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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent

decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and

driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others’ feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization

and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. and capacity for growth in an organization. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. complaints. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. This is particularly true when . Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future.(1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. They are absorbed after course completion.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. scraps and damage. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Further. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. as was pointed out earlier. At the same time. flexibility. minimized accidents. Growth indicates prosperity. Training and development programmes. Growth renders stability to the workforce. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. They seldom leave the company. help remove performance deficiencies in employee. Ultimately. and meeting future employee needs. absenteeism. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. Even dissatisfaction. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. All rounders can be transferred to any job. There is greater stability. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: . making employees stay long.

personnel. frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership. motivation. e. communication skills and attitudes .g. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. better attitudes. administration. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. growth. knowledge. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. motivational variables of recognition. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. etc. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. achievement.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. tension. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. production. loyalty.

Makes organizational policies. also writing skills when exercises are required. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • • • • • • • • • • Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills. growth.• • • • • • Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations. . rules and regulations viable. and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process.

a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. . Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. selection.g. organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. Before committing such huge resources. compensation package. that is. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards.Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. For example. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.

Recently however. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. improving quality of supervision. Transfer. poor job design. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Faulty selection. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. or discharge will solve the problem. For example. . Jobs have disappeared as technology. foreign competition. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. sell and service the new products. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too.when there is performance deficiency. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. job redesign. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. they do not necessarily require training efforts. when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products.

The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. or other problems are diagnosed. Obviously. which seeks to examine . such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support. the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis. Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment.low morale and motivation. disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur. As shown in the below table. the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. individual or group. Although training is not all.

Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. 3. Also. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. Should this happen.the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. which training seeks to fill. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. 2. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • Loss of business Constraints on business development . Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment.

Pressure on job-evaluation schemes. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives. job sharing. Project Reports visit hrmba. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment costs. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover.• • • • • • • • • • • Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay. Presentations. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. • After training. grading structures. part time working. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people.blogspot. including advertising.blogspot. • After . mbafin. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? For more Notes. shift working. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate.

Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Who among these are selected to teach. while the employee is actually working. Specialists in other parts of the company. For example. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? the programme? solving and decision making. 4. 3. In addition.What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace. Co-workers. elements useful in quality circle projects. 6. On the other hand. and 7. For example. depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. Faculty members at universities. often. 2. As can be seen from Table #2. Industry associations. . as in buddy systems. Whatever is the basis. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put. including the following: 1. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. Members of the personnel staff. programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. Immediate supervisors. recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people. Outside consultants. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. 5.

case studies. Safety Technical & Introducing. Creative. On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y B. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. Special Administrative. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Case Study Role Playing Simulation Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N . Obviously. films. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. audio cassettes. role playing.Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. Employees. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank). the more effective the technique is. Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A. video-tapes and simulations. training techniques are the means employed in the training methods.

There is no feedback from the audience. programmed instruction. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. However. overheads. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. and hence the cost per trainee is low. audio-visuals. the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. To break the boredom. Further. simulation and sensitivity training. on-the-job training. It constitutes a one-way communication. We explain the following-lectures. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience.. But. jokes and other attention-getters. the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no . This method is mainly used in colleges and universities. (See Table #3) Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. videotypes and films.Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. computer aided instruction. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. N-No Y N Y N Y 3 Y 3 3 N At this point. the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training.

The training programme itself is not systematically organized. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. The scope for learning is less. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. OJT has advantages. he or she repeats the same. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit . After reading each block of material. Cost of preparing books. 4. Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received.scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. the learner proceeds to the next block. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. facts. manuals and machinery is considerably high. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. Material is also structured and self-contained. Further. Thus. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. Further. Presenting questions. compared to other methods of training. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. 3. to create safety hazards. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. it is informal. If not. making him or her highly competent. Often. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. Finally. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. informal. much time. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. the learner must answer a question about it. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. In addition. It is. 2. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. result in damaged products or materials. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. offering much scope for practice.

