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NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation Job Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent

decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities. These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and

driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others’ feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge. Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes

The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs.200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes. Among management frauds, window dressing of balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL

The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: 1. Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies 2. Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities 3. Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization

the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. scraps and damage. They are absorbed after course completion. Even dissatisfaction. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes.(1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. There is greater stability. complaints. At the same time. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Training and development programmes. A company's training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. flexibility. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. absenteeism. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. All rounders can be transferred to any job. help remove performance deficiencies in employee. and meeting future employee needs. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. Growth indicates prosperity. and capacity for growth in an organization. They seldom leave the company. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents. and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. as was pointed out earlier. This is particularly true when . Further. Ultimately. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: . Growth renders stability to the workforce. Flexibility is therefore ensured. making employees stay long. minimized accidents. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. the employee's personal and career goals are furthered. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment.

motivation. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: • • • • • Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving Through training and development. administration. personnel. thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work Helps keep costs down in many areas. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable Improves Labour-management relations Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) Creates an appropriate climate for growth. knowledge. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization Improves the morale of the workforce Helps people identify with organizational goals Helps create a better corporate image Fosters authenticity. growth.g. better attitudes. motivational variables of recognition. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence Helps a person handle stress. communication Aids in improving organizational communication Helps employees adjust to change Aids in handling conflict. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills Aids in development for promotion from within Aids in developing leadership skills. loyalty.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. achievement. openness and trust Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development learns from the trainee Helps prepare guidelines for work Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. tension. e. etc. production. communication skills and attitudes . frustration and conflict Provides information for improving leadership.

growth. and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process. also writing skills when exercises are required. rules and regulations viable. Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: • • • • • • • • • • Improves communication between groups and individuals: Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies Improves interpersonal skills.• • • • • • Increases job satisfaction and recognition Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future Develops a sense of growth in learning Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills. Improves morale Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations. . Makes organizational policies.

organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. that is. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.g. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. Before committing such huge resources. selection. compensation package. . Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training.Needs assessment Organizational support Organizational analysis Task and KSA analysis Person analysis Instructional Objective Selection and design of instructional programs Developm ent of criteria Training Validity Transfer Validity Intraorgani zational validity Interorgani zational validity Training Use of evaluation models The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. For example. a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e.

economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. improving quality of supervision. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. . when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path.when there is performance deficiency. Transfer. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. they do not necessarily require training efforts. Jobs have disappeared as technology. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills. foreign competition. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. For example. job redesign. and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. sell and service the new products. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Faulty selection. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. or discharge will solve the problem. Performance Deficiency Lack of skill or Knowledge Other Causes Training Non-training Measures Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Deputation to a parttime MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. Recently however. poor job design. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training.

Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support.low morale and motivation. As shown in the below table. or other problems are diagnosed. individual or group. disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur. the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment Table #2 Methods Used in Training Needs Assessment Individual Analysis Performance appraisal Work sampling Interviews Questionnaires Attitude survey Training progress Rating scales Group or organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objective Personnel/skill invention Organizational climate indices Efficiency indices Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems Customer survey/satisfaction data Customer survey/satisfaction data Consideration of current and projected changes Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment. which seeks to examine . Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization. should consider several issues as shown in Fig. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. Although training is not all. Obviously.

Should this happen. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • • Loss of business Constraints on business development . A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge. Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. which training seeks to fill. Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills. 2.the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term). Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory. which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. domestically and internationally? • Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people. skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. Also. There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme. knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive. 3. Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment.

com . • After training.• • • • • • • • • • • Higher labor turnover Poorer-quality applicants Increased overtime working Higher rates of pay. etc. Project Reports visit a2zmba. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. • After training. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. including advertising. overtime premiums and supplements Higher recruitment hrmba. payment system and career structure Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time. the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate.blogspot. Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications Undermining career paths and structures Higher training costs Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives. time and incentives Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover. part time working.blogspot. Pressure on job-evaluation schemes. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. Presentations. grading structures. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? For more Notes.blogspot. shift working. the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. job sharing.

recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. As can be seen from Table #2. 5. 3. depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught. 6. For example.What methods Who are the Who are training Programme Fig #3 Steps inthe and trainees? trainers? techniques? Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination. including the following: 1. 2. For example. training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) offthe-job methods. Industry associations. Specialists in other parts of the company. as in buddy systems. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. Faculty members at universities. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. Outside consultants. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. training? Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people. Members of the personnel staff. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put. Immediate supervisors. often. Who among these are selected to teach. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. In addition. . Whatever is the basis. elements useful in quality circle projects. many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. and 7. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. Bringing several What should be What principles of Where to such as target audience together can also facilitate group processes conduct problem the level of learning? the programme? solving and decision making. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace. programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. while the employee is actually working. On the other hand. 4. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. Co-workers.

films. Creative. training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness.Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. role playing. audio cassettes. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used Orienting New Sales. case studies. video-tapes and simulations. Employees. Special Administrative. Safety Technical & Introducing. Obviously. the more effective the technique is. Off the Job Methods Vestibule Lecture Special Study Films Televisions Conference or Discussion Case Study Role Playing Simulation Y Y Y Y Y Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N N Y N Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y N N . Skills Supervisory & Education Professional Innovations Training Managerial Education In Products Education & Services 1 2 3 4 5 A. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. On the Job Training Orientation Y N N N N Training Job Y Y N N N instruction training Apprentice Y Y N N N training Internships & N y N Y Y Assistantship Job Rotation Y N N N Y Coaching N Y Y Y Y B. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank).

