UDL.56 mm2 f9r 2 legged stirrups). (dJ~etermination o£. Vusb O. take Vusb .348 bd = 0.. 0 and proceed to Step(iii) below.. then only calculate design shear (VUp) at critiax cal section for comparing VUI" • ..' ..25d or 1.mID for grade Fe250 (Asv ." (e)Design of Shear Relnfo~cement _(i)Determine Vus the shear required to ~resisted • VuD . If V ur.  Chapter 5 .' where. pro~ ceed tostep(e) oaly after determinJ.(Common practice is to bent the bars at a distance 1.min) Vur . ' . a 45·..of bars continued to support 2324253643 (ii)Caltulate the Shear Resistance of Minimum Stirrups (Vusv.75 d whichever 1s less).. Asv total area of all leis of stIrrups at the section. (v)Calculat:ion of Design.5Vus'... where Astl = Area of steel at support. s . Tue = shear strength of concrete given in Table4. proceed to Step(f) else go to next step(e).0" _ . .87fy Asb·.tn with VuQ .100 mm2 for 2 legged stirrups). required to be designed or minimum stirrups are sufficient.te . ' (v1)Cottpute the spacinc (8) of min1anaa stirrups.Vue by shear reinforcement(Vus) (li)Determine tha shear resisted by bentup bars.. However.. ...lllin < V!JD.< (i}Cpmpu.Necessityo£ .and. VuO VU. 0: .min < Vu •• .min = Vue + Vusv. " " . Shear at critical section: VuD ....llin >= VuD. (lv)Determine whether shear reinforcement Is. If minimum stirrups are sufficient.If not.4b) < (450 dor 0.to the point of bend. Assume diameter of stirrups.of bars at midspan 2 3 3 4 4 5 566 No.minimUm stirrups are not sufficient._ .shear resistance of cone.7Q"r.. . 6 No. Pt = 100 Astl/ bd.. .' • . If Vur.1I8X s/2 for supports offering tensile reaction.1I8X . • • Members _ . usually ..minimum stirrups are sufficient.minimum stirrups are sufficient. Proceed to Stepv!.. If Vur...min J Vusv ... bs = width of support. Effective region of bentup bar is only this distance up .35 BD in 0 (lii)Calculate Shear Resistance of Section with minimum Stirrups (Vur... or number of bars to he curtailed if any.i ~.or 8 mm for grade Fe415 (Asv .
Check tor Bond or Check tor Development Length (a)For Negative Moment Steel or $uEFort Steel \ Required development length Ld .c~ (iv)Design of Stirrups Assume diameter of bar and grade of steel to be used for stirrups.Fe41S.O.5Vuc and minimum stirrups are not necessary... Spacing of stirrups is given by s = 0. For other loading types.Ls'.n continue to next step to design the .. ' . V uSII<=Vus\I. for uniformly distributed load.5 Vue' (iii)Determine the Zone of Minimum Stirrups (Ls2) Ls2 . k .minimum stirrups are still sufficienti"in whic}:l case.57 for MlS . mi4span 1 I . refer to Sect. In other loading cases. This zone exists only when shear reinforcement is required to be designed.When minimum..5. _.e.C' 77~. .dl I =IVUDVucl Vu. 9.3. It is given by Lsl . ..1 Shear .~ent along tb.min . 2legged 6 mm of grade Fe250 (As\I S6 mm2).L/2 . •• IZt.:..stirrups. For details.Lsl .L. . Reintorc.Tuc. r sLS1 UDL~ I5 'I Lu "I ls".Vur.sect.llin )/wu : See Fig.:~:ermlnethebalanceshearto beresiOte:::i::i::U::.::u~e V usv =V us ''·Vusb s but not less than 0.4.."USV """  O·oJS bel 1 Fig. i... when minimum stirrups are not sufficient. *.. .1..87 fy Asv d/Vusv < (450 mm or 0.ii:.shear force Vu ..5.max T 7h.min < vco . LSI is given by the distance from the support to the point where .0..proceed to stepeU). If now.l.J.75 d whichever is less) Round off the value on lower side to multiple of 10mm or 25 mm as desired. b••• for uniformly distributed load.! . see Fig.Vut •• in (ii)~etermine the Zone of Nominal Stirrups (Lsl) It is that region in which shear force Vu <.5 Vuc/wu Lsl (Vu•lllax: . Normally....' .·!. For other grades.3. proceed tb step(f) • If Vusv > Vus\I.. stirrups are sufficient Lsl = O.ml. . or 8 mm of grade Fe41S (Asv = 100 mm2). I... L's' is the distance from the point of zero shear to a point where shear force Vu • 0.k ¢. (i)Determination of Zones of Shear Reinforcement (i)Determlne the Length (Lsl)of Shear zone of designed shear reinforcement..:. 5.1~ ::....5 V us.l. or Vur.
