FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC.

MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM
(LiQingYing)

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Content
1、 CONTROL SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………..4

1.1、Basic Design ……………………………………………………………………..4 1.2、Start–up/Shutdown Sequence and Control………………………................8 1.3、Speed Detectors………………………………………………………………….8 2、START–UP CONTROL……………………………………………………………10 2.1、Fired Shutdown…………………………………………………………………14 3、 SPEED CONTROL………………………………………..………………………17 3.1、Speed Signal ………………………………………………................................17 3.2、Speed/Load Reference …………………………..…........................................17 3.3、 Synchronizing……………………………………………………………………22 4、 ACCELERATION CONTROL…………………………………………………..24 5、 TEMPERATURE CONTROL……………………………………………………26 5.1 、 Exhaust Temperature Control Hardware…………………….. ……………...28 5.2、Exhaust Temperature Control Software…………………………………….29 5.3、Temperature Control Command Program…………………….……………29 5.4、Temperature Control Bias Program…………………………………………31 5.5、Temperature Reference Select Program……………………………………33 6、 FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM………………….…………………………………34 6.1、Servo Drive System……………………………….……………………………35 6.2、 Liquid Fuel Control ………………………………..……………………………37 6.3、 Fuel Oil Control – Software……………………………………………………39 6.4、Gas Fuel Control………………………………………………………………..41 6.5、Gas Control Valves……………………………………………………………..44 6.6、Stop/Speed Ratio Valve………………………………………………………..47 6.7、 Premix Splitter Valve……………………………………………………………53 6.8、Dual Fuel Control……………………………………………………………….53 6.9、Fuel Splitter………………………………………………………………………54 6.10、Fuel Transfer – Liquid to Gas……………………………………………....55 6.11、Liquid Fuel Purge……………………………………………………………..56 6.12、Fuel Transfer – Gas to Liquid……………………………………………….57 6.13、Gas Fuel Purge………………………………………………………………..57 7、 MODULATED INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM……………………………....58 7.1、Guide Vane Actuation……………………………………………………….....58 7.2、Operation………………………………………………………….......................59

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8、 PROTECTION SYSTEMS………..………………………………………….....61 8.1、Trip Oil…………………………………………………………………………….63 8.2、Inlet Orifice………………………………………………………………………63 8.3、Dump Valve………………………………………………………………………63 8.4、Check Valve & Orifice Network…………………………………………….....64 8.5、Pressure Switches…………………………………………...............................65 8.6、Operation…………………………………………………………………………65 9、 Overspeed Protection…………………………………………………………66 9.1、Electronic Overspeed Protection System………………………………….66 10、 Overtemperature Protection…………………………………………………68 10.1、Overtemperature Alarm (L30TXA)………………………………………….69 10.2、Overtemperature Trip (L86TXT)…………………………………………….71 11、 Flame Detection and Protection System…………………………………..72 12、Vibration Protection…………………………………………………………….74 13、Combustion Monitoring………………………………………………………..76 13.1、Combustion Monitoring Software………………………………………….76 13.2、Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm……………………………………79 13.3、Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA)……………………………………..80 13.4、 High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip (L30SPT)……………………….80 13.5、Monitor Enable (L83SPM)……………………………………………………81

FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEEDTRONIC. MARK VI CONTROL SYSTEM

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SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI Control contains a number of control, protection and sequencing sys-tems designed for reliable and safe operation of the gas turbine. It is the objective of this chapter to de-scribe how the gas turbine control requirements are met, using simplified block diagrams and one–line diagrams of the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI control,protection, and sequencing systems. A generator drive gas turbine is used as the reference.

1、CONTROL SYSTEM 1.1、Basic Design
Control of the gas turbine is done by the startup, ac-celeration, speed, temperature, shutdown, and manual control functions illustrated in Figure 1. Sensors monitor turbine speed, exhaust tempera-ture, compressor discharge pressure, and other pa-rameters to determine the operating conditions of the unit. When it is necessary to alter the turbine op-erating conditions because of changes in load or am-bient conditions, the control modulates the flow of fuel to the gas turbine. For example, if the exhaust temperature tends to exceed its allowable value for a given operating condition, the temperature control system reduces the fuel supplied to the turbine and thereby limits the exhaust tempera-ture.

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speed. Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) is the command signal for fuel flow. the lowest FSR output of the six control loops is allowed to pass through the gate to the fuel control system as the controlling FSR. -5- . Only one control loop will be in control at any particular time and the control loop which is controlling FSR will be displayed on the <HMI>. There are three major control loops –startup. The controlling FSR will establish the fuel input to the turbine at the rate required by the system which is in control. manual FSR. The secondary control modes of acceleration. The output of these control loops is connected to a minimum value gate circuit as shown in Figure 1. and temperature – which may be in control during turbine operation. and shutdown operate in a similar manner.Operating conditions of the turbine are sensed and utilized as feedback signals to the SPEEDTRONIC control system. The minimum value select gate con-nects the output signals of the six control modes to the FSR controller.

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Figure 2 shows a more detailed schematic of thecontrol loops. This can be referenced during the ex-planation of each loop to show the interfacing. -7- .

1.2、Start–up/Shutdown Sequence and Control
Start–up control brings the gas turbine from zero speed up to operating speed safely by providing proper fuel to establish flame, accelerate the turbine, and to do it in such a manner as to minimize the low cycle fatigue of the hot gas path parts during the se-quence. This involves proper sequencing of com-mand signals to the accessories, starting device and fuel control system. Since a safe and successful start–up depends on proper functioning of the gas turbine equipment, it is important to verify the state of selected devices in the sequence. Much of the control logic circuitry is associated not only with ac-tuating control devices, but enabling protective cir-cuits and obtaining permissive conditions before proceeding. The gas turbine uses a static start system whereby the generator serves as a starting motor. A turning gear is used for rotor breakaway.

General values for control settings are given in this description to help in the understanding of the oper-ating system. Actual values for control settings are given in the Control Specifications for a particular machine.

1.3、Speed Detectors
An important part of the start–up/shutdown se-quence control of the gas turbine is proper speed sensing. Turbine speed is measured by magnetic pickups and will be discussed under speed control. The following speed detectors and speed relays are typically used: –L14HR Zero–Speed (approx. 0% speed) –L14HM Minimum Speed (approx. 16% speed) –L14HA Accelerating Speed (approx. 50% speed) –L14HS Operating Speed (approx. 95% speed) The zero–speed detector, L14HR, provides the sig-nal when the turbine

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shaft starts or stops rotating.When the shaft speed is below 14HR, or at zero–speed, L14HR picks–up (fail safe) and the permis-sive logic initiates turning gear or slow–rolloperation during the automatic start–up sequence of the turbine. The minimum speed detector L14HM indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed and initiates the purge cycle prior to the introduction of fuel and ignition. The dropout of the L14HM minimum speed relay provides several permissive functions in the restarting of the gas turbine after shutdown. The accelerating speed relay L14HA pickup indi-cates when the turbine has reached approximately 50 percent speed; this indicates that turbine start– up is progressing and keys certain protective features. The high–speed sensor L14HS pickup indicates when the turbine is at speed and that the accelerating sequence is almost complete. This signal provides the logic for various control sequences such as stop-ping auxiliary lube oil pumps and starting turbine shell/exhaust frame blowers. Should the turbine and generator slow during an un-derfrequency situation, L14HS will drop out at the under–frequency speed setting. After L14HS drops out the generator breaker will trip open and the Tur-bine Speed Reference (TNR) will be reset to 100.3%. As the turbine accelerates, L14HS will again pick up; the turbine will then require another start signal before the generator will attempt to auto–synchronize to the system again. The actual settings of the speed relays are listed in the Control Specification and are programmed in the <RST> processors as EEPROM control constants.

