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Section #2: View Explanations

1 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. If is more than of is then then and The value

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. This would be the value of However, is more than so if and were less than

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. This is the value of The question asks for the value of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. This is the value of The question asks for the value of Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. This is the value of The question asks for the value of

2 Explanation for Correct Answer C. be the number in question. Since the result when is divided by it is true that Therefore,

Choice (C) is correct. Let

is divided by and

is equal to the result when

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. When the result is is divided by the result is when is divided by These two results are not equal. Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. When the result is is divided by the result is when is divided by

These two results are not equal. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D.

Choice (D) is not correct. When result is

is divided by

the result is

when

is divided by

the

These two results are not equal.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. When result is is divided by the result is when is divided by the These two results are not equal.

3 Explanation for Correct Answer E. Choice (E) is correct. The letter E CANNOT be folded along a vertical line so that its left half would coincide with its right half. See the figure below.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The letter A can be folded along a vertical line so that its left half would coincide with its right half, as indicated in the figure below. The question asked which letter CANNOT be so folded.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. The letter I can be folded along a vertical line so that its left half would coincide with its right half, as indicated in the figure below. The question asked which letter CANNOT be so folded.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The letter O can be folded along a vertical line so that its left half would coincide with its right half, as indicated in the figure below. The question asked which letter CANNOT be so folded.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The letter U can be folded along a vertical line so that its left half would coincide with its right half, as indicated in the figure below. The question asked which letter CANNOT be so folded.

4 Explanation for Correct Answer A. Choice (A) is correct. Since vertical angles have equal measure, it follows that Substituting for and for in this equation gives Therefore,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. This incorrect choice could be the result of visually estimating that the angles marked and in the figure appear to have the same measure. However, the nor is equal to figure is not drawn to scale, and neither

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The value of is but the value of is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. This is the value of not the value of Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. This is the value of not the value of

5 Explanation for Correct Answer B. Choice (B) is correct. Each of the five pairs satisfies the equation is true; is true; and Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The first pair of numbers does not satisfy is true; is true. is true;

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The first pair of numbers does not satisfy

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The first pair of numbers does not satisfy

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The first pair of numbers satisfies of numbers does not: but the second pair

6 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. The ratio of David’s car expenses to his food expenses is Since he spends per month on food, he spends his car. Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. Since his total monthly expenses are equal to that would be expenses are is equal to or of David’s monthly expenses, dollars per month on

dollars. If his monthly car expenses were of the total, or about of his total expenses, not However, David’s car

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. Since his total monthly expenses are equal to that would be expenses are is equal to or of David’s monthly expenses,

dollars. If his monthly car expenses were of the total, or about of his total expenses, not However, David’s car

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. Since his total monthly expenses are is equal to or of David’s monthly expenses,

dollars. If his monthly car expenses were

equal to

that would be expenses are

of the total, or about of his total expenses, not

However, David’s car

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. This is the amount that David spends per month on food, not on his car. Since of his monthly expenses are for food and only are for his car, the dollar amounts cannot be the same.

7 Explanation for Correct Answer B. Choice (B) is correct. Substituting It follows that equation for in the equation Since is equivalent to and gives the

cannot be equal to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. This incorrect answer could be the result of substituting of for instead

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. This incorrect answer could be the result of substituting of for Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. This is the value of but the question asks for the value of Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. If the value of follow that was equal to and then were but were then would be equal to It would This instead

would be equal to is a positive integer. Therefore,

could be true only if

8 Explanation for Correct Answer A. Choice (A) is correct. The regular price of the refrigerator is regular price, the price would be regular price, the price would be or or At At percent off the percent off the

an additional discount of

percent off this price would give a final price of or Therefore, the savings from buying the refrigerator at percent off the regular price rather than buying it on sale at percent off the regular price with an additional discount of percent off the sale price is Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. This is percent of the reduction from the regular price when the refrigerator is on sale at percent off the regular price. However, this is not what the question asks for. Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. This is the amount of money saved by buying the refrigerator at percent off the regular price rather than buying it on sale at percent off the regular price with an additional discount of percent off the sale price. However, the question asks for the amount of money saved by buying the refrigerator at percent off the regular price rather than buying it on sale at percent off the regular price with an additional discount of percent off the sale price. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. If the refrigerator is discounted by percent off the regular price with an additional percent discount off the sale price, is the amount of the additional discount. However, this is not what the question asks for. Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. This would be the savings from buying the refrigerator at percent off the regular price rather than buying it at percent off the regular price, with no additional discount. However, there is an additional percent discount when the refrigerator is on sale for percent off the regular price. or

9 Explanation for Correct Answer E. Choice (E) is correct. Since therefore, Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. Since and so it follows that not Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. Since and so it follows that not Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. it follows that and

Choice (C) is not correct. Since Hence

it follows that

but the question asks for an expression equivalent to not for one equivalent to Explanation for Incorrect Answer D.

