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WHAT’S NEW IN THE 1940 CENSUS
A Grandson’s Account Of Ike’s Final Years Brad Meltzer Weaves An Archives Mystery Manifest Destiny: Where It Stopped
Winter 2010 Vol. 42 No.4
Editorial Policy. Prologue is published quarterly by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Its primary purpose is to bring to public attention the resources and programs of NARA, the regional archives, and the presidential libraries. Accordingly, Prologue in the main publishes material based, in whole or in part, on the holdings ARCHIVIST of the UNITED STATES David S. Ferriero DIRECTOR of PUBLIC AFFAIRS and COMMUNICATIONS Susan Cooper EDITOR of PUBLICATIONS James Worsham MANAGING EDITOR Mary C. Ryan EDITORIAL STAFF Maureen MacDonald Benjamin Guterman Rob Crotty Hilary Parkinson CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Constance Potter ART DIRECTORS Brian Barth Rania Hassan and programs of these institutions. In keeping with the nonpartisan character of NARA, Prologue will not accept articles that are politically partisan or that deal with contemporary political issues. Articles are selected for publication by the editor in consultation with experts. The editor reserves the right to make changes in articles accepted for publication and will consult the author should substantive questions arise. Published articles do not necessarily represent the views of NARA or of any other agency of the U.S. Government. Prospective authors are encouraged to discuss their work with the editor prior to submission. Articles may be submitted as either an e-mail attachment or as hard copy. The Prologue office uses MS Word but can accept any common word-processing format. Correspondence regarding contributions and all other editorial matters should be sent to the Editor, Prologue, National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001; firstname.lastname@example.org. Subscriptions and Reprints. U.S. subscription rates are $24 for one year; rates for subscribers outside the United States are $30. Single issues of the current volume are available for $6 each (add $3 shipping for orders up to $50). Send a check or money order to National Archives and Records Administration, Prologue Subscriptions, National Archives Trust Fund, Cashier (NAT), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. Notice of nonreceipt of an issue must be sent within six months of its publication date. Microfilm copies of Prologue are available from ProQuest Information and Learning, P.O. Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346. Prologue’s web site is at www.archives.gov/ publications/prologue. Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration (ISSN 0033-1031) is published quarterly by the National Archives Trust Fund Board, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 207406001. Periodicals postage paid at College Park, MD, and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: send address changes to Prologue, National Archives and Records Administration, NPAC/Room 400, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001. INDEXED in Acad. Abstr., Amer. Hist. & Life. Bibl. Cart., Hist. Abst. (Pts. A & B), Hum. Ind., Mag. Art. Sum., U.S. Govt. Per. Ind., Writ. Am. Hist., & Winter Prologue.
Q U A R T E R LY o f t h e N AT I O N A L A R C H I V E S a n d R E C O R D S A D M I N I S T R AT I O N
Fifty years ago, Dwight D. Eisenhower closed his career as a public servant and, with his wife, Mamie, moved into his home in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It was mainly there that he would spend the last eight years of his life. His grandson, David Eisenhower, was there for much of Ike’s final years and talks about what it was like in General Eisenhower’s home in an excerpt from Going Home to Glory: A Memoir of Life with Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961– 1969, written with his wife, Julie Nixon Eisenhower. Most of what we write about in Prologue is history, but best-selling author Brad Meltzer has written a new suspense novel, The Inner Circle, with the National Archives as the setting. He talks about it, and how he researched it at the Archives in “Authors on the Record” on page 54. Keith Donohue provides the details on a major project in which the National Archives has a leading role—the publication, in print and online, of all of the papers of six of our Founding Fathers: Adams, Franklin, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, and Washington. Then we reveal how Confederate agents tried to get Lincoln to send envoys, or come himself, to Canada to talk peace terms in 1864, a year before the Civil War ended. And Lorraine McConaghy recalls how an inept diplomat made a foray into Central America in the 1850s in hopes of annexing much of it to the United States. And there’s a preview of the 1940 census, which will be opened in 2012. And if you enjoy Prologue, we hope you also enjoy our blog at http://blogs.archives.gov/prologue/ Come visit us!
The use of electronic records in government was exploding at the same time that rapidly changing technology was allowing people to communicate and interact with each other virtually via Web 2.0. enriching. millions of photographs and images. and motivated by an appreciative audience. and collaboration. Federal fiscal problems government-wide were putting constraints on available resources. And researchers of all kinds working on legal briefs.archives. but that will not by itself bring about the change in outlook that we need. • Out in Front: An agency that embraces the primacy of electronic information in all its work and positions itself as a leader and innovator in this area. the agency’s most vital resource. This was all impressive. • An Open NARA: An agency that opens organizational boundaries to learn from others. I was somewhat awed. and hundreds of comments Join the Archivist at his own blog at http://blogs. participation. We’re doing it in concert with President Obama’s Open Government Initiative. and successful experience at the National Archives for you. There were 10 billion pages of records. here’s what we’re doing. We are reorganizing NARA. empowers. miles of film and video and audio tape and countless historic artifacts. That change will come from our staff—the best and the brightest. We believe this transformation will result in a more productive. In early fall. in fact. by its holdings. • A Customer-Focused Organization: An agency with structures and processes so staff can more effectively meet customer needs. federal records centers and presidential libraries. we needed to catch up. ferriero transforming W hen I came to the National Archives and Records Administration as Archivist a year ago. our customers. You. But some things weren’t impressive. and customers and stakeholders were feeling underserved and unheard. That’s just what we’re doing now within the National Archives. We want you to know that you will have at your disposal the full resources of the National Archives. located in the right environment. Archivist of the United States 2 Prologue Winter 2010 . The Archives was way behind in adapting to these new technologies. something transformative had to be done. were received. come to the Archives with a variety of requests—for documents to build a family history or to verify military service or to do major research on a particular subject. The Task Force identified six transformational outcomes that would be the guiding force in developing the organizational structure necessary to address key challenges NARA is facing. and listens to all staff.gov/aotus and visit NARA’s web site at www. not just as a position. We hope you like them. inside and outside NARA. • A Great Place to Work: An agency that trusts. and now we’re now in the process of implementing it. appropriately so.gov. NARA was recently rated among the worst places to work in the federal government. which has as its goal the transformation of the relationship between government and the people—and within government itself— through more transparency. I appointed a small task force to come up with a plan to transform the agency. Louis areas as well as our regional archives. articles. but there was much discontent in the ranks. As the plan is implemented over the next few years. We’re undergoing a transformation—one that will have an effect at all our locations—those in the Washington and St. The draft of the five-year plan was shared with the staff. Last summer. • One NARA: An agency with unified and coordinated services to delivered to customers efficiently and effectively. not just one particular unit. We needed to rethink how we do our jobs and how we operate as an agency to be able to exist and thrive in the digital age. and books that might someday win a Pulitzer Prize. I approved and shared with the entire staff the final plan. Briefly. The Archives staff identified strongly with the Archives’ mission. but how each individual works proactively. equipped with the proper tools. And famous documents with famous signatures. • An Agency of Leaders: An agency that fosters a culture of leadership.archives. you’ll begin to see positive changes.fROM THE ARCHIVIST the archives by david s. And ordinary folks coming in to trace their family history.
and Julie Nixon Eisenhower give us an insider’s account of how Granddad worked on his presidential memoirs on the farm in Gettysburg.CONTENTS Winter Features 6 12 20 Volume 42 Issue No. David Eisenhower. p. The Founding Fathers Online Keith Donohue explains how the National Archives is supporting the ambitious project to put online all the writings of our six most prominent Founding Fathers: Adams. The South Appeals for Peace Jay Bellamy writes about how Confederate envoys sought a peace conference in 1864—at a hotel in Canada—to try to negotiate an early end to the Civil War. after he left the White House in 1961. and Washington. Franklin. They even invited Lincoln himself. 30 42 Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat Lorraine McConaghy reveals how American diplomats blundered in attempts in the 1850s to conquer territory in Central America and have it annexed to the United States. eventually. Madison. 4 Going Home to Glory Ike’s grandson. Jefferson. Rubenstein recalls how he went to a New York City auction on a lark one night—and ended up buying the last copy of the Magna Carta in American hands. Hamilton. It’s now back at the Archives. Pennsylvania. 24 The Nuremberg Laws Greg Bradsher traces the history (and the half-century disappearance) of the original documents that Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich used to legalize the persecution of the Jews and. the Holocaust. The Magna Carta Returns to the Archives David M.46 Prologue 3 .
a young man works on a trombone in a National Youth Administration instrument repair shop.gov/publications/prologue Index Pieces of History Tales of Escape and Evasion Front and inside cover: The 1940 census (see page 46) asked new questions about employment. Back cover: The Magna Carta of 1297. purchased in 2007 by David Rubenstein.C. log onto www.42 In every issue 2 From the Archivist Transforming the Archives 46 54 Genealogy Notes New Questions in the 1940 Census p. 56 62 64 72 Events/News & Notices/ Publications Foundation for the National Archives The Records of Achievement Award for filmmaker Ken Burns. On the cover. 4 Prologue Winter 2010 . P To subscribe or view online articles. is on display at the National Archives Building in Washington. and participation in public emergency projects. D. military service.Winter Volume 42 Issue No.archives. 4 p.12 Authors on the Record The Inner Circle: Brad Meltzer talks about the central role of the National Archives in his latest novel.
D.Droid.gov web page. .com..C. Zinio. now have wireless Internet access. iPhone.THE ARCHIVES ONLINE History on the go The National Archives in Washington. more user-friendly Archives. and PC through our digital publishing partner. History on the web Introducing the less-cluttered. and in College Park. MD. History on the Ipad Prologue magazine is now available on the iPad.
Eisenhower at his home in Gettysburg.Dwight D. Pennsylvania. .
In addition. But now. In addition to my father. Eisenhower could write a suspenseful and colorful account. The editors wanted a livelier narrative. lucid account of his wartime service. should be in naked facts. Granddad’s conduct had been bathed in acclaim and the war in Europe had been carried on without any significant questioning of the purposes of the allied leadership. the showdown with Prologue 7 Going Home to Glory . Granddad had turned in earnest to the writing of his presidential memoir. the fall of 1961. he determined that he would not attempt to enhance his account of the presidency in any way to create drama for the sake of greater readership. practical. William Ewald. He had dealt with many fascinating personalities in the White House. and with a few embellishments. At the same time. Eisenhower undertook the first volume of his presidential memoir. At the same time. none of which is basically to amuse or entrance. an unemotional. In his first year out of office. The two assistants were hard at work on drafts of chapters that Granddad would edit and shape to his satisfaction. An account of the Eisenhower administration confronted him with more difficult problems. Dwight D. By David Eisenhower with Julie Nixon Eisenhower oing TO GLORY Home A Memoir of Life with Dwight D. Eisenhower retired to Gettysburg. in fact. the writing of memoirs as President wasn’t coming as easily as writing those of the Supreme Allied Commander. His presidency had. As he observed years later: “A record of personal experiences can have several useful purposes. Granddad focused on explaining the operational and strategic considerations that had guided his decisions. he was beginning to write his memoirs as President. who hoped he would unwind and speak freely. working 12-hour days with 30 minutes off for lunch. And he knew his presidency lacked the drama that permeated Crusade. .” Eisenhower’s approach to his memoirs concerned his editors at Doubleday. But he found writing a presidential memoir to be very different.G Leaving the White House in 1961. to a house built on farmland he and Mamie had bought in 1950. The story recounted in Crusade had been his introduction to the great personalities of the era—FDR. and an assistant. In 1947. Mandate for Change. a former White House speechwriter on loan from IBM. Winston Churchill. [T]he drama. John. braced for mixed reviews and a relatively apathetic reading public. who was on extended leave from the Army. he felt he had to be relatively circumspect due to his role as senior statesman. and careful explanation of his presidency. in less than 10 months. The comparative lack of zeal for his presidential memoir is understandable. a long. Granddad devoted only several hours a day to his writing and relied heavily on Dad and Ewald. In Crusade in Europe. If the story is about conflict. details about the Korean War settlement. Eisenhower. the conscientious memoir writer does not seek to contrive such tense situations as are dreamed up by gifted historical novelists . his chief assistant was William Ewald. 1961–1969 B y fall. Eisenhower had completed Crusade in Europe. Pennsylvania. when he led the invasion of Europe that brought an end to the Third Reich. General George Marshall. . A discussion of the presidency required deeper explanations of actions for which he was solely responsible. encompassed moments of high drama. he was searching for just the right role he should play as a former President. The wartime experience had meant more to him. with the assistance of his son. He had already written his memoirs of World War II. His concept of his memoir was to provide a debriefing. if any.
in other words. He would devote long passages to evaluating Dulles’s great abilities. his clash with the British and French at Suez.” Eisenhower reflected. “if people want Left: The editors of Eisenhower’s memoirs wanted colorful accounts of his time in the White House. His editors could not comprehend Eisenhower’s reluctance to dwell on the personal battle that had raged between the two men for almost 18 months. As President. he had been Eisenhower devoted a whole chapter to his relationship with John Foster Dulles. Eisenhower had marveled at Dulles’s personal courage and his refusal to accept painkillers after 8 Prologue . the election campaigns. Eisenhower likened his partnership with Dulles to that between Robert E. determined to point a “modern” Republican Party forward and to induce Republicans to move beyond old arguments about the war in Europe. Dulles intrigued the editors. as Dad recalls. Eisenhower had realized McCarthyism was a massive distraction that imperiled everything he had fought for in the 1952 campaign. including his interactions with Nikita Khrushchev. all policies Eisenhower had regarded as vital and had supported under Roosevelt and Truman. portraying his secretary as an effective instrument of his will and presidency. under construction west of Washington in the Virginia suburbs. Eisenhower did not feel compelled to set the record straight about a complex partnership that he now chose to insist had been wholly cooperative and mutually beneficial. Social Security. which included the intellectual and publishing world. Eisenhower’s dealings with the Soviets and Khrushchev.” As he wrote in his memoirs. Eisenhower tossed aside suggestions that Dulles had manipulated him and that the two had not enjoyed a smooth or easy partnership. to make you stupid and say that other people are leading you around by the nose. . to whom he would devote an entire chapter of the second volume of his memoirs. yet despite their urging. there is nothing much you can do about it. but Eisenhower admired his courage in the face of adversity. Eisenhower’s chapter on Dulles would be one of the few he would write without significant aid. but only one of the several monuments that Eisenhower erected to his secretary of state. in his view his policy of ignoring McCarthy had worked. They had a complicated relationship. . more insight into the emotions he experienced in making the big decisions of his presidency. by “the intensity of feeling which existed among those groups that McCarthy had abused.” By 1961. In July 1959. His veneration of Dulles had begun at the secretary’s funeral in May 1959. one of the grandest pageants of the Eisenhower years. and the principle of government intervention in economic affairs. “Well. Lee and his trusted and indispensable lieutenant Stonewall Jackson. Eisenhower had announced that Chantilly Airport. Eisenhower and his editors also discussed his relationship with John Foster Dulles. History will tell the story anyway. would be named “Dulles International Airport. He was not influenced. .Senator Joseph McCarthy. and whatever the damage to his image of leadership on this vital issue. Eisenhower could not grasp why his editors found the McCarthy story so interesting. In discussions with his editors.” Eisenhower’s policy had been one of refusing to argue with McCarthy. He had run in 1952 in order to bring the Republican Party back from oblivion and restore a two-party system after 20 years of one-party rule. Sharp disagreements arose over Eisenhower’s dry treatment of the McCarthy period.
but Eisenhower fondly recalled their many sessions in the Oval Of- fice in which the two had discussed topics well removed from foreign affairs. “the brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of God.” In reporting to the editors. But Pershing had also consulted a young brigadier general in Washington named George C. . Marshall and Eisenhower met for the first time while conferring on the project. in time. decided he was not the one to challenge Marshall’s judgment or Pershing’s and so he dropped his suggestions. Now with Foster. Major Eisenhower. calendars.cancer operations in 1956 and 1959.” and his belief that the United States should take the offensive on moral and ethical questions. If I had only had the sense to give him a Scotch and soda—he loved Scotch and soda—he would have just sat and talked things over. . and he himself had been guilty of a mistake: “I got so I disliked Truman’s idea of keeping in his desk a liquor bar. He wanted to include items like the reproduction of formal engraved invitations to state dinners. . divided decisions. Granddad. and weather reports. 1957. the best Dad could do was to shrug contritely. Pershing that the latter enliven his long The situation in Vietnam deteriorated during the Eisenhower administration as the divided country moved toward war. Dulles had feared the effects of affluence and had often talked about the American quest for the soft and easy life.” Occasionally they commiserated about the insatiable demands for federal outlays and spending by Washington pressure groups that would. and Bill Ewald huddled for hours to discuss ways of accommodating the suggestions. Doubleday again asked for more controversy. so his mind would remain clear and he would be available for consultation with his State Department.” As the writing of the book proceeded. menus. I have thought of it since. Marshall. outranked. “Small men made life very tough for Foster.” He also agreed with Dulles that in mid-century America. undermine the vitality of America’s self-governing society. and mistakes. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (from left) greet South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem at Washington National Airport. agony. May 8. solicited for his advice. Eisenhower found that tackling a presidential memoir opened an entirely new set of issues from those he had encountered when advising Pershing and Marshall. Philosophically. 1971. Eisenhower tended to agree with his secretary that “battle is the joy of life. loosened up more. Eisenhower had been in the position of recommending to John J. regret. Dad later told me that ironically. In a presidency spanning eight years.” Eisenhower. President Dwight D. Pershing’s obsession with literal accuracy went to fantastic lengths. Dad recalled how he. problems recurred and often defied Prologue 9 . Portrait of Julie and David Eisenhower taken in April 18. the three of them “couldn’t think of anything. Marshall rather liked the details and disliked departing from literal accuracy into “the realm of speculation. the principle of representative government was “on trial. He recalled Dulles’s favorite expression.” Eisenhower recalled. Dulles and Eisenhower had not been social friends. appointment logs. Thirty-three years later. Here. As my father recalls. as a staff officer in 1929. had strongly urged that Pershing do more highlighting and put less stress on literal descriptions in order to make the book more readable. and tedious account of his experiences during World War I.
unresolved. Special People and Pat Nixon: The Untold Story. nor shall it be taken. which was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1987. 10 Prologue Winter 2010 . but the memo was a vivid reminder of how difficult it was to get a handle on the facts of the growing crisis in Southeast Asia. Pennsylvania.” Ladd said. the memorandum provided by Harlow described a “guerilla war of increasing ferocity” that had developed in 1961. in the winter of 1961–62. Such a resolution would stiffen the spines of the Administration. “training mission leaders” were in fact leading Vietnamese army platoons in combat. go to www. • Eisenhower’s approach to the Cold War in the 1950s. 3. .” P From Going Home to Glory by David Eisenhower with Julie Nixon Eisenhower. Eisenhower To learn more about • The Dwight D.S. but the Laotian conflict had erupted in late 1960 and a year later. go to www. In South Vietnam.resolution. his White House congressional liaison and now a lobbyist for Procter & Gamble in Washington.” then Summer 2006. Viet Cong insurgents were “running rampant. “shooting first and often. he also would carefully note: “This does not pretend to be. one of the key events of Eisenhower’s first term was the end of the French war in Indochina in 1954.000. 4. It was a war waged at night by peasants in black pajamas who were friends by day. © 2010 by Juldee Inc.eisenhower. More than once I sat quietly in our playroom listening while Ladd described to Dad the Dantesque inferno developing in Vietnam. the younger daughter of President Richard Nixon. Reprinted by permission of Simon & Schuster.” The memorandum summed up the “beneficial effects” of a congressional resolution: 1.archives. about the merits of calling for a joint resolution in Congress to acknowledge the developing war in Vietnam. • Eisenhower’s strong support for an interstate highway system. Eisenhower Presidential Library.S. go to www. Author David Eisenhower is the Director of the Institute for Public Service at the Annenberg School of Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. Testimony and debate would serve to inform the public of the true situation and develop popular support. Back from Vietnam and now stationed at the Army War College in Carlisle. Concern about Vietnam did not escape even my attention as a 13. “We just don’t know who the enemy is in Vietnam. In the Preface to Waging Peace.gov. By the fall of 1961. Eisenhower. in fact. 2.” A special command had been formed in anticipation of full-scale intervention. For example.” then Winter 2009. He is the son of John and Barbara Eisenhower and the grandson of President Dwight D. The Communists would be on notice. would feel compelled to slash by 50 percent his detailed draft on Indochina lest it constrain President Kennedy’s freedom of action and that of the South Vietnamese government of President Ngo Dinh Diem.gov/ publications/prologue and click on “Previous Issues. Uncertain of the administration’s likely course. . Washington—was an occasional visitor in our Gettysburg home. U. many of the issues Eisenhower thought he had disposed of as President were. an unidentified Washington insider. Ladd—Dad’s high school classmate at Fort Lewis. “I’ve never seen anything like it. as Eisenhower began writing the Indochina section of his memoir.” Quietly. . Julie Nixon Eisenhower. as volume two of his memoirs would be titled. Harlow passed along a memo given to him by William Sprague. In detail. Inc. the partition in Vietnam held. and a major Marine force was standing in readiness to enter the theatre on “a few hours notice. troop presence had been built up from the Geneva treaty limit of 685 to 4. He is the author of Eisenhower at War: 1943–1945. which resulted in a settlement in Vietnam and partition of the country into a communist North and prowestern South.and 14-year-old. The text has been copyedited to match Prologue’s house style. In March 1962. as an index to the specific current or future policies of the United States. gov/publications/prologue and click on “Previous Issues. North Vietnam had resumed a war to unify North and South under communist rule.” putting the Diem government in an increasingly “precarious position.archives. It would confirm bi-partisan support. is the author of two previous books. There is no record of any move by Eisenhower to persuade GOP congressmen to back a joint resolution concerning the situation in Vietnam. the U. lionized in David Halberstam’s The Best and the Brightest as one of the most effective Special Forces advisers in the 1961–62 period. One of our closest family friends was Colonel Fred Ladd.” That America was moving toward direct intervention in Vietnam had been made plain to Eisenhower by Bryce Harlow.archives. For the rest of the Eisenhower presidency.
Thomas Jefferson. and Ben Franklin. In it he discusses the prospect of the adoption of the Constitution among the various states. in a letter preserved in the Papers of George Washington. and the same Paper had been handed out to the World. you therefore must I say must mount this Seat. “Indeed I am convinced that if you had not attended the Convention. with fewer and weaker Advocates.” Morris goes on to argue. S .The Founding Fathers Online by keith donohue ix weeks after the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia ended.” Left to right: George Washington. John Adams. it would have met with a colder Reception. and with more and more strenuous opponents. and he credits Washington for its success. “And indeed among these thirteen Horses now about to be coupled together there are some of every Race and Character. George Washington received a letter from his fellow delegate Gouverneur Morris dated October 30. and submit to your Control. They will listen to your Voice. 1787. that only Washington is suitable to become President and take the reins of the new and unruly republic.
his angst and vacillation over the presidency are often tinged by a certain underlying pride in being asked so often and so forcefully. and personal life. Now. the creation of Mount Vernon. and papers kept by Washington offer a first-hand account not only of his struggle over the question of the presidency but virtually every aspect of his life from his youth to his forays in the French and Indian War. his leadership of the Continental Army. and his years as first President. and these historical documents are the primary source materials for our understanding of those distant times and events. and in April 1789. Washington’s papers.Washington was not swayed immediately. and indeed. along with those of five other of his contemporary Founding Fathers. diaries. Chernow acknowledges. with strong congressional support. which have been collected over the years and used by historians to write biographies. he left Mount Vernon for New York City to assume the office he was to hold for the next eight years. The story of George Washington’s reluctant acceptance to stand for election as first President of the new nation is told with great élan in Ron Chernow’s new biography. professional. will soon be freely accessible via the Internet as a result of an ongoing project sponsored by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC). Chernow was able to describe in detail Washington’s dilemma by turning to Washington’s papers. in his book. this Hamlet-like wavering on Washington’s part comes most fully alive through the actual words of the participants. Washington maintained meticulous records of his business. Captured in letters to and from Washington. At last he was persuaded by his fellow patriots. and while well known. Washington: A Life. Like many 18th-century property owners and statesmen. his correspondence over the next year shows just how assailed he was by uncertainty and his own desire to retire from public life. The voluminous letters. his presidency of the Constitutional Convention. The Founding Fathers Online Prologue 13 . his own debt to those primary source materials: Author Ron Chernow holds a copy of The Papers of George Washington.