allowable LId ratio> basic Lid ratio for 'Pt <.' <' . L (57 {i?J for M15. Equating required Ld and available Ld. Available Ld at discontinuous end or at point of contraflexure.at support offering tensile reaction.4.4.e.3 Ml/v + Lex../N••ax).at Support for Endanchorage: 10. the distance of point of contraflexure from the centre of support. rof"b_$.dsp3nw = (N. Obtain a1 corresponding to this value of Pt from Fig. It will be checked that available length of bar is greater than the required development length. we have. 4.~opm~ntLength is . where Lex = Ld/Jbs/2 ot actual lengtha. st" ax 14 at continuous end.~ppo+t. and at .ate./Ast).Check ._ .re.~ctAAJ. for Serviceability: Steel. of Ld/3 inside the inner face of support. or 12 ¢whichever d is greater at point of cOl1t:raflexu.llX basic Lid ratio ( LId ratio (rb) . usually bars are provided for a length equal to L/4 from the centre of support which then becomes the available length..Ast. 20 for simply supported beam.e deveJ.. = Ml/v+Ler.. at discontinous beam end.1. '"" 1..~.. = (Ast. at point of ccnt r'af Lexure . available length Ls nearly equal to.Mmax when all bars Qf same diameter and where Nl and NMax: are number of bars at support and at midspan respectively.. because the modification factor increases with decrease in Pt" Therefore. 26 for continuous or fixed beam.l13. '.redHinimum.greater) where Xo '"" length of negative moment region i.100 Ast/(bd) at midspan of a beam supported at both ends and at support in case of a cantilever.78 Design of Members Chapter 5 Ayaq~pl. In case of a continuous beam...deval.vailable beyondcen. (b)For positive .87 %.4.lj.(b:bf for flanged sections). Lex . A . This steel will be required to be continued through 'a minimum distance . Calculate Pt .7 for cantilever. a1 is a modification factor for Pt and is given by Fig. Required M.at x Basic (LId) =a/l ~b • Alternatively.face: of support of a cantilever.. it is sufficient to check that actual LId ratio is less than basic LId ratio.1 i. or . Allowable Basic LId ratio (re) . Ml = Moment of resistance of beam at the section.3Ml/v+Lex at support offering ..a".e.87%. In case of cantilever. since (II a 1 for Pt=. in case of a rectangular beam.tre of support w~ichever is greater but not exceedi~g effective depth d.Fe415 ).opaent iength '"" d = k ¢. bottom steel at point of zero bending moment I _ Required . (c) Requi..critical _from ' section which is at centre of interme<.span length.1 and hence allowable (LId) .. momentfsteel . In practice. V(LdLex)fL~ at SUPPol'toffering compressive reaction. Ld 1.. As~ .+~ng:~h.compressive reaction. (rb)' = . available length is Xo + 02 ¢ or d or clear span/16 whichever is. " .ln case of a rectangular beam having Pt < 0. of continuous beam .87 % for steel of grade Fe415. and . __ /3 at discontinuous end.Maex where Ast is area of steel at lli.
Sect. 5.4
Design
~f
Columns
79
." Similarly. in case of a flanged bean , "; . Allowable LId ratio = !ll,' (13 xBasic LId ratio, where a3\ is a modification factor accounting for effect of flange. For bw/bt <0.3, 1l3 .. O.B. The're'fore, for a Ll.owab.l.e LId ratio to be equal to Basic LId rat1o,(llx.B .. 1 or 01 = 1.25 which corresponds to Pt = 0.4 % for MI5' Fe415 combination • .... In case of flanged beams having bw/bt <0.3, and having Pt baaed on Ast./(bf d) < 0.4 %, it is sufficient' to check that actual LId ratio is less than basic LId ratio. Normally,in practically all the cases of beams these conditions are satisfied, and therefore, the check,for serviceability is invariably obtai~ed if depth of beam is chosen greater than L/15, and this check can safely be omitted.
5 ..4 DESIGN OF COlDlNS
5 ...1 4
Introduction
"
'
i
I
I
The design of column necessitates determination of loads transferred from. beam at different floor levels. Loads a~ transferred from slabs to beams and then to columns. Hence,slabs and beam~rlnormally designed prior to the design of columns. This method enables one ,to assess the loads on' columns more accurately and thereby the design of column becomes realistic and economical. However, in practice, many times situations arise which require tbe design of columns and footings to be given to the clients prior to'the design of slabs and beams. In such situations, loads Qn columns and footings are required to be assessed using judgement based on p~t experience or using approximate methods. The loads on the columns can be determined approximately on the basis of floor area shared by each column as detailed in Sect.3.4.3(b).Theseloads are normally calculated on the higher side so that they are not less than ,the 'actual loads transferred from slabs/beams. In such cases, the design of column 1s likely to be uneconomical. In the sections that follow, the design procedure using both these approaches of column load calculations has been explained. However, authors are of the opinion that 1f there is no exigency of time, slabs and beams should be deslcoed first in order to know the actual design loads on columns. Only in case of pressing need of giving the design of columns and footings prior to the dea1&n of beams, tbeapproximate method of assessing the load on coluan baaed on the floor area shared by the columns or, approximate beam shears, be used. 5.4.2
Dea1p. Procedure
Design of columns involves following steps.
(1) Categorisation
(2) Computation of Floor
(a) Internal Columns or Axially Loaded Coluans. (b) Side Columns or Columns subjected. to Axial toad aDd Uniax1a1 Bead108. (c) Corner Columns or Columns subjected to Axial Load and B1ax1&1 Bead1 ...
