CONSUMER LEARNING

Learning
‡ The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior ‡ Marketers must teach consumers:
± where to buy ± how to use ± how to maintain ± how to dispose of products

Learning Theories
‡ Behavioral Theories
± Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli

‡ Cognitive Theories
± Learning based on mental information processing ± Often in response to problem solving

Elements of Learning Theories
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Motivation Cues Response Reinforcement

Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7-2a .

Figure 7-2b .

We now associate this product with strength. .

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus ‡ Slows the pace of forgetting ‡ Advertising wearout is a problem .

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Having the same response to slightly different stimuli ‡ Helps me-too products to succeed ‡ Useful in product extensions .

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli ‡ This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs .

with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process. .

Types of Reinforcement ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Positive Negative Forgetting Extinction .

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7-10 .

Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement) Reinforcement Schedules Shaping Massed versus Distributed Learning .

Cognitive Learning Theory Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving. which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment. .

Information Processing ‡ Relates to cognitive ability and the complexity of the information ‡ Individuals differ in imagery their ability to form mental images which influences recall .

14 .Figure 7.Information Processing and Memory Stores .

Information Processing ‡ Movement from short-term to long-term storage depends on ± Rehearsal ± Encoding .

Retention ‡ Information is stored in long-term memory ± Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired ± Semantically: according to significant concepts ‡ Total package of associations is called a schema .

1 Models of Cognitive Learning Promotional Model Sequential Stages of Processing Tricompetent Model DecisionMaking Model Innovation Adoption Model Innovation Decision Process Attention Interest Desire Action Cognitive Affective Conative Awareness Knowledge Awareness Knowledge Interest Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion Purchase Trial Decision Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation Evaluation .Table 7.

‡ High involvement is: ± Very important to the consumer ± Provokes extensive problem solving .Consumer Relevance ‡ Involvement depends on degree of personal relevance.

Measures of Consumer Learning ‡ Recognition and Recall Measures ± Aided and Unaided Recall ‡ Cognitive Responses to Advertising ‡ Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty .

Brand Loyalty ‡ Function of three groups of influences ± Consumer drivers ± Brand drivers ± Social drivers ‡ Four types of loyalty ± No loyalty ± Covetous loyalty ± Inertia loyalty ± Premium loyalty .

Harley-Davidson Has Strong Brand Loyalty weblink .

Brand Equity ‡ Refers to the value inherent in a well-known brand name ‡ Value stems from consumer s perception of brand superiority ‡ Brand equity reflects learned brand loyalty ‡ Brand loyalty and brand equity lead to increased market share and greater profits .

CONSUMER ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE .

.Attitude A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

What Are Attitudes? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The attitude object Attitudes are a learned predisposition Attitudes have consistency Attitudes occur within a situation .

.This attempts to change the attitude toward calcium in a soft drink situation.

Structural Models of Attitudes ‡ Tricomponent Attitude Model ‡ Multiattribute Attitude Model .

A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model Figure 8.2 Cognition .

The Tricomponent Model Components ‡ Cognitive ‡ Affective ‡ Conative The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources .

The Tricomponent Model Components ‡ Cognitive ‡ Affective ‡ Conative A consumer s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand Starbucks Coffee .

The Tricomponent Model Components ‡ Cognitive ‡ Affective ‡ Conative The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object .

.Multiattribute Attitude Models Attitude models that examine the composition of consumer attitudes in terms of selected product attributes or beliefs.

Multiattribute Attitude Models Types ‡ The attitude-towardobject model ‡ The attitude-towardbehavior model ‡ Theory-of-reasonedaction model ‡ Attitude is function of evaluation of productspecific beliefs and evaluations ‡ Useful to measure attitudes toward brands .

Positive attitudes toward brands help with brand extensions .

rather than the attitude toward the object itself ‡ Corresponds closely to actual behavior .Multiattribute Attitude Models Types ‡ The attitude-towardobject model ‡ The attitude-towardbehavior model ‡ Theory-of-reasonedaction model ‡ Is the attitude toward behaving or acting with respect to an object.

affective.Multiattribute Attitude Models Types ‡ The attitude-towardobject model ‡ The attitude-towardbehavior model ‡ Theory-of-reasonedaction model ‡ Includes cognitive. and conative components ‡ Includes subjective norms in addition to attitude .

Changing the Basic Motivational Function 2. Changing Beliefs about Competitors Brands . Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model 5. Associating the Product with an Admired Group or Event 3.Strategies of Attitude Change 1. Resolving Two Conflicting Attitudes 4.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful