CHART WORK • • • • • • • • • The navigational chart is a geographic representation of the earth’s navigational areas. It is represented on a plane surface Chart is constructed, so that it is suitable for special needs of a navigator. It shows the depth of water in soundings and contours, shoreline, navigational aids, and hazards. In India charts are published by Naval Hydrographic Department, Dehra Dun, after an extensive survey. Chart work is a practical side of navigation. Chart projection is a method of displace all or at part of surface of a sphere or spheroid. Various projections are used for constructing a chart; e.g.: Mercator Projections, Gnomonic stereo graphic, ortho graphic etc. The most common projection for nautical use is Mercator projection. For great circle chart, gnomonic projection used.
MERCATOR CHART. • On Mercator chart Latitudes are drawn as straight lines parallel to each other and Longitudes are drawn as a straight line perpendicular to latitudes. These create a distortion in the topography. • The meridinal parts account for this distortion and the picture on the chart is adjusted accordingly. • The distortion is magnified in higher latitudes. • Even though a great circle can’t be drawn easily on the Mercator chart. All the great circle sailing is don as a series of rhomb lines, and these are plotted as straight lines. GNOMONIC CHART. • In order to assist the navigator in finding the great circle track between two planes, Gnomonic stereo projection charts are constructed. • So that, any straight line drown on them shall represent a great circle. • They are formed by projecting the earth surface from earth’s center on to the tangent plane at any convenient point. They are though a Zenith projection. • All the great circles appears as straight lines and the meridian will not be parellel, unless the tangent point is on the equator. • Angles are also distorted except on the tangent point and therefore it is impossible to take the course and distance from a gnomonic chart. RELIABILITY OF CHART • Charts are not perfect and have these on flows depending on the type of chart and projection used. • In some plane seabed is unstable and hence, depth may change by a meter or more within few months of survey, coral reefs may also grow every year. • Some times it may happen that dangerous navigational hazards may exist between the two lines of soundings on the chart.
2. North Atlantic Ocean. • They show all the aids to navigation. Costal chart. where ever on a small-scale chart it may be few miles. 1. Classification of chart. • Some times it may not give correct position of the dangers. Costal chart. • They are unsuitable for costal navigation and plotting. 3. Plan chart. • Every possible information of use to a navigator is shown in detail. • These charts are mainly used for trans ocean voyages. 1. • They are often called as harbors charts. • Plan charts very large-scale charts of small areas such as ports and harbors. 3. Indian Ocean. • Very important part to be remembered is that use always large-scale chart as possible. • A navigator can get his position with great accuracy and thus avoid dangers. • Charts with a scale ranging from 1:1. • They contains all the information required when navigating in harbors and other enclosed waters. • The survey has it’s own limitations and it is impossible to conducting survey on each and every inch of the ocean. Their scale ranges from 1:2500 to 1:50000Lacks. • Great care should be taken while navigating in the vicinity of such dangers or sea mounted or other oceanic dangers.g. important navigation marks and dangers. The position with small time interval May be inaccurate. • These are small-scale charts covering large portions of earth. there is extended and least depth over them. Plan chart.2
• There may be many pinnacle shaped obstructions of rock or coral in the open ocean. which rises suddenly and steeply from depth with 1000mts or more of water all around it. which are more frequent in ports and harbors.5Lacks are called inshore costal chart.5Lacks to 1:6Lacks are called General costal chart and those with a scale ranging from 1:50000 to 1:1. 2. etc. • Only very important costal features are shown in these charts. Ocean chart. Navigational charts are classified in three category. • The reliability of the chart depends on survey date and areas covered by the chart. • Natural scale of these charts rang from 1:6 Lacks to 1:140 Lacks. • A navigator should be used largest scale chart available for that area. hence there cannot be any warning when approach such dangers. and reliability surveying. E. • They are again subdivided bin to two types depending on the nature of scale. • These are used for costal navigation and are medium scale charts. Ocean chart. • A small error plotting in large-scale chart means a few meters. 2
. • The heavily used routs are safe.
• Recommended ocean passages are printed on it.: 0. 1. • These are blank sheets of charts in which latitudes are marked. seawater temp: air temp: relative humidity. Variation chart.3
Different types of other charts.
. • The long: scale is not marked and can be found by plotting any long: for a particular lat: scale. Plotting charts/ sheets. etc for that area. ice conditions. • With the help of Lattice pattern the position of the ship can be found with reasonable accuracy. 2. 5. E. • This is a special type of chart. Loran. Routing chart. • These charts are informational charts. visibility. 4o.4o. • Isogonics lines are the lines joining places of the equal variation. Such charts show the physical features and time zone of the world. • Variation charts are more accurate than the variation shown in the chart because variation charts are a very few years. • Decca. • They are very small-scale charts. Walls and Out line charts. 3. • These charts are published for every month of the year for each of the different ocean. Description of Chart. Consol. wind. • Special types of charts are required to fix the position using this equipment. etc. • These charts give important information for planning of passage across the oceans. 4. • These charts give important information like current. • These are also used for plotting the position using celestial navigation. • These can be used for plotting either the north or south of the equator. etc are deferent position fixing systems used as electronics navigational aids. Lattice chart. 3 Title of the chart. which gives isogonics lines. • They are ordinary nautical charts on which the Lattice pattern of a particular electronic navigation system is printed or super impose on it.11o. 1.g.
7. tides.g. chart datum. 4. change is corrected and a new edition of the chart is issued. Plate dimensions.4
The title is printed in a convenient and conspicuous position without obstructing the navigational use of chart. 94 means the chart was printed on 227th day of 1994. E. Date of printing. information like sounding units. Plate dimensions do not includes chart borders.g. Date of publication. • Natural scale is printed under the title of the chart. • This is the level of water usually considered to be the depth at the Lowest Astronomical Tide-LAT. Chart datum. • It the ratio of a given distance on the earth. bearing and cautions are given. • It is printed on the top right hand corner of a chart just out side the margin. 5. such as depth in fathom or meters is provided. E. • Major changes in the chart are termed as large corrections. type of projection. • The numerator of the fraction is always one (unit) where as the denominator changes according the scale. • For small scale chart the denominator large and vice versa. 2. • The charts are regularly up to date fore any change that may have occurs after publishing the chart.g.
3. whenever there is a large correction existing. • It is the relationship between chart and the part of earth it represent. published by Navel Hydrographic Office. • Under the title further details.: 1143 ×640 mm is the length and breadth of the plate from which the chart is printed. Dehra Dun .000 cm of length on the earth. such as natural scale. Under the title. a length of 1cm on the chart could represent a length of 12. Large corrections. 4
• 8. • It is shown as the no: of the day in the year. E. Small corrections. 227. which it represent on the chart.: 1/12 means. Natural scale. • The date of publication along with the name of hydrograph is printed at the center of the chart just out side of the margin • A resent publication would be a more reliable chart because it was all the corrections incorporated up to date. • It is provided in the bottom right hand corner of the chart under the margin. 6. • These corrections are issued through fortnightly edition of Notices to Mariners.
when worked along with the sounding. 5
12.g. • 11. this is also mentioned under the title. • Generally all the hts are given in mts or feet above MHWS. This indication is very useful when anchoring a ship. This is also measured above MHWS.5
• This is the depth below which the water rarely falls. • In the metric chart contour lines are given as continuous lines where as approximate contour lines are given in broken lines. • The unit of sounding is given under the title. • The chart datum provided under the title of the chart. bnSh – brocken Shells. • On all charts the position of the sounding is the center of the space occupied by the sounding figure. • All the depths shown on a chart are below this level and these depths are called the sounding. soM – soft Mud. Soundings. Heights. 10. Depth contours • There are lines joining places of equal depth and most charts have depth contours to indicate shallow areas as well as deep water.
. • Sounding figures are scattered on the chart and the distance between the soundings are a measure of the extent of survey and it indicate the reliability of the chart.Drying height. • The height of the tied is above the chart datum and hence the level of water is always more than chart datum. • Soundings mean the depth of water below the chart datum and are an important feature of the navigation chart. Under certain soundings nature of sea bottom is also indicated. • In places where tide is negligible or nil it is measured above Mean Sea Level (MSL). • Some times during the survey the lead is covered to only a certain pre-determined depth if not bottom is detected such sounding is called No Bottom sounding.
9. • The nature of bottom becomes helpful in estimating the ship’s position. 13.: 0/110 means no bottom landing at 110mts. E. Co – Corals. Nature of bottom.
• Every navigating officer should be familiar with this publication. Admiralty chart catalogue. • The difference between true and magnetic north gives the variation of that place. • At the entrance or approaches to a harbour. Bearings. Chart no: 5011. • This is a nautical publication published by British Admiralty. Compass rose.2/R. E. • It indicates that the ship lies on a line joining the two lights. • If a mariner is entering the harbour correctly and properly.6
• The under lined figures on rocks banks which uncover during low tide expressed the height above the chart datum. • This is the length of one minute of latitude at a place and it is the unit of distance. 1. Chart no: 5020. Advantages of leading lights. • This is the engraving of compass degrees on the chart in convenient position so as to help the navigator to draw the course. 2. 16. • The compass rows consist of two concentric circle. • The annual change of variation if any is also provided in the compass rose. Dehra Dun by the Indian Hydrographer to the Govt: of India. • It is a nautical publication published by Navel Hydrographic Department. 6
. • Leading light helps in fixing the position of the ship. • This publication is in the form of a book but it is primarily considered to be a chart and it covers fathom and metric chart. • All the bearings are true bearings and are from seaward. 17. • It helps a navigator to find the compass error by true transit bearing method. • It is similar to chart no: 5011 and covers all the symbols and abbreviations used in the chart published by Indian Hydrographer • This publication is in the form of a book but it is primarily considered to be a chart. • Leading lights indicates the safe passage of the ship in a channel. bearing or position line. • NAUTICAL PUBLICATION. 3. 1. • It is issued annually by British Admiralty and Indian Hydrographic Department at Dehra Dun issues similar catalogue for our chart. 14. 15. • The outer circle is the true compass and inner is magnetic compass.g. Leading lights. he would see them in one line. some distance apart. Sea mile. two lights of different characteristics are erected. • It covers entire range of symbols and abbreviations that are used admiralty chart.
g). It also deals in detail the description of cost line. etc. Chart index. e). The latest notices to mariners in corporate in the book. • It gives all possible information to the mariners so that he gets full knowledge of that particular area or port which he may not be familiar with.East cost pilot and West cost pilot. general descriptions of expected weather conditions based on meteorological history. Numerical list of charts. • A new edition is published in every 12 years. a). 4. • The whole world is covered in 75 volumes. General instructions. • Indian Hydrographer also issues sailing directions for Indian waters. A section dealing with local and national Govt: regulations that affected the mariners. • Admiralty list of light and fog signals is termed as list of light. lighthouses and fog signals that exist within the geographical limit of that area. Numerical list of other nautical publications. • A supplement is published in every 18 months incorporating any changes. dangers. • It gives the list of all nautical publication – the date of printing and publication of all charts and nautical publications. harbour. stores. Information concerning the area covered by the book and appropriate chart for that area. 5. navigational aids. • It is corrected up to date with the help of notices to mariners. f). • It is generally known as Pilot Book and it is an essential aid to the navigator. • It is published by British Admiralty. hazards and dangers to navigation. best anchorage. List of chart agents. • Chart catalogue is a very essential aid to the navigator. 7
. c). • Each volume consists of a detailed list of all the lights. e). Diagrams of coverage of other publications. communications. facilities available in the ports of that area. normal pressure for that particular area type of buoy system used. Chart diagrams. a). d). • The contents are. care should be taken to consult the latest supplement also. Admiralty List of Lights. availability of fuel. • Contents of chart catalogue. • It provides a lot of information like type of costal line.7
• It covers entire range of nautical publications published by British Admiralty or Hydrographer to Govt: of India. port facilities. • While referring a sailing direction. • The limit of each sailing direction is shown in the chart catalogue. c). currents and tidal streams. b). b). • It provides index of charts applicable for that particular area. d). Sailing directions. • By consulting it a navigator can make a list of all charts and publications that may be required to plan the passage. Caution to consult the latest supplement where they are issued.
Fortnightly Edition. 7. E. Admiralty tide tables. a). Temporary and preliminary notices. • Admiralty tide table has three parts or three volumes Vol: I . f). a).Europe and Mediterranean. It is corrected up to dated. Vol:III – Meteorological services. e). 8
. Index of chart affected. • These are published in 6volumes and each volume covers different parts of radio and electronic services available to the mariners. To correct the chart up to date. Notices to Mariners. G. • The use of notices to mariners are as follows. D. b). The volume ‘I’ is omitted to avoid confusion with ‘L’ –A. d). • We can fix the ht: of tide or time of tide for a particular area. • • • •
They give more detailed information concerning the aid to navigation more than that of a There are 12 volumes covering the whole world and are listed in the chart catalogue A new edition is published every 18 months incorporating the change. To correct the list of radio signals. L. To correct the list of light. • Indian notices to mariners are published on 1st and 15th of every month. Admiralty list of radio signals. To get radio navigational warnings. Permanent notices.8
6. The contents of fortnightly edition. H. • Navel Hydrographic Office. issues notices to mariners. J. Vol: III -Pacific Ocean. by using this table. Vol:VI – Port radio stations and pilot vessels. Vol:II – Navigational aids. To get marine information. • The Navel Hydrographic Department. B. C. To correct the sailing directions. • Indian notices to mariners can be classified into two. Annually Edition. • These volumes are published annually. I. Vol:I – Communication. M. b). 8. Dehra Dun. c). F. II. • The admiralty list of radio signals are corrected with the help of notices to mariners.Meteorological abbreviation stations Vol:V – Miscellaneous services. d). • Tide tables are used to calculate the time and height of tide whenever necessary. Vol:IV . Vol: II -Atlantic and Indian Ocean. c). Marine information. K. namely. Dehra Dun publishes Indian tide tables.
Traffic separation scheme. Caution with regards to ship approaching squadrons etc.9
e). Submarine cables. National claims to maritime jurisdictions. Notices to mariners.
. c). p). Information regarding the submarines. I. Note-with effect from 1st January 1994. d). y). Availability of notices to mariners. a1). List of depot chart agents for sale of Indian charts and publications. l). the annual edition is published into two parts. Indian ships positioning and information reporting system-INSPIRES. Annual edition. Weather bulletins issued to ships IMD-Indian Meteorological Department. DECCA navigator system. m). v). Former mine danger areas. Correction to list of radio signals. • Contents of annual edition/special edition. IALA maritime buoyage system. Long rang (HF) R/T services for Indian merchant ships. Information about radar beacons. Indian merchant ship’s use of radar at the time of emergency or war. n). a). Correction to list of light. Firing practice and firing exercise areas. f). Satellite navigation system positioning. LORAN ‘C’ system.Explanation of terms. Radio navigational warnings. • Annual edition is published on 1st January of every year. t). Development of off shore oil/gas fields. Distress and rescue at sea –Ships& Aircrafts. Correction to sailing directions. h). They are. j). Radio navigational warnings. Caution when approaching Indian ports. u). Under keel clearness. e). w). International hydrographic organization. h). i). k). r). f). g). b). g). Annual edition. General notices. • It contains consolidated information published till the end of previous year. z). o). II. Report of shoals obtained by echo sounding. s). List of storm signal stations. b1). The latest special edition is 1999. x). q). Special edition. swept roots and information regarding explosive picked out at sea.
Any amendments or any addition to these notices shall be issued through notices to mariners. It provides various maps with recommended routs and also distance between the ports.
How to correct a chart up to date. 9. This gives various ocean passages all around the world. refer all the fortnightly edition and correct the chart and their after correct the chart up to date whenever a fortnightly editioncom-1st and 15th of every month. After 1994 annual edition contains only four items. Annual edition. a). • Get the corrections from the fortnightly edition and correct the chart up to date. b). Mariners should retain this edition till it is canceled. List of up to dated correction to the chart. there is a correction for our chart. • • 10 Ocean passages of the world. • If the chart no: is found in the index. All the permanent notices shall be published in this edition. • Turn the pages and locate the correction. How to correct the chart while it is not corrected for a long time. if it is a temporary correction mark it with a pencil. Indian equivalent to British Admiralty chart.
. if it is a permanent correction mark it with the help of water proof violet ink. And if our chart no: is not found in the index. there is no correction in this particular notices to mariners. not the notice no: given against it. • Refer the latest annual notices to mariners and see the list of up to dated correction and verify from the chart. • See annual notice will give all the notice no: affected. Unexploded changes. c). • See whether it is a temporary/permanent correction. fortnightly edition. the chart till the publication. • After the corrections make an entry in the bottom left hand corner with water proofing-notice no: and year. they are. • For the current year.10
Special edition. Latest special edition in force in 1999. • Compare this with the entries made on the bottom left hand corner of the chart and find how many corrections are not done. • If the no: of chart under reference is found in the index. Text of temporary or preliminary notices. d). • Refer the fortnightly edition of notices to mariners and sea the index of chart affected.
• It is the maximum distance at which the light can be seen in clear weather as defined by international visibility code i. World port index. 13.
10. 12. Geographical range. • It is the maximum distance at which the curvature of the earth permits the light to be seen from a particular height without considering the luminous intensity of the light. The range of light There are three types of ranges. • It depends on power or intensity of light. Luminous range. • They give distance along the routs most frequently used by ships. • It depends only on the height of the lighthouse and height of the observer.S defense mapping agency. Vol: 2. • They are reasonably accurate and provide the distance between the ports readily.e.. Group of flashing (white) three every 15 seconds.it gives information regarding the ports and its approaches. • It is published by International Maritime Organization-IMO-and describes the routing system established all over the world.g. • It is the maximum distance at which a light can be seen under the existing visibility conditions. etc.: GP Fl (3) 15 sec 38m.11
It also gives details of wind conditions. 11
. Guido to port entry. • It is published by U. we can see the light from that distance. ocean currents. • They also give brief details of conditions and facilities available in the port. local time zones and ice hazards. Meteorological visibility of 10M. • It gives the list of all the ports known in the world country wise. deep-water rout. 11. Vol: 1. • It is published by British Admiralty. • It gives the recommended routs such as traffic separation scheme. Admiralty distance table. ship’s routing.it gives plans of important ports. • This book is very useful while entering the port. • This range is listed in most Vol: of List of lights. • It takes no account of elevation of the light or height of the eye or curvature of the earth or other interference. III. Nominal range. • It is published in two volumes namely Vol: 1 and Vol: 2. II. Explanation of the lighthouse: E. • If the light is powerful enough. I.25M(15).
A best or possible approximation of a present or future position based on course and distance since the last known position with estimation made for leeway. Water track. To obtain the amount and name of the error. Estimated position (EP). Geographical range – 15 miles. True course.water trackGround track.Maintain or predicting an approximate record of progress by projecting course and distance from a known position (symbol +). The path followed or to be followed between one position to another.W. Compass course. Course. Leeway.The position obtained by the DR distance run and distance covered derived from the log or engine revolution. set and drift. Magnetic course. If they are in different name subtract and give the large name.It is the angle between magnetic meridian and ship heading. – The indented heading. Dead reckoning (DR). Set. if variation and deviation are as same name.It is the direction of one object from an observer or from another object.The combination of variation and deviation is compass error. – The course related to the compass use by the helmsman. DR position. Course to steer.It is the angle between the true meridian and ship heading. Leeway angle. Drift or drift angle-It is the angular difference between the water track and ground track. Track angle.The distance covered in a given time due to the movement of a current and/or tidal stream. Sea position. . add and give the same name.The angular difference between the water track and ship’s heading.It is the direction towards which current and/or tidal stream flows. Nominal range – 25 miles. Heading.The course indicated by the magnetic compass influence by both variation and deviation Compass error.Course allowing for leeway. Bearing.Course made good over the ground. . Drift.LS.H.or through the water. – The direction for a track in digresses.12
Height of the lighthouse – 38 meters above M.The point at the termination of the water track. – The horizontal direction of the ship’s heading at a given movement.
. this path may be that over the ground –ground track.The effect of wind in moving a vessel broadly to leeway. Track.