Choice (D) is not correct. Since to

it follows that not for one equivalent

However, the question asks for an expression equivalent to

10 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. If a triangle has one side of length the measure of the angle joining the sides of length than equal to or less then and and another of length then can have measure greater

as shown below.

In each of these three cases, the area of the triangle is given by of the triangle. The area of the triangle will be greatest when where the angle joining the sides of length the area of the triangle is has measure greater than or less than and has measure the value of

where

is the height is and and

is greatest. In the case the value of

In the cases where the angle joining the sides of length is less than

so the area of

the triangle is less than All triangles with one side of length and another of length fall into one of these three categories, so the greatest possible area of such a triangle is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. A triangle with a side of length have area and another side of length can but this is not the greatest possible area of such a triangle. Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. A triangle with a side of length have area and another side of length can but this is not the greatest possible area of such a triangle. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The greatest possible area of a triangle with one side of length and another side of length is not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The greatest possible area of a triangle with one side of length and another side of length is not

11 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. Since Garcia won the vote over Pérez by a ratio of received of the votes and Pérez received to Garcia

of the votes. There were a total of of these or votes. Therefore,

votes cast for Garcia and Pérez. Thus, Pérez received the number of votes cast for Pérez was

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The ratio of is to divides the votes cast into parts, and

However, the question asks for the number of votes cast for Pérez, which is of votes, not of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. Garcia received more votes than Pérez, but the question asks for the number of votes casts for Pérez. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The number of votes cast for Garcia was asks for the number of votes cast for Pérez. but the question

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. If Pérez had won by a ratio of for Pérez would have been received to then the number of votes cast to so Pérez However, Garcia won by a ratio of or votes.

12 Explanation for Correct Answer C.

Choice (C) is correct. The inequality the

is equivalent to

or

Thus, of

positive integers that are less than or equal to are and

the only ones that satisfy the

inequality

Therefore, the probability in question is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. There are two integers less than or equal to inequality that satisfy the so the probability in question cannot be Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. The integers and both satisfy the inequality not so the

probability in question is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The only positive integers less than are and If then equal to that satisfy the inequality Therefore, the probability in question is not Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The only positive integers less than are and If then equal to that satisfy the inequality Therefore, the probability in question is not

13 Explanation for Correct Answer D. Choice (D) is correct. If is a number greater than then The amount by which is

greater than can be expressed as Explanation for Incorrect Answer A.

Choice (A) is not correct. The only number greater than for which general, if is a number greater than the difference between

is

In

and need not be equal to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. The only number greater than for which general, if is a number greater than the difference between is In

and need not be equal to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. If is a number greater than for which In general, if is a number greater than and will not be then and and

then the difference between

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. If is a number greater than for which and However, is greater than than for which then

Therefore, there is no number greater

14 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. The segment connecting the center of the top base of the cylinder to a point on the circumference of the other base is the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs are as follows: one leg is the altitude of the cylinder that connects the center of the top base to the center of the bottom base, and the other leg is the radius of the bottom base drawn to the given point on the circumference. Thus, the legs of this right triangle have lengths (height of the cylinder) and (half the diameter). Therefore, by the Pythagorean theorem, the distance from the center of one base to a point on the circumference of the other base is Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The distance in question is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with legs of lengths and not the leg of a right triangle with other leg and hypotenuse

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. Since is the height of the cylinder, the distance from the center of one base to the center of the other base is However, the question asks for the distance from the center of one base to a point on the circumference of the other base. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The segment connecting the center of one base of the cylinder to a point on the circumference of the other base is the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs are the altitude of the cylinder and half the diameter of the base. Therefore, by the Pythagorean theorem, the distance from the center of one base to a point on the

circumference of the other base is

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The segment connecting the center of one base of the cylinder to a point on the circumference of the other base is the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs are the altitude of the cylinder and half the diameter of the base. Therefore, by the

Pythagorean theorem, the distance from the center of one base to a point on the

circumference of the other base is

not

15 Explanation for Correct Answer B. Choice (B) is correct. If and are integers such that and in which case and are factors of and if Since

then in which case and

the only cases that need to be considered are equations is the only one that has integer solutions ( only possible value for

in which case However, the second set of ), so is the

Therefore, the correct answer is choice (B), II only.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The only possible value of It would follow that and is If then and are integers.