George Washington is but one of the Founding Fathers whose life has been so minutely documented. Princeton University is the home to most of The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. documents. All told. they have produced a modern edition of Washington’s papers that eclipses the far more modest edition published by John C. publications (such as The Federalist Papers in the Hamilton edition). The next stage in the process is annotation—identifying the significant correspondents.000 relevant documents from around the globe. Expert commentary appears at every step along the way. in his thirty-nine volumes. although the first 10 volumes were edited at the University of Chicago. which operates out of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville. and references to other people. By gathering 130.” This attention to accuracy ensures that final transcriptions reflect the most verifiable versions of the originals. An editorial team at the University of Virginia is also working on a comprehensive edition of The Papers of James Madison. word by word. Columbia University Press published the complete 27-volume edition of The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. diaries. and newspapers. Whereas Fitzpatrick. and it plays Barry Faulkner’s mural in the Rotunda for the National Archives features some of the Founding Fathers. George Washington’s life has now been so minutely documented that we know far more about him than did his own friends. family. the Library of Congress. the Thomas Jefferson Foundation at Monticello took on part of the job and began The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Retirement Series. and contemporaries. Fitzpatrick back in the 1930s and early 1940s. The John Adams Papers are currently being published by Harvard University Press with editorial work at the Massachusetts Historical Society. Between 1961 and 1987. across the United States and around the world. and in literally hundreds of archives. Annotation is frequently the most timeconsuming part of the process. and publications within the project and elsewhere. editorial essays introducing the selection of documents and providing historical context. letter by letter. Every transcription is verified against the original. limited himself to the letters written by Washington. public and private. “line by line. the subjects and events under discussion. in the words of one editor. Strange as it may seem. and transcribing handwritten documents. the new edition—sixty volumes of letters and diaries and still counting—includes letters written to him as well as excerpts of contemporary letters. and in 1999. and extensive indexes for each volume and for entire series. editorial teams began the task of deciphering. The papers themselves are drawn from originals and copies of originals located in the National Archives. diary and journal entries. Once copies had been assembled and arranged in chronological order. interpreting. including letters. The Papers of Benjamin Franklin was established in 1954 under the joint auspices of Yale University and the American Philosophical Society.James Madison Any biographer of George Washington must stand in awe of the scholarly feat accomplished by the eminent team of editors at The Papers of George Washington project. and each volume contains hundreds of documents sent to and from the statesmen. there are 236 volumes of these documentary editions in print. 14 Prologue Winter 2010 . annotations clarifying the significance and meaning of particular items.
and David Hackett Fischer’s Washington’s Crossing. Over the past decades. David McCullough told Congress in 2008.an essential role in placing the documents and their contents in context. became the basis for the Emmy Award–winning television series on HBO. Historians have praised the work of the editors behind these documentary editions and relied on the papers to create new and exciting histories and biographies. In addition to his new biography on Washington. Dozens of other histories. the NHPRC has funded all six of the projects (with the exception of the Jefferson Retirement Series) in their ongoing work. used the work of the documentary editions. Boyd presented the first volume to President Truman.” he said. financed by a major gift from the New York Times. Politicians across the spectrum recognize the value of the Founders’ papers. Modern historical documentary editing— based on the precepts and rigorous standards of scientific history—began in the 1940s with work by Julian Boyd of Princeton on the Thomas Jefferson papers. Specialized knowledge about the historical period is necessary to illuminate these details. These papers are American scripture. and the print publication resulting from this massive effort is about two-thirds complete. and President Ronald Reagan said George Washington The Founding Fathers Online . Ron Chernow used the Columbia University project to write Alexander Hamilton: A Biography (2004). In 1950. patriots. who called for publication of all of the papers of the Founding Fathers. “I am convinced that the better we understand the history of our democracy. immense as that is. which received the 2005 Pulitzer Prize for History. the free and open exchange of ideas. the Commission helped the Founders projects with research into archives and collections. the better we shall appreciate our rights as free men and the more determined we shall be to keep our ideals alive. the greatest statesmen.” McCullough’s own work is testament to the value of the edited papers. They are our political faith. The President also asked the National Historical Publications Commission—which later became the National Historical Publications and Records Commission—to plan a national program for publication of the papers of other public figures important to understanding American history. During the 1950s. and that work. “The value of the Papers of Founding Fathers goes far beyond their scholarly importance. the often brilliant expressions of some of the most fertile minds. as did Walter Isaacson’s Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. biographies. historian Joseph Ellis’s Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. and editors provide further context through introductory materials. Likewise. in turn. and seers in our history. Congress had authorized funds for the agency to award grants. which received the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for History. and by 1964. His Pulitzer Prize–winning biography John Adams relied heavily upon The Papers of John Adams documentary edition. and artistic interpretations have used the original papers to create fresh versions of the old story of America’s founding.
the project editors realized in the late 1980s that one way to increase access to their work was through electronic publication and the Internet. and what better place to begin than with the words of America’s founders? But to make Founders Online possible at all. As a public university. is currently available by institutional license. said. and its grants program. its work. through a cooperative agreement with the National Archives. Madison. we applaud the leadership of the National Archives in bringing this important archive to life. libraries across the nation. Washington.’ Thomas Jefferson wrote. students.virginia. go to www. the American Founding Era Collection. Within two years.upress. said. Mellon Foundation and matched by funding from the President’s Office of the University of Virginia. the image of an age can be discerned. go to www.edu/). Jim Taylor. and search through a new lens to the Founding Era. annotated.” While their print editions reside in To learn more about • Founding Fathers who signed the Declaration of Independence.gov/grants.” • Founding Fathers who signed the Constitution. and by 2013.000 documents and almost 125. Part of the early work of Rotunda was to create digital versions of the documentary editions of the Founding Era.archives. not only by simple word searches but by terms assigned in the indexing process and through editorial annotations. hard work. it plans to have all of the existing documents and notes in the 242 print volumes online in a single web site where individuals can read. go to www. “I have great hope for the children of America.” The new web site will be built on a half-century of work by documentary editors—the tireless scholars who collected. Approximately 70. founded Rotunda (http://rotunda. and dedication of the editorial teams behind the effort. in their arguments and in their opinions. Several of the projects began investigating ways to translate their materials from print to electronic publication for the World Wide Web. and Hamilton.’ If a republic is to survive—let alone thrive— free access to knowledge is basic. the University of Virginia Press will develop a full-featured web site— hosted by the National Archives—that will allow free access to the papers of the six Founders.000 explanatory notes will be available in this first stage.archives. the press has built on the pioneering vision of UVA faculty to harness digital technology in the service of scholarship and education through the Rotunda imprint. “Free access to the Founders Online will serve a much broader audience of citizens the way that Rotunda’s subscription version serves the scholarly community. all so passionately stated.gov/exhibits/charters and click on “Meet America’s Founding Fathers. 16 Prologue Winter 2010 . ‘Knowledge. In 2001 the University of Virginia Press. and published the original papers. Adams. the web site will have added the published volumes of Hamilton. that they too will read the works of Madison. with help from a major award from the Andrew W. For in their letters to each other and in their essays.Alexander Hamilton in 1986.gov/exhibits/ charters and click on “Join the Signers of the Declaration. The fruit of this vision. Jefferson. and citizens. it has taken the expertise. said University of Virginia President Teresa Sullivan. and Jefferson print editions. director of The Papers of Thomas Jefferson at Princeton University. The Founders Online will begin with a prototype public web site to be launched by October 2011 that will include 154 volumes drawn from the Washington. ’is the common property of all mankind. an electronic imprint of the press. director of The Papers of John Adams project at the Massachusetts Historical Society. The possibilities for new discoveries are endless. whose words will now be readily available to teachers. Making these materials available to the public for free reflects the core values of the University and indeed of our nation’s founding generation. browse.” Barbara Oberg. Students and scholars will have the ability to home in on key concepts and search across all six collections.” Editors at the projects echo her remarks. Adams.” • The National Historical Publications and Records Commission.archives. “Founders Online is a significant step toward making the nation’s cultural patrimony freely available to the American citizenry. Now. indexed. transcribed. “This award to help the University of Virginia Press create a new online presence for the papers of our nation’s founders is great news for the University and for scholars everywhere. “For 10 years. Teachers will be able to call up primary source material in the history classroom in the blink of an eye.
Adams. Although it holds only a small portion of the primary source material. whether or not those papers were in the stewardship of the government. The words of the Founders belong online. The Founders Online continues that experiment in democracy by making freely available in one place the original words of the original statesmen. though they were unanimous in support of the principles and underlying idea of America. though all would acknowledge it as a democratizing force. Jefferson. and how the Washington administration. Washington. the Founders’ views on slavery might be assembled in a single set of search results in which many of the original documents do not use the word at all. the ratification of the Constitution by the states. And we can only express our gratitude for the effort of dedicated editors and scholars to create this work. said that having these papers online will better inform current-day debates over the meaning of our founding documents. John Adams “As scholars and statesmen debate the meaning of documents such as the Constitution and Bill of Rights. there was language establishing a National Historical Publications Commission designed to publish the most important documents of our history. the National Archives is an ideal home for this collection. Now today’s best minds will have the chance to contrast and compare the Founders’ words and ideas through a communications medium that none could foresee. they can turn to the originals and the wit and wisdom of the Founders’ own debates. Hamilton. Archivist of the United States. In the same Act of Congress creating the National Archives in 1934. Ferriero. Or one might trace the Founders’ letters and diaries and debates leading up to the Constitutional Convention. The Commission augments the work of the National Archives and creates a way for partnerships to be created with other archives in the nation to help tell the American story. Or one might collect all the correspondence between Adams and Jefferson along with their contemporaries’ views on each man and create a richer portrait on their fraught relationship. a national monument to the founding of our nation. first Congress. and Madison—rarely agreed together on public policy for the new nation.” he said.” The great minds who fiercely debated the founding of our country—Franklin. David S. In announcing the creation of the Founders Online. “This new archive of the Founding Era will revolutionize our understanding by creating for the first time a free and fully searchable collection of the Founders’ own words in the context of their time.For example. their thoughts during the meetings in Philadelphia. and first Supreme Court implemented the grand experiment. where people across the country and around the world can freely read and wonder at their wisdom. P The Founding Fathers Online Prologue 17 .
David Hackett Fischer. “It would have taken me a century to write without them. Hamilton was to draft the famous Farewell Address by Washington. and the forthcoming Centuries of June. not only in physically embodying his new nation’s leadership but also in interpreting how its newly articulated constitutional principles would be applied .” Only through a close reading of the O n January 20. he felt.” Chernow responded to the news of a cooperative agreement between the National Archives and the University of Virginia Press to bring the Founders Online. This new site will not only help students learn more deeply and develop a visceral love and respect for this era. which will be always interesting to mankind so long as they shall be connected in Civil Society. “Unfortunately. Chernow set out to write a cradle-to-grave biography that captured the essence not only of Washington. the political leader but Washington. because in it are candidly discussed the principles of freedom & the topics of government. “Tenaciously researched. as a leader in the Federalist Party. I try to use eyewitness accounts. in English from The Catholic University of America.D. and in their last correspondence. George Washington sent a note to the 22-yearold Alexander Hamilton.” The result is another tour-de-force of synthesis and imagination. and integrity. You have to go through the papers to see how fiery and forceful they were. and the edition is now more than two-thirds complete. that work will merit the notice of Posterity. Washington: A Life appeared in October 2010 to critical acclaim. and as with his Hamilton biography. who was an original as a political theorist and government leader. inviting him to become his aide-de-camp. he is highly self-aware of his place in history and took extraordinary pains to protect his reputation. and fiery characters. He was a speechwriter and director of publications at the National Endowment for the Arts and is the author of the novels The Stolen Child.” Such innovative approaches lead to a “democratization of historical research. 18 Prologue Winter 2010 . The Papers of George Washington. He personally supervised the transport of his papers back to Mount Vernon. but with brilliance. . “There are two major differences. . Washington had the ability to latch on to the ideas of others and activate them. Fitzpatrick published in the 1930s and early 1940s.” Chernow said “The Founders were arguing brilliantly over the same issues we argue over today.” Chernow said. It is small wonder then that after writing his critically acclaimed biography of Alexander Hamilton. .Historian Cites Value OF PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS auspices of the University and the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association of the Union.” “It’s a simply fabulous idea. telling him that “when the transient circumstances and fugitive performances which attended this crisis shall have disappeared. historian Ron Chernow would turn his attention from protégé to master. too. And in a sense.” He was. and those were often discovered through the footnotes. honesty. Angels of Destruction. and will reconnect them to primary sources. He has a Ph. Washington wrote his friend Hamilton.” Building on recent thematic biographies by David McCullough. “Whereas Washington was not an original thinker unlike Hamilton. the Founders have become remote and abstract. Washington. “I would have never been emboldened without the edition of the papers. including his great effort to preserve his papers during and after the Revolutionary War. It builds on the 39-volume edition by John C. full-blooded.” Chernow said. but it will stimulate interest in history for teachers. “The earlier edition only contains the letters from Washington. Reading it is sort of like eavesdropping on one end of a telephone conversation. and Joseph Ellis. but now an inquisitive five-year-old with a computer will be able to look at what the Founders thought. at the Constitutional Convention.” Author Keith Donohue joined the National Archives in 2004 as communications director for the National Historical Publications and Records Commission. but in reality. because they were always conscious of their public persona. During the months when The Federalist began to appear under the pen name Publius. “Washington’s mental world is richer than today’s.” he says. and as secretary of the treasury for six years during Washington’s presidency. This new portrait offers a fresh sense of what a groundbreaking role Washington played. The New York Times calls it. .” Chernow says. Washington sent a letter to Hamilton full of admiration for his plan to establish an American military academy. . under the joint primary source materials can readers see how on the surface Washington appeared selfeffacing in public. deeply rewarding. but not to him. some two weeks after the Battle of Princeton. “He’s not given sufficient credit for his intelligence. Chernow credits the work of the editors on The Papers of George Washington. 1777. Thus began a relationship that would last a lifetime. but each document is lavishly annotated so that one gets extracts from contemporaries. with Hamilton serving as Washington’s trusted adviser through the Revolutionary War. is often compared to the other founders and is rarely scrutinized against contemporary leaders.” The modern edition. Letters written to Washington as well as letters and documents written by him are being published in the complete edition that will consist of approximately 90 volumes. was established in 1968 at the University of Virginia. the man. an NHPRC grantfunded project. as so often. I am standing on the shoulders of a team of editors. “Archives used to be restricted to those historians able to come visit and examine the documents first-hand. percipient and wise in his assessment. The new edition not only follows both sides of the correspondence. when in fact they are rich.
Pay the same as you do for paper copies and get your digitized documents faster!* Digitized records of most interest to genealogists include— • Immigration and Naturalization Records • Land Files • Military Service and Pension Records • Court Records • World War I Draft Registration Cards • Native American Records • Census Pages Order now at archives.GO DIGITAL Enjoy the convenience of ordering National Archives documents online. * Some exclusions apply .gov/order Call 1-800-234-8861 for details.
Winter 2010 .
and I happened to be landing in New York just in time to get to the reception. One of the more serendipitous occurrences in my own life occurred in De- cember of 2007. She informed me that the copy being auctioned belonged to former presidential candidate Ross Perot. I met the curator in charge of shepherding the Magna Carta to a successful sale. It was thus widely believed—and feared—that a wealthy individual from another country would likely purchase the document and remove it from the United States. I was also informed by the curator that Mr. He had owned the document since 1984. rubenstein S erendipity can play an important role in our lives. he had subsequently lent it to the National Archives. Perot had not placed any constraints on the document’s sale. It turned out that. When I arrived at the reception. where it had been generally on display since the early 1980s. So I quickly decided to go.The Magna Carta ret u rn s to th e ar c h ive s Donor Buys Historic Document at Auction to Keep It in the United States by david m. of the 17 copies of the historic document still in existence. Title 21 . this was the only one owned by a private citizen and the only David Rubenstein talks to the press about his purchase of the Magna Carta on March 3. when he purchased it from a British family who had owned it for more than 500 years. 2008. The reception happened to be that night in New York City. to see this most famous of all documents. On a return flight from overseas. I happened to see in my mail file an invitation to a pre-auction reception for a 1297 copy of the Magna Carta. who was selling the document to enable his foundation to fund Iraqi war veterans’ medical expenses.
A Last-Minute Decision To Attend an Auction The Magna Carta’s principles of due process. habeas corpus. the Bill of Rights). And that common law was the founson.returning the night of the auction. I resolved that evening to return to New York from Washington.one in the United States. 22 Prologue Winter 2010 .C. among others. and after several rounds of competitive bidding. For that rea. This was a far cry from the bustling auction floor so often depicted in movies and on television. and to thereby be continuously reminded of its importance to our country. So I thought it would be appropriate to try to keep this copy of the Magna Carta in the country—to ensure that Americans could continue to see it. later. and the Founding Fathers also placed them in the heart of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution (and. is likely to ever be sold. the next night and to win the auction. None of these copies. I was told. Having never been to a major auction in my life. I was delighted—and surprised—to hear that my final bid won the auction. These facts struck me as particularly unfortunate. were central to British common law. But I gathered that many of the bidders on particularly valuable or newsworthy objects do not want to be seen bidding (or winning). for the Magna Carta—while a product of the 13th century in England—actually had a significant impact on our government and on our basic rights. the cureside in British institutions. and these private rooms are a solution. Fifteen copies dation of our own democracy. I was not sure exactly how best to proceed. The bidding soon commenced. and no representation without taxation. trial by jury. each of the colonies embodied most of these principles in their governing structures. I was then told by the auction house’s officials that I could slip out a side door and keep the new owner and the new where- The press surrounded the Magna Carta during a photo opportunity when the historic document returned to the National Archives. upon rator ushered me into a small unoccupied room and instructed me pick up a telephone to hear the auction and to communicate any bids to her. and the other one is displayed in the Australian parliament. D. Imagine my surprise when. (my home).
not far from presentday Windsor Castle in London. he found himself in the same situation as his grandfather—in need of money to reclaim lands in France. that I wanted the public to know right then that I intended to place the document on long-term loan to the National Archives as a gift to the country and as modest repayment of my debt to this country for my good fortune in being an American. In brief. These provisions satisfied the barons’ demands. among which were guarantees of the writ of habeas corpus. then click on “Featured Documents.gov/press/press-releases/2010 and click on the second item under June. and peace was restored for a time. 1215. not many people are aware of the document’s complicated history. in the early 13th century. That occurred on June 15. I decided. To secure that money from his subjects. John met with approximately 100 barons on the plains of Runnymede. John’s nine-year-old son Henry was then crowned Henry III. This 1297 version of the document is the final version of the Magna Carta. minus the principal offending clause mentioned above. They collectively agreed to a peace settlement under which the king would grant the barons certain rights.archives.” • The legacy for Americans of the Magna Carta. To learn more about • The Magna Carta itself. It is still on that legal registry and still the law of England. though. England and parts of France were essentially one country ruled by a monarch. and no taxation without representation. issued a shorter version of the Magna Carta. the right to a trial by a jury of peers. It was. John demanded scutage (a fee paid in lieu of military service) from the barons who had refused to join the war effort. Rubenstein is co-founder and managing director of The Carlyle Group. go to www. It was at this point that King John agreed to meet with the barons to settle their grievances. I said this in front of scores of reporters gathered at the auction and shortly thereafter called the Archivist of the United States to let him know of my plans. Henry’s regent. The original document—written in Latin—included 63 key provisions. the first Magna Carta that was placed on the official legal registry of England. to issue a new version of the Magna Carta. sparking a civil war in England that would last until John’s death in October 1216.” • Plans to re-encase the Magna Carta. was quite pleased. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.” then “Magna Carta. the pope objected to the agreement (effectively forcing the king to annul it). go to www. John orchestrated several wars in mainland Europe to recover land that he had inherited but which was no longer under his control. Allen Weinstein. To finance these wars. Viewing this as an affront to the authority of the Crown and the Church (to which the Crown was essentially subordinate). punishment proportionate to the crime. The problem with the agreed-upon Magna Carta was that it was soon refuted by Pope Innocent III. The Archivist at that time. it turned out. King John. This version would stay in effect until 1225. who reacted negatively to a provision that established a committee of 25 barons who could at any time meet and overrule the will of the king. while at war out of England. The Magna Carta Returns to the Archives Prologue 23 .archives. When King Henry III’s son Edward I became king.abouts of the Magna Carta a secret (presumably forever). though.” then “Magna Carta. During this period.gov/exhibits.C. though. upon official assumption of the throne at age 18. reissued the Magna Carta in November 1216. and chairman of the board of the John F. eventually capturing the city of London. Principles in Magna Carta Provide Roots of American Democracy Despite the Magna Carta’s historical significance. P Author David M.gov/exhibits and click on “Featured Documents. The barons in question began a series of protests.archives. D. go to www. And the Magna Carta thereby finally became the official law of the country. when Henry III. a global private equity firm. and to rebuild the official coffers.” then click on “Magna Carta and Its American Legacy. only for a short time. the new king was forced. William Marshall. The 1297 final version of the Magna Carta is on display in the National Archives Building in Washington.
where Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party in 1935 changed the status of German Jews to that of Jews in Germany. The I . now nearly destroyed by British and American heavy bombing. officially designated as the “City of the Reich Party Rallies.” in the province of Bavaria. it would also be in Nuremberg. thus “legally” establishing the framework that eventually led to the Holocaust. Ten years later.Nuremberg Laws Archives Receives Original Nazi Documents That “Legalized” Persecution of Jews by greg bradsher t was in Nuremberg. where surviving prominent Nazi leaders were put on trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The war in Europe ended in May 1945. and soon the attention of the Allies turned to prosecuting those Third Reich leaders who had been responsible for. Law for the Safeguard of German Blood of German Honor (top) and the signature page (left).
embassy in Berlin reported to the secretary of state: To sum up the Jewish situation at the moment. chief counsel for the prosecution of Axis criminality. Supreme Court Justice Robert H. they remained for decades. The next day. signed by Hitler and other Nazi leaders. they became increasingly engaged in activities involving the persecution of the Jewish and other minority populations. 1935. Third Reich Began Persecutions Years Before Laws Enacted in 1935 The Nuremberg Laws made official the Nazi persecution of the Jews. were transferred to the National Archives.” Jackson said. for the original copies were nowhere to be found. made his opening statement to the International Military Tribunal. U. rather mild. 1935. Jackson. After the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933. in Nuremberg’s Palace of Justice. Jewish immigrants were denaturalized.S. but the law itself was employed to some extent. The trials began November 20. Finally.S. they did nothing drastic. confinement. Patton. They wanted to completely segregate them from the social. In 1933 Jews were denied the right to hold public office or civil service positions. Jews were denied employment by the press and radio. when the Nazi regime was still rather shaky and the Nazis feared opposition from within and resistance from without.S. The so-called “Nuremberg Laws”— a crucial step in Nazi racial laws that led to the marginalization of German Jews and ultimately to their segregation. and the first measures appeared. named by President Harry S. Truman as the U. the party. using official decrees as a weapon against the Jews. in relative terms. On August 20. The general took them home to California.S. and the government take more drastic measures against the Jews. Nazi party radicals began more forcibly demanding that Hitler. 1945. political. which resulted in 12 death sentences and life or long sentences for other Third Reich leaders. “The most serious actions against Jews were outside of any law. . After Germany publicly announced in May 1935 its rearmament in violation of the Versailles Treaty. There.among other things. they had been found earlier. They did it under the color of law. it may be said that the whole movement of the Party is one of preparing itself and the people for general drastic and so-called legal action to be announced in the near future probably following the Par- The Reich’s Citizen Law (far right) and the signature page (right). and economic life of Germany. who passed them up the line until they came to the Third Army’s commander. Gen. and extermination—were key pieces of evidence in the trials. but the “legal” attack on the Jews actually began two years earlier. These demands increased as the summer progressed. George S. During these years. this past summer. But the prosecution was forced to use images of the laws from the official printed version. which had somehow survived the intense Allied bombings of 1944 and 1945. their existence not revealed until 1999. The following year. the persecution of the Jews and the Holocaust. counter-intelligence troops. Jews were excluded from stock exchanges and stock brokerage. by U. They were the infamous Nuremberg decrees of September 15. However. the U. the original copies of the laws. and Jews were excluded from farming. Jr.
. that he was unable to get a clear picture what Gen. .” He added: It is believed that a declaration respecting the Jews will be made at Nuremberg which will be followed by the announcement at the Congress itself. or shortly thereafter. George S. they will tend further to differentiate the Jews from the mass of Germans and to disadvantage them in new ways. the American ambassador to Germany. a major American Jewish leader.” William E. Patton presented the Nuremberg Laws to Huntington trustee Robert Millikan on June 11. wrote in his diary August 22 that “New legislation is imminent. high commissioner for refugees under the League of Nations. McDonald. or a body of legislation whose ultimate character will depend upon the result of the discussions now in progress. Winter 2010 . Either one or the other will probably contain drastic features to appease the radicals but may be offset by certain appearances of moderation to be emphasized later to facilitate such dealing abroad. . and in any case now seems to be uppermost in the minds of Party extremists. and the discipline with which it is observed in Germany. is that. 1945. on September 7 sent a long dispatch to the secretary of state regarding current development in the “Jewish Situation. may impress foreign opinion favorably. Dodd. One has only to review the statements made by important leaders since the end of the Party’s summer solstice to realize the trend of affairs. McDonald wrote Felix Warburg. and that the sanctity with which law is regarded.ty Congress to be held in Nuremberg beginning on September 10th. Certainly. they will be formally rooted in law. however drastic the measures adopted. James G. An idea that may influence policy at Nuremberg. but it is difficult to tell exactly what the provisions will be.” He reported “it appears that even now discussions are still continuing in the highest circles respecting the policy to be evolved at the Nuremberg party Congress. On September 9. then in Berlin.
but through most of Europe. obviously in preparation for the laws that were to be adopted by the Reichstag. after the Reichstag had adopted them. In transmitting them. The extermination of the Jews and others followed.” But first the war had to be concluded before the Moscow Declaration could be implemented. which contained the Nuremberg Laws and also included translations of them. and Marshal Josef Stalin. Roosevelt. which causes grim forebodings.(by means of preventing marriage and sexual intercourse between Aryan and Jews and flying of the German flag by the latter) obviously need further definition and Foreign Office advised waiting for executive supplementary regulations. new laws that institutionalized many of the racial theories underpinning Nazi ideology. The laws passed last night concerning citizenship. issued on November 14.] Dodd followed up the next day with a dispatch to the secretary of state regarding the Nuremberg Party Congress: “Race propaganda and psychology ran through practically all the speeches like a scarlet thread. took note of the atrocities perpetrated by the Germans and laid down the policy that the major criminals would “be punished by the joint decision of the Governments of the Allies. Dodd wrote: “The anti-Jewish legislation should be sufficiently severe to please Party extremists for some time.” Nazi Rally in Nuremberg Hailed Passage of the Laws At their annual rally held in Nuremberg on September 15. and barred Jews from flying the German flag. Prime Minister Winston Churchill. But Then Disappear The Moscow Declaration of 1943. Original Nuremberg Documents Are Found.” They were not. not only in Germany. may be expected in the threatened new legislation. Ambassador Dodd sent a cable to the secretary of state about the Nuremberg Laws. He wrote: So far it is only possible to say that main trend of Nuremberg congress was to cater to radical sentiment within the Party. but “One can only be certain that the result will be to penalize the Jews in various ways and on the basis of pseudo-legality. On September 16. Dodd sent the secretary of state two copies of the Reichsgestzblatt [Reich Law Gazette] of September 16.” On September 19. Nazi party leaders announced. signed by Hitler and several other Nazi officials. by President Franklin D. barred marriage and “extramarital sexual intercourse” between Jews and other Germans.” He added: “The new laws against the Jews deceive very few people that the last word has been said on that question or that new discriminatory measures will not eventually follow within the limit of what is possible without bringing about too great a disturbance in business. As the Allied forces overran Germany in April The Reich’s Flag Law with signatures. the swastika as national flag and for protection of German blood and honor The Nuremberg Laws Prologue 27 . provided specific definitions of who a Jew was. The so-called Nuremberg Laws. were the cornerstone of the legalized perse- cution of Jews in Germany. They stripped German Jews of their German citizenship. which would now be the swastika. More persecutions followed in the years before World War II began in 1939. [These.
archives. Martin Dannenberg. Dannenberg slit the top of the envelope and pulled the documents out. Six months after Patton took the Nuremberg Laws to California. referenced At the Huntington Library.gov/ aotus/?p=1618). in the town of Eichstaett.S. French. see the 28-minute video on C-SPAN 3 (http://www. General Patton had them. the trial began. But. • The work of the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG) in declassifying 8. Koblik. including those relating to the persecution of the Jews.S. Third Army. regarding seizing and holding Nazi party and German government records. they did not. Meanwhile. the staff of the Office of the United States Chief of Counsel. Eisenhower and Omar N. which contained various German laws. and the week after that.5 million pages of documents pertaining to war crimes. The first thing he saw was the signature “Adolf Hitler. on April 20 (Hitler’s birthday). Photostats and translations of them were placed in the U. War Crimes Trials Begin —Without Original Copies On May 2. was one of two men accompanying Dannenberg.org/program/295816-1) and the Archivist of the United States’s blog (http://blogs. sealed with red wax swastikas. 1945. and Soviet representatives over an agreement to prosecute the major Nazi war criminals before an international tribunal. They would reach agreement on August 8. Patton was violating Supreme Headquarters Allied Expedition Forces (SHAEF) and 12th Army Group directives of November 9 and 23. leading the 203rd U. which grew to more than 600 personnel. issued by Generals Dwight D. Perls quickly realized they were the infamous Nuremberg Laws.S. go to www.archives. the Germans surrendered. less than a week after the CIC special agents found the Nuremberg Laws and a few days before the war in Europe ended. Gen.” Sgt. Army in 1943 after fleeing his homeland in 1933.archives. In doing so. had signed them. in his opening statement to the court on November 21. A week later.• The original Nuremberg Laws coming to the National Archives in 2010. Archivist of the United States David S. then click on “Previous Issues. Bradley. The prosecutors may have wished they had the original laws themselves. Dannenberg turned them over to his commanding officer. was roaming through Bavaria with two other men. Among the evidence gathered were volumes of the Reichsgestzblatt. Jackson spent most of the time in London negotiating with the British. who ordered Dannenberg 28 Prologue To learn more about and Perls to deliver them to the U. carrying out various CIC assignments. Frank Perls.gov/publications/prologue. Army Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) Detachment. started collecting documentary evidence that could be used by the prosecutors.” and on Winter 2007. immediately after Jackson’s appointment. Rather than ensuring the copies of the Nuremberg Laws that he received from Dannenberg and Perls were delivered to the appropriate authorities. decrees. In the September 16.Takes Original Copies To California Patton. spoke at the ceremony transferring the Nuremberg Laws to the National Archives. Now the Moscow Declaration could be put into effect. Winter 2010 . Ferriero (center) with author Greg Bradsher (right) and Steven S. Justice Jackson. George S.cspanvideo. Patton. • Holocaust Era Assets. During the next three months. Jr. Truman appointed Associate Justice Jackson as chief of counsel for the United States in its prosecution of the Allied case against the major Axis war criminals. evidence file and eventually made available to the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. as they would have made for dramatic evidence since two of the defendants. There. Hitler committed suicide in Berlin. 1944. as noted earlier. Wilhelm Frick and Rudolf Hess. Herman Goering. which had been adopted by the Reichstag the previous day and promulgated by its president. unfortunately. and regulations.Sgt. edition were the Nuremberg Laws. go to www. in late April 1945. like so many of his soldiers.S. about 45 miles due south of Nuremberg.S.gov/ research/holocaust. Translating the documents. president of the Huntington Library (left).S. he took them home to California after the war in Europe was over. An informant led him and his team to a bank vault. Meanwhile. elements of the Third and 45th Infantry divisions of the U. then handed over to the American soldiers some documents in a yellow envelope. a German-born Jew (though baptized as a Protestant) who joined the U. Seventh Army entered Nuremberg and after hard fighting effectively secured the town. a German financial official who had a key opened the vault. was a souvenir hunter. Third Army commander. M. 1935. respectively. working with the U. Patton Ignores Orders.
The trial would go on another 10 months. and Botanical Gardens was not revealed until 1999. 1946).S. their custody by the Huntington Library (1945–1999). relating to the persecution of the Jews in Germany. an assistant trial counsel for the United States addressed the court about the Nazi persecution of the Jews. Missing Documents Reemerge. The Nuremberg Laws Prologue 29 . After discussing them. 1945. “The matter. looted assets. Patton died as a result of injuries received in an auto accident in Germany in December 1945 and had left no instructions regarding the laws. The State Department’s Central Decimal File. His previous contributions to Prologue have included articles the discovery of Nazi gold in the Merkers Mine (Spring 1999). 1930– 1939 (General Records of the Department of State. From Patton’s Trophy to Public Memorial (Boulder. Platt with Cecilia E. Hermann Goering and Wilhelm Frick were sentenced to death. and their subsequent exhibition at the Skirball Cultural Center is Anthony M. In making his presentation. CO: Paradigm Publishers.00 and 862. Barbara McDonald Stewart. he said: “When the Nazi Party gained control of the German State. Record Group 59). Within the records are photostatic and translated copies of the Nuremberg Laws as published in the Reichsgestzblatt and referred to during the trial. Indiana: Indiana University Press. contains reports on political developments in Germany and the persecution of German Jews. eds. as the prosecutors did with other documents. under decimals 862. Hermann Goering. U. the Nuremberg Laws. a new and terrible weapon against the Jews was placed within their grasp. Nuremberg. the records of the U. DC. a World War II diversionary attack on an island in the Pacific (Fall 2010). Japan’s secret “Z Plan” in 1944 (Fall 2005). vol. with references often made to the Nuremberg Laws.S. From a legal perspective. General Patton had deposited the original Nuremberg Laws at the Huntington Library. P Note on Sources Published in 42 volumes. Bloodlines: Recovering Hitler’s Nuremberg Laws. Joachim von Ribbentrop.” He then proceeded to list them. Now in the National Archives A week later.In the summer of 2010. an archivist at the National Archives and Records Administration. During the tribunal’s December 13 session. On September 30 and October 1. 2006). near his home in the Los Angeles area in June 1945.” Two months later. but it certainly would have been more dramatic and effective to have confronted the defendants with the originals. and war crimes. Art Collections. Nuremberg 14 November 1945–1 October 1946 (Nuremberg: International Military Tribunal. including captured records. Founding Father Elbridge Gerry (Spring 2006). contains information about documents. Of the three defendants most closely associated with the Nuremberg Laws. and Operation Blissful. Wayne Grover (Winter 2009).. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (Washington. 1900–1943 (Spring 2002). in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.” he wrote. Refugees and Rescue: The Diaries and Papers of James G. Chapter 12. Rudolf Hess. This was done by the issuance of decrees. and in 1947 the National Archives accessioned them. the story of Fritz Kolbe. Justice Jackson sent President Truman a final report about his activities and noted that the war crimes documentation. I. the Trial of the Major War Criminals before The International Military Tribunal. Their existence at the Huntington Library. including those not introduced as evidence during the International Military Tribunal. when they went on display for 10 years at the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles until late 2009. Office of United States Chief of Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality. the third Archivist of the United States. the Reichsgestzblatt was certainly authoritative and acceptable to the tribunal under its charter regarding rules of evidence. Useful for understanding the adoption of the Nuremberg Laws. and Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life imprisonment. Author Greg Bradsher. contains the day-to-day proceedings of the tribunal and documents offered in evidence by the prosecution and defense. 1946. McDonald 1935–1945 (Bloomington and Indianapolis. Washington. with his work over. the power to apply the force of the state against them. including the Nuremberg Laws as published in the 1935 Reichsgestzblatt. Government Printing Office.C. General Patton’s acquisition and disposition of them in 1945. 2009). Also useful regarding the persecution of the Jews in Germany beginning in 1935 is Richard Breitman. D. O’Leary. “is of such importance as to warrant calling it to your attention. their discovery by the Counterintelligence Corps team in 1945. and other defendants sit in the courtroom of the German war crimes trials in Nuremburg. the tribunal rendered judgment. he asked the court to take judicial notice of the published decrees. was the property of the United States and that an agency should take custody of it on behalf of the United States. and Severin Hochberg. 1947–1949). specializes in World War II intelligence. Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality were offered to the National Archives. the National Archives accepted donation from the Huntington Library of the original Nuremberg Laws—63 years later than they would have if Patton had turned them over to the appropriate authorities. citing the version published in the Reichsgestzblatt of 1935.4016.
the United States’ Pacific coast as we know it had been secured.manifest destiny’s inept diplomat How William Carey Jones “Lost” Central America B Y L O R R A I N E M CC O N A G H Y B y 1854. three years later. Washington Territory was separated from Oregon. Middle-aged Americans had experienced a dynamic nation that expanded aggressively in their lifetimes as the United States purchased the huge Louisiana Territory in 1803 and moved northward and westward to the Pacific Northwest. In the expansion of America’s manifest destiny during the mid-1800s. Nicaragua was an appealing target with its pathway from ocean to ocean across Central America . Expansion moved southward and westward through Texas. and California in the Mexican War. Oregon Territory was organized in 1848. New Mexico. and California was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.
S. The Mexican War had trained a generation of fighting men to fulfill the American mission by gaining new territory and subduing its inhabitants under force of arms. Cornelius Vanderbilt’s Accessory Transit Company developed a segmented passage from Greytown on the Atlantic side to San Juan del Sur on the Pacific.S. Nicaragua. Aggressive expansionists in the Young America wing of the Democratic Party looked west and south to a variety of targets. According to a contemporary journalist in Putnam’s Magazine. pursuing an ordained mission. borders. leading 60 filibuster soldiers. However. and to speculate on what a country it would be if it were only under the stars and stripes.000 fighters in a private war to conquer Nicaragua. 32 Prologue . from Cuba to the Sandwich Islands. they could not manage the transit so vital to American interests in the west. including Nicaragua and its transit. Nicaraguans were not fit to look out for themselves. he soon became the “general” of an army of more than 2. William Walker—the “grey-eyed man of destiny”—and the exceptionally inept diplomat William Carey Jones all shared in that undertaking and its ultimate failure. by steamer and stagecoach. Opened in 1851. Nicaragua. Bottom right: Gen. Above all. to look with utter contempt on the natives. President Franklin Pierce formally recognized the Walker administration as Nicaragua’s Top left: The navigable San Juan River was a vital 120-mile link in the Nicaragua route between New York and California in the 1850s. Walker’s successful invasion initially had national support from Americans in and out of government. travelers had “ample time to admire the splendid country through which they passed. the Pacific Squadron. Manifest destiny’s lush rhetoric was easily borrowed to clothe such freebooting expeditions as crusading acts of “regeneration” to “liberate” former European colonies.S. mostly heading westward to golden California.” To expansionist Americans. They formed a pool of recruits for a “filibuster”: a private military expedition to conquer territory outside U. The U. William Walker landing troops at Fort Castillo. an alternative route across Nicaragua was equally appealing. but in the 1850s. “Conquering” Nicaragua In May 1855. Under the Neutrality Law. disguising conquest as redemption. During the first years of the Nicaragua transit’s operation. Bottom left: Walker’s troops rest after the successful battle to take Granada. the Nicaragua route cut 700 miles off the Panama route and was advertised as cooler and healthier. Invited by the representative of a Nicaraguan political faction. Navy.Antebellum western boundaries seemed fluid to many. U. the pathway from ocean to ocean across Central America. The Panama transit is familiar to us today. William Walker sailed from San Francisco to Realejo. and the nation’s destiny seemed manifest to continue its imperialist momentum. an average of 2.000 Americans made the crossing each month. citizens were forbidden to mount such private military expeditions.
Jones William Carey Jones was an attorney in his mid-40s. . State Department “special agent” William Carey Jones. . William Walker reinstituted slavery in Nicaragua. Supported by a vengeful Vanderbilt. the recent occurrences there from affecting injuriously the interests of this country.” At the time Jones received these orders from Cass. Davis found that he was uniquely placed to negotiate a ceasefire and Walker’s surrender. A Hasty Exit William Walker was sworn in as president of Nicaragua at the Church of our Lady of Mercy in Granada. Jones was to “visit the states of Central America for the purpose of observing and reporting upon the condition of affairs in that quarter. 1857. British warships blockaded the Atlantic side to prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Walker. on June 5. and his appointment depended on Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat Prologue 33 . El Salvador. initiatives that involved the U. then headed across the isthmus and on to New Orleans. 1857. By January 1857.” The United States Democratic Review pointed out that “every sensible man . William Walker. Honduras. . as if she were one of themselves. He confidently revoked the vital transit charter and awarded it to Vanderbilt’s rivals to cement a new alliance with them.” Following an election of dubious legality. has expressed a strong desire for the Americanization of Central America [and its] possession .” For a time. Costa Rican Gen. and fatigue. the son-in-law of Missouri Senator Thomas Hart Benton and the brother-in-law of California settler and politician John C. illness. The Navy commander and the filibuster general signed an agreement in which Walker surrendered to the U. One observer noted that the streets of Granada were soon “thronging with the representatives of ‘Young America’. Walker had not yet surrendered. Walker’s romp was over. Commodore Mervine directed Commander Henry Knox Thatcher to prepare the sloop-of-war Decatur to receive U. Pacific Squadron Commodore William Mervine ordered Commander Charles Henry Davis to sail the sloop-of-war St. held by the Costa Rican alliance. or even of California.S. Navy rather than to the Costa Rican alliance.” Walker claimed that his goal had always been to provide slavery with a refuge—a tropical empire “beyond the limits of the Union”—and that Nicaragua was just the beginning.” according to the New York Times. DeBow’s Review praised the “glorious acquisition” of Nicaragua as “a new State to be added to the South. in or out of the Union” which Walker had taken “possession of in the name of the white race. Walker became president of Nicaragua and authorized a “crash program” of Americanization. representatives prepared to negotiate a settlement. to be both successful and heroic. rescue American citizens among the filibusters.” hoping for a crusade. William Walker was celebrated as Young America’s national agent of manifest destiny.” He went to work planning the second filibuster. Then. to be both an opportunist and a knight. Meanwhile. Ridden with desertion. good pay. . Frémont. hunger. his “groaning” table and “elegant” ladies. Walker and his senior staff sailed to Panama on board the St.” was celebrated as Young America’s national agent of manifest destiny. as far as possible. Navy.” Jones agreed to this difficult and dangerous assignment. where he was met with “almost frantic enthusiasm. Mary’s on May 2. and assist to end the contest.S. in September 1856.” But the filibuster soon faced a series of disastrous setbacks.” At $8 a day plus expenses. and reopen the Nicaragua transit. And Walker’s message of recruitment called to a generation of Young Americans eager to wrap their personal ambition in the flag. Marrying Benton’s daughter Eliza. and U. and a 250-acre rancho. and Guatemala into an allied army. Walker recalled the proclamation of the slavery decree as “calculated to bind the Southern States to Nicaragua.S. of belligerent forces” and to carry “weapons of defense. Stateside newspapers breathlessly reported Walker’s successes. Walker’s army was “driven back step by step into a corner. Enter Mr. a pioneer on the “Isthmian and Caribbean frontier. Secretary of State Lewis Cass had delegated Jones to “negotiat[e] between the hostile parties [in Nicaragua]. expecting to “enter the camps . his lavish entertainments. a strategic bid to tap the resources of the American South to filibuster the Pacific West. and of preventing. Mary’s north to meet with senior officers of the Walker camp and the Costa Rican high command. Joaquin Mora rallied troops from Costa Rica. . Writing in his 1860 autobiography. is no less desirable than was the acquisition of Texas or Kansas. the “grey-eyed man of destiny. Many expansionists saw the filibuster as the first step to “pave the way for large scale American settlement and eventual annexation of these areas to the United States. Jones smoothly entered the world of political patronage. determined to drive out the invaders.S. .legitimate government.
Jones identified himself and Walker as Western men: he deplored the disregard that the federal government showed for the interests of “us settlers on the Pacific. . to then be taken home on a Navy ship. In conclusion.” Jones argued that Costa Rica had invaded Nicaragua to attack American citizens and. the war was over. His clear implication is that Cass was aware of pending filibuster ventures and able to advance or hinder them at will. annex.” Cass directed Jones to obtain the release of “Walker and his friends” if they had been captured. sailed to Panama. the official position of the State Department was that Walker and his army were in Nicaragua at the “invitation of one of the native parties. statesmanlike and commendable character” in the betterment of Nicaragua. Jones continued. . Greeting. Cass continued. argued Jones. that country had not in 20 years been “so quiet. Jones was an unlikely diplomat to send to Central America. because it is impossible to foresee what precise condition of affairs may exist” in Nicaragua. the laws so well administered. the capital of Costa Rica. Jones got off on the wrong foot at the very start. and he decided to start his mission in San José. master of the transit.” as he termed them. and had instead shown a “pacific. the alliance was a cynical Costa Rican scheme to seize the Nicaragua transit—the great prize—and argued that the transit must “be reopened for the travel of the world. Jones also requested that “any private hostile expeditions” be delayed until he had gained a foothold in Costa Rica. and crossed the isthmus by train. or occupy Nicaragua but instead hoped to help that republic maintain its independence. These are therefore to request all whom it may concern to permit him and his suite to pass freely without let or molestation.” Walker had broken no laws. But Cass carefully instructed Jones that the evacuation of Walker and his men— so easily perceived as a rescue—was a compassionate act in no way intended to “express an opinion concerning the Nicaraguan controversy. In fact. The latest available intelligence indicated to Cass that many American citizens were stranded in Central America “who ha[d] participated in its local controversies and [were] left by the reverses of war without the means of returning home. property so secure and business so safely conducted. In May 1856. Writing to Jones prior to Walker’s surrender.” Jones was to reassure the Central Americans he encountered that the United By the time Jones reached Panama. “Much must be left to your discretion. order so well maintained. As for Jones himself. Though fluent in Spanish. .” and called for war with Costa Rica to protect the filibuster “settlers” on the Nicaraguan frontier. the support of President James Buchanan and the consent of Secretary of State Cass. William Carey Jones. reasoning that he would have access to information that would be unavailable to a “public functionary. Jones wrote to Cass that he was confident he would there encounter “the leading minds of all Central America.” and provided a special passport: To all to whom these presents shall come. and to extend to him such friendly aid and protection as would in like cases be extended to similar officers of foreign governments in this country. 1857. is proceeding to Central America as a Special Agent of this government. In fact. Know ye that the bearer hereof. had in effect declared war against the United States. in doing so. Secretary of State Cass worried. encouraging “a 34 Prologue Winter 2010 . and to get them to a port. a number of stateside newspapers published his open letter calling attention to the plight of “our brave countrymen in Nicaragua” who must be protected “to the extent of war if necessary. Cass ordered Jones to travel as a private citizen. Aboard the Decatur An American hotel was used as way station at the halfway point of the Nicaragua transit road between Lake Nicaragua and San Juan del Sur.” many of them eager for the region’s Americanization. a distinguished citizen of the United States.States had no designs to colonize.” Finally. the envoy reiterated his sympathy with the filibuster mission of “General Walker and his brave command.” Indeed. The belligerent diplomat boarded the mail steamer at New York on May 20.
The Decatur’s assistant surgeon, John Y. Taylor, sketched the ship during its cruises. In one (top left), he fancifully gave the main ground to a flying fish. In two others, he recorded the Decatur in foul weather: beating against contrary wind in the Straits of Magellan, heading for the Pacific (top right), and in a fierce storm off Patagonia’s Cape Fairweather (bottom).
thousand and one rumors to circulate” about his mission by brushing off every inquiry with the facetious claim that he had been sent to investigate the headwaters of the Amur River, located in Manchuria. Jones thrived on theatrical secrecy, on the role of the “mysterious stranger,” as he came to be called derisively. On June 3, 1857, Jones and his baggage were loaded on board the Decatur. He then wrote directly to President Buchanan, urging his patron to take “no important step” with regard to Central America without receiving “a statement” from Jones. On June 5, awaiting “the first favorable wind, for the Decatur to sail,” Jones reiterated the need for swift communication.
The private mail company steamers made monthly circuits of the Central American ports on the Pacific, but Jones considered that frequency by no means adequate. He called—unsuccessfully—for a steam warship to be placed at his disposal. On June 9, the Decatur finally put to sea, beating north against contrary winds and through extended calms. Nearly three weeks later, the ship anchored in the protected harbor of Punta Arenas, Costa Rica’s principal seaport. A party—including Commander Thatcher and Jones—left the Decatur to travel inland to San José. They rode the muledrawn railway to its terminus, paused for lunch, and then mounted mules. The next
morning, they climbed uphill—“up, up and up,” as Thatcher remembered. A heavy rain began “as usual” in the mid-afternoon, and they ended their second day of travel at a “rancho” eating beefsteak and “tortillos” for dinner. Then “some of the company,” including Jones, fell sick and were left behind. After visiting San José, Commander Thatcher returned to the Decatur to await Jones’s return. There, he received a note from a former military surgeon in Walker’s army, describing a large group of “wretched and helpless” filibuster survivors who were on shore in desperate condition. The surgeon begged Thatcher to find a way to send them to the United States. “A speedy removal to a more bracing climate,” his note continued, “together with the comforts of home and friends can save the lives of a large portion of them.” Thatcher visited the filibusters on shore and wrote to Pacific Squadron Commodore Mervine that “more complete destitution and misery, I have never witnessed or conceived.” Thatcher had brought Jones to Punta Arenas, and the diplomat was believed to
Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat
be gainfully occupied at San José. Then Thatcher had been ordered to “render assistance to American citizens who have been connected with the expedition under General Walker in Nicaragua”—they were to be rescued and brought to Panama. Over the next 10 days, the Decatur was prepared to house the invalids, and on July 27, 25 filibuster soldiers were brought on board. Fourteen of them suffered from disabling wounds, at least one was an amputee, three had severely infected bullet wounds, and four suffered from dysentery. Some had walked barefoot from Rivas to Punta Arenas, and their feet were lacerated and infected. Many were syphilitic and all had malaria—they were “emaciated, bloodless and spiritless,” according to Decatur Surgeon Levi Cooper Lane. As the Decatur sailed south to Panama, the warship’s surgeons were overwhelmed by caring for these invalids, and “this small vessel” was overcrowded with sick men whose “groans and cries” could be heard throughout the ship and whose wounds created “offensive stenches on board . . . extremely . . . prejudicial to the health of the crew.” When Thatcher anchored off Panama, the Decatur had become a hospital ship.
Off to Costa Rica
healthy, and they continued to gamble on the main chance in Central America. Jones encountered one of them—Tom Edwards, a veteran of Walker’s army and a likable western rogue. Charmed by the filibuster’s stories, Jones chose Edwards as a traveling companion from Punta Arenas to San José, and then as a roommate in the city. There, Jones claimed that Edwards had stolen $700 and many valuables. Certainly, Edwards had easy access to Cass’s instructions in Jones’s trunk because he was soon “blabbing them all over the country.” But in fact, long before his arrival in the city, San José newspapers had already published the news that “an agent of the government of the United States” was on his way. It had taken the Decatur three weeks to sail from Panama to Punta Arenas; the mail steamer left Panama 12 days after the Decatur sailed and arrived seven days before the sloop-of-war. Under the circumstances, Jones complained to Cass that it was impossible to “hold here the character of a simple traveler.” He decided to visit Costa Rican President Juan Rafael Mora and
candidly explain his mission, initiating discussion of the Nicaragua transit. Mora declined to meet with Jones for nearly two weeks, offering various excuses that irritated the touchy diplomat. When Mora finally received Jones, the New York Times correspondent in San José reported that Jones rudely thrust a summary of U.S. objectives into Mora’s hands at the beginning of their meeting. Jones then instructed Mora to only read the paragraph that referred to Costa Rica, pointing to it on the page. But “[t]he President replied that if he read any, he must read the whole” because both he and Jones were concerned with all five states of Central America. Jones then impatiently “snatched the paper, telling President Mora that he should read nothing.” But Jones reported to Cass that he was “received with apparent warmth” in a pleasant but inconclusive meeting, of “a most friendly character.” The discrepancy between the public newspaper account and private diplomatic report could not be greater. Cass must have been concerned by Jones’s lack of
The secretary of the Navy and the U.S. State Department had ordered the Pacific Squadron to help these American citizens, but no one had realized how many invalid filibusters there were and how weak and ill they had become. Commodore Mervine booked rail passage across the Panama isthmus for those filibusters fit to travel. On the Atlantic side, they were shared out among Navy warships and transported to New York. When the filibusters arrived, the newspapers published shocking tales of their condition. It was hard to believe that men even more debilitated stayed behind in Central America, too sick to travel. But a few of Walker’s opportunists remained
An officer inspects a squad of filibuster soldiers at Virgin Bay in Nicaragua.
self-discipline and tact, by his dishonesty, and by his highly public misadventures. Established in a San José hotel, Jones hired as cook a man he described as a “destitute fellow countryman who had been the baker” for Walker’s army. Then Jones struck up an acquaintance with another former filibuster, a naturalized German American citizen named Stroebel, who had been one of Walker’s topographical engineers. Jones hired the engineer to make some sketches to accompany his reports to Cass. On August 18, 1857, while Stroebel sat in San José’s central plaza, sketching “the Cathedral and the mountains,” he was arrested and charged with “speaking in favor of William Walker, late president of Nicaragua, and against the government of Costa Rica, and of having been an officer in the army of General Walker.” Jones filed a protest, claiming that Stroebel was a member of his diplomatic “suite” and should be released at once. Mora was said to be unable to read the note, written in English, because there was no translator present. Jones rewrote the note in Spanish, and the president was said to be unable to read it because he was sick in bed. Snubbed, Jones seethed in the lobby of the residence and eventually returned to his hotel to fire off a volley of irate notes to Costa Rican officials. The secretary of foreign relations responded by disparaging his credential as “a simple passport” which Jones was improperly trying to use to free Stroebel. Jones replied with 13 pages of longwinded indignation to which the secretary returned a curt note, affecting surprise that Jones seemed to expect “attentions and immunity” that his passport did not merit. Jones found the secretary’s tone so insulting that he wrote to Cass he could hardly bear to translate it. According to the New York Times correspondent, Stroebel was an “insufferable” character who “used to get intoxicated, and go reeling and swaggering through the streets of San José . . . proclaiming his earnest
Secretary of State Lewis Cass warned Jones that “Much must be left to your discretion, because it is impossible to foresee what precise condition of affairs may exist” in Nicaragua.
desire that Walker might return, take the country, confiscate the property, and chop its inhabitants into inch pieces.” Stroebel had been legitimately arrested for disturbing the peace, the reporter continued, and Jones was incompetent, tactless, and ignorant of the language and customs of Costa Rica. Certainly Jones was indiscreet to hire these former filibusters, banished by decree August 9, 1857, in reaction to repeated rumors of a filibuster landing. After his “bust-up” with President Mora and the Stroebel affair, Jones stormed out of San José, “in high dudgeon.” Far from securing an agreement with the Costa Rican government to reopen the Nicaraguan transit, Jones had become persona non grata.
Seeking More Power
At the coast, Jones found that the Decatur had sailed for Panama with the filibuster invalids. In Punta Arenas, he encountered as many as 40 more survivors of Walker’s army. Everywhere one turned in Central America,
there seemed to be more ragged, starving, feverish scarecrows. The survivors were, Jones wrote, “sick, many; wounded, some; nearly naked, without shelter day or night. They wound the sight wherever one turned in Punta Arenas. They are . . . without any possible means of getting away [and] they are mostly Americans by birth.” Two dozen Americans passed a petition to Jones for President Buchanan, begging to go home, that they were “in the most unhappy condition that men could be placed upon the earth.” Petitioned by these wretched American filibusters and stinging with his San José rebuke, Jones made formal application to the State Department to be appointed minister to Nicaragua or Costa Rica, with “powers of commissioner” to the other Central American states. One month later, Jones directed the same request to President Buchanan. There appears to have been no response. Instead, Cass instructed the special agent to take a firm stand against Costa Rica’s apparent “war of conquest” because the United States would not tolerate the Nicaragua transit’s continued closure. Cass was worried that Costa Rica would repudiate the “transit grants” made to American investors and urged Jones to remind the Costa Ricans that their president had declared, “Ours is not a fight for a piece of land, not to secure ephemeral powers, not to achieve wretched conquest” but rather to drive out “the freebooters now attempting to usurp the territory, and the independence and liberties” of Nicaragua. That goal had been accomplished, Cass wrote, and it was time for Costa Rica to withdraw. In the fall, Jones traveled north to Nicaragua on the mail steamer. Tomas Martinez and Maxime Jerez had just been elected co-presidents of Nicaragua, but the transit remained closed by the Costa Rican army to prevent access by the “highway of filibusterism.” Jones wrote to Cass that he’d urged President Martinez to trust American
Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat
and public opinion about Chatard and Paulding’s actions and inactions divided largely along sectional lines. he “quarreled with everybody. However. In its ambiguous response to Walker. “he lost his baggage.” Jones had reached the end of his rope by January 1858. Central Americans were relieved that Paulding had intercepted the invaders but irate that he had landed an armed force on the Greytown beach to do so. . Nicaraguan President Martinez and Jones were in conference when the urgent message arrived reporting Walker’s landing in the Fashion and Paulding’s capture of the filibuster. and so ended Walker’s second filibuster. and expansionists were no longer nationalists. go to www. Cass reportedly told the filibuster in a face-to-face meeting that he disavowed Commodore Paulding’s actions as “illegal. his cover was blown. Home Squadron Commodore Hiram Paulding turned the Wabash broadside against the encampment and ordered 300 marines and sailors rowed to shore to arrest Walker and his men.” then Fall 2007. The second filibuster posed a further challenge to Jones’s diplomacy.S. If the U. and re-established. The second filibuster generated considerable controversy concerning the Navy’s response. the New York Times reported that Jones had “succeeded in getting upon nearly as bad terms with President Martinez as he did with Mora in Costa Rica. coffee.” then Summer 2005.” armed and ready to go. now it seems he has lost himself. by late 1857. the filibuster army surrendered.S. Walker toured the American South to the strains of “Yankee Doodle Dandy. government believed it had the “right” to seize prisoners on the shores of a foreign state. Once a beachhead was established. “First. surely it would be prudent to arrest. go to www. click on “Previous Issues.S. the Delta concluded. Jones had been embarrassed by the Decatur’s painfully slow progress up the coast. Return to Nicaragua The steamer Fashion left New Orleans on November 14.archives. In Central America. Jones retorted that if President Martinez wished to appeal the filibuster arrests.” as the Independent put it. to emigrate to this country [Nicaragua] with their slaves. He claimed that he had been forced from Nicaragua by Northern abolitionists because of his reinstatement of slavery.” The New Orleans Delta reassured slaveowners that they could soon safely head for Nicaragua “to cultivate sugar. and the Fashion itself headed into Greytown harbor.” his travel 38 Prologue Winter 2010 . • African Americans and the building of the Panama Canal. “as legitimately President of Nicaragua as Buchanan of the United States. • Finding ancestors in the Panama Canal Zone. eager to build a Central American refuge. U. then click on “Previous Issues. . they were indignant that the filibuster had taken place at all. go to www. and imprison their mastermind.” speaking to enormous crowds to raise recruits and money for his second expedition to Nicaragua. Outflanked and outgunned. landing unmolested right under the nose of U. leadership expressed the nation’s growing inability to pursue a foreign policy in Central America that was free from sectional influence.gov/publications/ prologue and click on “Previous Issues. Jones’s thinly disguised advocacy for either Walker’s filibuster or American annexation of Nicaragua alienated the presidents of both Costa Rica and Nicaragua. American slaveholders fervently embraced Walker’s second filibuster. and that he would be happy to be Martinez’ messenger in the matter. with nearly 300 filibuster recruits. rice. try.” Rumored sightings of William Walker or his senior officers were almost daily occurrences on both coasts.archives. was to regain Nicaragua and then restore the African slave trade to the Atlantic coast. For his part. Two hundred filibusters hastily made camp on Nicaraguan soil. Annoyed.” and Walker was said to have gone “on his way rejoicing.archives. government sincerely wished to put an end to these illegal expeditions. The steamer ran down the coast past Greytown to disembark a company to advance overland.” the New York Herald commented derisively. 1857.S. Walker styled himself as an outraged citizen of Nicaragua. As historian David Potter remarked.assurances to prevent any filibuster and that he was met with ridicule and “disbelief in the good faith of the United States. representatives followed their convictions while pursuing their duty. inexcusable and unauthorized. doubtless the U. In fact. Navy could return the prisoners to the “place from which they had been taken. A western crusade of manifest destiny had become a Southern crusade for slavery. Navy Commander Frederick Chatard in the Saratoga.S.gov-/ publications/prologue.” He had suffered constant mishaps: it had become public knowledge that the ingratiating thief Tom Edwards had bestowed Jones’s stolen wedding ring on a prospective bride at San Juan del Sur.” then Summer 1997. indigo or chocolate plantations. The Nicaraguan president questioned Jones “pretty closely” as to whether Paulding had really “captured” Walker’s force and why the U. American nationalists were no longer expansionists.S. U. “many thousands of young To learn more about • How the border between the United States and Mexico was established.” All that remained to be done. Walker’s “sub secretary of state” wrote to a Kentucky sympathizer. southerners” planned to follow Walker to Nicaragua.” President Buchanan sent a message to Congress that condemned filibustering but also charged Paulding with a grave error in landing armed sailors and marines on Nicaraguan soil to arrest Walker.gov/publications/prologue. he was robbed. encouraging “gentlemen from southern states .
as Jones was convinced. And he thought it was high time that Costa Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat Rica and Nicaragua were punished for their “outrages on our citizens. was a modern thriving city when Decatur captain Henry Knox Thatcher and agent William Carey Jones visited in the summer of 1857. almost mocked. in the states. and perhaps Jones agreed. this inflammatory suggestion was deliberately written to be read by Martinez. Jones had abandoned his mission. “who told me very frankly that he had been in the army of Walker . his mail was being intercepted. and he drank far too much. the capital of Costa Rica. He was deeply offended by theatrical displays of insolence.” and he was insulted. privileges or position. as he organized Prologue 39 . On the heels of taking up with Edwards and hiring two former filibusters in San José.” Absorbing the Failures The most foolish element of Jones’s bumbling diplomacy was his continued relationship with filibuster veterans. Jones suggested that 500 armed men could easily seize the Nicaragua transit.” President Martinez remarked that he suspected Fields would join any future filibuster. and their staffs. there was no Navy warship to support him. plans were frustrated by “sinister controlling influences. Meanwhile. Jones hired a third in Nicaragua—a Mr. . without his power. He was irritated with Cass and with his assignment: he complained that he had “all the duties and more than the responsibilities of a diplomatic minister. . he couldn’t keep his temper. the fact of [which] was not a crime and to have continued until the capitulation rather a virtue.” His bids to be appointed ambassador had met with stony silence. He was convinced that his correspondence was being opened and read. if the force could “escape the vigilance of the authorities of the United States.” If. Mora. In one of his final reports to Cass. Fields—to serve as his private secretary. Walker was raising just such a force.San José.
including maps. and numerous sea officers and site commandants.” and if Walker’s filibusters couldn’t hold Nicaragua. White-Jacket or. ministers and consuls. Pro-Slavery Men” above the fold. Buchanan’s secret agent. Additionally. Shaping a Maritime Empire: The Commercial and Diplomatic Role of the American Navy. and the reader will find there an interpretive history of the sloop-of-war’s commission in the Pacific Squadron. openly menac[ing] Central America with inevitable annexation. State Department records in the National Archives in Washington. Graebner. “Nicaragua forever! Boys. Schroeder. in The Fatal Environment: The Myth of the Frontier in the Age of Industrialization. “The Pacific. satirized as “Mr. This article is drawn from her book Warship Under Sail: USS Decatur in the Pacific West (University of Washington Press. and was compelled to return by “honor and duty. and among Secretary of State Lewis Cass. Matsuda. .” Jones was reported to have continued. that he advocated “no milk and honey policy. Thence Round Cape Horn (Annapolis. Scholarship on the old Navy. Manifest Destiny’s Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.. Horace Greeley editorialized that the government had alienated Central Americans by its “open sympathy with and aid to William Walker’s butcheries in Nicaragua. practice furthered his successes and softened his defeats.” and Decatur Surgeon Levi Cooper Lane— who was there in person—maintained that Walker’s “freebooting expedition . 1967). According to the New York Herald. Nicaragua. 1955) and Arrell Morgan Gibson. William Walker’s easy and amiable relationship with the President and the secretary of state. squadron commodores. a tragicomic ambassador of manifest destiny. In 1858. For the classic study of antebellum America. P © 2010 by Lorraine McConaghy Author Lorraine McConaghy is public historian at Seattle’s Museum of History & Industry. 1993). William Walker’s The War in Nicaragua is a fascinating—and carefully stage-managed—revelation of what Richard Slotkin.S. Greenberg. and the aid of the Navy. 1963). had the sanction of President Buchanan’s administration. Empire on the Pacific: A Study in American Continental Expansion (New York: Ronald Press Co. Langley. Special Agent William Carey Jones. including The United States Democratic Review and DeBow’s Review. and bibliography. medical logs. Squier’s prolific booster literature on opportunities of the Central American antebellum frontier.C. 1854–1859. The Impending Crisis.S. readers will enjoy Robert E. Pacific West imperialism. and the filibusters themselves is extensive—here are a few starting points. Two Years Before the Mast. 1858. “Damn all diplomatic missions!. also see Matt K.” clearly referring to William Carey Jones.” While U.” As Southern fire-eaters embraced Walker’s obsession. readers should begin with Norman A. arrogant.” The best way to learn about life on merchant ships and warships under sail is in the words of sailors: Richard Henry Dana. Jones did nothing to calm local fear and anger. Presidents Martinez and Mora jointly signed a May 1. The World in a Man-ofWar. as well as correspondence among the secretary of the Navy. Social Reform in the United States Navy. resistance to anticipated filibusters and resentment of seeming federal complicity solidified pan–Central American nationalism. He had been driven against his will from Nicaragua. .S. including the New York Times and the New York Herald. For the political landscape of radical expansionists. see Yonatan Eyal. 2002) and Amy S. and records of courts-martial that document daily naval life. Johnson. 1798–1862 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. D.” thin-skinned.the third filibuster and worked on the manuscript of The War in Nicaragua. let’s have a drink!” Jones was publicly ridiculed in the Times and Herald columns. the Nicaragua transit—the filibuster highway and the great isthmian strategic link—remained closed. Maryland. proclamation. From Sail to Steam: Recollections of Naval Life. Southern newspapers trumpeted “We are Walker. Walker wrote. 40 Prologue Winter 2010 . this article involves contemporary perspectives and convictions drawn from newspapers. and quarrelsome. G. For the old Navy and the antebellum Pacific Squadron.. 2009). condemning all the “official agents of the United States at Nicaragua [to date]” as “accomplices and auxiliaries of the invaders . 1985). Manifest Manhood and the Antebellum American Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1848-1861 (New York: Harper & Row. For the filibusters and the men to whom they appealed. Note on Sources The principal primary sources for the Decatur’s antebellum Pacific Squadron cruise are found in the Old Navy and U. Herman Melville.S. and other U. The Young America Movement and the Transformation of the Democratic Party (New York: Cambridge University Press. Jones loudly remarked while drunk in the Rivas public square that he was all for American interference in Central America. as far as it was possible to go without arousing international suspicions. endnotes.” American Historical Review 111 (2006): 758–780. 1829–1861 (Westport. readers will find helpful and appealing Robert E. Navy officers (though not all). the apparent support of some U.” Framing the filibuster as a noble quest on the South’s behalf.” U. see David M. 1800–1890 (1985). and Alfred Thayer Mahan. Walker paid tribute to the martyrs who left their homes “in defense of slavery [and] yielded up their lives for the interests of the South. . . called the filibuster’s effort to “recapture his own myth.” As Walker raised money and recruits. and in College Park. 1976). I am deeply indebted to the kind and competent help of archivists in Washington and in College Park as well as at the National Archives in Seattle. May.S. and Southerners continued to “regard General Walker as the great agent for the Americanization of that region and the reinstitution of slavery. Potter. he would see to it that “Uncle Jonathan” did. and John H. and periodicals. Yankees in Paradise: The Pacific Basin Frontier (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 2007). CT: Greenwood Press. and the belligerent diplomacy of Jones crippled American interests in Nicaragua. MD: United States Naval Institute. and E. Harold D. to vindicate his own heroism. For antebellum imperialism. policy condemned the filibuster’s “illegal expeditions. 2005). This material includes a wealth of bureaucratic paperwork: logbooks.
a secret U. as well as at selected NARA museum shops. and the apprehension of a Communist spy ring. survival tips. • “Investigation” takes you inside FBI training and a crime lab. explores evidence-gathering.New! F R OM T H E N AT ION A L A R C H I V E S FBI/CIA Films: Declassified on DVD More than 29 hours of historical footage selected by archivists from the National Archives’ vast motion picture holdings take you inside the minds of some of America’s most notorious criminals and into the files of covert operations and criminal investigations. and the history of military snipers. Costco. • “Spy Craft” presents an actual training school for Soviet spies. Amazon. shows how an interrogation team conducts interviews. and other major retailers nationwide. • “OSS/WWII Undercover” discloses how the Danish resisted Nazi occupiers and how secret agents develop and maintain “cover. • “Survival” features first-person accounts from ex-hostages.S. $ 89.S.” the nation’s first foray into photo-reconnaissance satellites. • “Crime Busting” describes how the FBI battled against bootleggers and gangsters like John Dillinger. military group in Europe. and instructions on how to escape capture. and examines the investigation of a bank robbery. • “Special Ops” tells the real story of U. “Baby Face” Nelson. • “Espionage” highlights actual case histories of infamous Soviet spies. Special Operation Forces.99 MSRP Available at Sam’s Club. along with the life of a Navy Seal. the history of the Office of Special Investigations. and highlights the historic “Corona Program. as well as an inside look at the FBI Hostage Rescue Team.” . and “Ma” Barker.
1862. letter to Horace Greeley (right) in which he stated that “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do that. and others at Niagara Falls in 1864. a well-known Confederate agent.Opposite top: The Confederate government’s peace overture to Seward was a test of Lincoln’s message in an August 23. 42 Prologue Winter 2010 .” Opposite bottom: George Sanders (left).
“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it. confederate envoy cites lincoln's public pledge On August 22. Lincoln’s letter to Greeley was mentioned as a basis for the beginning of peace negotiations.” in which it was implied that the Lincoln administration lacked direction. Upon arriving for the meeting. the editor of the New York Tribune. In his rebuttal letter Lincoln wrote. responding to an article that Greeley had published titled “The Prayer of Twenty Millions. and that arose out of President Lincoln’s own words. Although Wendell had supported the candidacy of Stephen Douglas over Lincoln for President in 1860. During the course of their four-hour conversation. These I actions would be followed by negotiations aimed at restoring the Union. he explained. the gentleman explained. This other person. Lincoln had written a letter to Horace Greeley. Wendell explained to Seward. There was one catch. however. wanted to know if Seward would be open to receiving a communication outlining a suspension of hostilities between the North and the South. and it was decided that it would take place at the Clifton House—a popular hotel on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls— on April 16. Wendell agreed to the meeting. that he was not at liberty to disclose the identity of the man at that time.” The Confederate government wanted to test just how serious Lincoln was regarding prior statements he had made suggesting that the abolition of slavery was not the primary reason for prosecuting the war—that saving the Union was first and foremost. as well as a withdrawal of all troops—both Union and Confederate—from the fields of battle. 1862. and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it. the gentleman explained to Wendell that he was acting on behalf of the Confederate States of America and that he had been sent from Richmond in an attempt to enlist Wendell’s help in establishing a line of communication with Secretary Seward. however. was a very important person in the South and was authorized to represent the Confederate States in this confidential matter.t was explained to Wendell that he was chosen as the gobetween due both to his prior and current political views as well as his personal friendship with Seward. The Confederate government. Wendell immediately recognized the Confederate agent as someone who held a very high position in his home state and who once served in a diplomatic position abroad. and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. he stayed true to the Union cause when the South began seceding and firmly believed that the rebellion must be suppressed at all costs. The mystery gentleman proposed to Wendell that the decision of slavery might be left up to the individual states to decide through .