Loads:
of Columns:
(A) Exact Keth~ (B) Approximate Method. (I) Assessment of Unit Loads of (a) slab,(wall),(c)column. (II) Assessment of Total Load on Column in Each Storey. (.) Harking of Column Load Transfer Areas. (b) Calculation of Loads at' Each Floor Level.
(3) Calculation
(a) Exact Metbod. (b) Approximate Method.
(4) Determination of Effective Length and Type of Column _' Sho'rt or
or
Moments in Columns:
LoDIJ '
80:,.Qesigll_ of Members
Chapter
5
(S>"G!o(zping .ot Columns:'
."l~fJ.bn~j· Fc~ .~.~_~ . .:"r . : '__ •. _'; .' :' ,(9~ De~1:<Jnot;"Column Section:
'c' _:
;; ~1"'. ~
;,(A) Approximate Equ'iv~lent Axial Load Method. 'I .: Preliminary Design. (a) Allowance for Moment in Column. (b) Allowa~ce for Slenderness of Column. (c) Calculation of Total Equivalent Axial Design Load. (d) Section, Design. II Check for Moment in Column. (B) Exact Theoretical method. I _ Axially Loaded Short Columns. II _ Short Columns under Combined Axial Load and Uniaxial Bending. III _ Short Columns under Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending. IV  Slender 'Columns. Categorisation,of
~ ~..
,::;; 
5.4.3
. ; ;:~ .~.'
Col.Ulms
"
,. ,~tagorisation of columns is ext.reaeIy helpful as it decides the approach to column design at a latter stage because the procedure for design of column in each of. the three categories is d1fferent~ The columns shall be first divided into the following three categories. (I) Internal Columns or Axially Loaded Columns : Internal columns carrying beaas~itber in all four directionsar only iD opposite directiOJlS arepredOll1inently subjected .t;o' axial loads because mo.ents due to loads on beams on opposite sides balance each other. Judgement should be used to place a column under this category because if spans and/or loads on beams on opposite sides vary appreciably, the beam moments on opposite Sides may not balance each other and the column will be subjected to bending moment, and it will be required to be placed under the second catelory. Struc~~ rally, these colwms can be tetmed as Axially Loaded eoluam.s. Therefore~ they require pracUeally very little or .. allowanee in axial .load  to account far the effect of bending moments due to full or partial fixity between the beam and the column •. (II) Side Columns or Columns subjected to Axial Load and Uniaxial Bending Columns, along the 8Jfies of a buildiua, which carry beams either in three orthoBonal directions or a single beam in one directlonare subjected predominantly to axial load and uq.laxial bending due to unbalanced moment transferred from a single beam on one side,.while the moments fra. the other two beams in opposite directioDs balance each other provided their spans and loads on them are approxiately equal.If such columns are to be designed as axially loaded columns using approximate method.the axial load is requlred~o be increased to account for the effect oruniaxial bending in column. The load thus arrieved is called Equivalent axial load ,for the pupose of design of column section. (III)Corner Columns or Columns subjected to Axial Load and Biaxial Bending
.
!
Corner columns or the columns which carry be~s In two perpendicular directions are subjected to biaxial bending due to beams in orthogonal directions. They require large increase in axial load to account for the effect of biaxial bending for obtaining. an equivalent axial load.

Sect.
5.4.4
computation
of
F·loox
•
\."'LO;;J.d81
'''ii"'
5.4.4 Computa~ion
.
of Floor Load on Column
(A) Exact Method: This method is used when the beam »end :shealis.Au;f!.t1mown . / b prior to column design. The load on column at each floor level is ~en' .. y,·. " Pu.floor = VI + V2 + V3 + V4 + Pe + Pself where V1,V2~V3,V4J.are the end shears of beams meeting at the column at the floor und¢r consideration from all the four directions 1,2,3,4. Pa = axial load coming from above. Pse1f = self weight of the column at the floor under consideration. For details see Sect.3.4.3. fB) ApproxLBate Method This method may be used when the column design is requf red to he done prior to design of slabs and beams. Assessment of Un it: Loads:: (a) Assessment of Unit Slab Load : This may be assessed roughly by assuming the depth of floor/roof slaQ (D) on the basis of following guide lines if slab depth is not designed earlier. Approximate Depth of slab in ... Type of slab Residential building Public/off.ice.buildingOneway Twoway IJ.. = 2 kN/m2 LL  '4 kN/m2. upto 2.5 m upto 3 m 100 mm 120 rom 2.5m to 3 m 3 m to 4 m 120 mm 140 mm 3 m to 4 m 4 m to 5 m 140 mm 150 mm Weight of slab = 25D ~here, D is in metre. Weight due to rloor finish = FF = 1 kN/m2 Live Load  LL to be taken from Table 2.3 depending on the use of floors of the building. Ultimate load ... u ... q 1.5(25D + FF + LL) kN/m2 (b) Assessment of Unit Wall Load : This may done from available data regarding the material, thickness, and height of wall. The unit loads shall be .ultiplied by 1.5 to get the wall load rate' at ultimate state. Refer to App. Ai. (c) Calculation of Self Weight of Column: This may he calculated for the floor to floor height for different standard sections. This will also be • factored value at ultimate state.