the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes. But. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group. However. To break the boredom. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups. computer aided instruction. it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training. though its application is restricted in training factory employees. audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no . We explain the following-lectures. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. audio-visuals. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides. overheads. simulation and sensitivity training. Further. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. (See Table #3) Table #4 Training Method Case study Conference Lecture Business games Films Programmed Instruction Role Playing Sensitivity Training Television Lecture The Relative Effectiveness of training Methods Knowledge Acquisition Rank 2 3 9 6 4 1 7 8 5 Changing Problem Interpersonal Participant Knowledge Attitudes Solving Skills Acceptance retention Rank Skills Rank Rank Rank 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 1 4 9 2 7 6 3 5 8 4 3 8 5 6 7 2 1 9 2 1 8 3 5 7 4 6 9 2 5 8 6 7 1 4 3 9 Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities. the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training.Programmed Instructions Laboratory training Y=Yes. jokes and other attention-getters. on-the-job training. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. It constitutes a one-way communication. and hence the cost per trainee is low. There is no feedback from the audience. programmed instruction. N-No Y N Y N Y 3 Y 3 3 N At this point. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. videotypes and films..

or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers If the answers are correct. The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. 3. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. much time. it is informal. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. result in damaged products or materials. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Often. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. manuals and machinery is considerably high. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-jobtraining type. the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. either in a book of thought a teaching machine. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. If not. offering much scope for practice. Cost of preparing books. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. making him or her highly competent. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience.scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. 4. Presenting questions. facts. After reading each block of material. In addition. Material is also structured and self-contained. The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit . OJT has advantages. informal. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job. to create safety hazards. Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. It is. Thus. 2. Finally. The scope for learning is less. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience. the learner must answer a question about it. Further. he or she repeats the same. Further. the learner proceeds to the next block. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. compared to other methods of training. and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well.

the learner's response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. develop alternative solutions. For example. this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. as accurately as possible. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs . Then. select the best one. and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. as in case study. these cases represent to describe. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games. and implement it. CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method. CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee's progress and needs. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. and thus get training when they prefer. but repeated use may justify the cost. Second. Third. what the situation really is or what the problems are. a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. real problems that managers have faced. the need to decide what is going on. in the reader. complete with audio instruction displays. in at least three respects. is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. and what can and should be done. First. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. analyses causes. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes.greater utilization of basic PI concept. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. role playing and vestibu1 training. For example. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations. a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor. Simulation then. For example. activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities.

The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to 'create an environment' similar to real situations the manager incurs. a modem and a web browser.9 shows some more techniques of training. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others' behavior. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions. Discussions focus on 'why participants behave as they do. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other. A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. encounter groups.groups (training groups). greater openness. Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy In today’s electronic world. without disrupting ongoing operations. . Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. He or she can then receive a. the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive. Table 9. training takes place away from the work environment. Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options available. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over. Of course. The internet and intranet are changing the face of training and learning. improved listening skills. Meeting have no agenda. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise. are held away from workplaces. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training. it has become possible to learn online. how they perceive one another. Using a PC. course work online and even take tests and advance to the next level-all from his or her own house.Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. and enroll for the courses electronically. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. and questions deal with the 'here and now' of the group process. the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. and increased understanding of group’s processes. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. usually fewer than 12 in a Group. or T. However.

or while traveling to work. laptops. role-playing exercises were added for the human touch. where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications. to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate intranet across the globe. mostly in information technology. and interviewing skills. in the evening when one is at leisure. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference . ISDN lines. For example. One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting for trainees. till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22. The learners do not have to depend on the trainer's availability. and India. and Western Europe. coaching. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared learning via teleconferencing. roleplaying exercises. Employees have the facility to get training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. IBM Global Campus. Australia. Employees of Motorola have access of self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm's Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses. France. Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. may call for sharing personal information with strangers. Japan. Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. Japan. Italy. Web servers. England. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the seven seas. IBM.000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite broadcast technology. But these facilities will payoff in the long-run. Virtual learning presents its own challenges. has a virtual university. and personnel computers are the basic requisites. Motorola and Ford are only the two. including Germany. It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. Face to face. This can be avoided in a virtual-learning setting. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart soft-skills like performance management. The firm's satellite broadcast links employees in countries all over the world. One can attend the course at home. One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices in US. There are others too. There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time.Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning. It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent Learning through the web can be very convenient for' employees. for example.

The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. Table #5 Techniques of Training Technique Description Ice Breakers Games to get team members know each other Leading Games Exercise to each different styles of leadership Skill Games Test to develop analytical skills Communication Games Exercise to build bias free listening and talking Strategic planners Games to test ability to plan ahead Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative effort Role reversal Exercise to teach plurality of view Doubling Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed Tag Teams One role played alternately by two participant Mirroring Training with external perspective Monodrama Insight into a given interaction Shifting physical position highlighting of communication problems Structured role playing Role play with predetermined objective Multiple role playing Providing a common focus of discussion Built-in-tension Teaching the importance of resolving matter Shadowing Working under a senior to watch and learn Outward bound training Adventure sports for teams 9 + 1 + 23 Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills Lateral Thinking Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas Morphological Analysis Listing of alternative solution to problems Gordon Technique Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions Attribute Listening Isolation. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone.34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. As was pointed out earlier. the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education. the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught. In addition.rooms as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. workbook exercises. At the lowest level. and audio interaction with instructors. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. The goal of the next level is skills development. . selection and evaluation of a problem Cross-Cultural Training Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. presentations via satellite from Boeing experts. The online training was supplemented with small-group work with a site facilitator. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning. concepts and relationships involved in it. and the like. skills. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed.

Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. and Transfer of learning. 2. Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. 7. . Thus. Recognition of individual differences. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. The individual must have the ability to learn. Employee motivation. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. 9. If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. Motivation alone is not enough. Practice opportunities. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. contingent upon behavior. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. 5. In negative reinforcement. 3. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. In more general terms. 4.Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss. when presented. if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. 6. Goals Schedules of learning. Knowledge of results (feedback). For example. Meaning of material. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. 8. Reinforcement. we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and. assuming this as an unpleasant experience.

basic skills are taught at the job.37 further.There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Though. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. for example. A crane operator. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. hotel. a resort. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones. would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. Goal setting can also accelerate learning. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. in a training room in the company 3. At the job itself 2. or a conference centres Typically. Actually. Often. The more meaningful the material. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. All the three must be carefully planned and executed. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. Off the site. On site but not the job-for example. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. such as in a university or college classroom. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee's supervisor. the better is the learning process. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. Implementation of the Training Programme: . but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. (ii) duration of rest sessions. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job.

the trainers must know the company's philosophy. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. A sense of urgency must be developed. 5. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. In addition to possessing communication skills. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. and their products. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. any other personnel specialty. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation . correcting performance deficiencies. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. In practice. Conducting the programme 4. Evaluation must be specific. 2. its formal and informal organizations. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. that are. most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. 3. perhaps. its objectives. 2. Implementation is beset with certain problems. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. should finally. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than. In the first place. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. it needs to be implemented. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. Secondly. however. how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined.Once the training programme has been designed. their practices. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 6. #1). Scheduling the training programme 3. and the goals of the training programme. Evaluation must be continuous. 4. availability of trainers is a problem. Monitoring the progress of trainees.

Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e.Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups. The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable. words typed per minute. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost. One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. then the training may be taken as successful. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training. but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training.1 contains a number of potential goals 1. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done. Each group is randomly selected. This is a difficult task. the training programme is labeled as successful. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. for which the training programme was developed. quality pieces produced per hour. has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. salaries of training department staff. a control group may be included. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees. it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme.g. Their opinions could through interviews. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. 9. purchase of . Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2.

The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. out of its 17. e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. videos. For example. firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training. evaluation costs. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. . trainers' costs. Chennai. Take Wipro. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Pune and (computers. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training. who need training. rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1. at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year.500 are on site and 15. programme development costs. Obviously. Today. even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives.000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore. Similarly. their behavioral change. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees. an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned. a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees' performance.000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. In addition. for example. including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. handouts). there are always developments that can affect the programme. In other instances. it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme.500 employees. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. 2. Hyderabad. In fact.

Learning that requires discussion. allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. Table #6 brings out the advantages and disadvantages more comprehensively. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be "retrained" to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. There are problems nevertheless.Routine training such as orientation. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. cultural appropriate feedback change) • Incorporates built-in guidance • Requires significant upfront 'cost and helps for trainees to use when and investment needed • It is relatively easy for trainers to • No significantly greater learning update content evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance • Requires significant top instructor-led training management support to be successful . • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning. tapping multiple • Not all trainees may be ready for trainee senses e-Learning • Allows for consistency in the • Not all trainees may have easy delivery of training and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of • Not appropriate for all training services/assessments and content (e. Table #6 Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning Advantages Disadvantages • It is self paced. leadership. Trainees can • May cause trainee anxiety proceed on their own time • It is interactive. as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and Internet. Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced. though it might also stay in the classroom.g. tutoring and team-work can go on-line. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms.

Such bonds are not effective as the employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. particularly at the middle level. • E-Learning has ongoing support from a senior level and is marketed effectively throughout the organization. • A range of people with different skills are involved. and (ill) the ability to diagnose system problems. Unlike Germany. Managers. for. need to be retrained in team-playing skills. tend to concentrate on managers. In an increasingly competitive environment. champions of e-Learning and specialist web and graphic designers IMPEDIMENTS TO EFFECTIVE TRAINING There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective. Educational Institutions Award Degrees but Graduates Lack Skills This is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. leadership skills and customer-orientation skills. . there is no such system in our country. workers are required to learn three types of new skills: (i) the ability to use technology. budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. insist on employees to sign 'bonds of tenure' before sending them for training.Success Factors It is worth pointing out that organizations using e-Learning exhibit a number of common success factors: • Cultural change has taken place about how training and learning happens and is delivered. as a result of rapid technological change. the ability to implement rapid changes in products and technologies is often essential for economic viability Aggregate Spending on Training is Inadequate Companies spend minuscule proportions of their revenues on training. Large-scale Poaching of Trained Workers Trained workforce is in great demand. particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. • E-Learning is closely "blended" with other types of training such as classroom activities and is not used to wholly replace other activities. technicians and professionals. where local business groups pressure companies not to poach on another company's employees. Worse still. combined with new approaches to organizational design and production management. (ii) the ability to maintain it. entrepreneurship skills. Those that do. Companies in our country. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. • E-Learning is closely aligned to the needs of the business. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. This must change. Following are the major hindrances: Management Commitment is Lacking and Uneven Most companies do not spend money on training. • Learning needs that drive the technology rather than the other way around. including expert trainers. facilitators. however.