Is it possible that Sanders was also Wendell’s mysterious agent representing the Confederate government in April? Under President Franklin Pierce. Sanders was a well-known Confederate agent operating out of Canada. that the administration would be willing to receive proposals for peace from any private citizen or from any individual state currently involved in the rebellion. Ambrose Stevens. As it turned out. that slavery must be abolished throughout the states and that all slaves be made unconditionally free. It was decided that any further communication would be unproductive as long as their positions on the issue of slavery remained unchanged. The administration. Sanders once held the post of consul to London—matching Wendell’s Secretary of State William Seward reported in a memorandum that on April 19. and Clay and Holcombe were Confederate commissioners also operating north of the border. 1864. but it was absolutely vital that the Union be preserved and that slavery die. The talks were cancelled when Lincoln refused to commit to attend. and James Holcombe attempted to arrange another peace conference at the Clifton House. Wendell and Seward both agreed that this would be a sufficient response for the anonymous representative to take back to his superiors. After hearing details of the meeting. He reported back to Dix that one of the commissioners was talking about a plan to assassinate Lincoln before the November elections. more attempts at peace conference fail as the north stands firm In July of 1864.” 44 Prologue Winter 2010 . Cornelius Wendell visited him with news of a Confederate offer “to effect a restoration of peace and Union. John A. When told of the plot. Clement Clay. After assuring Wendell that his confidence would not be violated under any circumstances. said Seward.popular elections and that a constitutional amendment might be adopted guaranteeing each state’s status on the slavery question. Seward informed Wendell that he would speak with the President and meet with him again the following day. Seward explained that the United States government could not engage in correspondence with the Confederates because they were not recognized as a legitimate government. this time inviting Lincoln himself to attend. Seward explained that although the United States government was open to proposals of peace. the President urged that it be kept quiet in order to avoid potentially harmful publicity. George Sanders. It needed to be understood. refused to give ground on these two issues. George Sanders was likely the guilty party. Seward and Wendell met for a second time on April 20. however. Seward did say. who was asked by Gen. Col. Dix to travel to Canada and report on the happenings at the Clifton House. slavery was nonnegotiable. As to the issue of slavery. Seward emphasized. found the hotel swarming with Confederate agents. The government could afford to be liberal in other areas of negotiation. it was probably best that the President did not attend the conference. Although the name of the person advocating Lincoln’s assassination was never reported.
but could he have possibly been there two months earlier? Could a meeting with Wendell have been a last-ditch attempt at a peaceful settlement to the war before more serious action would be considered Clifton House. and David Winfred Gaddy. Dear Jennie. description of the man having held a diplomatic post abroad—but his support for European revolutions and political assassination forced his recall to the United States. He was also from Kentucky. and James Holcombe was obtained from the book Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln. Ambrose Stevens investigated the hotel. April 19 and 20. gov/exhibits/civil-war/. In 2008 he published his first book.George Sanders is one of the likely suspects as the mysterious agent representing the Confederate government at Clifton House in July 1864. and was in regular contact with him. where he has been employed since April 2000. click on “Previous Issues. on February 3. National Archives at College Park. with special emphasis on the Battle of Gettysburg. This meeting ended in failure when the Confederate contingency refused to accept any offer that did not include complete independence. Hall. 1988). James O.archives. “Discovering the Civil War. Ulysses S. by William Tidwell.) Whatever the case.gov/ exhibit/civil-war and click on “Resources. Entry 997.” Civil War Papers 1861–1865. Record Group 59. The information describing the activities of George Sanders. (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 1865. swarmed with Confederate agents when Col. Maryland.” go to www. Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9. including a listing of Civil War-related articles that have appeared in Prologue. P Note on Sources Seward’s memorandum detailing his conversations with Wendell is “Memorandum regarding a peace proposal. • NARA resources on the Civil War. It is documented that Sanders checked into the Clifton House on June 1. General Records of the Department of State.archives. Maryland. see our special Spring 2010 issue at www. Author Jay Bellamy is a specialist with the Research Support Branch at the National Archives at College Park. the birthplace of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.” • The National Archives’ two-part exhibit. Clement Clay. 1865. He is a student of the Civil War. The South Appeals for Peace Prologue 45 . Virginia. The war continued for another two months before Gen. a mystery novel that centers on the Gettysburg battle.” then click on Spring 2010.archives. Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia to Gen. Robert E.gov/publications/ prologue. to meet with Southern leaders—including Vice President Alexander Stephens—aboard the ship River Queen near Fort Monroe in Newport News. a last attempt at peace was made when President Lincoln and Secretary Seward traveled to Hampton Roads. 1864. go to www. as well as the life and times of Abraham Lincoln. a popular hotel on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. by the Confederates? Or could Seward’s rebuff have set the wheels of assassination in motion? (Seward would be seriously injured the same night the President was assassinated in April 1865. To learn more about • The Civil War’s impact on American history.
It will not be released on microfilm. see the 1940 web site at www. either at home or at a National Archives facility. .gov. The digital images will be accessible via the Internet. For more information.archives. 2012.gENEALOgY NOTES h1940 B y New QuestioNs iN the C O N S TA N C e CENSUS h P OT T e r the 1940 census will be released—digitally—on April 2.
political. 2012. Other new questions covered employment and education. This census asked some questions not asked in earlier censuses. the 1940 census shows the social. WPA. As with every census. New Questions in the 1940 Census Prologue 47 . a supplementary census asked additional questions of two people enumerated on preselected lines on the form. such as the Works Progress Administration (WPA). On both the complete form and the supplemental form.very 10 years the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) releases a new federal population census. people gave the industry they work in and their specific occupation. The 1940 census reflects the Great Depression of the 1930s. and Social Security and Railroad Retirement. March 4. veterans’ service. These supplemental questions related to the birthplace of the respondent’s parents. and economic issues of the previous decade.1 The enumerator indicated the person in each home who answered the questions. two new national insurance plans. NARA will open the 1940 census in accordance with the 72year restriction on access to census schedules. or the National Youth Administration (NYA).2 the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). and whether a person was working in one of the public works programs of the New Deal. e National youth Administration (NyA) Instrument repair Shop. each person’s residence in 1935. and CCC. On April 2. At the bottom of each schedule. 1941. The 1940 census asked about participation in public emergency projects including the NyA.
).Citizenship of the Foreign Born (Column 6) Beginning with the 1900 census. Cit. thus: “Information from John Brown. New Jersey.” The bureau defined nonmigrants as people living in the same county. 7 after the name of the person who furnishes you with the information concerning the members of the household. in 1935 as in 1940. interested in internal migration. 48 Prologue Winter 2010 . asked everyone where he or she lived on April 1. If you find it necessary to obtain the information from a person who is not a member of the household write the name of this person in the lefthand margin. A person born aboard was an American citizen if (a) his or her father was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child’s birth.5 Immigrants were defined as people living in the The WPA worked at rebuilding the nation’s infrastructure. people were asked if they were naturalized. had filed their papers.”4 education—highest Grade of school Completed (Column 14) Although questions about education were asked in earlier censuses. 1934. the Census Bureau added the category “American Citizen Born Abroad” (Am. or were aliens.000 inhabitants or more in 1930. 1935. A quasi county was a city that had 100. or quasi county. the schedule did not show who gave the information to the census taker. different from the one in which they were living in 1940.3 identification of Persons Furnishing information (Column 7) Knowing who answered the questions may explain why certain questions were answered the way they were. in what Place Did this Person Live on April 1. or (b) the person was born after May 24. opposite the entries for the household. if either parent was an American citizen who had resided in the United States before the time of the child’s birth. In 1940 the enumerators were instructed to: Write an X with a circle around it x in col. which included public buildings such as this bus terminal in Hackensack. The bureau defined migrants as “those persons who lived in 1935 in a county. 1935? (Columns 17–16) The Census Bureau. but before the 1940 census. which covered people born abroad or at sea. In 1940. or quasi county. this is the first time the census asked for the highest grade of school completed. neighbor.
845.9 3.230 313.929.304 % Distribution: Total 100.278.500.Table I.507 4.789.314 3. by migration status.011.9 2.778.7 7.0 85.7 2.8 % Distribution Male 100.0 85.1 13.646 1.193 1.516 366. wages.3 0.174 Number: Female 12. Number: Total 52. Pennsylvania.7 Migration status and type of migration Total Labor Force Non-migrants Migrants Migrants within a state Migrants between contiguous states Migrants between noncontinguous states Immigrants Migration status not reported WPA workers build a road between Clearfield and Shawsville.259 10. or salary received (including commissions)” (column 32) and “Did this person receive income of $50 or more from sources other than money wages or salary (Y or N)” (column 33).1 13.116 97.133. 1940.0 85.240 34.261. or in a foreign country.2 0. Included in the new questions were “Amount of money.8 3.8 3.456 1. type of migrations.944.079. Public emergency work (Column 22) The census asked if anyone in the household during the New Questions in the 1940 Census Prologue 49 .8 7.826 1.168 7.8 7. to cut off seven miles between farmers and markets.8 % Distribution Female 100.710 52.4 0.967 402.548 136.7 2.8 continental United States in 1940 who reported that their place of residence in 1935 was in an outlying territory.940 1.346 410.0 13. possession of the United States.793 1.2 0.483. and sex.499 44.522 5.008.478 Number: Male 39.6 employment status (Columns 21–33) The schedule asked 13 questions about the employment status of people 14 years old and older.4 0.070.917.1 0. Population 14 years old and over in the labor force. for the United States.681.258 188.
the NYA. The WPA. wrote guides to the 48 states. established May 6. The NYA. created March 31.529. the classification of certain types of public emergency work. and assisted with disaster relief.week of March 24–30.606 people were employed on public emergency work.196 were recorded on the payrolls of the federal emergency work agencies. 2. or state or local work relief agencies. 1935. 1940. rebuilt the national infrastructure. excluding the NYA Student Work Program. the CCC. employed men aged 18–25 in conservation work in the national parks and forests. established under the WPA. Whitehall and the NyA Quartet participate in a radio workshop. developed programs to move unemployed workers from relief to jobs.8 Misclassification of Persons on Public emergency work After the completion of the census. public emergency work projects conducted by the WPA. gave part-time jobs to high school and college students to earn money to continue their education. There is also evidence Mr.908. was at work on. The most common type of misclassification was the reporting of emergency workers as “at work” rather than as “on public emergency work. The CCC. . The degree of misclassification varied greatly from state to state. among other things. About the time of the census. The WPA workers.” Persons on the NYA Student Work Program were very frequently reported as in school and not in the labor force.9 The census reported 2. worked in the arts and theater. or assigned to. and the reluctance of some people to report that they were on emergency work. however. 1933. the Census Bureau noted that many people on public emergency work could have been misclassified. Among the factors responsible were confusion about the classification of certain types of public emergency work on the part of the enumerators and respondents.
For the first time. The Railroad Retirement Board covered railway employees. Navy. old age assistance. more than 90 percent of the remaining Civil War veterans were getting a pension. or Marine Corps). or another war or expedition. Questions on the supplemental schedules Starting with the 1880 census. the pensions did not cover all aged people. this question was moved to the supplemental schedule.11 New Questions in the 1940 Census Prologue 51 . widow. The wife. The supplemental schedule also asked about participation in two national insurance plans—Social Security and Railroad Retirement (columns 42–44). signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt on August 14. old age qualified a soldier for a pension. In columns 36–37.A WPA worker helps build a public comfort station at Powell’s Fort Organization Camp in Virginia. peacetime service only. however. SpanishAmerican War. the census did not ask if a person served in the Civil War. In 1906. The Social Security Act. and grants to states to provide various forms of medical care. this comprised only about 6 percent of the population. Philippine Insurrection. people were asked not only where they were born but also the birthplace of their father and mother. Veterans (columns 39–41) were asked if they served in the World War. or Boxer Rebellion and if in a Regular Establishment (Army. Although Civil War pensions may be considered the first large-scale pension program in the United States. In the 1940 census. included unemployment insurance. aid to dependent children. 1935. By 1910. the person was to give the place of birth of the father and the mother.10 Various state and private insurance plans were tried before the 1930s. that a considerable number of emergency workers were classified as seeking work. or under 18-year-old child of a veteran was also required to answer the questions. but the advent of the Great Depression made a national program of national insurance a necessity.
archives.* * * * Census records are the only records that theoretically describe the entire population of the United States on a particular day.. p. and what issues were most relevant to Americans after a decade of economic depression. and Thomas E. Deeben.archives. U. The answers to the new questions—and the old—will tell us. The 1940 census is no different. 3 Instructions to the Enumerator. To learn more about • NARA's genealogy records and how to get started doing genealogy research at the National Archives. 6 Ibid. Constance Potter is a reference archivist specializing in federal records of genealogical interest held at the National Archives and Records Administration. 4 Ibid. 11 Ibid. p. 1940. what the United States looked like on April 1. • Past U. in detail.ssa. DC. go to www.S.. Weir. Population: Internal Migration 1935 to 1940: Economic Characteristics of Migrants (U. Department of Commerce. the answers to these questions may lead to different avenues of research. 2.gov/ genealogy/. html). 7 Ibid.archives. 10 Social Security Administration.S. accessed September 17. 1940 Census at www.gov/genealogy/census/. 8 For a comprehensive history of the WPA. gov (click on 1940 census). John P. p. p. the genealogy aids at the National Archives and Records Administration. Katherine Vollen. Historical Background and Development of Social Security (www.archives. 2008). 2010. p.” Author Below: The supplemental schedule asked selected people if they had applied for Social Security. go to www. which included old age benefits and other assistance to those in need. 21. see Nick Taylor. Jr. click on “Genealogy Notes.gov/ publications/prologue/.S. censuses in general. Population: Internal Migration 1935 to 1940. 4.. 1. see 1940 Census Forms and Questions Asked on the 1940 Census at www. page 4. 52 Prologue Winter 2010 . 1946). go to www. 16th Census of the United States. 1940.. As with all censuses.gov/history/briefhistory/3. 9 Bureau of the Census. • Census records at the National Archives. Government Printing Office: Washington. American-Made: The Enduring Legacy of the WPA: When FDR Put the Nation to Work (Bantam Books: New York.gov (click on 1940 census). who first got me interested in census records. 1.archives. Note on Sources The author would like to thank James Collins. 1 For more information on the questions. 5 Bureau of the Census. the Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States refers to the Work Projects Administration (Record Group 69). 2 The Instructions to the Enumerators refer to the Works Progress Administration.
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who is an attorney. How could a history nut not fall in love? Plus. I got a call from Homeland Security asking me if I’d come in and brainstorm different ways for terrorists to attack the United States. And when a real President whispers something like that to you. Well. .” But they’d seen the research Your previous novels have been set in Washington. did you know this was where you wanted to use the idea of how hard it is for a President to have secrets? Or was the book’s setting decided after you came here? A few years back. The Inner Circle. We were talking about how hard it was to keep a secret and make sure you’re not overheard when you’re in the White House. published in January 2011. A fictional National Archives staffer named Beecher White discovers an unusual document that leads him to some surprising revelations about the government—and his workplace. . “If they’re calling me. the more you’ll believe the fake parts that are the natural elements of the story. When you visited the National Archives. secret documents. When was the first time you came to the National Archives? Aside from researching the setting for The Inner Circle.C. D. But if I tell you to go through the ground floor corridor. What made you decide to use the National Archives as the setting for your upcoming novel? I came to visit and fell in love. then make a left though the small room where they store the chairs for the state dinners. I’d walked by the National Archives Building for years while researching other thrillers. I can make up where the secret tunnels are below the White House. and the Bill of Rights. long-forgotten letters from Presidents and other big shots—all of which tell the true history of our nation. Lost history. He holds a JD from Columbia Law School and lives in Florida with his wife. And finally. How authentic do you try to make your settings? Do you ever find it challenging to keep the fact and fiction separate in your mind when you are writing? The entire premise for The Inner Circle came from a private 54 Prologue Brad Meltzer Winter 2010 . That was the clincher. is his first novel set in the National Archives. But I’d never gone inside. the Constitution. I don’t think I knew there was research I could do there. Make a right. When it comes to setting. I’ll never forget it. My first thought was. And that’s all I tried to do with the Archives. Like most people. But what about the staff members going in and out of the entrance on the Pennsylvania Avenue side? What kinds of documents—and mysteries—do they have access to? Brad Meltzer takes on this idea in his latest novel. D. now you believe me. Meltzer has written New York Times best-selling thrillers set in Washington. you pay attention. in places like the White House and the Supreme Court. they let me see the Declaration of Independence up close. conversation I had with a former President of the United States. did you ever do any research in our holdings? Sadly. the story is fiction. we’ve got bigger problems than anyone thinks.. the more real I can make it. I’d never done research there. then you’ll smell flowers—the White House flower shop is on your left—and then go straight until you hit the end.C. The Inner Circle. . I just thought: what do they have in there besides the Big Three documents? While the setting is real. Truly. That steel door is the real entrance to the secret tunnels below the White House—that that’s where the bomb shelter is.AUTHORS ON THE RECORD the inner in National Archives circle Brad Meltzer’s New Novel Set by hilary parkinson Anyone can enter the National Archives from the Constitution Avenue side to see the Charters of Freedom: the Declaration of Independence.
They’re the ones who helped me tease out the entire plot of The Inner Circle. They’ll pay for that one.in my books. Beecher. I knew I had a place to tell that tale. I thought everything was read and catalogued. In my Google-influenced brain. What was the most surprising job that you saw a National Archives staff member doing? I was most amazed by the fact that you still have people combing through documents from the founding of our country. But for a publisher. a senior archivist at the National Archives. The places only an insider sees. And each one added another piece to the complex puzzle. You shadowed Trevor Plante. And they know I have good sources. I met with tons of staffers in every division I could find. What I want to show you are the places you can’t go. They’d pair me with a Secret Service guy and a chemist—and they’d give us a target— and we’d destroy major cities in an hour. He’s the reason my Preservation guy was dressed so nice. Which place would you not want to be locked in overnight? Cave. But there is very little mention of the documents that most people associate with the National Archives—the Constitution and Declaration of Independence. because you see how easy it is to kill us. Every single tourist can see the Constitution and Declaration of Independence. That underground cave was scary [Meltzer visited some underground record storage facilities]—and I knew they were letting me out. They’re the ones who taught me what every President really needs—plus I had what one former President gave me. I warned them about that one. for a day. But it was Trevor who really showed me the day-to-day stuff and. But once I saw the National Archives Building. I’d be talking to all the national security folks. The cover of your book shows the White House. It’s not the kind of day where you go home feeling good. Ask Morgan Zinsmeister. and Beecher goes into two of them: the underground storage caves and a SCIF (Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility). Was this a deliberate omission? It was. I love that there are new Lincoln letters—and new secrets being found every single day. were there any records that you really wanted to see? Were you shown any documents that inspired your plot? Nearly everything that the archivists in the book are working on was based on real work I saw—including the scene in the Preservation Lab. In addition to fiction and television. you also write comics. On lunch breaks. Do you think there is any chance of creating a new superhero— maybe one called the Archivist or the Genealogist? The Archivist. into the vaults and stacks that visitors don’t see. so they invited me in. You go home terrified. huh? Sounds like a better villain name than a hero. Any particular reason the National Archives wasn’t featured? Oh. I was honored to be a part of the Red Cell program. the White House still is more recognizable and therefore “sells” more. made me realize how vital a job it is to understand—and keep track of— our nation’s documents. But I didn’t just shadow Trevor. Authors on the record Prologue 55 . Documents are stored in some unusual places. Were you familiar with what an archivist does? Did it make you reconsider trading in your writing career for an archival one? Trevor was amazing. yes. Anyone can see the gasper documents—the documents that make you gasp. No doubt. During your visit. They will. The reader follows your main character.
Bush Library. Classic Film: It’s A Mad Mad Mad Mad World. March 2. “Documents on Display: Presidential Autographs. 616-254-0400. discusses heart health for National Heart Month.TExAS Continuing exhibit: “The Heart Truth’s Red Dress Collection. 23. consult NARA’s Calendar of Events. Lecture: “Talkin’ Truman: Young Bess in Hats. AbILENE. Edmund Morris discusses Colonel Roosevelt. chronicling the last 10 years of Theodore Roosevelt’s life. LITTLE ROCK. Bush Library. Room G-1). 773-948-9001. National Archives Building. Kennedy Library. 979-691-4000. For specific date and more information.” Bush Library. KANSAS Opening January 29. February 10. Carter Library. For up-to-date event information. Never in My Wildest Dreams: A Black Woman’s Life in Journalism. COLLEgE STATION. Exhibit: “The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement through an Activist’s Lens: A Photography Exhibit in Black and White. 866-JFK-1960.” Kennedy Library. 979691-4000. Exhibit: “The American Soldier––A Photographic Tribute to Soldiers and Marines from the Civil War to Iraq. Exhibit: “8 Wonders of Kansas. Winter Film Series: In Cold Blood. Doris A. Bush Library. 816268-8000. 512-721-0200. 510-374-4242. February 26.” National Archives at Kansas City. 734-205-0555. Black History program. 404-865-7100. “The Presidency of JFK: A 50Year Retrospective. Calendar of Events (NPAC.” National Archives at Kansas City.archives. Bush Library. Exhibit: “Betty Ford––An Extraordinary Life. artifacts. call National Archives at Chicago. 816268-8000. Exhibit: “The Working White House: Two Centuries of Traditions and Memories. 816-268-8000. 845-486-7745. 404-865-7100. NEW YORK January 30: FDR Birthday Event: Rose Garden Ceremony. “The Life of the Buffalo Soldiers” tells the rich history of the Buffalo Soldiers through stories.EVENTS WASHINgTON. MICHIgAN Through February 27. and the Expansion of Citizenship.” National Archives at Chicago.C. Kennedy Library. February 24. 734-205-0555.” Carter Library. 202-357-5000. Through February 27. Harry & Bess Truman “Performance. Opening February 19.” Clinton Library. and Carousels: Stories of Kansas. Former President Jimmy Carter will speak as part of the Harry Middleton Lectureship. Continuing exhibit: “Gerald Ford in Mao’s China. March 3. National Archives at Atlanta. 510-374-4242. Kennedy. Washington.” Carter Library. and Figures. April 16.” Ford Museum. February 17. Lecture/Reception: Dennis Farney & Mary Lynn Beech Oliver discuss The Barnstormer and the Lady.” Truman Library. Opening February 15.” National Archives Building. Royer Film Series. 845-486-7745. 800-833-1225. Exhibit: “Discovering the Civil War. Eisenhower Library. January 29. INDEpENDENCE. February 12. Winter Film Series: Ride with the Devil.” a panel discussion hosted by Caroline Kennedy. James Rohack. Winter Film Series: The Harvey Girls. February 24. 979-691-4000. Author lecture: Belva Davis. 56 Prologue bOSTON. February 19. 979-691-4000. 202-357-5000. MISSOURI Through March 19. Exhibit: “Cowboys.” Eisenhower Library.” Ford Library. Permanent exhibit: “The Public Vaults. AUSTIN. Quacks. The free Calendar is available from National Archives and Records Administration.770-968-2100. 700 Pennsylvania Avenue. 979-691-4000. 785-263-6700. and music. March 2011. DC 20408.” Roosevelt Library.” Eisenhower Library. Celebrate Presidents Day with “Hail to the Ladies” with Judy Bernstein. 816-268-8000. CHICAgO. 866-JFK-1960. Heart Health Lecture: Dr.” National Archives at Atlanta. 785-263-6700. Civil War Symposium: “America’s Long Struggle.TExAS February 15. 773-948-9001. HYDE pARK. February 10. National Archives at Kansas City. Paul H. Roosevelt Library. 616-254-0400. Exhibit: “Haiti: Building Back Better. Bush Library. 816268-8000. February 5. Through February 6. MISSOURI February 12. gRAND RApIDS. or on the web at www. National Archives at Kansas City. former president of the American Medical Association. Johnson Library. gEORgIA Through February 28.” Ford Museum.” Part II. 1872–1991. 770-968-2100. the Federal Courts in Chicago. 404-865-7100.” Ford Library. Winter 2010 . 816-268-8000. 785-263-6700. Through April 17. ILLINOIS Continuing exhibit: “Becoming American: Immigrants. MASSACHUSETTS Continuing exhibit: “Passing the Torch––The Inauguration of John F. Words. D. Exhibit: “Documented Rights. ANN ARbOR. February 6. ATLANTA.” by Dr. Derby. KANSAS CITY. February 21.” Clinton Library. National Archives at Kansas City. 979-6914000. National Archives at Kansas City. March 15. Classic Film: Thoroughly Modern Millie. 866JFK-1960. NW. Opening March 17. Exhibit: “The White House Garden. MICHIgAN Continuing exhibit: “The Remarkable Life and Times of Gerald and Betty Ford. ARKANSAS Continuing exhibit: “Revolution and Rebellion: Wars. 16.gov/calendar.