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2、START–UP CONTROL
The start–up control operates as an open loop con-trol using preset levels of the fuel command signal FSR. The levels are: “ZERO”, “FIRE”, “WARM–UP”, “ACCELERATE” and “MAX”. The Control Specifications provide proper settings calculated for the fuel anticipated at the site. The FSR levels are set as Control Constants in the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI start–up control. Start–up control FSR signals operate through the minimum value gate to ensure that other control functions can limit FSR as required. The fuel command signals are generated by the SPEEDTRONIC control start–up software. In addi-tion to the three active start–up levels, the software sets maximum and minimum FSR and provides for manual control of FSR. Clicking on the targets for “MAN FSR CONTROL” and “FSR GAG RAISE OR LOWER” allows manual adjustment of FSR setting between FSRMIN and FSRMAX. While the turbine is at rest, electronic checks are made of the fuel system stop and control valves, the accessories, and the voltage supplies. At this time, “SHUTDOWN STATUS” will be displayed on the <HMI>. Activating the Master Operation Switch (L43) from “OFF” to an operating mode will acti-vate the ready circuit. If all protective circuits and trip latches are reset, the “STARTUP STATUS” and “READY TO START” messages will be displayed, indicating that the turbine will accept a start signal. Clicking on the “START” Master Control Switch (L1S) and “EXECUTE” will introduce the start sig-nal to the logic sequence.

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The start signal energizes the Master Control and Protection circuit (the “L4” circuit) and starts the necessary auxiliary equipment. The “L4” circuit permits pressurization of the trip oil system. With the “L4” circuit permissive and starting clutch auto-matically engaged, the starting device starts turning. Startup status message “STARTING” will be dis-played on the <HMI>. See point “A” on the Typical Start–up Curve Figure 3.

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When the turbine ‘breaks away’ the turning gear will rotate the turbine rotor from 5 to 7 rpm. The turbine speed relay L14HM indicates that the turbine is turn-ing at the speed required for proper purging and igni-tion in the combustors..e. Gas fired units that have exhaust configurations which can trap gas leakage (i.The starting clutch is a positive tooth type overrun-ning clutch which is self–engagifng in the break-away mode and overruns whenever the turbine rotor exceeds the turning gear speed. L2TV. which is ini-tiated with the L14HM signal. and accelerates the rotor the starting clutch will automatically disengage the turning gear from the turbine rotor. As the static starter begins it’s sequence. boilers) have a purge timer. The purge time is set to allow three to four changes of air through the unit to ensure that any combustible mixture has been purged from the system. The starting means will hold speed until L2TV has completed its cycle. Units which do not have .12 - .

and initiates the firing timer L2F. The start–up control software establishes the maxi-mum allowable levels of FSR signals during start–up. FSR is then controlled by the speed loop and the auxiliary systems are automatically shut down. The start–up cycle has been designed to moderate the highest firing temperature produced during accel-eration.FSR control usually passes to . The start–up phase ends when the unit attains full–speed–no–load (see point “D” on Figure 3). This is done by programming a slow rise in FSR. The warm–up time is pro-vided to minimize the thermal stresses of the hot gaspath parts during the initial part of the start– up.extensive exhaust systems may not have a purge timer. This sequence occurs even on units not requiring initial L2TV purge.shutting down the turning gear. other control circuits are able to reduce and modulate FSR to perform their control functions.13 - . the clutch will disengage. but firing will be delayed by the L2TV timer to avoid fuel ac-cumulation in successive attempts. sets firing level FSR. fuel flow is halted.the turbine begins the acceleration phase of start–up. If flame is not established by the time the L2F timer times out. As fuel is increased. Speed relay L14HA indicates the turbine is accelerating. When the flame detector out-put signals indicate flame has been established in the combustors (L28FD). typically 60 seconds. In the acceleration phase of the start–up. but rely on the starting cycle and natural draft to purge the system.The unit can be given another start signal. The L14HM signal or completion of the purge cycle (L2TVX) ‘enables’ fuel flow. See point “C” on Figure 3. At the completion of the warm–up period (L2WX). When the turbineoverruns the turning gear.the start–up control ramps FSR at a predetermined rate to the setting for “ACCELERATE LIMIT”. See point “B” on Figure 3. The clutch is held in as long as the turning gear pro-vides torque to the gas turbine. the warm–up timer L2W starts and the fuel command signal is reduced to the “WARM–UP” FSR level. As stated before. ignition.

2.1、Fired Shutdown A normal shutdown is initiated by clicking on the “STOP” target (L1STOP) and “EXECUTE”.acceleration control. the Tur-bine Speed Reference (TNR) counts down to reduce load at the normal loading . The <HMI> display will show which parameter is limiting or controlling FSR. to reach the temperature control limit. If the generator break-er is closed when the stop signal is initiated. but not normal. It is possible.14 - . this will produce the L94X signal.which monitors the rate of rotor acceleration.

By maintaining flame down to a lower speed there is significant re-duction in the strain developed on the hot gas path parts at the time of fuel shut off. The sequencing logic remembers which flame detectors were functional when the breaker opened.rate until the reverse pow-er relay operates to open the generator breaker. TNR then continues to count down to reduce speed.15 - . the minimum fuel required to keep the turbine fired. Fired shut down is an improvement over the former fuel shut off at L14HS drop out. When the STOP signal is given. When any of the functional flame detectors senses a loss of flame. after which fuel flow is stopped. shutdown Fuel Stroke Ref-erence FSRSD is set equal to FSR. When the generator breaker opens. FSRSD ramps from existing FSR down to a value equal to FSRMIN. . FSRMIN/FSRSD decreases at a higher rate until flame–out occurs. When turbine speed drops below a defined threshold (Control Constant K60RB) FSRSD ramps to a blowout of one flame detector. FSRSD latches onto FSRMIN and de-creases with corrected speed.

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If the clearance is not maintained with-in the specified limits. the frequen-cy of the voltage output in Hertz is exactly equal to the speed of the turbine in revolutions per minute. TNR. the pulse signal can be dis-torted. The signal from the magnetic pickups is brought into the Mark VI panel. 0. The called–for–speed. With the 60–tooth wheel. 3.–2.–3) are high output devices consisting of a permanent magnet surrounded by a hermetically sealed case. Clearance between the outside diameter of the toothed wheel and the tip of the mag-netic pickup should be kept within the limits speci-fied in the Control Specifications (approx. one mag pickup to each control-ler <RST>. determines the load of the turbine. These magnetic pickup sensors (77NH–1. 3.1、Speed Signal Three magnetic sensors are used to measure the speed of the turbine. where it is monitored by the speed con-trol software. The pickups are mounted in a ring around a 60–toothed wheel on the gas turbine com-pressor rotor. While on speed control the control mode message “SPEED CTRL”will be displayed.05 inch or 1. The range .27 mm). The voltage output is affected by the clearance be-tween the teeth of the wheel and the tip of the mag-netic pickup. Turbine speed control would then operate in response to the incorrect speed feedback signal.2、Speed/Load Reference The speed control software will change FSR in pro-portion to the difference between the actual turbine–generator speed (TNH) and the called–for speed reference (TNR).17 - .3、SPEED CONTROL The Speed Control System controls the speed and load of the gas turbine generator in response to the actual turbine speed signal and the called–for speed reference.

for generator drive turbines is normally from 95% (min.3% and is preset when a “START” signal is given.) speed.18 - .) to 107% (max. .The start–up speed reference is 100.

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If all units have the same droop. Normally 4% droop is selected and the setpoint is calibrated such that 104% setpoint will generate a speed reference which will produce an FSR result-ing in base load at design ambient temperature. This pro-portionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or “Droop”. Thus the speed control loop becomes a load control loop and the speed reference is a convenient control of the desired amount of load to be applied to the turbine–generator unit. Fuel flow in excess of that necessary to maintain full speed no load will result in increased power produced by the generator. the speed is held constant by the grid frequency.3% TNH for synchro-nization. in turn raising or lowering TNH. By closing the generator breaker and raising TNR via raise/lower.20 - . changing FSR in proportion to the difference be-tween actual turbine speed and the speed reference. if required. Load sharing and system stability are the main advantages of this method of speed control. At this point the operator can raise or lower TNR. the error between speed andreference is increased. The speed vs. Refer to Figure 4. all will share a load in-crease equally. Droop speed control is a proportional control. Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a proportional change in unit load. grid frequency (or speed) will decrease and cause an FSR increase in proportion to the droop setting.The turbine follows to 100. If the entire grid system tends to be overloaded. the full–speed–no–load FSR setting calls for a fuel flow which is sufficient to maintain full speed with no generator load. Once the generator breaker is closed onto the power grid. This error is . When operating on droop control. FSR relationship is shown on Figure 4. via the 70R4CS switch on the generator control panel or by clicking on the targets on the <HMI>.

multiplied by a gain constant dependent on the desired droop setting and added to the FSNL FSR setting to produce the required FSR to take more load and thus assist in holding the system frequency. The minimum FSR limit (FSRMIN) in the SPEED-TRONIC Mark VI system prevents the speed con-trol circuits from driving the FSR below the value which would cause flameout during a transient condition. For example. .21 - . the speed control system loop would want to drive the FSR signal to zero. Temperature and/or start–up control can drive FSR to zero and are not in-fluenced by FSRMIN. Refer to Figures 4 and 5. but the minimum FSR setting establishes the minimum fuel level that prevents a flameout. with a sudden rejection of load on the turbine.

i.. genera-tor panel selector switch.22 - . See Figure 6. Thesemay be selected from external contacts.3、Synchronizing Automatic synchronizing is accomplished using synchronizing algorithms programmed into <RST> and <VPRO> software. Bus and generator voltage signals are input to the <VPRO> core which con-tains isolation transformers. <RST> software drives the synch check and synch permissive relays.3. OFF – Breaker will not be closed by SPEED-TRONIC Mark VI control . There are three basic synchronizing modes. 1. while <VPRO> provides the actual breaker close command. or from the SPEEDTRON-IC Mark VI <HMI>. and are then paralleled to <RST>.e.

23 - . If the sys-tem frequency has varied enough to cause an unacceptable slip frequency (difference between generator frequency and grid frequency).20% to 0. as-suring load pick–up upon breaker closure.40% faster than the grid to assure the correct slip frequency and permit synchronizing. For synchronizing. the speed matching circuit adjusts TNR to maintain turbine speed 0. It is used in series with both the auto synchronizing relay . the unit is brought to 100. For added protection a synchronizing check relay isprovided in the generator panel.3% speed to keep the generator “faster” than the grid. MANUAL – Operator initiated breaker closure when permissive synch check relay 25X is satis-fied AUTO – System will automatically match volt-age and speed and then close the breaker at the appropriate time to hit top dead center on the synchroscope 3.2.

The difference between these two numbers is a measure of the acceleration. and consequently the fuel to the gas turbine.and the manual breaker close switch to prevent large out–of–phase breaker closures. acceleration control usually takes over from speed control shortly after the warm–up period and brings the unit to speed.24 - . After the unit has reached 100% TNH. acceleration control usually serves only to contain the unit’s speed if the generator breaker should open while under load. which is normally 14HS pick–up. At “Complete Sequence”. FSRACC is reduced. 加速控制算法 . During start–up the acceleration reference is a function of turbine speed. which will reduce FSR. nor-mally 1% speed/second. If the actual accelera-tion is greater than the acceleration reference. the acceleration reference is a Control Constant. 4、ACCELERATION CONTROL Acceleration control compares the present value of the speed signal with the value at the last sample time.

TNHAR 的典型控制常数 .25 - .

it is this temperature that must be limited by the control sys-tem. The temperature control system is designed to mea-sure and control turbine exhaust temperature rather than firing temperature because it is impractical tomeasure temperatures directly in the combustion chambers or at the turbine inlet. gas tur-bine cycle performance calculations. firing temperature can be determined as a function of exhaust temperature and the pressure ratio across the turbine. The combustion gas in that zone is di-luted by cooling air and flows into the turbine sec-tion through the first stage nozzle. The temperature of that gas as it exits the first stage nozzle is known as the “firing temperature” of the gas turbine. .26 - . the latter is determined from the measured compressor discharge pressure (CPD). The highest temperature in the gas turbine occurs in the flame zone of the combustion chambers. From thermodynamic relationships.namic characteristics and using those to bias the exhaust temperature signal. This indirect control of turbine firing temperature is made practical by utilizing known gas turbine aero– and thermo–dy. and known site conditions. since the exhaust temperature alone is not a true indication of firing temperature.5、TEMPERATURE CONTROL The Temperature Control System will limit fuel flow to the gas turbine to maintain internal operating temperatures within design limitations of turbine hot gas path parts.

Either FSR or megawatt ex-haust temperature control curves are used as back–up to the primary CPD–biased temperature control curve.27 - .Firing temperature can also be approximated as a function of exhaust temperature and fuel flow (FSR) and as a function of exhaust temperature and genera-tor output (DWATT). These relationships are shown on Figures 7 and 8. while the constant exhaust tempera-ture limit .The lines of constant firing temperature are used in the control system to limit gas turbine operating temperatures.

28 - . ungrounded detectors are sent to the SPEED-TRONIC Mark VI control panel through shielded thermocouple cables and are divided amongst con-trollers <RST>. minimiz-ing the cooling effect of the longer time constant. . typically 27 in number. These thermocouples circumferentially inside the exhaust diffuser.protects the exhaust system during start–up. cooler plenum walls. The signals from these individ-ual.6mm) stainless steel sheathed thermocouples at high velocity. They have individual radiation shields that allow the radial outward diffuser flow to pass over these 1/16” diameter (1. 5.1、Exhaust Temperature Control Hardware Chromel–Alumel exhaust temperature thermocou-ples are used and.

These signals are accessed by <RST>. The highest and low-est values are then rejected and the remaining values are averaged. calculates the representa-tive exhaust temperature value.2、Exhaust Temperature Control Software The software contains a series of application pro-grams written to perform the exhaust temperature control and monitoring functions such as digital and analog input scan. . which consists of the following programs: 1. This array (TTXD2) is used in the combus-tion monitor program as well as in the Temperature Control Program. Temperature reference selection The temperature control software determines the cold junction compensated thermocouple readings. these thermocouples are scanned and cold junction corrected by programs described later. they will be rejected. Temperature control command 2. 5. Temperature control bias calculations 2. compares this value with the setpoint.5. In the Temperature Control Pro-gram all exhaust thermocouple inputs are monitored and if any are reading too low as compared to a constant. The temperature control command program in <RST> (Figure 9) reads the exhaust thermocouple tempera-ture values and sorts them from the highest to thelowest. A major function is the exhaust temperature control. that average being the TTXM signal. and then generates a fuel com-mand signal to the analog control system to limit exhaust temperature. selects the temperature control setpoint.29 - . calculates the control setpoint value.3、Temperature Control Command Program The temperature control command program compares the exhaust temperature control setpoint with the measured gas turbine exhaust temperature as obtained from the thermocouples mounted in the exhaust plenum.

The TTXM signal will be based on the remaining Controllers’ thermocouples and an alarm will be generated. The TTXM value is used as the feedback for the ex-haust temperature comparator because the value is not affected by extremes that may be the result of faulty instrumentation. this program will ignorethe readings from the failed Controller.If a Controller should fail.30 - . The temperature–control–command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temperature control setpoint .