Xerox Corporation. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such bonus. 2. For example. 3. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. (Evaluation of training has been discussed above. Hewlett-Packard spends about five per cent of its annual revenue to train its 87. and the like. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Businessmen must sit with Deans and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. 6. 5. in the US invests about $ 300 million annually. Employers and B Schools Must Develop Closer Ties B Schools are often seen as: responding to Labour-market demands. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. They have little time in imparting training to their members. Organized Labour can Help Organized Labour can playa positive role in imparting training workers. 4. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. wage revision. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B Schools. HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE? Action on the following lines needs to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1.No Help to Workers Displaced because of Downsizing Organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their workforces.OC: workers. settlement of disputes. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.) .5 per cent of its revenue on training. This is what high-performing organizations do. or about 2. This must change. Similarly. operational and individual training needs. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company.

Dilip Kumar Mohapatra. office of TCS in Mumbai. 56. to find how they are powering their growth Training fires the corporate engine At the SEEPZ. is occupied these days with . Andheri . global head for learning and development .Newspaper Article on Training & Development On August 4th 2006 Finance and marketing are passé -the function that really rocks India Inc is training. Corporate Dossier takes you deep inside the massive in-house training departments created by knowledge corporates.

BPO player IBM Daksh is taking training equally seriously — its training group is christened the Talent Transformation Business Unit (TTBU. cost of delivery and customer satisfaction metrics. New York to Hangzhou. Genpact and ICICI Bank. Infosys has a staggering $125 million annual outlay for training and development. COO.500 new people being recruited every month. rejection rates. To get a sense of this challenge.something very unusual for people his age — computer games. such as voice quality.200 people from 53 nationalities. IBM Daksh. and will familiarise TCS inductees around the world — Buffalo. core to the growth and success of India’s new age behemoths. It is even held accountable for output measures of its trainees. quality head. Mohapatra’s team is actually developing an online game that will be part of the induction kit for new hires.” says Mohapatra. and is run like a separate business with its own finance controller . training has to find creative ways to keep pace. Accenture’s global spends on training and development has been $546 million (for September-August 2005). an administration and transport wing. we’re exaggerating.” says Pavan Vaish. Wipro. and a dedicated HR representative. Up north in Gurgaon. While TCS and IBM Daksh are not the only ones — others like Infosys. And with 2. “We believe that training is the most important lever to deliver high quality talent. China — with the culture of the company. “The challenge is to get everyone on to the common global TCS culture. And it shows in the investments being made by these companies into training infrastructure and resources. That explains our disproportionate focus on this function. while TCS too invests a comparable figure on training. face similar challenges of hiring and training people on a large scale — they are perfect examples of how the in-house training department has become crucial. in fact. with a direct impact on client satisfaction. Need of the Hour . Okay. consider that the software major’s workforce across 34 countries adds up to 71.

This is further re-inforced by linking training hours completed. Calapa recalls that OneSource associates were once required to write two tests for a UK-based client — one on the data protection act and other on the money laundering act. whose training team conducts 190 e-learning programmes annually. HR at ICICI One-Source.Education & Research. frequent changes in the global business environment. director HR. Companies looking to operate and compete in a global market need to constantly skill and reskill their people.800 employees — a bulk of them at the operational level — e-learning is a way of life when it comes to skill up gradation. With thousands of fresh graduates handling customer queries. chat and online self-tutorials have ensured that most of the learning for employees takes place at the place. and with most jobs being customer-facing ones. companies have managed to put the some of the onus of learning onto employees. Says Aashu Calapa. To deliver this training on this scale and frequency. What’s interesting is that by bringing in the convenience of anytime. and to pass they had to score 18 out of 20 points.In the knowledge economy. But nowhere does training assume greater importance than in the BPO industry. there’s an ongoing need to equip them with the necessary soft and specialized skills. have put greater pressure on training departments to bring employees up to speed on the latest rules and regulations in their clients’ industries. and time. cutting across geographies and time restrictions. technology is key — media-rich content. it’s no longer enough to put your employees through the occasional training module a few times a year. where 30% of training is now IT enabled. “40% of our recruits are fresh graduates. For ICICI Bank’s 27. to the individual’s overall performance score. of their convenience. and training is becoming a 24/7/365 affair. VP.” Periodic and. “For us the classroom is the most inefficient way (to train).” says MP Ravindra. clients are paranoid about the quality of people we employ. “The responsibility of gaining competency has been shifted to the learner. “Technology has made training asynchronous. and Infosys. video-on-demand. anywhere learning. Infosys. since competencies are now closely aligned with appraisals. executive VP. .” says HR head K Ramkumar. often.” says TV Mohandas Pai.

000-strong workforce across the world. IBM Daksh. we treat it as one. To give it the importance of an independent function. “When you keep training as part of HR. and in capabilities. says. and like most other business functions.” says Rahul Varma. is that from being a HR support function. “Our supply chain is mission critical to us. it gets buried. after feedback from trainers and business units. Lyndon J D’Silva .” says Varma. senior VPHR . VP. it includes cultural and value training. “Traditional training was just about behavioral and technical training. Genpact spent close to $8 million on training. a performance evaluation grid that assesses voice quality and generates a statistical score. training has moved on to becoming an independent entity within the organization.” It also has eight people dedicated to R&D in training. as well as the industry in which one is working. of course. training is faced with a talent shortage. and has 313 trainers along with 70 part-time specialists who also conduct domain-specific training for its 25. who conduct research and refine training methods.Also. with BPO companies looking to move up the value chain. “Trainers are definitely scarce — in numbers. Talent Transformation Business Unit. “We believe the only way to produce quality output is to quantify it. IBM Daksh has been working with IBM’s research labs to develop a tool called Sensei.” And it shows — last year.” says Piyush Mehta. Monitoring of training quality is just as important. Genpact. With scalability becoming an problem. understanding your own as well as your clients’ organization.” Changing From the Inside-Out The really big shift. D’Silva believes technology will increasingly be training’s best bet. It’s being tested and will be rolled out later this year. head HR (India). Rapid scaling up in IT and ITES companies is also putting pressure on the training machinery. There is also a need to get people ready for potential jobs that we may want them to take up. people need to be coached in new skills. others believe in growing them internally. since the best . “Now. While many companies are outsourcing part of their requirement of trainers. Accenture.