what the situation really is or what the problems are. analyses causes. but repeated use may justify the cost. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. in at least three respects. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. role playing and vestibu1 training. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. real problems that managers have faced. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. Third. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs . The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes. Simulation then. these cases represent to describe. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. First. and implement it. this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. as accurately as possible. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems. Attitude change is another result of role playing. as in case study. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. For example. For example. complete with audio instruction displays. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. For example. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. develop alternative solutions. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations.greater utilization of basic PI concept. Then. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. and what can and should be done. and thus get training when they prefer. in the reader. the need to decide what is going on. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Second. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. select the best one. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost.

The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others. . and enroll for the courses electronically. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits.Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. greater openness. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. Meeting have no agenda. it has become possible to learn online. However. how they perceive one another. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive. without disrupting ongoing operations. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do.9 shows some more techniques of training. encounter groups. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. training takes place away from the work environment. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. Table 9. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Using a PC. course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. and increased understanding of group’s processes. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. He or she can then receive a. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. Of course. the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage.groups (training groups). or T. are held away from workplaces. improved listening skills. a modem and a web browser.

Virtual learning presents its own challenges.Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. for example. mostly in information technology. and Western Europe. Japan. England. and India. The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. IBM Global Campus. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas. IBM. One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. and interviewing skills. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22. or while traveling to work. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. Italy. laptops. Japan. has a virtual university. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference . It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. Face to face. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees. coaching. ISDN lines. Australia. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. Motorola and Ford are only the two. One can attend the course at home. including Germany. and personnel computers are the basic requisites. in the evening when one is at leisure. Web servers. roleplaying exercises. There are others too. For example. to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. France. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically.

rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. workbook exercises. skills. concepts and relationships involved in it. selection and evaluation of a problem Cross-Cultural Training Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. At the lowest level. The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. The goal of the next level is skills development. and audio interaction with instructors. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view Doubling Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed Tag Teams One role played alternately by two participant Mirroring Training with external perspective Monodrama Insight into a given interaction Shifting physical position highlighting of communication problems Structured role playing Role play with predetermined objective Multiple role playing Providing a common focus of discussion Built-in-tension Teaching the importance of resolving matter Shadowing Working under a senior to watch and learn Outward bound training Adventure sports for teams 9 + 1 + 23 Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Lateral Thinking Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Morphological Analysis Listing of alternative solution to problems Gordon Technique Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Attribute Listening Isolation. . This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. In addition. The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. presentations via satellite from Boeing experts. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. As was pointed out earlier. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. and the like.

and Transfer of learning. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. . In more general terms. 6. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. contingent upon behavior. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. The individual must have the ability to learn. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. Thus. Knowledge of results (feedback). 2. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. Goals Schedules of learning. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. assuming this as an unpleasant experience. 7. Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. 5. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss.Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. 9. 3. 8. Motivation alone is not enough. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. when presented. For example. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. Recognition of individual differences. Meaning of material. Employee motivation. Reinforcement. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. 4. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Practice opportunities. In negative reinforcement.

All the three must be carefully planned and executed. such as in a university or college classroom. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. in a training room in the company 3. for example. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. the better is the learning process. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. At the job itself 2. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs.37 further.There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. Implementation of the Training Programme: . Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. Actually. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. The more meaningful the material. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. basic skills are taught at the job. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. Off the site. or a conference centres Typically. A crane operator. Often. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. Though. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. hotel. a resort. (ii) duration of rest sessions. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. On site but not the job-for example. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses.

organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. Monitoring the progress of trainees. In addition to possessing communication skills. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. that are. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. should finally. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 6. perhaps. Secondly. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation . Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. and the goals of the training programme. #1). Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. Evaluation must be specific. 2. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. Implementation is beset with certain problems. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Evaluation must be continuous. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. its formal and informal organizations. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. 5. In practice. any other personnel specialty. its objectives. 3. 4. availability of trainers is a problem. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. correcting performance deficiencies. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. their practices. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. Scheduling the training programme 3. In the first place. Conducting the programme 4.Once the training programme has been designed. and their products. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. 2. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. A sense of urgency must be developed. however. it needs to be implemented. the trainers must know the company's philosophy.

for which the training programme was developed. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. Each group is randomly selected. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth. This is a difficult task. the training programme is labeled as successful. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. salaries of training department staff. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. quality pieces produced per hour. a control group may be included. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group. then the training may be taken as successful. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). Their opinions could through interviews. purchase of . words typed per minute.g. Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e.Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. 9. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost.