The program calculates another setpoint based on FSR and constants from another temperature–reference table. In the computer. The tempera-ture control bias program (Figure 10) calculates the exhaust temperature control setpoint TTRXB based on the CPD data stored in computer memory and constants from the selected temperature– reference table. firing temperature is limited by a linearized function of exhaust temperature and CPD backed up by a linearized function of exhaust temperature and FSR (See Figure 8).(calculated in the tem-perature–control–bias program and stored in the computer memory) TTRXB to the TTXM value to determine the temperature error. The software pro-gram converts the temperature error to a fuel stroke reference signal. . FSRT.31 - . 5.4、Temperature Control Bias Program Gas turbine firing temperature is determined by the measured parameters of exhaust temperature and compressor discharge pressure (CPD) or exhaust temperature and fuel consumption (proportional to FSR).

or isothermal for the final exhaust temperature control reference. A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate at which the setpoint can change. The output of the ramp function is the exhaust temperature control setpoint which is stored in the computer memory. FSR bias control will be selected to minimize the effect of turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature.32 - . The CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm occurs when the CPD setpoint is higher.Figure 11 is a graphical illustration of the control set-points. The values for these constants are given in the Control Specifications–Control System Settings drawing. Consult the Control Sequence Program (CSP) and the Control Specifications drawing for the block diagram il-lustration of this function and the value of the constants. During normal operation with gas or light distillate fuels. The program selects the minimum of the three setpoints. The constants TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope) are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD bias exhaust tem-perature setpoint. CPD bias.5°F per se-cond. The temperature–control– bias program also selects the isothermal setpoint TTKn_I. For units operating with heavy fuel. FSR bias. this selection results in a CPD bias control with an isothermal limit. The FSR bias setpoint will then be compared with the CPD bias setpoint and an alarm will occur when the FSR set-point exceeds the CPD setpoint. as shown by the heavy lines on Figure 11. The constants TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope) are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR bias exhaust temperature setpoint. Typical rate change limit is 1. The maximum and minimum change in ramp rates (slope) are programmed in constants TTKRXR1 and TTKRXR2. .

selected by clicking on the appropriate target on the operator interface <HMI>. A typical digital signal is “BASE SELECT”. . Three digital input signals are de-coded to select one set of constants which define the control setpoints necessary to meet those require-ments.5.5、Temperature Reference Select Program The exhaust temperature control function selects control setpoints to allow gas turbine operation at various firing temperatures.33 - . The temperature– refer-ence–select program (Figure 12) determines the op-erational level for control setpoints based on digital input information representing temperature control requirements.

FSR actually consists of two separate signals added together. Standard fuel systems are designed for opera-tion with liquid fuel and/or gas fuel.34 - . FSR1 + FSR2 =FSR. It starts with the ser-vo drive system. where the setpoint is compared with the feedback signal and converted to a valve position.6、FUEL CONTROL SYSTEM The gas turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors in response to the fuel stroke reference signal (FSR). . gas and dual fuel op-eration and how the FSR from the control systems previously described is conditioned and sent as a set point to the servo system. normally. FSR1 being the called–for liquid fuel flow and FSR2 being the called–for gas fuel flow. This chapter will describe a dual fuel system. It will describe liquid.

1、Servo Drive System The heart of the fuel system is a three coil electro–hydraulic servovalve (servo) as shown in Figure 13. The servovalve is the interface between the electri-cal and mechanical systems and controls the direc-tion and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo. .6.35 - .

the feedback voltage changes. Each coil is connected to one of the three Controllers <RST>. This core in turn is con-nected to the valve whose position is being con-trolled. hydraulic oil will be ported to one side of the cylin-der and the other to drain.The servovalve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor. The difference is ampli-fied on the VSVO card and sent through the TSVO card to the servo. This provides redundancy should one of the Controllers or coils fail. as the valve moves. Figure 13) will tell the control whether or not it is in the required position. There is a null–bias spring which positions the servo so that the actuator will go to the fail safe posi-tion should ALL power and/or control signals be lost. If the hydraulic actuator has spring return. The digital (microprocessor sig-nal) to analog conversion is done on the VSVO card. the control signal positions the servovalve so that it ports high–pressure oil to either side of the hydraulic actuator. The LVDT outputs an AC voltage which is proportional to the position of the core of the LVDT.36 - . The LVDT requires an exciter voltage which is provided by the VSVO card. The called–for fuel flow signal is then compared to a feedback rep-resenting actual fuel flow. Figure 14 shows the major components of the servo positioning loops. This output to the servos is moni-tored and there will be an . this represents called–for fuel flow. A feedback signal pro-vided by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT. If the hydraulic actuator is a double–action piston.

Figure 14 Servo Positioning Loops . liquid fuel pump bypass valve servovalve 65FP. and fuel nozzles. –2. A diagram of the system showing major components is shown in Figure 15. fuel pump pressure relief valve. fuel lines. flow divider magnetic speed pickups 77FD– 1. The electrical control components are: liquid fuel pressure switch (upstream) 63FL–2. combined selector valve/pressure gauge assembly. three fuel pumps.37 - . false start drain valve. fuel oil stop valve.2、Liquid Fuel Control The liquid fuel system consists of fuel handling components and electrical control components. –3 and SPEEDTRONIC control cards TSVO and VSVO. fuel bypass valve. flow divider. Some of the fuel handling components are: primary fuel oil filter. fuel oil stop valve limit switch 33FL.alarm on loss of any one of the three signals from <RST> 6.

making the discharge flow from each pump equal. Located between the inlet (low pressure) and discharge (high pressure) sides of the fuel pump. The gear pumps are mechanically connected so that they all run at the same speed. It is positioned by servo valve 65FP. The flow divider is driven by the small pressure differential between the inlet and outlet. again one per combustor. It consists of a number of matched high volumetric efficiency positive displacement gear pumps. one for each combustor. which receives its signal from the controllers. Fuel flow is represented by the output from the flow divider . The flow divider divides the single stream of fuel from the pump into several streams. this valve bypasses excess fuel delivered by the fuel pump back to the fuel pump inlet.38 - .The fuel bypass valve is a hydraulically actuated valve with a linear flow characteristic. delivering to the flow divider the fuel necessary to meet the control system fuel de-mand.

This enables the system to have bet-ter resolution at the lower. more critical speeds where air flow is very low. These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve. the control system checks the permissives L4 and L20FLX and does not allow FSR1 to close the bypass valve unless they are ‘true’ (closing the bypass valve sends fuel to the combustors). so fuel flow becomes a function of speed – an important feature. –2. . –2 & –3). At full speed TNH does not change. The FSR signal from the controlling system goes through the fuel splitter where the liquid fuel re-quirement becomes FSR1. 6.3、Fuel Oil Control – Software When the turbine is run on liquid fuel oil. FSR1 (called–for liquid fuel flow).magnetic pickups (77FD–1. which is proportional to the fuel flow deliv-ered to the combustion chambers. particularly while the unit is starting. These are non–contacting magnetic pickups. and flow divider speed (FQ1). and – 3 and outputs an analog signal which is proportional to the pulse rate input. The L4 permissive comes from the Master Protective System (to be discussed later) and L20FLX becomes ‘true’ after the turbine vent timer times out. This produces the FQROUT signal. therefore FQROUT is directly proportional to FSR. The VSVO card modulates servovalve 65FP based on inputs of turbine speed. The FSR1 signal is mul-tiplied by TNH. The TSVO card receives the pulse rate signals from 77FD–1.39 - . giving a pulse signal frequency proportional to flow divider speed. which is the digital liquid fuel flow command.

40 - . When the fuel flow rate is equal to the called–for rate (FQ1 = FSR1).FQROUT then goes to the VSVO card where it is changed to an analog signal to be compared to the feedback signal from the flow divider. The checks made are as fol-lows: . The flow divider feedback signal is also used for system checks. the operational amplifier on the VSVO card will change the signal to servovalve 65FP to drive the by-pass valve in a direction to decrease the error. As the fuel flows into the turbine. which in turn outputs the fuel flow rate signal (FQ1) to the VSVO card. speed sensors 77FD–1. –2. the servovalve 65FP is moved to the null position and the bypass valve re-mains “stationary” until some input to the system changes.and –3 send a signal to the TSVO card. This analog signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the controller’s software to compare to certain limits as well as to display fuel flow on the <HMI>. If the feedback is in error with FQROUT.

if L3LFLT1 through L3LFT are true.L60FFLH:Excessive fuel flow on start–up L3LFLT1:Loss of LVDT position feedback L3LFBSQ:Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop valve is closed. the unit will trip. By a combination of fuel staging and shifting of combustion modes from diffusion at ignition through premix at higher loads. 6. To enable it to do this in a predictable manner. L3LFT:Loss of flow divider feedback If L60FFLH is true for a specified time period (nom-inally 2 seconds). The premix splitter valve controls the split between secondary and tertiary gas flow. Fuel gas is controlled by the gas stop/speed ratio valve (SRV). All valves are servo controlled by signals from the SPEEDTRONIC control panel (Figure 16). It is the gas control valve which controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the command signal FSR. secondary and quaternary gas control valves (GCV) . The fuel flow distribution to each fuel nozzle assembly is a function of com-bustion reference temperature (TTRF1) and IGV temperature control mode. these faults will trip the unit during start–up and require manual reset. . the primary. low nitrous oxide (NOx) emissions are achieved. and the premix splitter valve (PMSV).4、Gas Fuel Control The dry low NOx II (DLN–2) control system regu-lates the distribution of gas fuel to a multi–nozzle combustor arrangement. the speed ratio valve is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2) at the inlet of the gas control valve as a function of gas turbine speed. L3LFBSC:Servo current is detected when the stop valve is closed.41 - .

The fuel gas control system consists primarily of the following . Lean–Lean is from 81% corrected speed to a preselected combustion reference temperature. In Premix operation fuel is directed to secondary. and Premix. Primary mode exists from light off to 81% corrected speed. Minimum load for this operation is set by combustion reference temperature and IGV posi-tion.42 - . tertiary and quaternary nozzles. Lean–Lean. fuel flow to primary nozzles only. with fuel to theprimary and tertiary nozzles.There are three main DLN–2 combustion modes: Primary.

The components are shown schematically in Figure 17. –2.5、Gas Control Valves .tion is contained in subsequent para-graphs. 96PS–1. 65GC and 65PS. –2. –2. A functional explana. 96SR–1. LVDT’s 96GC–1.tive fuel nozzles. gas manifold with ‘pigtails’ to respec. gas supply pressure switch 63FG. stop/speed ratio valve assem-bly.43 - . electro–hydraulic servovalves 90SR. fuel gas pressure transducer(s) 96FG. –6. control valve assembly. three pres-sure gauges. dump valve(s) VH–5. gas fuel vent solenoid valve 20VG. –4.components: gas strainer. –5. and SPEEDTRONIC control cards TBQB and TCQC. 图 17 气体燃料控制系统 6. –3.

There are two LVDTs providing feedback . FSROUT. When the turbine is to run on gas fuel the permis-sives L4. L20FGX and L2TVX (turbine purge com-plete) must be ‘true’. the operational amplifier on the VSVO card will change the signal to the hydraulic servovalve to drive the gas control valve in a direction to decrease the error. Actuation of the spring– loaded gas control valve is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an electro– hydraulic servovalve.This allows the Gas Control Valve to open. The stroke of the valve will be proportional to FSR. FSR goes through the fuel splitter (to be discussed in the dual fuel section) where the gas fuel requirement becomes FSR2. goes to the VSVO card where it is converted to an analog signal and then output to the servo valve through the TSVO card. This signal. while the third selects the highest feedback through a high–select diode gate. If the feedback is in error with FSROUT.The position of the gas control valve plug is intended to be proportional to FSR2 which represents called–for gas fuel flow. .44 - . See Figure 18. In this way the desired relationship between position and FSR2 is maintained and the control valve correctly meters the gas fuel. The gas control valve stem position is sensed by the output of a linear variable differential trans-former (LVDT) and fed back through the TSVO card to an operational amplifier on the VSVO card where it is compared to the FSROUT input signal at a sum-ming junction. similar to the liquid system. which is then conditioned for offset and gain. two of the three controllers are dedicated to one LVDT each.

.45 - .

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The net result is that flow through the control valve is independent of valve pressure drop. Each GCV has two LVDTs and can run correct-ly on one.47 - .The gas control valve uses a skirted valve disc and venturi seat to obtain adequate pressure recovery. This is done either by dumping hydraulic oil from the Stop/Speed Ratio Valve VH–5 hydraulic trip relay or driving the position control closed elec-trically.Gas flow then is a function of valve inlet pressure P2 and valve area only. P2 pressure is measured by 96FG which outputs a volt-age proportional to P2 pressure. The stop/speed ratio valve has two control loops. Hy.The plug in the gas control valve is contoured to pro-vide the proper flow area in relation to valve stroke. FPRG then goes to the VSVO card to be converted to an analog signal.6、Stop/Speed Ratio Valve The speed ratio/stop valve is a dual function valve. Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet to the gas control valve is controlled by the pressure loop as a function of turbine speed. The stop/speed ratio valve provides a positive stop to fuel gas flow when required by a normal shut–down. Any emer-gency trip or normal shutdown will move the valve to its closed position shutting off gas fuel flow to the turbine. See Figure 19. 6. or a no–run condition. As a stop valve it is an integral part of the protection system. emergency trip. This is done by pro-portioning it to turbine speed signal TNH. with an offset and gain. This P2 signal (FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error signal (if any) is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT feedback to reposition the valve as in the GCV loop. which then becomes Gas Fuel Pres-sure Reference FPRG. It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a de-sired fuel gas pressure ahead of the gas control valve and it also serves as a stop valve. High pressure recovery occurs at overall valve pres-sure ratios substantially less than the critical pres-sure ratio. As before. There is a position loop similar to that for the gas control valve and there is a pressure control loop. an open or a short circuit in one of the ser-vo coils or in the signal to one coil does not cause a trip.

When the trip oil pressure is low (as in the case of normal or emergency shutdown). The closing spring atop the valve plug instantly shuts the valve. The following are typical alarms: L60FSGH: Excessive fuel flow on start–up L3GRVFB: Loss of LVDT feedback on the SRV L3GRVO: SRV open prior to permissive to open L3GRVSC: Servo current to SRV detected prior to permissive to open L3GCVFB: Loss of LVDT feedback on the GCV L3GCVO: GCV open prior to permissive to open L3GCVSC: Servo current to GCV detected prior to permissive to open L3GFIVP: Intervalve (P2) pressure low . In addition to being displayed.lic actuating cylinder. This dump valve is operated by the low pressure control oil trip system. the feedback signals and the control signals of both valves are compared to normal operating limits. If permis-sives L4 and L3GRV are ‘true’ the trip oil (OLT) is at normal pressure and the dump valve is maintained in a position that allows servovalve 90SR to control the cylinder position.48 - . thereby shutting off fuel flow to the combustors.draulic trip dump valve VH–5 is located between the electro–hydraulic servovalve 90SR and the hydrau. the dump valve spring shifts a spool valve to a posi-tion which dumps the high pressure hydraulic oil (OH) in the speed ratio/stop valve actuating cylinder to the lube oil reservoir. and if they go outside of these limits there will be an alarm.