as well. cross-culturalisation happens better. Runaway Train Accenture follows what it calls a ‘leaders teaching leaders’ approach for technical training. Having a global presence helps in leveraging training resources and sharing expertise across continents. For instance. and this helps decide whether they get on the ‘Leadership Talent List’ of potential fast trackers. while cross-cultural and communication training is outsourced to vendors. the challenge is in extending the in-house training capabilities to a larger pool of Direct Sales Associates (DSAs) outside the company and make them compatible with the company culture. Infosys. and this helps in better branding for the company. For others like ICICI Bank.” says Mohapatra. and coping with scale is a big issue.trainers are line managers and executives who have spent time and understand the business first hand.” says Ravindra. Infosys links training to individuals’ performance. investment in training infrastructure is a priority for most HR heads and CEOs. and even brings down people from other countries here. Building external partnerships with educational institutions is another — so companies like TCS. TCS’s Learning & Development group is currently working on a project (codenamed Pygmalion) to develop training programmes and tools for a new cadre of people that the company has never hired before — plain graduates. managing incidental changes in the training modules and scalability are the challenges the training department faces today. “This way. . “Expanding the talent pool. and Accenture have been developing joint programmes for training people at these institutions before they join the company. wherein its own faculty teaches at academic institutes. senior executives are required to spend time training others. who’re in the retail banking and finance business. The existing model of training also needs to adapt with changing business needs from time to time. At ICICI Bank. TCS runs an Academic Interface initiative. and ensuring a seamless merger of cultures during acquisitions . Trainers are also required to keep updating their skills and knowledge. Mohapatra lists globalization and M&As as the two biggest tests of his training department’s effectiveness in the future — in terms of integrating a globally diverse workforce into a single platform. TCS rotates its training faculty between the Indian and overseas locations. Ramkumar says work is on for a certification process whereby outside partners will be remunerated according to their assessment scores after training. Expanding internal resources is one way. Not surprisingly. and most companies have structured ‘train-the-trainers’ programmes in place. New Challenges It’s clear that the quality of the internal training capability will be among a key driver of business success in the future.

” says Calapa. company executives said.000 rooms. Over the next one year. On July 31st 2006 Infosys plans largest training centre… Infosys to set up world's largest training hub… MYSORE: Software major Infosys plans to invest Rs. "When fully completed it will house five food courts." an official said. the NASDAQ-listed firm planned to set up a new 9. “We’re clear that training is one of the pillars that we’re going to build our future on. An additional 7.500 individuals in a single sitting.BPO firms like ICICI One-Source have mooted the National Assessment of Competence (NAC) programme.750 hostel rooms were under construction. they said. a joint certification and assesment programme with Nasscom to expand the employable talent base for the industry. one employee care centre. .000seat training facility here. this initiative could enable training departments to focus on building higher end competencies in fresh inductees from day one. If it works.809 crores ($176 million) on expanding its global education centre in the next one year. which would enable training of 13. making it a total of 10. one multimedia centre making it undoubtedly the largest training facility in the world.

2 million square feet. software companies are looking at innovative ways to maximize the productivity of their employees and ensure faster deployment.” Sanjeev Fadnavis.85 crores.The company's Mysore campus is spread over 335 acres and it currently has 6. set up with an investment of Rs. online learning companies are focusing on building content that aims to help IT firms save training time and costs on employees. business development. associate vice-president. It has three million square feet of built up area. “The speed at which technology firms can develop. at Harbinger Knowledge Products told DNA Money. . It can seat 2. Daily News & Analysis Online learning gets a thumbs-up from corporates On August 16th 2006 BANGALORE: Indian software service firms spend six to eight weeks in training fresh recruits before deploying them on projects. and work is in progress to build another 3. Now. modify and deploy the elearning content is the key parameters for improving quality of the employee talent. Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission Montek Singh Ahluwalia on Monday inaugurated the company's fourth software development block here. With more projects on hand and hiring in thousands.500 people.378 employees.

To be successful.” informs Rashmi Deshpande of Group M. it is a means to an end. which involves understanding the media business. several players are building specialized tailor-made e-learning courses for tech firms in the country. unlike the traditional theory-based tests. in addition to competency-based training. including in business and soft skills. “The proficiency of the candidate on various programmes could be assessed better. which prepares modules to hone functional and managerial skills. Bangalore-based Liqwid Krystal. Liqwid Krystal has tied up with Viswesvaraya Technical University in Karnataka and Andhra University in the neighboring state to train over 90. which provides competitive and business advantage.000 engineering students through the module. The technology sector has been among the early adopters of online education. Brainleague and Edutech have joined hands to provide e-learning on intellectual property rights with a focus on research units across the country. It is not a panacea. for example. the Indian corporate e-learning market is estimated at $10-20 million with a potential to grow at 150%. “Our training programmes encompass strategizing. . with its focus on constant training of employees and using learning as a retention tool. “E-learning can also be a disaster if it is not managed correctly. But there is a word of caution for firms that adopt e-learning without a clear focus on their business. On August 9th 2006 Most agencies have developed their own training methods tailored to suit the nature of their work. The learning should be constant. In order to capture this huge segment. It should not be chosen because it is fashionable.” Nasscom has said. online learning has to have the right fit with the organization.” Brain League chief knowledge officer Kalyan C Kankanala said.” Liqwid Krystal CEO Anand Adkoli said.According to analysts. GroupM has an internal training department called Aspire MGuruKool. “It is important for knowledge-driven companies to develop and protect intellectual property. planning and buying. and help develop work and soft skills. has designed a solution that allows aspirants for software jobs to write a programme in an online test and assess their capability of building codes.