(I)
column is the area contained between the intersecting lines drawn perpendicular from the midpoints of the lines joining the adjacent columns (See Flg.3.4.lb). This area pertaining to each column will, in general, consist of rectangles. Coapute the load transfer area for each collJmn (Aeol.!o'td )• (b) Calculation of Loads at each Floor Level : (i) Load from slab : Load transferred from slab to colUmn a Pus  qu ("COI;I... ) Apply continuity factors to above values to account for the effect of continuity of beams as given belovo Corner columns 0.8; Side columns 1.1; and internal cob.ns 1.2. (ii) Load from Walls ! Determine the total lengh of walls witbin and on the boundary of the load transfer area and compute the wall loads. The load of wall on the common boundary of two column load areas will be equally divided to the respective columns. For external walls, where the width of ~ is equal to the wall thickness, the wall load may be taken for full floor to floor height ignoring the depth of the beam.In case of internal walls,if they are Cbiner than the width of the beam,wall load may be calculated for the height upto ~ soffit of the beam, and the self weight of the beam be added to it. The depth of beam is assumed depending on the span of the beam. normally Span/lO tospaol12 •
(II) Assessment of Total Load on COlumn in Each storey: (a) Marking the Load Transfer Area : The load transfer area for~ch
•
82 Design
/
of Members
thapter5
Total wall load 'transferred to colliulIi'>a<t eacb.<floor Leve l; :" Puw·"·""~}'iWu\.;: Li·, .~ where,wuw L =_sum'of all wall loads multiplied by corresponding lengths of walls. 'within, the ;loadtransfer. area (Acol.load ) inclliding walls' at' the' outer edges of this>area.: . Apply continuity factors to above values to account for the effect of continuity of beams. Corner columns 0.8 ; Side columns 1.1 ; Internal Columns 1.2 of Total Design Load transferred to column at any floor Pu.floor = Pus + Puw + Pa + Pself (assumed) where,Pa = load on column from above, and Pself = self weight of column. This is obtained assuming section approximately. (See Table Z.Z·or Table AI). At plinth level, there is no load of the slab,and wall load also includes.! the weight of wall between top of .plinth beam to underside of first floor level. ~bove procedure of calculation of column loads d~S not work when there are number of sec~ndary beams. In such cases, approximat loads are required to be calculated on beams f~rst and column loads are obtain from beam shears. ( For details, see remarks in Sect.3.4.3.) 5.4.5 Calculation
o£tto.ents ill
(iii) Calculation
Cou.a.s
This step may be omitted in preliminary desi~n if column is designed by equivalent axial load approach in which case proceed to Sect.5.~.7 directly. The moments in column are obtained direc1tly and exactly if the entire structural frame is analysed using any method given in Sect.J.2.v (For example. see project II). However, if thebul1dint cannot be divided into anuaber of frames due to peculiar post tions of columns, as in some cases of residential bu!.·ldings,or in building frames in which the connections are assumed to be simple :kfor example, a load bearing structure, or the building in ProjectI)t the momenfs in columns at any floor level can be obtained by using Substitute Frame Method  III. (See Sect. 3. 2. 2c) as detailed below. .J The moment in the column eaabe alculated ustk the equation. Heal • (KcIIIJ Me ~ where K e • stiffness of eolwnn under consideration  Ie/Le tK • sum of the stiffnesses of members meeting at the joint. Stiffnesses of beams shall be reduced to half to account for effect of members beyond the adjacent spans ignored. Me • unbalanced fixed end moment at the joint.  wuL2112.1f a single beam is connected to column on one side. (wu 1L f J 112  w u2 . L2 2/12) ,if twebeams with unequal loads or unequal spans are rigidly connected on opposite sides of the column. M.  wul /24,if a single bea~ is simply connected to column. a (VulL, '/24Wu2L2 '/24), if two beams with unequal loads or unequal spans are simply connected on opposite sides of the column, in which Wut,Wu2 are the loads and Ll,L2 are lengths of beams on two sides. The calculated moment in column shall not be less then MU •• in ... u e .. n, P i where, e.in is the minimum eccentricity givenby Eq.4.52. When column, above and below the floor level are of different sizes with their outer faces flush, the load from upper column becomes eccentric wil:h res pect to the. lower column. However, it may be noted that the moment due to this eccentricity/is opposite to the moment transferred by the beam to the column a~ that level. This,in fact,results in reduction of the effective moment and hence the moment due. to this eccentricity need not be considered. It needs consideration only when there is no floor beam in the plane of the offset.
l
Chapter
5
Column of Effective
effective
length
and type
83
5.4.6Dete~tion
Length of Column and Tyj,e"t)f"C01~ .