In addition. In other instances. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. 2. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned. even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives. For example.500 are on site and (computers. Similarly. rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance. Obviously. their behavioral change. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. programme development costs. Pune and Delhi. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. out of its 17. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. In fact. Today. e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. Take Wipro.500 employees. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. for example. trainers' costs. videos. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus. there are always developments that can affect the programme. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Chennai. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. evaluation costs. Hyderabad. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. . handouts). at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9.000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. who need training. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training. the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process.

Learning that requires discussion. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive. tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning. safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety. leadership. tutoring and team-work can go on-line. though it might also stay in the classroom.g. cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful . There are problems nevertheless. allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help.Routine training such as orientation.

champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective. entrepreneurship skills. • E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. facilitators. particularly at the middle level. however. This must change. Managers. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology. (ii) the ability to maintain it. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. for. In an increasingly competitive environment. as a result of rapid technological change. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. . Those that do. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. there is no such system in our country.Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. Companies in our country. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. Unlike Germany. tend to concentrate on managers. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. Worse still. technicians and professionals. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. • A range of people with different skills are involved. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. including expert trainers. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training.

Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. For example.No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. settlement of disputes. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. 3. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational.) . HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. operational and individual training needs. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. 6. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. 4. and the like. Xerox Corporation. They have little time in imparting training to their members. 5. 2. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. This is what high-performing organizations do. wage revision. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better.OC: workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization.5 per cent of its revenue on training. or about 2. Similarly. This must change.

56. Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates. Andheri . global head for learning and development . office of TCS in Mumbai.Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. Dilip Kumar Mohapatra. to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ. is occupied these days with .

And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires. Wipro. with a direct impact on client satisfaction. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys. and a dedicated HR representative.500 new people being recruited every month. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. New York to Hangzhou. Need of the Hour . in fact. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. an administration and transport wing. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71. Genpact and ICICI Bank. training has to find creative ways to keep pace. rejection rates. Up north in Gurgaon. and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo. we’re exaggerating. quality head. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture. and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller . Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005). IBM Daksh. such as voice quality. And with 2.200 people from 53 nationalities. COO. Okay. BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit (TTBU. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths.something very unusual for people his age — computer games. To get a sense of this challenge. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development. It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees.” says Pavan Vaish. China — with the culture of the company.” says Mohapatra.

“For us the classroom is the most inefficient way (to train). and time. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates. executive VP. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees.” says MP Ravindra. to the individual’s overall performance score. . HR at ICICI One-Source. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. anywhere learning. video-on-demand.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. To deliver this training on this scale and frequency.Education & Research. “Technology has made training asynchronous. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills. This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed.In the knowledge economy. Says Aashu Calapa. and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. director HR. For ICICI Bank’s 27. Infosys. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries. VP. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. cutting across geographies and time restrictions. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. frequent changes in the global business environment. What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals. of their convenience. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people.” Periodic and. it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year.” says HR head K Ramkumar. and Infosys. often. technology is key — media-rich content. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually.” says TV Mohandas Pai. where 30% of training is now IT enabled. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries.

” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training. training is faced with a talent shortage. is that from being a HR support function. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet. people need to be coached in new skills. who conduct research and refine training methods. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. of course.” says Varma.” And it shows — last year. Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery.” says Piyush Mehta. after feedback from trainers and business units. it gets buried. understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization.” says Rahul Varma. and like most other business functions. Monitoring of training quality is just as important. training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization.000-strong workforce across the world. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us. Talent Transformation Business Unit. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up. IBM Daksh. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. To give it the importance of an independent function.” Changing From the Inside-Out The really big shift. and in capabilities. senior VPHR . “When you keep training as part of HR. it includes cultural and value training. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers. as well as the industry in which one is working. says. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei. VP. others believe in growing them internally. we treat it as one. head HR (India). With scalability becoming an problem. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training. Accenture. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. Lyndon J D’Silva . Genpact.Also. since the best . “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. “Now. and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year.

” says Ravindra.” says Mohapatra. and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS. and coping with scale is a big issue. Not surprisingly. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform. “This way. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents. as well. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. cross-culturalisation happens better. Infosys. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers. Infosys links training to individuals’ performance. . For others like ICICI Bank.trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand. “Expanding the talent pool. Expanding internal resources is one way. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place. At ICICI Bank. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates. wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. senior executives are required to spend time training others. and even brings down people from other countries here. TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. and this helps in better branding for the company. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future. investment in training infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. For instance. who’re in the retail banking and finance business. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time. Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. managing incidental changes in the training modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors.

company executives said. making it a total of 10. which would enable training of 13.500 individuals in a single sitting. If it works. Over the next one year.” says Calapa." an official said. On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. one employee care centre.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year.000seat training facility here. they said.750 hostel rooms were under construction. "When fully completed it will house five food courts. An additional 7. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry. this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one.000 rooms. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world. . the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9.BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme.

It has three million square feet of built up area.” Sanjeev Fadnavis. and work is in progress to build another 3. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money. business development.500 people. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment.378 employees.2 million square feet. Now.85 crores. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees. Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects.The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6. associate vice-president. “The speed at which technology firms can develop. . set up with an investment of Rs. It can seat 2. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here.

including in business and soft skills. “E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. and help develop work and soft skills. which provides competitive and business advantage. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. which involves understanding the media business. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills. In order to capture this huge segment. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said. . “Our training programmes encompass strategizing. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. To be successful.According to analysts. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education.000 engineering students through the module. with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. in addition to competency-based training. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work. But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal. it is a means to an end. planning and buying. for example. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable. The learning should be constant. It is not a panacea.” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool. “It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country.” Nasscom has said. has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes.

for planning and strategizing. These 25 people will. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. So. etc that we are ready to export. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. Lowe sends two people. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit. which is held once a year. train others to bring about a cascading effect. allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. design. content. Lintas. has set up its own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan. We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. and at the same time exporting knowledge. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing. .” says Bhasin. we may call someone from HLL. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres.” For its part.” says Deshpande.” says Sapna Srivastava. JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies. “We are getting the best practices when required. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging. where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities. The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005. role etc. in turn.Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. sent to different regions. meanwhile. Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum. “These workshops see lectures.

. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. Since its inception. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. in 1999. IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. such as reduced travel costs. However. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. and second-tier benefits. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”. After considerable research. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. in the late 1990s.O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’." Rebecca Wettemann. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs. The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty. Initially. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’. Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning “E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. During the mid 1990s.

' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals." By 2002. Listen. its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely.1 billion in 2001 to $33. employees were relocated from the plants. ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning. The five steps included 'Read. "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. During this year.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning. compared to the traditional training methods. said. (Watson Sr. Rick Horton. IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program. The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. customer engineering. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. The building had Watson Sr. "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves.IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment. "All measures of effectiveness went up. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001. Andrew Sadler. labs and headquarters. Watson Sr. Thomas J.'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance.). . the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees. and were retrained for careers in sales. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average. However." Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees. Even during financially troubled periods. Observe and Think. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM. the company would certainly profit. was completed. general manager of learning services at IBM. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. in terms of wages. Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2." The HR policies at IBM were employee-friendly. the father of modern IBM had once said. Discuss. or a situation where it . IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning courses. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception). It's saving money and delivering more effective training. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions. field administration and programming. BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM.