content. level-wise workshops to upgrade skills and middle-management workshops. etc that we are ready to export.” says Bhasin. These 25 people will. Lowe sends two people. We sometimes adapt and sometimes share best practices with others. work on projects together and develop a sense of belonging. typically one planner and one creative or servicing person. meanwhile.” says Deshpande. A lot of fresh knowledge is created in India in areas like rural marketing. train others to bring about a cascading effect. Says Deshpande: “All media companies under WPP exchange training programmes on modules. JWT conducts functional workshops for senior-level staff. brainstorming and a time-bound deliverable action plan. for planning and strategizing. where youngsters are put through a lot more grind in terms of opportunities. Ashish Bhasin informs that a team of four from the US and the UK recently trained 25 people in Lintas India on the Worldwide Planning Tool Kit. for its ‘global young achiever’ forum. . which is held once a year. while for soft skills we may bring someone from IIM – Bangalore. we may call someone from HLL. and at the same time exporting knowledge. Some of these programmes are often modeled on those developed by parent companies. and introduced a top achiever’s programme in December 2005.” For its part. “These workshops see lectures.” says Sapna Srivastava. JWT nominates its top-level staff (those identified to head offices) for its international programme ‘Sam Meek’. “Most faculties are specialized and bring to the table expertise in a particular area. O&M has an HR and Training leadership group in Asia Pacific that plans regional programmes and oversees training plans. sent to different regions.Agencies generally rope in internal and external faculties (from India and abroad) for training. GroupM has a programme called Fast Trackers for young achievers. Young talent is given more opportunity to grow as well. So. Lintas. which is held thrice a year across different Asia-Pacific centres. The programme is intended to help youngsters build networks across different regions. allowed to work with bigger clients and groomed to take on additional responsibilities. role etc. High fliers and the crème de la crème of the talent pool can also look forward to attending special workshops. A buddy is chosen and the two buddies get an opportunity to visit each other’s country. O&M nominates those who have worked for 3-4 years for the regional programme ‘Adopt a Country’. in turn. “We are getting the best practices when required. has set up its own North-point Centre of learning to empower managers with updated knowledge and decision-making skills. design.

research director for Nucleus Research In 2002. However. Case Study: Article Training Employees of IBM through E-Learning “E-learning is a technology area that often has both first-tier benefits. . IBM had been focusing on human resources development: The company concentrated on the education and training of its employees as an integral part of their development. IBM reportedly spent about $1 billion for training its employees. IBM undertook a cost cutting drive. The magazine ranked companies based on their commitment towards workforce development and training imparted to employees even during periods of financial uncertainty. ‘IMAG Training for non-IMAG’ and ‘advertising workshop for non-advertising’. Initially. During the mid 1990s. and second-tier benefits.O&M sends its senior staff for the regional senior management development programme (SMDP). in the late 1990s. After considerable research. in 1999. And Lowe has introduced programmes like ‘media training for non-media’. IBM decided to use e-Learning to train its employees. a five-module programme spread over 15 months. such as reduced travel costs. Since its inception. the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) was ranked fourth by the Training magazine on it’s “The 2002 Training Top 100”. such as increased employee performance that directly impacts profitability. and started looking for ways to train its employees effectively at lower Costs." Rebecca Wettemann. e-Learning was used to train IBM's newly recruited managers.

" Though there were varied opinions about the effectiveness of e-Learning as a training tool for employees. Andrew Sadler. or a situation where it .IBM saved millions of dollars by training employees through e-learning. a section of analysts and some managers at IBM felt that e-Learning would never be able to' replace the traditional modes of training completely. Even during financially troubled periods." By 2002. IBM had emerged as the company with the largest number of employee's who have enrolled into e-Learning courses. . ELearning also created a better learning environment for the company's employees. the construction of the 'IBM Schoolhouse' to offer education and training for employees. employees were relocated from the plants. IBM had emphasized on training its employees from the very beginning. Discuss. "All measures of effectiveness went up. in terms of wages. Observe and Think. BACKGROUND NOTE Since the inception of IBM. Rick Horton. Watson Sr. general manager of learning services at IBM. the father of modern IBM had once said. It felt that every employee's contribution was important for the organization. The company followed a 'no layoffs' policy. customer engineering.' Managers were trained at the school at regular intervals. important for the group to be together to take advantage of the equipment. The building had Watson Sr. During this year. IBM reported a return on investment (ROI)’s of 2284 percent from its Basic Blue e-Learning program. director of IBM Mindspan Solutions.' while at the same time providing five times more content than before. (Watson Sr. Listen. Analysts estimated that the market for e-Learning programs would grow from $2. The five steps included 'Read. said.1 billion in 2001 to $33. The figure rose to $350 million in 2001. In 1933 (after 15 years of its inception). "The classroom is still the best in a high-technology environment. the company would certainly profit.). This was mainly due to the significant reduction in the company's training costs and positive results reaped from e-learning.6 billion in 2005 representing a 100 percent compounded annual growth rate (CAGR). The company reportedly saved about $166 million within one year of implementing the elearning program for training its employees all over the world. explained the benefits of e-learning to IBM. "By the simple belief that if we respected our people and helped them respect themselves. It's saving money and delivering more effective training. was completed. its top management laid great emphasis on respecting every employee. Thomas J." The HR policies at IBM were employee-friendly. field administration and programming. labs and headquarters. IBM saw it as a major business opportunity and started offering e-learning products to other organizations as well. compared to the traditional training methods. Employees were compensated well as they were paid above the industry average. which requires hands-on laboratories and teaming.'s 'Five Steps of Knowledge' carved on the front entrance. and were retrained for careers in sales.