'"
'J
::;
,~,~,
(Short or Iaoog)
{a),Determination of Effective Length of Column :When there are longitudinal and cross walls in both directions, the frame is assumed to be a nonsway frame. In such cases, the effective length lies between 0.65L to L,wherein Lrepresents the unsupported length of the column. The effective length of the column" in a buf.Lddng ;frame may be taken as follows : (i.) For any intermediat:e storey ; Lett = L = Unsupported Length = Floor to floor height  Depth of shallower floor beam (300 mm,or more depending on the span). (ii) For top storey ; Lett = 1.2L where L is unsupported length as defined above. (iii) For colull,l!1s b.ottom,storey : in ,. ...,When p.l;1,nth .beaaa ,~re_no_t provided :.' Lett'" L = Dist,ance between bottom of footing to theunders:1d.e " of .the shallower beam ;atfirst ,floor level. When plinth beams are provided : Letf '= L = Distance between top of plinth beam to the underside of the shallower beam at first floor level. It may be noted that plinth beams are .normally provided just below ground level and not at the ground floor level, so that periphera~ walls can retain the plinth f_:illing. . If there are no walls below first floor as in case of apartment buildings in cities where parking space is provided underneath, the entire structure above rests on the columns. In this case, there is a possibility for sway. to occur and hence theeffective length of the colUlllnsbelow are taken equal to 1.2L to 2L depending on the end conditions. Here L is length of column fra. the soffit of shallowerb_eam of first storey to the bottom. of· footing. Determination of Type of·Column (Short or Long) If Lett Ib > 12, the column is slender or long. To begin with" it is necessary to decide whether the column will be short or long. This depeods upoo the slenderness ratio • Normally ,. effective lengths. of columns are! equal ill two orthogonal planes and lDay be assumed to be same. Thus, \if Lett "x  L.tt.,. '. he t buckling under the action of axial load takes place about tbe'weaker axta· i.e. Yaxis bisecting width b of the column. Therefore, width b decides whether a column is short or long. For this,it is necessary to assume the ~tb of colu.n. Usual practical values of widths are 150 mmJ 225 mm (or 230 sa). aod 300 ... (Width 200 mm also may not be uncommon in future). Column baving ~th equal to 225 rom acts as a short column when its unsupported length does not exceed 2~ i.e. when the floor to floor height does not exceed 3 metres as .. ;.'.....tos... depth of shallower beam to be 300tam. The coluams having width of ISO are l1tely to be slender for floor to floor height greater then 2.1 m ( depth of be.. baa been assumed equal to 300 ram.) provided they are not braced at the U.ate1 lewl.
(b)
.
S.4.7 Croupiq
of CoIUllll8
Once the Load on each column and effective lengths are deteniaed,. the columns which have total loads on them not varying bY'IBore than 10 to 20 I and which have their effective lengths. equal .ay be grouped together. Tbeeota.n carrying maximum load may only be designed in that group and the aa.e sectioa be adopted for all the columns in the that group. This saves theco.patatiaaal efforts considerably, and labour during the execution of work. 'l'h1a 1& of prime importance in practical design.
84 Design of Members S.4.8J?s!Mn:£ef<~itloD. The design
.... t1
Chapter
5
"~" may be done by any of the following
Axial Load lIethod.
of column section
methods •
J B)
•• "~ :.
,(A) <J!pproxiDlateEquivalent i~act  (Tberlrf!ti.~alJ
/:;"':c' _~
ic
Hetbod.

..
.
The ekact method should be used ~n general. However, equivalent axial approach may be used when a quick assessment of column section is required.
(A) Approximate
load
Equivalent
Axial
Load Ifetbod
In this approach, total equivalent axial load is obtained by adding to calculated axial, Loadj.the allowances for moments and slenderness,if any. Preliminary section is designed 'for this total equivalent axial load using the procedure for design of axially loaded coltimnsexplained in Sect.5.4.9(I). The section so obtained_is later checked; byaexa'ct method for actual axial load and bending moment and actualslendemesslfsexplained in Sect. 5.4.9. I ,'Pril'iminarl}
Design : '\j
(a) Allowance for Moment: The calculated axial load on the column of each storey maybe incrementedby an al10wance as detailed in Sect. 3.4. 3 to account for the effect of bending moment due to partial fixity/full fixity between beams and column. _ This allowaJlCe 1_& be made on the load coming from the floor to a1ld not on the total load lueludt1l&the 1<>.a4 frOll above. (b) Allowance for Slende~": If the column is slender~an aildWance is requiredto be provided for reduction in load carrying capacity due to slenderness effect. allowance may be approximately taken corresponding to stress reduction coefficient Cr used in working stress method. % al~owance  (lIC,."!) x 100 where, C,. c: 1.25Leff 1(48b)
The
1'h1s . aU"9W8DCe . appr:oxmate.lf floas out t'O 14 % of axIal load OIl column ba1F1Dg width b'equalto:1SO' ...... floor to floor height 3000_ (,dth .inimum beam depth .300 DIll) • The u:ial(load Ott· column shall befurther incremented by this percentage allowance value.to~i;account for" the slenderness effect.
I
(c): .Calculation or'Total Equivalent Axial Design Load on eoltmln (Pu.aq ): Pu.eq  actual axial load on colUilm obulaed in 6ect.S'4.9 (1) + allowance for fixity + .ilowance for slendernes&..
".)
,..
'_
;,'. ",:"
~,
(d) Section Oesip: r:.: \ The sectIon ',of: tbe"colttlm Is obta1.ned aceordaeg to the proeedu're, explained for designof axially loaded cOlUmns_ Sect.5.4.9 i~ (I). .