which was taught to the managers through training workshops. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including.' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. Virginia. Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. which differentiated best executives and managers. these workshops were not 'just-in-time. managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. In 1997. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. MIT and Stanford. strategy and management of IBM. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). Therefore. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers.To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. after some time. political and econQll1ic affairs. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. the then CEO of IBM. Georgia and Indiana. a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. Therefore. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. After conducting a research. However. Columbia. during the initial weeks at the job. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. in most of the cases. Moreover. the London School of Economics. the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. as the jobs became more complex. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers. However. The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan . international and domestic. Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars.

which managers came across. not a one-time event. job aids and short courses. IBM believed that its managers should be aware of practices and policies followed in different countries. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly.Tier' blended learning model'. decision points and branching results. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. work/life balance. Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. and conflict resolution and so on. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room. In this tier. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers. which was fully deployed in 2000. In the third tier. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading. Using these tools. The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual . the managers were provided with simulated situations. Senior managers trained the managers online. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. The e-Learning part included articles. This information addressed the issues like evaluation. The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. IBM Management Development's web site." Basic Blue was based on a '4. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers.issues and business conduct in an interactive manner. compensation and benefits. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. retention. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes. multicultural issues. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action." In the second tier. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999. simulations. Hence.Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program. This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats. or find the relevant information using a search engine.

' and the one for the experienced managers. own as 'Learning Lab. Hence. selling skills (11 courses). Moreover. and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. industries (23 courses). However.' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program. as the sales team was spread across the world. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Though training through e-Learning was very successful. The information offered included industry snapshot. they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers. and tools and job aid (4 aids). coordination problems also cropped up. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses).' By the time the managers reached this tire. ineffective and time-consuming. the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive. as 'Managing@ IBM. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific . The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser. industry trends. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). key processes. using these products. and so on.groups. insurance etc) in a much better manner. The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. There were no lectures in these sessions. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries. Managers had to pass an online test on the content provided in the above three tiers. before entering the fourth tier. the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. it-was not implemented on a large scale. positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. But with the success of Basic Blue. Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. in a highly competitive market. They also attended field training program. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together. Business Intelligence (BI). In the fourth tier. Like the Basic Blue program. government. personal skills (2 courses). The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. market segmentation. banking. Apart from this. Therefore. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. Sales Compass was developed further.

sales specialists.FUTURE PLANS . territory representatives. IBM saved $200 million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly . and Edvisor. Most of our users are mobile. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly.from $400 to $135. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time.6 Coaching simulators 0. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM . IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers. The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts. and so on. e-learning. said. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16. So they are. a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab. The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills. in late 2001. The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment.5 Sales Compass 21. Unlike the Basic Blue program. about how to close a deal.industry like banking. Brenda Toan (Toan). which is convenient for these users.0 Going global 0. unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. and service professionals at IBM. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements. In 2001. In 2000. It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time. Sales Compass was offered to 20.8 Manager Quick-Views 6. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. By implementing the above programs.000 sales representatives. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers. most of the times. client relationship representatives. advice on how to sell specific solutions. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information.6 Customer-Room 0. just-enough sales support information site. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world.

such as cost. The new tool on the company's intranet was capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits. at any time. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. career changes and more. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. Shanta Hudson-Fields. The content included instruction clips. flash animation. The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning).000 flight attendants by November 2002. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. the company was able to find such an employee in three days. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning solution. graphics. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. This obviously. The company also automated its hiring process. increased employee satisfaction. Now. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees. In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants. and so on." The company had trained 24. The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. and other companies. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online.' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM. coverage. deductions in their salaries. commented. Apart from this. Initially. but also in other HR activities. IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. Besides. AA's manager for line training and special projects. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. its sales force and other employees. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public.The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation. In November 2001. In early 2002. .

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