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6. Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel. Unlike the SRV and GCV’s the flow through the splitter valve is not linear with valve position.8、Dual Fuel Control Turbines that are designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel are equipped with controls to pro-vide the following features: 1. . The valve is referenced to the secondary fuel passages. 2.53 - . i.mand.The control system linearizes the fuel split setpoint and the resulting valve position command FSRXPOUT is used as the position reference. 6.Transfer from one fuel to the other on com. a positive voltage bias is placed on the servo coils holding them in the ‘valve closed’ position. Allow time for filling the lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being trans-ferred. During a trip or no–run condition. 3. Operation of gas fuel nozzle purge when oper-ating totally on liquid fuel. 0% valve stroke corresponds to 0% secondary fuel flow. The software diagram for the fuel splitter is shown in Figure 20.7、Premix Splitter Valve The Premix splitter valve (PMSV) regulates the split of secondary/tertiary gas fuel flow between the sec-ondary and tertiary gas fuel manifolds.The servovalves are furnished with a mechanical null offset bias to cause the gas control valve or speed ratio valve to go to the zero stroke position (fail safe condition) should the servovalve signals or power be lost. 4.e.

. FSR1 and FSR2. FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel fraction FX1 to produce the FSR1 signal. See Figure 20.54 - .6. the control signal for the secondary fuel. to provide dual fuel operation.9、Fuel Splitter As stated before FSR is divided into two signals. FSR1 is then subtracted from the FSR signal resulting in FSR2.

This will open the gas control valve slightly to bleed down the intervalve volume. This is done in case a high pressure has been entrained. close the fuel oil stop valve by de–ener-gizing the liquid fuel dump valve 20FL.6. but FSR2 will step to a value slightly greater than zero. and initiate the purge sequence. FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease. usually 0. The pres-ence of a higher pressure than that required by the speed/ratio controller would cause slow response in initiating gas flow.55 - . After a typical time delay of thirty seconds to bleed down the P2 pressure and fill the gas supply line. the software program ramps the fuel commands. This is complete in thirty seconds. .5%.10、Fuel Transfer – Liquid to Gas If the unit is running on liquid fuel (FSR1) and the “GAS” target on the <HMI> screen is selected the following sequence of events will take place. at a programmed rate through the median select gate. When the transfer is complete logic signal L84TG (Total Gas) will de– energize the liquid fuel forward-ing pump. pro-viding the transfer and fuel gas permissives are true (refer to Figure 21): FSR1 will remain at its initial value.

The following se-quence of events occurs when transfer from liquid to gas is complete. Air from the atomizing air system flows through a cooler (HX4–1). some atomizing air is diverted through the liquid fuel nozzles.6.11、Liquid Fuel Purge To prevent coking of the liquid fuel nozzles while operating on gas fuel. through the fuel oil purge valve (VA19–3) and through check valve VCK2 to .56 - .

except that gas and liquid fuel command signals are interchanged.57 - . The fuel oil purge valve is controlled by the position of a solenoid valve 20PL–2 .12、Fuel Transfer – Gas to Liquid Transfer from gas to liquid is essentially the same se-quence as previously described.each fuel nozzle. this will fill the liquid fuel piping and avoid any delay in delivery at the be-ginning of the FSR1 increase. Secondary purge is required for the secondary and tertiary nozzles when second-ary and tertiary fuel flow is reduced to zero and when operating on liquid fuel. –2) are shut when primary gas is flowing and intervalve vent so-lenoid (20VG–2) is open to bleed any leakage across the valves. The rest of the sequence is the same as liquid–to–gas. –4. at the beginning of a transfer. This is a block and bleed ar-rangement similar to the primary purge with two purge valves (VA13–3. –4). but FSR1 steps to a value slightly greater than zero. actuating air pressure opens the purge oil check valve. wherby two purge valves (VA13–1. The purge valves are air operated through solenoid valves 20PG–1. This system involves a double block and bleed arrangement. except that there is usually no purging se-quence. intervalve vent solenoid (20VG–3). the purge valves open and allow com-pressor discharge air to flow through the primary fuel nozzle passages. allowing air flow to the fuel oil nozzle purge check valves. When there is no pri-mary gas flow. 6. When this valve is en-ergized . If there has been any fuel leak-age out past the check valves. –2. FSR2 re-mains at its initial value. . 6. For instance.13、Gas Fuel Purge Primary gas fuel purge is required during premix steady state and liquid fuel operation. This will command a small liquid fuel flow. and solenoid valves 20PG–3.

Control of 90TV will port hydraulic pressure to operate the variable inlet guide vane actuator. solenoid valve 20TV and hydraulic dump valve VH3.1、Guide Vane Actuation The modulated inlet guide vane actuating system is comprised of the following components: servovalve 90TV. See Figure 23. and. LVDT position sensors 96TV–1 and 96TV–2.7、MODULATED INLET GUIDE VANE SYSTEM The Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) modulate during the acceleration of the gas turbine to rated speed. in some instances. when used in a com-bined cycle application. This IGV modulation maintains proper flows and pressures. load-ing and unloading of the generator. maintains a minimum pressure drop across the fuel nozzles. and thus stresses.58 - . 20TV and VH3 can prevent hydraulic oil pressure from flow-ing to 90TV. maintains high exhaust temperatures at low loads. and. in the compressor. 7. . If used. and deceleration of the gas turbine.

the IGVs begin to move to the full open position as exhaust temperature approaches the temperature control reference temperature. depending on the operation mode se-lected. from zero to 83. as the exhaust tempera-ture decreases the IGVs move to the minimum full speed angle. the inlet guide vanes will go to the full open position when the exhaust temperature reaches one of two points. For simple cycle operation. the IGVs move to the full open position at a pre–selected exhaust tem-perature. as the turbine decelerates from 100% TNH. thereby lessening combus-tion system resonance. TNHCOR is greater than TNH.59 - . .7 degrees per percent in-crease in corrected speed.7.2、Operation During start–up. By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than the minimum full speed angle at 100% TNH. a minimum pressure drop is maintained across the fuel nozzles. nominally 54°.5% corrected speed. usually 371° C (700° F). the inlet guide vanes are held fully closed. Turbine speed is corrected to reflect air conditions at 27° C (80° F). At ambient temperatures greater than 80° F. the inlet guide vanes are modulated to the ful-ly closed position. this is usually at approximately 91% TNH. the guide vanes will modulate open at about 6. For combined cycle operation. When the guide vanes reach the minimum full speed angle. the IGVs begin to open when exhaust temper-ature is within 17° C (30° F) of the temperature control reference. at ambients less than 27° C (80° F). the compressor bleed valves will be opened. As the unit is loaded and exhaust temperature in-creases. Solenoid valve 20CB is usu-ally opened when the generator breaker is closed. this com-pensates for changes in air density as ambient condi-tions change. After attaining a speed of approximately 83. this in turn closes the compressor bleed valves.they stop opening. corrected speed TNHCOR is less than actual speed TNH.5%. a nominal 27 degree angle. normally. When the generator breaker opens. During a normal shutdown.

In the event of a turbine trip. the compressor bleed valves are opened and the inlet guide vanes go to the fully closed position. . The inlet guide vanes remain fully closed as the turbine continues to coast down.60 - .

the inlet guide vanes modulate closed at 6. if TNHCOR decreases below approximately 91%. The IGVs will then go to the minimum full speed angle. In most cases. the generator breaker will open and the turbine speed setpoint will be resetto 100. several of which operate during each normal start–up and .7 degrees per percent decrease in corrected speed. 8、PROTECTION SYSTEMS The gas turbine protection system is comprised of a number of sub– systems.3%.61 - . if the actual speed decreases below 95% TNH. See Figure 24.For underspeed operation.