II  Check
for
moment in Column.;
Cal~ulate the moment carrying capacity the des!ined sec~ion using either Table' E~2;or the interaction charts.From. c:bart&.,t~e v§1.Ue ~~_u/(£CkbO·} ~ can be obtained correspondlns to ',calculated value of d~f{)~,·"'t~_:i~ P4.l/(fck:bO), from. which vaI:ue· of 1l0i11e1td:_ reaiating c:($.p.anity ur can 'W oiWned M lfM ur>'" M u acting on the seetion, then the sectionl .. safe. 1fnQt, tole' s.ec~Jon1~ unsafe and hence revise_the sec:tioil. For biaxial belldi1l&. ch~ the ltak~y of col,11'.IJ~ as explained in SeC!t.5.4:.9(J:II). FOr sletidercQIU.u/;j . cl1e:~K: ;tie ... fElt _Qf cOlumn\a~ deta'iled in Sect. 5. 4.9 <IV). ,
\
pf
Sect.
5.4.9
Desig.Tl of CoIumn_,sec..tion
85
5.4.9
Desi~
.!If Col~.Sec:tion::Kmct
. .
1heoretical

Method
t',>li,',
an""~.;':tj.i)di'. ' 1.1. ~,"_" ~
.,~
,"
;"
Exact method .of ..designlng a column depends upon the'type':;:611:ai\§mD3~ (i~e.' whether' the co.Iuamd.s short or slender }and the type of loading ~f!e7t:fi~crcatt~gory of column ) whether the column is subjected to axial load only, ';:"'orlfQubject~d "to combined axial load .and uniaxial bending., or combined axial locid:flekrulQ·blaxial bending •.The procedure for design of each type and category of column 'is presen. ted using design aids and not from first principles since desfgn'from first principles is extremely complicated ,especially 'for columns subjected to combined bending and axial compression. Reader may refer to Authors' Text book for the
same.
(I)
Axially
Loaded Short
Coluans
:
In practice, ,this is done by use of available readymad~ des:1gn"tables. In absence of such desitn .tables ,the design is done by use of"'eq~ti~IiS' given in Secc.4.5.2. :.:!rl (a) Practical Design by Use of Tables : ;,. ':. . The brief design tables suitable for G+3buildings are "givea:'1nTablesEl and E2. The appropriate depth aud the numberdlameter combinatiOn 'of bars is selected from these tables. The ties are designed using Table E5. Students or beginners can themselves prepare such tables for ~heir design uSing the following formulae. Load carried by"concrete Puc  O. 4felt b D. Obtain Puc for st:andard sizes. Load car rIed by steel Pus =(0.67f),  O.4fck>Asc• Obtain values of ~ Pus for different standard Number  Diameter Combinations of bars. Load carried by the column Pu = A (Puc + Pus) where values of A depend on the width of column assumed and can be obtained from Sect.4.S.2a.For b15Omm, '\'=0.7and for b=225 (or 230)mm, A 0.9. The table would be of the 'follOwing form. Section No. Diameter Combinations bx D 412 612 812 416 616 816 mm mm Puc P us Values of P us in leN 225x300 Values 225x375 of Pue Values of P u in kN .. 225x45.0.... .~ __ ~. _in Such table helps in appropriate choice of depth and number dta.eter cOmbination from the various posslblesolut1ons forrequired Pu. See Tables £1,82. (b) Theoretical Design by Use of Equations.: In absence of any such design aid, following procedure may be adopted. (1) Assume percentage of steel (p between 0.8% to 3%). Higher percentage requires lesser area of concrete and viceversa. ( Common percentaae used is between 1 % to 2 %). For assumed percentage J 'calculate required &rON area (Ag) using rearranged and revised version of Eq.4.5.4a,.putt1na Ae  AgAsc and Asc .. pAg as given below. Required Ag ..( Pu/ A)/(O.4fdk + (O.67fy  O.4fdk)p}, (11) From assumed Width b~ obtain depth D SAg/b. Use practical di8eDaion such as 300.375.450.525,600,675.750 mm etc. (111)Calculate now Asc for selected valu~s of b and D using the for..ula Asc  (Pul A  0.4fck bD)/(O.67fy  O.4fck)· (Iv) Selec~ appropriate Number  Diameter combination of bars fro. practical combinations, namely, 412, 612, 812, 416, 616. 816 and so OR. (v) Assume diameter of lateral ties ('tr not less than 5 mm or 1/4tb the diameter (¢) of main bar whichever is greater. Normally, ~ dt..ecer ties are used for main bar diameter less than 2S mm. Decide the pi~ a of ties such that 5 is not greater than least of 16;, 4S'tr. and tbe 1.east lateral dimension i.e. width b.