but the question states that

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The value of It would follow that can be but it cannot be If and then are

and but the question states that integers.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The value of It would follow that can be but it cannot be If and then are

and but the question states that integers and that

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The value of then it would follow that then and can be and but it cannot be or If and but

but the question states that it would follow that and

are integers. Also, if

the question states that

are integers and that

16 Explanation for Correct Answer D.

Choice (D) is correct. To travel along the streets from the firehouse to the building at fire truck can go blocks left and blocks up. This is a total of

a

blocks. The fire truck

can also go block left, block up, block left, and blocks. The fire truck can also go block up, total of

block up; this is also a total of block up, which is likewise a requires the fire

blocks left, and

blocks. Any other route from the firehouse to the building at

truck to travel more than

blocks. Therefore, the minimum number of blocks the fire is which means the -

truck must travel from the firehouse to reach the building at distance of the building at

from the firehouse is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The minimum number of blocks a fire truck must travel from the firehouse to reach the building at is so the -distance cannot be

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. The minimum number of blocks a fire truck must travel from the firehouse to reach the building at is so the -distance cannot be

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The minimum number of blocks a fire truck must travel from the firehouse to reach the building at is so the -distance cannot be Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. It is possible for a fire truck to travel blocks from the

firehouse to reach the building at but this is not the minimum number of blocks the fire truck must travel to accomplish this.

17 Explanation for Correct Answer A. Choice (A) is correct. The blocks away from point arrive at a point that is -distance between point Starting at point blocks down and and point is because point The is in order to arrive at point blocks to the left of point a fire truck must blocks down

and blocks to the left can be traveled in any order: (1) down, down, left, left; (2) down, left, down, left; (3) down, left, left, down; (4) left, down, down, left; (5) left, down, left,

down; or (6) left, left, down, down. Therefore, there are six different routes that a fire truck can travel the minimum Another way of counting the number of different the blocks to the left can be chosen to be any -distance from to to is to see that to

-block routes from of the

blocks in a route from

Therefore, the number of different routes is Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. There are six different -block routes from to (1) down, down, left, left; (2) down, left, down, left; (3) down, left, left, down; (4) left, down, down, left; (5) left, down, left, down; or (6) left, left, down, down. Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The fire truck can travel the down down blocks and then to the left blocks from to by traveling blocks, or by traveling to the left blocks and then

blocks (two routes). Or it can start with a block in one direction and then alternate

directions (two additional routes). But it can also travel from to by going down, left, left, down; or left, down, down, left (two more routes, for a total of six). Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. There are six different -block routes from to (1) down, down, left, left; (2) down, left, down, left; (3) down, left, left, down; (4) left, down, down, left; (5) left, down, left, down; or (6) left, left, down, down. Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The fire truck can travel the blocks from to by traveling down blocks and then to the left blocks, or by traveling to the left blocks and down blocks. But there are four additional routes: down, left, down, left; down, left, left, down; left, down, down, left; or left, down, left, down.

18 Explanation for Correct Answer B. Choice (B) is correct. All of the buildings in the town that are an from and the square on which they lie. -distance of from the firehouse ( ) lie on a square. The figure below shows all points that are an -distance of

The vertices of the square are the points that are horizontal grid line passing through

units away from

along the vertical or

and the sides of the square have slope or

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. In the -plane, the set of all points that are a distance of from a given point do form a circle, but the -distance is not the same as the distance in the -plane.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. The buildings that are an -distance of from the firehouse lie on a square, as can be seen from the figure above. They do not all lie on the same right isosceles triangle. Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. The buildings that are an -distance of from the firehouse lie on a square, as can be seen from the figure above. They do not all lie on the same pair or intersecting lines. Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The buildings that are an -distance of from the firehouse lie on a square, as can be seen from the figure above. They do not all lie on the same line.

19 Explanation for Correct Answer C. Choice (C) is correct. If and are positive integers, then It follows that

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A. Choice (A) is not correct. The expression is equivalent to However,

the question asks for an expression equivalent to Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. The expression is equivalent to

However, the question asks for an expression equivalent to Explanation for Incorrect Answer D.

Choice (D) is not correct. The expression

is equivalent to

However, the question asks for an expression equivalent to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. The expression is equivalent to

However, the question asks for an expression equivalent to

20 Explanation for Correct Answer A. Choice (A) is correct. Since follows that of would be not and are consecutive integers such that is so and would be then the units digit of it

The units digit of the product If the units digit of were not would be not

must each be odd and the units digit would be and

numbers. If the units digit of were the units digit of would be units digit of would be

then the units digit of

If the units digit of were would be is not

then the units digit of then the If the units digit of is is

and the units digit of would be

If the units digit of were

and the units digit of

then the units digit of

is and the units digit of

Thus, it must be true that the

units digit of is

Therefore, the units digit of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B. Choice (B) is not correct. If the units digit of Then the units digit of were then the units digit of would be not

would be

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C. Choice (C) is not correct. If the units digit of and the units digit of would be were then the units digit of would be would be not

Then the units digit of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D. Choice (D) is not correct. If the units digit of and the units digit of would be were then the units digit of would be would be not

Then the units digit of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E. Choice (E) is not correct. If the units digit of and the units digit of would be were then the units digit of would be would be not

Then the units digit of