Gerstner realized that the training workshops were not enough. IBM felt that online training would be an ideal solution to this problem. Gerstner thus started looking for new ways of training managers. IBM's highest-ranking executives were sent to executive seminars. Gerstner adopted a coaching methodology of Sir John Whitmore. However. the then CEO of IBM. which was taught to the managers through training workshops. Therefore. without the costs and time associated with bringing together 5000 managers from all over the world. There was a five-day training program for all the new managers. the London School of Economics. After conducting a research. Therefore. In 1997. international and domestic. organized at the Brookings Institutions this program typically covered a broad range of subjects including. Georgia and Indiana. these workshops were not 'just-in-time.' Managers had to wait for months before their turn of attending the work shops came. strategy and management of IBM. a program offered in about forty colleges including some in Harvard. The company specifically wanted its management training initiatives to address the following issues: • Management of people across geographic borders • Management of remote and mobile employees • Digital collaboration issues • Reductions in management development resources • Limited management time for training and development • Management's low comfort level in accessing and searching online HR resources The company required a continuous training program.To widen their knowledge base and broaden their perspectives. MIT and Stanford. Virginia. in most of the cases. Louis Gerstner (Gerstner). Those who excelled in these programs were sent to the Advanced Managers School. conducted a research to identify the unique characteristics of best executives and managers. IBM trained about 5000 new managers in a year. where they were familiarized with the basic culture. IBM executives were exposed to topical events with a special emphasis on their implications for the company. the five-day program turned out to be insufficient for the managers to train them effectively. The company felt that the training process had to be continuous and not a one-time event. Moreover. Gerstner aimed at improving the managers' training skills. political and econQll1ic affairs. which differentiated best executives and managers. Columbia. the employees did not possess the knowledge of critical aspects like team building. However. as the jobs became more complex. The company planned to utilize the services of IBM Mindspan . managers were also sent for educational programs to Harvard. The research revealed that the ability to train employees was an essential skill. during the initial weeks at the job. after some time.

issues and business conduct in an interactive manner. The first three tiers were delivered online and the fourth tier included oneweek long traditional classroom training. decision points and branching results. In the third tier. IBM believed that its managers should be aware of practices and policies followed in different countries. job aids and short courses. and conflict resolution and so on. employees could interact online with the instructors as well as with peers in their groups. which was fully deployed in 2000. In this tier. the members of the group started interacting with each other online. The e-Learning part included articles. IBM launched the pilot Basic Blue management training program. ONLINE TRAINING @ IBM In 1999. the members of the group had to solve problems as a team by forming virtual .Tier' blended learning model'." In the second tier. live virtual classrooms and interactive presentation: on the web. The managers were provided access to a lot of information including a database of questions. not a one-time event. It imparted 75 percent of the training online and the remaining 25 percent through the traditional classroom mode. IBM Management Development's web site. This tier used IBM's collaboration tools such as chats. Using these tools. Senior managers trained the managers online. Hence. The material also highlighted other important web sites to be browsed for further information. This tier also used virtual team exercises and included advanced technologies like application sharing. A manager who faced a problem could either access the relevant topic directly. This information addressed the issues like evaluation. multicultural issues. compensation and benefits. which managers came across. The founding principle of Basic Blue was that 'learning is an extended process. The simulations enabled the managers to learn about employee skill-building. the managers were provided with simulated situations. simulations. This was IBM's first e-learning project on international training. Going Global offered as many as 300 interactive scenarios on culture clashes." Basic Blue was based on a '4. The program offered basic skills and knowledge to managers so that they can become effective leaders and peopleoriented managers. Some of the content for [his tier was offered by Harvard Business School and the simulations were created by Cognitive Arts of Chicago. or find the relevant information using a search engine. The online Coaching Simulator offered eight scenarios with 5000 scenes of action. He/she had direct access to materials on the computer’s desktop for online reading. retention. the groups were foremen virtually by videoconferencing with team members from all over the world. work/life balance. Customer-Room and Lotus Learning Space. answers and sample scenarios called Manager QuickViews. and team rooms including IBM e-Learning products like the Team-Room.Solutions to design and support the company's manager training program. Basic Blue was an in-house management training program for new managers.

