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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent

decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and

driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others’ feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization

Growth renders stability to the workforce. absenteeism. They are absorbed after course completion. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Further. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. Growth indicates prosperity. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Ultimately. (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. At the same time. There is greater stability. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. Flexibility is therefore ensured. as was pointed out earlier. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. help remove performance deficiencies in employee. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: . and capacity for growth in an organization. Training makes the employees versatile in operations.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. complaints. scraps and damage. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. minimized accidents. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Training and development programmes. and meeting future employee needs. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. making employees stay long. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. They seldom leave the company. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. All rounders can be transferred to any job. Even dissatisfaction. This is particularly true when .(1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. flexibility.

motivation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development.g. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict. personnel. communication skills and attitudes . knowledge. etc. achievement. growth. motivational variables of recognition. tension. frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. administration. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. loyalty.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. better attitudes. e. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. production.

growth. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • • • • • • • • • • Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills.• • • • • • Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. . and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process. also writing skills when exercises are required. rules and regulations viable. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations. Makes organizational policies.

Before committing such huge resources. selection. For example. compensation package. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. that is. . Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e.g. organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees.Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors.

or discharge will solve the problem. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Jobs have disappeared as technology. job redesign. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. For example. Faulty selection. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. improving quality of supervision.when there is performance deficiency. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. foreign competition. . Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. they do not necessarily require training efforts. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. poor job design. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Recently however. Transfer. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products. sell and service the new products.

disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur. As shown in the below table. Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support. the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis.low morale and motivation. which seeks to examine . the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. Obviously. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment. Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. Although training is not all. individual or group. or other problems are diagnosed.

employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. 2.the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. Also. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. Should this happen. 3. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. which training seeks to fill. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • Loss of business Constraints on business development . Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities.

Presentations. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional hrmba. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover.blogspot. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise.• • • • • • • • • • • Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay. the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? For more Notes. • After training. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. etc. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. part time working. Project Reports visit a2zmba. job sharing. including advertising. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment mbafin. shift working. grading structures. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time. • After training.

rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. while the employee is actually working. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. including the following: 1. Industry associations. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace. elements useful in quality circle projects. 2. as in buddy systems. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. Outside consultants. Co-workers. and 7. Members of the personnel staff. 3. . As can be seen from Table #2. Immediate supervisors. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put. depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. On the other hand. 4. often. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. Who among these are selected to teach. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Whatever is the basis. 5. Faculty members at universities. For example. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? the programme? solving and decision making. 6. In addition. training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people.What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination. Specialists in other parts of the company. recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. For example.

The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank). Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. Safety Technical & Introducing. On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y B. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Case Study Role Playing Simulation Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N . training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. audio cassettes. Obviously.Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. role playing. video-tapes and simulations. Creative. Employees. films. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. Special Administrative. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. case studies. the more effective the technique is. Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A.

Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience.. Further. However. computer aided instruction. audio-visuals. audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no . the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. videotypes and films. jokes and other attention-getters.Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. and hence the cost per trainee is low. N-No Y N Y N Y 3 Y 3 3 N At this point. We explain the following-lectures. To break the boredom. (See Table #3) Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. simulation and sensitivity training. programmed instruction. There is no feedback from the audience. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. It constitutes a one-way communication. it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. on-the-job training. But. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities. overheads. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience.

Presenting questions. The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. Thus. informal. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. After reading each block of material. The scope for learning is less. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. 3. Cost of preparing books. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. it is informal. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. 2. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. the learner must answer a question about it. facts. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Further. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. the learner proceeds to the next block. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. Further. compared to other methods of training. If not. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. to create safety hazards. Material is also structured and self-contained. he or she repeats the same. OJT has advantages. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. It is.scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. Finally. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. Often. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit . 4. In addition. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. much time. manuals and machinery is considerably high. offering much scope for practice. result in damaged products or materials. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. making him or her highly competent.

Attitude change is another result of role playing. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. as in case study. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. and implement it. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. role playing and vestibu1 training. these cases represent to describe. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. the need to decide what is going on. For example.greater utilization of basic PI concept. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. Simulation then. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. real problems that managers have faced. in the reader. Then. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. as accurately as possible. what the situation really is or what the problems are. and thus get training when they prefer. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. and what can and should be done. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations. develop alternative solutions. is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Second. First. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. For example. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. select the best one. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. Third. analyses causes. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs . this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. in at least three respects. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. For example. the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. complete with audio instruction displays. but repeated use may justify the cost.

The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. how they perceive one another. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. Of course. Using a PC. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. and enroll for the courses electronically. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits.Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. are held away from workplaces. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. . encounter groups. Table 9. greater openness. and increased understanding of group’s processes. He or she can then receive a. improved listening skills. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning.9 shows some more techniques of training. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. Meeting have no agenda. without disrupting ongoing operations. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. a modem and a web browser. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. or T.groups (training groups). training takes place away from the work environment. it has become possible to learn online. the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. However.

to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. and Western Europe. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. coaching. Japan. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas. including Germany. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. For example. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. Australia. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. There are others too. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference . roleplaying exercises. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees. mostly in information technology. It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. has a virtual university. in the evening when one is at leisure. laptops. and personnel computers are the basic requisites. Virtual learning presents its own challenges. IBM Global Campus. Italy. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. Japan. One can attend the course at home.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology.Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. France. or while traveling to work. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. for example. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. and interviewing skills. Web servers. ISDN lines. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications. and India. England. One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US. IBM. Motorola and Ford are only the two. Face to face.

The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. selection and evaluation of a problem Cross-Cultural Training Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view Doubling Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed Tag Teams One role played alternately by two participant Mirroring Training with external perspective Monodrama Insight into a given interaction Shifting physical position highlighting of communication problems Structured role playing Role play with predetermined objective Multiple role playing Providing a common focus of discussion Built-in-tension Teaching the importance of resolving matter Shadowing Working under a senior to watch and learn Outward bound training Adventure sports for teams 9 + 1 + 23 Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Lateral Thinking Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Morphological Analysis Listing of alternative solution to problems Gordon Technique Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Attribute Listening Isolation. At the lowest level. workbook exercises. As was pointed out earlier. skills. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. In addition.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels.rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. The goal of the next level is skills development. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. and the like. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. and audio interaction with instructors. there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught. concepts and relationships involved in it. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. . presentations via satellite from Boeing experts.

Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. 9. Employee motivation. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. 7. 6. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. 3. Goals Schedules of learning. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Motivation alone is not enough. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Practice opportunities. 4. the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. contingent upon behavior. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. assuming this as an unpleasant experience.Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. when presented. Meaning of material. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. For example. The individual must have the ability to learn. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. In negative reinforcement. Thus. and Transfer of learning. Recognition of individual differences. 2. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss. 5. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. In more general terms. . 8. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. Knowledge of results (feedback). Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. Reinforcement. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught.

Off the site. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. All the three must be carefully planned and executed.There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. At the job itself 2. Actually. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. The more meaningful the material. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. A crane operator. Implementation of the Training Programme: . This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. On site but not the job-for example. a resort. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. Though. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. for example. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. Often. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs.37 further. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. in a training room in the company 3. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. the better is the learning process. but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. basic skills are taught at the job. (ii) duration of rest sessions. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. such as in a university or college classroom. or a conference centres Typically. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. hotel. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results.

correcting performance deficiencies. Evaluation must be continuous. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. and their products. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. In practice. In addition to possessing communication skills. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. its objectives. Monitoring the progress of trainees. their practices. 2. Implementation is beset with certain problems. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. #1). 4. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. 2. however. 6. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. its formal and informal organizations. it needs to be implemented. that are. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. and the goals of the training programme. Secondly. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation . any other personnel specialty. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. availability of trainers is a problem. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. should finally. Conducting the programme 4. A sense of urgency must be developed. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. perhaps. Scheduling the training programme 3. Evaluation must be specific. 5. 3. the trainers must know the company's philosophy. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness.Once the training programme has been designed. In the first place.

a control group may be included. Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis. quality pieces produced per hour. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. salaries of training department staff. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. This is a difficult task. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group. purchase of . consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other.g. the training programme is labeled as successful. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost. Their opinions could through interviews. Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. Each group is randomly selected.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. for which the training programme was developed. words typed per minute. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth.Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. then the training may be taken as successful. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. 9. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees.

who need training. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. In fact.000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. Similarly.500 employees.500 are on site and 15. at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9. Pune and Delhi. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance. their behavioral (computers. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training. even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. Obviously. programme development costs. handouts). In addition. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. For example. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. Hyderabad. Chennai. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. Today. trainers' costs. Take Wipro. out of its 17. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus. 2. . e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme. for example. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. evaluation costs. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. there are always developments that can affect the programme. videos. In other instances.

cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful . safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. There are problems nevertheless.g. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced. tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. leadership. Learning that requires discussion. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively. allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning. tutoring and team-work can go on-line.Routine training such as orientation. though it might also stay in the classroom.

• E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. Those that do. • A range of people with different skills are involved. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. as a result of rapid technological change. Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. facilitators. Unlike Germany. for. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. entrepreneurship skills. This must change. Worse still. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. however. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. (ii) the ability to maintain it. there is no such system in our country. . In an increasingly competitive environment. technicians and professionals. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. tend to concentrate on managers. champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective. including expert trainers. particularly at the middle level. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training.Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology. Managers. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. Companies in our country.

Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. 4. wage revision. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. or about 2. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. settlement of disputes. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. This is what high-performing organizations do.No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces. Similarly. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational.5 per cent of its revenue on training. They have little time in imparting training to their members. operational and individual training needs. This must change. 5. and the like. 3.OC: workers. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.) . Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. For example. Xerox Corporation. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. 6. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. 2. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists.

Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates.Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. office of TCS in Mumbai. Andheri . is occupied these days with . global head for learning and development . Dilip Kumar Mohapatra. 56. to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ.

200 people from 53 nationalities. training has to find creative ways to keep pace. COO. And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys.something very unusual for people his age — computer games. Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005). Wipro. And with 2. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths. in fact. Need of the Hour . It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees. To get a sense of this challenge. BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit (TTBU. quality head. Genpact and ICICI Bank. New York to Hangzhou. and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo. and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller . we’re exaggerating. Okay. an administration and transport wing. IBM Daksh. with a direct impact on client satisfaction.” says Mohapatra. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. China — with the culture of the company. and a dedicated HR representative. Up north in Gurgaon. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development. rejection rates.” says Pavan Vaish. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. such as voice quality. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function.500 new people being recruited every month.

VP. to the individual’s overall performance score. of their convenience. and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. often. anywhere learning. . HR at ICICI One-Source. Says Aashu Calapa. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries. Infosys. executive VP. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points.” Periodic and. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees. technology is key — media-rich content. it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year. and Infosys.” says HR head K Ramkumar.” says TV Mohandas Pai. video-on-demand.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. For ICICI Bank’s 27. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. “Technology has made training asynchronous. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually. frequent changes in the global business environment.Education & Research. where 30% of training is now IT enabled. and time. To deliver this training on this scale and frequency. cutting across geographies and time restrictions. This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones. “For us the classroom is the most inefficient way (to train). director HR.In the knowledge economy. What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries.” says MP Ravindra. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals.