In each case there are two essentially inde-pendent paths for stopping fuel flow. . To do this.62 - . They also respond to more com-plex parameters such as overspeed. Each protective system is designed in-dependent of the control system to avoid the possibility of a control system failure disabling the protective devices. high vibration. the turbine will be tripped.shutdown. or similar indications. high gas compressor discharge pressure. The oth-er systems and components function strictly during emergency and abnormal operating conditions. some of these protection systems and their components operate through the master control and protection circuit in the SPEEDTRON-IC control system. overtempera-ture. Protective systems respond to the simple trip signals such as pressure switches used for low lube oil pres-sure. while other totally mechanical systems operate directly on the components of the turbine. the protection systems are set up to detect and alarm such a failure. See Figure 25. The most common kind of failure on a gas turbine is the failure of a sensor or sensor wiring. making use of both the fuel control valve (FCV) and the fuel stop valve (FSV). and loss of flame. If the condition is serious enough to disable the protection completely. combustion monitor.

It must ensure ade-quate capacity for all tripping devices. or shut–off. On gas turbines equipped for dual fuel (gas and oil) operation the system is used to selectively isolate the fuel system not required. 8. fuel.1、Trip Oil A hydraulic trip system called Trip Oil is the primary protection interface between the turbine control and protection system and the components on the tur-bine which admit. Besides the tripping functions. This philosophy protects the turbine during all nor-mal situations as well as that time when loss of dc power occurs. The system contains devices which are electrically operated by SPEEDTRONIC control signals as well as some to-tally mechanical devices. trip oil also provides a hydraulic signal to the fuel stop valves for normal start–up and shutdown sequences. Significant components of the Hydraulic Trip Cir-cuit are described below. yet prevent reduction of lube oil flow to the gas turbine and other equipment when the trip system is in the tripped state. .3、Dump Valve Each individual fuel branch in the trip oil system has a solenoid dump valve (20FL for liquid. 20FG for gas).2、Inlet Orifice An orifice is located in the line running from the bearing header supply to the trip oil system. deenergized–to–trip.63 - . This device is a solenoid–operated spring–re-turn spool valve which will relieve trip oil pressure only in the branch that it controls. These valves are normally energized–to–run. 8.8. This ori-fice is sized to limit the flow of oil from the lube oil system into the trip oil system.

4、Check Valve & Orifice Network At the inlet of each individual fuel branch is a check valve and orifice network which limits flow out of that branch. However. thus allowing individual fuel control with-out total system pressure decay.64 - . the overspeed trip. e. when one of the trip devices located in the main artery of the system.g. This network limits flow into each branch.图 26 闸油示意图 – 双燃料系统 8.. is actuated. the check valve will .

8. Should one control-ler fail. See Figure 26. the FSR from that controller will be zero. The dump valves are de–energized on a “2–out–of–3 voted” trip signal from the relay module. which permits clo-sure of the liquid fuel stop valve by its spring return mechanism.–2.–3 for liquid. 5E P/B. An in-dividual fuel stop valve may be selectively closed by dumping the flow of trip oil going to it. permitting its spring–returned closure. Both dump valves will be closed only during fuel transfer or mixed fuel operation. the SPEEDTRON-IC control system will close the appropriate dump valve to activate the desired fuel system(s).6、Operation The tripping devices which cause unit shutdown or selective fuel system shutdown do so by dumping the low pressure trip oil (OLT). The output of the other two controllers is sufficient to continue to control the servovalve.–3 for gas) which will ensure tripping of the turbine if the trip oil pressure becomes too low for reliable op-eration while operating on that fuel.open and result in decay of all trip pressures. During start–up or fuel transfer. Solenoid valve 20FG can cause the trip valve on the gas fuel speed ratio/stop valve to go to the trip state. which will shut the unit down. Tripping all devices other than the individu-al dump valves will result in dumping the total trip oil system. the P28 vdc power . The orifice in the check valve and orifice network permits independent dumping of each fuel branch of the trip oil system without affecting the other branch. By pushing the Emergency Trip Button. 63HG–1. This is done by clamping FSR to zero.65 - .–2.5、Pressure Switches Each individual fuel branch contains pressure switches (63HL–1. 8. The signal to the fuel system servovalves will also be a “close” command should a trip occur. Solenoid valve 20FL can cause the trip valve on the liquid fuel stop valve to go to the trip state. This helps prevent trips caused by faulty sensors or the failure of one controller.

The overspeed system would not be called on except after the failure of oth-er systems. The primary electronic overspeed protection system resides in the <RST> controllers. 9.–2. Both systems consist of magnetic pickups to sense turbine speed. The turbine speed signal (TNH) derived from the magnetic pickup sensors (77NH–1. speed detection software. Under normal operation. . This trip will latch and must be reset by the master reset signal L86MR. The secondary electronic overspeed protection system resides in the <XYZ> controllers (in <VPRO>). thus de–ener-gizing the dump valves. The overspeed protection system consists of a pri-mary and secondary electronic overspeed system. When TNH exceeds the setpoint. the overspeed trip signal (L12H) is transmitted to the master protective circuit to trip the turbine and the “OVERSPEED TRIP” message will be displayed on the <HMI>. 9、Overspeed Protection The SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI overspeed system is designed to protect the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overspeeding the turbine rotor. the speed of the rotor is controlled by speed control.supply is cut off to the relays control-ling solenoid valves 20FL and 20FG.1、Electronic Overspeed Protection System The electronic overspeed protection function is per-formed in both <RST> and <XYZ> as shown in Fig-ure 27. and –3) is compared to an overspeed setpoint (TNKHOS). and associated logic cir-cuits and are set to trip the unit at 110% rated speed.66 - .

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operating only after the failure of the temperature control system.68 - .10、Overtemperature Protection The overtemperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overfiring. In cer-tain failure modes however. It is a backup system. the exhaust temperature control system acts to control fuel flow when the firing temperature limit is reached. 图 29 超温保护 Under normal operating conditions. exhaust temperature and fuel flow can exceed control limits. Under such circumstances the overtemperature .

See Figure 30. 10.protection sys-tem provides an overtemperature alarm about 14° C (25° F) above the temperature control reference.69 - . it starts unload-ing the gas turbine. To avoid further temperature increase. The . Overtemperature trip and alarm setpoints are deter-mined from the temperature control setpoints derived by the Exhaust Temperature Control soft-ware.1、Overtemperature Alarm (L30TXA) The representative value of the exhaust temperature thermocouples (TTXM) is compared with alarm and trip temperature setpoints. For the actual alarm and trip overtempera-ture setpoints refer to the Control Specifications. If the temperature should increase further to a point about 22° C (40° F) above the temperature control reference. the gas turbine is tripped.See Figure 29.

70 - .“EXHAUST TEM-PERATURE HIGH” alarm message will be dis-played when the exhaust temperature (TTXM) exceeds the temperature control reference (TTRXB) plus the alarm margin (TTKOT3) programmed as a Control Constant in the software. . The alarm will au-tomatically reset if the temperature decreases below the setpoint.

The trip function will be latched in and the master re-set signal L86MR1 must be true to reset and unlatch the trip.71 - . the “EXHAUST OVERTEMPERATURE TRIP” message will be displayed. or if it exceeds the isothermal trip set-point (TTKOT1). .2、Overtemperature Trip (L86TXT) An overtemperature trip will occur if the exhaust temperature (TTXM) exceeds the temperature con-trol reference (TTRXB) plus the trip margin (TTKOT2). The overtemperature trip will latch.10. and the turbine will be tripped through the master protection circuit.