866-406-2379.gov/research/genealogy/events. “Using NARA Records.” Reagan Library. 215606-0100. 413-2363600. OSHER Continuing Education Class. National Archives at Denver Tour and Hands-on Research. 770-968-2100. An NFL Hall of Fame Evening.” National Archives at Seattle. Through January 28.” bring your brown-bag lunch and your “impossible” family history problem. 206336-5115. D. “Leavenworth Records at the National Archives. Reagan Library. 206-336-5115.” National Archives at Kansas City. “Introduction to Genealogy.” Colorado State University. SEATTLE. SIMI VALLEY. 413-236-3600.” National Archives at Pittsfield. Exhibit: “A World in Miniature: Lego Trains at the Nixon Library. Nixon Library. National Archives at Pittsfield. 413-236-3600. For up-to-date information. in black-and-white photographs.” National Archives at Pittsfield.” National Archives at Seattle. 866-406-2379. Exhibit: “Patterns of the Past: A Century of American Quilting. 413-236-3600.” National Archives at Kansas City. Iowa. Researching French Canadian Ancestors.” National Archives at Pittsfield. “Using the online resources of the Daughters of the American Revolution. gEORgIA February 26. KANSAS CITY.4057. OSHER Continuing Education Class. Call to register.Opening February 18.” Clinton Library. archives. Ronald Reagan 100th Birthday Celebration. 413-236-3600. 866-840-1752. “Brick Wall Genealogical Group. 816-268-8000. April 5. YORbA LINDA. April 14. April 20–21. Call to register. 800-410-8354. WASHINgTON February 10. “Genealogy on the Internet. WEST bRANCH. GeNeALoGy eveNts wAshiNGtoN. Call to register.” Hoover Library. National Archives at Denver. March 2. WALTHAM. March 1. 413-236-3600.” National Archives at Pittsfield. 413-236-3600. National Archives Building. Seventh Annual Genealogy Fair. Call 303-407-5740 for more information. 206-336-5115. pENNSYLVANIA Continuing exhibit: “Blasting through the Silence: The Allegheny Arsenal Explosion of 1862 and the Creation of Public Memory.” National Archives at Boston. 319-643-5301. National Archives at Boston.” National Archives at Pittsfield. events Prologue 57 . National Archives at Atlanta. and April 4. NEW YORK Continuing exhibit: “New York: An American Capital” at the Federal Hall National Memorial. Call to register. 714-983-9120. “Genealogy Resources at NARA. January 28. 714-983-9120. MASSACHUSETTS February 3. Exhibit: “The Secret Art of Dr. April 11. 202-357-5000. 805-577. January 24. Opening of the renovated Museum Galleries. March 8. What’s Not Online. 805-577.” National Archives at Boston. WASHINgTON Continuing exhibit: “Faces in the Pacific Northwest. February 10. MISSOURI January 21.” documenting 20 years of the small town of Oxford. MASSACHUSETTS February 1. Call to register. Genealogy for Kids (Grades 3–8 and chaperones). SEATTLE. “Provost Marshal Records Related to the Civil War. February 7. Hoover Library. “Examining the 1940 Census. Through January 30. “Researching Polish Ancestors. IOWA January 22–March 20. 413-236-3600.” National Archives at Boston. Call 303-407-5740 for more information. February 23. Exhibit: “The Oxford Project. Call to register. Ronald Reagan Centennial Postage Stamp Issued. March 9. March 12.” National Archives at Philadelphia.” National Archives at Pittsfield. pHILADELpHIA. a Holiday Tradition. “Tracing Your Roots–– Introduction to Genealogy at the National Archives. February 10. Exhibit: “Treasures from the Vault. March 16. 714-983-9120. 866-406-2379. Call to register. 319-643-5301. National Archives at New York City. National Archives at Seattle.” National Archives at Pittsfield. Black Family History Day in partnership with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 413-236-3600. First Friday Open House. “Using Federal Census Records. Researching Irish American Ancestors. Call to register. Exhibit: “The White House Miniature. 206-336-5115. “Beginning Your Genealogy Research at the National Archives. featuring former Los Angeles Rams and Pro Football Hall of Fame players Tom Mack and Jackie Slater. February 24.” Nixon Library. March 29. 206336-5115. pITTSfIELD. consult the monthly Calendar of Events and www. ATLANTA.” National Archives at Seattle.4057.C. Seuss. 866-406-2379.” National Archives at Seattle. February 6. March 12. National Archives at Philadelphia. 816-268-8000. pHILADELpHIA. National Archives at Denver. CALIfORNIA January 14. DENVER. and April 8. February 18. CALIfORNIA Through April 15. Reagan Library. “Researching African American and Under-Documented Populations. pENNSYLVANIA February 4 and March 4. “Genealogy Research: What’s Online. 510-374-4242. and March 10. “Finding Family Information in Military Pension Files. March 24. Call to register. National Archives at Pittsfield. Reagan Library. 215-606-0112. NEW YORK. “Finding Your Immigrant Ancestors at the National Archives.” Nixon Library. Through March 21. COLORADO February 4. Genealogy workshops are conducted throughout the year. 1840– 1940. Daughters of American Revolution group practicum. 805-577-4057.
the anonymous. and unusual perspectives. visitors will see two 13th amendments to the U. Constitution that were proposed by Congress. and Economic Performance. interpretation. and are a historical and genealogical gold mine. and how a congressional investigation into war profiteering transformed the meaning of the word “shoddy. Energy.” 58 Prologue Winter 2010 . received one of eight Presidential Awards for Leadership in Environmental. Part one.000 and eliminating 2. These files contain an abundance of relatively modern immigration documents in one file. Honolulu. more than 300. in the Lawrence F. making them a rich source of biographical information. and the well-known.C. dealt with “Beginnings. and opinion to take a fresh look at the Civil War through little-known stories.” said David S. “Discovering the Civil War” presents the most extensive display ever assembled from the incomparable Civil War collection of the National Archives. These files. and Guam. A cipher disk used to protect Union Army communications is featured in the “Discovering the Civil War” exhibit. A-Files are eligible for transfer to the National Archives when 100 years have passed since the birth date of the subject of a file. These files will be housed at the National Archives at San Francisco because of the significant research use of related immigration files there. parts one and two will be combined for a multicity national tour beginning in 2011. seldomseen documents.S. Energy. which was shown in 2010. and Green” category. Reno. The National Archives at Kansas City will maintain A-Files from all USCIS district offices except San Francisco.NEWS & NOTICES iNs Alien Case Files transferred to National Archives at Kansas City For the first time. After it closes. and Economic Performance. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) and are only a small part of the millions of case files that will eventually be transferred and opened to the public. GreenGov Presidential Awards celebrate extraordinary achievement in the pursuit of President Obama’s Executive Order on Federal Leadership in Environmental. “This is a significant achievement for the National Archives.” NARA Receives top Presidential Award As environmentally Friendly workplace The White House Council on Environmental Quality has designated the National Archives and Records Administration as one of the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly places to work in the United States. firsthand accounts of the Battle of Gettysburg at the veteran’s 75th reunion filmed by the Army Signal Corps. NARA was cited in the “Lean. Archivist of the United States. Winners were selected from more than 300 nominations. This exhibit peels back 150 years of accumulated analysis.S. A-Files document the famous. 2011. In part two. “We hope to become a beacon to other federal agencies that want to go green and enhance their own performance. O’Brien Gallery in the National Archives Building in downtown Washington.000 case files on alien residents of the United States who were born in 1909 or before are now open to the public at the National Archives at Kansas City. the infamous. Clean. original Freedmen’s Bureau records documenting murders and outrages committed against African Americans. saving more than $400.000 tons of carbon emissions. MD. Files to be housed at the National Archives at San Francisco are currently being prepared for transfer. Major National tour will Follow in 2011 The second part of the National Archives’ groundbreaking exhibit “Discovering the Civil War” is open until April 17. D. Ferriero. Part ii of Civil war exhibit open until April. The College Park project is estimated to reduce annual energy use by 24 billion BTUs.” Part two deals with the “Consequences” of the war and is presented by the Center for the National Archives Experience and the Foundation for the National Archives. The National Archives Energy Team at the National Archives at College Park. known as “Alien Files” (commonly referred to as “A-Files”) were transferred to NARA from the U.
1970. and wage and price controls. considering alternative storage sites. the Wounded Knee incident. and 75 hours of video oral histories made in the past few years. Maryland.” The conference will focus on the challenges posed by assuring the long-term preservation of archival. David Gergen. Specifics of the conference. Online Public Access is the National Archives’ first step in providing a single search to all of its online holdings and is part of the agency’s ongoing commitment to transparency and online access to the nation’s treasured documents.gov. the prototype provides access to 1 million electronic records currently in ERA. Nixon Library Releases early 1973 tapes.9 million permanent electronic records. There are no transcripts for these tapes. Terry Lenzner. they are encouraged to share their experiences and ideas for making improvements. improves Access to National Archives Resources In late December. in the Oval Office. in the Marriott Inn and Conference Center on the campus of the University of Maryland University College in Hyattsville. Also in this release are nearly 2. Morton Halperin. are available at at www. former Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz. the files of top White House aides H. The tapes cover conversations from February and March 1973 and a few from early April 1973.gov resources and displaying the results in a more user-friendly presentation.nixonlibrary. has opened 265 hours of White House tapes from early 1973. “Bob” Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. applying risk assessment to evaluate the impact of environmental change on buildings and collections.S.online Public Access Debuts. library. Attorney for the District of Columbia Earl Silbert. R. The prototype currently contains all of the data from the Archival Research Catalog and seven series from Access to Archival Databases. a user will be able to type the search term in one box and retrieve images and information from multiple locations on one results screen. and reduced budgets. and museum collections in the face of rising energy costs. the release of American prisoners of war. which are not available elsewhere online.500 pages of formerly classified national security records including materials from News & Notices Prologue 59 . Speakers will address ways in which archival. video oral histories of Nixon-era Figures The Richard Nixon Library in Yorba Linda. Dwight Chapin. March 13. As the public begins to use the OPA prototype. 2011. policy in the Middle East. Instead of having to go to several places on our web site to look for information. OPA is the prototype for the public portal that will provide centralized access to digitized records. historic and cultural institutions can get “green”: using building methods and materials that provide sustainability. and Gerald Warren. the state visits of King Hussein of Jordan and Prime Minister Golda Meir of Israel. Jerry Schilling. George Elsey. and implementing low-cost methods to minimize risks to collections. Watergate. National Archives to hold 25th Preservation Conference The National Archives 25th annual preservation conference will be held March 16 and 17. All of the White House tapes and selected documents are available online at: www. more than 140. President Nixon confers with assistants H. and John Ehrlichman.gov/preservation/ conferences/2011/. former Secretary of the Treasury Paul O’Neill. which contains 10. descriptions of holdings that are not online. Additionally. the National Archives Online Public Access (OPA) prototype was made available to the public. Peter Flanigan. and eventually access to electronic records from the Electronic Records Archives (ERA). These tapes cover such subjects as the ceasefire in Vietnam. global warming. R.000 pages of presidential records. The theme will be “Conservation2 = Preserving Collections x Our Environment. maximizing the efficiency of HVAC systems to benefit collections and the bottom line. The prototype streamlines the search process for the user by integrating searches across several Archives. California. They include interviews with former Senators George McGovern and Lowell Weicker. former U. Dana Mead. including costs and speakers program. U. Haldeman. Also released were 43 video oral histories done in the past few years by Library Director Timothy Naftali. but the library has produced a detailed subject log for each conversation. Lee Huebner.S.archives.
These include files not only on German war criminals. U. Italy. The 1. their pursuit. Belarus. is based on findings from newly declassified decades-old Army and CIA records released under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act of 1998. Croatia. their use by Allied and Soviet intelligence agencies.gov/iwg/reports/hitlers-shadow. Goda.pUbLICATIONS New Report on Nazi War Crimes Issued Hitler’s Shadow: Nazi War Criminals.archives. These records were processed and reviewed by the National Archives–led Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG).3 million Army files include thousands of titles of many more issues regarding wartime criminals. and the Cold War. compiled by Peter F. Hungary. but also collaborators from the Baltic States.W. describes records housed 60 Prologue Winter 2010 . and the report was written by IWG historians Richard Breitman and Norman J. and occasionally. Records Relating to Railroads in the Cartographic Section of the National Archives. Argentina. documents about the escape of war criminals. These files also include information on Allied and non-aligned states that had an interest in Axis personalities. and elsewhere. Intelligence and the Nazis. based on approximately 8 million pages of documents declassified in the United States under the 1998 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act. Ukraine. Hitler’s Shadow is available free as a PDF on the IWG’s web site: http://www. postwar documents on the search for or prosecution of war criminals.pdf. France.S. The 2010 report serves as an addendum to the 2004 IWG report U.S. Intelligence. released in December 2010. their escape. and documents about the postwar political activities of war criminals. Cartographic Records Relating to Railroads Reference Information Paper (RIP) 116. Romania. documents about the Allied protection or use of Nazi war criminals. including Great Britain. their arrest. and Israel. Brauer. The latest CIA and Army files have evidence of war crimes and about the wartime activities of war criminals.
pp. p. Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers. 22. pp. p. Publications can be purchased for $85 per microfilm roll or $125 per CD-ROM through Order Online or by submitting an order form (available on www. 9 (right). Provide the account number. 33–34. Form 72 Order. RG 260.S. National Archives Gift Collection. These records focus primarily on the United States. 12 (second from left). RG 85. 59. 26. 8 (left). New York Tribune. and American Express are also accepted. General Records of the Department of State. p. p. 32 (bottom left). RG 85. RG 111. 1. photos by Alexander Morozov. contact the Research Support Staff (NWCC1). a topical index. 72. 413 disks) Publications Prologue 61 .archives. 148-GW-18. back cover. p. although there is widespread coverage of countries and regions worldwide. 148CC-11(3). by Aliens Who Had Arrived at Honolulu. photos by Earl McDonald. p. Compiled by the San Francisco. 27. 23. 35-G-2D624. pp. p. Relating to Aliens Who Arrived in the United States After June 29. Picture Credits Cover. expiration date. AMA-62). courtesy of Penguin Press. 12 (second from right). 44 (left). courtesy of the Huntington Library.in the Cartographic Section at College Park. Nixon Library. p. 69-MP-1-12729. p. 56. 8–9 (top). 12 (right). December 1911–June 1921. University of Washington Libraries. 39. Make checks payable to the National Archives Trust Fund. April 1924–September 1954 (A3455. DC. The records described include more than 215 series of records in 69 record groups. 29-c-1B-19. California. p. 47. Special Collections. p. National Archives at Kansas City. 1945–1950 (DN1929.gov. courtesy of Grand Central Publishing. 48. 238-NT-592. NW. 342-AF18302USAF. Washington. 54. 44 (right). 32 (top). Maryland. p. 148-CD-4(15). Warroad. and aerial photographs relating to railroad equipment. 17. 1906 (A3484. 51. 69-MP1-19070. 36–37. 28. 24–25. 89 rolls) Nunc Pro Tunc Affidavits Taken at New York. archives. p. p. government policies. University of Washington Libraries. The guide is particularly useful for the identification of railroads nationwide. MD 20740-6001. 12 rolls) Manifests of Alien Arrivals at Baudette. 16. inside cover. Cashier (NAT). pp. pp. RG 45. 119-S-20F-10344. p. California. 20408: telephone 202357-5400. Microfilm and Digital publications Microfilm and digital publications are produced by the National Archives and Records Administration to make records holdings more widely available for research. 148-GW-733. 45. Consult the roll list or table of contents for the series before ordering specific rolls. fax: 301-837-0483. pp. 43 (bottom). For a free copy. 148-CC-13(3). The dates of these records range from 1828 to 2009. European Theater of Operations. pp. visit Order Online at www. Hawaii (A3975. Discover. 12 (left). p. architectural and engineering drawings. RG 498. 29. Minnesota. The William Banning Collection. RG 59. A descriptive pamphlet (DP) is available where indicated. courtesy of David M. p. pp. 2 rolls) Mortuary Records of Chinese Decedents in California. p. p. p. pp. New York. 111-B-4204. 47-G-1M-8143. For descriptions of the contents of National Archives microfilm publications. 63. 4 (top left). p. RG 85. 1 roll) “Alien Certificates” Surrendered at San Francisco. Eisenhower Library. Telephone: 1-800-234-8861. 46. pp. 1-866-325-7208. Library of Congress. College Park. 58. 14–15. 50. Immigration Office (A4040. 8601 Adelphi Road. 700 Pennsylvania Avenue. March 1910– July 1923 (A3490. 4 (right). in College Park. National Archives and Records Administration. p. Manifests of Permanent and Statistical Alien Arrivals at El Paso.gov/ research/order) to National Archives Trust Fund. 60. Adriana Echavarria. April 1912–February 1946. July 1870–April 1933. 8–9 (bottom). Current projects include the filming of military service records of the United States Colored Troops (Civil War). p. 6. pp. UW27971z (San Jose). Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. The records include cartographic records. pp. and property. 30–31. p. 52. Additional railroad records are housed in other National Archives offices nationwide. 119-s-20f-482-5. RG 77 (Civil Works Map File. 32 (bottom right). Texas. an index by railroad name. MasterCard. p. p. RG 85. and cardholder signature. 43 (top). p. 1942–1947. Foreign coverage dates mostly from the early to mid 20th century. Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library. photo by Herman Estevez. VISA. Rubenstein. 20–21. 55. RG 85. 35. The guide includes an introduction. Records of Headquarters. 13. 208-PU-104HH(4). p. 1 roll) Records of the Property Control Branch of the U. and illustrations of representative records. 14 (left). pp. p. 148-CD-4(18). tracing railroad expansion and technological innovations. 10 (bottom). United States Army (World War II). tracks. and military operations. 3. 49. 10 (left). courtesy of Simon & Schuster. Allied Commission for Austria (USACA) Section. and International Falls.
” The exhibition and an accompanying book published by the Foundation.C. films. These most recent contributions. who worked with Burns on The Civil War series. To learn more about the Foundation. who chaired the Gala. maps. many members of the Foundation’s Board and Society. headed by President Karen Pritzker. The Seedlings Foundation. On behalf of the Board of Directors of the Foundation. who helped kick off a major fundraising drive to support the exhibition last spring. and recordings in the Archives’ holdings in a manner that fosters a fuller understanding of the American experience. as well as those in honor of the late Budge Weidman.” said Burns. her husband. the Foundation for the National Archives is extremely proud that the second part of the “Discovering the Civil War” exhibition was the focus of a fall press and public event with our partners in the local tourism and cultural community. it has been a source of great joy to be able to try to pay back my debt to the Archives for its longtime assistance to me and the projects I have worked on over the last 35 years. and materials that tell the story of America through the holdings in NARA. Ken has been able to bring this evidence of our shared past to a worldwide audience. also spoke during the program. has made a generous contribution to be used in support of the exhibition and its educational activities. photographs. and corporate sponsor AT&T. launches a multiyear commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War.” said Bill Couper. narrating the works of escaped slave and abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass. William Konze and his wife. projects. which he unearthed from primary sources. including our latest contributors whose donations were received just as the second part of the exhibit.” The Foundation for the National Archives supports the National Archives and Records Administration in developing programs.” Freeman said. Bank of America. D.. was made possible through the generosity of lead sponsor Bank of America. Cuneo Foundation and The Boeing Company. Retired Lt. Col. are making “Discovering the Civil War” a mustsee exhibition as the National Archives Experience leads the way in Washington’s Civil War commemoration. “and we are better for it.” “This award is such a wonderful honor. MidAtlantic president. and health research. volunteer manager of the Civil War Conservation Corps. the unique exhibition.” The Foundation is extremely grateful to actor Morgan Freeman. contact the Foundation at 202-357-5946. Foundation for the National Archives 62 Prologue Winter 2010 . including the original government records that are held in trust for the American people by the National Archives. Foundation’s Annual Gala Honors Ken Burns The Foundation was pleased to present its seventh annual Records of Achievement Award to documentary filmmaker and Foundation Vice President Ken Burns during its annual black-tie Gala on November 9. McGowan Theater. In addition. All of us at Bank of America are honored to have the opportunity to celebrate his artistic visions. is the annual tribute to an individual whose work has cultivated a broader national awareness of the history and identity of the United States through the use of primary sources.” “Through his incredible work as a historian and filmmaker. and individual donors. The Seedlings Foundation supports literacy. foundation. “Ken Burns is one of America’s greatest storytellers. “Discovering the Civil War” is an excellent example of the successful partnership between the Foundation and the National Archives Experience. it has engaged visitors from around the globe. in person and through its online components and interactive “tweets. Russell Weidman. O’Brien Gallery and soon to travel the country. praising Burns’s vision for The Civil War series to “bring to life the great people of our nation’s past using their own words. Freeman. This year’s Gala. We very much appreciate your ongoing support. The honoree’s accomplishments reflect the Foundation’s mission: to elevate the stories found in the billions of documents. For more information on how you can help others experience the National Archives. Ferriero presented the award to Burns during a ceremony in the William G. the Foundation’s highest honor. were made possible through generous contributions from our loyal corporate. “Discovering the Civil War: Consequences. as well as our marketing initiatives that have brought so many visitors to the exhibit. I would like to thank all of the donors to this project. Now on display in the Lawrence F. Foundation Chairman and President Ken Lore and Archivist of the United States David S. the eve of the opening of the National Archives Experience’s exhibition “Discovering the Civil War: Consequences.” opened in November. The Gala and this award only increase that debt—but in the most pleasurable way. “His work as a historian and filmmaker has brought the past to life for millions of people in America and around the world. tells the story of how everyday people were affected by the war. “It has always been my great privilege to serve on the Foundation’s board.the FouNDAtioN for the National Archives Support for “Discovering the Civil War” As the city of Washington. KEN LORE President. The Konzes have been members of the Foundation’s Society since 2008 and actively support many of our events and activities.archives.” The Records of Achievement Award. with additional support from the Maris S. and to the event’s sponsors.gov. as well as a variety of educational projects. housing. which celebrates the public-private partnership between NARA and the Foundation.gov/nae. have now doubled their initial gift. which included a limited viewing of the original Emancipation Proclamation. 2010. or write to us at foundationmembers@nara. visit www. Alice Konze. Already.
“The company was a generous contributor to the development of the National Archives Experience and for the past three years has supported the Foundation’s scholarship program for Primarily Teaching. Ferriero. Left to right: Bank of America’s Bill Couper. customized to their particular students or educational standards. The popular web site.” said Paula Collins. developed in partnership between the Foundation and the National Archives’ education team.” said Ken Lore. This generous. The Foundation for the National Archives Prologue 63 . multiyear gift will support the National Archives Experience’s new web site. left.” Ken Burns receives the records of Achievement Award. “We are extremely grateful to Texas Instruments for working with us to create a very strong educational partnership. Ferriero.000 Archives records selected by NARA educators with classroom experience.000 to the Foundation to support teacher training on the use of primary sources in the classroom. however.DocsTeach. “Texas Instruments has been so supportive of our educational initiatives. enables teachers to use educational activities created by education specialists at the Archives to engage their students online. Foundation executive Director Thora Colot. is revolutionizing the way teachers use documents from the National Archives in their classrooms. through the new web site DocsTeach. “This gift will help us to fulfill our mission to make the most important records of our democracy accessible to teachers and children in classrooms across the country. and census data. which brings teachers from diverse school districts to participate in the Primarily Teaching Institute at National Archives facilities nationwide. has pledged $200.” DocsTeach. The activities can be used in the classroom. DocsTeach. by including Archives records such as scientific inventions. and we truly appreciate their generosity. graphs. Pat Lore enjoys the Gala with Board members Cokie roberts and Marilynn Wood Hill. Foundation Chairman and President Ken Lore.org. and honoree Ken Burns. It is unique. www.” said Archivist of the United States David S. a generous and longtime supporter of the educational initiatives at the National Archives Experience. chairman and president of the Foundation. or even by history lovers of all ages nationwide who are welcome to access the web site. We are thrilled that their increased support will also enable us to provide history and civics teachers nationwide with the tools they need to use primary sources in their classrooms. Fred Specktor. NArA’s Trevor Plante. as well as provide continuing support for the Foundation’s scholarship program. but also math and science. Gala Chair Morgan Freeman. “Texas Instruments is proud to partner with the Foundation for the National Archives to connect educators with the tools they need to enhance children’s understanding of our country’s history and culture.Texas Instruments Supports DocsTeach Web Site Texas Instruments.” “Initiatives such as DocsTeach and Primarily Teaching are great examples of the valuable educational resources of the National Archives. in e-mailed homework assignments. We are especially pleased that DocsTeach includes activities that teach not only history and civics. then incorporate records from a database of more than 2. in that teachers can also use the activity creation tools on the site to make their own interactive learning activities. Ken Burns. Morgan Freeman. Cuneo. Archivist of the United States David S. Texas Instruments vice president of governmental affairs. Teachers select tools based upon the skills they want to teach their students. provides a vault tour to Gala guests Maris S.
Goda. 3-34 Army of Northern Virginia. 2-8. 3-32. Sutherland.” by Daniel E. 2-70. 1-24 Burkhardt. Arthur H. 1-18. 1-52–59. 1-41. 4-37–38. photos by. Mary Frances. “Discovering the Civil War. photo. 2-44. Edward. CSS. 4-15 Boyd. Richard.. 2-8–9 Burns. plane. 2-11–15 Boston II. portrait. 4-16 American Philosophical Society. 2-7. Don Carlos. 3-62. 1-30. 4-33. 2-39. 2-41. Amanda J.INDEx Compiled by Susan Carroll “68.” 1-36–41 Calhoun. 4-46–52. and the Cold War. “A Soldier of the Revolution. 2-38. 4-13. 2-45. Thomas Hart. plane. G. 1-65–66 Adams. 3-28 Army Air Service. 3-16 Boyd.. U. 4-17. 1-45. 1-34. “The South Appeals for Peace.). illustration of. 1-22 Brauer. 3-18–26. 3-66. Oliver F. 4-34. 3-9. and population censuses. 3-58 Alien residents case files opened. 4-16. 1-21 Bates. 4-37 Cejka.. 2-54–61 “Abraham Lincoln and the Guerrillas. 1-11 Buchanan. Edward L. 3-14. 3-63. 3-10 Billingsby. Diane. photo. 1-18. 2-42. habeas corpus petitions. and the Civil War. 4-59. 1-14 Chatard. 2-14. photo.. 4-18 Chicago. 1-8. 1-33 Bartlett. M. Remini. 1-5. 2-29 Bertillon. 1-14–18 Atkins. J. 3-66. 2-16 Art. 4-60 Brey. in South Carolina. 2-20. 4-15. Louise J. 3-13.. 1-65 Adoption. photo. John. James. 2-44 Bates. photos. Capt. Ken. 2-10. 2-28. Gen. Greg. 4-32. 3-30. 1-47 Arnold. William J. 3-62–63 Arctic exploration. photo. 1-22 Alabama. photo. Alphonse. compiler. pensions for ex-slaves. J. 1-52–59. 2-39.” 4-24–29 Brady. 3-72 Bosanko. Ron.. 2-17. 4-33. 3-49 Burma. photo.. Greenland.. 1-8. 2-38. by Eduard Ulreich. 2-42–45. 4-14. 1-61. 3-32. 4-34. 2-60 Brown. 1-70. 1-32 Benton. Records Relating to Railroads in the Cartographic Section of the National Archives. Leslie. photo. John. 1-20–25 Access to Archival Databases. 4-62 Barrett. Maureen. saved during World War II. 1-46.. 2-20–21 Alabama. 4-48. South Carolina. 3-18–26 Aid to Dependent Children. Winning West Virginia: JFK’s Primary Campaign. 3-11.. Salmon P. 2-28–33. 2-8–9. 3-18–26 Beauregard. H. 4-40 Adams. 4-62 Borden. 3-30. 2-12. Lewis. 4-32–40 Chambers. 1-56 Cass. Roald. 2-32–33. and World War II. 4-60–61 Bredhoff. 4-39. Ralph. portrait. W. 2-12. 1-18.S. 3-14. care for mentally ill. 2-44 Bradley. John C. 1-44. and Norman J. 4-36. 3-33. Dale and Leonard. 3-70 Burbridge. 2-58–59 Chase. “Women of the Polar Archives. 1-23 Beaufort County. Katherine. 3-36–43 Amidon. foreign. 1-54–55 Boeing Company. Ilaria Dagnini. 2-42. 3-15 Berry.” by Tim Rives and Steve Spence. 2-28. Lizzie. 1-42. and the Civil War. 2-20–21. 2-13– 14.. Stephen B. Julian. 1-35 Australia. 3-18–26. Thomas A. John. James Heaton. 4-62 “At the Edge of the Precipice: Henry Clay and the Compromise of 1850. 4-40 Buell.. 1-31–32. 1-30. 2-11. 937 and Counting. Jasper. 3-61 American Revolution. 3-7–16 Amundsen.” by Robert V. Sam. illustrations of. 1-43. 2-8.” 4-42–45 Bentley. George. Audrey. 4-18. portraits. 3-9 Ayres. Conrad. 4-50 Censuses. 3-67 Census Bureau. Papers of. Jay. 1-27 Bank of America. 1-52–59. 4-17 Adler. photos. A. 2-9. 3-67 Block. 4-16 Archival Research Catalog. 3-46. 2-39 Carr. Navy destroyer. David C. H. 2-38–45 Armistead. illustration of. 3-59. 4-13. plane. 2-31 Barrett. photo. 2-17 Boston Post. photo. 4-46–52 Central America. 2-71. Joseph H. 1-37 Baffin Island. 2-37. 1-21 Beaty. ex-slaves. 1-50 Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation of Slaves (D. The Venus Fixers. “The Nuremberg Laws. 1-15 California. Harrison. 3-33. Ansel. 4-33. L. illustration of. Stephen. 1-55–56. 2-69 Breitman. 1-21. 4-14 American Red Cross. Julian. 4-58 American Founding Era Collection. 1-42 Bellamy. 2-7. 3-28 Blondo.. 4-35. Washington: A Life. 2-56 Carter. 1-27. 2-40. 2-43. reparations for. 2-8. and slavery.C. 4-33. photos. 4-62. Hitler’s Shadow: Nazi War Criminals. Bruce. 4-12. 2-8 64 Prologue Winter 2010 .” 3-36–43 Chaplin.. 4-59 Accessory Transit Company. 3-19. 4-40. T. 3-24–26. 4-28 Bradsher. Stacey. 3-54–61. 1-57–59. 2-6–17 Army Nurse Corps. 1-22–23 Bunyan. “Operation Blissful.” 2-38–45 Amphibious operations. as civil servants. 1-14 Berndston. Mellon Foundation. 4-15. 1-65 Atkinson. 2-6. 3-11–13.. Robert A. 2-6–17 African Americans. 2-6. 2-72 Bougainville Island. Intelligence. Mathew. 1-71. 1-72 Bigger.” 3-6–16. 2-23 Cape York. photographic collection opened. 3-71. 3-62–63 AT&T. 2-8. 1940. population. 4-37. 2-16–17. 1-27. 1-10. 4-38 Chernow. Gen. destroyed during World War II. 4-36. 2-15 Black. 3-67.. 4-15. photo. 4-38. 3-20. manumission papers. 2-14. 4-37. 2-68 Boston. Col. 2-43 Andrew W. emancipation of. 2-49. Lt. Commander Frederick.. 3-62–63 Breyer. 2-50. 2-44 Baker. 2-40 Bartlett. P. 2-57–58 Bickley. in the District of Columbia. and population censuses. 4-63 Bustard. Warner T. and Reconstruction. 1-50. 1-57–59. Louise Arner. Rick. 1-43 Alaska. children and youth. 2-6. 3-60. 4-72 Archives. George W. 1-64 Brown. Maj. 2-15–16. Peter F. 1-12. Omar N. 2-22 Advance Guard of the West.. 1-32–33 Brown... 1-38. 2-10–11. 1-33. 3-48 Aerial circumnavigation of the earth. 2-28–33.. photo. Gen.
4-9 Discovering the Civil War. 2-68. photo... 1-51. appeal for peace from the South. book.. Stephen A. 1-24 Exhibits. 3-70 Coast of Northeast Greenland. Ernest. 3-56 Cumberland. 3-63 Emancipation Act of 1862. 2-68. 1-5 Colbert. “Magellans of the Sky. 1-8. role of the U. 2-2. Commander Charles Henry. 2-26. 2-70. 4-42–45. Dwight D.” by Stephanie Greenhut and Suzanne Isaacs. 3-13 Durig. William E. Gen. The. 2-23–24 Compromise of 1850. 4-47. 2-20–21 Civil War. 2-44 DerDerian. photo. 3-32–33.. 4-7–10. 1-71. 4-37. 1-42. 1-68 Cuneo. John A. 2-17. 1-64. William Wilson. 1-9. 1-36–41. photo. “The Founding Fathers Online. Bill. 2-22. 1-14–18. 3-9. 3-29–30 Daulton.” 4-7–10.. Jubal A. Joseph. 1-36–41. Paula. 4-10. 4-62. 4-27 Donohue. 3-66. William Lacy.gov. guerrilla fighting as part of. 1-54 Emancipation Proclamation. 4-8 Duncan. 3-23. 3-67. Crusade in Europe. 1-15. illustrations of. NARA aids for teachers. 1-42. photo. Edward. Navy ship. 3-70. 1-32 Cragin. USS. Young America wing. photos. Amy B. photo. 2-25 Edward I. 4-48 Civics education. 4-9 Eisenhower administration. 2-30 Constitutional Convention. 2-61 Coolidge. with Julie Nixon Eisenhower. 1-8. 1. 1-48. 2-16 Douglas World Cruisers. Jefferson. “Going Home to Glory.. photo. Maureen. 1-61 Confederate States of America. C. 1-47 Confederate States Marine Corps. 4-9. photo. Washington. 3-28 Index Prologue 65 . 1-8. “Slavery and Emancipation in the Nation’s Capital. 4-7 Electronic records. Thora.. 1-42–47. 1-9. 4-59 Democratic Party. Charlie. photo. 1-8.S. 2-8–17 Dudley. Ernest. 1-71. Jr. 2-25. 1-43. 2-21.. 3-50–53. 1-8. casualties. 1-26–35. 4-9 Ewing.” 1-52–59 Davis.” by Hilary Parkinson. 4-63 Cox. 2-25. 2-38–45.” by Bruce Bustard. 2-57 Collins. 1-70. Morrissey. 3-66.S.. 4-63 Colot. 4-33 Davis. 2-71 Curtis. 2-8. 1-45. Becky. 4-26. and Reconstruction.” 2-6–17 Cuba. 2-2.. Calvin. government-produced. Lt. 2-2.“Children as Topic No. 1-46. 4-14 Committee on the District of Columbia. photos of. 1-70. 1-49 Farquharson. 3-62 DeBow’s Review. 4-9. 2-62–63 Civil War. 4-7–8. photo. exhibits. 4-63 Columbia University Press. 2-53 Dickerson. 1-2. 1-42. 4-58. 2-49 Dix. 3-71. and the birth of the nation. 4-44 DocsTeach. 2-53 Early. as threat to children. 1-44 De Wald.Sgt. Bob. 4-10 Eisenhower.” by Marilyn Irvin Holt. 2-47 Communism. 1-42. 1-70. 4-38–39. 4-28 Data. 1-48–49. 4-23 Ewald. 4-28. 1-43. Anne-Catherine. 2-25. 1-66. 4-63 “DocsTeach. Thomas. Isaiah H.” exhibit. Martin. Dorothea.org. pension applications. 3-24–25. 4-62. 2-70. Rae. 1-65 Daughters of the American Revolution. Army. 1-44. 2-61 Davidson. 3-70. 2-39. 4-8. about Arctic exploration. maps of. 4-62 Employment questions in the 1940 census. Josephine. 2-2. 4-8–9. The. photos. photo. 1-60–61. 2-60 “Creating a More Open Government. 4-62 District of Columbia. questions on the 1940 census relating to. 1-50. 2-70. 4-40. 1-14 Douglas Aircraft Company. 2-16 Corcoran. photo. 2-31–32 Diem. 2-53 Cortina Productions. 2-30–33 Fallen. 1-18. federal aid to. John G. Waging Peace. 3-70 Ex-slave pension organizations. Keith. 2-70.. schooner. 2-59 Dannenberg. about the Civil War. The. Gen. illustration of. 1-18. and resignations from the U. 1-2. Clement. memoir of life with. 4-35 Declassified records. Christopher C. Oscar R. Chris. 4-10 Eisenhower. 4-7. sloop of war. 2-70. 1-36–41. 4-59 Ellis. Elizabeths Hospital. 1-14–18. 2-70. 3-66 Clay. 2-41. Mandate for Change.. 4-10. 1-7. U. 1-71. 4-21–22. 2-48. 3-66. photo. 4-33 Decatur. 2-8 Douglas. 4-49–51 England. Damani. 2-35–36 Dodd. 4-7–8. 1-20–25. 3-66. 1-52–59. 3-50–53 Documentary films. St. and children and youth. 1-24 Education. 4-50 Clark. 3-12. 1-20. Ngo Dinh. John. Charles. Dan. Roger. 2-44 Cobb. 1-36–41 “Discovering the Civil War.. 4-32. Rob. David. documentary series by Ken Burns. 2-70. 3-30. 4-15 Ellis. 2-44. 4-6. John. 1-47 Confederate States Navy. 2-46–53 Dix. 2-40. 3-50–53. 2-9–10 Eisenhower. 4-12. Henry. 1-12–13. 4-33. 4-7. 1-9. 4-17 Cook. 4-23 Effie M.. leaflet. 4-58. 1-17 Clay. 4-63 Cuneo. 1-71 Davis. 2-21. photo. 2-34–37. 1-6–13.. 3-2. 1-28 Dulles. 2-70 “Civil War on the High Seas. 1-70 Costa Rica. White House focus on. 4-9 Douglas. 2-54–61 Crosia. 1-71 Cragin. 3-31. 2-51 Classified records. 4-9–10 Eisenhower. 3-51 Civil rights. 4-48. William. 4-59 Electronic Records Archives. photo. portrait. 4-47. W. 1-71 Crawford. 2-24 Ewing. John Foster. 4-13. 4-44 Clay. 3-71 Dewing. 4-33–40 Couper. African Americans in. Charlotte. 4-47. USS. 1-60–61 Civilian Conservation Corps. Maris S. M. 1-18. 4-8 Dulles International Airport. 3-70. William. 3-6–16. 1-53. Navy in. 3-30. 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2-22–23 Foundation for the National Archives. 1-26. Irene. 4-58. Henry S. 1-23 Ferriero. 1-51. 3-62–63 Harvard University Press. John C. 1-9. Marilynn Wood.. photo. 3-28–34 House. Morgan. 2-71 Filibuster soldiers in Nicaragua. 3-24 Hinckley. 4-45 Grants. 2-43–44 Gresham.” 4-59 Hall. 4-24–29 Holt. Oliver W. James.Fashion. 2-13 Harlow. 3-37 Henry. Ben. 4-14–15 Federal Register. “A Very Few Good Nurses. The. 2-39–42..’. “Creating a More Open Government. 2-31–33 Housing. portrait. Alva. South Carolina. 3-71. David. “Transforming the Archives. photo. 1-57–59 Furman. Carol M. 2-52 Halleck. website for. 1-22 French. 2-29. 2-36–37 Harper’s Magazine.. 2-57 Gehring. by Richard Breitman and Norman J. Ulysses S. 2-46. 1-48 Guam. 1-57–59 Haldeman. Herbert. U. 2-10. 1. 3-48 Foote. The. 2-53 Hunter. 4-28 Greaves. 2-71 Historic African American Education Collections. 4-60 Godding. 4-17. 4-28.. Rudolf.” 3-50–53 Greenland. Nicaragua. South Carolina. of the U. 4-62. “Children as Topic No. Plante. 4-18. 4-18 Flickr Commons.. portrait. 1-21. 1-44.. Herman. 4-24. 4-63 Frémont. 2-6. New York. 3-46 Graham. Joseph. 4-58. 2-51 Goering. 2-7. 2-9. “Making Tough Choices in NARA’s Budget. photo. 3-70–71. 4-62 “Founding Fathers Online. 4-23 Henson. 1-49. by Louise Boyd. Hitler’s Shadow: Nazi War Criminals. W. illustration of.” 1-2. photo. 2-26 Housing Act of 1949. “Taking the Leading Role on Declassification. Norman J. 4-28 Franklin. 1-24 Huntington Library. 3-66–67 Federalist Papers. 2-21 Hospital ships. 3-30–31. Oliver O.S. D. Intelligence. Gen. 1-61 “Frame After Frame. and children and youth. 2-25 Harris. 2-58 Harding. John. 4-28. Christina. William. steamer.” 3-2. 1-64. Intelligence. 3-31 Hawaii. Adolf. 1-42 Fort Ticonderoga. Stephen. 4-7–10 Gordon-Reed. 1-23.. 2-43–44 Fischer. photo.. 2-47.C. 4-28. 2-7. 1-22. 2-28–33 Freeman. 1-52–59.” by Phillip W. 1-17 Frick. “Bob. 4-28.. and persecution of Jews. 2-52 Holocaust. 1-64 Historical document editing. 4-62–63. 4-62. 1-22 Halsey.” by Trevor K. Barry. 4-14. 2-39 Hess. 4-27. 3-20. David Hackett. 1-64 Hawke. 3-56 Guerrilla warfare. Maj. 1-71 Gorgas. 3-19. 4-33. John C. 2-48–49 Graf. 4-10 Harmon. Charles H.. Callie D. 1-48. Martha. 1-65. photo. 4-17. photo.. 2-15 “In Freedom’s Shadow. 2-50 Hall. 2-70. Nathaniel. 4-16 Hardin. John. 2-49. Stephanie. U. 2-21 Gaines. District Court for the District of Columbia.S. Frederick. 3-16 Hamilton. photo. The. 4-14.. Roosevelt Library. 4-12–18 History education. Sgt. Renty Franklin. 2-29 Freedpeople. Gen. 2-52 Hartt. Lt. 1-45 Hill. 4-42. 4-24–29 Goda.” 2-18–26 Hoover. 1-21. 4-43 Greenhut. The. and Suzanne Isaacs. 4-33. 2-38. 3-32– 34. 1-51 Genealogical research. . 4-16. David. 2-6.” exhibit. 4-17. Ambrose Powell. Bryce.” 4-2 “Fighting for Democracy. 4-12 Franklin D. 2-68. Benjamin. 4-29 Highsmith. 2-71. 4-63. microfilm publication. Robert A. 4-15. and the Cold War. 3-18–26 Greeley. 2-19. 2-70 Hitler. 4-32 Fort Sumter. 1-66. 2-23. and population censuses.. 1-48–49. 3-51. 4-29 Fugitive slave law. Mercedes. 1-15 Fingerprints. . 2-34–37 France. illustration of. Gen. William E. “DocsTeach. 3-51. 2-9 Hasson. 1-22. Gustavus V. photos. 2-54–61.” 3-28–34 Graham. 2-51–52. 2-20. 3-58 Hawaii State Archives. 2-12. 1-8. 1-20–25 Habeas Corpus Case Records. William Whitney. photo. 3-18–26 Independent. 4-12–18 Fox. 2-36 Harmon Foundation.. photo. 2-53 Henry III. photo. 3-67 Freedmen’s Bureau. David S.” 2-2. 4-18 Ferguson. photos. 4-29 “Going Home to Glory. Horace. 3-49 Georgia. 1-70–71. 4-46–52 General Services Administration. 2-29. H. 4-63. 2-47 Hirano.” by Keith Donohue. photos. Papers of. 4-14. 2-50. 1-24 Holt.S. 1820–1863. 2-52 Hawthorne. 4-38 Faulkner.” by Giselle White-Perry. 1-64 Great Britain. 1-8 Fugitive slaves. 1-10 Fort Castillo. 2-46. 3-70. and the Cold War. sailing vessel. 4-14. 4-32–40 Filmore. W. and the Nuremberg trials.. Alexander. Joseph. 1-55–56. and the Nuremberg trials. 2-57–58 Fiord Region of East Greenland. 4-27–28 Hitler’s Shadow: Nazi War Criminals. Champ. 3-30. 2-70. 3-45. 1-54. 2-23 Howard.. 4-38 66 Prologue Winter 2010 . 2-32–33 Germany. William F. Benjamin Brown. 1-24.. Walter Q. 1-64. Annette. 4-40. 2-58 Grant. Papers of. Bryan. movement to provide aid to. 1-50 Hill. and the Civil War. 4-60 Hobby. 4-29 “‘I have the honor to tender the resignation . Adm. First Lt. 2-43 Holcombe.. Stewart. 3-11. Marilyn Irvin. Gen. 2-20. illustration of. illustration of mural by. 1-42–47 Iceland. R. 2-70–71. Records of Achievement Award. 3-32 Government Hospital for the Insane. 4-15 Fitzpatrick. and Nicaragua. 3-28. 4-27. 4-44 Holmes. 1st Lt.. Jr.” by David Eisenhower with Julie Nixon Eisenhower. Young. Wilhelm. 3-22. Washington. 2-47.org. Goda. Matthew. Millard. 4-63 Hilton Head. Henry W. Ed. 4-14 Harvey. 1-65–66 Florida. 3-36–43 Foster care. photo. 3-29. Esther Voorhees.
Pat.” 2-46–53 McPherson. Financial Intelligence Group. and slavery. Navy. Benson. January 1. Sue Gin. Patty Reinert. and the mentally ill. television show. 2-10. 1-64 “Institutional Memory. 2-26. 3-70. and the Civil War. Gen. photo. 1-71. Germany. 1-44. 2-70. James. 1-51 Massachusetts Historical Society. 2-29 Johnson v. 4-32. Ken. photo. 3-2 “Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat. 4-13. Joseph. photo. Tomas. photo. Joseph S. and emancipation of slaves in the District of Columbia. Col. Lt. 2-11–12 Indians Watching Stagecoach in the Distance. 1-53–54. 3-10. 3-29 McGowan. crew lists. Col. 4-28–29 Jackson Brady Design Group. 2-58 Meltzer. 1-33 “Lizzie Borden took a . 2-48. 4-37–38. 4-23 Martin. 2-59 McMillen.” by David S. P. Robert H. 3-32. 1-47. 3-33. 2-54–61 Lee. and World War II. First.” 4-31–40 McCormack. Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution. 2-56 League of Nations. 1-71 Koblik.. 4-62. 2-7. James M.” by Hilary Parkinson. 3-69. 2-26 Kahn. Maureen. Papers of. photos. by Craig L. 4-23 Inouye. photo. 4-7–8 McCarthy. and slavery. Brig. 2-71. 2-69. 2-8–9. First. 1-45 MacDonald. 3-44–45 Inmate case files. alien arrivals. 1-64 Microfilm publications. 4-14 “Magellans of the Sky. 4-24–29 John. by Brad Meltzer.” by Frances M. Lorraine.. 1-55 Legendre. 1-24 Keresey. “Out of War. Cuneo Foundation. 1-71. Harry L. 3-13. 4-35. Joseph M. 2-2. 3-7–16 Maris S.. 3-69. portrait. 1-47 Lore. 3-45. claims against Russia. 4-12 Jeopardy!. Frances M.” 1-6–13 McQuown. 3-49. 3-15 Jones. Richard. OMGUS. 3-32. 3-69. 1-23–24 Lincoln.. William. 1-12. Papers of. 3-45–46 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. photo. 4-28 Internet. 1-54. photos. . W. Gen. “Institutional Memory. 4-54–55 “Inner Circle. Commodore William. Maj. 1-43. Austria. Thomas. 2-11. 4-25. photo. 1-55 Mason. 3-69. 4-15 McDonald. 1-68. Daniel K. Steven S. 3-7. Kane. 4-17. 4-15 Italy. William Carey. 3-9. “DocsTeach. 2-71 McLester. 3-36–43. Walter. 4-39. hospitals for the treatment of people with. Frederick L. exhibits. 1-70. 2-69. 2-59 Jefferson. 3-69. 2-71. District of Columbia. inmates. 2-33 Johnston. 1-49 Madison. 1-69. 1-69. use of to make records available. 3-11.India. 1-32 McConaghy. Shane. James. 2-71 Jarrell. 2-69. 2-52 Kane. 3-11. 3-16 Marine Parachute Regiment. trip. 2-62–63 Lieber. 1-8. 4-43–44. 2-63. 4-36. photo. 4-10 Lampe. 4-31–32 Mexico. Col. portrait. Kane. 4-36 Mexican-American War.. photo. 4-33. The. 3-28 Lane. 1-53. The. Francis. 1-30 Medical examinations for pension claims. 4-10. photo. 4-54–55 Mental illness. and World War II. The Inner Circle. 3-62–63 Jackson. Samuel. William and Alice. 2-15. Symonds. 4-14. Anita Newcomb. Robert E. 1883. Index Prologue 67 . 2-9. Suzanne. illustration of. Lt. and James S. John F. 3-12. photo. 3-12. 4-33–40 Juvenile delinquency. 4-31–40 Marine Amphibious Corps. persecution of in Germany. 1-66 Jerez. 2-8. 4-40 Laux... 2-54–61 Inner Circle. California.” by Lorraine McConaghy. 4-61. 4-61. Foreign Exchange Depository Group. 3-69. photos. photo... 4-40 Maryland. 4-8 Knights of the Golden Circle. 2-71 Institute for Editing of Historical Documents. Hawaii. 2-6–17 “Magna Carta Returns to the Archives. David. 1-8. 1-47. 1-60–61 Lincoln and His Admirals.” by Rob Crotty. 3-37. 1-51 “Letters of Walt Whitman. 1-44 Johnston. 1-8 Kennedy. Herman. Elise.. 1-12. 2-26 McCay. 3-9. 2-20.” 2-46–53 Kansas. 3-13–14 Khrushchev. photo. 4-63. 1-27–30 Medical records. 3-7 Ladd. 2-69. Rubenstein. Pope. 4-14. 1-54. 4-17. African Americans. Ferriero. 1-72 Michigan State University. Kennedy Library. “Institutional Memory. 4-9 Marshall. 2-9 Martinez. 4-16. 1-24 Kansas City Times. 2-21–22. 3-30. 4-25. 2-69 John Hancock Financial. 1-60–61 List of Pensioners on the Roll. George C. Antonio. Joseph E. 2-6.. 3-7–16.” 3-50–53 Isaacson. 3-6–16 Japanese American National Museum. photo. 1-71 McCullough.org. photo. The. 3-69. 4-7–8. Richard. 3-42 Louisiana. . 1-17. 1-20. “Manifest Destiny’s Inept Diplomat. James S. 1-22. 1-53. 2-15. mural by Eduard Ulreich. 4-62 Marshall.” 3-72 Locatelli. 1-49. Maxime. 1-10. 1-54. Levi Cooper. illustrations from. 1-23 Lieber Code. 4-26–27 McGee. 1-54. 4-61.. Lt. 3-10.. certificates of identity. Yann. 3-70 Johnson. Victor H. 1-8–9. Nikita. 4-26 Leavenworth. photo. 4-15.. 2-8–10. Second Lt. McAdoo. October 1843– September 1859. 2-37. OMGUS. 1-5. 1-46. William. and guerrilla conflict during the Civil War. 4-15. 2-46–53 Interdepartmental Committee on Children and Youth. 3-7. 4-62 Krulak. A New Nation. 4-45. 4-14 McCarthy. 1-54. microfilm publication. 2-70. 1-70 Japan. 3-15. 4-54–55 Innocent III. Sean. Andrew. 4-16–18 Isaacs. 1-69. 2-20 International Criminal Tribunal. The. 4-23 John F..S. 4-16. 4-31. 2-47 Leach. 1-68 Longstreet. Kansas. 4-20–23 “Making Tough Choices in NARA’s Budget. 1-48. 4-43–44. 1-70. 1-50. 1-54. 1-23. 1-20–25. emancipation. James G. 3-14.. 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Lawrence F. 2-6. 1-64. as setting for a new novel. 2-12–13 New Orleans Delta. O’Brien Gallery. 2-13. Archivist Development Program. 3-2. 1-64–66. 1-54. 4-38. 2-71 Murals. Jack.. 3-69. photo. 2-68. 4-15. Preservation Conference. photo. 2-10 Osborn. 2-12. 3-2. 2-71 National Declassification Center. 2-51. 2-11. 4-61. 4-36. Michigan.” by Constance Potter. 2-13– 14. Office of Government Information Services. Pennsylvania. 4-16 Office of Management and Budget. Allied Commission for Austria. 2-34–37. 4-33 Mora. 1-64. 1-64 New York Herald. 2-69. Kansas City. 1-66. 4-15.S. 4-18 National Historical Publications Commission. 2-71. 3-69. Dennis. 1-24 Missouri Compromise. shop. 3-67. 2-45 Mount Holyoke College. Rhode Island.4-61. 75th anniversary. Gen. 3-67 Muilenburg. 1-69 Military personnel. 1-48–49. Independence Day Celebration. by Robert Roper. 2-50 68 Prologue Winter 2010 . Minnesota. book about. 2-2. OMGUS. 3-59. Texas. Atlanta. 4-33. 1-66. Vicksburg National Cemetery. 3-70. 1-68. 2-71. 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Gen. 1-8 New Orleans.” by Hilary Parkinson. Sound. 4-15. 1-22 Mitchell. 1-68. 2-68. 2-40 North Carolina. 2-41. OSS. 3-67. 2-34–37. 1-68– 69. David. 3-70. 2-69. 2-13–14. 4-27–28 Motion pictures. 4-61. 2-68. 2-69. 1-64 Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association of the Union. 2-25. award as environmentally friendly workplace. North Dakota. grants. 4-38. 1-68–69. Barbara. Charles. 2-70. 4-28 Ogden. appropriations.
3-36–43. for disability. photos. Sgt. and population censuses. 2-45 Peary Monument. 1-56 Peary. 1-26–35. 1-55–56 Records preservation. 2-14–15. William C. 1-27–30. 3-36. 4-60–61 Raiser. photo.” 4-54–55. George S. Trevor K. 2-2. 4-60–61 Reed. 2-62 Index Prologue 69 . 2-17. 1-26–35 Reconstruction. Alfred. exhibition on. Mason. Marvin.” 1-48–51. 4-51 Railroads. 4-59 Records Relating to Railroads in the Cartographic Section of the National Archives. A. Franklin. 1-60 Phelps. Ltd. 2-68 Records of Our National Life. photo.S. photo. 2-39. 3-25–26. photo. 3-28–34. Civil War. H. George E. 1-71. 4-33 Pinkert. Energy.. Robert. Rick. 2-72 Pope. 2-13. 2-19 Roper. 2-40–41 Pension Building. 1-66 Pony Express. 2-69. 3-36–43. Greenland.” 4-46–52. Ezra. Franklin Delano. 4-25. 2-38. 4-32 Quantrill. White House tapes. 3-47 Ponzi. 3-56 Philosophy of the Dusk. “U. 2-2. Alonzo.. 2-26 Primarily Teaching Institute. and Reconstruction. 2-16 Ried. 1-8–9. 3-36–43. 2-9 Pickett. John. and Eisenhower. 1900 to 1930. Gen. 4-34.” 2-28–33 Perry. Charles. 4-15–16 “Reasonable Degree of Promptitude. 1-31–33. 3-24–25 Research & Design. 4-21 Perry. 4-27. 3-37 Richard Nixon Presidential Library. 1-32 Pensions. 3-7. 2-12– 13. 4-28 Perot.937 and Counting. renovation of. exhibits. Ross. 4-51 Roosevelt. and Americans living overseas.” 3-62–63 Pathé News. illustration of. 3-49. 1851–1863. District Court for the District of Columbia Relating to Slaves. 1-2. 3-56. 2-16.” 2-62–63. photo. microfilm publication. 4-9. Gen. 2-10. 2-32 Perls. 2-28–33. 2-7. applications. 4-37 Papers of the Founding Fathers. Miranda Booker. 1-35 Pension office.’. Russell Williams. 1-66. 2-30–31.. 2-2 Records management. photos. 2-49. “The Civil War on the High Seas. Gen. 1-50. Loring. 2-9. photo. in South Carolina. illustrations from. 2-42–45 Physical fitness of youth. 3-47. 1-33–35 Pensions. 1-70 Plante. Ezra. 4-28–29 Reid. Jr. Cokie. 1-66 Post Office Department.S. 4-38 Pound. Tim. Kimberlee. 4-58 Presidential campaigns. 2-71 Reagan. David. 4-62 Propaganda. movement to provide to ex-slaves. 2-39– 42. 3-37. photo. 3-47–49 Potter. and Economic Performance. hospital ship. 3-6. Claire. 4-36 Panama. photo. and provisions for ex-slaves. Revolutionary War. 2-54–61 Pritzker. 2-25–26 Pickering. 4-32. .” 1-14–18 Republican Party. 3-12 Public Buildings Service.” 2-54–61 Roberts. John. “New Books Draw on Archives’ Holdings for 75th Anniversary. 3-45. 1-46. 4-59 Richardson. 2-68 “Records Management Self-Assessment 2009” report. “‘I have the honor to tender the resignation . 2-51 Richmond. 2-48. 2-38–45. by Kain O’Dare. 2-61 Pacific Squadron. 2-13 Parkinson. 3-16. 4-28–29. oral history collection. 3-11.” 1-26–35 Presidential Award for Leadership in Environmental. 1-48 Revolutionary War. 1-64–65.” 1-42–47. 2-23 Puerto Rico. Molly. 2-57 Pershing. 3-38–43. 2-34.. 4-36. 2-31–33. Robert. 1-71 Reichsgestzblatt (Reich Law Gazette). Brauer. Hilary. 1-24 Railroad Retirement. 4-14 Prison records. 2-41 Patrick. 2-57 Photographs of Arctic expeditions. “New Questions in the 1940 Census. 3-12–16. photo. 4-47. 2-72 Post offices. . 1-27–30. photo. 4-59. Karen. 3-22–23. 3-67. 2-30.” 1-60–61. 2-53 Prechtel-Kluskens. 2-31. 2-53 Roosevelt. Census Schedules for Americans Living Overseas. Commodore Hiram. 4-38 Payton. “New Life for WPA Art. 1-64. 2-71 Pearl affair. See also individual libraries. 3-9–10.. Robert E. 2-39.. “No Pensions for ExSlaves. “The Venus Fixers. Constance. 4-35. 2-69 Presidential libraries. 3-24–26. 4-32. 3-38–43 Rice. John J. 3-54–61 Porter.. 1-22 Pope. John S. Record Group 129. mural by Eduard Ulreich. Isaac. photo. 3-18–26 Records declassification. 1-56 Pope. 3-58 Putnam’s Magazine.. 1-48–49. Capt. 3-42 Pierce. 3-67.. Bureau of. 4-12–18 Paris. 2-38. 4-33. 1-54–55 Records of the Bureau of Prisons. 1-26–35. President’s Conference on Fitness of American Youth (1956). compiled by Peter F. 2-16 Patton. 4-63 Polar exploration. 1-22 Philippine Islands. 2-29. Cape York. pension files. Ronald. 3-38–43. France. 4-8.. “The Letters of Walt Whitman. 1-46 Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution. 2-8. 3-63 PT boats. John Russell. 1-55 Records of the Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation of Slaves in the District of Columbia. Robert V. 2-44 Peary. Theodore.” 3-45–49 Rives. 1-50 Population censuses. 4-63 Princeton University. 1-54. 1-26–30. 3-47 Public housing. sketch of. “68. Frank. art for. 4-55.” 3-54–61 Potter. and Steve Spence.Owen. 4-26 Paulding. USS. Philip. by Benson Lossing. 2-39. 2-13 Peuser. Gen. 3-45. Luther. 4-63 Robinson. Now the Drum of War: Walt Whitman and His Brothers in the Civil War. Josephine. 1862–1863. 2-55 Records of the U. 3-28 Remini. 1-55 Relief. Record Group 217. photo. 3-67. “The Inner Circle. 1-22. 2-72. Gen.” by Claire Prechtel-Kluskens. “A Reasonable Degree of Promptitude. medical examinations for. during World War II. 3-10. 2-62–63. microfilm publication. 2-25–26 President’s Council on Physical Fitness. 2-70 Records of the Accounting Officers of the Department of the Treasury. Ray. “At the Edge of the Precipice: Henry Clay and the Compromise of 1850. for widows. 3-24–26. photo.
and World War II.S. sloop-of-war. Gen. Col. 2-24. 3-44–45. Adrienne.. 1-22 Twain. expansion of into territories. Mark.. Civil War resignations from.. Census Schedules for Americans Living Overseas. Congress. photo. 2-22 Social Security System. photo. photos of. Marie Peary. 1-53. 2-39. 3-60 U. 2-16 Social Security Administration. 3-48–49. 1-27. 1-12. 2-45. Teresa. 4-28. Lincoln and His Admirals. 2-41 Stafford. John R. motion pictures. 1-60–61. 2-9. by Eduard Ulreich. 2-46. 2-17. 4-62 Select List of Publications of the National Archives and Records Administration. 4-42–45 South Carolina. 2-29–30. 1-10. 3-54–61 U.” by Demani Davis.” by David S. photo. photo. photo.S. and slavery. Eduard “Buk. illustrations of artworks by. photo. 2-50 Sharp. Citizenship and Immigration Service.. 2-9–10. Sub-Lt.. Constitution. 2-8. Zachary. Surgeon General George M. 2-12. 4-36. Ferriero. 3-31 Towne.” by David S.” 3-45–49. Lance.. Air Force.S. 3-38 Tso-Se. Nickolas. 2-29.S. “Frame After Frame. and Civil War pensions. John.S. nurses. 2-41. Lighthouse Service. 1-17 Tennessee. motion pictures. Robert. and Abraham Lincoln. “Abraham Lincoln and the Guerrillas. Ed. 1-45 U. 1-26 Shetters. 4-42–45 Sewell. Civil War resignations from. 3-46. Winfield. amendments to. 3-10. 3-20 U. 1-46 Subcommission for the Protection of Monuments. 3-28–34. 3-66. 2-39.. 1-70 Smith. Army Signal Corps. slavery in. 1-71 Saratoga. 4-37.S. 2-21–22 U. Maj. 4-15. John. 1-57–59 U. Asa. 3-47–48 Royal Australian Navy. 1-24. 2-13. 1-43. Harry S. 1-21. 1-55–56. 1-53–54 Slavery. First Lt. 3-16. Capt. Col. and money for antijuvenile delinquency programs. Confederate raider. E. Col. 2-6–7. photo. 1-43 Senn. 1-42. 3-55. painting. George H. Alexander. and guerrilla warfare. Washington. 3-47. photo. 2-29. 1-42. Ferriero. 4-33 Salinas.S. Department of Justice. 2-19–20. 3-38 Sutherland. 3-68 Semmes. 1-10.” 4-20–23. 1-64 Slave trade. 3-6–16 U. 4-43–44. 2-8. Jim.” by Thomas A. 4-63 Spence. Edwin.. Chambers. 1-51 St. 2-21. 3-29–34 Specktor.S. Lowell. Acting Midshipman Dabney M. photo. 4-25. Navy. Circuit Courts for the District of Columbia. 3-30. 4-58 United States Colored Infantry. 3-21. Naval Academy.S. David M. 4-29 Trumbell. William T. The. Civil War resignations from. Lucy. hospital ships. 1-2 “Tales of Escape and Evasion. abolition of. 4-45 Sternberg.S. Francisco.. Military Academy. 2-36 U. 1st Lt. 4-29 United States Democratic Review. 2-14. 2-32 U. 4-16 Taylor. Laura. 4-16 Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga.. 1-42. D. 1-24 Stephens. Steve. motion pictures. and Central America. records opened.Rosecrans. illustration of. 3-67 Turchin. 2-39–42. “The Magna Carta Returns to the Archives. 2-55 Smith. 3-56. 4-20–21 Rutter.S. 2-29 Soviet Union. 2-14 Thomas Jefferson Society. 1-43.. 4-2 Trebek. 3-32 Shenandoah. 2-40 Stanton. House of Representatives. 1-43 “Seal of Guilt. 1-46. Peary. 4-40 “Slavery and Emancipation in the Nation’s Capital. Daniel E. 3-36–43 Solomon Islands. 1-60–61. 1-8–13. 3-9. 2-29 Stewart. motion pictures. 1-47 Taylor.S. 3-11. 2-10. 4-34. 1-8 Texas Instruments. 2-36. 1-22.. New York. 1900 to 1930. Lt. photo. Carden W. 3-28 Seward. Alex. 2-60 Sanders.. illustration. 2-58 Tully. 1-17. 1-8–9 U. 3-60 Seattle. and 70 Prologue Winter 2010 . and population censuses. 1-12.937 and Counting.” 1-20–25 Symonds. Gen. 3-22–23 “Transforming the Archives. and Nicaragua. 4-14 Torney. 1-23 Ross. 1-47.. plane. F. Grace. Thaddeus. Lowell H. 2-56 Rotunda. 3-28–34 U. 1-8. Martin. Fine Arts and Archives. Ambrose. 2-46–53. 2-36. and the Civil War. 3-31–32 Seton. 1-12. Chris Rudy.” 2-34–37 Stuart. 1-24 Scott. 1-71 Thomas. 3-62–63 Sullivan. 2-57 Simmons College.” by Constance Potter. William. 4-33 U. photos. photo. 4-16 Rowan. 3-55. 3-15. 2-68 Sherman. 2-39. 4-38 Scales. 3-24 Smith.” 4-72 Tattnall. and funding for publication of the papers of the Founding Fathers. 1-66 Truman. 3-29–30 Stevens. Commander Henry Knox.” 2-54–61 Spirit of North Carolina. 1-23 Territories. 2-63. 1-22. Commander Raphael. Army Center for Military History. and Reconstruction. Laura M. 3-18. 3-30. 3-6–16 “South Appeals for Peace. 4-28 Spanish-American War. photo. Army. Dan. photos. and slavery in the territories. 4-51 “Soldier of the Revolution. “68. William S. 2-11. 2-9 Seedlings Foundation. Fred. 2-38. Sheryl Jasielum. 2-8. 4-45. Craig L. 2-12–13. 3-47 Sprague. photo.. 3-9 Royce. Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality. 3-39–42 Rubenstein. diplomatic corps support for aerial circumnavigation expedition. 1-8 U.S. B. and population censuses. 4-33. 2-22 U. George. 1-13 Ulreich. Mary’s. 3-2. 2-68. 4-27. 4-38. 4-44–45 Sanford. Gen.. 2-41. photo. 2-44.S. 3-48 Union Army. 4-35–36 Thomas. Nicholas.S.” 1-71 Seamen.” by Jay Bellamy. 1-10. A. photo. 4-63 Thatcher. photo. photo. 2-7–8.S. New York. 2-31.S.S. John. Mexican cession. Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga. William. Charles. 2-41 Stafford. 3-24 United States Marine Corps.. 1-42. 2-71 U. 1-61 Shenberger. 1-22–24 U. and appropriations for NARA. A. 4-33. 4-10 Stafford. 4-44 Stevens. 1-45 Schofield. Elizabeths Hospital. 1-45. 1-60 “Taking the Leading Role on Declassification. 1-44 U. 2-15–16. 3-18–26 Southern Homestead Act. 1-52–59 Smalls. Gen. photos. 4-15. 1-42– 47. 2-49 St. and emancipation of slaves in the District of Columbia. Phillip W. Edward.C. Children’s Bureau. by John Trumbell. 2-36 “U. Department of State. 2-7. J. John B. 4-47.
4-15 Washington. 2-35. 4-42–45 West. during preceding 12 months) Mailed paid subscriptions: 2252 / Other sales & requested distribution: 374 / Free distribution by mail: 10 / Free distribution outside the mail: 115 / Total distribution: 2751 / Percent paid and/or requested circulation: 95. George C. 8601 Adelphi Road. portraits. Constance Potter. 2-51 White House Conferences on Children and Youth. ship. and slavery in the territories.. and Tim Walch. therefore. This is as it should be.. Cynthia Campbell. The. Lt. Nura G. Walter R. 1-14 Weeks. motion pictures. photo. Rutha Beamon. 1-64 Wise. 3-67 White. 2-62. as federal prisoners. Leigh.. Marvin Pinkert. Laura Diachenko. 1-23. 4-55 Statement of Ownership. 2-62–63 Wills. 2-54–61 U.. 1-43. Lt. Allen. and Circulation (Required by 39 USC 3685) Title: Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration (ISSN 0033-1031) Frequency: Quarterly / Annual Subscription Price: $24. 2-16 Weidman. 3-62–63 Venus Fixers. 2-25 White House Council on Environmental Quality. 2-30. 3-49. 2-69 Winterbottom. Gideon. 2-9–10. The Prologue staff. Jeffery Hartley. Jennifer Seitz. 3-34 World War II. USN. 1-22. 2-62 Whitman. Sheri Hill. 3-14. however. 1-25 Washington. Colin. would like to salute the following individuals for their contributions. support for Army Air Service circumnavigation expedition. 1st Lt. by Ron Chernow. 1-64–65 White-Perry. Patty Mason. Martha Grove. 2-12–13 Wendell. ship. 3-67 White House tapes opened.. 4-23 Welles. Lt. Civil War. 2-16 Walker.. Cornelius. George Briscoe. 2-39. 4-10 Virginia. 3-21. 4-18 University of Virginia Press. Walter Hickey. 1-61. 3-46. Daniel. Julius I. 1-56. George. 2-62–63 Whitman. American Revolution. justices.” by Hilary Parkinson. Peter Staub. 1-60–61. and slavery.” 2-72 Whitaker. by Ilaria Dagnini Brey. Papers of. 2-53 Winning West Virginia: JFK’s Primary Campaign. 4-14. 2-13. 1-8 Winchester.C. Dorothy Dougherty. 4-14 University of Denver. 3-13. 3-24 Washington: A Life. Hank. 4-18 Utah. 3-47–48. 2-36. Glenn Longacre. the contributions of these staff members go unrecognized..” by Audrey Amidon. Akemi Kikumura. Sandra Tucker. 4-62 Weinstein. 1-21. 1-18. 4-12. Kansas. 1-51 Wisconsin Historical Foundation. 2-31–32 Wilmot Proviso. 3-62–63. 2-8. and World War II. Index Prologue 71 . 3-6–16 Yale University. Keith Donohue. Miriam Kleiman. Cornelius.. 3-18. Sandra Glasser. 3-59. Mimi Shade. 2-13. Felix. 1-61 Wells. Michelle Farnsworth. George. motion pictures.S. and the Solomon Islands. pension applications. 2-33 University of Chicago. Walt. 4-13 Washington Navy Yard. Simon. 4-40. 1-60 Women. 4-32–40 War Department and Arctic expeditions. 3-15. Morgan. 1-8 Vanderbilt. Reed. 1-64 University of Virginia.. Committee on Pensions.. Senate.2% Staff Contributions to Prologue 2010 Each issue of Prologue reflects the contributions of many employees of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Mary Ilario. A. 2-36. Escape and Evasion Reports. 2-61 “Women of the Polar Archives. 2-38–45 Woodson. 1-44. 2-63 Whitman. portrait. 4-12–14. Leslie Simon. Linton. and art treasures. 2-69 Walker. 1-50. 3-62–63. 4-33 Vaughan. Often. 4-47 World War I.S.00 Publisher and Owner: National Archives Trust Fund Board. A. 4-33. 3-2. nurses. and the Civil War. Carter G. “In Freedom’s Shadow. 4-26–27 Washington. 4-18. 1-44 West Virginia. 2-28 Woodson. Management. National Archives and Records Administration. Michael Horsley. Paul Harrison. Lincoln’s relationship with. Peter Brauer. 2-30 Vella Lavella Island. 1-55. Robert Ellis. technological advances. 1-26–27 Whitman. Holly Russo. 2-41–42 “When Ponzi’s Bubble Burst.” by Mercedes Graf. Budge and Russell. William. Ed. Henry A. The Professor and the Madman. and the Civil War. Crystal Brooks. 2-69 Weyer. Trevor Plante. 2-17. 4-58 White House files opened. 3-58. 1-22. Deborah Powe. Cadet John A. 3-47–48. 1-53–54. 1-26–35 Vietnam War. 3-61. Holly Reed. illustration of. 3-28–34 Veslekari. 1-61 Webster. 2-44 Warburg. 4-14 Yano. 3-16 White. Robert Goddard. 2-7–8. 1-26–35. 1-46. Byron. 3-56. 4-32. Supreme Court. 2-10. 4-36. Giselle. Mary E. 3-15–16 “Venus Fixers. MD 20740-6001 Total paid and/or requested circulation (Avg. 3-36–43. Alexander. motion pictures relating to. 4-50 Works Progress Administration. 4-16. 3-45. College Park. 1-45. Leavenworth. 2-32. William Alanson. Andrea Reidell. 3-55. Jesse. 3-45. 1-8 U. 3-16 Wade. 4-16. 2-14–15. Denise Henderson. Theresa Roy. D. Earl McDonald. 3-9–10. 2-14. Lawrence Post. 4-12–18. Juliette Arai. 1-58 Wabash. for Prologue is very much a journal of NARA.5% Total paid and/or requested circulation (Fall 2010) Mailed paid subscriptions: 2199 / Other sales & requested distribution: 385 / Free distribution by mail: 15 / Free distribution outside the mail: 115 / Total distribution: 2714 / Percent paid and/or requested circulation: 95. by Stacey Bredhoff. photos. 1-10. Jeff. 2-44 Veterans. 2-18–26 White House Conference on Education. 3-9. and Italy.S.” 3-18–26 Whiting. 4-17. John W. 2-50 Walker. 2-49–50. 3-7–16 U. 2-13. Penitentiary. 4-32. 3-62–63 “Very Few Good Nurses. and reparations for slaves.. 3-49 Work Projects Administration. 3-60. Appropriations Committee. 2-71 Zinsmeister. 4-38 Waddell. 4-72. 3-7. 4-16. 2-35. 2-11–12. W. Dennis Edelin.filibuster soldiers in Nicaragua. 4-38. The. Tony Clark. and population censuses.
and said in French something I did not understand.pIECES Of HISTORY Tales of Escape and “H ave you ever watched a movie and thought. Choosing from almost any file will yield a remarkable story. After seeing that his crew bailed out. When an American soldier returned to Allied territory from behind enemy lines in Europe.’ and walked right on. I was still carrying my flight jacket to use at excerpt from 2nd Lt. On his second day. “a German staff car full of heavily armed MP’s pulled up. I looked dumb. P 72 Prologue Winter 2010 . and shouted ‘Halt!’ I thought he was saluting me. robert B.000 World War II Escape and Evasion Reports. Military Intelligence interviewed him to collect data on escape and evasion activities in the European Theater of Operations. so I gave him the Hitler salute back. He repeated slowly with gestures asking whether to go this way or that. even Hollywood could take a lesson from the files of the National Archives. Second Lt. 1944. I thought to myself. night.” After this lucky break. They returned my salute. Laux jumped and landed in northern France. a woman at the next house took him in.” The next day. Wearing civilian clothes given him by a French woodcutter. and the rest of his journey back to England was arranged. motioned to me to come over. he was stopped on a road by a German motorcyclist. Laux reported that the German “stopped. after a raid over Frankfurt when German fighters attacked. A German got out of the car. Robert Laux was piloting his bomber back to England on February 11. near Amiens. Most of the reports concern bomber crews or fighter pilots downed over German-occupied territory. the downed pilot had a close call. Our online Archival Research Catalog recently added nearly 3. A number of truckloads of Germans passed. and I saluted all of them. and they are full of amazing but true stories. as he was looking at road signs at a crossroads.” Well. raised his hand. I pointed down the road and the car drove off. “How do they come up with this stuff? That could never happen. ‘Here goes. Laux’s escape and evasion report.
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