” says Varma. “Now. and like most other business functions. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers.” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training.000-strong workforce across the world. since the best . it gets buried. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training.” says Rahul Varma.” And it shows — last year. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain. senior VPHR . training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization. Accenture. says.” Changing From the Inside-Out The really big shift. and in capabilities. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us.Also. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet. we treat it as one. understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization. “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. is that from being a HR support function. others believe in growing them internally. Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery. IBM Daksh. Genpact. as well as the industry in which one is working. To give it the importance of an independent function. Monitoring of training quality is just as important. people need to be coached in new skills. who conduct research and refine training methods. VP. With scalability becoming an problem. of course. after feedback from trainers and business units. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year. Lyndon J D’Silva . training is faced with a talent shortage. Talent Transformation Business Unit. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei. head HR (India). and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25. “When you keep training as part of HR. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up.” says Piyush Mehta. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. it includes cultural and value training.

wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. who’re in the retail banking and finance business. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. and this helps in better branding for the company. For instance. and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . as well. TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents.” says Ravindra. and even brings down people from other countries here. and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers. “This way. At ICICI Bank. For others like ICICI Bank. Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS. senior executives are required to spend time training others. and coping with scale is a big issue. . the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. managing incidental changes in the training modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today. Infosys. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. investment in training infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. Infosys links training to individuals’ performance.trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates.” says Mohapatra. Expanding internal resources is one way. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future. “Expanding the talent pool. Not surprisingly. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place. cross-culturalisation happens better. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors.

Over the next one year. this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one. If it works.” says Calapa.500 individuals in a single sitting. "When fully completed it will house five food courts. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry.000seat training facility here.750 hostel rooms were under construction. On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs.BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world. the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9. making it a total of 10." an official said. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. they said. company executives said. . An additional 7.000 rooms.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year. which would enable training of 13. one employee care centre.

500 people.” Sanjeev Fadnavis. It can seat 2. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment. associate vice-president.2 million square feet.85 crores.The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6.378 employees. Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects. It has three million square feet of built up area. business development. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees. set up with an investment of Rs. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money. Now. . and work is in progress to build another 3. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent. “The speed at which technology firms can develop. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here.

“E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable. “It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. for example. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. and help develop work and soft skills. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization. which involves understanding the media business.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. including in business and soft skills. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education. To be successful. “Our training programmes encompass strategizing.” Nasscom has said. with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country. In order to capture this huge segment.” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said.According to analysts. . The learning should be constant. It is not a panacea. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work. in addition to competency-based training.000 engineering students through the module. planning and buying. has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes. which provides competitive and business advantage. it is a means to an end.

where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities.” says Sapna Srivastava. allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging.” For its part. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. which is held once a year. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. Lowe sends two people. meanwhile. Lintas. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum. role etc. train others to bring about a cascading effect. design. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres. in turn. we may call someone from HLL.Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training.” says Deshpande. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well. JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies.” says Bhasin. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing. These 25 people will. content. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan. “We are getting the best practices when required. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. . and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans. has set up its own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. for planning and strategizing. So. “These workshops see lectures. sent to different regions. and at the same time exporting knowledge. We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others. etc that we are ready to export.

Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning “E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs. in the late 1990s. research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. During the mid 1990s." Rebecca Wettemann. IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. Initially. Since its inception. and second-tier benefits. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. After considerable research. However. such as reduced travel costs. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’. in 1999.O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”. .

in terms of wages. was completed. The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. Thomas J. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. The building had Watson Sr." By 2002. This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning. or a situation where it . its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. However. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. Rick Horton. IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment. The five steps included 'Read. employees were relocated from the plants.' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals. Observe and Think. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception).'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance." The HR policies at IBM were employee-friendly. and were retrained for careers in sales. "All measures of effectiveness went up. "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves. Watson Sr. Even during financially troubled periods. . the company would certainly profit. said.1 billion in 2001 to $33. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy.IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through e-learning. customer engineering. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming. It's saving money and delivering more effective training. It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. compared to the traditional training methods. the father of modern IBM had once said. During this year. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM.). Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2. Andrew Sadler. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001. the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM. Discuss. field administration and programming. general manager of learning services at IBM. labs and headquarters. IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program." Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees. Listen. (Watson Sr.