in most of the cases these methods proved too expensive. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). government. In the fourth tier. Managers had to pass an online test on the content provided in the above three tiers. There were no lectures in these sessions. before entering the fourth tier.' By the time the managers reached this tire. Sales Compass also trained the sales personnel on skills like negotiating and selling services. However. It also enabled the sales people to sell certain IBM products designed for Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Sales Compass was developed further. Though Sales Compass was originally started in 1997 on a trial basis to help the sales team in selling business intelligence solutions to the retail and manufacturing industries. this tier focused more on developing the collaborative skills of the learners. banking. as the sales team was spread across the world. in a highly competitive market.groups. Apart from this. The tremendous success of the Basic Blue initiative encouraged IBM to extend training through e-Learning to its-sales personnel and experienced managers as well. it-was not implemented on a large scale. Though training through e-Learning was very successful. national sales conferences and other traditional methods of training. the fourth tier comprised a classroom training program. selling skills (11 courses). own as 'Learning Lab. Hence. IBM could not afford to keep its sales team away from work for weeks together. the sales personnel underwent live training at the company's headquarters and training campuses. key processes. ineffective and time-consuming. using these products. The sales personnel of IBM across the globe could use the information from their desktops using a web browser. IBM believed that classroom training was also essential to develop people skills. The content of the new Sales Compass was divided into five categories including Solutions (13 courses). personal skills (2 courses). market segmentation. Sales Compass also had simulations for selling products to a specific .' Prior to the implementation of the Sales Compass e-Learning program.' and the one for the experienced managers. they all reached a similar level of knowledge by mastering the content in the first three tiers. industries (23 courses). coordination problems also cropped up. Business Intelligence (BI). positioning and selling industry solutions and identifying resources. and tools and job aid (4 aids). Therefore. They also attended field training program. Like the Basic Blue program. Moreover. the managers had to master the information acquired in the above three tiers and develop a deeper understanding and a broader skills set. industry trends. The e-Learning program for the sales personnel was known as 'Sales Compass. Sales Compass provided critical information to the sales personnel helping them to understand various industries (including automotive. insurance etc) in a much better manner. The information offered included industry snapshot. and the managers had to learn by doing and by coordinating directly with others in the classroom. as 'Managing@ IBM. But with the success of Basic Blue. and so on.

most of the times. a sophisticated Intelligent Web Agent. and so on. IBM Sales Compass provides industry-specific knowledge. The program included the face-to-face Learning Lab. Sales Compass was offered to 20. IBM was able to reduce its training budget as well as improve employee productivity significantly.000 sales representatives.FUTURE PLANS . Unlike the Basic Blue program. and enabled the managers to meet their specific needs." IBM also launched an e-Learning program called 'Managing @ IBM' for its experienced managers. The simulation modules and collaboration techniques created a richer learning environment. "Sales Compass is a just-in-time. So they are. in late 2001.5 Sales Compass 21. Edvisor offered three tracks offering various types of information. sales specialists. as compared to the traditional training methods used earlier. and selling tools that support our signature selling methodology. E-learning also resulted in a deeper understanding of the learning content by the managers.0 E-LEARNING AT IBM . said. The e-learning projects also enabled the company to leverage corporate internal knowledge as most of the content they carried came from the internal content experts. and Edvisor.0 Going global 0.6 Coaching simulators 0. territory representatives.6 Customer-Room 0. unable to get into a branch office and obtain information on a specific industry or solution. By implementing the above programs. advice on how to sell specific solutions. IBM saved $200 million and its cost of training per-employee reduced significantly . Brenda Toan (Toan). client relationship representatives. and service professionals at IBM. Most of our users are mobile. about how to close a deal.8 Manager Quick-Views 6. just-enough sales support information site. In 2000. IBM’s cost savings through E-Learning Program Saving in 2000 (in US $million) Basic Blue 16.from $400 to $135. The program provided content related to leadership and people management skills.industry like banking. which is convenient for these users. Basic Blue saved $16 million while Sales Compass saved $21 million. e-learning. this program enabled managers to choose information based on their requirements. In 2001. global skills and learning leader for IBM offices across the world. It also enabled the managers to complete their classroom training modules in lesser time. It also allowed its users to ask questions and had links to information on other IBM sites and related websites.

career changes and more. IBM continued its efforts to improve the visual information in all its e-Learning programs to make them more effective. and other companies. flash animation. increased employee satisfaction. at any time. American Airlines (AA) used IBM's eLearning package. In early 2002.The e-Learning projects of IBM had been successful right from the initial stages of their implementation. . AA's manager for line training and special projects. the company was able to find such an employee in three days. The new tool on the company's intranet was capable of carrying out most of the employee hiring processes. Besides. This obviously. IBM also started exploring the evolving area of 'mobile learning' Analysts felt that for mobile sales force of IBM.000 flight attendants by November 2002. coverage. such as cost.' This tool also enabled the employees to know about the various health plans offered by IBM. IBM leveraged many new communication channels for offering its courses to employees. The content included instruction clips. American has also brought efficiency and cost savings to our training processes using IBM's e-Learning solution. Pathfinder took information from the employees and returned a preferred plan with ranks and graphs. The company also automated its hiring process. its sales force and other employees. The company also encouraged its other employees to attend these e-learning programs. It was also included among the ten best 'world-class implementations of corporate learning' initiatives by the "E-Learning across the Enterprise: The Benchmarking Study of Best Practices" (Brandon Hall) in September 2000." The company had trained 24. This made the airlines annual safety training certification program guides more effective. Now. which enabled its flight attendants to log on to AA's website and complete the 'safety and security training' from any place. "The full service package that IBM offers has allowed us to develop an effective online course for our large group of busy attendants. IBM planned to update these programs on a continuous basis. customer service or performance using an Intranet tool called 'Path Finder. IBM also started offering the courses to its customers and to the general public. Initially. deductions in their salaries. but also in other HR activities. These programs were appreciated by HR experts of IDM. Shanta Hudson-Fields. In November 2001. Apart from this. graphics. IBM used to take ten days to find a temporary engineer or consultant. IBM used e-Learning not only to train its employees. m-Learning was the next ideal step (after eLearning). The employees could learn about the merits of various benefits and the criteria for availing these benefits. using feedback from its new and experienced managers. The Basic Blue program bagged three awards of 'Excellence in Practice' from the American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) in March 2000. commented. and so on. IBM employees received the benefits enrollment material online. This application enabled employees to see and manage their benefits. In addition to providing a flexible training certification experience for our attendants. mbafin. .com hrmba. Project Reports visit a2zmba.For more Notes.

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