If the feedback current exceeds a threshold value the SPEEDTRONIC generates a logic signal to indicate ”FLAME DETECTED” by the sensor. when the gas turbine is below L14HM all channels must indicate “NO FLAME. The flame detector system used with the SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI system detects flame by sensing ultraviolet (UV) radiation. some have two. if at least half the flame detectors see flame the starting sequence is allowed to proceed. and a very few have eight. if half of the flame detectors indicate flame and half (or less) indicate no–flame. which va-ries in color and intensity. . Such radiation results from the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and is more reliably detected than visible light. one in the sequencing system and the other in the protective system. the unit will trip on “LOSS OF FLAME. The strength of the current feedback (4 – 20 mA) to the panel is a pro-portional indication of the strength of the ultraviolet radiation present. the condition is annunciated as a “FLAME DETECTOR TROUBLE” alarm and the turbine cannot be started. The flame detector system is similar to other protec-tive systems.” If this condi-tion is not met. Generally speaking. Most units have four flame detectors.The SPEEDTRONIC control will furnish +24Vdc to drive the ultraviolet detector tube.11、Flame Detection and Protection System The SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI flame detectors per-form two functions. A failure of one de-tector will be annunciated as “FLAME DETECTOR TROUBLE” when complete sequence is reached and the turbine will continue to run. If more than half in-dicate loss–of–flame. the gas in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current. More than half the flame detectors must indicate “NO FLAME” in order to trip the turbine. During a nor-mal start–up the flame detectors indicate when a flame has been established in the combustion cham-bers and allow the start–up sequence to continue. In the presence of ultraviolet radiation.” This avoids possible accumulation of an explosive mixture in the turbine and any exhaust heat recovery equipment which may be installed.72 - . The flame sensor is a copper cathode detector de-signed to detect the presence of ultraviolet radiation. there will be an alarm but the unit will continue to run. in that it is self–monitoring. For exam-ple. After firing speed has been reached and fuel introduced to the machine.

73 - . 12、Vibration Protection .Note that a short–circuited or open–circuited detec-tor tube will result in a “NO FLAME” signal.

Each channel detects excessive vibration by means of a seismic pickup mounted on a bearing housing or similar location of the gas turbine and the driven load. . A twisted–pair shielded cable is used to connect the detector to the analog input/out-put module. See Figure 32. Each channel includes one vibration pickup (veloc-ity type) and a SPEEDTRONIC Mark VI amplifier circuit. the circuit will latch. When the vibration amplitude reaches the pro-grammed trip set point. If a predetermined vibration level is ex-ceeded. Removal of the latched trip condition can be accomplished only by depressing the master reset button (L86MR1) when vibration is not excessive. the vibration protection system trips the tur-bine and annunciates to indicate the cause of the trip. the channel will trigger a trip signal.The vibration protection system of a gas turbine unit is composed of several independent vibration chan-nels. The vibration detectors generate a relatively low voltage by the relative motion of a permanent magnet suspended in a coil and therefore no excita-tion is necessary.74 - . The pickup signal from the analog I/O module is in-putted to the computer software where it is compared with the alarm and trip levels programmed as Control Constants. and a “HIGH VIBRA-TION TRIP” message will be displayed.

.75 - . either an open or shorted condition may be the cause. it is possible to monitor vibration levels of each channel while the turbine is running without interrupting operation. With the <HMI> display. This message indicates that mainte-nance or replacement action is required.When the “VIBRATION TRANSDUCER FAULT” message is displayed and machine operation is not interrupted.

The monitor does this by examining the exhaust temperature thermocouples and compressor dis-charge temperature thermocouples. warning and protective signals are gener-ated by the combustion monitor software to alarm and/or trip the gas turbine.1、Combustion Monitoring Software The controllers contain a series of programs written to perform the monitoring tasks (See Combustion Monitoring Schematic Figure 33). a rupture in a transition piece. The uneven inlet pattern could be caused by loss of fuel or flame in a combus-tor. This means of detecting abnormalities in the com-bustion system is effective only when there is in-complete mixing as the gases pass through the turbine. or some other combustion malfunction.13、Combustion Monitoring The primary function of the combustion monitor is to reduce the likelihood of extensive damage to the gas turbine if the combustion system deteriorates. The significant program constants used with each algorithm are specified in the Control Specification for each unit. It is important that each of the thermocouples is in good working condition. The usefulness and reliability of the combustion monitor depends on the condition of the exhaust thermocouples. 13. The main moni-tor program is written to analyze the thermocouple readings and make appropriate decisions. an uneven turbine inlet pattern will cause an uneven exhaust pattern. .76 - . Several different algorithms have been developed for this depending on the turbine model series and the type of thermocouples used. From changes that may occur in the pattern of the thermocouple readings.

The behavior is summarized by the Venn diagram (Figure 34) where: . makes use of the temperature spread and adjacency tests to differ-entiate between actual combustion problems and thermocouple failures.The most advanced algorithm.77 - . which is standard for gas turbines with redundant sensors.

S1. usually 17°C〈30° F) and 53° C (125° F).78 - . S2 and S3 are defined as follows: A、SPREAD #1 (S1): The difference between the highest and the lowest thermocouple reading B、 SPREAD #2 (S2): The difference between the highest and the 2nd lowest thermocouple reading C 、 SPREAD #3 (S3): The difference between the highest and the 3rd lowest thermocouple reading The allowable spread will be between the limits TTKSPL7 and TTKSPL6.Sallow is the “Allowable Spread”. The values of the combustion moni-tor program constants are listed in the Control Speci. based on aver-age exhaust temperature and compressor dis-charge temperature.

the alarm message “EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLE TROUBLE” will be displayed and will remain on until acknowledged and reset. i.79 - .fications..e. The combustion monitor outputs are: 13. open circuit. The various controller processor outputs to the <HMI> cause alarm message displays as well as ap-propriate control action. This usually indicates a failed thermocouple. a thermocouple alarm (L30SPTA) is pro-duced. . If this condition persists for four seconds.2、Exhaust Thermocouple Trouble Alarm If any thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant (usually 5 times the allowable spread).

13. If this condition per-sists for three seconds.80 - . and the low-est .13.8 times the allowable spread). the alarm message “COM-BUSTION TROUBLE” will be displayed and will remain on until it is acknowledged and reset.3、Combustion Trouble Alarm (L30SPA) A combustion alarm can occur if a thermocouple value causes the largest spread to exceed a constant (usually the allowable spread).4、High Exhaust Temperature Spread Trip (L30SPT) A high exhaust temperature spread trip can occur if: “COMBUSTION TROUBLE” alarm exists. the second largest spread exceeds a constant (usual-ly 0.

The purpose of the “enable” signal (L83SPM) is to prevent false action during normal start–up and shutdown transient conditions. The turbine will be tripped through the master pro-tective circuit. The two main sources of alarm and trip signals being generated by the combustion monitor are failed ther-mocouples and combustion system . no new protective actions are taken.5、Monitor Enable (L83SPM) The protective function of the monitor is enabled when the turbine is above 14HS and a shutdown sig-nal has not been given.8 times the allowable spread). When the monitor is not enabled. the second largest spread exceeds a constant (usually 0. This prevents false alarms and trips during large fuel and load transients.and second lowest outputs are from adjacent thermocouples “EXHAUST THERMOCOUPLE TROUBLE” alarm exists. the trip will latch and “HIGH EXHAUST TEMPERA-TURE SPREAD TRIP” message will be displayed. The alarm and trip signals will be dis-played until they are acknowledged and reset. 13. and the second and third lowest outputs are from adjacent thermocouples the third largest spread exceeds a constant (usu-ally the allowable spread) for a period of five minutes If any of the trip conditions exist for 9 seconds. The combustion monitor will also be disabled during a high rate of change of FSR.81 - .

the thermo-couples from the failed controller will be ignored (similar to temperature control) so as not to give a false trip.82 - . Should a controller fail. Other causes include poor fuel distribution due to plugged or worn fuel nozzles and combustor flameout due. . for instance.problems. The tests for combustion alarm and trip action have been designed to minimize false actions due to failed thermocouples. to water injection.

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