a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program. the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars. IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. After conducting a research. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively. However.' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world. However. Moreover. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. In 1997. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. Therefore. Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers. Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers. during the initial weeks at the job. Georgia and Indiana. MIT and Stanford. as the jobs became more complex. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. these workshops were not 'just-in-time. after some time.To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. political and econQll1ic affairs. Therefore. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. Virginia. international and domestic. Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough. Columbia. the London School of Economics. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. strategy and management of IBM. which was taught to the managers through training workshops. which differentiated best executives and managers. organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). the then CEO of IBM. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan . in most of the cases.

This information addressed the issues like evaluation. Hence. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room. decision points and branching results. which was fully deployed in 2000. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading.issues and business conduct in an interactive manner. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. The e-Learning part included articles. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999.Tier' blended learning model'. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. multicultural issues. the managers were provided with simulated situations. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers.Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program. In this tier. and conflict resolution and so on. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. In the third tier. simulations. which managers came across. or find the relevant information using a search engine. retention. IBM believed that its managers should be aware of practices and policies followed in different countries. Senior managers trained the managers online. Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. compensation and benefits." Basic Blue was based on a '4. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. IBM Management Development's web site. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. work/life balance. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers. This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats." In the second tier. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. not a one-time event. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes. job aids and short courses. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual . The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. Using these tools. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training.

as 'Managing@ IBM. The information offered included industry snapshot. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together. using these products. industry trends. coordination problems also cropped up. Moreover. Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries.' By the time the managers reached this tire.' and the one for the experienced managers. key processes. it-was not implemented on a large scale. The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. However. Though training through e-Learning was very successful. personal skills (2 courses).groups. The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser.' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program. Therefore. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses). Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. In the fourth tier. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). and so on. selling skills (11 courses). own as 'Learning Lab. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. in a highly competitive market. Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. banking. Managers had to pass an online test on the content provided in the above three tiers. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. and tools and job aid (4 aids). they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers. before entering the fourth tier. ineffective and time-consuming. in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive. insurance etc) in a much better manner. Apart from this. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific . Like the Basic Blue program. as the sales team was spread across the world. Hence. industries (23 courses). Business Intelligence (BI). and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. There were no lectures in these sessions. But with the success of Basic Blue. positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. Sales Compass was developed further. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. market segmentation. government. They also attended field training program.

The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers. e-learning. most of the times. which is convenient for these users. sales specialists. IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16. client relationship representatives. advice on how to sell specific solutions. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million. Unlike the Basic Blue program. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier.5 Sales Compass 21.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM . Most of our users are mobile. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs. in late 2001. IBM saved $200 million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly .from $400 to $135. Sales Compass was offered to 20. territory representatives.8 Manager Quick-Views 6.FUTURE PLANS . The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment.6 Coaching simulators 0. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world. So they are.industry like banking. By implementing the above programs. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly. and so on. said. unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. and service professionals at IBM.6 Customer-Room 0.000 sales representatives. just-enough sales support information site. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements. E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers. In 2001. a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent. Brenda Toan (Toan).0 Going global 0. It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time. In 2000. about how to close a deal. The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills. and Edvisor. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab.

increased employee satisfaction. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM. . deductions in their salaries. In early 2002. and so on. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning solution. and other companies. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. The content included instruction clips. The company also automated its hiring process. its sales force and other employees. AA's manager for line training and special projects. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public. coverage. Besides.' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM. Initially. the company was able to find such an employee in three days.000 flight attendants by November 2002. The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. flash animation. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning). "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. career changes and more. Shanta Hudson-Fields. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000. IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. This obviously. The new tool on the company's intranet was capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. Apart from this. In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. at any time. The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. In November 2001. graphics. such as cost. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. but also in other HR activities. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. Now. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. commented." The company had trained 24.The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation.

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