(iii)Obtain total moment using Eq. Calculate Asc from charts as detailed below:· Assuming effective cover (minimum 46 mm to maximum53 mm).:1.1red Asc can be worked out using relation r Asc: . Pu/(f ck . If rhe value of d~ID lies between the standard yalues .~ t~ _.9 (III) above as the case may be. _ (Iv) Vfar1fy using Eq."COIIlbination corresprmdlag to the zequd red value of Asc. obtain On as given in Sect.4!512.9 (II) or Sect.'1:Gomprt$~limfiJfiiaJci. Hence. Reduce the reinforcement or reduce the.I:ehe.4..steel Asc •. .· If left hand side the interaction equation is .... section and repeat the procedure. ' (11) For the trial seet:101l~obt:aln 1'1.of ~bendilig·'1mo.and Mu/(fck bD2).S14.which :t~ charts have been draw:a. reinforced .5..' the •. bD/lOO.Thls is now the design moment for the column accompanied by givem PU' ' (iv)Check the safety of column for combined effect of Pu and the above total moment Mut using the procedure explained in Sect.· then refer to these two .~~l7.obtain the required value of p/fclc. e/D = =M/(PD) < 0 •.see t fon. Select appropriate llUIlbe. On the ..B.all around the periphery.4. on opposite faces like a doubly.less than O.bend~ri:8 moments'iii column.nce.r 4.(p/f<:l<·) • .of.5. compute d'/D. CIII Short CollPllllS$rlbjected to Axial c:o.J.t o ~xial 10adP (say e/D = M/(PD) '>::·0. whether the.twoadjacent values of d'/D). obtain 'the value 'Of .4. . in. (ii)Calculate initial m01lents using ~&t. In case of ambiguity of deCiding the arrangement.. Assume arrangement of bars.agrams correspondfng..al'ge J.t.4.5). (v)Revise the section if unsafe or uneconomical.bjected~tci:Ari. second one may be assumed on safer side.uts and yaxis respectlyely underglven axialloadPu byprcx:eeding. for.arge compared to bending moment M (i. as .. by extrapolating the two values of p/fek . Continue with the trials untill the section is safe and economical. ~ss~e to . (11i) calculat~ Ppz using Eq. the assumed arrangement of hal'S' 'and grade 'of s'teel.is safe or not.4.e.9 (II).at Lon.ue:ter .86 Design.of the interaction d:l. eq~.eut. bD).4.~nding moment M as compared .already Q~ep· aS~UII!:edarlier e «Ln ncahcuf. 1 Huwand Muyl = fIu". Tf the 'column is·csubjected· tol. J .4.53 and PUD by using Eq.pression and Biaxial ·BeDCUll9 (i) Assume steel percentage between lX'to 3 % ~ and the NumberDiameter combination of bars for the same. t if 'not calculated earlier. ( If the value of d" ID lies outside the s~andard chart values of d '/D . It may.4. D~t:~r!l:l!1. if P: is J. the calculated values of Pu/(fck bD) and Mu/(fck bDa). From this ratio. plf ck corresponding to. .the sectiOn is uneconvmlcal.. bars ::: be equally placed.m~nts.:ii: Benaih~f<" .la'flon 'between the above two values of pI f ck.318. Note that.53. Ifthe section is u~safe~revise the calculations from Step(il) above assuming a bigger section ~r increaSing the reiQ. explained.to. and he.. Referring to chart ..section.5. of I.5.5.515. Q{ls.ratio· PIA/Puz.l~ two values of p/fok • The desired value can be obtained by linear interpc.fct.. theyalue .V SleotI.4.a1.5).force.Sect.Members II· Short Chapter 5 Columns ·su. be noted that the second arrangement requires larger area of steel than that required by the first arrangement.5.charts and obta1n~' ti.of d lID and.obtained from charts of.contrary. P represents percentage of total .er Co~uans (i)Calculate additional moment due to slenderness using Eq.as in Sect.4.TJ:1e s!2~Hgg. assume bars to be uniformly placed .ent carry ina capacities of 1:he section for beadIng about x . Obtain Puz using Eq~4. AsSUmebars to be placed uniformly all around the the periphery as this arrangement' is ideal for biaxial bending •.
xb') + d'x.Breater of Dtx & Dt)' rounded off on higher side in multiple of so. ••••• (.1 (Pu/1. (rr) D.Sect..56) • Effective depth dy ..column Determination of Size of footing: footing is done in following Size·of tooting required is decided by the bearing area required to carry the load acting on the base of footing and the bearing capacity of the soil.width .design of an isolated. . The footing is riomally provided with sloping top i.50 ..diameter of che bar. Effective cover d'x . As the ·bearing'capacity of thesol1 corresponds to working load on the foundation. (S...D)/2 ••.+BJ) d. Required Length of footingLt .5) on footing incremented by 10 % to account for the self weight of the footing.Depth of column at the base."/2. V~>· V uD else increase the depth. (Db)/2 '+ (J}'b)/2] I+At ••••• (5.54&) • .dx. 5.D .52a) .width of column y .51d) (b) Calculation of Shear Resistance (Vue) and Safety Check • ••• •• (S.s (I) IS~LA:rED (See Fig. of vaying depth with depth (D. dx • Df .57b) Area resisting shear . The .depth of column x . 'J..5)/O'bs ••••• (5.L.s8) Shear strength T'ue· KsTuc BebiD .. At = 1.n. d.57e) Design shear Vuo .53) (b)Calculate projections of footing beyond the face of coluanin the direction parallel to .0. (5. dist~nce of dy/2 from the face of the column.Af/Lt ~•••• (5~52b) PrOvide actual dimensions in multiples of 50.e.Wu Dt x /2 and M1uy .51)"where.(Lf .and checked for twoway shear (or punchin8 shear) and oneway shear (or beam shear). Dfy .5 0 + H JJJ _ • . .57&) . Mu. ks(O.· B1  (b + dy) ..(b + 100) mm and D" • (D + 100) . (a)Calculate net upward pressure causing bending in footing as follows : Wu . where Tue . • (5.. Ll  (D + dy).. _ (b)The dimensions of the footing are decided by the crf t er Lcn that projections of the footing beyond column faces in two orthogonal directions shall be equal. 5 stages...5.Bt .Wu (Lt.b)/2 ••••• (S. in ) at the edge of foOting between 150 mm to 300 mm. • . .55) (d)Required depth of footing depends upon the widths (b"and D") at t:op of the footing.etermination of Depth of footing : .. •••••(S..Wu Lt y·/2 ..acting over t'he projected areas.50+ _/2 and d'y .. Df . These is achieved by using the fOllowin5tformula..s9) Shear resistance V'uc .. (5.Y LOADED COLUMNS Sloped Footing ~f7 s...) ••••• (S.54b) (c) Calculate bending'moments about the faces of column due to upward soil reaction ..T' ~ x area resist1n& shear For safety.llJI·.x . (a) Calculation of Design Shear: Vuo Dimensions of the peripheral critical section: Dfx~ I Mux/(Ru ..25 ~N/I.I Mu~J(Ru •• ax D") + d·y .)where b .S+Be)<l..100 or 250 am as. the required area of the footing is determined from the working column load (pw = Pu/l. Required total depth of footing : l where. and dy' ... 5~2Y' .. Effective depth provided.: 'Depth of footing is decided from requirements of twowa~ bending due to upwards soil reaction.B.an offset of 50 am is provided •• ·.(Bt . Pu/(Lt Dt) .. Bottom steel provided with clear cover ..2(L.. O'bs = safe bearing capacity of the soil. (a)Area of footing required...desired.III (III)Check for Twoway Shear: Critical section is a peripheral aect:loa at..so. To fac1l1Ute seating of formwork for concreting of colu.•• (S.of column.bl .. RequIred breadth of footing Bf ..[(tdySO)/(x50)][DtDf ••ln J ••••• {S.5 Isolated SLOPED FOO'IING ·FOJ[AXTALT.
shear ..lfy)[l/14.t:bg shear "'"Bf d2 .. '~ .seaay be). k = 57.check .r:' '.. .. .:ting the length . 8f S.. (IV) Ca/su1il:_t.unber(N)ofbars and their spacing ~(which should lie preferably be6ieen 75 mmand 200 mm).A~~A~of· Steel:'~tp: O£:j.6Muy/(fck D'dy")]D'dy •••• C5. ' . If x or y is not adequate and if depth is not to be changed..510b) (b) .Fe4I5.Sfck. Wu fl. Or Maximum allowable bar diameter g = (x or y whichever is less)/k.0.87fy/(4 Tbd)' For MIS .I Jdx CRITICAL SECTION TWO.dept.oi: footing: Wi~th at top of" footing at cd tical section B:2" b + Zdx. Effective depth at critical section d2cdx[ (dl(50)/(x50)] (DtD .. Ast)e' ~ Jg. ".:1" rea. . (c) Calculation of Number and spacing of bars: Assume bar diameter' equal to or less than the maximumallowable and calculate reqUired n:. for bending about y axis taking respec . tive Siml~ar check should be applied diamensions and quantities. 6Muxl (fck b 'dx')] bfdx ••. Asi shall 'be increased ...88 Desigp..:.18 not necessary. Ld (=k~) <= lesser .stauceVuc . 510a) (V) .Uft d·kH Sheu res1.xaxis bisef.h dJ(>~ projection of footing x..•• (5.Tue x (are4 reaisting shear) Tuc· depends on Pt __ seA onPt = A.I® SECTION IN PLAN FOR SHEAR FIG..c..5(B. .el including ". ..~f x and y.~lC (Bf50)/ (Nxl).'embers ". 'For bending about :. where k . t0t2. Oneway Shear: .SfCk/fy) [1 /14.B2) Id2(l)t.t:tiQn xx 01 )rl. •• in) Area res!s.i9.~ellu!re9.~~{' 1 m .O.5·2 CRITICAL ONEWAY _ .".Ofdl.fr~ *hetace of thecoluan(asthe ca. ..tex I(area res18.tlng shear) ~e~~gn .~. approximately. Ny>Asty / ast+!. Required development length shall not exceed. . Chapter Check £or:tJ)eve16pmenLLength : 5.heck for R~quired Asty' • (O. Sy· ~'Lf50)1 (Ny·l)..e.D (a)S.(')F~f:Ote.for oneway ahea. then . l£rlticalsection for oneway shear occurs at a distance of dx (or dy) .(xdx) < Vue ' . N~>·As'bc/ ast:+1 . the lesser of the two projections (x or y) i.by the ratio Ld/X Or Ld/Y as the case may be.f 'effect~ve . . Che~ for De\'~lopment Length (LcJ): .._.WAY SHEAR COLUMN FOOTING IN PLAN FOR ~ .:~. '.r .
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